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PRESSURE VESSEL
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DESIGN HANDBOOK
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NT
SECOND EDITION
PRESSURE
VESSEL
DESIGN
HANDBOOK
PRESSURE
VESSEL
DESIGN
HANDBOOK
Second
Edition
fi
<Jei3.!.??
42ti
In revising the
first edition
as a
repre
new
1986 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,
illustrative
Inc.
technical
Reprinted by Arrangement
book
can be of
errors have
handbook
form or by any
It
little
examples have also been added. The writer believes that any
in
is
not clarified by
illustrative
examples,
some typographical
been corrected.
is
many
variable factors
more
a singlevalue answer,
alternatives for
solution.
cm.
proceed in every
Therefore, no definite rules can be given for deciding how to
designer must
The
inflexibly.
case, and the rules laid down cannot be applied
since he bears
judgment
personal
be guided by his former experience and his best
design.
the final responsibility for the adequacy of the
offered conto extend his gratitude to all readers who
would like
comments, particularly to Dr. A. S. Tooth of University of Strathclyde,
saddle supports.
Glasgow, Scotland for his comments on the stresses in shells at
The
writer
structive
Reinhold, cl986.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 089464503X (lib. bdg. acidfree paper)
:
1.
etc.
Title.
TA660.T34B44 1990
681'.76041dc20
905043
CIP
10
Henry
H.
Bednar
Preface to
First Edition
for engineers who are enThis handbook has been prepared as a practical aid
vessels has to be done
gaged in the design of pressure vessels. Design of pressure
rules for satisfactory
accord with specific codes which give the formulas and
the codes leave
and safe construction of the main vessel components. However,
many design
solve
use
to
methods he will
it up to the designer to choose what
engiaccepted
latest
the
using
problems; in this way, he is not prevented from
neering analytical procedures.
in
Efficiency in design
ing,
work
design
technical information.
design
Much
of pressure vessels
is
on the strength of
materials.
been proven by
solutions for a
in practice. Unfortunately, exact analytical
number of problems
are not
have to be made.
the symbols as
particular system of notation has been adopted. Usually
defined as they occur.
and
used
are
sources
technical
particular
appear
in
they
Only the most important references are given for more detailed study.
No
Boiler
assumed that the reader has a working knowledge of the ASME
1
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division
companies
The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the societies and
It is
and pro
completion
duction staff of the Publisher for their contribution to a successful
of
this
book.
Henry
H.
Bednar
Contents
2.
DESIGN LOADS II
1.1.
Introduction /
1.2.
Design Pressure/
1.3.
Design Temperature / 3
1.4.
1.5.
Dead Loads/4
Wind Loads/
1.6.
Earthquake Loads/ 13
1.7.
Piping Loads/ 21
1.8.
VIII, Division
2.4.
Range
for SelfLimiting
Loads/ 25
ASME
ASME
1/26
2/29
Design Remarks/ 38
VIII, Division
2.5.
3.
Introduction/ 39
3.2.
Membrane
3.3.
Cylindrical Shells/ 46
3.4.
3.5.
Semiellipsoidal Heads/ 59
3.6.
Torispherical
3.7.
Conical Heads/ 66
3.8.
Toroidal Shells/ 71
3.9.
Heads/ 62
Pressure/ 73
ix
CONTENTS
xi
CONTENTS
4.
.
4.2. Shell
9.4.
9.5.
80
9.6.
WELD
Support Skirts/ 85
4.4.
10.1.
Introduction/ 259
10.2.
4.6.
Anchor Bolts/ 91
WindInduced Deflections of Tall Columns / 103
WindInduced Vibrations/ 107
4.7.
10.4.
4.8. Illustrative
10.
10.3.
Example / 129
10.5.
10.6.
5.2.
10.7.
10.8.
10.9.
6.
11.
Circumferential Stress
at the
Additional Stresses in a
6.6.
Ring Compression
6.7.
6.8.
in the Shell
LOCAL STRESSES
IN
ATTACHMENTS/ 186
11.2.
11.3.
11.4.
11.5.
Stainless Steels/296
11.6.
8.
7.1.
Introduction/ 186
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
Introduction/ 217
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.
8.5.
8.6.
Method/ 220
9.
9.2. Basic
Hydrogen Service/306
Aluminum Alloys/ 309
312
12.4.
12.5.
Method of
12.2.
7.2.
11.1.
11.7.
12.
6.1.
7.
DESIGN/ 259
4.3.
4.5.
5.
9.3.
12.3.
Finite
APPENDICES
/ 385
Al. Wind, Earthquake and Lowest OneDay Mean Temperature Maps/
387
A2. Geometric and Material Charts for Cylindrical Vessels/ 389
A3. Skirt Base Details/ 391
A4. Sliding Supports for Vertical and Horizontal Vessels/ 392
A5. Glossary of Terms Relating to the Selection of Materials/ 394
A6.
A7.
A8.
A9.
A10.
Flanges/ 405
INDEX/ 429
PRESSURE
VESSEL
DESIGN
HANDBOOK
Design Loads
1.1.
INTRODUCTION
are referred to as
The forces applied to a vessel or its structural attachments
in vessel design is to
loads and, as in any mechanical design, the first requirement
which the vessel
determine the actual values of the loads and the conditions to
basis
of past experion
the
will be subjected in operation. These are determined
all
pertaining data as
dead loads,
wind
loads,
earthquake loads,
temperature loads,
piping loads,
Many
must
select the
most
material: improper
as
selection for the service environment; defects, such
and
testing;
DESIGN LOADS
service;
Design pressure is the pressure used to determine the minimum required thickness of each vessel shell component, and denotes the difference between the
internal
must be designed
and the external pressures (usually the design and the atmospheric presIt includes a suitable margin above the operating pressure
is
5 psi.
Minimum
psi
minimum)
Code nonvacuum
is
vessel
with negative gauge operating pressure are generally designed for full vacuum.
The maximum allowable working (operating) pressure is. then, by the Code
gauge pressure permissible at the top of the comoperating position at the designated temperature. It is based
definition, the
maximum
pleted vessel in
its
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
1.3.
Design temperature
is
more
increased brittleness with falling temperature, and the accompanying dimensional changes are just a few of the phenomena to be taken into account for the
By
is
the
minimum
is
design temperature
is
required thickness, either the design pressure or the corrosion allowance can be
is
not
less
if
possible,
than the
the
restraint or certain
design.
of corrosion allowance, and the thickness required for other loads than pressure. In most cases it will be equal or very
close to the design pressure of the vessel components.
on the nominal
to withstand the
DESIGN PRESSURE
1.2.
The
corrosion.
temperature
is
the
maximum
temperature
of the operating fluid plus 50F as a safety margin, or the minimum temperature of the operating fluid, if the vessel is designed for lowtemperature service
(below 20 F).
vacuum towers
the temperature of
standard atm
= 14.69
psia
\
atmos pheric
negative (psig)
absoiu te (psia)
(vacuum)
possibility
of a
loss
;al
at
absolute (psia)
1
vacjum)
Fig. 1.1.
minimum,
that
The

t
At
(pstg)
stan dard
gauge
of
is
usually provided.
DESIGN LOADS
The lowest design metal temperature for pressure storage vessels should be
taken as 15F above the lowest oneday mean ambient temperature for the
particular location, see Fig. Al .3.
The design temperature
for flange
through bolts
is
and
it
can be safely
as
sumed to be 80 percent of
as the
1.5.
WIND LOADS
When
the design computations are based on the thickness of the base plate
maximum
ture of the vessel should be that allowed for the base plate material.
vessel internals
is
the
maximum
temperature of the
is
it
may
possess a vertical
is
and increases with the height above the ground to some maximum velocity at a certain gradient level above which the wind velocity remains constant.
The shape of the velocity profile above the ground depends on the roughness
friction
operating liquid.
The wind
can also be assumed to possess a certain mean velocity on which local threedimensional turbulent fluctuations are superimposed. The direction of the flow
over a surface obstacle. The wind velocity
vessel.
It
ycc z n
1.4.
DEAD LOADS
Dead loads
vessel.
vessel itself
Depending on the
is
hoisted
on
is
it
struc
air
is
mass unit
q i0 =
where
K30
is
all
by the
equipment required
trolleys etc.),
pV2l2
the elevation
is
30
ft,
the
at the height
is
of 30
ft
a flat surface
2
00.00238 (5280/3600) V\ 0
= 0.00256 V\ 0
welding
The magnitude of
is
is
Shop
moving
internals
insulation, fireprooflng,
3.
heights above ground with any given terrain profile (see Fig. 1 .2).
The velocity (dynamic) pressure representing the total kinetic energy of the
and
to be investigated separately.
permanent
terrain
power formula
design.
is
vessel consists
the basic
wind
velocity
K30
design pressure q 3Q depends on the geographical location of the job site. The
wind pressure q 30 is used to compute the actual wind design loads on pressure
with the
and connected equipment. However, since the wind velocity V is influenced by the height above the ground and terrain roughness and the pressure
q itself is influenced by the shape of the structure, the basic wind velocity
pressure q 30 has to be modified for different heights above the ground level
vessels
the vessel
The
is
ice or
is
removed
expected to be tested
snow load
in field at
as well as
is
any
live
is
some
and
filled fully
future date.
considered to be negligible.
new
revised
or
DESIGN LOADS
HANDBOOK
The geographical
1.
1500
flat
No
distinction
mean
The wind design
ness or

is
(see Fig.
the
wind
is
made
in the area.
1200
2.
900
tion of the
the basic
wind pressure p.
windward surface area projected on the
4. If the
wind is A ft
assumed to act
direction of the
the area
30
is
at
vertical plane
normal to the
V = wind
open,
flat,
flat
coastal region;
wooded
rough,
ft
Wind
gradient level
900
200
1500
ft
gradient
ft
ft is
level
exponent n
1/3
flat,
ft
velocity
velocity
in
1/4.5
1/7
wind velocity
area;
Pw =ABp 2
open country
900
Fig. 1.2.
Pw
V 30
If the
60 mph,
at the
above formula for cylindrical vertical vessels is not less than 13 psf forl/D < 10
the
and 18 psf for L/D > 10, where L is the overall tangenttotangent length of
in
vessel
nominal diameter.
is
the same,
i.e.,
= 100
Wind Loads
as
Computed
in
The
is
K 30
D is the
and
suburban area
The wind
windward
vessel
lb.
= 100(30/1200) 1/4
 44 mph.
qP
effective
in psf at
equations:
cations dictate otherwise. Although the former standard
extensively used for
many
years and
it
is still
used
in
some
is
obsolete,
codes.
It is
was
it
q F = K z Gp<l30
therefore
chemical plants
in
foreign countries
more
in
line
with the
where
are
now
Kz
obsolete specification.
Wind Loads
as
The procedure
Computed
in
Accordance with
is
as follows.
ASA
minimum
GF
GP
DESIGN LOADS
The
rises in
sudden shortterm
wind
velocities.
The values of
GF
and
GP
depend on
GF
may render this standard less attractive than the previous one.
The q F and q P values have to be further modified by a net pressure
tion
Cf for
If the projected
to the
coefficient
windward
wind direction
may be computed by
is
ft
on
a vertical plane
wind load
P w on
normal
a vessel section
GF  0.65
different
large
wind
loads,
is
drum with
to computing
which
is
top platform
as in
justified.
is
recommended here
coefficient
Kd
is
will
then
flat,
open
cities,
structure such as
Using as
A =De
XH
wooded
where
Hs = length
of the
belong to category C.
criteria
life
Table 1.1.
COEFFICIENT
than 36
1.50
less
36 to 60
60
in.
in.
84 in.
84 to 108 in.
over 108 in.
The
The
resulting
be equal to
The procedure
2.
approach
An approach
1.
Fig. 1.2.
Most
all
is
c.
not possible for the designer to evaluate the projected windward area ,4 of
a tower and all appurtenances accurately. When a vessel is being designed only
the main features such as the inside diameter, overall length, nozzle sizes, num
a.
the total
It is
terrain
in ft
can be
wind loads on
lb
+ 1.95 (os/P).
projected area
equation:
Pw =ACfq F
is
basic
Source:
to
Ref. 6.
Kd
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.18
DESIGN LOADS
10
The formula above does not include special attached equipment such as heat
exchangers or largetop oversized platform with lifting equipment, whose wind
loads and moments are computed separately and added to the above.
manhole
caged
KA
11
ladder
insulation
Example
thickness
Fig. 1.4 with an average wall thickness of 1 in., insulation thickness 1.5
located in the vicinity of Houston, Texas, using:
insulation
1.1.
in
in.,
thickness
15'
a.
b.
=K
are
platform
o.d. vessel
pipe
p z =30psf,
40 psf,
50 psf,
60 psf,
o.d.
Fig. 1.3.
De
Wind
loads in
X 18)/(15X
12)
=4.2
ft,
ft
in.
wide
in.
the
ground
ft
100 to 499
w, = 0.60 X
83 X 30=
w2
w 3 =0.60X
w4
above items can and should be adjusted according to the actual standard
layout as used.
From
psf;
a 6ftdiameter
column with
lb/ft
= 0.60
8.3
X 40 = 200
lb/ft
8.3
X 50 = 250
lb/ft
b. Selected:
level.
150
B X De X p 2
are
1in.wall
From
Fig.
A2
T=
sec/cycle.
wind velocity
Kz G F q 30
ib/ft.
interval;
ft
vessel
to the ground.
4. Piping.
50 to 99
30
above ground
at
Caged ladder. Assume one caged ladder running from the top of the
3.
ft
Vessel shell outside diameter with twice the insulation thickness, if any.
ft
49
to
in Fig. 1.3
the principal parts contributing to the total wind load are as follows:
2.
0 to 30
elevation
is
K30
of the standard:
thickness, 2in. insulation, and a 6in. nozzle in the top third with 1in. insulation
is
computed
De
as follows:
(vessel o.d.
tf 3 o
1.0,
+ 2 X insulation thickness)
is
o.d.
.31 is in
in
Table 1.1.
*so =
GF
tf 9 5
1.2,
= 0.65 +
.95
1.40,
^ 12 o
(oy/P) = 0.65 +
= 1.50.
.95
X 0.332 =
os/P=
1/2
=0.332
.297
DESIGN LOADS
12
6'
Wind
l*4J
120'
el.
Pw
Wind load
M (Ibft)
<ib}
el.
(lb)
Shear
Hbl
Wind moment
M Obft)
120'
60,000
6,000
6,000
lb/fi
y
6
(\b)
i.d.
Wind moment
/cs
300
100'
Shear
load
13
12,850
60'
10,000
70'
if)
II
2,190
60'
16,000
500,000
18,500
672,500
2,500
50'
5,475
3,000
f2
35'
15,040
60'
25'
2 5'
321 250
CM
II
30'
1,000
21,500
972,500
35'
22,500
1,082,500
30'
1,095
20,515
905,140
21,610
1,010,455
25,330
1,479,855
27,190
1,742,455
25'
2 5'
3,720
3,000
10'
's.
O
in
25,500
10'
,562,500
1,860
10*
1,500
1 D'
=L
27,000
0'
Fig. 1.4.
1,825,000
Fig. 1.5.
where, from
h/d= 120/6.5 =
Fig.
A6. structure
size factor:
<?
F = 0.1
18.5
S=
F = 25.6X
.0 for
1.297
w2
w so
= 0.66 X 8.3 X 40 = 2 19
lb/ft
w3
w 9S
lb/ft.
h = 120.
X 2 = 33.2
therefore
? F30 = 33.2
X l~34psf
1.6.
qFS0 =33.2X
1.2
= 40psf
1.4
= 47
EARTHQUAKE LOADS
General Considerations
q F9S = 33.2
Wind loads
in
psf
w = C/ X De X
q Fi are
Seismic forces on a vessel result from a sudden erratic vibratory motion of the
ground on which the vessel is supported and the vessel response to this motion.
The
Wj =
w 30
lb/ft
damage
tion of the earthquake motion. The forces and stresses in structures during an
DESIGN LOADS
14
15
To
motion
is
component of
the earthquake
sess
is
building codes
is
withstand a certain
minimum
set forth in
must be designed to
in
large part
moment
at the base.
The
result
depends
Fig. 1.6.
column of
rigid
and
weight.
Table 1.2.
is
shears
loads
it
its
is
foundation; no provision
is
usually
made
for
ZONE
ITEM
ZONE
c.
ZONE
ZONE
any effects
Vessel
0.05
0.10
0.20
0.25
0.50
1.00
Equipment attached
to vessel
Source:
The structure and its foundation are assumed to be rigid and the assumed earthquake horizontal acceleration of the ground a is transmitted directly into the
vessel. The term rigid is used here in the sense of having no deformations.
Each section of the vessel will be acted upon by a horizontal inertial force
equal to its mass and multiplied by the horizontal acceleration a of the quake
movement,
Ref. 4.
is
located.
Mb =P
equal to
AP
.2.
equal to
Pe
Xh.
at
of the vessel section above the section plane (see Fig. 1.6). Their resultant^ is
assumed to act at the center of gravity of the entire vessel and is given by the
The simple
rigidstructure
heavy vessel or
to apply
a horizontal
it
equation
Pe =Ma = (alg)W
cW
where
g=
is
AP^AWia/g),
an arbitrary elevation
Table
in
Mb
tall,
properties.
The sudden
gravitational acceleration
dynamic
tall
DESIGN LOADS
16
17
V = ZKCW,
where
W~ normal
future earthquake;
Z earthquake
zoning maps in
Z = 0.25; zone
K  structure
Natural frequency
where
is
y
Sketch of
mode
2, Z = 0.50; zone 3, Z =
coefficient,
beam
beam of
C* flexibility
weight.
foundation. The vibration initiated by the induced elastic deflection is then gradually reduced by damping or partial yielding in the vessel.
From experience and theoretical studies it can be assumed that a structure
ously with
its
with a longer
less total
tall,
with a
period of vibration
damage than
a structure
accuracy of
T is
equation, since
is
taken as equal to 2;
depending on the
C = 0.05/F l/3
where
is
of
flexibility
T is
the funda
under
C in
the above
the true period (see Section 4.7 for the procedure used to
basic period of vibration of
7*,
and
tall,
compute
the
beam of uniform
cross section
The
superposition.
The force on
still
incomplete
field
Appendix
Fx =(FF,)w^/vv,*,
a vessel section
its
where
A9.'
0.15
V is
a portion of
K assumed
concentrated at
of higher modes. For most towers Ft =0.15 K, since h/Ds > 6.12;
 the lateral force applied at levels h f , h x respectively;
Wi, w x = that portion of W which is located at or is assigned to levels /,
F/,
For practical design purposes the building codes [3, 5]* require all freestanding structures in seismic zones to be designed and constructed to withstand
the minimum lateral force V applied at the base in any horizontal direction and
in brackets refer to the references in
over the
illustrated
in Fig. 1.7. Since the vessel will try to vibrate with a combination of natural
frequencies, with the first frequency predominant, the resultant motion can
Numbers
s,
value
to 3.00;
will
for a cantilever
of the past
T< 0.12
hence does not change appreciably with small variations of 7, and the
assumed fixity at the base will tend to make the calculated T smaller than
it
freedom and
modes
consideration; for
provided that
first
^[^Ji]*
ref.
Fx
respectively;
Ds
vessel.
is
V  Ft +
F/.
at,
DESIGN LOADS
18
laterally in
is
Fp =ZCp Wpj
is
r=
where
Fp
will
(2.70/10 )(////))
Fig.
Ft = 0.15 V=
in
1.3 kips,
and from
T see
the
Example 4.4
1.8.
5/0.5)
19
Using the
'2
in Section 4.7.)
sec.
Force
Fig. 1.8,
Since the higher modal responses contribute mainly only to the base shear,
Mx
Ft =
(V~
t)
at levels
The
Vx
at
h x elevations
Mb =J (fthn+^Fih^,
where
0.45
</= 0.6/7
2' 3
<
ments
=J +
total
mass
is
(1 
J)(h x /hf
the
it
Example
1.2.
vertical process
AM
AM
sections; not
number depending on
more than 10
at the center
From
Fig.
.8
(H
1.3
=4.3X
h x ) + "LFiQii
17 + 3
17 +
hx )
or
2.4X 17/2 =
93.5 kipsft
etc.
a cylindrical
x are
the total lateral force at the base
V=ZKCW=
0.05
is
assumed to be concentrated
is
level
section
sum of all
computed.
V equals
X 85 =
8.5 kips
where
A*
=2
W = 85

Z=
C=
In
for
for
zone 3
t/3
= 0.05/1 1 / 3 =0.05.
0.05/r
computing
column
it
would seem
5ft i.d.
