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Operating safety and

electrical work safety


in Fingrids grid

2015

Operating safety and


electrical work safety
in Fingrids grid
Translated from Fingrid Oyjs Technical guideline no. KK31304
(Kytt- ja shktyn turvallisuus kantaverkossa); version 10/2014.

Text: Pasi Lehtonen, Fingrid Oyj


English translation: Kielipaja Hannu Hakala
Drawings: JH-14 Juhani Hmlinen. Copyright: Fingrid Oyj.
Layout: Better Business Office Oy
Printing: Libris Oy
Fingrid Oyj
PL 530
FI-00101 Helsinki
Fingrid Oyj. Publishing and copying of this document, even in part,
is only permitted through the permisson of Fingrid.

CONTENTS
1 General............................................................................. 6

1.1 General safety principles.................................................................................6


1.1.1 SMS notification......................................................................................8
1.2 Risk assessment and elimination of risk factors............................................9
1.3 Special features concerning foreign work teams..........................................10
1.4 Skill requirements and recommendations related
to work on Fingrids grid................................................................................11
1.5 Requirements concerning protective equipment..........................................12
1.5.1 Protective equipment to be worn by switching operator.....................13
1.6 Tools and equipment......................................................................................14

2 Local instruction.............................................................14

2.1 Authorised local instructors at switching stations........................................16

3 Operating permit............................................................17

3.1 Switching supervisors operating permit......................................................17


3.2 Switching operators operating permit..........................................................17
3.3 Switching-specific operating permit.............................................................18

4 Permits ensuring occupational safety............................18

4.1 Work preparation permit...............................................................................18


4.1.1 Work preparation permit from switching supervisor..........................18
4.1.2 Work preparation permit from regional unit........................................19
4.2 Work permit...................................................................................................19
4.3 Commissioning permit...................................................................................20

5 Management of electrical safety in Fingrids grid......... 20

5.1 Electrical work in Fingrids grid.....................................................................20


5.2 Person heading electrical work.....................................................................22
5.3 Person responsible for electrical work.........................................................22
5.4 Electrical safety supervisor...........................................................................22
5.5 Safety distance watch....................................................................................23
5.6 Safety declaration..........................................................................................24
5.7 Marking and specifying a work area which is in Fingrids responsibility......24
5.8 Ensuring safety in rapid changes in the operation situation.........................25
5.9 Risk of induced voltage..................................................................................26
5.10 Working close to bare energised parts........................................................26
5.10.1 Working above an energised part.......................................................27
5.10.2 Working close to aerial lines..............................................................29
5.10.3 Transport in the vicinity of aerial lines...............................................32
5.10.4 Working at switching stations............................................................33
5.10.5 Work performed by ordinary persons near electrical installations...34

3 / Fingrid

6 Earthing......................................................................... 35

6.1 Verification of no operating voltage when connecting earthing....................35


6.2 Main earthing.................................................................................................36
6.2.1 Responsibilities relating to main earthing...........................................36
6.2.2 Planning of main earthing....................................................................37
6.2.3 Co-operation between Fingrid and the connecting party

in the planning of main earthing..........................................................40
6.2.4 Main earthing of busbars.....................................................................41
6.2.5 Main earthing of neutral point of transformer.....................................41
6.2.6 Implementation of main earthing.........................................................41
6.3 Earthing using portable earthing devices.....................................................42
6.4 Additional earthing.........................................................................................43
6.4.1 Additional earthing on transmission lines...........................................46
6.4.2 Additional earthing at substations.......................................................48
6.5 Auxiliary earthing...........................................................................................49
6.6 Earthing of machinery...................................................................................49

7 Planning of transmission interruptions........................ 50

7.1 Planning of individual transmission interruption..........................................52


7.1.1 Co-operation between Fingrid and connecting parties.......................57
7.1.2 Prevention of undue tripping in a switching situation.........................58
7.1.3 Blocking of automatic reclosing...........................................................59

7.1.3.1 Blocking of automatic reclosing so as to improve


occupational safety.......................................................................59

7.1.3.2 Blocking of automatic reclosing for the duration

of operation work..........................................................................60

7.1.3.3 Blocking of automatic reclosing so as to

reduce the risk relating to property . ...........................................61
7.1.4 Coupling of main busbars by disconnectors in busbar connections...61
7.1.5 Need to bypass series compensation in

switching relating to a transformer.....................................................62
7.1.6 Switching concerning compensating devices......................................62
7.2 Expedited transmission interruption planning..............................................63

8 Drawing up of switching schedule................................. 64

8.1 Starting and finishing switching for the work...............................................64


8.2 Switching concerning transformers..............................................................65
8.3 Prevention of connection of operating voltage to the work area..................66
8.3.1 Camera-monitored switching...............................................................66
8.3.2 Switching by switching operator..........................................................67
8.4 Ferro-resonance............................................................................................67
8.4.1 Making 400 kV busbars partly energised.............................................67
8.4.2 Switching in 110 kV busbars.................................................................68

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9 Implementation of switching..........................................69
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

Switching which has not been planned in advance.......................................69


Switching supervision....................................................................................69
Communications during switching between different parties......................71
Local switching..............................................................................................72
9.4.1 Making preparations for local switching..............................................73
9.4.2 Implementation of local switching.......................................................73
9.4.3 Safety guide of disconnector................................................................76
9.5 Remote-monitored switching........................................................................76
9.5.1 Camera monitoring..............................................................................77
9.5.2 Reliable position indication in an earthing switch...............................77
9.6 Execution of restoration switching................................................................78

10 Execution of transmission interruption


and other work............................................................ 79

10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8

Ensuring that the work location is dead and safe.......................................79


Marking a work area which is in the responsibility of the work team........81
Electric locking of disconnectors.................................................................81
Moving at substations..................................................................................81
General order and cleanliness.....................................................................83
Work location with danger of explosion.......................................................83
SF6 gas leak..................................................................................................83
Needs for changes during the work............................................................84

11 Live working................................................................. 85
12 Fire protection and rescue in
electrical installations................................................. 86
12.1 Safety of rescue operations.........................................................................87
12.1.1 Action at a substation.........................................................................88
12.1.2 Action on an earthed transmission line.............................................90
12.1.3 Action on an unearthed transmission line.........................................90
12.1.4 Action on an energised transmission line..........................................91

13 Phase markings and equipment identifications.......... 93

13.1 Switching station and voltage level identification........................................93


13.1.1 Alternating current electrical installations........................................93
13.1.2 Direct current electrical installations................................................94
13.2 Identification of bay or cell...........................................................................94
13.3 Identification of switching device.................................................................94

Appendix 1: Definitions.......................................................96

5 / Fingrid

1 GENERAL

he operating safety principles and electrical work safety principles laid down
in this guideline are applied to the operation and maintenance of high-voltage
installations and auxiliary electricity installations administered by Fingrid and to
the construction of electrical installations when the work can involve a hazard
resulting from electricity. Moreover, this guideline is applied, as applicable, to
other work performed in the vicinity of electrical installations. This instruction
sets the minimum obligations for the planning of safety measures.
The safety principles to be followed in the operation and electrical work of reserve
power plants administered by Fingrid are described in separate guidelines.
The content of this guideline is consistent with
publication Suurjnnitelaitteistojen shkturvallisuus, based on standard SFS 6002 and published by Finnish Energy Industries. This guideline
contains some amendments concerning principles applied by Fingrid.
The details of this guideline and the details of the
regulations of the electrical work safety standard
do not necessarily have to be followed in sudden
rescue situations requiring quick decisions if the
solution applied clearly enhances personal safety.
Live working has been discussed in a concise manner in this guideline. Live working always requires special guidelines and training.
This guideline does not specify the procedures relating to the actual work. The party
carrying out the work must provide instructions for these procedures in a scope
deemed appropriate by the party. If the safe execution of the work requires action
from Fingrid, the person responsible for the work or a person authorised by him/
her must forward the relevant needs to Fingrid and agree on action well in advance.

1.1 General safety principles


Personal safety must always be a top priority in all activities. This fact must be
taken into account when planning and carrying out the work. If there is reason
to suspect that an accident has occurred, contact with the person or work team
must be established by every available means.
If there is reason to suspect that any risk factors related to safety or system
security can emerge, these factors must be ascertained immediately. Depend-

6 / Fingrid

ing on the case, contact must be


made with the electrical safety
supervisor, ones own supervisor or Fingrids Main Grid Control Centre.
Unnecessary movement and
staying in the vicinity of highvoltage equipment in a substation area must be avoided. The
risk caused by high-voltage
equipment must also be taken
into account when presenting
the substation.
The storage of supplies must be carried out so that dangerous climbing by outsiders is also prevented. At substations, goods must not be stored next to the substation fence. Near transmission lines, the storage of goods must not contribute to
reaching to a high altitude.
When the work location or a
part of it is located less than 60
metres from the circuit breaker of a compensating device
which is energised by operating voltage, it is recommended
to prevent the functioning of
voltage control automation of
the compensating device. The
measures must be planned
in co-operation with the Main
Grid Control Centre and the regional unit, taking into account
the duration of the work and
system security. The principles
agreed must be recorded in the safety declaration. The contact person of the work
location must agree with the switching supervisor on the prevention of functioning of automation during a work stage. The switching supervisor must prevent
the functioning of automation and remove from the regional voltage control any
sequences that affect the voltage control of the compensating device. If the compensating device needs to be switched during the work, the switching supervisor
agrees on the control of the breaker with the contact person of the work location.
When a risk is detected, warn others, rescue people if necessary, and leave the
site to a safe distance.

7 / Fingrid

Prior to the commissioning of new types of equipment or systems, those involved


in the purchase must ascertain their operating principles, potential limitations
and safety impacts together with Fingrids regional unit and Main Grid Control
Centre.
Always before carrying out operation work or commencing work, the correct location must be ensured first.
The oral and written exchange of information must be clear in the planning and
execution of a transmission interruption and the relevant work. Mutual understanding must always be ensured by means of sufficient specifying requests,
additional explanations and repeating.
Fingrids regional unit must reach an understanding in advance and in writing
with the connecting partys person responsible for operation if camera-monitored
switching operations will be used in the switching of bays subject to a right of use.
In significant danger, accident, rescue, threat and personal injury situations
taking place in Fingrids electrical installations, an alarm to the emergency centre
must be given if necessary. Fingrids Main Grid Control Centre must be informed
of the event, and the Main Grid Control Centre takes care of notifying Fingrids
responsible persons.
The telephone calls with the switching supervisor are recorded.

1.1.1 SMS notification


By means of the SMS notification procedure, Fingrids Main Grid Control Centre and regional unit receive information on Fingrids work teams, outside work
teams and Fingrids employees working at Fingrids substations and on its transmission lines. In this way, the work teams also receive information on any other
work teams working at or arriving to the same work area. In this context, work
team refers to the entire contracting chain participating in the same work. Outside work team refers to work teams which work at a substation, other than ones
doing work on Fingrids grid.
The SMS notification must be made of all work and work visits concerning Fingrids substations and transmission lines.
A member of the work team must make a notification of a work team arriving at
the work area by means of an SMS message on a daily basis. In order to obtain
an access pass, the person making the notification of arrival must have valid local
instruction for the work location, and the persons contact information must be in
the safety declaration application. The person making the notification of arrival
must be available by telephone throughout the work.

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The system will give a return message containing an access pass, or requiring that
the person contact Fingrids regional unit. After obtaining the access pass, the person sending the SMS notification of arrival receives a separate SMS message of the
specific risk factors potentially recorded for the work area.
The access pass is telephone-specific, so the telephone must not be given for
SMS notification purposes to a person who does not have valid local instruction
concerning the work area.
An access pass obtained
through an SMS message
can be used for starting
only such work which has
been agreed in advance
to be started by means of
an access pass obtained
through an SMS message.
The exit notification must
be made on a daily basis when the work team
leaves the work area. The
exit notification must be
made by means of an SMS
message by the person
who received the access
pass.

1.2 Risk assessment and elimination of risk factors


The work and operation work call for anticipating and continuous assessment of
risk factors during the work as well as active co-operation between the various
parties.
In the safety declaration application, Fingrids regional unit maintains information on the specific risk factors and requirements of the work locations, based on
Fingrids own observations and ones made by the service providers. When drawing up the safety declaration, the specific risk factors and requirements of the
work location are recorded automatically in the safety declaration. The person
responsible for the work must take these risk factors into account in risk assessment and in guidance for the work. Upon discretion, the risk factors and requirements must be recorded in the substation instructions and safety declarations.

9 / Fingrid

The person responsible for the work must make a risk assessment before electrical work or other work on the electrical installation or in its vicinity begins. The
assessment must take into account for example the following factors:
structure of the electrical installation in view of the work to be performed
risk factors relating to the work and work methods
operation situation required by safe working
safe work methods and tools
suitability of the chosen work methods for safe working in the
work location
other work teams working nearby.
The work must be planned so that it can be performed safely. Before the work
begins, those participating in the work must ensure that the work can be performed safely and as planned. Moreover, each member of the work team must
take care of personal safety and safety of others during the work.
When at least two work locations of different service providers are joined together or
separated from each other, the regional unit must ensure that the electrical safety
procedures are co-ordinated at the limit point. Such work includes, for example,
parallel substation and transmission line construction sites. The regional unit must
agree with the service providers on the safety measures such as main earthing.
The regional unit must adapt maintenance work with other work.
The covers of distribution cabinets and distribution boards must be kept closed or
under supervision. In incomplete installations, the cable ends must be protected
so that they do not pose a risk.

1.3 Special features concerning foreign work teams


The importance of mutual understanding of
information is highlighted in work carried out
with foreign work teams.
Uniform requirements are applied to all work
teams. In order to ensure the comprehensibility of communications, the language used
must be decided in advance. Depending on
the work to be performed, special attention
must also be paid both to discussing the
obligations of the work teams in site meetings and to the instruction of personnel.

10 / Fingrid

The contact person of a work location recorded in the safety declaration must be
proficient in Finnish and available whenever necessary.
Written and oral communications relating to safety must be arranged as follows:
the local instruction form is filled in in Finnish and the necessary parts
are also translated into English
instruction is provided in Finnish or, if so agreed, in English
the principles to be applied to emergencies are agreed in the starting
meeting of the site
the transmission interruption need is presented in Finnish or,
if so agreed, in English
the outage order is drawn up in Finnish and the necessary parts are
also translated into English
the safety declaration is drawn up in Finnish and the necessary parts
are also translated into English
the work preparation permit and commissioning permit are given
in Finnish
the switching schedules are in Finnish with the exception of certain
cross-border lines
further information can be inquired from Fingrids Main Grid Control
Centre also in English and Swedish, but communications primarily take
place in Finnish
in ambiguous situations, documents and instructions in Finnish prevail.

1.4 Skill requirements and recommendations related to


work on Fingrids grid
The persons performing work commissioned by Fingrid are required general
vocational proficiency and a valid occupational safety card. Moreover, all safety
training required by authorities,
relating to the relevant persons
work, is also required (such as
road safety, hot work and emergency first aid training).
Those participating in electrical
and operating work in Fingrids
grid are recommended general
electrical work safety training
through SFS 6002 STKY training.

11 / Fingrid

Both operating training and targeted training is arranged on the basis of this
guideline Operating safety and electrical work safety in Fingrids grid. The
target groups are service providers, Fingrid employees and connecting parties.
The operating training covers a comprehensive review of the guideline in a
training session of approx. one working day. The training will be valid until
the end of the agreement period for basic maintenance. Operating training is
required from persons who:
carry out local switching in several work locations in Fingrids grid
serve as switching supervisors in Fingrids grid
take part in the planning of transmission interruptions and switching
operations in Fingrids grid
grant operating permits
serve as regional experts in work carried out in Fingrids grid
have been appointed as Fingrids persons responsible for operation
serve as stand-by personnel at the Main Grid Control Centre.
Targeted training contains training targeted at a target group. Its duration varies
according to the training needs. Targeted training is required at intervals of a maximum of three years from persons performing local operations on an individual
substation or switching station on a basis other than a maintenance agreement.
Targeted training is also required from persons ordering electrical work to be
carried out in Fingrids grid and for an operating permit which involves the inspection of the status of switching devices at switching stations. Targeted training is
recommended for persons performing electrical work in Fingrids grid.
Targeted training can also be carried out as operation training.

1.5 Requirements concerning protective equipment


All personal protective equipment
used in electrical work must be typeinspected and provided with the CE
marking and other necessary markings as well as operating instructions in Finnish and Swedish. This
also concerns protective clothing.
Protective helmet, safety footwear
and high-visibility clothing must
always be worn in a work location
where maintenance or construction
work is carried out. The unintentional release or dropping of the protective helmet must be prevented.