X 100
ft
to be conservative to
Fig. 1.8.
lateral
to vibrate primarily in
To determine
/=
/I
and/or
equal to the
AA/X =
where Jx
is
Taking
mo
DESIGN LOADS
20
The
total
moments
'.
At the base
shown
in Fig.
.8.
the shear
is
Vb
as
Y = //,
moment
Total overturning
VF
is
used to
sections such as
= 670.8 + 4 = 674,800
h x = 66
or
ft
and the
Ft =V
VorF, = 0.15Kand/=
Moments
6 at section
at
other
h x = 10
ft
1,
Mb 0J16VH.
critical
are used
skirttoshell weld.
Design Considerations
Example
weight
Ibft,
at section
is
at base,
21
1.3.
shown
in Fig.
.9.
the
only reasonable to assume that during a severe earthquake exceeding
absorb
the
dyand
yield
will
structure
the
assumed design value some part of
logical
the
most
are
bolts
anchor
The
failure.
major
namic energy, preventing a
It
is
vessel, preferably
an extreme overload, and they should be firmly attached to the
through a full ring stiffener, as shown in Fig. 4.3, Type A.
mum
allowable stress
Sa
k=
1.2
is
limited
Fig. 1.9.
independent variable,
vessel height
is
it
F,
=(K
loadings in
loads
From
by
throughout the
V  ZKCW
is
at
by
minimum
all
design
conditions.
any
horizontal plane at elevation h x above the ground at section xx, the shear force
1.7.
PIPING
LOADS
is
Vx
is
Y + Ft
vessel should be
In addition to the wind loads the piping loads acting on the
supported
by nozzles
sections
pipe
evaluated. They consist of the weight of the
the pipes.
into the vessel shell and of the loads due to the thermal expansion of
vessel
the
time
of
at
the
estimated
to
be
have
The thermal expansion loads
can be assumed that the total sum of the piping reactions of all side
The
nozzles will have a small effect on the entire vessel and can be disregarded.
design.
2
t )(3HY
Y')/3H 2
It
DESIGN LOADS
22
23
Table 1.3.
NOMINAL SIZE OF
TOP NOZZLE
Mp
(in.)
(Ibft)
thermal loads.
Test design condition for a shop hydrotest, when the vessel is tested in a
the shop test
horizontal position, includes only the hydrotest pressure plus
3.
2110
4450
7900
4
6
8
weight of the vessel. For a field test performed on location, the design condition
includes the test pressure plus the static head of the test liquid, and the field
13000
19500
24500
34300
46300
61000
98400
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
test
vessel.
Wind
is
Mp
will
depend on the
The everage
where
by 3
is
size
vessel.
on the
approximately equal
estimated as
is
size
p
p can be
the outside diameter of the pipe connected to the nozzle, increased
Table
.3
local reinforcement
gives values of
of the top
shell
head
may not be
as large.
1.8.
Many combinations of
it is
vessels. If a
is
more
usually large
be
may
vessel itself.
all
vessels
and
their supports
must be
all
combinations
wind and earthquake loads need not be assumed to occur simultaneously, and
when a vessel is designed for both wind and earthquake, only the one which
produces the greater stresses need be considered.)
Erection (empty) design condition includes the erection (empty) dead load
full effects
of wind or earthquake.
static
The maximum
stresses as
computed from
stresses; see
25
number of
is
thousand, fatigue analysis should be considered. Here the allowable stress and
the stress range must be related to the number of loading cycles anticipated
during the service life of the equipment. Fatigue failures usually occur in the
zone of the
maximum
stress concentration.
The designer must not be content to understand the properties of the construction materials to be used in the vessel. He must also consider in detail the
nature of the loads acting on the vessel (mechanical, thermal, cyclic, dynamic,
static, temporary). Knowledge of these loads and the resulting stresses, obtained
analytically
INTRODUCTION
2.1.
maximum
dividual stresses
require the
by type,
same safety
by
due to the
stresses
loads are computed, the designer must qualitatively evaluate the in
design
is
main
their
reduced
On
in
characteristic
is
by such loads
stress distribution
primary and
are called
i.e.,
if a
member
is
slight,
the shell wall will produce relaxation in the expansion forces causing the
in
stress.
The
stresses
are called
self limiting
or self equilibrating.
The
stresses
is
produced by
stresses
static loads,
2.2.
stresses
of
its
from
static loads
application
is
load
is
dynamic
if
than
the time
body.
structure
may be
it
maximum wind
in
or seismic
allowable stresses
permitted for such temporary loads in some codes. Fatigue caused by periodic
become an
that the
at shell struc
when
"shake down" to an elastic response, and loads that produce a plastic deformation every time they are applied. This can be illustrated in an idealized stressbehave in elasticstrain diagram as shown in Fig. 2.1. Material is assumed to
to an applied thermal expansion load of the
a nozzle an elastic deformation occurs at some point in the
vessel shell
from
to B. At point
mation to be
to
BCD. The
in Fig. 2.1
and a
is
plastic irreversible
deformation from
When
cycle from
Due
in equilibrium
elastic portion
of the permanently
in intensity
is
ture discontinuities.
same
similarly.
Code allowable
line
selflimiting properties as thermal stresses
Stresses
attached piping on
practical difference
obvious; the criteria used to evaluate the safety of primary stresses should not
Some
is
will
Suitable precautions expressed in the design safety factors are the responsibility
of the design engineer, guided by the needs and specifications of the client. The
to
from
C to D represents prestressing in
compression
o 2 =2o y represents
shakedown to be possible. At
maximum
high operating temperatures the induced hot stress tends to diminish, but the
sum of hot and cold stresses remains constant and is referred to as stress range.
The shakedown load, sometimes called the stabilizing load, is then the maxi
mum
when
26
27
stress,
< a, < 2o y
2cV
o3
>
2a K
as listed in
UG22
(internal or ex
ternal pressure, wind loads or seismic loads, reaction from supports, the effect of
temperature gradients, impact loads) that are expected to occur simultaneously
during normal operation of a vessel, does not exceed the maximum allowable
metal Code stress values permitted at the operating temperature. The direct
membrane stress can be here defined as a normal stress uniformly distributed
and modulus of
e,
e 2 3
elasticity E.
on the assumption that for thinshell pressure vessels the radial compressive stress o r due to the design pressure can be disregarded, and that the
more accurate maximumshear theory gives approximately the same results. The
failure,
Schematic
Fig. 2.1.
builtin
moments of the
shakedown.
and the structure returns to the original state, a compressive yield from D" to
is introduced. At the next operating cycle the stress is in the plastic range
D'
Repeated
While the failure stress for the direct membrane stress o due to a mechanical
load is equal to the yield stress ayi and when the failure stress for the bending
stress
to
ob
From
be
is
set for
this
1.5
by the
details
stresses
analyses of secondary or fatigue stresses are not required and no design stress
thermal
limits are imposed for them. Design limit stresses are not included for
of the same or a smaller load will cause only elastic stresses in the vessel. If the
plastic deformation from A to B" is too large, then when the load is removed
again.
expansion bending
stresses
stress plus
primary bending
Table 2.1
gives
stress
recommended
(<1 .5Sa ).
design allowable stresses for stresses due to
limit stresses
stresses are
not specified
maximum
way we can
achieve
by
still
safe design.
in the
would
VIII,
DIVISION
of the
ASME
membrane
stresses
leaves
up to the designer to use analytical procedures for comdue to other loads. The user furnishes or approves all design
it
it
it
would be well
Code requirements
to
remember,
when
nec
Code allowable
mum, and
pressures,
stresses.
However, it is a general practice to provide detailed stress analysis for the vessel
components outside the Code approved details using either the maximumallowable stresses
stress or the maximumshear theory of failure, and to select
stresses
computed
or
for
operations
for design conditions other than normal
membrane
primary
direct
or
stress
(<S
membrane
other than direct primary
a)
2.3.
(membrane
tall
tionally important vessel internals, and also for the welds attaching such parts
with appropriate joint efficiencies. The allowable stresses for the less impor
may
Reference 12 serves as a
parts at high
nonpressure
useful guide for selection of the allowable stresses of
stresses
temperatures.
ref. 9.
 c c
a
v
c o
fc
3
*
a*
3 _.
2
el
s S
1 2*
5^
in
.2
g g
<*
corrosion,
ti
S25l
w>
3 u
ns<
5WJ
X X
J
aa
Sh5c
5
**
..
w
.t:
* t3
* 3 g *
9
who
and type of
certified
by
required to prepare
is
all
becomes the
responsibility of the
its
ease of applica
its
design details for vessel parts under pressure are provided, as well as the rules
and guidance for analytical treatment of some types of loadings. A set of conv
u 2
7
is e
>
> o
ditions
is
established
>>
tional
tests
quality
is
is
re
also required.
"S
X X
als
en id
a tJ
of pressure vessels has to certify the design report. Stress classification and a
detailed stress analysis are required. Maximumshear failure theory is used in
00
0 N
li
all
the design as shown on the drawings complies with the requirements of the
Division 2. Again, a registered professional engineer experienced in the design
**
; 5 5 ? u o
"3
is
manufacturer,
a
3!
o B w u C
SS C
The
2.
^3 .2 *
S.3E*2.5^~2o3
w u C ?
'2
e n "
to
as follows.
taining to the
2 2
E E
IE
0.
are permitted to
ft
w
a
C
 a s
to
by using
1.
^W
Division
73
v *>
Code
^g
the
preserve the high degree of safety, strict design, fabrication, and quality
To
to *o
IN to
in
achieve material savings in vessel construction. Also increased stress limits for
='5 3
DIVISION 2
VIII,
s s 1 5 g 2
2.4.
sal .si
S *5 W
X o oS
<JH
5 ~)
<
US
IIS
V)
29
required in Division
it
w W
o
'3
u
oc
UJ
3 0
fc
f
'
J*
u
3 3
OD
s*
Stress Categories
4)
One of
Q
8
a.
OA
c c
9io
o5
9
& .5t2
"3 3
0 C
s
o o
^
5 1
c
o
aO
.s
U.
a,
5
_
J,
a. a.
O O
oo
S E
u g
5 *
O
0 3 .2

o
.1
*L
"2 S
p
E E/3 o E/3
33 =
0 c
0
o * E
E E
II
3
6?
c S3

o o
UOH
I
^
*j
1
'3
5 a
"3
tS
fi
*5
tS
an accurate classification of
>
tfl
X OT K
" a.c
location. Division
is
0 "
^g3g, w 0=5
ca
'CrsMtntBoiawo
uu
o
nj
S.
stresses according to
Primary
stress
is
30
General Membrane.
Primory
Locol Membrona
Description
(For eiamples,
Average primary
stress across
Average stress
across any
solid section.
ee
T.ble
solid section.
Considers ditconlinuiiies
but not con*
centralions.
Produced only
by mechanical
loads.
Siren
Category
concentrations,
4120.1)
Produced only by
mechanical loads.
Secondary
Membrane
Banding
Component
primary stress
proportional
lo distance
from centroid
of solid
Produced only
by mechanical
loada.
Increment added
to primary or secondary stress by a con
SeHequilibrating
stress necessary
to satisfy con
( 1 )
linuity of stfuciur*t*
at struc
Occurs
Certain thermal
(2)
ical load or by
dilferentia) ther
vessel shape.
mal expansion.
Excludes local
stress concentra
(Note
PL
4)
imposed on the
Any
vessel
by the equilibration of
is
method shows
membrane
that a higher
stress limit
shell
tions.
Symbol
stress, is
plus Bendinoof
primary
Pooh
31
is
A typical example
produced by
flat
heads.
by other
It has some
exceeds the yield point of the material, the load is distributed and carried
by other parts of the vessel. However, such yielding could lead to excessive and
stress
unacceptable deformations, so it is necessary to assign a lower allowable
mechanical loads.
Combination
of stress
stress
components
and allowable limits
of stress
intensities.
of
stress
than to secondary
stresses.
An important
property of
structural discontinuities.
Use
operating loads
2.
The
apples lo the range of stress intensity When the secondary stress is due to a temperature
shall be taken as the average of the S
values
at which the stresses are be.no analyzed, the value of S
for the highest and the lowest temperature of the metal during the transient When part or all of the
 This limitation
divided into
membrane
stress
factor,
K. then P
MQTE
full
* O. Q  O. F
P IK~ II and the peak stress .ntens.ty equals P *P tKD* KP
obtained from the fatigue curves, Figs 51 10 1. 5 1 10 2 and 5110 3 The allowable stress intemuy
m  S, Pb
 Sa
>s
range ol fluctuation is 2 Sa
4  The symbols P
=
(or the
NOTE
NOTE
5 
The
P^. Pb
components o t
o/,
O,
or
quantities
Table AD150.1.
Fig. 2.2. Stress categories and limits of stress intensity. (Reproduced from the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2 (1977 edition) by permission of the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.)
that
it is
and bending
stress,
selflimiting.
Secondary
stress
Minor
can be
same limit stress intensities. Typical examples of secondary stress are thermal
stresses
stresses
due
is
excessive stresses.
3.
Peak
some
local point
under consideration. In
distortion, but
case of failure, peak stress does not generate any noticeable
it
fractures.
Gen
smallradius
tions due to local structural discontinuities such as a notch, a
fillet,
Combination of
Stress Intensities
member
under loads begins if the maximum induced shear stress equals the yield shear
maximum shear
stress developed in a test sample under simple tension. The
largest algebraic
the
onehalf
equals
consideration
under
point
the
stress r at
32
ct 2
>
at that
^3)
It
principal
For
stresses.
maximum
oi
shear stress t
is
>02>o li
by
maximum
r = (o 3
a
)/2.
Twice the
The procedure
for
< \ Su
2.
Local membrane
computation of the
stress intensities
can be summarized as
stress intensity.
PL
stresses
is
The maximum
a point
coordinates: L,
f,
set
of
The stresses due to the design loads and moments are calculated and decomposed into orthogonal components o r o L and o t parallel to the coordinates.
2.
stresses or their
components
are clas
Q  sum
F  sum
Pb
as
stress
is
limited to
stress intensity.
when applicable.
The maximum
stress intensity
membrane
primary bending
local
stress
(Pm or
Peak
If fatigue analysis is
intensity.
stress
maximum
conditions, the
stress intensity
stresses
(Pm or
PL
Pb
components
the com
Q + F)
under
fatigue curves.
Pi Pb> Q> and F can represent a triaxial stress combined with shear, and as
such they would be defined by six stress resultants. In this case the principal
*
>
stresses (a 1(
a 2 ,a 3 ) must
first
r, t)
be evaluated for each category separately. Howcan be and usually are chosen in such a way that
the stresses o L> o r , o t are already the principal stresses of the particular stress
category.
Table AD150.1
Stress Intensity
Load Combination
(Sec AD110)
Condition
Design
A The
Limit Basis
* Factors
1.0
thickness at design
The maximum
4\
(e
intensity S is
operating conditions. The allowable value Sa for this peak stress
with
the use of the
operations
cyclic
for
analysis
of
methods
the
obtained by
components.
stress
4.
5.
Pm
stress intensity
At
).
is
derived from
follows.
1.
Sm
materials.
of combined
<%S
when applicable (S m
y or
the basic allowable design stress value (in tension) for approved
Sm
33
pm)
g>
Code
stress intensity
under consideration,
5
is
is
PL
Given principal
Then S
Pb + Q)
of
o ly o 2) o 3
stresses
of the vessel,
in the
category
metal temperature
1.2
1.2
metal temperature
Based on the corroded
thickness at design
load
call
= a
1
a 2
S 2 3=o 2 ~o 3>
S 31 =a 3 a.
thickness at design
metal temperature
of
structural instability or
S = max (SiaUSUS3il).
Operation
conditions.
is
the basis
Based on corroded
See AO 160
and Appendix 5
thickness at operating
optratmg temperature
One of
Tnt
intensities
shown
I
as
will
is
that the
computed
stress
in Fig. 2.2 there are five basic allowable stress intensity limits to
computed on
basis
of Pm
stress intensity.
stresses
The maximum
cannot exceed a
be met.
stress intensity
A The
dead load
of
and 1.15
pneumatic
limits.
AO151
for
test.
See
Based on actual
design values at
tet temperature
for special
ment loads
Reproduced from the ASMS Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2
(1977 edition), by permission of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
34
sum of
not exceed
stresses should
4S m
+ ca + a 3
< 45 m
all
35
1000
three principal
500
400
300
The following
100
Membrane
stress
normal
is
or compression)
component (tension
stress
(0
Bending
stress
is
normal
component
stress
>
thickness about the neutral axis of the thickness of the wall section.
Shear
stress
is
a stress
component tangent
50
40
30
20
10
10
50
20
100 200
and usually
Permissible
Secondary bending
two
tion of
typical
example
is
regardless of
any other
is
stresses that
stress
infinitely
number of cycles
X 10 5
10 6
6
5 X 10
puted assuming
5 X 10
2 X 104
structure.
5000 10*
however
it
cycles N,
modulus of
number of operating
elastic behavior
elastic limit,
it
if
stress;
is
For fatigue analysis only the stresses that vary during the cycle have to be conoperating
sidered. The stresses due to steady loads, which do not vary during an
their efstresses
and
mean
cycle, need not be considered since they are taken as
technique.
modifying
curves
a
by
fect was included in the fatigue design
Fatigue Strength denotes the average maximum alternating stress which a specimen can sustain for a given number of stress cycles.
Stress
Significant stress
means
a stress or a stress
component
Stress range
SB
'
\^
all
much lower
than the
thermal loads and under the Code Div. 2 rules a fatigue analysis has to be made
(Appendix 5) the permissible design stress must be based on the Code Div. 2
fatigue strength.
The Code
lowable
stress
Sa
N (see
Fig. 2.3).
Sa
is
the
maximum
stress range
Sr
by
,
stress
stress intensity
ax
tan
in.
One varyinq*
load cycle
al
It's
amplitude
or alternating
\A
Fatigue Design.
Nearly
not
by the
Fig. 2.4.
time
36
S ait
in
37
See Code Div. 2, Par. G106, Example No. 6 for an illustrative problem in fatigue
stress
analysis.
The principle
cycle. (This
is
stresses (o u
The
stress
compo
0 2 and a 3 )
are evaluated.
If
the
stress
maximum
The
>
is
stress
The
tinuities
SQ
is
half of their
5 aU
maximum
.)
or
S S
S0
is
stress concentration.
Code
stress
rules.
2xio 6 T' 17
[KSa
 11
000
computed
where
below endurance
limit.
[135].
Cumulative Damage. For several loads with different alternating stress amplitudes
a tin* 311 damage relationship is assumed and cumulative damage is
nJN
Next, the algebraic difference between the stress component (at any
point in time) S and the maximum (or minimum) corresponding stress compo
equal to
theoretical K
structural discon
factors.
The
data that include the effect of material ductility. If the experimental data are
the
the
all
>
weld tee
of
cr
o2
ence in the cycle between the principle stresses (oi
3 as functions
=
intensity
5
stress
/2.
the
alternating
then
o
o
rl3
to5
time) is equal
2
x
M3
Usually, a diagram (principle stresses versus time)
a section (fillet
as follows:
+ n 2 /N2 + .... +
njN <
t
From
N' = {K'l&Srf
where K' and n are the material constants. For
where
n t = number of
load
steel
with U.T.
failure in fatigue
38
2.5.
DESIGN REMARKS
material for ordinary carbon steel or lowcan safely be said that the savings in
to the rules of Division 2 will be more than
alloy steel vessels designed according
It
costs.
by the additional engineering and fabrication
as Division
long
and
as
often
as
Since Division 2 is not used
offset
1,
most
vessel
3
Membrane
Stress Analysis of
Vessel Shell
3.1.
Components
INTRODUCTION
closed
structures with shapes resembling curved plates,
pressure vessels are
design
vessel
pressure
In
shells.
to
as
or open, are referred
pressure. Most pressure vessels in inclosed containers for the containment of
shapes: spherical or cylindrical with
dustrial practice basically consist of few
torispherical, or flat end closures.
hemispherical, ellipsoidal, conical, toriconical,
bolted together by means
The shell components are welded together, sometimes
In structural analysis,
all
of flanges, forming a
shell
with a
common
rotational axis.
surfaces of revolution,
Generally, the shell elements used are axisymmetrical
line, called a meridian
straight
simple
formed by rotation of a plane curve or a
the meridian (see Fig.
of
plane
the
in
rotation
or generator, about an axis of
meridional plane and contains the principal merid3 1)
The plane
is
called
Only such
shells will
be considered
in
all
subsequent
discussions.
principal radius of
<p
tensile,
wall
(membrane) shells in
Further, most shells used in vessel construction are thin
that bending stresses
is
characteristic
important
whose
R t 500r,
the range 10f
in close proximity
only
intensity
high
are
of
loads
external
due to concentrated
<
<
is
assumed to be small
Section
Rt
RL
i>
Section
A
R$
or
R$
or
radii
Rt
of curvature
R^ = R t ).
sin 0, radius
RL
and
fl f lie
of the parallel
on the same
line,
41
BB
for sphere,
Both
40
R2
K
circle.