12 / Fingrid

In working conditions where an electric arc caused by nearby live parts and
short circuit current may ignite clothing, protective clothing which protects
against fire and heat must be used as personal protective equipment. The
protective clothing must be in compliance with standard SFS-EN ISO 11612
or standard EN 61482-1-2. In order to enhance protection, it is recommended
that clothing which is not made of an easily melting synthetic material is used
under the protective clothing against the skin.
Assembly points are marked with specific signs at Fingrids substations. All
persons at the substation must assemble at these points in the event of an
emergency.
Safety harness shall be used applying the always attached principle
in work carried out at an elevated
height if the falling risk of persons
has not been eliminated through
some other means.
The use of other personal protective
equipment and protective accessories is based on the risk assessment.
In Fingrids work locations, everyone
must wear an identification provided
with a photograph as prescribed in
the Finnish Occupational Safety Act.
The identification must indicate the
persons name, employer and tax
number.

1.5.1 Protective equipment to be worn by switching operator


In addition to the general protective equipment, a switching operator must wear
protective clothing which protects against fire and heat when the switching operator is performing local switching of switching devices energised by operating
voltage. In addition to a protective helmet, a face shield or goggles must be worn
in local switching carried out in indoor air-insulated switching stations. In local
switching carried out in SF6 indoor switching stations, a switching operator does
not need to wear protective clothing which does not sustain fire.
Other work carried out at a switching station or the local circumstances may
result in additional requirements for the protective equipment to be worn by the
switching operator. The additional requirements may include the use of safety
footwear or hearing protection.

13 / Fingrid

1.6 Tools and equipment


The employer must choose the necessary personal protective equipment by
assessing in advance the risks involved in the work. Moreover, the employer must
make sure that the tools, accessories and equipment used conform to the relevant requirements. The equipment must be serviced appropriately and it must
be used in accordance with the manufacturers or suppliers instructions and/
or guidance.
Fingrids substations are equipped with operating voltage detectors, the operating condition of which can be verified by means of the internal test procedure
of the detector. Such detectors are recommended for use in all Fingrids work
locations. Detectors equipped with the internal test procedure must be used in
work locations where the operating condition of the
detector cannot be verified from parts which are
energised by operating voltage.
The operating voltage detector must be used in
accordance with its instruction manual. In the case
of some remote voltage detectors, it has been
noticed that noncompliance with the instruction
manual may cause the detector to show that an item
which is energised by operating voltage is partly
energised.
The use of a separate residual current device is
recommended when using portable electrical
equipment if there is no fixed protection.

LOCAL INSTRUCTION

ocal instruction gives instruction in the special features of the electrical installation and its environment as well in communications. Local instruction is
given in maintenance and construction work to Fingrids each contractual partner.
If the contractual partner who receives instruction has been subordinated to the
main contractor, a representative of the main contractor must also be present in
the instruction. Local instruction may also be given to an external party for work
to be performed near electrical equipment.
The regional unit assesses the need for and scope of local instruction for a new
work location or when the operation situation of the work location changes. If
necessary, the regional unit agrees on the implementation of local instruction and
on the language used in instruction with the person responsible for the work. The
person giving the instruction is marked in the safety declaration.

14 / Fingrid

If the location is familiar and the regional unit has not considered it necessary to
have separate local instruction, the electrical safety supervisor must instruct the
work team the risk factors caused by the electrical installation.
When planning and ordering instruction and when specifying its contents, at least
the following issues need to be taken into account: electric risk factors, vocational
proficiency and experience of personnel, and all changes in the operation situation as the work progresses. The instructed issues must be entered in the local
instruction form.
Sufficient work time must be reserved for local instruction in the planning of the
work.
Local instruction is given
to the person named by the
person responsible for the
work in the work location.
This person must arrange
further instruction so that
there are no persons without instruction in the work
location. Further instruction
can only be provided by persons accepted by Fingrid.
A record must be kept at
the work location of those
who have received further
instruction.
The objective is that as many members of the work teams as possible participate
in the instruction event arranged or commissioned by Fingrid.
The instructor is delivered the local instruction form which has been pre-completed by the regional unit and, if necessary, other necessary material, with which
the instructor must become familiar in advance.
The local instructor must carry out the instruction as per the requirements of the
local instruction form, assess how well the participants have learnt the issues
instructed, and on this basis expand or repeat the content of the instruction.
The instruction must cover issues such as agreed work areas and energised parts
which compromise safety. The instruction must emphasise that if the work expands beyond the permitted area, the work must be re-planned.
As the instruction progresses, the issues covered are filled in in the local instruction form, and the giving of instruction is confirmed by means of signatures.

15 / Fingrid

Once the instruction is complete, the local instructor delivers the original copy of
the local instruction form to the person of the regional unit who has placed the
order for the instruction and a copy to the persons responsible for the work teams
participating in the training. The regional unit files the local instruction form at
least for a period of validity recorded in the form.

2.1 Authorised local instructors at switching stations


An authorised local instructor is accepted to take care of all instruction allowed
by the instructors language skills, concerning locations specified for the local
instructor. The authorised local instructor is either a Fingrid employee or an
employee of a service provider.
To serve as an authorised instructor,
the regional unit can appoint a skilled
person in electrical engineering who
has a valid operating permit, extensive local knowledge of the site and
sufficient qualification to take care
of instruction being in Fingrids responsibility. The languages in which
the authorised instructor can provide
local instruction must also be agreed
in conjunction with this appointment.
The validity of the authorisation is
agreed when the local instructor is
appointed. The regional unit ensures
that in order to maintain the authorisation, the instruction covers any significant changes at the work locations.
The regional unit takes care of appointing the instructor at the permission of
the relevant person and his/her superior. The authorised local instructors are
recorded in the substation-specific and service supplier specific forms, which are
filed at least for the validity of the authorisation.
At its discretion, the regional unit can also place an order for local instruction
from parties other than an authorised local instructor when the instruction is
simple and can be outlined clearly in view of the agreed work. In this case, it is
absolutely required that the knowledge and skills of the instructor are sufficient
for high-quality instruction and that the instructor is a skilled person in electrical
engineering.

16 / Fingrid

3 OPERATING PERMIT
3.1 Switching supervisors operating permit
The switching supervisors operating permit concerns Fingrids entire grid. The
granting of the permit requires fulfilling partly the same requirements as an operating permit concerning local switching. Moreover, knowledge of safe operations and of the structure and operation of Fingrids grid are required.
The superior of the person serving as the switching supervisor grants the operating permit.

3.2 Switching operators operating permit


An operating permit entitling local switching is
a substation-specific or switching station specific permit to carry out operation work under the
supervision of the switching supervisor. The operating permit can also be switching-specific.
The regional unit grants operating permits for the
switching stations in Fingrids grid. The person
granting the permit records the operating permit
in a file.
At least one member of the work team carrying out operation work is required
to have an operating permit.
The operating permit is valid on condition that:
the holder of the permit is a skilled person in electrical engineering
the person has valid SFS 6002 STKY training
the person has participated in operation training or targeted training,
depending on the scope of the operating permit, related to the contents
of this guideline
the person has received instruction for the location from an authorised
local instructor
the regional unit has assessed that the persons local knowledge and
vocational proficiency are sufficient.
After training entitling the operating permit, the regional unit assesses the
local knowledge possessed by the person who has participated in training.
The need for instruction is agreed on the basis of this assessment.

17 / Fingrid

3.3 Switching-specific operating permit


The switching supervisor may grant a switching-specific operating permit for
local switching relating to disturbance situations or emergencies. This requires
that the person has performed similar duties before and that the person is skilled
in electrical engineering. In this case, the necessary instruction is provided by the
switching supervisor over the telephone.

4 PERMITS ENSURING OCCUPATIONAL


SAFETY

afe electrical work requires a work preparation permit, work permit and commissioning permit. Their understanding as well as their timely issuing and
receiving contribute to a foundation for safe work.

4.1 Work preparation permit


4.1.1 Work preparation permit from switching supervisor


The switching supervisor gives a work preparation permit when the work
involves an outage order.
The work preparation permit is given to the contact person of the work location.
The permit can be given when all measures related to the launching of the work
and being in the responsibility of the switching supervisor have been carried out.
The work preparation permit can be given on the day of starting the relevant work
stage, when the contact person of the work location is at the work location and
reports to the switching supervisor.
In transmission interruptions, the permit
contains information on the disconnection
points and locations of main earthing.
In substation work locations which are
disconnected and where the disconnection is monitored by camera, the switching supervisor requests the holder of the
operating permit to verify the status of the
switching devices which are necessary in
view of electrical work safety when the
status cannot be verified by means of camera monitoring. This verification must be
made before the work preparation permit
is given.

18 / Fingrid

The switching supervisor also gives the work preparation permit to the connecting partys switching supervisor if the connecting party has work included in the
transmission interruption.
Through the work preparation permit, the switching supervisor ensures that the
switching procedures and safety precautions which are required by the work and
which are in the responsibility of the operation of the electrical installation have
been carried out. When both parties have a congruent view of the above procedures and of the dangerous energised parts, the work team obtains a permit to
begin its action relating to the work and securing safety, such as ensuring that
the installation is not energised by operating voltage.
The work preparation permit can be forwarded to the contact person of the work
location by the switching operator or, in special cases, by some other competent
person.

4.1.2 Work preparation permit from regional unit


The regional unit can give a work preparation permit for substation or transmission line work, for which no outage order has been prepared. In these cases, the
service provider must well in advance agree with the regional unit or with a party
authorised by the regional unit on the details of occupational safety and electrical
safety as well as the conditions for obtaining the work preparation permit. Once
the principles have been recorded, the work preparation permit can be obtained
through the access pass sent as an SMS message or some other mutually agreed
method. If the work is preceded by local instruction, the work preparation permit
is only valid after the completion of the instruction.

4.2 Work permit


The work permit can be given only after the work preparation permit has been
obtained and all issues relating to the safe execution of the work and being in the
responsibility of the operation of the electrical installation and the work team
have been carried out and considered. Moreover, the work team is described how
to ensure that the work location is dead.
The electrical safety supervisor or another agreed person responsible for the
work location gives the work permit to the work team after making sure that
each member of the work team has understood the issues related to the safe
execution of the work.
After obtaining the work permit, the entire work team must be familiar with the
conditions of safe working. The work team can start its actual work after it has
received the work permit.

19 / Fingrid

4.3 Commissioning permit


After the work is ready, the electrical safety supervisor must ensure that that the
structures which prevent the restoration of operating voltage and the additional
earthing and auxiliary earthing which is in the responsibility of the work team has
been removed. The other measures included in the commissioning inspection
must also be carried out.
Before the giving of the commissioning permit, the work team must restore the status
of Fingrids switching devices on which work
was performed to the same status which they
had upon receiving the work preparation permit. Any deviations must be agreed upon when
planning the transmission interruption.
After the commissioning inspection, the contact person of the work location gives a commissioning permit to the switching supervisor
of that electrical installation where the work
has been performed.
When receiving the commissioning permit, the switching supervisor must make
sure that the additional earthing has been removed and that there are no other
obstacles to the restoration of operating voltage.
After the giving of the commissioning permit, the work team must treat the location like any installation energised by operating voltage.

5 MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL

SAFETY IN FINGRIDS GRID

he employers representative, the person heading electrical work and the person in charge of the operation of the electrical installation must jointly make
sure that the Finnish Occupational Safety Act, Electrical Safety Act and provisions
and regulations issued on the basis of these are followed in electrical work and in
the operation and maintenance of the electrical installation.

5.1 Electrical work in Fingrids grid


Electrical work in Fingrids grid means:
work which by virtue of standard SFS 6002 and Fingrids guidelines may
only be performed by a skilled person in electrical engineering

20 / Fingrid

work concerning a conductor or cable belonging to an electrical installation


or its auxiliary and control systems as well as the installation of such conductor or cable; including the connection of a new earthing system or conductor
to a previously-installed earthing system, the cutting of a previously-installed
earthing conductor or the opening of an existing connection
work where a person or a work machine operated by the person is likely to
reach closer to a live part than the minimum distances stated in the table
below
work where a work machine or a part connected directly or indirectly to the
machine or a tool may, if the part drops or tips, reach closer to a live part than
the minimum distances stated in the table below.
UN /kV
AC and
DC

Minimum distance [m]


Work
at the side

Work
beneath

2.0

2.0

> 145

3.0

2.0

110

5.0

3.0

150

5.0

4.0

220

5.0

4.0

400

5.0

5.0

450

6.0

6.0

500

6.0

6.0

Electrical work in Fingrids grid is not considered to cover:


work which assists electrical work, where such supporting work is supervised
continuously by a skilled person in electrical engineering
excavation, installation and covering of earthing conductors belonging to a
new earthing system, and making of internal connections of such earthing
system
work carried out in electrical facilities, where the work can be performed by
an instructed person alone (by virtue of standard SFS 6002)
forest, clearing and other vegetation management work.
In many cases, work that is not categorised as electrical work in these definitions
may, however, contain work stages, where instruction into the stages requires a
skilled person in electrical engineering.
The service supplier must ensure that the new connected earthing system and
a previously-installed earthing system in its immediate vicinity do not cause a
risk of personal injury or property damage when the systems are separated from
each other.

21 / Fingrid

5.2 Person in charge of electrical work


Each company performing electrical work in Fingrids grid must employ a
registered person who heads electrical work. However, a person heading electrical work is not required if the work is one-off work in accordance with the Electrical Safety Act or work which may result in only a slight risk or disorder.
Moreover, Fingrid does not require the company to employ a person heading electrical work for work where a work machine is likely to reach closer to a live part
than what the minimum distances in the above table are, if a skilled person in
electrical engineering is appointed for all these work stages to monitor that the
safety distances stated in standard SFS 6002 are complied with. Furthermore,
Fingrid does not require the company to employ a person heading electrical work,
if the work has been agreed to be performed at the responsibility of Fingrids person in charge of the operation of the electrical installation or Fingrids person
heading electrical work.
If the person heading electrical work does not personally lead the measures at
the work locations, that person must assign his or her duties to other persons
responsible for the site.

5.3 Person responsible for electrical work


Electrical work to be performed in Fingrids grid must also have a person
responsible for electrical work in accordance with standard SFS 6002, appointed
in writing. The person heading electrical work and the person responsible for the
work may be the same person.

5.4 Electrical safety supervisor


The work organisation must appoint a sufficiently competent person to supervise electrical safety during the work in each work
location where electrical work which causes
the risk of electric shock or electric arc is
performed. This person must be appointed
in writing unless the work is so well-defined
that supervision can be defined orally or in
accordance with a procedure agreed in advance. This person is referred to as the electrical safety supervisor.
A sufficient number of electrical safety
supervisors must be appointed so that each
of them can perform their supervisory duty.

22 / Fingrid

In addition to a formal professional proficiency, the electrical safety supervisor


is required to possess knowledge and experience of the installation methods,
supplies and tools used.
The electrical safety supervisor must be present in the work location and supervise the safety of the work. The person can participate in the work or perform
it entirely on his/her own. During the work, it is the duty of the electrical safety
supervisor to make sure that:
all members of the work team know where it is safe to work
work is performed in permitted areas only
the markings of the work area remain installed during the work so that they
always indicate the safe working area
it is verified reliably at the beginning of the work and after breaks that the
work location is dead
the access of outsiders to the electrical installation is prevented
work machinery participating in work near energised parts has been earthed.
Irrespective of the obligations of the electrical
safety supervisor, all those at the work location
must ensure their own electrical safety and the
electrical safety of the other members of the
work team and outsiders.
Every member of the work team must know
who the electrical safety supervisor is. A new
electrical safety supervisor must be appointed
if the electrical safety supervisor leaves the
work location, and the work team must be informed of the new electrical safety supervisor.

5.5 Safety distance watch


When working close to energised parts, a safety
distance watch must be appointed whenever
necessary to supervise that the work takes
place at a safe distance from energised parts.
The safety distance watch is appointed by the
person responsible for the work or by the
electrical safety supervisor based on the risk
assessment of the work stage.
The safety distance watch does not participate
in the actual work, and the watch must have
sufficient instruction in the supervision duty.

23 / Fingrid

5.6 Safety declaration


In the safety declaration, the person responsible for the work and the regional
unit record issues such as contact information relating to the work, and such
risks, plans and requirements which are not otherwise known by the relevant
parties. The drawing up of the safety declaration usually begins by the work team.
A safety declaration must be drawn up when:
the work stage is related to an outage order
Fingrid has required a safety declaration in the work order
the regional unit or the person responsible for the work deem it necessary
work is carried out as live working
the voltage involved in work in the vicinity zone may cause a hazard.
The safety declaration must be drawn up and the essential changes to its contents must be updated at least two
work days before the work begins or before a change
becomes effective. If the declaration cannot be drawn
up or updated in the above schedule, the measures
must be negotiated with the regional unit.
If it turns out later unexpectedly that the occupational safety information contained in the safety declaration is too concise, measures ensuring safety must be
agreed in co-operation with the other work teams. Especially in the case of an
electrical safety matter, the regional unit must be involved in agreeing on safety
co-operation. The regional unit must be informed if it is not involved in agreeing
on the action taken.
The completed safety declaration must be distributed at least two work days before
the work begins. It must also be distributed to the switching supervisor and to the
work team, which must always take a copy of the declaration to the work location.
The regional unit files the processed safety declaration form for at least the next
full calendar year. The notices processed in the safety declaration are filed in the
safety declaration application.

5.7 Marking and specifying a work area which is in



Fingrids responsibility
The electrical installation must be provided with markings which are essential
in view of electrical safety. The safe work area must be marked when the work
area involves a hazard caused by electricity and when marking is of use in view of
safety. The markings may be made by a person with the appropriate professional
skills. The markings must be in place before the work permit is given.

24 / Fingrid

The regional unit is responsible for making the necessary markings or having
them made. These can be agreed upon for example in the safety declaration.
The electrical safety supervisor of the work location or another jointly agreed
person included in the work organisation is responsible for the maintenance of
the markings. The markings must be made in co-operation between the work
teams whenever possible.
When the operation situation changes, for example when an electrical
installation or a part of it is taken into
use, the markings must be changed
to conform to the new situation. The
changes are made by the switching operator or some other person
agreed with the regional unit.
At switching stations, the safe work
area must be marked unambiguously.
If necessary, access routes must also
be marked.
The work area must be marked
appropriately, for example by means
of flags, ropes, lights and signs. In
order to avoid errors, adjacent energised bays or cells must be separated
clearly by means of visible additional
markings if this is of use in view of
safety.

5.8 Ensuring safety in rapid changes in the



operation situation
When the switching situation changes, the switching supervisor must carry
out risk assessment, and specific attention must be paid to communications,
instruction, and marking of the work location.
Risk factors to be taken into account include:
potential risk caused by a change in the operation situation,
inflicted on the work teams
changing of the operation situation as a result of disturbance
premature commissioning of the switching location

25 / Fingrid

correcting an error detected in the switching schedule during the switching


continuing the switching after an unexpected event
changes to planned work and work areas.

5.9 Risk of induced voltage


Induced voltage and the resulting current
are always life-threatening in a current
conductor, in a long metallic pull line and
in an overhead earth wire installed on pulleys, when earthing is not connected to the
overhead earth wire at the work location.
Induced voltage must be taken into account
in the planning of the work. The magnitude
of induced voltage varies on the basis of the
momentary operation situation, and it can
be up to more than 20 kV.

5.10 Working close to bare energised parts


The work must be planned so that the work can take place at a safe distance from
energised parts. When defining the distances, the issues to be taken into account
include the work to be performed, work machinery and equipment used, lifting and transfer work to be performed, and the workers professional skills and
experience in electrical work.
If work is performed near energised parts, the permitted working zone must be
specified individually for each work stage. Safety must be ensured by keeping a
sufficient distance to energised parts or by protecting energised parts by means
of temporary protection.
The minimum distances conforming to the rated voltage (UN) must be used for
an energised part of the grid.

26 / Fingrid

A skilled person in electrical engineering or a sufficiently instructed person can


perform electrical work near energised
parts when the work is performed outside
the live working zone DL but at the most
within a distance of DV (outer diameter of
the vicinity zone) from an energised part,
as shown in the figure. Such work can
also be referred to as vicinity work.
Persons other than skilled persons in
electrical engineering can perform construction or other work, such as transport, lifting or cleaning, near energised
parts. In this case, there is a need for temporary protection or a sufficient distance from the energised parts and, if necessary, monitoring.
If only a part of the electrical installation has
been made dead or energised, the energised
and dead parts must be marked unambiguously.
Working close to energised parts requires that
it has been ensured that persons cannot touch
the energised parts and that they cannot go
within the live working zone.
Energised parts can be protected by means of
guards, barriers, casings or insulating covers.
The safety of the work to be performed can be
ensured by keeping a sufficient working distance to bare energised parts.

5.10.1 Working above an energised part


The safety distances given in this chapter must be followed in work carried out
above an energised part (overhead work). This work does not cover live working
or work resembling live working. In overhead work, a person is working above
an energised, uninsulated part or aerial cable, or the person or an electrically
conducting material extends to above one, and it has not been fully possible to
eliminate the risk or personal injury caused by the energised part. The electrically conducting material can be for example lifting machinery, a tool, or a conductor to be installed or dismantled.
Skilled persons in electrical engineering should always carry out overhead work.
An adequately instructed person can carry out overhead work when a skilled
person in electrical engineering supervises the persons safety.

27 / Fingrid

Instructed persons without the supervision of a skilled person in electrical


engineering, or ordinary persons cannot carry out overhead work. They can carry
out work above an energised part only if the person or the used material, even
considering potential work errors, cannot extend to the overhead work zones.
Equipment needed by additional earthing must be reserved for rescue purposes
for a work location where a person carries out overhead work.
The following figure shows the zones related to overhead work.

No part of the body or material must extend to the prohibited zone of overhead work
in any situation. In the conditional zone, skilled persons in electrical engineering or
instructed persons under the supervision of a skilled person in electrical engineering can carry out overhead work when the following conditions are fulfilled:
the work team has an occupational safety instruction accepted by the person
responsible for the work or by the person heading electrical work, and the
relevant workers professional skills as well as the work carried out at the
work location, materials and risk assessment have been taken into account
in the occupational safety instruction
even as a result of a potential work error or accident, no part of the body
or electrically conducting material extends to the prohibited zone (cases
such as the person falling and being suspended by the safety harness
must be taken into account here)
the falling of used work materials which enable an earth fault has been prevented. Here, materials which enable an earth fault are deemed to include:

a. electrically conducting materials, which are longer than x X,

switching station

b. heavy materials, which, if they fall, can break the insulating

components used in the electrical installation.

28 / Fingrid

The following table shows the minimum distances X and Y in different situations,
marked in the figure.
UN /kV
AC and DC

1
10
20
110
150
220
400
450
500

Minimum distance [m]


X, switching
station

0.2
0.35
0.4
1.0
1.3
1.6
2.5
2.9
3.2

Y, switching
station
X, transmission
line
Y, transmission
line

Lifting machine work


under the supervision of a
skilled person
in electrical
engineering

0.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.7
2.0
3.5
4.0
4.4

X = Y,
instructed
persons without
supervision,
and ordinary
persons
2.0
3.0
3.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.0
6.0

5.10.2 Working close to aerial lines


The person responsible for the work may authorise the loading and unloading of
materials and supplies needed in the work by means of lifting machine under or in
the vicinity of energised aerial lines in Fingrids grid. Before issuing the authorisation,
a skilled person in electrical engineering must instruct the required safety distances
and other potential special requirements related to the specific lifting location to the
person performing the lifting work. In conjunction with the instruction, it must be
ensured that the person performing the lifting work has understood the risks resulting from the violation of the safety distances or other instructions provided.
When a skilled person in electrical engineering works in the vicinity of an energised open-wire line, the person must follow the minimum distances presented in
the table below.
UN /kV
AC and DC
1
> 145
110
150
220
400
450
500

Minimum distance [m]


Work
Work
at the side
beneath
0.5
0.5
1.5
1.5
1.7
2.0
3.5
4.0
4.4

1.0
1.2
1.7
2.0
3.5
4.0
4.4

29 / Fingrid

When working close to an energised open-wire line at Fingrids permission


and under the supervision of a skilled person in electrical engineering using
a movable or transferable machine, no part of the machine, including the load,
must go closer to the line than what has been presented in the table below. If the
work is continuous, greater minimum distances must be followed.
UN /kV

Minimum distance [m]

AC and DC

Work
at the side

Work
beneath

0.5

0.5

> 145

1.5

1.0

110

1.5

1.2

150

1.7

1.7

220

2.0

2.0

400

3.5

3.5

450

4.0

4.0

500

4.4

4.4

These are also the minimum distances when handling long conducting tools
such as ladder, tools equipped with a long arm or other tools.
When an ordinary person is working close to an energised open-wire line without supervision using a movable or transferable machine, the working zone of
any part of the machine, including the load, must not go closer to the open-wire
line than what has been presented in the table below.
UN /kV

Minimum distance [m]

AC and DC

Work
at the side

Work
beneath

2.0

2.0

> 145

3.0

2.0

110

5.0

3.0

150

5.0

4.0

220

5.0

4.0

400

5.0

5.0

450

6.0

6.0

500

6.0

6.0

These are also the minimum distances when handling long conducting tools
such as ladder, tools equipped with a long arm or other tools.

30 / Fingrid

When working close to an energised aerial cable using a movable or transferable machine, the working zone of any part of the machine, including the load,
must not go closer to the aerial cable than what has been presented in the table
below.
UN /kV

Minimum distance [m]

AC and DC

Work at the side


and beneath

0.5

> 145

1.5

110

150

220

400

450

500

When carrying out timber harvesting work close to an aerial line, it must be
ensured that the machinery, equipment or the load is not closer to the aerial
line than what the minimum distances in the table below are. Timber must be
stored so far from the aerial line that the minimum distance stated in the table
is maintained between the loading equipment and the aerial line. Storage in the
right-of-way of the transmission line without permission is prohibited.
UN /kV
AC and
DC

Minimum distance [m]


OpenOpenwire line wire line
at the
underside
neath

Aerial
cable

2.0

2.0

0.5

> 145

3.0

2.0

1.5

110

5.0

3.0

150

5.0

4.0

220

5.0

4.0

400

5.0

5.0

450

6.0

6.0

500

6.0

6.0

31 / Fingrid

5.10.3 Transport in the vicinity of aerial lines


When transporting an excessively high load on a highway under an energised
open-wire line, the transport must not go closer to the line than what has been
presented in the table below.
UN /kV
AC and
DC

Minimum
distance [m]
When going
under the line
on a highway

0.5

> 145

1.0

110

1.2

150

1.7

220

2.0

400

3.5

450

4.0

500

4.4

Fingrid must assist the road transport of excessively high loads so that the load
can go under a transmission line safely. If necessary, a skilled person in electrical engineering must supervise the load going under the line.
In transport under an energised open-wire line in cross-country conditions outside roads, the minimum distances in the table below must be followed.
UN /kV
AC and
DC

32 / Fingrid

Minimum
distance [m]
When going
under the line
in crosscountry
conditions

0.5

> 145

1.5

110

1.5

150

1.7

220

2.0

400

3.5

450

4.0

500

4.4

5.10.4 Working at switching stations


When a skilled person in electrical engineering is working at an energised switching station or when the work is performed under the supervision of a skilled person, the minimum distances in the table below must be followed.
UN /kV
AC and
DC

Minimum
distance [m]
Work at the
side and
beneath

no contact

10

0.35

20

0.4

110

1.0

150

1.3

220

1.6

400

2.5

450

2.9

500

3.2

The following must be applied to main transformers:


for 400 kV neutral point: 220 kV minimum distances
for 220 kV and 110 kV neutral point: 110 kV minimum distances.

When working close to a disconnecting


circuit breaker, the minimum distance
from the energised pole is the length of
the insulator of the circuit breaker

33 / Fingrid

Only a skilled person in electrical engineering or someone under the supervision of a skilled person can go on
the service platform of an energised
device such as a circuit breaker or
transformer.
When working at an energised switching station under the supervision of
a skilled person using a movable or
transferable machine, the working
zone of any part of the machine, including the load, must not go closer
to energised parts than what has been
presented in the table below.
UN /kV
AC and
DC
1
10
20
110
150
220
400
450
500

Minimum distance [m]


Work
Work
at the side
beneath
0.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.7
2.0
3.5
4.0
4.4

0.5
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.7
2.0
3.5
4.0
4.4

5.10.5 Work performed by ordinary persons near electrical



installations
In construction and other similar work, the distances presented in the table
below must be kept to energised parts when the work is performed by persons other than skilled persons.
UN /kV
AC and
DC
1
> 145
110
150
220
400
450
500

34 / Fingrid

Minimum distance [m]


Work
Work
at the side
beneath
2.0
3.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.0
6.0

2.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
6.0

6 EARTHING

ll electrical equipment, conductors and metallic pull lines which are not provided with earthing in accordance with the principles stated below must be
treated as if they were energised.

6.1 Verification of no operating voltage when



connecting earthing
Always just before connecting the earthing, it must be ensured that the part of
the electrical installation where the earthing will be connected is not energised
by operating voltage. No operating voltage must be verified in each phase to be
earthed. Testers or remote detectors which are applicable to verifying that there
is no operating voltage must be used for this. Before verifying that there is no
operating voltage, it must be ensured that the tool used for the verification is
suited to the voltage level in question. The use of a tester or remote detector is
not required in those work locations to be earthed, from which it can be definitely
seen whether the work location to be earthed is already earthed by means of at
least one main earthing device.
When earthing a high-voltage direct current open-wire line, the presence of no
operating voltage does not need to be verified at the work location, if testers or
detectors suitable for use are not available from the manufacturers or importers.
The use of remote detectors at medium voltage in indoor air-insulated switching
stations is prohibited due to a potential malfunction.
The use of a tester or detector is not required if the earthing is connected:
to a work location from which it can be seen that earthing has been
connected earlier to the work location to be earthed
using an earthing switch, and the verification of no operating voltage
cannot be made from the ground.
In remote-monitored connections, the switching supervisor verifies from the
available measurement and status data that there is no operating voltage.
Despite the verification of no operating voltage, there can be a life-threatening
induced voltage at the work location where earthing is to be connected.

35 / Fingrid

In a row disconnector, the


presence of no operating
voltage must be verified in
each phase just before an
individual earthing wire is
connected. In a row disconnector, the marking of the
poles facilitates the determination of the right direction.
The functioning of the operating voltage detector must
be tested immediately before
its use and after use. If possible, the operating condition of the detector must be
tested from parts energised
by operating voltage. In other
cases, this must be carried
out using the internal test
procedure of the tester.

6.2 Main earthing


The purpose of main earthing is to prevent the access of operating voltage to the
work location from all directions in the event of a fault, faulty switching or equipment damage. The main earthing must be dimensioned so that it can withstand the
short-circuit currents and earth fault currents occurring in the above situations.

6.2.1 Responsibilities relating to main earthing


Fingrid and the connecting party are responsible for the planning, connection,
supervision and removal of their main earthing respectively. The planning must
be done in co-operation, taking into account the entire area covered by the transmission interruption. At Fingrid, the planning is carried out by the regional units.
The switching supervisor specified in the outage order carries responsibility for
connecting, supervising and removing main earthing.

36 / Fingrid

If for example measurement or


testing requires that main earthing
is removed and/or connected, the
measures that ensure safety must
be agreed in conjunction with the
planning of the transmission interruption. The measures must also be
recorded in the switching schedule.
A permit must be obtained from the
switching supervisor for the connection and/or removal of main
earthing at the beginning of the
work stage in question.

6.2.2 Planning of main earthing


Main earthing must be recorded in the transmission interruption plan in accordance with the principles of this section.
Main earthing to be connected at switching plants for the maintenance work of
Fingrids transmission lines must be planned so that at least one earthing point
is connected to the part that is disconnected as the work location.
The planning of main earthing must also take into account the potential changes
required by the switching situation or maintenance situation. Planning must be
carried out so that when giving the work preparation permit related to the transmission interruption, the main earthing must have been connected.
When earthing a transformer, the main earthing must also be connected on the
low-voltage side of the transformer if such connection is possible.

37 / Fingrid

The main earthing must be connected to the disconnection points


unless some other procedure is
appropriate. Main earthing connected at a maximum distance
of 50 metres from the tapped line
also protects the work locations
located between the main earthing points on the tapped line from
the hazards of operating voltage.
In this case, the main earthing
must be connected on the side of
the tapped line.
On Fingrids transmission lines,
the earthing switches must be
connected between the disconnection point and the closest
work area on the side of the
tapped line also when the disconnection point consists of an
opened disconnector. This is the
procedure in situations where
a high induced voltage may be
conducted to the work area.
If only one set of uninstalled or
removed jumpers or corresponding devices are between the operating voltage and the work
location, main earthing must
be carried out. When constructing a new electrical installation,
the person responsible for the
work and the regional unit must
agree in advance on changes or
additions to the main earthing,
potentially required by the construction work.
At substations, an opened isolating distance is considered equal
to an opened disconnector in
main earthing.

38 / Fingrid

When the pole of a disconnecting circuit breaker on


the side of the main busbar is energised, the main
earthing must be located
between the dead pole of
the disconnecting circuit
breaker and the work location.

The main earthing must be carried out so that


the activation of overcurrent protection or the
opening of a switching device does not make
the main earthing ineffective. It must be ensured that the switching devices which have
been switched on (closed) because of main
earthing remain switched on. This concerns
in particular cases where the earthing needs
to be carried out through a circuit breaker.
The main earthing can also be carried out by
means of portable main earthing devices.
The mounting locations of portable main
earthing devices must have short circuit current strength and they must be suitable for the devices used. A constructed earth point is recommended as the mounting location of an earth connector. The earth connector must not be connected
to the overhead earth wire or a painted structure. So that the main earthing can
be connected on a transmission line tower, the tower must have basic earthing,
and the metal crossarm must be connected to the overhead earth wires with an
earth conductor.