= shell thickness.
= angle in the meridional plane section between the plane normal to the meridional
plane and the axis of rotation.
plane ixz).
two
shell
it
is
R L d<t>
element
R t dd,
is
cut out
mean
radii
of shell wall
in
corroded condition.
symmetrical
axkilly
maximum
stresses
remain
stress.
and
of the differential
element, as shown separately for clarity in Fig. 3.2b, c, and d. The surface forces
act
on the
membrane
body
in equilibrium, static
equilibrium
(c)
clement of an
a differential
stress resultants
A^,
Ne
in
P<t>Pe
and
QB
s b and
PR
= P.
acting
stress resultants
shell.
10
NQ
N$ $t N Q(t)
Membrane
state of
<t>
de =
M+
Qe
shells
0.
resultant couples
9%
e0 Torque
Bending stress resultant couples
0 and torque
and Mqq = 0 for axisymmetrically
couples are neglected in bending shell theory.
e<t>
(d)
loaded
shells.
Fig. 3.2.
at a differen
and P e
42.
#0, Nq
NQ
43
3.2.
lb/in.
Q<i>>
Qe 
M$>Me
Mqq.Mqq
 bending
 twisting
From
be obtained.
(N^ B Ne<p)
,
when
boundary
for a
membrane
<p
must be applied
summarized
The membrane
internal stress
stress analysis
the shell plane and that a thin shell cannot respond with bending or transverse
all
some load
in
bending, but
these bending stresses are considered secondary and are neglected. If under a
concentrated load or edge loading conditions the bending stresses reach high
values, a
if
more
made and
necessary.
2.
Any boundary
must be located
in the
meridional tangent plane, otherwise transverse shear and bending stresses develop in the shell boundary region.
3.
The
in such a
some
=Ne
in
applied to
which further
~N
as follows.
rigorous
Once the stress resultants are determined the stresses in the shell
can be computed.
Fortunately, most vessel problems occurring in practice can be solved with
satisfactory results using a simplified approach. The main reason for this is that
under certain loading conditions which occur in practice with shells of revolution, some stress resultants are very small and can be disregarded or, because of
axial symmetry, are equal to zero.
stress
special cases.
changes in curvatures
strains,
a vessel act in
in Fig.
conditions
shown
on
stress resultants
which must be in equilibrium with the external forces. Since there are only six
equations of static equilibrium available for solution, the problem becomes four
times statically indeterminate.
most
In
The
Any
free to deflect
under the
geometrical discontinuities.
o L = 0$ =N$lt
longitudinal stress:
o t = o9 = Ne /t
tangential stress:
Bending
unknowns exceeds
the
number of
the
membrane
stress
longitudinal stress
tangential stress
shear stress
o L = a0
o t = oe
t0
stresses, includes
bending
N$
and
Ne
Q^/t.
stress
and addirelations.
in shell are:
=N0 /t 6A/0 /r
=Ne /t 6Me /t
is
number of
resultants
The membrane
membrane
Once
is
about
assumed
Rjt>\0
if
any
very gradual.
6.
The
radial stress
or
is
is
assumed.
duces additional
8.
The
stresses.
loadings are such that the shell deflections are small (AT?
<
f/2)
and in
44
To summarize,
by membrane
stresses
only if it
is
thin,
Membrane
Stresses
of fundamental importance
This last equation (the first equilibrium equation) is
subjected to loads symshells
membrane
axisymmetrical
for stress analysis of
radius of curvature
principal
The
rotation.
of
the
axis
metrical with respect to
negative
(if it points
be
axis),
vessel
the
toward
it
points
be positive (if
RL
45
can
is
an axisymmetrical load;
is
a thinshell surface
P (measured
in psi).
The
of revolution,
internal pres
it
pressure varying along the axis of rotation. In the latter case usually
tions are
stresses
two
calcula
stresses
shell
can
is
sin (dd/2)]
[2R L
sin
(#)]= 2o
(ds 2 l2)IR t
and
ds x
t sin
sin (d<pl2)
is
sin (c?0/2).
= (l/)(a f
If e t
radial
(ds t I2)/R L
growth
AR
vo L )
is
2tt(K +
first
(dd/2) + 2o L ds 2
AR) = 2nR +
2irRe t
AR=Re
P/t = (o t !R t ) +
a L =PR/2t sin0=/K,/2r.
stresses
P[2R t
is
freebody diagram of a
shown
= (RlE)(o t
vo L \
(oJR L ).
where
E is
The
is
automatically
of rotation.
direction are defined as symmetrical with respect to the axis
change in the radius
that
a
out
point
to
important
seem
At this point it would
the membranestress
of curvature will introduce in the shell bending stresses that
=R =R
example R L
t
analysis assumes negligible. Taking a spherical shell as an
unit shell
and stresses o = o = o =?/2r due to the internal pressure, the
L
elongation e t
is
The change
in curvature
= (olE)(\ ) = (PR/2tE)(\
from
\IAR=(\lR')(\iR) =
to
R'=(R
AR)
i>).
= R(\ + e t )
is
given
by
For a thin spherical plate with equal curvatures in two perpendicular directions
curvature is given
the unit edge bending moment causing the change \/AR in the
2
3
rigidity of the
=
flexural
= D{\ +v)IAR where D Et /\2(\
v ) is the
by
46
shell.
Substituting for
47
axis of rotation
l/AR
yields
M = D(\
A negative moment
.
The bending
'.
 v2
will cause
stress
is
\olo b
= 2Rlt.
Section aa
(latitudinal)
stress
o b can be neglected,
as
was the
radial stress
or
Fig. 3.4.
If there are
will
The problem
as in Fig. 3.2b.
ferential equations
ditions will be
of
static
sufficient
will still
From
the
first
equilibrium equation,
dif
(oL
compute
all
three
membrane
stress resultants
so that
wind
force
puted
on a
stresses
tall
is
enough to the
a concise
3.3.
is
the
stresses as
o t =PR/t.
The
radial
growth of the
computed by
and 23.
radius
= (R/E)(o t
vo L )
 vj2).
is
cylindrical shell
is
the
in
Rf
ot
=PRlt=P(Ri
+ 05t)lt.
in pressure
The
shell thickness
is
therefore
is
radius of curvature
is
shown
in
or
a L = PR/2t,
l(o t  0.5?).
direction,
2nRo L t=PnR 2
t=PR
R =R.
The stresses in
? can be computed from
formed cylinder
There
CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
vessel design. It
is
= (PR 2 IEt)()
The
shell
AR=Re
stress
+ (o t IR)=Plt.
SE =
(PRdt) + 0.6?
or
= PRtl(SE
0.6?),
48
Code
stress.
is
Code weld
the
is
support
Both o t and o L
stress
on the
side of
is
r
K
by
a linear
support)
{line of
the differential element. However, at other section planes the shear stress ap
Example
t stiffener
line of
49
weld.
\ben\
^\ stiffening
line
fv4 ^1
L =
two
distance between
lines
of support
iY.
port
// =
on each
side of stiffener
depth of head
\ weld
Fig. 3.6.
seam
Fig. 3.5.
replaced by P. However, thinwall vessels under external pressure fail at stresses
lower than the yield strength due to instability of the shell. In addition
much
At point 0,
l
=PR/2
and
=PR
lb/in.
pressure
Normal tension
Pc
is
DQ
unsupported
shell length
L, shell thickness
is
f,
within
The behavior of
= (/?K/4)(3 cos
Shear
lot).
Very Long Cylinders. Subjected to a critical pressure PC1 the shell collapses
two lobes by elastic buckling alone (see Fig. 3.7), independent of the
supported length L. The stiffeners or the end closures are too far apart to exercharacteristic
cise any effect on the magnitude of the critical pressure. The only
equation [118]:
ratio is t/D 0 and the collapsing pressure is given by the following
1
is
into
h = Wx
As a practical
not
rule the
 ly) sin
minimum
2a] /2 =
(PR/4)
sin
2a.
is
Pc =
min.r=
where
is
[(Z),
+ 100)/ 1000]
[2E/(\
v 2 ))(tlD o y
in.,
if
under uniform
Fig. 3.7.
lobes
may be irregular.
50
where
E is
the
modulus of
elasticity
and for
accuracy:
= 0.3:
2A2E
Pc
= 2.2E(tlD 0 f.
(a)
Lc =
and
for v
1.14(1
^)
1/4
0 O (JVO
is
where 0.45(///>o )
Pc
0,s
2.
L Cl
L<L C
If the
formula
length
is
carbon
for
= 0.3) in
refs.
Sc
Short Cylinders.
If
of
failure
fluence of
is
common
Pc
At
this
point the
and 2 have
fail
by
of the material.
in
vacuum
practical significance.
Pc
at
which
SJE
is
number of
A,
this
SJE
allowable working
is
=PJ4
again employed:
inter
<L C
(2)
formula
The
L>L C and
CO
0)
psi
= 0.3,
at collapse:
S c IE=\30(tlD o y KLlD o )
SJE=\.\(tlD 0 f
Since
3.
for given
all
P = 2S(t/D0 ) we
minimum P c
the
[(LID 0 ) 0.45(r/D o )
Pc
Pc =KE(t/D o y
$
Pc = 2.60E(tlD o ?' KWo)
and the number of lobes in a comcollapse n will tend to increase and will become
can be simplified to
stress
'
2 3/4
(1 " v )
(tlD 0
1/2
If equations (a)
critical distance
called
= 0.3
51
lobes at
Sc
and
collapse,
L<L
shells
Pa Dolt = Sj2.
The material chart is then plotted against the same abscissa SJE, called factor/!
design temperature
(see Fig. A2.2 in Appendix A2), for a specific material and
together. Since
plots
the
two
ties
Factor
A
factor
B.
as ordinate P Djt. called
a
52
the
modulus of
P = B/0J5(D o lt)
for
In practical design
is
D Q lt >
when
the
factor
in.)
critical
St.
max.
J_
3.
D Q /t
maximum
the
new
(2) designing a
(the
allowable
external
minimum
A move
pressure
vertically
is t
Fig. 3.8.
vacuum
vessels,
is
stiffener,
= (D t +
I=0.035DlL s PjEin\
material chart
to
h =
weld
critical pressure.
DQ \t the
L/D0 and
10.
and
D0 it
ratios
100/1000
which
at
factor
determine
To summarize,
pressure,
starts to
used to estimate
is
sure
chart
elasticity
must be drawn
material curves
53
line
P=
5 psi for
vacuum
vessels,
I=2.\DlLjEin\
combination of
Stiffener Size.
moment
of inertia Is
is
is
the approximate
thickness
ts
moment of
used:
ts
(L s Pc ) = 3EIs IRl=24EIJDl
If the
or
with h = St s
L s and
E
0M6SD o (JLjD o )
operating temperature
be made by multiplying
is
6
28 X 10
t*
higher than
can
(Fig. 3.8)
and
The required
now be
estimated
psi:
As =
8fJ.
room temperature,
6
l
by (28 X \0 /E') i* where E'
,
is
at
To
The collapsing strength of the
ring
is
computation by the
1.1
14).
The
Is
A s /L s where A s
is (r + A s lL s ):
ratio
is
by
For
E for
carbon
=DlL s (t + A s lL s )Al\4w.\
is
rs
= (D 2o L s )(t +
A s lL s )All0.9
neutral axis of
As
has to be
first
estimated.
for ring stiffeners are bars with a rectangular cross section and
cutouts of plate, as
shown
in Fig. 3.8.
moment
the area
shaded area
A2.2.
Code allows
Fig. 3.9.
in.
4
.
54
stiffener rings act as external lateral restraints, increasing the critical col
The
Pc
(psi)
shell
On
ther
sections.
vessel.
mally insulated vessels, they must be adequately insulated. If placed inside the
vessel, they would obstruct the flow, cleaning etc. If any gaps between stiffener
and
Code procedure to
establish the
maximum
un
vessel, reinforced
is
subjected oc
can develop adjacent to the stiffeners, and they should be checked [51]
The stiffenertoshell weld (Fig. 3.8) must carry the load PL S (lb per inch of
the stiffener circumference), and has to be designed accordingly.
is
fillet
weld
removed, the cylinder returns into original unstrained condition. At the critical
is in neutral equilibrium. At any further increase of
Lc the
shell deflection increases not in proportion to the load. The strained cylinder
passes into unstable equilibrium, caused by inelastic action at some section of
If the ratio
fail
by buckling
However, the
plastic yielding
Lc
NLc
is
oLc = 0.605
K=
of the material
Rjt
 0.901 (1  e' a )
and
can be taken as
l/2
a = 0.0625(i?/f)
taken as equal to
K then:
when
aLc Q3EtjR.
(mirumum)
fail
is
rather
close or
loaded cylindrical
shells
is
elastic
with the ends simply supported can be derived using the strain
=NLc lt = EtlR[3(\
 v2
)]
1'2
and for
= 0.3
Sa = 0.0625 Et/R
Sa  B (read from
the
Code material
and
is
= 0.605 Et/R.
sion
The length
is
Code
divi
applied against the critical theoretical stress oLc then this allowable
responding to the
3.4.
critical
of
KEtlR
axial
The
failures in
much lower
oLc
stress.
test results
Pressure.
at a critical longitudinal
by
some
or material.
pressure will
elastic strains at
If the average
Cylindrical Shells
Appendix Q.
usually satisfactory.
Only an outline of the analysis of the effects of the external pressure on the
cylindrical shells has been presented herethe minimum required to design a
vessel under external pressure. The interested reader will find a detailed development and description of the Code charts in ref. 26 and a detailed discussion of
cylindrical shells under external pressure in refs. 18, 25 and 1 18. See also Code
1
stress
Div.
critical stress
is
The
Below the
55
critical stress
o Lc
is
Fc
= irDt oLc
is
used. Although
it
is
more
difficult to
56
On
around an
spherical shell
is
developed by rota
jE
voJE)=PR 2 ltE\(\
stresses
o t and o L
are the
same. From
the equation specifying the static equilibrium at section aa in Fig, 3.10,
nR 2
cos
stress
cylin
would not be
(a L cos a) t2nR cos a 
The
Code
drical shell to
fully utilized. If
AR C
AR S then
ccP
we conclude
~ v)/2]
Both principal
shell
tion of a circle
AR = R(o
57
 v)
 v)
that
or
o L =PR/2t.
fJ
= rc(lf)/(2f) = 0.4lrc
But
where
oJR
+ o t tR=Plt,
ts
tc
so that
o t =PR/2t = o L
The Code
stress
P
SE
= PRil2t +
QAP
or
PRrfQSE ~
0.2/0,
for P.
shells or
However,
heads
will
in spherical shells
stress
as in the case
fail
of thin cylindrical
/>,
substituting
is
reached.
where
0.1
is
The
radial
growth
AR
is
To
establish
spherical shells,
the
maximum
axis of
" rotation
at
collapse, the
and
is
The
R 0 jt,
in
the design of
shell large
where
RQ
is
shells P'c
the out
given by
2El[3(\v
1/2
)]
enough
convenient Code
2
can be as low as P'c = 0.3 E(t/R)
58
is
59
shells
used, including the safety factor for the allowable external pressure:
P'a =(Ell6)(tlRo)
In order to use the material
Code charts
2

allowable external pressure P'a for spherical shells in the elasticplastic region,
Sc
maximum
where
is
Pa D 0 /t = B
S c jEA
(ordinate) against
at'
a abscissa,
and
collapse
Pa
is
the
S'c = P'c
computed from
Fig. 3.11.
oL
is
maximum
at
0 = 0 O From

giving
o t = a L
P=
0, obtain
s'jEo.nsi(Hoit)*A,
where S'c
mum
is
shell.
is
the maxi
disregarded,
P are
shell
shell in
B must be adjusted correspondingly, i.e., multi2B = PaD0 /t and the maximum external pressure for spherical
by 2
so that
is
Both membrane
from
stresses
P and q
where
large secondary
P'^BKRolt).
stresses will
develop.
involved
distance
The
shell
R t of the
is
safely
maximum
3.5.
Example
3.2.
in the
by
a flanged
P has
(a)
Membrane
equation
stress
q2nR
sin
<p 0
l2nR sin
sin
q.
The equilibrium
tall,
above 150
components with no
restraints at
0 = oL t
sin
Under Uniform
Since both
=q
by
is
or
oL
0 o /r
sin
stresses
0.
RL
Internal Pressure
and
also.
The main
radii
of curvature
RL
and
60
'are given
The
by
= [R*lh 2 +
R L =R 3 h 2 lR A
t
(1
R 2/h 2 )x 2
tangential stress
112
(o t IR t ) + (o L lR L )
61
= Plt
or
At point
2
At point l,R t =R L = R /h and at point 2,R L = h jR and R t =R. The stresses
stress on the sides of the
shearing
o L and o t are the principal stresses, with no
2
ot
= PR 2 l2th=o L
differential element.
The longitudinal
=PRj2t
stress
AA
2nR a ta L
sin
0 = nR\P
aL
or
and
at
point 2,
2
2
o t = (PRlt)[\(R /2h )].
=PR tl2t
At point
From
remains tensile;
oL
For standard 2
=PR 2l2th
if
:
\2h
>\oiR>
ellipsoidal
it
heads with
R2h
2
o t =(PRlt)[l(4h i2h
and
2
)]
=PR/t.
at point 2,
The
a L =PR/2t.
AR =R(o
AR
is
lE
is
2
uoJE) = (PR l2tE)[2
+ c
<2
(R lh
(K/fc)
)  v]
+ v
> 2. Since
there
axis of
rotation
X =
Membrane
ft,
\
1
r?1i
Y
Code
inn
p
tensile stress, if
knuckle ring
relates
modified by the
the tangential stress of the cylindrical shell of the radius R,
is based on many
which
K,
factor
intensification
stress
empirical corrective
tests.
for the
maximum
^0 /
SE = (PDil2t)K + Q.\P
~
Geometry of
a semiellipsoidal head.
where the factor QAP modifies the stress for use with the inside diameter >,2
2:1
and factor K = [2 + (D/2h) ]/6 and E is the weld joint efficiency. For
to that of
equal
nearly
=
very
is
thickness
the
head
1
and
K
ellipsoidal heads
COMPONENTS
MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL
62
give the
shell
at all
type
pressure levels.
> 300
and Rjh
> 2.5,
a failure in the
ratio R/t.
The
division line
compressive,
can occur. The combination of tensile, longitudinal stress o L and
failures
most
when
tangential stress o becomes significant during hydrotests,
t
occur.
Unfortunately, there
is
no completely
is
with the
minimum knuckle
between semiellipsoidal
from L to r introduces large disthe radius of curvature (point a in Fig. 3.13)
semiellipsoidal heads. Howstandard
the
in
continuity stresses which are absent
is shorter
depth of dish
the
and
fabricate
to
expensive
ever since they are less
used for low
heads, torispherical heads are quite frequently
similarity
than in ellipsoidal
design pressures
(<300
psi).
is
As
resist
the
procedure of finding
The design pressure on the convex side of the head is usually much smaller in
magnitude than on the concave side, and the Code design procedure (UG33d)
The procedure is
has to be used in determining adequate thickness of the head.
the
based on the analogy between the maximum allowable compressive stress in
maximum
the
and
crown region of the head with an equivalent crown radius R
with the
allowable compressive stress in the externally pressurized spherical shell
same
radius.
No
occurs.
high tensile tangential stress before deformation in the crown region
3.6.
TORISPHERICAL HEADS
two circular arcs, a knuckle
crown segment with crown radius L (see
r,
and a spherical
Fig. 3.13).
H  depth of dish

Under Uniform
The maximum
Internal Pressure
inside
crown radius
for
shell.
the outside
this
would
63
sin
Fig. 3.13.
4>
= corroded thickness
= (R  r)l(L  r)
Geometry of a
torispherical head.
64
factor
pensate
membrane
stress in the
maximum
Code
Since the tangential compressive stress in the knuckle region of a torispherical
head is much larger than that in a semiellipsoidal head, the possibility of failure
SE
o t = (PLl4t)[3(Llr)].