39 / Fingrid

In substation buildings, the


design values for short circuit
current are indicated on a plate
or table fastened close to the
storage rack for earthing devices. The current strength requirement of the portable main
earthing devices is recorded in
the transmission interruption
plan if the main earthing is connected in a location other than
the substation. In this case, the
regional unit decides where to
procure the devices used.

6.2.3 Co-operation between Fingrid and the connecting



party in the planning of main earthing

When the transmission interruption also


concerns the connecting party, the main
earthing must be planned in co-operation. During planning, it must be agreed
whether the main earthing is connected
on the side of the tapped line or on the
side of the connecting party away from
the tapped line. The agreed procedure
must be recorded in the transmission
interruption plan.

40 / Fingrid

6.2.4 Main earthing of busbars


All earthing switches of a busbar or a part of a busbar under work must be
switched on (closed) for the duration of the work.
When the busbar is equipped with a number of earthing switches in accordance
with guideline Kokoojakiskojen maadoitus, their switching on (closing) protects
against the hazards of operating voltage. If the busbar does not have the required
number of earthing switches and they cannot be replaced with portable main
earthing, the procedures must be recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
The procedures are:
too distant work locations must be outlined by means of a warning flag
line or similar method, by following the safety distances specified in the
above guideline or other distances calculated separately in accordance
with the relevant operation situation, or
upon discretion in each individual case, live working methods can be
applied to the work carried out on a busbar which is partly energised but
which is partially provided with main earthing.

6.2.5 Main earthing of neutral point of transformer


When the substation has only one main transformer, there can be no hazardous
contact voltages at the neutral point.
At substations with more main transformers, a fault current following a failure
may cause a voltage in the shared neutral point inductor. In this case, main earthing must be connected to the neutral point of a disconnected transformer in work
related to the transformer.

6.2.6 Implementation of main earthing


The connection of main earthing begins by verifying that there is no operating
voltage.
Before earthing a transmission line using portable earthing devices, the switching
operator must check visually that the earthing conductors are intact between the
overhead earth wires, metal structures and ground.

41 / Fingrid

The control of earthing switches must


be prevented in local switching, and
the controllers must be provided with
a warning sign of the type shown on
the left. A portable main earthing device must also be provided with a similar sign fastened to one phase of the
earth connector.
In switching carried out in Fingrids grid,
the main earthing locations are marked
in the operation control system.

6.3 Earthing using portable earthing devices


Portable earthing devices must be connected first to the earthing point and then
to the earthed parts. The earthing point must be opened last when removing
earthing.
The line terminals of a portable earthing device must be connected and removed
using an earthing pole so that no part of the body extends to the live working zone
of a part to be provided with earthing or a part located in its vicinity. The earthing
pole must be such that an insulating zone at least the size of the live working zone
remains between a hand and a part to be provided with earthing.
It must be ensured in earthing that the terminal to be connected is in the correct
position with respect to the attachment point. Furthermore, it must be ensured
that no ice or other foreign matter remains between the terminal and the conductor. The terminals of the earthing device must be tightened carefully. Excessive
tightening or retightening may cause the breakage of the terminal and a danger
to life. If the terminal of an earthing device becomes loose or a conductor breaks
or is damaged, the measures after the damage must be planned carefully so that
nobody becomes a part of the circuit. The damaged earthing device must not be
touched until it has been ensured that touching it poses no risk. If necessary, a
new earthing device must be connected to replace the damaged one. The actual
work may not continue until the damaged earthing device has been replaced.

42 / Fingrid

Wherever possible, the


unauthorised disconnection of an earth
connector of a portable
main earthing device installed outside a fenced
electrical area must be
prevented, for example
by means of a locking
device. Long earthing
wires must be tied up
to the structures so that
they cannot be reached
from the ground.
Portable earthing devices in particular must always be inspected visually before they are used and after use, and, wherever necessary, shortcomings must
be reported in order to enable a repair or disposal decision. Faulty earthing
devices must not be used.

6.4 Additional earthing


Additional earthing is an important safety measure which:
removes hazardous induced voltage at the work locations where work
is performed
reduces the risks caused by faulty switching as well as hazards caused
by weather or touching of conductors with each other.

All electrical equipment, conductors and metallic pull lines which are not provided
with additional earthing in accordance with the principles of this instruction must
be treated as if they were energised.
In transmission interruption work, additional earthing must be carried out after
main earthing.
The work location can be earthed by using only additional earthing if the connection
of the operating voltage to the work location is structurally impossible. Such work
locations may result especially during the construction of electrical installations.

43 / Fingrid

If only one set of uninstalled or removed jumpers or corresponding devices are


between the operating voltage and the work location, main earthing must also
be carried out. When constructing a new electrical installation, the person responsible for the work and the regional unit must agree in advance on changes
or additions to the main earthing, potentially required by the construction work.
The person responsible for the work is responsible for ensuring that the necessary additional earthing is planned and that the plan:
fulfils continuously the conditions of safe electrical work and that the
plan is updated if necessary
fulfils in all work stages the minimum requirements set by Fingrids
valid guidelines
is drawn up in writing and is sufficiently detailed
has been drawn up sufficiently early
is delivered to be reviewed by Fingrids contact person so that the plan
has been accepted by the person responsible for the work organisation
is delivered to the members of the work teams as applicable
has been instructed to the work teams, and the work teams understand
the significance of implementation in accordance with the plan.

Additional earthing must be planned to be located close to the work locations.


At least one earthing that removes the induced voltage must be visible from
each work location. However, the above-mentioned visibility requirement is
not applied to work which concerns an overhead earth wire on pulleys or the
pull line of such an overhead earth wire.
When disconnecting, cutting or joining conductors, dangerous potential
differences can occur. With conductors in a high-voltage system, preparations for such potential differences
should always be made by short-circuiting the work location by means of
an earthing conductor for the duration of the work.

44 / Fingrid

In additional earthing, the person responsible for the work must ensure that:
additional earthing is carried
out in accordance with the
plan, carefully and safely
the person responsible
for the work has up-to-date
information on the additional
earthing devices left con-
nected at the work locations
overnight, and information
that can be retrieved on
other connected additional
earthing devices
the additional earthing de-
vices are removed before
connecting the operating
voltage.
In the additional earthing of the work location, the electrical safety supervisor
must make sure that:
additional earthing is carried out
in accordance with the plan,
carefully and safely
the electrical safety supervisor
has up-to-date information on
the additional earthing devices
supervised by him or her
the additional earthing devices
supervised by the electrical
safety supervisor are removed
before connecting the operating
voltage
when working on phase conduc tors, a new additional earthing
device must be connected before
the work continues if visibil ity is impaired during a break or
suspension of work and if earth ing that removes the induced
voltage is no longer visible from
the work location.

45 / Fingrid

If Fingrid is responsible for the additional earthing of the work location, it is


planned and implemented in the same manner as main earthing, but in accordance with the rules for additional earthing. Such work locations may be, for example, road construction close to a transmission line or the installation of falling
protection on main transformers.
If the earth connector of additional earthing is connected to a painted structure,
the breaking of the paint surface at the mounting location of the earth connector
must be ensured.

6.4.1 Additional earthing on transmission lines


The general rule in each transmission line work is that at least two earthing
points that remove a dangerous induced voltage must be connected. This ensures
that the disconnection or breaking of one additional earthing device does not
cause an electrical accident at the work location.
The additional earthing devices that remove a dangerous induced voltage must
be connected to different sub-conductors, if possible. The additional earthing devices can be located within a maximum distance of one kilometre from the work
location. Due to electrical safety, such additional earthing can always also be
connected to a tower on which work is performed.
The distance of additional earthing from
the work location must not be more than
0.5 kilometres if earthing in at least one
charging feed direction (when viewed
from the work location) is at a distance
of more than one kilometre.

When working on a 110 to 400 kV transmission line, where there is a parallel section with another 110 to 400 kV
transmission line with operating voltage,
additional earthing must also be connected between the separation point of the
lines and the work location. This special
requirement applies to work at the separation point and on a separating section
of the lines within a maximum distance of
one kilometre from the separation point.

46 / Fingrid

Additional earthing must be connected between an intersecting


high-voltage transmission line with
operating voltage and the work location if the work location is within a
maximum distance of one kilometre
from the intersection. If work is performed at the intersection and the
work concerns a current conductor
or an overhead earth wire on pulleys
or if the work involves the risk of
falling of the tower, additional earthing must be connected to the towers
on both sides of the intersection.
Pulleys do not usually discharge the induced voltage. Instead, a pulley that provides earthing is a pulley designed to remove the induced voltage. A mere metallic
structure does not make a pulley a pulley that provides earthing. When ascertaining the need for earthing, all pulleys except pulleys that provide earthing must
be considered as insulating components. When installed correctly, a pulley that
provides earthing can serve as one additional earthing device.
In the design of additional earthing, it must be taken into account that the spacers of the current conductors may contain an insulation part. In this case, all the
sub-conductors must be provided with additional earthing separately unless the
sub-conductors have been connected together by means of a suspension clamp
on the tower on which work is performed or on an adjacent tower.
It should be noted that overhead earth wires and pull lines on pulleys that do not
provide earthing usually also involve a dangerous induced voltage.
The cross-sectional conductor area of the additional earthing device in Fingrids
transmission line work locations must be at least 25 mm2.
In the additional earthing of bare aerial lines and conductors, the earthing of a
single phase is accepted if no work is performed in the live working zone of the
other phases.
If there is a need to use individual main earthing or an earthing switch in Fingrids
grid as additional earthing in transmission line work, the person responsible for
the work must agree on this with Fingrids regional unit. This extended purpose
must be recorded in the transmission interruption plan. The work team must not
remove this earthing without the consent of the switching supervisor.
An overhead earth wire installed on a suspension clamp and its electrically reliable connection to the earthing system is considered equal to connected additional earthing.

47 / Fingrid

It should be noted that different types of working arrangements can significantly


affect the number of supplementary additional earthing devices.

6.4.2 Additional earthing at substations


The general rule is that additional earthing must be connected if the distance from
the work location to the main earthing along a conductor is more than 50 metres
and the work location is not between connected earthing points.
In substation work locations where an
induced voltage created in the transmission line can cause a risk, the rules for the
additional earthing of a transmission line
must be followed. In work locations where
the open status of open or missing jumpers
to the direction of the transmission line can
be seen during the work, the principles for
the earthing of a substation must be followed.
The cross-sectional conductor area of the
additional earthing device in Fingrids substation work locations must be at least 35 mm2.
When working on the deck of a main transformer, additional earthing must be
connected in addition to main earthing, in accordance with the following principles:
additional earthing is carried out primarily on the transformer deck
400 kV is provided with additional earthing, if persons can get closer
than 0.6 metres to the current conductors during the work
220 kV is always provided with additional earthing
110 kV is always provided with additional earthing
20 kV is provided with additional earthing, if the distance from the work
location to the earthing along a conductor is more than 50 metres
neutral points are provided with additional earthing, if the distance from
the work location to the earthing along a conductor is more than 50 metres
the first item to be earthed on the transformer deck is that down lead
coming to the bushings, whose live working zone is closest, and then this
principle is followed further
the additional earthing must be removed in reverse order.

48 / Fingrid

The person connecting additional earthing must also ensure that all systems
related to falling protection on the transformer are re-installed. The person
removing additional earthing must correspondingly ensure that the falling protection systems are restored.
When working on the high-voltage connecting lines of a main transformer and on
connecting lines at least 50 metres in length, each voltage level on which work
is performed must always be provided with earthing on both sides of the work
location. Neither of these earthing points must be connected behind an isolating
clearance.

6.5 Auxiliary earthing


Auxiliary earthing can be used for removing unpleasant contact voltage from the
work location. The devices can be connected only after the required additional
earthing has been connected. Auxiliary earthing is not subject to cross-sectional
or current strength requirements.
The person responsible for the work must have up-to-date information on auxiliary earthing devices which are left connected overnight at the work locations.
The person responsible for the work must make sure that the auxiliary earthing
is removed before the operating voltage is connected.

6.6 Earthing of machinery


A work machine which may reach to the
live working zone during the work must be
earthed using a device that withstands an
earth fault current.
Earthing must be connected to a work
machine also if the work machine may
reach during the work to a part of the grid
which has induced voltage.
The person responsible for the electrical
safety of the work location is responsible
for the connection, supervision and removal
of earthing of machinery.

49 / Fingrid

7 PLANNING OF TRANSMISSION

INTERRUPTIONS

he regional unit identifies the transmission interruption needs and exceptional operation situations in the next year by the end of November as comprehensively as possible. Based on the compiled needs, the regional unit draws
up preliminary scheduling and presents it to the connecting parties by the end
of January. If transmission interruption needs arise later, they are recorded
immediately in the transmission interruption application.
Occupational safety and system security must be taken into account in the
transmission interruptions and in adapting the interruptions together.
400 kV transmission interruptions influencing the electricity
market must be agreed no later
than six weeks before implementation. Other transmission
interruptions must be agreed no
later than 21 days prior to implementation. A differing planning
schedule must be agreed in advance with the Main Grid Control Centre. The planning must
be carried out so that sufficient
time is reserved for analysis and
for drawing up the outage order
and switching schedule.
The transmission interruption plan records the work to be carried out during
the transmission interruption as work stages, and changes in the switching
situation are recorded as switching stages. Action carried out by a connecting
party is also recorded as a switching stage of its own. The planned starting and
finishing times of switching stages and work stages are recorded in the transmission interruption plan. A single work stage can only contain duties of the
contact person of a single work location.
When a transmission interruption which is in the under planning status contains the issues which influence the implementation of the interruption and
which are taken into account in the drawing up of the switching schedule, the
regional unit converts the transmission interruption to the suggestion status
no later than nine days before implementation. If a transmission interruption
which is in the suggestion status is changed, this must be notified to the Main
Grid Control Centre.

50 / Fingrid

The Main Grid Control Centre accepts the


transmission interruption suggestions as
outage orders and distributes them one
week before implementation. If the transmission interruption suggestion needs to
be amended, the Main Grid Control Centre
returns the suggestion to the under planning status to be complemented by the
regional unit.
An updated outage order must be distributed
to all, if the responsibilities or the essential
information related to the switching schedule
change. In addition, the parties concerned
must be separately informed of the changes.
In exceptional cases, the Main Grid Control Centre can plan the transmission
interruption or change the outage order. Such situations include sudden needs for
changes, which the engineer at the regional unit or that persons deputy cannot do.
The objective is to agree on any changes with the regional unit. If the regional unit
has not been involved in planning, the Main Grid Control Centre must take care of
all safety obligations belonging to the regional unit, such as co-ordination of work.
The regional unit reserves the switching operators in conjunction with the planning
of the transmission interruption. A switching operator is not needed to just verify
the switching on (closing) or switching off (opening) of a circuit breaker at a switching station. The reservation is normally confirmed by an outage order.

51 / Fingrid

When the transmission interruption has commenced, the switching supervisor


records the actual starting time in the outage order. In this way, the status of the
transmission interruption becomes incomplete.
If the transmission interruption is cancelled, the Main Grid Control Centre
changes the transmission interruption in the order status to status cancelled
and records the reason for the cancellation.
When the transmission interruption has finished, the switching supervisor enters
the time of finishing in the outage order, after which the status of the transmission interruption changes to status ready.
The Main Grid Control Centre draws up and verifies the switching schedule and
distributes it to the parties participating in the switching at least two work days
before implementation.
Shared switching schedules can be used with the connecting party if this procedure has been agreed in advance with the Main Grid Control Centre and if the
schedules have been verified by both parties in advance two days before implementation.
The Main Grid Control Centre files the outage order and switching schedule for at
least the next full calendar year.
There can also be other procedures agreed in advance for the preliminary planning of transmission interruptions in right-of-use bays.

7.1 Planning of individual transmission interruption


In addition to the issues included in the planning of the transmission interruption,
this chapter also contains details relating to the implementation of the interruption.
Transmission interruption planning and risk
assessment must be carried out in co-operation between the various parties so that the
work can be performed safely.
In the planning of the transmission interruption, the goal is to schedule the work
at the same work location so that any work
potentially causing a hazard to the other
work teams takes place in stages at different times during the transmission interruption. These work stages include work done
by one work team above another team.