= PLiM/2t + 0.\P
t=PLiMI(2SE~
65
is
elasticity for
no advantage
known
to col
0.2P),
To
where
head with
a torispherical
large
d Q \t
ratios
A/=i[3
for rt
~ 0.06L/,
Membrane
M=
stresses
.77 and
E is the
due to
a /r
1/2
f)
PJoy
at
Pc =
oy ~
d=
t
therefore
= head thickness,
in.
radius, in.
o t = (PLlt)[l(H2r)].
calculated
Pc = o y {[0.8836 +
stress in the
knuckle at point a, while in the spherical cap the stresses are both in tension and
equal to Oi = o t =PL/2t. The actual compressive stress o t will be affected by
and the
d Q
and
r(
be written
membrane compressive
0.00081
L = crown
maximum
(o t lL)+[(PLl2t)lr]=P/t,
the
point a in Fig.
is
4.83(r/d)] (tlL)
where
knuckle
The above o t
final average at
point
if
L approximating
closely
substituted.
a torispherical
PJi =
is
[0.33 + 5.5(r/rf)](r/L)
Membrane*
[1 
computed
Pc
2.2(r/d)](tIL)
is
minimum
0.0006,
+ 28
in.
account for the possible thinning of plate in some locations. This would make
the Drucker's formula too conservative.
66
Example
67
3.3.
a,
w l cos a
is
P = 2SEtl(LtM+Q2t)
=
(2X
= 35
5000 X 0.25)/(120 X
.77
+ 2 X 0.25)
psi
axis of rotation
Code
yield
is
^ = 35 X 32/15 = 74
psi
Fig. 3.15.
Buckling pressure
Pc
0.00081}
2nRa L t
psi.
an increase in
P
35
1 .5
= 53
psi,
in the case
maximum
is
stress
cos a =
nR 2 P
and
o L = PRjlt cos a.
The above stress formulas are the cylindrical formulas where R has been replaced
by K/cos a.
The end supporting force to L =PR/2 cos a lb/in. at section aa in Fig. 3.15 is
shown in the meridional line as required if only membrane stresses are induced
in the entire conical head. In actual design, where the conical head is attached
to a cylindrical shell, the supporting force PR/2 lb/in. is carried by the cylindrical
shell, as
shown
(PR tan o)/2 pointing inward and causing a compressive stress in the region of the
junction. Obviously, the larger the angle a, the bigger the inward force. This
inward force has to be taken into consideration when discontinuity
3.7.
CONICAL HEADS
Under Uniform
Internal Pressure
conical head
stress
stresses at
ot
is
ii
n
i
R
'S//*tana)/2
^
/\ot
o L i +
oJR t
= Pit
and
ot.
Hill
Fig. 3.16.
Force diagram
at conecylindei junction.
68
(UA5b and
therefore, limited in
Code
rules
Otherwise the Code uses the membrane stress formula for conical
c).
(UG32g)
shells
shell
is;
Code
maximum
to determine the
stress
and thickness of
a conical
69
= rcosa(UG33f).
f*
The
SE = PDi/2t
cos a + 0.6?,
to point
sion (b +
where 0.6?
D(
is
in the stress
is
> 60 degrees
The
radial
growth
at section aa
L e)
where
The
E is
the
forcement the
DL
is
and
te
is
additional rein
equal to (R L t L ) lf2 l2. The resultant disstresses at the point B are in tension and oppose the
maximum
membrane
distance b
is
is
2
jE) (uoJE)] = R P[1
 (v/2)]
\tE cos a,
is
here limited
60 degrees. The interested reader will find the development of the Code design method for reducers under external pressure and other loads in ref. 126.
to
modulus of elasticity.
is
vertical
component V
at
any point
on
V = Mc/I = MR
Code procedure
moment
equal to
in Fig.
=M cos dlnR
d/nR 3
cos
lb/in.
as for cylindrical
3.17
is
replaced by
and
T2
=M cos d/nR
~M cos 6 itR
cos**!
cos
a2
H=T
sina 2
// = 7W(tana 2
tan
The maximum
force
sin
^
)
cos
6/nR 2
lb/in.
D L = outside
Ds = outside
Fig. 3.17.
is
[22]:
Two
a.
external pressure
Two Cone
M. The
shells,
with
AR=R[(o
dimen
continuity
with the
as fabrication allows,
HRdB
F = HR ~ M(ton
ct 2
tan
in.
70
71
Cone
cos (0
d0/2)
Reinforcing ring
Fig. 3.19.
Clearly an assumption
by
is
the cone
a cylindrical shell
ol
0.
TOROIDAL SHELLS
Section a a
by
replaced
max.
3.8.
Fig. 3.18.
1 is
toroid
is
an automobile
segments of toroidal
by
itself in
Since the radial forces have no tangential component the tangential shears in the
juncture
is
From
element Rdd.
we
Fin
a differential
on the
Membrane
ring:
5 = Af(tan
which
ct 2
tan
otj
juR
ct 2
and
S=
[A/(tan
The above
ring
a 
is
a2
tan a x )jitR
sin
of length
when
is
R 20 )P =
(o L t sin <t>)2nR
1 in.
and the connecting welds. The required crosssectional area of the ring
expressed as follows:
n(R 2
7
To
5 =Af(tan
is:
and
a L =P(R 2
Rl)l2tR
sin
0 = (Prlt)[(R +
R 0 )I2R]
72
[o t IW*nii)]+(a L lr)
axis of
73
= Plt
rotation
=P(R
ot
R 0 )l2ts\n
or
a t = Pr/2t.
To summarize, both
they
stresses
3.9.
oL
at
point b
more accurate
is
analysis
in
tension and
equivalent to the
is
offered in
ref.
maximum
23.
For a transition section between two coaxial cylindrical shells of different diameters a conical reducer with a knuckle at the larger cylinder and a flare (reintrant
knuckle) at the smaller cylinder
is
for this
is
stresses at the junctures due to the abrupt change in the radius of curvature,
particularly at high internal pressures (>300 psig). This can be further aggravated
Rt =
Rl =f
by a poor fit of the conecylinder weld joint. The conical transition section with
knuckles has both circumferential weld joints away from discontinuities and
usually a better alignment with the cylindrical sheDs; however, it is more expen
sive to fabricate.
Fig. 3.20.
Geometry of
a toroidal shell.
The knuckle
At point
where
R0
 r,
in a
At point
2,
where
R =R 0
b,
where
R0
form of toroidal
rings of the
same
In the following discussion the required radii for the knuckle r L and the flare
rs are
r,
shape as required for a complete head. More often, both knuckles are fabricated
o L =Pr/t.
Note
that
fact that
is
by
it
is
From
the equation
{oL
+ (atlL x )Plte
74
75
we have
o t =PLiltc =PRilt c cosa
oL
=PRJ2t
small cylinder
2'*,
aL
=PL 7 l2t c
=PR
ISa
 (r lR )
L
L
(rL
r/.
in Fig.
oL
=PLj2tKL
and from
(o L lr L )
+ (a t /L l )=Plt KL
we have
OtiPLjtK^lliLJlrt)).
Since L
will in practice
ot
will
be negative
(in
component of
compression) membrane stress and maximum at 1. The inward
the vertical
on
pressure
internal
o L o L sin a, will be partially balanced by the
point 1 is
at
curvature
of
radius
It
projection of the knuckle ring. The principal
of the
geometry
the
fixed
by
alike
and
shared by conical and knuckle sections
terms
of R L
in
computed
be
now
r
can
cone. The second radius of curvature L
,
~rL + rL
*i
j

cos a
cos a) =
^1 
zinJRjMX cosa)
cos a
[1
(1 
cos a)j
assuming
"!
(1  cos a)
'
p + (/>/*,)(! cos a) 1
*2
*
Fig. 3.21.
Membrane
cos a
j
dimensions are
tc
KL
From
stresses
a t and o L by inspection
76
will
a t = (PL x
KL )[\
lt
[(2r L cos
terms of R L
at
point
 rL
RL
+r L
+ rL
{R,l2rL cos
(r L sin
a)/2r L cos a]
a//? L ) 
2]/2 cos
either r L
a}
ajR L )
> 0.12 [R L
+ 5 cos a)
or
(f/2)]
3f.
to be increased.
would have
large or t KL
Flare Radius rs
Similarly, the
(r L sin
*l/0
Minimum
or
= (^L/^){[(i? L /rL ) +
a)]
cos a)
 r L cos
= (PRLltKL){[(RLir L ) +
rL
t:
in
77
membrane
stresses at point
2
2]/2 cos a}
o L =(PL 2 /2t Ks )
In replacing
must be met:
the
Code
mum
The
a f with
rules;
the
maximum
o t
S a two criteria
is
the
maximum
is
calculated compressive
membrane
stress in the
be smaller and
will
It
also
has to be remembered that the stresses o t and o L do not represent the entire
stress profile, but are only stress components used as design criteria in absence
fabrication,
the
which
would occur
failure
and
= (PRJtKs){Wslrs) +
always
(.r
s sin
a/tf ff)
in turn
+ 2]/2 cos
t Ks
From
a)},
in tension.
Rs
a+
= [P(R +
S
stress for
a t equal to (2Sa E)
state of stress.
a section of a torus
 (r
s
Since a knuckle
first,
t Ks
(rs sin
tc
we
(rs sin
< Syy t Ks
a/R s ) + 2)/2
is
given by
cos
a}.
get
a}
.buckling. Based
>
(PRJ2Sa E){[(R L lr L )
+ (r L sin
a/R L )
2]/2 cos
(PRJSa E){[\
a}
(rJR L )
(r L
cos
a/R L )] /cos a}
J,
\
2)
After simplifying,
(I
+ 4 cos a
 5
cos
in
a) r\ 
2R L (\
+ 2 cos a) r L +
RL
R\
=0
ot is
(PRJSa E){[\
{rJR L )
78
the
minimum
79
flare radius rs
sin
with (K L
 /*
+ [2R S
at
2Sa Et c cos
rs
Psm 2
Again
is
it
 r
L
+rL
R2
cos a)]rs +
where
4 cos a(R L
not made
aPR s
(2S a Et c cos
\
[\
less
than
QA2[R S
+ (r/2)] or
sin
is
a
f2
aj
stresses
'
based on membrane
/1
given by
3/.
pressure stress
is
R S2
a PR S\ 2
Psin 2 a
0,
have to be
*L
Clearly
Membrane
In order to
Stresses in Knuckles
compute the
stresses in cylindrical
knuckle and
exter
To
obtain
some
To be
in the
is
Note
determined:
1.
M and
where
is
I:
W are
external
2R
or to
2:
Cone
ref.
should be used
to the external
in
moment and
(Rl 
> (Rs +
See Fis 3  24
Both values of
is
added
Third, substituting
Pe
P:Pe ~P + AljD.
tan 0 =
sin
2.
(Rl
~ *l)
(*L
" rL )  (R s
7=
(r5
a =y  p
tan 0 =
is
t is
rs )
(R s + rs)Ui L r L )
mem
is
+ r L ) cosff
7=
(rs
a)
a
stress at point
Rl
ot,
sin
and the
with
in Fig. 3.24
moment M
dimension a
< 2Sa E
should
101.
2R 2i
less)
interested reader will find proposed design formulas for the thicknesses of
The
a y+0
equal to
process sketch of a process column and the cone half apex angle
convenience the computation is here included.
successfully used.
First, the longitudinal unit
safe, toriconical
stresses
criteria
flare regions
cs 0
and
Rs
given
on the
81
4.2.
4
Design of
The
Tall Cylindrical
SelfSupporting Process
Columns
shell thickness
of
tall
slender columns, as
computed by
the
Code formulas,
4.1.
INTRODUCTION
Tall
cylindrical process
columns
built
(skirts)
with
i.e.,
they are
concrete foundation and firmly fixed to the foundation by anchor bolts em
bedded
in
construction
wires
is
and
still
designed as an overhang
design impractical in
sels
at
elevation
taking part or
in the
ground,
axial force
for the
modern petrochemical
all
designing
by an outside
them
as
However, the
then compared with the Code allowable stress values in tension or compression permitted at the design temperature. In computing the shell thickness at
memselected elevations it is often advantageous to proceed on the basis of the
Assuming
The
plants.
tall,
slender ves
(lb/lin. in.)
that a
(psi).
tall
the external loads produce bending and shear stresses in the vessel shell.
beam
is
may be reduced by
some
an angle anchored
stacks.
tall
some
at
In
Several decades ago they were sometimes designed with a guy ring in the top
below the elevation, where the summation of the longitudinal stresses becomes
larger than the circumferential stress due to the design pressure alone.
(the
maximum
The tangential
stress failure
stress
by Code Division
ot =
is
given
by
PD/2t<Sa (ps\)
a process
column,
i.e., its
overall length
and
inside
where
diameter, as well as the operating pressure and temperature, sizes of nozzle connections, type of trays, and other internals are determined
by the process
engi
neer and transferred to the vessel engineer on an analytical data sheet with a
all
The
vessel engineer
He
is
showing
all
size
computations of the
are routinely
checked by the
all
necessary shop
diameter,
Sa = Code
in.
shell, in.
by joint
efficiency
is
moment
given as follows.
with
and
if
required.
to the pressure
M taken at
dead
82
On the windward
side,
2
oL = (PD/4t) + (4MlnD t)
= (PD/4) + (4M\^D 2 )
and the
(W/irDt)
W/nD)
Ib/lin. in.
leeward side,
oL = (PD/4t)
= (PD/4)
(4M/irD
) 
on the leeward
side
is
somewhat
larger
maximum
stress theory.
(4M/nD 2 1)
stress
stress
which
On the
get
2
iPDllt) [(PD/4t) (4MlirD t)(WlirDt))
psi
shell thickness is
= [(PD/4) + (4M/nD 2 )
2.
we
83
The design procedure for tall process columns of two or more diameters is the
same as for a tall slender vessel of a uniform cross section, except that stress anal
W/itDt) psi
(W/iiD)
when the
lb/lin. in.
induced
internal pressure
is
at the
bottom tangent
shell sections
tural design to
pressure:
tall
should
vacuum
struc
due to the effect of the combined loads, axial and bending, and
adequately sized, the
the external pressure. Assuming that the stiffener rings are
and A)Amagnitude of the critical collapse stress depends on two ratios: L/D 0
stiffener collapse
oL =
or for
(4M/nD 2 t)
(W/kDt)
are
The Code graphs from which the allowable external pressure P is computed
axial
in
increase
the
to
based on uniform external pressure alone. However, due
vacuum vessels:
0l =
(PDl4t)
(4M/irD 2 t)
The maximum axial buckling can occur locally at a section where the above
combined longitudinal stress oL reaches the magnitude of the critical buckling
Therefore, oL cannot exceed the Code allowable stress for cylindrical
stress.
shell in axial compression (UG 23b and d).
If the failure of a thinwall cylindrical shell occurs by bending the several formed
waves at the location of the collapse, then the stress would be similar to waves
formed around the circumference under a uniform axial collapse load. It can
therefore be safely assumed for all practical purposes that the buckling under
combined loads (bending plus axial) occurs, where the maximum stress becomes
equal to the
critical
[1
18]
in
At
this point
ness, based
it
will
stress
shell thick
T~(at
 <Xl)/2 or
at ~
stress.
the ability of the vessel shell to take full design external presmeans that the shell thickness
sure (15 psi for vacuum vessels) is reduced. This
reference 27 enables the dein
The computational procedure
compressive
stress.
2.
stress,
must be increased.
signer to use the Code charts
pressure
and
in
computing the
maximum
external "equivalent"
oJoLc
and o t lo tc where oL
,
The
o t jotc axes. It will primarily be a function of the loadings and the geometry of
cause
the structure and represents all combinations of a f /a te and o L jOLc that will
deterbe
can
/o
value
of
o
maximum
the
L Lc
a failure. Thus if o^o^ is known,
mined from the
curve.
The
may
be used, pro
84
vided that the same safety factors in tangential and longitudinal directions are
used.
Then
4.3.
where oLc lS.F. and oLc /S.F. can be taken as the Code allowable compressive
stresses; k is the Code allowable factor equal to 1.2 when applicable. S.F. is the
safety factor in the strength design
i.e.,
fail
number of times
the
It
S c /2),
is
lateral
SUPPORT SKIRTS
The support skirts are welded directly to the vessel bottom head or shell, as
shown in Fig. 4.1. The factors determining the skirt thickness tsk can be summarized
direction (B 
85
as follows.
ever, based on uptodate test results, the straight line equation seems adequate
and conservative. The interaction curve method eliminates the need for theoretical derivation of the maximum combined stress.
Example
From
4.1.
reference 27 a
tall
vacuum
10 feet
vessel,
in
butted weld
blends smoothly
into head contour
diameter and
of SA285B.
The total vertical weight is 200,000 lbs and the moment of external forces at the
bottom t.l. is 2,000,000 ftlb. Design temperature is 200F. Check if the shell
thickness is adequate under combined loadings by the interaction method.
stiffeners
shell thickness
0.375
in.
(a)
2
oL = (TO/4 + AMinD + W/irD)lt
Type
12/tt
120
+ 200000/tt 12)/0.375
1.
{b)
Straight
psi in
B=
0.6 and
D0 jt = 320
compression
= 27,000
psi,
= 0.00042
15 max.
8280/(1
psi in
L/D =
B = 6300
.2
.0
and taking k =
1 .2
&
<
result
able result
is
1 .0
is.**
P.
(a)
Type
The
10500
a fc /S.F. for
compression
Weld
= 8280
Flared
A more accept
2.
.
(b)
Straight
Flared
Weld
joint efficiency
Types of support
skirts
~ 0.80
86
1.
The maximum
weight
longitudinal
slress
In Fig. 4.1 two typical constructions of support skirts and their attachment
is the most often used design for tall vessels.
and
W at the base is
The
aL =
centerlines of the cylindrical skirt plate and the corroded shell plate are
approximately coincident.
psi.
the vessel
is
stress at
oL =
"
if
the bottom
is
W T /TiDsk tsk
3.
The maximum
skirt
effi
In
Type
4.
Code allowable
skirt thickness
flection; usually
t sk
for
sk
tall
is
towers
is
chosen not
less
become
excessive and
may
too high
have to be
is
is
stress
= weld efficiency.
The
is
it
skirt thickness,
[WnDsk ) + (4MlirDlk )] IE X
made equal
This type
t Sk
is
and the anchor bolt spacing becomes too small for the bolt size, the skirt is
designed as flared Type 1(b). The localized bending stresses induced in the head
by a Type 1(a) skirt are considered acceptable. However, with a Type 1(b)
skirt
ciency
87
essential.
flared skirt
shell
of Type 2(b)
is
good
fit
skirt
5.
Support
which have to be
In Fig. 4.3
the anchor bolts are located off the centerline of the skirt plate.
opening
oL = tf/f*[(!rf&/4)
If
oi
is
is
located
in
maximum
(WW2)]
is
skirt
continuous
m*D* 
Y)tsk
shell
for buckling.
circle is
skirt
equal to the
is
should be kept to
mean diameter
is
vertical
used. In addition
it
serves also to
accom
modate the anchor bolts. For the determination of the base ring thickness of
both Types A and B the method in the AISC Manual is generally applied. The
load is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the entire width b (see Fig. 4.3).
The effect of bolt holes and any reinforcement by the vertical stiffeners is disregarded. If the bearing pressure p due to the deadweight load W combined
with the external
Fig. 4.2.
skirt.
moment
is
2
p  [(W/nD sk ) + (4M/irDsk )]/b
kips/in
2
.
88
89
is
centerline
of hole
for^
tb
anchor bolt
2
min.
in.
nLiih
h
>
c/
i.d.
tb
of base ring
o.d. of
in.
for a
lower allowable
follows:
=(0.l5pn
X 20000/5 i) l/2
Fb
in.
f'c
If
bolt circle
'
vertical
base ring
c/,
stiffener
''1
top stiffening
'ring
'///////*///
V,7 f > >"'7~7
= (0.15 pn 2 )
is
base ring
Type
dead load
is
Fb =02Sf'c
when
is
covered and
F=0375/;
washer
when only
pipe
Fb =Q3
sleeve
d,
J
d=
i.d.
f'c
<F
of base ring
maximum
value of
bearing
1 .5
.6).
base ring
SkirttoBase
c
= wrench
o.d.
+ clearance
Type B
Fig. 4.3.
covered.
bolt circle
d0 
is
Types of skirt
base.
Ring
Weld.
In
Type
ring
is
total load
and designed
as a
preferably continuous.
then the
in the
2
2
o b =(pn l2)l(tll6) = 3pn
plate thickness
given
by
On the windward
ltl<S b
side
lx
(W/irD sk )
Ib/lin. in.
the leeward side for the download condition any size of weld would
theoretically be sufficient. However, since most skirts are so large that their
On
is
f>=(3p/iVS
is
l/2
ft
in.,
it
90
would seem
skirt
of the weld
full
= (4M/nD 2k ) + (W/nDsk )
h
assuming that the
is
download:
lb/lin. in.,
it
would be
a =
r
/2
//vv
in.,
(n
(lb/lin. in.
of oneinch weld)
/w = 133 Sa X 0.55
for
fw ~
.20
Sa X
0.55
17000
0.485 (L/rf
psi,
(I/a)
v (n
L = length
=
<
where
size
leg, is
91
of the
112
in.
stiffener, in.