52 / Fingrid

The remote control of earthing switches which are closed under camera monitoring must be prevented from the controllers, if work requiring controls from the
substation are carried out at the substation in question. This requirement must be
included in the transmission interruption plan and switching schedule.
The regional unit agrees with the person responsible for the work on the scope of
the area to be made dead. The planning process must also take into account the
risk factors affecting the individual work locations within the work area. This is
done by verifying issues such as double-circuit tower sections, known crossings,
and the physical location of equipment.
Work carried out in an electrical installation energised by operating voltage or in
the vicinity of such installation, where the work may jeopardise personal safety
or system security in the event of a work error or equipment failure, includes
inspections from an aircraft, live working and work resembling live working, and
work above an electrical installation energised by operating voltage. Such work
must be planned as carefully as transmission interruptions which require switching operations. The agreed procedures can be recorded in the safety declaration
instead of the outage order. Relay testing always requires an outage order.
When planning the transmission interruption, it
must be ensured that the interruption can be carried out reliably using the switching device in question.
The risk caused by rear feed (e.g. by the connecting party, reserve generators and capacitors) must
also be taken into account in planning.
During the planning of the transmission interruption, the regional unit verifies whether cameramonitored switching can be used. The operating
condition of camera monitoring must be verified
in the same conjunction. Information on the use of
camera monitoring must be recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
During the planning of camera-monitored transmission interruptions, the verification of the status of devices used for disconnection and main earthing must be
taken into account. The verification of the status of switching devices for commissioning purposes must also be taken into account in the planning stage. In transmission interruptions which are critical in view of system security, the holder of the
operating permit is reserved, wherever necessary, to carry out the local switching
operations or to secure them. In other transmission interruptions, such back-up is
used upon discretion. The person who verifies the status of the switching devices
locally must have an operating permit.

53 / Fingrid

A line section of a transmission line is not always unambiguous as a work area,


because the line section may extend to the branching point beyond a disconnector
at a disconnector station. When planning a transmission interruption on a line section, the unambiguous limits of the work area must be agreed in co-operation. The
limits must be recorded in the outage order and safety declaration.
Calculations and analyses ensure sufficient system security. The significant economic risks or system security risks related to an extended transmission interruption must be described to the person responsible for the work. The person responsible for the work must make sure that the schedule is not exceeded. If there is a
risk of exceeding the schedule, some of the planned work must be cut out, or the
transmission interruption must be rescheduled to another time.
In long transmission interruptions
during the winter season, the accumulation of ice on the current
conductors and overhead earth
wires must also be taken into account. Patrols must be used on the
transmission lines, and ice must be
dropped off often enough.
During transmission interruption
planning, the protection changes
must be planned so that electrical
safety and system security are maintained. In order to maintain system security,
action potentially related to network protection must also be verified from the Main
Grid Control Centre. A protection change is carried out if the maintaining of electrical safety requires it or if it is necessary on the basis of system security calculation.
The planning process must take into account the differences in operating voltage
created between the various parts of the grid. Items requiring special precautions, such as locking or adjustment of on-load tap-changers, must be recorded
in the transmission interruption plan.
When one bus at a 110 kV duplex switching station with no bus protection is
energised, operating voltage to the other bus must be connected at the substation at the other end of the line.
The master switch carries out autoreclosing in duplex bays. At new switching
stations, the master selection is automatic. At old stations, the selection is done
locally by means of a switch. The master selection cannot be seen in the operation control system. During the planning of the transmission interruption, the
regional unit takes the needs to change the master selection into account, and
records the necessary issues in the plan. The Main Grid Control Centre takes the
selection changes to the switching schedule.

54 / Fingrid

During the planning of a transmission interruption related to a transformer, the


functioning of protection must also be ensured in terms of neutral point earthing.
The regional unit records in the transmission interruption plan the status changes
concerning neutral point earthing and the switching devices of the neutral point.
In the planning of the disconnection of a transformer or
transmission line, it must be
taken into account that the
neutral point earthing of at
least one transformer must
be at the back side of the protected area when seen from
the line protection, i.e. on the
bus side. If there is no neutral
point earthing in the part of the
grid in question and if no neutral point earthing can be connected there, the protection of
the relevant part of the grid must be agreed with protection experts. The agreed
matters must be recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
Upon discretion, a circuit breaker with operating voltage can be kept open for a
maximum of five hours if the disconnectors are not opened. When making this
discretionary decision, potential damage to the circuit breaker must be taken
into account. Thunder, an aged circuit breaker, or a voltage divider capacitor in
the circuit breaker increase the risk of damage. If the circuit breaker is kept open
for more than five hours, this must be agreed well in advance with the device
specialists. The ratio of the operation risk to a device risk must be assessed
when this is agreed.
A disconnecting circuit breaker can be kept open without a time limit.
The disconnectors of voltage transformers in the main busbars are normally kept
closed. The functioning of protection must be verified if a disconnector needs to
be opened
The main busbar must not be made partly energised or energised by operating
voltage by means of a disconnector, but this must be carried out using a circuit
breaker. If the main busbar needs to be made partly energised or energised by
operating voltage by means of a disconnector, the functioning of protection must
be verified in order to prevent unnecessary tripping.
An ordinary disconnector can be used for opening an auxiliary transformer,
transfer busbar, or less than 7 km long 110 kV open-wire line when these are in
no-load operation. A disconnector can be used for closing when the length of the
radial line does not exceed 50 km.

55 / Fingrid

The opening and closing of a loop connection by means of a disconnector must


be avoided, because it is difficult to estimate the power transmitted through the
disconnector at the switching moment in the planning process, and it is difficult to verify this before implementation. If during planning it is decided that a
loop connection is switched by means of a disconnector, the planning process
must be able to estimate sufficiently accurately the power transmitted through
the disconnector at the switching moment. The power to be cut by means of a
disconnector must be below the opening limit given in the following table. A disconnector can be used for closing when the closing limit given in the table is not
exceeded in the loop line. Before the switching, the switching supervisor must
make sure that the operation situation allows the switching.

A switch disconnector must not be used for opening a loop connection. The
switch disconnectors in Fingrids grid are located so that they can be used for
opening the closest radial lines connected to them. The closing limits of a switch
disconnector are the same as those of an ordinary disconnector.
The transmission interruption plan for the work stage must record all main circuit devices being worked on at a substation, itemised by individual devices.

56 / Fingrid

If the person responsible for


the work requires that the
work team uses its own lockings at disconnection points
or at or main earthing points,
this must be agreed with the
regional unit, and the details must be recorded in
the safety declaration. This
procedure is not allowed in
conjunction with remotecontrolled switching.
The usage requirement of a safety guide at a specific switching station must be
recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
The principles relating to the change of auxiliary operation of a substation must
be recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
When commissioning a part of an electrical installation, the following issues,
among others, must be taken into account in planning:
The commissioning programme drawn up of the commissioning of a new
electrical installation must be ready before the outage order relating to the
commissioning is accepted. The commissioning programme must specify
a pre-agreed switching device which is used for switching on the operating
voltage. The commissioning programme can be agreed to be part of the outage order and switching schedule.
A switching operator is reserved for the commissioning of the new installation.
The need to ensure the correct phase sequence; especially when commissioning a new transmission line or when a new connection point is installed
in a transmission line.
Recommendation concerning a voltage test to be carried out by a circuit
breaker if the work location needs to be energised by operating voltage by
means of a disconnector.
Energising a transmission line by operating voltage usually at a switching
station to which no power plant is connected.

7.1.1 Co-operation between Fingrid and connecting parties


Fingrid and the connecting party are responsible for the work and measures in
their networks respectively. When the transmission interruption also concerns
the connecting party, the work, measures, schedules and responsible persons
must be agreed in co-operation. In terms of Fingrids grid, the regional unit
records in the transmission interruption plan the information which is necessary
in view of safety and system security.

57 / Fingrid

The regional unit and the connecting partys person responsible for operation
may agree on the measures in work where a very small part of the work extends
to the connecting partys area. Such work can be for example the connection of a
branch line. Agreeing on the relevant issues does not change the responsibilities,
and all safety measures must be taken. The agreed procedures must be recorded
in the transmission interruption plan.
The general principles of the planning and implementation of a transmission
interruption to be carried out for the connecting party must be agreed in writing between the regional unit and the connecting partys person responsible for
operation. The details of an individual transmission interruption must be agreed
upon and recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
Immediately before the restoration of operating voltage to the connecting partys
electrical installation, a commissioning permit for this must be obtained. The
permit must be recorded in the switching schedule for the restoration switching.
For the commissioning of a new connection, a person in the regional unit must
be appointed to make sure that the installation fulfils the requirements laid down
by Fingrid.

7.1.2 Prevention of undue tripping in a switching situation


A parallel circuit is opened and closed
using a circuit breaker, if possible.
A replacement switching is carried
out through a shunting disconnector
(4-disconnector) and bus coupler circuit breaker. This creates a parallel
circuit where the currents are normally divided unequally. If the ground
contact protection uses zero current
relays and if the current transformers
are inside the replacement switching,
the asymmetry created can activate
the relay and further trip the circuit
breaker unnecessarily.
Before making the replacement switching or before its restoration, zero current tripping must be prevented through remote control. If there is no remote
control, zero current tripping must be prevented locally or by means of an automation system installed at the substation. The tripping prevention must be removed
after the switching.
In replacement switching cases, the Main Grid Control Centre plans the prevention of zero current tripping and records it in the switching schedule.

58 / Fingrid

When changing an intermediate switching


station from one transmission line to another,
the zero current tripping must be removed
from both ends of the tapped line, if the ends
are provided with zero current relays. The
location of the current transformer does not
prevent the activation of the relay and potential undue tripping.
The regional unit plans in the transmission
interruption plan the removal of locally-controlled zero current tripping and the removal of
zero current tripping in other networks.
If it is necessary to carry out switching contrary to the locking conditions in a
switching station equipped with busbar protection, the tripping of the busbar
protection must be prevented locally in the voltage level in question. The prevention of tripping of the busbar protection must be recorded in the transmission
interruption plan.

7.1.3 Blocking of automatic reclosing


High-speed automatic reclosing and delayed automatic reclosing can be blocked
in order to improve occupational safety or to reduce a risk relating to property.
The principles of their blocking must be agreed in co-operation between the service provider, regional unit and Main Grid Control Centre based on risk assessment. When agreeing on the blocking of automatic reclosing, it must be ensured
that this does not unnecessarily jeopardise system security.
When assessing the risk in the work location, it must be remembered that
despite the blocking of automatic reclosing, the work location is still energised by
operating voltage. The blocking of automatic reclosing only prevents the reconnection of operating voltage.
The blocking of automatic reclosing relating to a transmission interruption need
must be recorded in the transmission interruption plan and also marked in the
switching schedule.

7.1.3.1 Blocking of automatic reclosing so as to improve



occupational safety
The person responsible for the work of the work team and the regional unit must
agree on the principles of blocking of automatic reclosing carried out because
of occupational safety. This must be agreed within the same schedule as normal
transmission interruption planning unless the work requires quicker execution.
The agreed issues must be recorded in the safety declaration. The safety decla-

59 / Fingrid

ration must also contain the telephone numbers through which quick and reliable communications can be established between the work team and the switching supervisor.
The blocking of automatic reclosing can be agreed in conjunction with the following work, among others:
voltage testing of 110400 kV insulator strings
dropping of ice loads from conductors
treatment of border zone of transmission line area by means of
helicopter sawing
other live working and work resembling live working on transmission lines
felling of dangerously tall trees near electrical equipment
maintenance of 110 kV disconnector or earthing switch while it is
energised by operating voltage
repair of corrosion damage in guys
lifting and piling work in the immediate vicinity of transmission lines
when an adjacent line which is energised by operating voltage may
cause a hazard.
The contact person of the work location must agree on the blocking and restoration of automatic reclosing with the switching supervisor on a daily basis. Automatic reclosing must only be blocked for the duration of the actual need.
If the tripping of the line has been
caused by the work team, it must
phone the switching supervisor
immediately.
When automatic reclosing has been
blocked and the line trips, the switching supervisor must contact the work
team immediately and agree on further measures which secure safety.
The line must not be energised by
operating voltage before the work
team has been contacted.

7.1.3.2 Blocking of automatic reclosing for the duration



of operation work
The regional unit records in the transmission interruption plan the blocking of
automatic reclosing for the duration of local control of a disconnector energised
by operating voltage and when connecting or removing portable earthing devices
near parts energised by operating voltage. Automatic reclosing is not normally
blocked in the local control of disconnectors connected to the main busbar.

60 / Fingrid

7.1.3.3 Blocking of automatic reclosing so as to



reduce the risk relating to property
High-speed automatic reclosing must be
blocked if the power plant remains radially in Fingrids grid and the high-speed
automatic reclosing does not have synchrocheck.
Feeding for a 400 kV substation must not
be left to rely on a single transmission
line which uses single-phase high-speed
automatic reclosing. In such a case, the
high-speed automatic reclosing of the line
remaining in operation must be blocked at
each end of the line.
The blocking of single-phase high-speed automatic reclosing changes the tripping to three phases.
The generators of hydropower plants can withstand two-phase operation during single-phase high-speed automatic reclosing. This is why single-phase highspeed automatic reclosing on 220 kV lines in Fingrids grid can be kept in operation even though the hydropower plant only has a single feed line.

7.1.4 Coupling of main busbars by disconnectors in



busbar connections
When the operation of a bay is shifted from one main busbar to another in a
double busbar system, the main busbars must be coupled together during the
switching. The coupling must be carried out using disconnectors which can withstand the load current if the bus coupler circuit breaker opens. When shifting
the feed of several bays, disconnectors in Fingrids transformer bay are primarily used for the coupling. If there is no transformer or if a transformer bay is
not available, the most recommended method is to use the disconnectors in the
capacitor bay. The bus coupler circuit breaker is kept in operation between the
main busbars when controlling a disconnector which couples the main busbars.
By coupling the busbars also by means of the disconnectors, damage caused by
the potential erroneous tripping of the bus coupler circuit breaker can be prevented. The main busbar must not be switched dead by means of a disconnector
or by means of a transformer bay disconnector. The main busbar can be switched
dead by means of a bus coupler circuit breaker. If there is no bus coupler circuit
breaker available, the functioning of protection must be ascertained in advance
individually in each case. The above procedure is also applied if the busbars must
be coupled together and the bus coupler circuit breaker needs to be disconnected
from operation between the busbars.

61 / Fingrid

In switching relating to the main busbar, when the busbars are coupled together rigidly, it must be ensured in planning that the controllers of the on-load tap-changers
work correctly. The necessary procedures are recorded in the substation manual.

7.1.5 Need to bypass series compensation in switching



relating to a transformer
At substations where all connecting 400 kV lines use series
compensation, the differential
relay of the transformer may
trip unduly, when the transformer is energised by the 400
kV busbars of the substation.
Unnecessary tripping can be
prevented by bypassing the series compensation in the lowest power transmission on the
line connected to the substation in question for the duration of the operation work. This
must be recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
There is a possibility of undue tripping also if a reactor is connected to an energised transformer at a series-compensated substation. The tripping can occur
when the low-voltage side of the transformer is not in use and the substation
does not have another 400 kV transformer. Because of this, the automatic reactor
control system of the substation must be disabled in such a switching situation.
If the transformer subject to the switching trips despite the bypassing of one series compensation, the principles of the disturbance and fault clearing guideline
of the transformer must be followed. This is done even though the tripping may
be caused by a small short-circuit power of the substation. If it is decided that the
switching on the transformer is continued, the series compensation of another
line connected to the substation must also be bypassed.

7.1.6 Switching concerning compensating devices


Before switching off a compensating device, it must be switched to manual control by separating it from regional voltage control and/or local voltage control.
This is planned and implemented by the switching supervisor.
If occupational safety so requires, the switching on of the overvoltage relay
which controls the reactors and the switching on of the undervoltage relay
which controls the capacitors must be prevented. This must be recorded in

62 / Fingrid

the transmission interruption plan and in the switching schedule. The substation manual contains an instruction for local implementation.
The main earthing of a bridging condenser can be carried out at the permission
of the switching supervisor after the charge of the condenser has released. If the
release time is not known, a guard time of 15 minutes must be used.
A series capacitor must be disconnected in accordance with the capacitor
manufacturers instructions. The main earthing can be carried out immediately after disconnection. Platform earthing must be connected in accordance with the device manufacturers manual. Unless otherwise stated in the
manual, a guard time of 15 minutes must be used. If the platform earthing
is switched by a switching operator, the switching must be recorded in the
transmission interruption plan and switching schedule.
A series capacitor must be in by-pass when a transmission line is being energised by operating voltage.
The work team must plan and connect the earthing in the neutral point of
reactors and bridging condensers.

7.2 Expedited transmission interruption planning


The goal is to take all transmission interruptions to execution through normal
advance planning.
Compelling maintenance work can be planned within an expedited planning process.
From the point of view of planning and execution, a simple transmission interruption can be planned within an expedited planning process in the following
situations:
an unexpected easing of the operation situation supports an earlier
execution of a troublesome transmission interruption
the request concerns a right-of-use bay and a connecting partys
radial line
the use of service providers resources and work costs gives benefits.
If the transmission interruption is expedited, this must not jeopardise occupational safety, and system security must be maintained at least the same at all
times.
The regional unit verifies from the work teams, Main Grid Control Centre, connecting parties and switching operators that the transmission interruption can be
carried out at the desired time. The regional unit makes a transmission interruption suggestion, which the Main Grid Control Centre approves, and the Main Grid
Control Centre draws up a switching schedule on the basis of the suggestion.