= 0.289f k>
trie
in.
is
The thickness t v
no uplift or only
wind or earthquake
is
usually between
and S a
ever
is
is
the allowable stress for the skirt base plate or skirt shell plate, which
smaller.
Skirt Material
Top
and
skirt section.
at the
The thickness
tr
could be computed
rectangular plate
with dimensions n and c can be roughly approximated by a beam with the longer
ends fixed, load
on the
plate,
tr
where
Ab
is
the
maximum
=[Pc/4S b (nf)Vt 2
Sa ) and S b
is
{n  /)/6.
can be estimated by
Since this
same
is
skirts are
carbon
for thicknesses
steels,
in.
A283
gr.
and above.
a very important structural part the allowable stresses used are the
The heavy base rings are also fabricated from A285 gr. C with yield strength
Sy = 30000 psi. Since the allowable bending stress for structural steels with Sy =
36000 psi in the AISC base plate formula is 20000 psi, the allowable bending
stress for A285C to be used in the AISC formula can be determined as follows:
psi
weight only
in. t
tr
Z=
by
.33
S=
.2
X 16700 = 22200
X 16700 = 20000
psi
psi
weight
Higher allowable stresses are acceptable for the base ring than for the skirt
because minor deformations of the base ring from overstressing would not
shell
Vertical Stiffeners.
The
Type A,
are
welded to
the skirt and top and bottom base rings. The distance c between stiffeners
minimum
kept to the
computed bolt
size.
On
the
leeward side the stiffeners are stressed in compression and their thickness can be
computed
as that
simpler and
column.
If the thickness t v is
is
free.
maximum
is
4.4.
ANCHOR BOLTS
Selfsupporting columns must be safely fixed to the supporting concrete foundations with adequately sized anchor bolts
embedded
92
bolts.
The maximum
F = Tnd/N = (4M/dN) 
initial
force
(W/N)
93
is
lb/bolt
is
Ab =
Simplified
moments
acting
on
a tall
shown
The anchor
clearly counteracted
uplift force
follows.
given
(W/O
= (AM/ird 2
(W/nd)
4M/nd 2
stress,
is
larger than
W/nd
there
is
in.
d=
(W Q )
or'erection
(W e ),
and
is
Sa
is
lb
Ibin.
is
initial
tightening of
The maximum
turning
moment
M and
the
initial
over
The initial bolt preload together with the weight of the vessel is large
1
enough to maintain a compressive pressure between the vessel base plate and the
.
x =
C=
it is
if a relatively
effect
ZL
moment. However,
d0 =
it
initial
Ab
it
is
lb/in.
Initial
If
simplified, since
is
it
friction
is
by
T = (M/Z L )
by the
will rotate
bolts are not designed for the horizontal shear force since
in Fig.
mum
Method
The
{(4M/d)~ W]/NSa
2
in.
2.
As long
as this
compression exists
at the
pedestal behave as a continuous structure and the support base will rotate about
Under moment
becomes
M the
maximum and
the
minimum
pressure
area
Sc =
m/A c
where
A c =n(dldf)/4
/c
=*(dJd?)/64
on the contact
94
and Fi
is
minimum
the
initial
bolt load
due
(Md0 A c /2NI c )
Fi =
is
when S c =
95
The
0:
2
{WIN) = Sdo M/N(d 0 +d}) (W/N)
F( =
(4M/Nd)
(W/N).
The external moment A/ in the above equation is the maximum design moment.
Actually, it fluctuates from zero to some maximum value. The maximum force
on the bolt due to
this
moment
is
given by
Fa =(4M/Nd)
(W/N).
However, since the anchor bolt forms an elastic joint with the skirt base on the
concrete pedestal, pretightened by the force Fit only a part of Fa will be carried
The
diagram
in Fig.
moment
c'F^c'F, e\F
F,)
F = Fa
Fc = Fa
+ Fi
S=
(F,/A b ) +
Fa we
rigid, c'
lt,fA s
Es
As
in. /lb
where l b
is
is
is
(F
CFa
Forcedeflection diagram for anchor bolt and support base.
(CFa /A b ).
Table 4.1. Stress Concentration Factor Kior Threaded
(American Standard) Steel Fasteners Subject to
Tesnile Loads.
get
However,
is
quite small.
if for
instance c
The actual
is
value
one sixth of
is
modulus of
is
evaluate.
the
F/) e'/c'
ROLLED
FASTENER
CUT
FASTENER
Annealed
2.2
2.8
3.0
3.8
the stress concentration factor from Table 4.1 applied to the variable
component only.
The factor C = cj(c + e)
of C would be difficult to
is
Eb
F = F +Fam KFm%
where
= F^
Fig. 4.5.
Fc
c'
elasticity
= Fi +[c'/(c' + e'))Fa = Fi +
a bolt; at point a,
assumed to be
Fe F,(FFiie'lc'
under
e'
E s \s
96
e\ then
C
maximum
would be
The
97
bolt thread, bolt head and ring surfaces are usually cleaned in the field
before assembly with oily shop rags. This would result in friction factors: thread
f = 0.1 and surface friction f2 = 0.15 used in the above formula for the
minimum required torque T. Ordinarily, simple manual wrenching without veri
S = F/A
friction
= [Fj + (0.143
FJ2) +
X 0.143 Fj2)]/A b
(2.2
Measured control of
is
is
some
From
initial
Fig. 4.5
load Fg there
apparent
Far
it
how
is
obvious that
is
not
initial
moment
Fa
important the
as
M beyond
preload
life
is
of the
in
load F.
It is
also
bolt.
Any
is
algebraically addi
Ab
is
maximum
is
quite
common; however,
there
is
high a preload can impair the fatigue strength of the bolts. If an anchor bolt
it is
usually
by
elongation. Loading
beyond the
fails,
F(de).
area
is
given
by
Example
A b =F/Sa
4.2.
M  1.2 X 10
erection weight
Neglecting the term with the factor C, the expression for the required bolt area
reduces to
anchor
bolts.
tall
ftlb.
We
As a
first
N=\2.
Ab
is
= [(4M/d) W]/NS a
= (1/12 X 15,000) [(4X
1.2
X 10 6 X 12/79)
200,000]
or approximately
= 2.93
Ah
in
(4M/d) (W)
NS,
stress area
Ab
 3.25
in.
is
From
the form as
An
is
that occurs at infrequent intervals. If a loss of initial tension in the bolts occurs
all
bolts
6.5'
100'
equally as possible.
initial
is
given
by
10'
d = 73
where
d
d
bolt
Fig. 4.6.
= 79
= 85
Maximum
bolt
98
stress
c(cos 8
cos oc
is
99
psi.
is
contact area
in.
is
(1.2
X 10 6 X
12
X 42.5)/(1.168 X 10 6 )
Maximum
Initial
psi.
Tension
Fb
Fb
.33
in Bolts
using f'c =
3000
psi.
weight only
psi
X 900 = 1200
is,
psi
Neglected
Section aa
tight
on
no
bolts, with
initial
cause of the column weight a certain compression between the base of the
Es Ec 
column and the concrete foundation will exist, but can be partially overcome by
the .external moment M. The vessel base will partially separate from the pedestal
and will be held down by some anchor bolts on the windward side.
is resisted by a portion of the anchor bolts and the bearing
The moment
pressure between the vessel base and the foundation. The total bolt area can be
modulus of
modulus of
n = Es/Ec
replaced
by an equivalent
As
elasticity
of steel
elasticity
of concrete
= NA b =
nd
ts
or
ts
from 0 to
a, in
compression
Fig. 4.7.
= NA b lna
and
as
cantilever
aa
of Fig.
4.7), subjected to
steel area
As
tension
similar
at the
axis. Further,
=Ss/Es
and
established.
is
=SC /EC
Ss and S c
are the
(SJEa
WJE
The
=12*
e)
we
(1 
maximum
get
k)d/kd
allowable stresses,
and
S's =
S'c
Ss
=SC
(cos
a
100
move from
the
Ss
axis
nS Cy
larger than
is
and
will
produce
Substituting the above result into the previous expression for 7\ the thickness
of the
steel shell
can be computed:
M
From
the
W(zd) \
(jd)
["
[(7T 
+ cos a
a) cos a + sin
= Ss ts d[(n  a) cos a +
sin ot]/(l
is
+ cos a).
can be determined:
101
on the
vessel,
T+W C = 0,
can be determined:
ff
"0
S s dA s
r (cos
a) cos
a+
 cos 6)
(3 sin
= [(T + W)/Ss d]
tc
a cos a)/2 + (n
a)/2
To accommodate
'
[(1
a a
 cos a)/(sin
t c is
usually
made
cos a)]
by
2 [
(7r
 a) cos
C and
a+
sin
the distance
Z, 2
'can be computed:
C=
tc
dS c
[(sin
or
cos
ot)/(l 
cos a)]
and
will find
^2 = idf2) [a cos
(3 sin
forces
a cos a)/2 +
T and C is
jd=L
The distance zd of
the force
the
(a/2)] /(sin
a cos
a).
method
is
of the loads
as static. If
by
in refs.
the omission of the initial preload in the bolts and the treatment
is
probably
why
this
generally used.
In practice, a considerable preload always has to be applied, and the bolts used
C from the^
+Z, 2
in excess
is
given
by
of
On
minimum
design
few occasions
in
because the anchor bolts were not pulled up tight enough by the erection crews.
zd Li +rcosa.
From
summation of moments of
can
all
minimum
for
anchor bolts
tensile strength
is
of 60,000
carbon
psi.
steel type
A307
gr.
or B,
thread series or eightthread series, should preferably be rolled, with forged nuts
M
W(zd) TQd) = 0
of heavy
series.
T=[M
W(zd))/(jd).
be expected.
Sometimes
a corrosion allowance
of
in.
is
specified and
102
The allowable
is
matter of safe design, subject to engineering judgment. The allowable stress for
A307 bolts in the AISC Manual is 20,000 psi. This high allowable stress would
require an accurate stress analysis with welldefined static loads. Noting that
dynamic
are
103
base ring
loads,
is
it is
is
is
permit a slight
adjustment of the bolt to fit
filled later to
very costly,
the hole
in
It is a
steel
anchor bolts
as follows:
Fig. 4.9.
Sa 
,000 psi
S a = 15,000 X
= 18, 000
1.2
4.5.
psi
tall
column to
The
process column and has to be limited to a certain value. If too small a deflection
at the top of the column is specified by the client's specifications, the shell
Some
may
bolt
It
Minimum
The dimension h
embedded
its
shown
in Figs. 4.8
is
and 4.9.
bolt spacing
is
in
is
full tensile
an impact
thickness must be increased and the price of the tower will increase. Most
column height.
The deflection
at
the top of
maximum
slender columns
(HjD
>
ft
of
is
routinely
need may
tall
5)
arise for
No
is
comparatively lengthy and subject to error. The method should be, flexible
enough to permit easy inclusion of such variables as shell thickness, modulus of
elasticity due to changes in operating temperature, and wind pressure above the
ground. The method should also be as simple as possible and permit the use of
the results from previous computations of the wind moments and the wind
loads for the determination of the shell thicknesses.
method
are
shown
in Table. 4.2.
Consider the cantilever beam of Fig. 4.10. Using the formulas in Table 4.2
Fig. 4.8.
Anchor
104
ii K/'i
=
1
7,
/,!
^2
<LL
El 2 I
^1
2 J
&A
l2
105
'w 2 L 2
7 2
^3
2
7 3
_ (L, + L 2 )L 3 \W 3 L 3
6
1
fl,
Eh
QsL*
1
3
2 J
W> (
wi,
A, 4 =
Ql
Eh
(L,
A,,=
+L 2
+/,,,
<) 2 Z, 2
A l_ 2l Ai_ 3
)Z, f
Cantilever
Beam Formulas.
END ANGLE 6 AT
FREE END
Wi.
 wL
+ A/ 2
;etc.
/,
at point
IV/,
end load Qt
etc.
= deflections at point
67
wind loads
W 2 W3
Af 3 ,
etc., at
etc.,
Schematic diagram of load and deflection for sections of a cantilever beam using
END DEFLECTION
The
W
= deflection of section
Fig. 4.10.
TYPE OF LOAD
w2I 2
Eh
Table 4.2.
of column height.
.8
W2
wjt i,
in lb per ft
above the
/, equal to the summation of all HMoads
 piping thrust, if any. Q 2 =
+ Q i Qz = W 2 + ? 2 etc
X
= end moment acting at points i, due to the loads above the point.
x
+
=
=
+A/
A/
+
(W
L
L
/2)
piping moment, if any.
3
t
3
2
QX X
2
Mj]
QjU
i.
wind loads
Mf
Lj \WjL,
w2
WL
of the column
is
BEI
A i2
A 3
A i
If the deflection
Ql?
J"
27
37
MZ,
Ml 2
1EI
the deflection
Example
144
psf.
shown
in
Fig. 4.11.
Modulus of
elasticity
is
column with
F = 30X
10
106
Mj
Qj (lb)
W, (lb)
5' i.d.
(lb ft)
(ft
5/,(lbft
4 ')
2
>
WINDINDUCED VIBRATIONS
4.6.
Section
(/)
Introduction
Early in this century
6,500
107
9.05 X 109
2.1
it
tall
cylindrical
chimneys were
97,500
structures the
who
5,800
2.64
X 10 9
11.4
phenomenon
379,500
of
18,700
1,600
tall,
slender cylindrical vessels. For instance, they have relatively thick walls,
with high
,000,500
2.1
first
and platforms tend to disrupt wind flow around the vessel, and vibrations tend
to be damped by the operating liquid in the vessel and in connected piping.
However, some process towers can be subject to windinduced vibrations, and
9.05 X 109
may have
821,500
17,100
0'
Fig. 4.11.
does process columns. There are several reasons for the relative immunity
X10 9
13.76
3.18
tall,
it
than
4,800
investigators
50'
12,300
number of
tion
is
detailed examina
tall
process column
figured as follows.
is
Basic
y\
6,500 X 30
=
8
y* =
2.1
X 30 X
30 2
10
0.0024
5,800 X 30
11.4X 10
ft
X 144
6,500 X 30
97
3
is
30 X 30
1
1.4
X 10
5,800 X 30
4,800 X 30
X 10'
13.76
10
_4
12,300 X 30
11
90 X 10
9.05
U4,800 X 30
X 10 9
observed
When Re
small, the inertia forces of the stream are small, the stream behaves in a
,
1
is
more
= 0.0216
2
surface pressure lower than the pressure
of the surrounding flow (min. full vac
uum)
+ 379,500 =0.0770
L"
9
y
9 05 X I0 I
1
f
X 10 9
2
379,500
60 X( 30
X 30
12,300
real fluids at
30 2
13.76
+ 97,500
is ideal, frictionless,
with
6300 X 30
is
Principles
cylinder
Aerodynamic
,600
X 10
17,100
3
X 10
821
0052
2
: 0.0905
= 0.2235
= 2.7
Fig. 4.12.
ft
and
are front
and
108
manner and the flow tends to be laminar. When Re is large, the inertia
compared to viscous forces and the fluid flow becomes turbulent.
Re has the same numerical value for two geometrically similar systems
viscous
If
same
front are
given
air
or lb sec /ft
4
,
air
where
Cp
values.
The value of
which
is
can be taken
mass density
The
lower
it
(psf),
as
Cp
is
Re>
10
Re
s
,
Re
values,
beyond
drops to 0.30.5.
Re
values,
is
Dp
Dp
at
much
wind
load.
= 6,320 Vd,
for
wind velocity V
Re = 9,210yd,
for
Re
on
equal:
pressure acting
D = CD pV 2 /2
dju
is
where
,
by equation
Re=pVd/ti
3
3
p = 2.4 X 10~ slugs/ft
V  wind velocity, ft/sec
The
(including the position of the object in the stream) the fluid flow pattern in both
Reynolds number Re
as in Fig. 4.12.
109
in ft/sec, or
Flow
Flow
surface.
A separation
of the flow occurs near the rear of the cylinder and a wake,
a turbulent region with a lower flow velocity than the surrounding free stream,
Re
The pressure distribution around the cylinder in Fig. 4.12 is given by p = q(\ 4 sin 2 a), where q = pV 2 /2 is the dynamic pressure at the stagnation point A
where the flow velocity is zero. The net force resultant acting on a unit length
of the cylinder
is
zero.
In actual air flow the friction and the air compressibility will change the flow
The streamlines do
The pressure pattern will resemble
4.13, indicating the development of a force acting on
more
that
shown
in Fig.
rear.
By
friction
(Fig. 4.14).
Two
symmetrical vortices
with opposite rotational velocities develop, and as the wind velocity increases,
in the free
Up
alternately
force
disintegrating
on
(psf)
this critical
Re<5X
10
on the
Re
fv Beyond
wake contracts
move backward,
the
Re
values.
stability in the
when
The
cross thrust force L, like the drag force, can be expressed conveniently as
b
Fig. 4.15.
Vortex
trail in
q 
L=CL pV2/2
the
wake of
4.3tf
a cylinder.
pK2/2:
Values for
Q,
Calculated
CL
value of
Cl =
111
.7
on
field
is
CL
between
0.2 to 1.0 appear to be generally accepted and used in practice; a value of 1.0
is
CL
Critical
Wind Velocity
The first
was done
1878 by Strouhal,
who found
S=fyd/V
where
S=
fy =
d
number
V = wind
velocity
The
>
10
is
between
the Strouhal
number
wind velocity
frequency of wind vortices f v
first critical
ft
fps.
V
is
is
equal to the
first
112
column
(oxfv
/. It
/=
l/T
where
= W/g
is
the mass
V =3.40rf/rmph.
k 
V2
as
6.25^
when
co
According to
observed
first
it
stresses
At
to this
tem
wind load
problem
is
appropriate.
tall vessel, a
called
cantilever
many
them accompanied by
The
time
a distinct
mode
its
by using
in Fig. 4.16.
its
mx
0,
c'x
kx
F cos co/
system,
cor,
lb. It is
with the
maxi
minimum
this differential
is
homogeneous
equation (the righthand side set equal to zero). With two independent constants, the
system and
free
damped
vibration of the
given by:
x = e'^ 2m)t {C x
or vibra
with a single
tween
shown
vibrational freedoms
fundamental or
degree of freedom, as
pounds required to
analysis.
this
equal
The
= the
frequency
cides with
is
lb/in.
When
the velocity
lbsec/in.
by one inch,
critical
when
=/<//0.2(fps)
The second
113
sin u> d r
C2
w d f)
cos
where u> d = [(k/m)  (c/2m) 2 ] l ' 2 is the damped natural circular frequency and
Cj and C2 are constants which depend on two initial conditions. For small
,
during an earthquake,
is
such that
it
will cause
spring
F cos
<A
Flk
tjf
equilibrium
TP
position
L)
lillllll
IllllHlli
dashpot
+
]
2
[
cc
co.
where
System with a single degree of freedom subject to
viscous damping and externally imposed hamonic force.
Fig. 4.16.
2(mk) lf2
is
between
overdamping
>
nonvibrating
114
<
(c/c c
1,
F/k =
Xs
is
is
a tall,
115
maximum impressed
force
= 2n(clc c ).
force
resonance can
at
now be
Maximum M.F. =
expressed as follows:
7r/5
Some
M.F.=
2
1/{[1  (co/")
2
]
+ [(2^c)(/"k)]
l/a
structures,
maximum
Damping
is
losses
between the
xn
x n + /x =
1
e~
( TTc/m co d )
is
known
Expressed
in
as the logarithmic
" 5
decrement and
{c/lmf ]
J'2
~xn )/xn
is
co d
given by 6 = 7rc/mco d
and
mk
= c\ /4,
as the percentage
= 2n(c/c c )/{\
 (c/c )]
c
"2
in the
amplitude of
damping, friction
= e~ s
= (irc/m)[k/m
losses
by
Damping
a simple ratio,
(2ir/cj rf )]
in addition to internal
any energy
air,
 5, the logarithmic
and
shell
exp [(c/2m)f]
= exp
is
Since
[t
damping due
internal
x n +\ _ exp Hg/2ffl)
with
in
amplitudes
in line
Logarithmic Decrement 6
maximum
more
maximum
consecutive
is
measurements.
their actual
However, 6 lacks
field
full significance,
is
measurements.
since
it
describes conditions
away from
the
it
its reliable
would be
desirable.
Values of 5 for welded towers and stacks and magnification factors based
on
field
measurements
are given in
Since a deflection
is
II
and
III
maximum
transverse force per unit area of the projected surface of a cylinder at resonance
can be expressed by
For the
first
X M.F. ) =
(0.5
X 60) can be
used.