63 / Fingrid

8 DRAWING UP OF SWITCHING SCHEDULE

switching schedule is drawn up of switching operations of which an outage


order has been made, and of restoration switching following fault repairs.
Time permitting, a switching schedule is also drawn up of switching operations
relating to disturbance clearing.
The Main Grid Control Centre draws up the
switching schedule on the basis of the information contained in the outage order and potential commissioning programme. The switching
schedule is drawn up for the operation situation
of the time of implementation.
If the transmission interruption involves a connecting party, the separate switching schedules must be adapted together in co-operation
so that they work together.
The switching schedule is primarily drawn up
separately for starting switching and restoration switching. The goal is to plan the switching schedule so that the control measures can
be performed in the sequence conforming to
the switching schedule and in a manner which
facilitates the work of switching operators.
Another person at the Main Grid Control Centre verifies the switching schedule.
If the transmission interruption involves several switching schedules, the network operators are responsible for the correctness of their own portion.
If it has been recorded in the outage order that the transmission interruption limits
transmissions, this information must also be recorded in the switching schedule.
The switching schedule is distributed sufficiently in advance; however, at least
two work days before implementation unless otherwise agreed in writing. The
Main Grid Control Centre is responsible for the sufficient distribution of the
switching schedule.

8.1 Starting and finishing switching for the work


Switching on and off must primarily be carried out using a circuit breaker. The
circuit breakers, earthing switches and disconnectors must be remote-controlled wherever possible.

64 / Fingrid

In all disconnection points, there must


be a sufficient air gap or corresponding
isolation. The disconnection devices
must have a visible clearance between
open contacts, reliable mechanical
position indication, or their reliable
functioning must be verifiable in some
other manner.
The work location must be disconnected
from operating voltage by opening the
disconnector, disconnecting circuit
breaker or the jumpers. In switching
relating to transmission lines and transformers and in replacement switching,
the disconnectors of the main busbar
must also be opened.
The goal in the planning of the switching
schedule is that the first main earthing
is carried out by means of an earthing
switch.
The connection and removal of each main earthing must be entered in the switching schedule on their own rows. The verification of no operating voltage must be
recorded as additional information relating to the connection of main earthing. The
work teams that receive the work preparation permit from the switching supervisor and that give the commissioning permit must also be entered in the switching
schedule on their own lines for each work stage. In the implementation of switching, the name and contact details of the contact person must be verified from the
safety declaration.
The visual inspection of an item which will be energised by operating voltage at a
switching station must be recorded in the switching schedule. This inspection must
be performed by the switching operator or the switching supervisor by camera
monitoring.

8.2 Switching concerning transformers


When switching off a transformer, the reactors and on-load tap-changers must
be switched to manual control by separating them from regional voltage control
and/or local voltage control. An on-load tap-changer must be switched to manual
operation also when only a 110 kV circuit breaker of a transformer is opened.
When making a transformer partly energised, the reactor circuit breakers are
opened first and then the circuit breaker on the medium-voltage side of the main
circuit before the circuit breaker on the high-voltage side.

65 / Fingrid

When energising a transformer by operating voltage, the circuit breaker on the


high-voltage side of the main circuit is closed first. Before closing the circuit
breaker on the medium-voltage side of the main circuit, the position of the onload tap-changer must correspond to the voltage on the medium-voltage side.
The reactors can be connected to the grid after the circuit breaker on the highvoltage side of the main circuit is closed.
When energising several 110/20 kV transformers by operating voltage at the
same time, the protection may trip a circuit breaker unnecessarily. The tripped
circuit breaker can be other than a connectable circuit breaker. If an unnecessary
tripping has occurred, the best way is to reduce the number of transformers to
be connected.

8.3 Prevention of connection of operating voltage



to the work area
The connection of operating voltage to the work locations is prevented by means
of disconnectors and main earthing. Moreover, the switching devices must be
locked, marked and equipped with control prevention.

8.3.1 Camera-monitored switching


In camera-monitored switching locations, the disconnectors, earthing switches
and local workstation or the control panel are provided with signs prohibiting
local control. The local control of disconnectors and earthing switches has been
prevented by locking the controllers to the remote control position by means of
separate mechanical locks.
In camera-monitored switching, the prevention of the connection of operating
voltage also employs the control prevention of the operation monitoring system.
Its device-specific implementation and removal must be recorded in the switching schedule. For the duration of control prevention, the operation control system
must be provided with a comment concerning the identification of the outage
order and the name abbreviation of the person serving as the switching supervisor.
The switching schedules of camera-monitored switching must be provided with
those switching devices whose status must be verified by the holder of the operating permit at the switching supervisors request.
If controls need to be performed from a local workstation, the remote control of
substation earthing switches which have been closed under camera monitoring
must be prevented from the controllers.
In camera-monitored switching, the switching schedule is distributed in advance
also to those substation work teams which are to verify the status or functioning
of the switching devices on the basis of the outage order.

66 / Fingrid

8.3.2 Switching by switching operator


Disconnectors and earthing switches
which have been opened and closed
in order to secure the electrical safety
of the work location must be provided
with signs prohibiting control, and
locked. A disconnecting circuit breaker
must be locked at the device individually by each phase unless the device
can be reliably locked from the central controller. The lockings, markings
and their removal must be recorded in
the switching schedule individually for
each device.

8.4 Ferro-resonance
Ferro-resonance is a type of resonance which may arise in conjunction with
switching between an iron-core inductance, usually a magnetic voltage transformer, and capacitance.
Ferro-resonance can be detected by alarms, vaguely oscillating operating voltage measurement, or as a local auditory perception.
In magnetic voltage transformers, ferro-resonance is damped by means of a
reducing resistance connected to an open delta. Capacitive voltage transformers have a built-in damping circuit for ferro-resonance. However, a reducing
resistance or damping circuit does not necessarily prevent the creation of ferroresonance.
Long-term ferro-resonance may cause overvoltage in the electrical installation,
functioning of residual voltage relay, and overheating and damage of the voltage
transformer.

8.4.1 Making 400 kV busbars partly energised


Ferro-resonance may arise at 400 kV switching stations between the voltage
divider capacitors of open circuit breakers and the voltage transformer.
This is why the process of making the busbars partly energised is started by first
opening the circuit breaker in each bay and then the disconnectors of the bay.
Then the work proceeds to the next bay.

67 / Fingrid

An alarm of ferro-resonance
is obtained from the voltage
relay of the residual voltage
winding of the busbar voltage transformer. If there is
an alarm, the circuit breaker
which has been opened most
recently must be closed quickly. After this, try to open the
same circuit breaker again,
because the occurrence of
ferro-resonance is a statistical phenomenon. Immediately
after the opening of the circuit
breaker, open the selector
switch disconnector of the bay
in question.
The best way of making the busbars partly energised is to do it by the circuit
breaker of the substation at the other end of the line.

8.4.2 Switching in 110 kV busbars


Ferro-resonance may arise at a 110 kV switching station in no-load operation if it
is fed by a transformer whose 110 kV neutral point has not been earthed.
When the resonance is created, the residual voltage rises in the open delta,
whereby the residual voltage relay connected to the open delta usually trips the
110 kV circuit breaker of the transformer. In this case, the relay sends an alarm
of its functioning. If there is no tripping and ferro-resonance is detected, the
switching supervisor must open the 110 kV circuit breaker of the transformer.
Before the switching continues, it must be deliberated whether the transformer
can be earthed through an inductor or whether a line in no-load operation can be
connected to the busbar before operating voltage is supplied again.

68 / Fingrid

9 IMPLEMENTATION OF SWITCHING

witching is executed on the basis of the outage order, switching schedules


and safety declarations. It must be remembered that the times given in the
above documents are suggestive and that operation work is performed at the
switching supervisors permission.

9.1 Switching which has not been planned in advance


In all switching requiring quick action, the switching supervisor can carry out the
planning, decisions and implementation.
In order to prevent danger to life and considerable damage to property, the necessary switching procedures must be carried out without delay but with deliberation and, if necessary, by negotiating on the measures required. The available means, such as camera monitoring, must be used wherever possible for
ascertaining the damage and for the selection and verification of the necessary
measures. Circumstances permitting, normal switching planning methods must
be used. A skilled person is usually called in to the relevant location to assess the
situation and to perform the necessary safety measures.
If there is a threat of equipment damage, the likelihood of damage, the availability
of the network, and the impacts and costs of various alternatives are assessed.
The Main Grid Control Centre makes the decision on the action taken.

9.2 Switching supervision


The switching supervisor serves as the person responsible for operation in the
switching supervised by him/her.
In operation work in Fingrids grid, the Main Grid Control Centre serves as the
switching supervisor. In local switching in medium-voltage and low-voltage
installations, the regional unit decides the switching supervisor if status information on the installation is not transferred to the operation control system. The
switching supervisor selected is recorded in the transmission interruption plan.
If so agreed in advance in writing, the connecting party can also serve as the
switching supervisor when switching only takes place in Fingrids one bay and
the outage order does not involve an outage need by Fingrid. In these cases, the
switching schedule must be delivered sufficiently in advance to be checked by
the Main Grid Control Centre, and the starting of implementation must be agreed
with the Main Grid Control Centre before the switching moment.
In camera-monitored switching, the switching supervisor verifies in the preceding day that camera monitoring is available.

69 / Fingrid

Before the switching begins, the switching supervisor must become carefully
familiar with the switching schedule
and make sure that the switching
schedule is correctly drawn up and
applicable to the operation situation.
Before the start of the switching, the
switching supervisor verifies that
switching operators whom the switching supervisor does not know have
operating permits.
The switching supervisor must suspend work directly concerning a busbar at the
switching station and, upon discretion in each individual case, all other work if
operation work is performed at the switching station.
The switching supervisor supervises the switching in accordance with a switching schedule drawn up in advance. During the switching, the switching supervisor communicates with the switching operator and, if necessary, with the switching supervisors of other electrical installations. Before starting the switching,
the switching supervisor must make sure that the switching operator has the
most recent version of the switching schedule.
Switching and other operations must be performed in accordance with the
switching schedule and in the sequence stated in the schedule. The switching
work can deviate from the sequence stated in the switching schedule at the
switching supervisors permission, if the risks do not increase based on a risk
assessment contemplated by the switching supervisor.
Any changes concerning the control sequence of primary equipment during
implementation must be agreed in advance with all switching operators and connecting parties participating in the switching. If the change can affect the safety
of a work team or someone else, the changes must also be agreed with these.
Switching changes affecting safety must be updated in the switching schedule,
and it must be checked before continuing the switching.
The switching supervisor must verify from the switching operator that the circuit
breaker functions. This must be done before controlling disconnectors. If there is
no switching operator, the verification must be made on the basis of the control
systems.
A synchroniser or synchrocheck must be used in the closing of circuit breakers
when this is possible. If the network parts are in loop operation or if operating voltage is being connected to the location, the synchroniser or synchrocheck
device can prevent closing. In this case, the device can be bypassed.

70 / Fingrid

The switching work must take into


account the differences in operating
voltage created between the various
parts of the grid. An adverse change
in voltage resulting from the switching
should be prevented for example by the
locking of on-load tap-changers or by
means of adjustment measures.
The switching supervisor is responsible
for the connection and removal of main
earthing.
The switching supervisor must remind the switching operator to choose in the
upcoming remote controls a safe location sufficiently close to the controlled item.
A sequence carried out must be struck out in the switching schedule.
In the case of unambiguous entities, the switching supervisor may give the switching operator a permission to perform several operations consecutively in the sequence stated in the switching schedule. Safety and system security must not be
compromised by this procedure. The switching supervisor must monitor the progress of the measures performed.
Alarms activated during the switching must be cleared before the switching continues.
If some control does not work when controlling a disconnector or earthing switch,
the control signal must be deactivated at the switching supervisors order by cutting the locking electricity of the device and the bay-specific control electricity.
The switching devices must have been locked and marked before the work preparation permit is given.
The switching supervisor must record the times of given work preparation permits
and received commissioning permits in the switching schedule.
The switching supervisor must keep up to date the locations which are updated
manually in the operation control system.

9.3 Communications during switching



between different parties
When carrying out the switching, Fingrids switching supervisor is responsible for
communications with the switching operators and work teams working on Fingrids
grid as well as with the switching supervisors of parties connected to Fingrids grid.

71 / Fingrid

Communications between Fingrid and the


connecting parties may
differ in operations relating to service agreements just as long as
deviating communications have been agreed.

9.4 Local switching


The safe implementation of local switching and the necessary number of switching
operators must be planned in advance and, if necessary, agreed with the regional
unit. If the planning process has resulted in the use of one switching operator and
the switching operator considers it safer to use two switching operators, the relevant procedures must be agreed with the person responsible for the work.
The use of two switching operators is recommended when portable main earthing devices need to be connected in difficult places.
In Fingrids grid, the switching operator carries out the local switching under the
supervision and at the request of the switching supervisor. When carrying out
the switching procedures, there should be constant communications between
the switching operator and the switching supervisor. The switching operator is
recommended to use a hands-free device connected to a mobile phone
If a circuit breaker needs to be controlled from a local controller, this must be
agreed with the switching supervisor. In this case, the following issues need to
be taken into account:
when closing a circuit breaker against a fault, the acceleration and
automatic reclosing blocking functions of the protection are not in use
when switching on a circuit breaker provided with a so-called throw-over
memory relay, automatic reclosings are not activated
automatic reclosings must be blocked for the duration of circuit breaker control.
If a disconnector or an earthing switch needs to be controlled from the device in
an indoor gas-insulated switching station, the locking conditions do not apply.

72 / Fingrid

9.4.1 Making preparations for local switching


The substation manual contains details relating to the implementation of local
switching.
The switching operator must become familiar with the switching schedule and
outage order in advance. Before the switching, the switching operator must also
become familiar with the switchgear to be switched and, if necessary, request
for further specifications and details from the switching supervisor. If the switching operator has not received the switching schedule in advance, the switching
supervisor and the switching operator must go through the switching schedule
before the beginning of implementation.
The switching operator must report to the switching supervisor by telephone
when the switching operator arrives at the switching station. This telephone call
is also used for agreeing on the preparatory measures and on the time when the
switching begins. Before starting the switching, the switching supervisor must
contact the switching operator and verify that no other persons are present in the
switching station where the switching will be performed. The switching operators must make sure that other persons leave the switching zone for the duration
of the switching work.

If safety aspects so allow, the switching operator can do the following in order to
ensure fluent switching:
fasten the earth connectors of
portable earthing devices in advance
check the condition of the switching
devices and busbars visually before the
switching
in advance, lock and mark such switching devices that are specified in the
switching schedule and whose status
will not be changed during the switching
if necessary, outline the work area
before or after the switching.

9.4.2 Implementation of local switching


The switching operator must be prepared for the post insulator of the disconnector breaking when controlling the disconnector. The breaking risk is higher
in those disconnector types where the structure of the main contacts is heavy.
When controlling a disconnector locally, the starting and finishing movement
of control should be slow. In this way, the starting and stopping forces inflict a
smaller stress on the post insulators.

73 / Fingrid

Before the local control of a disconnector located on a transmission line which


has been made partly energised, it is recommended that the switching operator
verifies its voltage status, if this can be done from the ground.

A fault or shortcoming detected


in the switching schedule must
be corrected together with those
participating in the switching.

If the switching operator suspects or discovers something that may prevent the
execution or continuation of the switching,
the switching operator must inform the
switching supervisor of this. These events
may include personal danger, damage to
the equipment, or device malfunction. Further measures must be agreed with the
switching supervisor.

When carrying out a switching at a switching station, each individual relevant


controller must be locked and marked. Locking recorded in the switching schedule also means local prevention of remote control, and the removal of locking
also means the restoration of the controller to the remote control position unless
otherwise stated.
The switching operator does not need to mark his/her name and date in the prohibition signs without a separate request. A lock which prevents the control of
a switching device inside a fenced substation can be replaced with a cable tie
unless otherwise agreed.
Moreover, the following issues must be taken into account in local switching:
The switching operator must ensure the correct functioning of the
switching device.
An operating sequence carried out must be struck out in the switching
schedule.
The switching operator must consider the impact of the operation
work to be carried out.

74 / Fingrid

Whenever possible, the switching operator and the switching operators


assistant must stay in such places within the switching zone where
erroneous or failed control does not cause an extra safety risk.
In remote control, the switching operators must leave the immediate
vicinity of the device controlled, and in indoor air-insulated switching
stations, it is recommended that they leave the switching station facility.
When controlling a circuit breaker in remote control, the switching operator
must not be closer than 60 metres closer to the circuit breaker if there is no
protective structure between the circuit breaker and the operator.
If a disconnector does not close completely, it must not be reopened to
attempt a new closing without the switching supervisors permission.
Correcting a malfunction in the contact of a disconnector energised by
operating voltage by means of an insulating pole requires the use of live
working procedures.
In a gas-insulated switching station, the status of a switching device can
be verified from the mechanical position indicator if verification is not safe
or reasonably possible using some other method.
The status of a disconnecting circuit breaker is verified from a reliable
mechanical position indicator.
The switching device should be locked and marked immediately after the
switching device has been controlled. If this is not done, the locking and
marking must be carried out promptly, and their completion must be communicated to the switching supervisor. The switching devices must have
been locked and marked before the work preparation permit is given.
The remote control of remote-controlled switching devices which have
been marked to be locked must be prevented from the controller.