116
Table 4.3.
It
would seem
is
117
III
STIFF SOILS
vibration exists.
SOFT SOILS
Tall process
columns
Unlined stacks
Lined stacks
M.F.
M.F.
M.F.
0.126
0.105
0.314
25
0.080
0.052
0.105
40
60
0.052
30
0.035
60
90
30
0.070
45
10
number of
a large
field
observations
critical
it
wind
can be concluded
velocity
Kj
cor
may
forced vibration
For a
Ref. 48.
Source:
that the
From
first
most
after
Re
lead to modification of
values
better
is
significant fact
is
known.
predicted by forced vibration theory are not inconsistent with the observed data
and can form a basis for the mathematical checking of a stack or tower for wind
induced vibrations.
All values essential to the
are subjects
The
first critical
wind velocity
are
equal to the frequency of the impressed force, this would mean, that the stack
would
vibrate to
some degree
at a
/ and
fv
is
that'
is
the
first
period of
at
resonance on
is
L = (CL XU.F.)pV\l2
psf.
in
Assuming that wind pressure and tower mass effects are concentrated in the
to \ of H depending on exposure) and column stiffness
vessel top section
effects are limited to the vessel bottom section, the action of the total pressure acting on a cylindrical
mated by
its
tall
F = (CL XMf.)(pV\/2)(dXHl3).
7 is
the frequencies of
natural
by
equals to the
stack vibrations as observed in the field have nearly always been found to be
is
where d
This
given
is
V =3.40J/rmph
and towers.
is
vibration the cylinder controls the frequency of the impressed force [36, 47].
When
is
in
mph,
Vibration would continue through a wide range of wind velocities, and a par
F = 0.00086(0, X
ticular critical
develops. However, a full satisfactory theory for a stack oscillating with self
worked out by
its
proponents.
The equivalent
stresses
force
M.F.)(d X
HX
Vf).
maximum nominal
maximum resonance
vessel.
The induced
stresses
must be superposed on
118
combined
stresses are
No
maximum
The
total
combined
sliell
stress
material. If the
failure exists,
changes
be made.
vibrational analysis
support
skirt
is
The following
stress range
Sr
used as
a fatigue
number of
stress range
SR = 2S.
Ovaling
curve [74]
and 0
is
where n and
For carbon
steel
The value of f$
Some
(3
will
psi,
n  5 and
K = 780,000.
.2 for
a cylindrical shell
coincides with the vortex shedding frequency, the shell will have tendency to
wind direction.
The lowest natural period of a cylinder taken as a ring
from perpendicular to
finish
a stack
smooth
N = (KlfSSR
119
parallel to the
is
given by
/3
The
fatigue
life
expectency Le
in
at the
where
m = the
m=
in.
in.
0.28/386)
= modulus of elasticity, 27 X 10 6
4
3
/ = r /12, moment of inertia, in.
Z,e= AT/3,600.
psi
The
is
we
get
Ze/S.F.
No
T = d 2l66Qt
be
at least
equal to the
site.
A safety
and structure.
From
it is
where d
periods of
=
x
3A0d/2T
or
= \,\20t/d mph.
many assumed
as
approximations, the starting point for the evaluation of the vessel behavior.
Reinforcing rings with a required section modulus are added in the top third of
a stack to secure
it
from ovaling.
against vibration
is
a spiral vortex
spoiler welded around the top third of the stack. Another corrective measure
for an existing structure subject to excessive vibration would be installation of
would be advantageous
is
from
a single,
necessary. Unfortunately,
no
120
such parameter
which can be
available.
is
straight
is
is
nearly evenly
is
121
tall
WQ
crosswind vibrations very often. However, given the trend to higher, slender
4.7.
FIRST
obtain
required.
tional analysis
is
The upper
60 mph, since
limit
of the
wind
critical
as
is
high as
putations,
wind
3.
further check
is
The
limiting
minimum
is
heighttodiameter ratios
H/d
are:
unlined stacks:
H/d
>
13
lined stacks
Hjd>
15
process columns:
H/d
>
15
25
(ft) are
analysis
suggested in
H (ft), and
ref.
49 to
establish
tower
by the wind of
does not exceed
is
critical velocity
if
must be performed
performed
V (V
x
(1/0.560) (wH*/gEiyt
3
(fltf
f/8) (1/12),
section, ft
mean corroded
diameter,
ft.
2 if it is less
r = (2.70/10 s )(//A0
(wrf/0
T gives
,/a
sec/cycle
TX
rule
not required
an important
If
a stack or a
is
average
analysis should be
slender vessels
tall
2
g = 32.2 ft/sec gravitational acceleration
6
=
E modulus of elasticity, 29 X 10 psi
t =
d
5.
T=
w = weight
20
of
where
wind velocity used in static pressure comrequired. Only if V falls in the range of prevailing
no
2. If V\
first
velocities
The
temperature)
1'2
In practice,
tall
or/
process vessels have either a steppeddown shell thickness
for
W0
If
or
through the
kinetic energy K.E. occurs, when the system passes
The maximum
equilibrium position and the elastic potential energy is zero.
Maximum
122
elastic
is
at
maximum
Maximum
K.E. =
Maximum
P.E.
123
Generally, the deflection bending curve of a vessel subjected to its own weight
W) is assumed, and deflections of the centers of gravity
(initial acting force
F=
WV 2 /2g = Fyj2
y a >yb>yc>
Using the above weights and calculated deflections, the natural, undamped,
angular frequency o> n of the system in Fig. 4.18 may be found from the follow
>y n are
computed.
3.
ing equations:
and
= \g(W,y a +
and from
co
W2 y b
WH y n )l(W
y\ +
T = 2*[i:Wy2 /gXWy]
amplitude, the
V maximum
maximum
oj
ft/sec
2
,
WH y*)]
l'
1l
2
.
Thus calculated
T will
rad/sec
weights.
gravitational acceleration.
used. However,
motion
g = 32.2
Wt yt
= 2tt/7:
where
y=
simpli
method
is
if
the
The
trated or
"lumped"
at centers
beam
sections
a're
assumed to be concen
of the
beam
The
greater
the
number of
achieved.
Basically, this
is
The
hthth^
sections
beam
is
design procedure
is
W W W
beam method
fictitious
the corresponding point of the conjugate beam (the corresponding
beam with the same length as the real beam but adjusted supports) which has
deflection*^ of the
the M/EI area of the real beam as its (elastic) load, (b) The
equal to the bendis
position
real beam at any point with respect to its original
which has the
beam
conjugate
the
of
ing moment at the corresponding point
load.
(elastic)
M/EI area of the real beam as its
A stepbystep
the conjugate
The weights of
elasticity
beam
124
Md = dd
Compute
with
a suitable scale,
125
M b = bb Mc = ccx
i ,
and
the areas
A =(dd +cc
)(dc)/2
A2
){cb)l2
=(cc,
+bb
A, =(bb i )(ba)/2
end
(b)
Load diagram
(a)
Moment diagram
2.
Fig. 4.19.
The
tion (using the trapezoidal approximation) gives the shear diagram of the con
Compute
the bending
moments
W W2
t
M =0
Mb = W (L +L )/2
M = W, [(L /2) + L
Md = W [(LJ2) + L
at points a, b,
and
W3
and c and
at the fixed
end due
jugate
beam
diagram
is
cc 2
3.
+I 3
3 ]
+ (W 3 L 3 /2).
A
4.20(c).
areas
bb 2
x ,
The
A
+A2
aa 2
and
in Fig.
A
moment
+ A 2 + yl 3
20(b).
The
beam
falls
is
B lt B 2t and 3
beam
values:
beam in Fig.
Compute
Bx =(cc 2 /2)(dc)
B2
= (cc 2
+bb 2 )(cb)/2
B 3 (bb 2 + aa 2 )(ba)/2.
Sketch the Mdx
cc 3 =
4.
The
B lt
bbi
deflections can
B +2
x
and
aa 3 =,
+5 2
#3
for the
in Fig.
The
is
assumed to be
Fig. 4.20.
Moment
diagram
values are
computed
moment of inertia
at
W of the
respective sections.
at
The moment
M/I diagram
is
8' id
5'
126
1.25
20
1.25
20
0.525
10
0.525
10
0.75
15
1.0
10
i.d
Fig. 4.21.
moment of
the moment
fictitious loading
inertia /
,3
The
values of
ZWy
and XfVv
T is
calculated
as follows:
'
9483 X 106
/2
= 2,(0.1761
sec/cycle
L386X 663920J
say
T
Table 4.4.
POINT
Win.)
W (lb)
Wy (\bin.)
302,000
230,000
75,800
38,700
16,650
770
15.1
20,000
11.5
7.58
20,000
10,000
3.87
10,000
1.11
0.077
15,000
10,000
TWy lWy 2
t
663,920
Wy*
.
0bin. )
4.56 X 10
2.645 X 10
0.575 X 10
6
6
0.1498 X 10
6
0.0185 x 10
7.9483 X 10*
Fig. 4.22.
127
128
/,
=rX 4,0313 3
fX
2.521
X^~ =
4.8.
12.85
ft
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
X^j=2.09ft 4
129
Design Data
1.
3
c
>=
X.
M, =4,265 +85 X
 25 kips/ft
in.
=4,690
Support
Mb il
M/I:
ft
160ft
skirt height:
10
ft
ft
t.l.
Mi/I, =49.7
M /I
Mc//
3
= 306
= 488
M<slh = 942
M,/I 3 * 1502
= 2040
f/I3
= 2244
2,244
Mdx/J:
bottom, 10F
Design temperature: 50F
2040
= 10,710
Corrosion allowance:
kips/ft
Material: shell,
skirt,
37,275
1
,502 +

942
PWHT:
X 19.5 = 23,880
61,155
942 + 488
1
Xray:
19 = 13.S8S
Weld
SA
3,760
78,500
X 8 =
300
efficiency:
Minimum
78,800
yX
psi
100 percent
in.
in.
200
16 =
S a = 13,700
yes
49.7 + 25
psi, use
full
Trays: C. S. perforated,
X 9.5 =
S a =55,000/4 = 13,750
74,740
488 + 306
in.
5 16 gr. 55
79,000
/I:
'^^X5
26,775 kips/ft
10,710 + 37,275
X
37,275 + 61,155
19.5 =
y" g
959,700
1
61,155 + 74,740
2
74,740+ 78,500,
X
,346,365
5.256 X 1Q 6 X 1Q 3
2,637 X ]Q
2,637,365
X 10
29 X 10 6 X 144
9.5 =
365,265
X 16 = 1,262,400
Shell thickness:
= 0.631
y* =
.44
= 0.0926
0.0268
= 0.0064
5,256,865
2 .9
.44
in.
03223
0.3867
=
2.9 X 1.44
2 .9
78,800 + 79,000
2.
= 0.956
1.3461
yd
629,200
3,994,465
ft
727,900
3
X 8 =
= 1.258
29 X 10 s X 144
29 X 10* X 144
78,500 + 78,800
2
Pressure Vessel
3,994 X 10* X 10 3
_ 1,291,000
ASME
3S9.890
386,665
1977 Edition, up to
Deflections:
15 =
fabrication shall
Use f in.thick
plate.
psi
130
ellipsoidal
 0.2?) = (220
=PDil(2SE
th
66.125)/(2 X 13,700
f^^Mp
 44)

= 5,000
5'6"
i.d.
Wind
in.
70'
3.
De
Basic
pressure
as the
bottom
shell section:
De
p = 35
732,650
50'
32,940
2,075,900
36,720
2,772,500
39,420
3,533,900
40,770
3,934,650
12,150
psf. (See
20'
WIND
HEIGHT ZONE
0'to30'
25
35
50' to 100'
45
55
100' to 170'
w
w
w
w
At section
2:
(0.106
At section
3:
(0.106
At section 4:
(0.106
At' section 5:
(0.106
(0.106
\2)!(itD
2,700
1,350
Moment
= 3,934,850 Ibft
at base
Fig. 4.23.
X 9 X 25 = 135
= 0.6 X 9 X 35 = 189
= 0.6
= 0.6
X 9 X 45 = 243
= 0.6 X 9 X 55 = 297
Wind loads
w =(4A/X
3,780
30'
B X De X pz
(lb/ft OF HEIGHT)
(psf)
30' to 50'
20,790
160'
PRESSURE
At
(Ibft)
= 5000
297 X 70 =
20,790
in.
10' if
section 6:
Mp
in.
 (o.d. column + 10 in. ins.) + (o.d. 6 in. pipe + ins.) + platform + ladder
= (67.25 + 10) + (6.625 + 6) + 6 + 12 = 107.9 in. = 9 ft.
wind
Moment
(lb)
plate.
Bottom:
th
Shear
load (lb)
I"
=0.\06M/D 2
X 144)
At section 2
ld
At section
ld
At section
At section
6:
d = 246,850/(12 X
tt
5.5)
d =278,750/(12 X n X 5.5)
=
=
457
795
1
lb/in.
,190
= 1,342.
lb/in.
X
X
X
X
X
732,650)/5.5
2,075,900)/5.5
2,772 ,500)/5.5
3,533,900)/5.5
3 ,934,850)/5.5
= 2,5701b/in.
2
2
7,274
At section
(a)
2:
Windward
side:
= 9,715
= 12,383
= 13,790.
~ Id
lb/in.
Weight loads
d =
WlnnD
lb/in.
in.
131
132
Hoop
Leeward
(b)
f in.
thick plate,
4.
side:
Code allowable
stress
= 13,700
psi in
133
lb/in.
.24 in.
stress
Use lin.thick
plate.
in compression:
Anchor bolts:
At skirt base 6 flare the
(b)
S c =3,027/0.5625 = 5,381
At section
skirt to
to
1 1 ft
side:
ld
lwld =(3,934,850 X
in.
number.
/4
plate.
Code allowable
4)/(rrX 11.5
12)]  [278,750/(?r
= 13,700
psi.
Actual
lb/in.
stress area
spacing = 12
stress:
S c =8,069/0.8125 =9,950
11.5
Maximum
psi.
stress in bolt
= 15,450
4.00
1 1 .5
in.
psi
<
18,000
psi
A285
gr.
1.5
in.
tt/20
S = (3,158 134,800/ttX
= 21 .8
in.
(We = 134,800
12)
it
lb.):
BJNXA b
side:
(c)
lw  *d + tfK/2) = 12,383 
Base details:
C,
S a = 16,700
psi
no wind, 22,200
with wind.
in.
(b)
Leeward
side:
Code allowable
12)]
=(7rXB.C.X2,515)/(AfXSa )
ft
stress
Windward
side:
(a)
bolt
lb/in.
At section
accommodate anchor
Tension:
3:
Windward
(a)
psi.
w + ld =
stress,
B=
12,383 +
13,700
psi.
Actual
11.5
/U 2 )
+ (643 X
1 1
.5/1 1)
= 4,122
tb
psi
lb/in.
Bearing pressure:
stress:
S c = 13,573/1.125 = 12,064
w +/d =(3,158 X
Use
jin.thick plate.
in.
psi
134
135
Weight only:
tb
X 20/16.7)
1'
=0.67
in.
leg size
Use
in. fillet
Top
(/
w +/ d )//w = 4,122/(2 X
weld
all
around on both
1.33
in.
sides.
ring thickness:
 [(4.13 X 15,000 X 4 X
tr
Use
in.
.25)/(4
X 20,000 X
3.5)]
'2
.05 in.
thick plate.
at the
back of
this
book.
shown
in
4.24 (for
D = 69.75
in.
a = 15 degrees
n =
Windward
side, tension:
= lw
Pe =
Leeward
side,
= 12,383
 ld
1,190= 11,193
lb/in.
Otm
=Pe Y(filty/2
and
psi
< 1.33S
< 2Sa
compression:
Stresses in conical shell
l
=13,573
Pe =778
lb/in.
psi
S l n cos *
o L = CPe*/0 K
= 25,629
o L =(/V?/0(05
= (778
[(0.5/1
5,155
and
X 0.964)
psi
Xy/Rft)
X 34.87/1.375)
= 25,254 psi
psi
and
(0.5
0.155
+ 5,524 psi
V34 .87/1.375)
o p = 8743 psi<1.335
,
fl
and
8,743  25,629/2 =
21,560 psi<25
fl
136
5.
Deflection
to
Wind
load
Wind
Wind shear
Maximum
ot inertia
/(ft
(Ibft)
7=12.5
Remarks
12.5/1.70 = 7.35
= 29 X 10 6 psi
= 4.176 X 10 9 psf
ttr^t
0.733 X 10
per 100
6.
12,150
ft
401
thk
SO' } thk
6.48
6,480
6
3.53 X 10
39,420
1,350
40,770
3.935 X 10
= 30.6
Fig. 4.25.
70
4.176 X 10
[2.079 X 10
X 3.19
X 10*
73 =
X 70
[2.079 X 10
[
3
3
L
f3.29X 10
X 50
~iH
= 0.0678
4
1.215 X 10
X 50
7.33
tMm
J=0'21
6
2.076 X 10
6.48X 10 3 X 40
X 40
X 10 5 1
i
8
ft
0.0892
X 6.98
10
3.9
70 X 50
9
X 4.63
40
4.176 X 10
X 10 3 1
X 10 4 X 10
\2S.079
160 X 10
X 10
3.29
["
1.215 X
+
X 50
X 10 4 X 10
_ [394 X
L
10
X 50
3 .53 X 10
+ j
0.0015
+ 7.33X 10 s
0.2451
6
6.48
X 10 3 X 40
4.176 X 10 9 X 30 .6
X 6.48
X 10 3 X 10
1.35
4.176 X 10 9 X 30.6
4.176 X 10
X I0 2
4.176 X 10
10
2
X 10
1.35
=0,
=0.4926
+ 2.076 X 10 6
]
X 10 3 X 10
+ 3.53 X 10
=0.0467
1.045
client).
10*lf thk
2.076 X 10
in.
4.63
32,940
in.
= 5,000
20,790
20,790
4.25)
Moment
moment
Qdb]
{lb)
(Fig.
ft
Fig. 4.26.
70'
{Fig.
 thk
4.26)
137
138
Wind moment
Deflections.
12.765
y
ya
X 10 6 X 10 3
z
29 X 10 6 X 144
4.236 X 10
yb ~
X 10
0.4769 X 10
29 X 10
X 10
X 144
Stress range
1
29 X 10 6 X 144
w
(kips)
36.68
12.17
95
70
S.F.
of cycles to failure:
=20;
1.37
0.03
.125
is
required.
= AMf%
0.030
8.
2
X 752,175/5.5 =2,635
= 4,685
2.0.
9
4,685)* = 4.06 X 10 cycles.
A720 = 2.03 X 10
X 10 8 X
.
.8/3,600)
X (1/24 X 356)
82
30
3,485
127,815
852
112
10,368
stress at
any point
allowable:
Yield strength:
S a = 13,700
psi
Sy = 30,000
psi
154
Maximum
0.9
138,337
4,449.9
0.8
X 30,000
13,700
Period:
T=
1/2
 1.783 sec/cycle
2^(138,337/386 X 4,449)
h
Say
7.
T
1.85 sec/cycle.
First
wind
critical velocity:
V
Second
=3.40c?/T = 3.40
critical velocity:
V2 =62SV =6.25 X
l
12 = 75
F = 0.00086X
Moment
at
35 X 6.38 X 170 X 12
=4,685
lb.
bottom T.L.:
FX
160 = 752,175
lbft.
= 12 years.
Wy 3
Wy
lb/in.
psi.
N = (780,000/2 X
Maximum
no
hydrotest.
y
(in.)
X 2,635/1
Maximum
POINT
Sr =
1020 X 10 3
yy *
higher,
it
Number
is
29 X 10 6 X 144
6
computed
'
= 3.056
as
139
Fig. 4.27.
140
Minimum
1 .5
X 220 =
.4
330
X 0.434 =
Test pressure at 2
X 0.434 =
Test
pressure at
40 X 0.434
Test pressure at 4
Liquid
static
.4
Maximum
_31
361
_22
383
Platforms 3, 3
J8
Ladder 20
401
X 0.434 =
Test at bottom
425
psig
90
X 35
ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
X 70
(6,300)
ft
(2,650)
lb/ft
(5,000)
X 70
,482 lb/ft
X 45 X
660
thick,
in.
Tray support
X 50
lb/ft
25
rings,
800
Manholes, 2, 20in.,
(27,000)
(14,000)
WQ
Shell,
(4 + 1)/12
X 45
,400)
(1
ft
402
flanges at bottom:
X 25
Piping (estimated)
1

500
500
Nozzles (estimated)
psig
at section
94,8501b
33,000
ft
900
35 lb/ring
lb
X 2
,600
500
500
Nozzles (estimated)
Clips (estimated)
P(R, + Q.6t)lt
PH (Rt
Sa E
+ 0.6t)
Insulation, 50ft
<
?5
Platforms, 2
S a Et
X 90
2
25
ft
(4,500)
lb/ft
X 35
lb/ft
(1 ,750)
(3 ,000)
Piping (estimated)
At section
T>
SeCti n 3:
At section
n
RT
2
2:
13J00 X
=
.0
X 0.5625)
= 137
"
X 0.5625
^L^1
401 (33.063 + 0.6
RT
4:
Operating liquid,
AC
^^
<
A 52
,482 lb/ft
<
W0
900
1.75
ISEt
90
Insulation,
1.0
Platforms, 2
1.125)
1.125
"
0^7 <
.75
lb/ft
X 25
X 40
ft
X 20
Trays, 3 10 lb/tray
Shell,
Top
in.
,700
(3,600)
ft
35 lb/ft
(1,750)
(3,000)
(1 ,000)
lb/ft
lb/ft
X [() X 20 +
(27,000)
10]
X 20
(6,200)
WQ
Base
(Fig. 4.23)
in. thick,
thick,
700
1
at section 5
246,8501b
Support
To section 2
Top head, 
36,000
ft
Piping (estimated)
ft
164,9001b
500
500
W0
X 40
Ladder, 50
lb/ft
at section
Clips (estimated)
9.
(7,800)
nc
"
ne
(15,500)
X 25
=
0.876
X () X 25
Nozzles (estimated)
At bottom:
1.125)
(1,000)
ft
P(Pt + 02t)
RT
For head:
X 50
.
ne
<lM
Ladder, 20 lb/ft
141
472
lb/ft
ellipsoidal
X 70
ft
200
in. thick,
lb
,200 lb
33,000
35 lb/ring X 45
1,600
1
,500
skirt, flared
ring,
top
to 11
ft, I
in.
15 ,000
thick
3,000
ring, stiffeners
Fireproofing, 4
in.
(10,000)
thick
Bottom head, 2
ellipsoidal,
(1 ,500)
^ in. thick
WQ
2,400
at base
278,7501b
142
Shop
(3)
We
= 134,8001b,
no
We
* 162,800
with trays.
lb,
trays
test weight:
WT
= 134,800 + 162
ft
14,400
lb
+ 122 X 1,482
= 278,750 lb
ins.
lb/ft
=445,150
lb
Remarks
10.
1. When computations for shell thickness were first computerized, the tenin. to save on material as much as
dency was to step up the shell wall by
possible. The result was too many shell sections with different thicknesses. This
did not prove to be most economical and practical for fabrication and deflection
proved to be
a. tall
column
satisfactory.
thickness.
3.
It is
expected
that careful attention will be given to the preparation of the weld and other
details, as well as to materials quality control, fabrication, inspection,
4.
As
and
tests.
previously mentioned under the skirt design, for support skirts lapped to
the cylindrical shell above the tangent line, the localized bending stresses in the
shell
duelo
acceptable.
the forces normal to the shell surface are small and are considered
used.
skirts
lines,
the longitudinal
membrane
and
axial loads.)
The
components
putations
stress, as in cylindrical
similar large
ellipsoidal
knuckle
membrane
minimized and the Code formulas can be used if the connecting weld is
or near the head tangent line and if the centerlines of the supporting skirt and
stress is
at
The Code
Sa
in
combination with wind loads has been increased (1983) by 20 percent. However, the maximum allowable vessel deflection due to wind load will govern in
in
most
cases.
5
Supports for Short Vertical Vessels
5.1.
SUPPORT LEGS
General Considerations
located on the ground and United
Small and mediumsized vertical vessels,
on uniformly spaced
5.1 are usually supported
the dimensions given in Table
above
located
short vessel is
o umns called support legs. If a
by piping to a reciprocating machine
connected
if
or
construction
tural steel
vrb rat on
supported on a skirt to avoid any
(piston compressor), it is usually
vends
largerdiameter
for
even
vessel,
the
problems. To allow good access under
wind, unless
held to four, braced against the
fhe number of the support legs is
be avoided.
a larger number of legs cannot
Ishapes.
support legs are equal leg angles and
for
The structural shapes used
shown
are
shell
angle supports to the vessel
The two different ways to weld the
the
resisting
in
offers a greater moment of inertia
in Fie 5 1 The position in (a)
the
to
adjusted
be
to
the angle leg has
external loads on the vessel. However,
for
used
are
Ishapes
larger and heavier vessels,
shell curvature for welding. For
to
*^<^
support
legs.
in Fig
5 2
welded
as in (a)
can carry
much
Their required
heavier eccentric external loads.
Table 5.1.
PRESSURE
VESSELS
Maximum/)
Maximum H\D
STORAGE
TANKS
'"
l2
6'0"
as rccl uifed
Maxi mum/.//)
Number of legs:
tf = 3for_)<3'6"
N4
N=6
for
D>
or 8
Maximum
if
3'6"
required
143
144
line
of the vessel
shell.
145
baseplate computations.
is
to determine
by
1.
supportleg columns,
2. base plate,
weld
size,
4. legtobase plate
weld
3. legtoshell
size,
of anchor bolts.
SupportLeg Columns
The loads imposed on support legs are vertical and horizontal, due to weight and
wind or seismic forces. The wind force P w is computed by multiplying the
vertical projected exposed area of the vessel by the wind pressure for the location times the shape factor. The minimum wind pressure is usually taken as
20 psf, which corresponds approximately to a wind velocity of 100 mph. If the
Fig. 5.2.
vessel is located in
acting
adjusting of the flange to the shell contour can be minimized
shown
in
Fig. 5.3.
Round
pipe
is
The
inside of a
column pipe
all
is
by using shapes
directions
column, since
it
torsional
welds on both ends will be adequate for protection against atmospheric dampness and corrosion. Centroidal axes of pipes used as legs coincide with the center
on the
vessel will
Pe
is
horizontal and
is
assumed to be acting
Pe
in the
also acts
to be considered.
initial
tendency to overturn about the axis AA (Fig. 5.4) as a neutral axis and the
reactions in the
to the distance
overturning
moment Mb
maximum
C0
1
Fig. 5.3.
CT = WjjN
operating conditions
test conditions.
total
146
axial load
T0
on the windward
"(W
side (uplift)
(4Mb INDb )
W0
direction
or
and P2
P.. or
WT
H
at
column top
are
{WJN) + (4MJND)
operating conditions
?! =
WT/N
test conditions
P2 
operating conditions
or quake
T.L.
empty.
^i =
of wind
is
operating conditions
147
empty.
For computing the lateral load F per column from the force ?, the deflections
of all columns under load P are assumed approximately equal to
at the base
'
'I
F = jP//2/
f,
column
where /
Elevation
Moment
Moment
at base:
at T.L.
Mb
Ma
= ^(W +
= PH
L)
is
the
moment of
inertia of the
To determine
the
maximum
stress in
column
the
column
size has
to be
first
selected. Because of number of variables a direct choice of the size is not feasible
and successive trials must be made to select the most economical and safe
Table 5.2.
Maximum
Vertical Reaction
Overturning
3 columns
Moment
section.
6 columns
4 columns
Combined Column
(a)
Stress in Compression.
Operating conditions:
= W/06
R = 2M/3A,
M
The above
RDb +
2(Ft/2){Db /2)
R = 4MINDb
R = M/2Db
where
is
fb = [/V/(/] +
Bending:
where Ix jc
length
fa  CjA,
Axial compression:
is
the section
f L was
modulus
resisting
148
is
and
Axial compression:
fa =
WTINA.
Bending:
fb =
WT e/N(Ix lc).
Maximum
Fa
Fb
in
is
not equal
the smaller allowable value usually being the axial allowable stress
Handbook
without determining
[34]
is
They
are
Fa
in
dimensions for base plates are usually selected. Ishape columns are used for
and the stress distribution between the column and the base plate
and between the base plate and the concrete pedestal cannot be accurately
determined analytically. However, under an axial column load alone the bearing
larger loads,
method
The anchor
maximum
bolts
is
total
NFj
downward
in the
is
assumed to be uni
is
the
is
sum of
size
neglected.
may be
of
The
is
KfJFa) + ifblFb )]
<
for
left
for
if
Clab>P
fJFa >QA5.
can be taken as 0.6Fyy the yield strength; the reduction factor Cm conservatively equals one. The allowable stress Fa as well as F'e can be obtained
Fig. 5.5
first
and
ref.
are
is
not required to
column shape.
computed on the basis of wind or seismic loads in combination with dead loads.
The end conditions of the support legs, which specify the effective length factor
k, have to be evaluated by the designer and are subject to differences of opinion.
The bottom end of the leg is flatended and bearing against the foundation. The
moment
it
resistant. Theoretically,
such a
>
is less
end than required for full fixity. The support leg can therefore
be approximated by a column with end conditions between one end guided,
the other at the base fixed (k = 1) and one end guided, the other end hinged
(k = 2). The value of k = 1.5 is recommended here. If the translation of the top
resist
is
true in
most
108). Dimensions a and b in Fig. 5.5 for the base plate are
from the AISC Manual; they depend on the slenderness ratio kL/r
Fy The allowable unit stresses Fa> Fbi
kL/r
and
b and the yield strength
and F'e can be increased by onethird if the calculated stresses fa and fb are
small enough to
directly
cannot develop between the base plate and the concrete. This
Fb
is
legs.
end
connection with angle support legs are too low and practical
This
flat
is
question
k could be assumed.
Base plates are primarily used to distribute large, concentrated vertical loads into
date the anchor bolts.
column
in
Base Plates
f = fa+fb
149
restrained at the
section
Fig. 5.5.
150
The load
moment Pj(d/2)
and the
moment
base reacting
K dimension
Ce=P>(d/2)
The required
are
Ce:
e=P
or
d/2C.
computed
Minimum
LegtoShell Connecting
Weld
in Fig. 5.5 is
in this
manner
is
151
not
less
than 0.5
in.
Size
weld
is
J>3[(*/2)]
The bending
and from
stress is
/[(ca/2) + (ra/4)]/z Wf
K=C/(pbl2)
the bearing pressure
where Z w
combined
is
Pmax
=2CIKb<Fb
= 0.25
is
stress in the
weld
Fb
is
the
Manual Section
BasePlate
method
is
maximum
.5.5.
To determine
usually used
the
base
plate
thickness
and n
the
size
column base
plate thickness
is
0.80/1).
or n, depending
computed
as
uniformly loaded
as follows:
2
S b =MlZ = (pmV2)Ktll6) = (3pm )ltl
tb
=m (or )X(3p/5 6 )
1/2
is
BasePlate
= \{a 0.95d)
is
w=///w
where fw
n = \(b
Ishape, the
The
AISC
computed:
l/2
A1SC
Thickness.
total
/=(/W 6)
where
The
is
fillet
welds.
Attachment Weld
The column base plate and the column with milled end are in contact when
welded and the vertical force and moment are directly transferred from the
column into the base plate. If the column end is not milled the connecting
weld must transfer the entire column load into the base plate.
The uplift forces T0 and Te and the shear force Fare usually not large enough
to govern the weld size and the minimum size of \ in. continuous or intermittent weld
is
satisfactory.
in.
where S b is allowable bending stress for the plate material (for carbon structural
steel S b = 0.6 times the yield strength), and
p = C(2K
is
short vertical drums are usually welded to the shell in the region reinforced by
the end closure. In addition to the general longitudinal stress in the shell, high
m)ibK 2
is
in full contact
of the average
imposed on the
maximum
shell
as follows.
An
estimate
152
Anchor Bolts
Size of
legtoshell
153
Anchor
bolts are designed to resist the uplift forces and to secure the legs in
position.
Ab
tension area
per leg
is
is
small and
given
is
resisted
by
friction.
by
in.
where
or
the
minimum
for bolt,
(a)
is
5.2.
2
Sl = (4MJirD tE) + (PDjAtE)
where
E is
S L = (4MJnD
The maximum
(b)
section bb
1)
P is
+ (WltnD)
in tension,
Support lugs
operating pressure, or
medium
in
52).
compression.
is
They
are usually
is
ft)
supported on structural
steel or
columns.
If the operating
by
tips
of the gusset
compression
where
l/a
L 2 = ft + 2(Rf)
is
shell
is
stresses in
bottom
the
=PjL 2 t
diameters (110
temperature
Sc
in
(W/tirDE)
SUPPORT LUGS
reinSection aa
shell section
Fig. 5.7.
F=
154
plates.
The base
plate has to
accommodate one
be
checked
stress
bending
stress
as a
d = Rd sin a
(F/2)
and the
maximum
stress.
compressive stress
From
and
Fig. 5.7,
= F/2
sin
is
S c = {RjL ^^(eRelL^g).
The
gusset thickness tg
is
then given by
= F(3d b)lSa b 2
sin
S = 6Mlt a c2 =
Fig. 5.8.
effective
(6lta c )(Fdal8h)
drum diameter
for
wind loads:
De = 12.5 ft
w = 40 X 0.6 X
= 300
or
4
ta
tugs required.
= QJ5(Fda)IS b c 2 h
1.
Wind
loads.
where
'
c=2
Sb =
in.
DESCRIPTION
Wind on vessel
300 lb X 10 ft
Wind on frame
40 X 8 ft X 3 ft
k
Trolley 2 X 7ft
F and
moment Fd,
Example
12.5
lb/ft
drum shown
in Fig. 5.8,
SHEAR
ARM
(kips)
(ft)
(kipsft)
3.0
15.0
1.0
15.5
15.5
Pipe thrust
5.0
15.0
75.0
Total at lug
9.0
14.0
design pressure:
P  420
design temperature:
psig
150F
Sa = 15,000
pressure:
40
psf,
psi
Sa = 20,000
wind design
119.5
psi
> WT
19.5/4
= 41 kips.
12.3)
155
156
157
stress is
18,000
Sa =
Tj~\2
=9
'
885 P si
'
18,000 \r
(d) Size of the lugtoshell weld:
/,
bending:
f2 = (41,000 X 15)/[15X 19 +
combined:
weld
w=
leg:
Use \
Fig. 5.9.
shear:
in. fillet
,640/0.55
weld both
lb/in.
2
(19 /3)] = 1,520 lb/in.
1,640 lb/in.
X (20,000 X
sides for
0.6) = 0.249.
in.
50 percent
By
inspection, uplift
< 0.
minimum
Use
in.
per lug.
3.
(a)
c = ^(1 5
Support lug
7).
5,
{Fig. 5,9).
y=
p = 41,000/12 X
Maximum
Chapter
diameter, one
15
=228
Maximum
r/t
bending
stress:
psi.
a b r
" Lt
12 /1.125
Ml
~thf
= 9,550
psi.
Combined
psi.
stress:
Top
ta
o = 9,550 + (420
in.
cannot
Use l in .thick plate 4
(c)
< 2Sa
in.
wide
satisfactorily
tionable (as
on
be used, or
shell
is
objec
used.
As an additional safety
= 41,000(3 X 15
if
17)/9,885
X 17 2 X
sin
54=0.61in.
is
is
158
much
shell
shell
is
shell,
or
they
fins
The
than the
from the
when the
stiffer
159
same quality
as the shell.
following example will describe the design procedure for sizing the ring
stiffeners.
Example
is
5.2.
to be supported
on two
lugs
with
maximum
W~
load
10,000
lb.
Determine
The
vertical force
by the shear in the welds connecting the gusset plates to the pipe.
The moment Wdj2 is carried into the rings as the force P equal to Wd/2(h + t r )
to be resisted
No
is
mum
is
momenta,
is
at the points
is
7\
Pin
its
T stresses
P forces act
x
The
resulting
combined
is
is
induced
a)!2 =
K 2 P.
if
ax
where a
={Pco\
inward.
of loads given by
My = \PR[{M<x) cota] = K PR
where
is
as a circular
perpendicular to the plane of the ring curvature.) The force P acts radially
outward on the lower ring and inward radially on the top ring, as shown in
bending
girder for largediameter storage tanks where they are designed to carry loads
The
moment M
is
midpoints
is
M
the axial thrust
Zx
=(PR/2)[l/sino (1/a)]
=K PR
3
is
T2 =(/ /2)(l/sina)=/T 4 /
and the combined
maximum
stress is
o2
The
shear
point of support
coefficients
stresses
is
K 2 K 3i
and
is
usually small
stress in
neglected; however,
Fig. 5.10.
plates.
Top
ring
is
is
continuous
the ring will be smaller than actual, since the shell effect is
additional
the forces P are transferred into the rings eccentrically, causing
160
Table 5.3.
K lt K2 ,K z
and
KA
NUMBER OK
stresses.
SUl'l'OKTS
*>
0.318
0.0000
0.182
0.500
0.189
0.289
0.577
0.137
0.500
0.100
0.070
0.089
0.866
0.045
1.000
0.066
1.207
0.034
1.306
the required
Zx
M,
in.
0.707
and d  6
= 29,900/20,000 =
1.5 in.
3
.
in. at
load point
= 0.318(5,000
6
Design of Saddle Supports for Large
Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure
Vessels
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
6.1.
Ideally, the saddle supports for long horizontal vessels should be located to cause
minimum
the
The
stresses in shell
ported by two saddles, preferably with 120 degree contact angle, usually on
concrete columns; sometimes the vessel can rest directly on two concrete piers.
Any
the load per saddle. (If multiple supports are used the reactions at saddles are
computed from
The
maximum
the
beams and
increased
by 2050 percent
of the supports.)
is
maximum
is
beam. The load must be transferred from the shell to the saddle. The saddle
reactions are highly concentrated and induce high localized stresses in the shell.
Their intensity changes with the distance of the saddles from the vessel end
closures
that
round. The
own
stiffness,
keeping the
shell
ref.
6.2.
102.
would be
The
difficult
discussion
and
it is
which follows
is
IN
THE SHELL
its
beam
resisting
contents by bending.
1C1
162
assumed ineffective
The value of
portion of unstiffened
shell
2
modulus is taken as Z, =itr t
midspan is given by
in in.
^tUMjZi
3
;
and load
A\L with
in
163
the distance
at the
=\2QLKj4itr2 t
or
neutral
axis
H = depth of head,
ft.
r
r
t
If
is
2Q
ft.
= head thickness,
shell length,
r sin
in.
The maximum
stress
at
A/A
QL
4
+2[(R
{QLI4)
Maximum
and the equivalent length of the
midspan
maximum
compressive
vessel
is
taken as
6.1.
H
)IL
in
in the plane
2Q
of the saddle
\2H
A2
^1
R2
equals:
H2]
+ [4///3Z,]
is
3
2
+ (4///3L)
lbft.
It
8
2
(shell
lb.
."(HiG')T^Kr)
L
bottom) or compression
is
L + 4tf/3
top).
Midspan
Longitudinal Bending Stress S! in the Shell at the
atmospheric pressure.
ft.
t psi.
Maximum
lTir
= radius of shell,
L =
xQ =
Fig. 6.1.
The tensile stress +5j combined with the longituPR/2t should not exceed the allowable tensile stress of the
compressive
shell material times the efficiency of the girth joints. The maximum
under
stress Sj occurs when the vessel is filled with the operating liquid and
saddle, rad.
(b)
=3QLK
Section aa
(a)
2
)
4
A
4^4
is
tion ineffective in
shell in
bending
is
assumed to be
and the
effective section
modulus
Z2
164
Z2
165
The value of K[ the expression in the braces, varies mainly with the ratios ,4/Z,
and tf/Z, and the angle A. Both K and K[ can be plotted as constants for cerfor A"J and /?/L = 0.09
tain set of conditions. Assuming H = 0 for K and H =
as a maximum value, the values of K and A"J are plotted in Fig. 6.2.
If the shell is stiffened by a ring stiffener in the plane of the saddle or by
rings adjacent to the saddle, or if the saddle is close enough to the end closure
lie,
A+
sin
A cos A
 (2 sin 2
A/ A)
r[(sin
A/ A)  cos A]
2
7rr
A+
sin
'[
A cos A
7r[(sin
 (2 sin 2
A/A)
A/A) cos A]
(A
for the tension side.
The
stress
S[
is
<R/2)
tion
then
the effective angle 2 A extends over the entire cross section, the sec
modulus
is
S[=\2M 2 /Z 2
3QL {4^4
"ir**fU
7r
A+
~H
)I2Al
l+(4/f/3L)
[
(sin
["
2
\(AlL) + (R
sin
A/ A)  cos
A cos A (2
= +3QLKllirrl t
sin
and the
maximum
stress
is
S[
11
psi.