The switching operator must verify


the correct functioning of a circuit
breaker at the switching station.

The communications between the


switching supervisor and the switching operator must be understandable
and precise. Correct understanding
requires that the receiver repeats the
order given or the notification made.

75 / Fingrid

9.4.3 Safety guide of disconnector


The safety guide of a disconnector comprises a semi-circular additional guide
installed in the manual controller for the duration of control, and a rope attached
to the additional guide. In this way, the disconnector can be controlled farther away
from the disconnector so as to reduce the mechanical and electric hazards to the
switching operator. The safety guide cannot be used in all disconnector controllers.
The use of the safety guide is especially recommended when controlling a disconnector energised by operating voltage. The use of the safety guide is mandatory with separately specified items. In this case, this is mentioned in the outage
order and switching schedule.
Before the actual use of the safety guide, the operators must be given instruction
in its use, including practical training.

9.5 Remote-monitored switching


In remote-controlled and remote-monitored disconnection points, the status
information on the devices is forwarded to the switching supervisor using a technique which is reliable in terms of electrical safety. There is no need for a switching operator in such cases if unintentional control at the disconnection point has
been prevented and all other necessary safety precautions have been ensured.
For the duration of the work, the switching supervisor prevents the remote control of disconnectors and earthing switches at the disconnection point from the
operation control system.
Before the switching begins, the switching supervisor must ensure, as far as
possible, that there are no persons within the switching zone. Any persons in the
vicinity must be warned about the upcoming switching, and the need to suspend
the work must be agreed with them.

76 / Fingrid

9.5.1 Camera monitoring


In locations which have been accepted as
remote-controlled locations to be monitored
by camera, it is not necessary to use a switching operator to secure the all-pole functioning
of remote-controlled devices.
In locations which have not been accepted
as remote-controlled locations to be monitored by camera, emergency and disturbance
switching can be performed without direct
backup by a switching operator. The status of
the switching devices must be verified as soon
as the situation permits.
The reliable disconnected position of a disconnecting circuit breaker must be verified
from the status data on the device and from
the contact data on the earthing switch.
If camera monitoring does not provide reliable
information on the status of a device which is
necessary in view of electrical work safety or if the device does not work, the
switching can continue when the holder of the operating permit has verified that
the device has the correct status or that the device has been repaired.
If the switching is suspended, the switching situation must be left to an as safe
and secure state as possible. All parties concerned must be informed of the delay
in the switching.

9.5.2 Reliable position indication in an earthing switch


If an earthing switch has a position indication which is reliable in terms of electrical safety, the work location can be separated and provided with main earthing in
remote control without the local verification of the all-pole functioning of disconnectors and earthing switches. However, their functioning must be verified in the
following cases:
a disconnector or earthing switch relating to the switching sends a
neutral position signal or error signal
no closed signal is received from an earthing switch after the switching
there is an earth fault alarm or disconnector fault alarm in the direct
current system during the switching.
In restoration switching, the functioning of disconnectors must be verified in situ.

77 / Fingrid

9.6 Execution of restoration switching


The purpose of restoration switching is, after the work is complete, to
restore the status of the network to
the status which has been agreed in
advance. Restoration switching can
start only after the switching supervisor
has received commissioning permits
from all own work teams working on
the transmission interruption in question and from the switching supervisors of other electrical installations.
The switching supervisor supervises
the switching in accordance with a
switching schedule drawn up in advance. During the switching, the switching
supervisor communicates with the switching operator and with the switching
supervisors of other electrical installations whenever necessary.
The main earthing must be removed in accordance with the switching schedule
at the switching supervisors permission. The all-pole opening of an earthing
switch must be ensured.
The switching operator must remove and/or change the markings and restrictions
which relate to the safety of the work area and which are in Fingrids responsibility
in accordance with the switching schedule or other assignment received.
In commissioning, the switching supervisor can use surveillance cameras to check
the safety and system security of an item to be energised by operating voltage.
When energising a part of the electrical installation by operating voltage, the following issues must be ensured:
all parties are ready for commissioning
the connection of operating voltage to the connecting party must be
agreed before the switching
the main, additional and auxiliary earthing has been removed
the commissioning inspection has been carried out
the operating switches are in the correct positions
sufficient safety markings during the work, indicating that the installation
is energised or dead, are up to date.
if the phase sequence is found to be incorrect on the basis of measurement,
the phase sequence must be measured again after correction.
The switching operator must report to the regional unit all faults and shortcomings detected during commissioning, such as incorrect phase sequences.

78 / Fingrid

10 EXECUTION OF TRANSMISSION

INTERRUPTION AND OTHER WORK

ll work to be performed within the work area and all matters influencing
safety must be agreed upon in advance.

The other work teams and functions at the work location must be taken into
account in the planning and execution of the work so as to maintain safety. The
essential solutions related to the co-ordination of work must be recorded. If the
various work assignments have not been adapted together in advance, it must
be done before a new work begins. Measures, whose safety cannot be ensured,
must be prohibited while adapting the work assignments together.
When arriving at the work location, the work team must verify that the work
location is correct, and the contact person of the work location must report to the
switching supervisor in order to obtain the work preparation permit.
When the work is suspended for example for the night, the work team must contact
the switching supervisor and agree on the state in which the work is left, unless the
state has been agreed in the outage order. This includes for example work that progresses through intermediate switching from one bay to another or work whose
agreed readiness for commissioning requires measures from the work team.

10.1 Ensuring that the work location is dead and safe


The work team must make sure that it is working in the correct work location,
and supervise safety in the work location continuously. When assessing the safety
of working, the impact of surrounding circumstances must also be taken into
account.
Before starting the work or before continuing the work after a suspension, the
work team must verify reliably that the work location is dead. The presence of no
voltage on a transmission line must be verified whenever moving from one tower
to another. Operating voltage detectors can be used for ensuring that there is no
operating voltage at the work location. Only additional earthing at the work location
ensures that the work location is dead. The person giving the work permit must
tell the work team how and when it must be verified that the work location is dead.
There may be electrical installations controlled by other parties in the work area.
Their hazards must also be taken into account, and the necessary action must
be agreed.
If it is noticed that work, whose adaptation to the other work is not certain, is performed in the vicinity of the work location, the new risk factors must be assessed,
and an agreement on safe procedures must be reached.

79 / Fingrid

Heavy rain or thick fog can impair


visibility and restrict working, and
prevent for example live working
or the use of some other working
method.

When a thunder front is approaching, it is necessary to interrupt


work on such electrical installations where thunder-related hazardous voltages or the explosion of
substation equipment are possible.

Dangerously heavy wind complicates working and may endanger


the safety of the work area for example when working in a forest.
Impaired visibility may also result
in a need to connect new additional
earthing.

A very low temperature may weaken the strength of materials and


reliability of tools.

80 / Fingrid

10.2 Marking a work area which is in the



responsibility of the work team
The markings made by the work team or the monitoring of the work location by
the work team supplement the markings and specifications made by the operation function.
Based on its risk assessment, the work team must install markings which clarify
the work location and enhance its safety. Instead of the markings, the monitoring
of a dangerous work location can be used for example in work carried out at a
high elevation.
The person responsible for the work or the electrical safety supervisor is responsible for having the markings of the work team installed, maintained and removed.
Such switching devices other than ones being worked on, located within the work
area, which can be controlled incorrectly locally during the work because of the
location of the controller, must be marked visibly by the work team.

10.3 Electric locking of disconnectors


Most of the substations in Fingrids grid are equipped with the electric locking
of disconnectors. In order to maintain safety and system security, the goal is to
keep the electric locking system of a switching station in use also during extensive work as comprehensively as possible. If operation work, testing of remote
operation signal or operating tests of switching devices need to be carried out at
the switching station in question while the electric locking system is not in use,
the regional unit and the person responsible for the work must agree, if necessary, on the following issues in the safety declaration:
conditions and restrictions for the presence of personnel,
required by safety
sufficient prevention of remote control of disconnectors and
earthing switches.

10.4 Moving at substations


When arriving at a substation, an SMS message indicates the work teams working there. Those who have arrived and reported at the area earlier are also informed of the work teams arriving there.
If the substation gate is provided with a sign indicating a construction site, the
work team which has received an access pass by means of the SMS notification
procedure must report to the person mentioned on the sign. If there is no sign,
the work team which has received an access pass must report to all the work
teams specified in the return SMS message. In conjunction with such reporting,

81 / Fingrid

the procedures that ensure the safe working of all parties must be reviewed or
agreed. Repeated reporting at the same work location is not needed if there have
not been essential changes to the content of work of the arriving work team or to
the risk factors caused by such work.

The substation gate must be


kept locked, if there are parts
with operating voltage or induced voltage or the clients
devices or equipment within
the fence.
The work teams must agree
mutually on the locking of the
gate.
Service roads should primarily be used when moving within switching stations.
Vehicles must be driven in the middle of the service roads so as to maintain the
safety distances. The permitted vehicle height on service roads is indicated by
traffic signs. The height indicated by a traffic sign must not be exceeded without an
examination and supervision by a skilled person in electrical engineering. When
moving elsewhere, the transport must not go above the bottom surface of the
insulator.
If damage, such as a broken post insulator, is detected or suspected at a switching station, the dangerous area must be marked or outlined and, if necessary,
access to the damage site must be prevented. The damage must be reported to
the Main Grid Control Centre without delay.
Alarm from the burglar alarm system must be prevented locally when arriving
at the substation building. The work teams must agree mutually that the last
person leaving the substation activates the burglar alarm.
The substation journal is used for recording concise and comprehensive descriptions of events at the substation for potential later analysis.
The substation-specific site card indicates the essential safety aspects at the
switching station.

82 / Fingrid

10.5 General order and cleanliness


Unnecessary storage of goods and tools within the substation area, inside the
substation building and on the right-of-way must be avoided.
Outside working hours, machinery and vehicles must be left in locations where
they are of no inconvenience.


The work team must make sure that the substation area, the substation building and the right-of-way are clean after the work is complete.

10.6 Work location with danger of explosion


In work locations involving a danger of explosion, no work must be started before
the circumstances have been made safe. If the danger of explosion cannot be
eliminated by means of ventilation of the space or other procedures, the work
must be carried out using a safe method. For example sufficient safety distances,
non-sparking tools and protective clothing designed for the type of work must be
used in the work.

10.7 SF6 gas leak


The SF6 gas, or sulphur hexafluoride, is an incombustible, colourless, odourless
and tasteless gas which is considerably heavier than air and which replaces oxygen in high concentrations. It is hazardous to inhale SF6 gas.
A small portion of the SF6 gas is disintegrated in the high temperatures created
by an electric arc. Together with evaporating metals and insulation materials,
both gaseous and solid by-products, so-called switching dust, is created. When a
circuit breaker is opened or it becomes damaged, these disintegration products
absorb moisture from the air, forming erosive acids such as hydrogen fluoride.
When handling SF6 gas and its disintegration products, protection for people,
materials and the environment must be arranged.

83 / Fingrid

When the gas pressure of an SF6 circuit breaker has come down to the SF6 leak
alarm (SF6-vuoto hlytt) limit:
switching on (closing) of transformer, line and busbar circuit breakers
is prevented
the circuit breaker of a compensating device is switched off and
switching on is prevented.
During the guarantee period of an SF6 circuit breaker, both switching on and
switching off are prevented when the gas pressure has come down to the SF6
leak alarm limit.
If a gas leak is suspected in an indoor switching station, safety must be ensured
by means of a gas contamination indicator installed in the facility. If gas is
detected, persons must leave the building immediately. High gas concentrations may cause suffocation or loss of mobility or consciousness. These
may take place without advance warning. Before entering a gas leak facility,
sufficient ventilation must be applied.

10.8 Needs for changes during the work


After the starting of work,
the contact person of the
work location must immediately contact the switching
supervisor if a work related
to the outage order is delayed or changed, or if new
needs for work emerge. It is
the duty of the switching supervisor to negotiate further
with the other parties concerning the changes relating to the schedule or work.
The matters agreed must be
communicated to the parties concerned, and the necessary documents must be
updated.

84 / Fingrid

11 LIVE WORKING

he decision on performing some


work stage as live working is made
by the person responsible for the
work together with the regional unit.
A work can be performed as live
working if there is an accepted work
method for it and the personnel carrying out the work have sufficient
professional proficiency and methodspecific training to carry out the work.
The regional unit and the persons
responsible for the work must make
sure that live working is planned as
carefully as transmission interruptions.

Work on conductors that are not provided with additional earthing in accordance with this instruction always
calls for live working guidelines. The
guidelines must also pay attention to
safe access to and from the conductors. When leaving the vicinity of parts
with operating voltage, the switching
sequence of the additional earthing
device must be taken into account.

85 / Fingrid

12 FIRE PROTECTION AND RESCUE IN



ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

n rescue or fire-fighting work, the starting point is to make the hazardous electrical equipment dead and to provide the item with earthing. In some operation
situations, this is not the best solution in terms of system security and slowness
of rescue work. In these situations, the leader of the rescue operations and the
switching supervisor must agree on the conditions for continued rescue and firefighting efforts.
The possibility of fire must be taken into account in all situations, and preparations for first-aid extinguishing must be made. The work must be performed so
that instructions and regulations concerning hot work are followed. Flammable
materials and objects must be placed or stored so that they do not catch fire easily and promote the spreading of fire.

The substations are equipped with


first-aid extinguishing equipment. In
hot work at substations and in transmission line work, the work teams
must be prepared for first-aid extinguishing in accordance with the work.

A sufficient number of persons must


be given instruction in the use of extinguishers, considering the work
location. The instruction must be
repeated at suitable intervals. The
safety distances must be taken into
account when using extinguishers.

The substations are equipped with basic first-aid equipment. In transmission line
work, the work teams must have sufficient first-aid equipment.
The basic training of rescue personnel includes instruction in the safety principles of rescue operations in the vicinity of electrical installations. The regional
unit must instruct rescue personnel in the circumstances of the substation
environment.

86 / Fingrid

12.1 Safety of rescue operations


When the switching supervisor is informed of a rescue operation, communications
with the leader of the rescue operation must be agreed so as to assess the situation and, if necessary, to localise the rescue location. Sufficient communications
and principles agreed specifically for each location ensure the safety of rescue personnel, swift progress of rescue operations, and that the functioning of the power
system is not compromised unnecessarily.
When assessing the risk factors, it must be remembered that heat and dense
smoke exerted on electrical equipment or conductors energised by operating voltage increase the risk of disruptive discharge. At substations, the risk of pace voltages caused by disruptive discharge is smaller than on transmission lines because
of the earthing network of substations.
If there is an accident, emergency
assistance must be called immediately and first aid must be given
to the injured person.
The person giving first aid must
make sure that he/she does not
come in danger.
The switching supervisor must
make sure that a skilled person in
electrical engineering is called to
the site.
In rescue operations where there is
a danger to life and where making
the installation partially energised
causes interruptions in electricity
supply or considerable deterioration of system security, the switching supervisor must inform the
leader of the rescue operations of
the risk factors caused. The goal is
to agree jointly on the necessary
action so that the overall risk factors are minimised. The leader of the rescue
operations is given the ultimate power of decision also when it comes to making
the electrical installation partially energised.
Rescue operations requiring climbing can only be performed at the permission
or under the supervision of a skilled person in electrical engineering.

87 / Fingrid

Unearthed conductors and conducting parts in contact with them (such as vehicles)
must not be touched before a skilled person has connected additional earthing and
before the switching supervisor has given a permission to the rescue operation.
In the event of damage to towers, guys or conductors, the structures may exhibit
very dangerous mechanical stresses and pulling forces, which must be considered
in the rescue operations. The access of outsiders to the vicinity of damaged line
structures must be prevented.
When there is a fire under a transmission line, the sag of the conductors may become dangerously great, causing a mechanical or electrical risk factor.
In communications conducted with the leader of the rescue operations, the term
earthed (maadoitettu) means a situation where the rescue area is dead.
In communications conducted with the leader of the rescue operations, the term
unearthed (maadoittamaton) means a situation where the rescue area is partially
energised or energised by induced voltage. In urgent rescue operations, the switching supervisor can give the leader of the rescue operations, based on the location
of main earthing, a permission to follow smaller than normal minimum distances.
In communications conducted with the leader of the rescue operations, the term
energised (jnnitteinen) means a situation where the rescue area is energised by
operating voltage.

12.1.1 Action at a substation


Rescue personnel can go inside the
substation fence when supervised by
a skilled person or if the rescue personnel have been instructed in advance in moving and working inside
the fence.
Outdoors, a safety distance of 20 metres must be kept to the fire if the
smoke and heat caused by the fire
extend to such parts of the electrical
installation where it is not certain
whether or not the parts are energised by operating voltage. A skilled
person can verify whether or not the
parts are energised by operating voltage.

88 / Fingrid

A fire causing a small amount of smoke and slight heat - such as a fire in undergrowth can be extinguished if the water spray is not directed above the lower
surface of the insulators.
High-voltage electrical installations, which may be energised by operating voltage, must not be extinguished by a direct water spray.
The goal is to disconnect operating voltage from electrical installations inside
substation buildings in the event of fire. The risks involved in batteries inside
buildings must be taken into account. Extinguishing work inside a substation
building is prohibited without instruction or knowledge of the risks involved in
equipment inside the substation building.

Toxic substances are released from hot and burning materials. The inhalation
of such substances must be avoided. Persons who have potentially inhaled flue
gases or metal fumes must be taken immediately to a medical examination.
Immediately after potential first-aid extinguishing and emergency rescue operations, personnel must leave the facility following a dangerous short circuit, earth
fault or fire indoors. At the permission of the switching supervisor, the rescue
service takes care of other extinguishing and rescue operations and starts ventilation. A breathing apparatus and protective clothing giving protection against
chemicals must be used.
After the rescue operations, an enterprise specialised in fire cleaning must clean
the facility.

89 / Fingrid

12.1.2 Action on an earthed transmission line


The rescue work does not involve risk factors caused by
electricity. Direct contact with
the conductors or spraying of
water on them is also safe in
terms of electrical safety.
When moving under the
transmission line, the risk of
collapsing structures must be
taken into account. Collapse
may be caused by for example collision with the structures or intense fire.

12.1.3 Action on an unearthed transmission line


There are no electrical risk
factors caused by smoke
and heat unless conductors
or conducting machines or
equipment in contact with
the conductors are touched.
Rescue operations under
transmission lines should
be avoided.

90 / Fingrid

12.1.4 Action on an energised transmission line


If the dense smoke and
heat caused by the fire
are not directed at the
transmission line, the extinguishing work does not
involve risk factors resulting from electricity.
A direct water spray at
the conductors should be
avoided.

When the dense smoke


and heat caused by the
fire are directed at an
overhead transmission
line energised by operating voltage, the safety
distance to the fire and tower structures must be at
least 20 metres.
Rescue operations under
the transmission line and
a direct water spray at the
conductors should be avoided.

91 / Fingrid

When the dense smoke and heat


caused by the fire are directed
at a 110400 kV transmission
line energised by operating voltage from a maximum distance
of 40 metres, the safety distance
to the fire and tower structures
must be at least 20 metres.
Rescue operations between the
fire and the transmission line
are also prohibited.
Rescue operations under the
transmission line and a direct
water spray at the conductors
should be avoided.

When the dense smoke and


heat caused by the fire are directed at a high-voltage transmission line of less than 110 kV
energised by operating voltage
from a maximum distance of
20 metres, the safety distance
to the fire and tower structures
must be at least 20 metres.
Rescue operations under the
transmission line and a direct
water spray at the conductors
should be avoided.

92 / Fingrid

13 PHASE MARKINGS AND EQUIPMENT



IDENTIFICATIONS

ingrids phase markings employ two different types of marking: L1, L2 and
L3 as well as R, S and T. Here, L1 and R, L2 and S, as well as L3 and T always
correspond to each other respectively.
At Fingrids switching stations and in Fingrids documents, each piece of equipment has an individual equipment identification.
The equipment identification is usually composed of the following segments:
Segment 1. Switching station identification

(contains voltage level identification)
Segment 2. Identification of bay or cell
Segment 3. Identification of switching device

At switching stations, the identifications are normally composed without the


abbreviation of the switching station, i.e. of the following segments: voltage
level identification, identification of bay/cell, and switching device identification.

13.1 Switching station and voltage level identification


13.1.1 Alternating current electrical installations
The first part of the switching station identification is composed of the abbreviation of the name of the switching station. This abbreviation usually has two letters in 400 kV and 220 kV switching stations and three or four letters in 110 kV
switching stations. If the switching station also has installations of higher voltage
in addition to 110 kV, a two-letter abbreviation is normally used of it.
The latter part of the
switching station identification is composed of
the voltage level identifications described in the
adjoining figure.

93 / Fingrid

13.1.2 Direct current electrical installations


Identifications specified individually for each connection are used with direct current connections.

13.2 Identification of bay or cell


The bays and cells of switching stations are numbered using a running number
on the basis of the voltage levels. The identification has two digits 01...99.
At duplex switching stations, the bays of the same outgoing feeder can have the
same number, in which case they are separated from each other by additional
markings A and B.

13.3 Identification of switching device

94 / Fingrid

Identifications of disconnectors and circuit breakers


Device

Old identification
system

Newer
identification
system

Circuit breaker or disconnecting


circuit breaker

Q0 1)

1-busbar disconnector or
truck-mounted disconnector

Q1 2)

2-busbar disconnector or
truck-mounted disconnector

Q2 2)

Feeder disconnector

Q3

Transfer busbar disconnector,


4-disconnector or shunting
disconnector in series capacitors

Q4

3-busbar disconnector or
truck-mounted disconnector

Q5 2)

Bus coupling disconnector or


longitudinal disconnector of the
ring bus system

Q6

Voltage transformer disconnector,


fault throwing switch or other special
disconnector

Q7

Neutral point disconnector,


non-earthing

Q8

Earthing switch, only earthing


switch in the bay

Q9

Earthing switch on the busbar side


of a circuit breaker, when the bay
has several earthing switches

91

Q91

Earthing switch on the line side of


a circuit breaker, when the bay has
several earthing switches

92

Q92

Earthing switch of line when the


bay has several earthing switches

93

Q93

Neutral point earthing switch

99

Q99

1) The identification of a load breaker is Q0 if there is no circuit breaker in the same cell.
2) Refers to the disconnecting withdrawn position of the truck-mounted circuit breaker.

Functionally similar disconnectors in the same bay are numbered in a running


order starting from the busbar (for example Q11 and Q12).
The earthing switches of a busbar are marked by using the identifications of the
busbar (W1, W2 etc.) as the bay/cell identification, for example AE W1 Q9.

95 / Fingrid

Appendix: 1 DEFINITIONS
Functional terms (toiminnallisia nimityksi)
A circuit breaker or disconnector (katkaisija tai erotin):
is opened at the device (avataan laitteelta) or switched off through remote
control (aukiohjataan kauko-ohjauksella). After this, the status of the
device is open (Toimenpiteen jlkeen laitteen tila on auki).
is closed at the device (suljetaan laitteelta) or switched on through remote
control (kiinniohjataan kauko-ohjauksella). After this, the status of the
device is closed (Toimenpiteen jlkeen laitteen tila on kiinni).
Earthing (tymaadoitus) is connected (kytketn) and removed (poistetaan).

Names of switching devices (kytkinlaitenimityksi)


A circuit breaker (katkaisija) is a device which can break the highest short circuit
current occurring in the circuit.
A disconnecting circuit breaker (erottava katkaisija) is a circuit breaker which
can isolate the work location reliably without a visible clearance between open
contacts.
A disconnector (erotin) is a mechanical switching device which provides a reliable clearance between open contacts in the open position and which can conduct
the load current and the short circuit current in the closed position. A disconnector is not required a breaking or closing ability.
A switch disconnector (kuormanerotin) is a disconnector which can break and
close a certain current.
A load breaker (tehoerotin) is usually a circuit breaker to which the protection
system does not send a control signal. A load breaker can break and close the
highest load current occurring in the circuit but not necessarily fault currents.
An earthing switch (maadoituskytkin) is a switching device used for earthing.
An earthing switch can be a structural part of a disconnector.

Earthing (tymaadoitus)
Main earthing (ptymaadoitus) is earthing which withstands short circuit and
which, when connected, prevents the access of the operating voltage to the work
location from the direction protected by the main earthing. In main earthing, all
phases of the circuit are connected to earth and to each other by means of an

96 / Fingrid

earthing switch or portable earthing devices. Main earthing must withstand potential fault currents occurring at the installation site during their entire duration, including automatic reclosing.
Additional earthing (listymaadoitus) Additional earthing reduces the potential between the conductors and earth in the work location to a safe level and
prevents the connection of persons to the induction circuit.
Earthing of machinery (tykonemaadoitus) Earthing of machinery reduces the
difference in potential between the machine and earth in a failure situation to a
safe level.

State of electrical equipment, determination of state


(shklaitteiston tila ja sen toteaminen)
Energised (jnnitteinen) An energised part of the network is energised by operating voltage, partially energised, energised by induced voltage, or energised by
charged voltage.
Energised by operating voltage (kyttjnnitteinen) A part of the network energised by operating voltage is connected to an operational network from at least
one point.
Partly energised (kyttjnnitteetn) A partly energised part of the network is
disconnected from operating voltage in each location and is at least partly without main earthing.
Energised by induced voltage (latausjnnitteinen) A part of the network energised by induced voltage is provided with main earthing, but not all additional earthing, which secures electrical work safety, has been connected. In this
guideline, induced voltage refers to a voltage transmitted to an electrically conducting part by either an electric or magnetic field.
Energised by charged voltage (varausjnnitteinen) A part of the network energised by charged voltage is not provided with earthing, and a slowly discharging capacitive charge remains in it after the operating voltage has been disconnected.
Unenergised/dead (jnnitteetn) An unenergised or dead item is earthed by
means of main earthing and additional earthing which secure electrical work
safety.
Operating voltage detector (kyttjnnitteen toteaja) is a tool which can be
used for reliably ascertaining whether or not there is operating voltage at the
relevant location. The tool can be a voltage detector or remote detector.

97 / Fingrid

Outage need (kytkenttarve)

An advance request concerning the changing of the switching situation at a


certain time.

Distribution interruption (jakelukeskeytys)

Interruption in electricity supply to the end user of electricity, resulting from a


change in the operation situation.

Transmission interruption (siirtokeskeytys)

Interruption in electricity transmission or restriction in electricity supply to a


certain part of the electricity network, resulting from a change in the operation
situation.

Outage order (kytkentpts)

An outage order serves as information and as an operating guideline to the parties in the area of influence of the switching and as an assignment concerning the
planning of the switching.

Switching schedule (kytkentohjelma)

A written detailed plan of the switching to be carried out.

Safety declaration (turvallisuusilmoitus)

A written notification in which the person responsible for the work and the person responsible for the operation of the electrical installation record the necessary safety precautions, responsible persons and contact information.

Local switching (paikalliskytkennt)

Local switching is carried out under the switching supervisors supervision by


manual control or by monitoring the execution of remote controls at a switching station. This also includes performing the necessary lockings and markings.
Remote-monitored switching usually replaces local switching.

Restoration switching (palautuskytkent)

After the work, the situation of the network is restored to the agreed situation by
following the switching schedule.

Electrical installation (shklaitteisto)

The electrical installation comprises all electrical equipment which is used for
producing, transmitting, converting, distributing and using electric energy.

Operation (toimenpide)

Operations include for example switching, control, supervision, maintenance and


construction. An operation can be work other than electrical work.

98 / Fingrid

Operation work (kytttoimenpide)

Work on an electrical installation, used for changing its switching status or


settings.

Personnel, organisation and communications


(henkilst, organisaatio ja yhteydenpito)
Main Grid Control Centre (kantaverkkokeskus) Fingrids Main Grid Control
Centre accepts the outage orders, draws up and verifies the switching schedules, and draws up the system security calculations. The switching supervisor
is a person working at the Main Grid Control Centre, with that person having the
operating permit required from a switching supervisor.
Regional unit (aluetoiminta) The specifically appointed experts at the regional
unit take care of the regional maintenance, transmission interruption planning,
and local operation of Fingrids grid.
Connecting party (liittyj) An electricity network or power plant which is connected to Fingrids grid. The connecting party appoints its own responsible persons for operation planning and execution in its network.
Person in charge of operation of electrical installation (shklaitteiston kytn
johtaja) The person who is responsible for the safe operation of the electrical
installation and for the sufficient competence of the operation personnel.
Person responsible for operation (kytst vastaava henkil) The person
responsible for operation is the person in charge of the operation of the electrical installation or a person authorised by him/her. This person carries functional
responsibility for the operation of the electrical installation.
Switching supervisor (kytkennnjohtaja) The switching supervisor supervises
the switching procedures in the electrical installation managed by him/her. During the switching, this person communicates with potential switching operators.
Switching operator (paikalliskytkij) A skilled person in electrical engineering,
carrying out the agreed local switching under the supervision and at the request
of the switching supervisor.
Person heading electrical work (shktiden johtaja) The person who is
responsible for the Finnish Occupational Safety Act, Electrical Safety Act and
provisions and regulations issued on the basis of these being followed in electrical work and maintenance of the electrical installation.
Person responsible for work (tyst vastaava henkil) A person who has functional responsibility for the work. If necessary, some of these duties can be
transferred to others.

99 / Fingrid

Electrical safety supervisor (tynaikaisen shkturvallisuuden valvoja) A person appointed to supervise electrical safety during the work. This person can
participate in the work or perform it entirely on his/her own. The electrical safety
supervisor must be a skilled person capable of independent work.
Contact person of work location (tykohteen yhdyshenkil) A person who, if
necessary, communicates with the switching supervisor of the electrical installation during the work. This is the person to whom the work preparation permit
is given and who gives the commissioning permit.
Safety distance watch (turvaetisyysvahti) An instructed person or a skilled
person in electrical engineering who supervises safety distances to energised
parts during a certain work stage.
Skilled person in electrical engineering (shkalan ammattihenkil) A person
with applicable training and experience, on the basis of which the person can
assess the risks and avoid potential hazards caused by electricity. The person in
question can perform electrical or operating work in the persons field independently and supervise such work after the person has become familiar or been
instructed the requirements concerning the necessary duties and their electrical
safety. The formal qualification required from such person is specified in more
detail in regulations applied to the electricity industry.
Instructed person (opastettu henkil) A person who has received instruction
from skilled persons so that the person can avoid the hazards caused by electricity in the work in question.
Ordinary person (maallikko) A person who is not skilled or instructed.
Work preparation permit (tynvalmistelulupa) An account given by the switching supervisor of the switching situation in the network managed by him/her and
of the location of main earthing to the contact person of the work location and/or
to another switching supervisor.
Work permit (tylupa) A permit given by the person responsible for the work or
by a person authorised by him/her to start the actual work.
Commissioning permit (kyttnottolupa) The contact person of the work location gives a commissioning permit to the switching supervisor of that electrical
installation where the work has been performed.

Work area (tyalue)


Work location (tykohde) Work location(s) or area(s) agreed in advance, where
work is performed, is planned to be performed or has been performed.

100 / Fingrid

Live working zone (jnnitetyalue) An area around energised parts, within


which area the insulation level against an electric shock is not sufficient without
protection (see item 5.10).
The outer boundary of a live working zone is indicated by distance DL (see item 5.10).
Vicinity zone (lhialue) A restricted area which surrounds the live working zone.
The outer boundary of a vicinity zone is indicated by distance DV (see item 5.10).

Working (tyskentely)
Work (ty) Electrical work or other work involving a potential electric hazard.
Operating work (kyttty) Work which includes the planning of network operation and execution of operation work.
Electrical work (shkty) Work on an electrical installation or in its vicinity,
such as testing and measurement, repair, replacement, conversion, expansion,
installation and inspection.
Other work (muu ty) Work carried out close to an electrical installation, such as
construction, excavation, cleaning, painting etc.
Live working (jnnitety) Work where the person carrying out the work either
touches an energised part or reaches to a live working zone intentionally, either
by means of his/her body parts or tools, equipment or devices used by him/her.
Working close to bare live parts (tyskentely jnnitteisten osien lheisyydess)
Work where the person carrying out the work reaches to the vicinity zone by
means of his/her body parts, tools or any other object, but where the person does
not reach to the live working zone.
Dead working (tyskentely jnnitteettmn) Work on an electrical installation
which is not energised and which is without a charge and which has been subject
to sufficient measures to avoid electric hazard.

High voltage (HV) (suurjnnite (SJ))

Operating voltage which normally exceeds 1,000 V a.c. or 1,500 V d.c.

101 / Fingrid

NOTES

102 / Fingrid

FINGRID
POWER
TRANSMISSION
NETWORK
400 kV grid
220 kV grid
110 kV grid
HVDC
network owned by others

1.1.2015
Base map Karttakeskus Oy

Fingrid Delivers.
Responsibly.

FINGRID OYJ
Lkkisepntie 21, P.O. Box 530, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
Tel. +358 30 395 5000, fax +358 30 395 5196, www.fingrid.fi