A/A)jj
The
=\2M2 lnr2 t
tensile stress
should not exceed the allowable tensile stress for the shell material
multiplied by the joint efficiency of the girth seam. Maximum compressive stress
S[ should be less than the Code allowable stress in compression.
stress
PR fit
6.3.
The
IN
distribution and the magnitude of the shear stresses in the shell produced
how
the vessel weight in the plane of the saddle will depend a great deal on
by
the
shell is reinforced.
Shell Stiffened
the
Head {A
If the shell
by a Ring
>
R/2)
is
made
effectively resist
The load
in
in
The shear
rigid
enough with a
Away from
stiffener the
whole
V Q
in the
Fig. 6.3.
is
is
on the
left side
of the ring
equal to
2A
H)I(L + H).
force across the section per unit length of arc (shear flow)
0 and
is
given by
q 0 = Ksin
<plnr lb/in.
q0
varies
166
167
^max. q 0 = Vhr
Fig. 6.4.
Assumed
saddle.
distribution of shear stresses in an unstiffened shell above the
Fig. 6.3.
Shear diagram lor shell stiffened with a ring in the plane of the saddle. (Courtesy
effective
of Welding Journal)
cross
2(tt a) in
The
section
is
assumed to be
is
the
same
(0/20)]
or
is
the load Q:
The shear
stress at
S2
stiffener will
A" 2
With load
V on
one
side
2A
(sin 0)/tt
2 sin 0,
K2
 l/n =
0.3192^2^^1
Q sin 02
>
R/2)
or Shell Reinforced
L2AH
L+H
2A
H)I(L + H)]
psi
by Two Ring
Again the effective cross section of the shell resisting the shear stresses
maximum
is
stress is
S 2 = (K'2 Qlrt)[(L
Not Stiffened by the Head {A
j,
0 2 dfa =>.
rsin
Ksin 0 2
r(ir a + sin a cos a)
0.319, hence
Shell
be
=Qolt= Vsm^/nrt
L
is
taken
where K'2 = sin 0 2 /(tt  a + sin a cos a). The maximum value of K 2 occurs
= 120 degrees, K 2 =1.171 and for B = 150 degrees, K\ =0.799.
0 2 = a, for 0
The angles
in
at
Shell Stiffened
the saddle
If
168
head.
is
<
by Heads {A
R/2)
close to the
shell
is
169
and
will
rt h
be carried
across the saddle to head and back to the head side of the saddle, with an
assumed distribution
shown
as
head
in the
in Fig. 6.5.
The shear
arc resisted
by an arc
tt
plate,
where
/sin
4*2
upward.
forces in the reinforced section q
arc acting
downward. The
sin
a+
/ \rr 
The shear
a
\(
or
sin
a.
a cos
ctl
cos
resul
degrees,
maximum
'
(Q^^
(S j n
0j )rd(p
=
]
Q{a
 sin
or
cos a)lu
J"
stress
2.
The shear
a
lQ$$i\(
sin
o cos a
\
(sin
nr
\n
a+
sin
a cos a/
from a
to
rdfa = Q(a
2 )
sin
a cos
or)/*.
6.4.
is
i\
<J>
given
by
the plane of the saddle, as evaluated in the previous section. These forces origi
Iq
^ _
2
sin
7r/7
<fi
\ /
/
7r
sin
a+
ot
cos
a
j
sin
a cos a7
maximum
moments
bending
in
maximum
and
shell
Af0 =
moment^
cos0
Qr
at
any angle
an unstiffened
6(sin0/0)
The moment
M$
is
maximum
at
j3
0=
(cos0
is
cos/3
sin
/A
+ 2 cos 2 g

11
2
'
(sin 0/0) J J
0:
M& =Kt Qr
The shear
the
by
given
<p is
3 sin/3
0
sm0.
4
shell,
stresses in
In the ring
K6
with the
a shell reinforced
circumferential
where
lbin.
by
it,
<p.
tip
170
To
in the shell in
fictitious resisting
width of
M$
shell plate
is
Fig. 6.7.
0.7
0.6
0.5
bending stresses
is
0.8
1.0
0.9
moment
1.1
coefficient AT 3 for
1.3
171
maximum
stress at
smaller.
K3
K6
in the
liberal value
The
is
sc 
where
K = K6
K 3 =KJ4
2
>
for
A/R
for
A/R< 0.5
The
resulting
bending
plot of
Q
'
4/(* +
10f)
Since the
stresses
stress at
.)
is
is
shown
in Fig. 6.7
S* m
~
A
+ 10?)
4t(b
^
2f
forL>8*
stress
with equal
53
should not
tensile
and com
The compressive stress due to the direct reaction P has to be added and was
assumed to be equal to QjA for shells without stiffeners. However, the resisting
width of the shell wall was taken only as the saddle width plus St on each side
Note
l.
5 3 may be reduced by using a wear plate between the saddle flange and the
The combined thickness of the wear plate and the shell can be used in the above
Stress
vessel shell.
172
The maximum
stress
width of
the wear plate extends O.lOr in. above the saddle tips and the minimum
should not exceed the
the wear plate is (b + 1 Or) in. The thickness of the added wear plate
shell thickness
formulas
Note
if
2.
Due
t.
shell
6.5.
ADDITIONAL STRESSES
seams
flat
RING COMPRESSION
To compute
replaced by a
become varying
tension stresses
across the entire vertical cross section, permitting an approximate solution applicable to practical design purposes.
IN
in Fig.
6i
(cos0,)/"d0,
band.
be at the bottom at
will
\ffr
= (2/2) [sin 2
The
total force
is
be equal to H/2rt h
a/(7r 
resisted
.
^7
Lrr  Of
a+
sin
sin
cos a
<p 2
Assuming
7r.
of the saddle
(<p
summation of
,4 at
an angle 0
 a).
in the shell
on the
is
<t>
+ cos
a)/(7T 
a+
sin
cos a)]
)rd<i>:
cos a)]
maximum
the
<p
sides
(cos
with the
between the
Tq = Q[(cos
Sm
in contact
shell
shell arc
^sin^
band
H=
allow
tions
the pres
maximum
head material.
IN
The shear forces q and <? 3 in Fig. 6.5 have variable horizontal components
whjch cause additional secondary stress additive to the pressure stress. The induced stress in disheo heads would be a combination of direct membrane and
bending stresses and therefore difficult to evaluate analytically. However, if the
is
in the
6.6.
head
S 4 combined with
173
stress to
be
stress will
S4 =
(1 .5/2rr)(G/2)[sin
a+
sin
cos a)]
or
SA
=K 4 Qlrt h
where
Kt
(sin
a)/(;r 
a+
sin
a cos
a).
A" 4
=0.297.
Fig. 6.8.
Compressive load in
shell
174
with the
maximum
value at 0 
T
or
ir:
= Q(l + cos
a+
ct)l(ir 
sin
F = KS Q
cos a) lb.
compression
width
is
taken
maximum
b + lOf, the
as
stress in
is
Q
s
t(b +
175
+ cos a
100 L ff
a + cos a
"
=0.204, and
for 6 =
150 degrees,
K8
=0.260.
The effective resisting crosssectional area of the steel saddle or of the reinforcing steel in a concrete support should be within r/3 distance from the shell.
Allowable Stress Limits. The average tension stress due to the force F should
not exceed twothirds of the allowable tension stress of the saddle material, since
the tangential bending stresses which have been neglected tend to increase the
sin
Ks
or
Ss
/C s
=K
Qlt(b + \Qt)
psi
6.7.
= 0.673.
If the
stresses
dimensions too large, a ring stiffener in the saddle plane (preferred) or two
The maximum
is
compressive
stress
S s should not
used the combined thickness with the shell thickness can be used
for computing stress S s provided the wear plate extends r/10 in. beyond the
horn and its minimum width is (b + 10/) in.
From the tangential shear forces 7^ the radial saddle reactions R^ can be
wear plate
stress. If
is
derived:
R<t>
(CM [(cos 0
+ cos
= (G/'HO + cos /(
maximum
Fr =
r
Jp
[*
L
'
Fat
'cos
Q
x+
~ T
r{n p + sin
<p
+ cos
(sin
sin
in Fig. 6.9.
by shear
induced
in
moment
occurs at 0 = 0:
the ring
forces
is
M^K
cos 0)]
For 0 =
The equation
7r
the reac
K6
for the
Q into
the ring
moment M0
The maximum
bending
Qr
=0.0528, and
for 6 =
150 degrees,
K6
=0.0316.
will
cos
(3
(3
is
the reaction
splitting force
(3
in lb/in.,
tion
(3)/( ff 
The
j3
^ (sm 0)r
.
Ja
cty
cos 0J
g)/2 I
7r~3 + sin0cos/3
Fig. 6.9.
176
The
Pp
Q
*
ir
where A/,
is
Ps
at the
point of
sin/3
/3
the bending
moment
at
<f>
is
given
max. R
by
min. 10r+6
cos0
ii  cos 0 +
c
 cos (J)
r(l
J
L 2(1
f
Ma
,__
 cos/3)
(M*p
M...
t)
= 0 or
i_
where for 0 = 120 degrees,
177
tf 7
=0.303.
2
Assuming the size of the reinforcing ring of a crosssectional area a(in. ) and
3
combined
stress
in
the
ring,
of .the section modulus Z =//c in. of the ring, the
=
maximum at
j3, is
Fig. 6.10.
line
and
is
Two
given by
<l>
Mp =K' Qrln
6
where for d = 120 degrees, K'6 =0.0577, for 6 = 150 degrees,^ =0.0353, and
n is the number of rings used. The maximum tangential thrust Pp is given by
or
ring, usually
Pp =K'1 Q/im
psi.
is
attached by welding
to the outside of the shell, so as not to obstruct the flow or prevent cleaning,
where for B = 120 degrees, K'n =0.265, for 6 = 150 degrees, K'n =0.228, andn
is
the
number of rings
used.
The
stress
S6
in
is
S6
in tension,
or
sure tensile stress, should not exceed the allowable stress in tension.
S'^iK'yQln^tlK'tQrMUc)}
The allowable
stress limit
is
Table 6.1
piers,
is
seldom
6.8.
used.
If the stiffeners are placed close to the saddle (see Fig. 6.10) the rings will
reinforce
psi.
The
DESIGN OF SADDLES
Design Remarks
on the
side
side
away from
the saddle.
combined
be
with wind or earthquake loads, the friction force between saddles and founda
sion or contraction of the vessel shell if the operating temperature varies from
will
tion,
similar to that
and the
test
is
caused by expan
Z co W
OJ
Oq
179
<
y
H<
to
Earthquake P or
wind load
P_
C2C
>
H to fi
w
^w*
a: 0
5  
p.
2G
'o<2
weight
<
friction
force
z o*
s
u.
z
uj
23
Elevation
*>
Fig. 6 1
.
to
Side view
^
1
ow
is
vessel
is
<z
rangement
I*to
Q
Usually, unless the location specially requires it, the wind load can be disregarded in computations. If the stresses due to wind or earthquake loads
are
<
is
shown
in Fig.
stresses
by
onethird.
ft
d5
aL co
Material.
A
<
283 grade
or C, or for
tension:
Z<
C 3
3 C C
bending:
t
^ r .pb
a5w*
stiffeners,
maximum
stresses.
J UJ
O
QO
<Z
to
5
=5
=
1
to O
<
ft r* ~i
5"
If
I*
*^
Li.
vi
516. Allow
Stress analysis.
.is?
z"
O
a;
S b =0.66S v
II
<
Ss = OASyt
shear:
3 " E
2 to* O
in
Specifications:
S a =Q.6Sy
V*
.
AISC
commonly used
is
vessel, if
'
Top flange. The design width of the top flange varies from 8 to 18 in. For
computation of the thickness tfi the flange can be considered as oneinch cantilever strip of length b/2 or more accurately c. However, with
stiffeners and web
180
are as follows:
181
= 200 psig
design temperature:
300F
Xray: full
saddle,
vessel weight:
thickness
and one
The web
The
free.
latter
approach
is
more
as well as
any bending
is
lb
plate.
moment
diameter and \
s =
'
in.
minimum
(1)
Maximum
at
the
for vessels
2ML .
nr
2
t
+ 3(0.65)(300,000)(60)
2
'
7T(72.625) (1)
6.12),
vessels
in shell
due to pressure:
ft.
Base Plate.
lb
midspan:
empty = 130,000
liquid =470,000
base.
52 and 109.
to
60
gr.
it
up
gr.
Fig. 6.12.
SA 516
SA 283
SE =
Total
combined
stress:
Anchor
bolts.
moment
is
minimum
quake
psi
<
5,000
psi.
size
>R/2,K'2
.171
forces.
'
Welds,
is
continuous
all
around. Welds
connecting web to flange, web to base plate can be intermittent. Welds connecting stiffeners to the flange and to the base plates are continuous. Usually, the
minimum weld
Example
plate
6.1.
sizes
Determine
in.)
(a) the
maximum
stresses in shell,
S *~
Fig. 6.13.
'
(3) Circumferential
K'7Q\L2A~h ]
rt
= 3,220
psi
bending
at
(1.171)(300,000)
L+H
< 0.8 X
15,000 = 12,000
(72.625)(1)
60 + 6
psi.
60106
A" 3
= 0.041
To
182
S* ~
=
3K 3 Q
Q
"
4/(6+100
2,450
1 1
2t
,808 =
"
"
14,258
'
2(1
(4)(1 .25)(24.5)
<  2SS a
1
3 (0.041) (300,000 )
300,000
.25
(
25f
5,000) =
Q

18,750
"
[ir 
psi.
Ring compression
flange thickness
cos g
B + cos
300,000/
(4)
Top
(6)
(3
0.5 \
[it 
73.5
sin (3J
K$ = 0.760:
tf.
300,000
183
tt
101 .
Bending moment:
lbin.
Expansion:
A/ = a/A7
= 7.10 X 10" 6
X 50 X
in Fig.
= (6MISa y 12 = [(6)(4,980)/(0.66)(30,000)]
1'
= 1.228
in.
fQ ~
Friction coefficient:
Shear force
fQ
a=\X
60 = 60
friction force
/0 Q,
in addition
to the weight Q,
is
in.
minimum.
in
The
maximum
Calculate the
XQ = 30,000 lb.
x0 ~
Web
(7)
0.10.
From
18,000
We
1+
l8 ,000 \kl
get
supporting structure.
Pn ))
!' 2
= 0.5[(1,500/3,318)(18,000X 0.5
= 25
in.
> 8.25
3,318)]
1/2
in.
centroid of
Maximum
S=M/Z =
stress:
(Ql2m)(bl2)l(tU6)
or
tb
Use
Fig. 6.14.
= [(Q^)/26,400m]
/2
= [(300,000)(12)/(26,400)(1 15)]
l'2
Bearing pressure:
psi
< 750
psi allowable.
in
184
(9)
Maximum horizontal
185
splitting force:
O.R. vessel
F/(0.66X 18,000) =
5.5 in.
2
.
(a)
Flexible construction
Fig. 6.16.
12
Fig. 6.15.
(12)(1) = 12
in.
4.12
(0.5)(8.25)=
(12)(1.25) = 15.00
31.12
in.
On
1.
if
and 128)
give
6.1
6b) the predicted stresses at the saddle horns underestimate the actual stresses.
2.
High circumferential and longitudinal bending stresses occuring near the saddle
all
compared
can be made:
The
reasonable results
results
total length
around.
must be structurally
adequate and designed to take the load. They could be made flexible enough not
to rigidly restrain the vessel shell and so introduce a better distribution of strains
(11) Stiffeners.
N = m/24 +1=6
and
stresses
An
would be a need for smaller sized steel or concrete supports. The latter
reason led some engineering companies to utilize this construction.
3. The vessels subject to steady operating pressure have enough builtin strength
saddles
=0.5
in.
to carry high peak horn stressed in excess of the estimated stresses to be consid
in.
design arc
bound
to
will
have to be reduced.
become important
for vessels
subject to cyclic operating pressures. Generally, the use of very rigid saddles,
which
4. Circumferential stresses
should be avoided.
LOCAL STRESSES
IN
187
v1
7
Local Stresses
in
Shells
Due
to
Loads on Attachments
INTRODUCTION
opening:
by
the
A =dX
on nozzles and
acting
Any
7.T.
primary importance.
where
source of
proper reinforcement
failures if
is
design work.
is
symmetry
complete
= the
= the nominal
Code allowable
Sv
If
Sn
is
criteria.
A =dxtr XF + 2tn t r (l
and
SJSV )
7.6 can be used whenever external loads are transmitted into the shell, under
internal pressure or
no
pressure,
by
a nozzle or a clip.
The procedures
are not
occur.
7.2.
where
may
tr
= the required
tn
Openings
in vessel shells
= (Nozzle
F = the
tall
column
is
the reinforcement of
all
weakened area
usually provided
o.d.  d)/2
when an
integral reinforcement
is
used.
in
mind
reinforcing pads.
Reinforcement
shell thickness
1.
Do
be produced in consequence.
LOCAL STRESSES
188
2.
Code section
1.7.
Use generous
3.
transition radii (r 1
and
r 2 in Fig. 7.1)
between the
from
shell
and
most
In
instances, the
moment M
From Section
stress
on the
resulting
main governing
3.1
>
peak
stresses.
The
Oiox Kn
x ~ coordinate
y=
3.
torque
Nx
K^
6MX
p
Ibin./in.
Nx
4. shear force V.
The shear
(+ outward,  inward),
2.
6My
where
oy Kn
ot
a grossly discon
189
7.3.
tinuous junction under internal pressure. The results of tests show that even a
IN
7 is
to one, since the peak stresses exceeding the yield point are redist = (T/r 0 )/2nr 0 t
and the
maximum
= Tl2irr 20 t
Nx
V is
r = V/nr 0 t.
in ref. 54.
My
and
Mx
are
spherical
mean
to simplify
maximum
designers for
and cylindrical
maximum
the
by
currently used
shells.
attachment.
I
it
is
will
Maximum
Stress
Due
to Radial
stress
aL
in tension, given
by
stress
max. Oi = a x
where
for +?,
Nx
is
tensile
Nx
is
restated as follows:
ol = o x Fig. 7.2.
Nx t/P
and
(P/l
MJP
190
ref.
56.
The
initial
LOCAL STRESSES
IN
P
Nx
mum
oL
is
is
o'l
= ox =
(P/t )[
)]
or
=C'p (P/t 2 ).
o'L
2
The values of C p = (Nx t/P) + (6Mx /t ) are also plotted in Fig. 7.3. The bendmore to the resultant stress
ing moment component
x contributes considerably
stress
tensile
o'L is directly additive
than does the Nx component. The resulting
The
stress factor
compressive
stress
which
is
~Cp would
determine
maximum
stress,
but can
Maximum
Stress
Due
to
Moment M,
is
given
The maximum
Based on the
stress
rigidinsert
due to
M will
assumption,
this
by
max. o L
2
= (NJt) + (6Mx /t
=ox
oL =
The
values of
Cm
7.2
is
y/Ri)
(in tension).
= {(N x t/M)(Rty 12 +
Cm (M/t 2
stress
algebraically additive to
the
membrane
stress
pressure.
Shell parameter,
The
shell
ments. The
parameter (abscissa
shell
C!/0.875(^O
1/2
>
/2
Fig. 7.3.
Stress factors
Cp
U=
r0 /{Rt)
shells.
191
LOCAL STRESSES
192
maximum
approximated by
The above
!/2
Ci =(fl)
<
1.5, c A
can be roughly
/2.
used as the
is
hemi
mean
radius
R.
Stress
193
due to P:
o'l
Stress
IN
.25
= +3,712
psi.
due toJf:
1.21
psi.
stresses.
Stress
a standard
2:1
due to
ellipsoidal
o L =pL/2(t + tp ) = + 6,540
is
Total
design data:
maximum
r = 450F
Checking the
(b)
Stress
Dished radius: L =
0.9/),
= 65.4
Stress
/^~\
nozzle size
10
in.
t
o'l
in.
= 0.625
 20,000
P
r
ll2
r0
psi.
due to M:
'
= 18,260
psi,
Stress
due to
internal pressure p:
= 0.625
psi.
lb
Sl
2
o'L=CpM/t (Ltyt 2
= 0.19 X 20,000 X 12/0.625 2 X (65.4 X 0.625)
Ibft
= 20,000
due to P.
= 1.25
<
U = rp l(Lt)
in.
psi.
stress:
a = 30,812 psi
Design temperature:
internal pressure p:
if
r^X\
5.375
Total
psi.
maximum stress:
T.L.
D, =
o = 34,844
72
psi
<
1.25
psi.
Fig. 7.4.
7.4.
Minimum head
thickness
is
= pDil(2SE
 0.2p)
= (250 X 72)/(2 X
5 ,000
 0.2
X 250) =
0.6
U = r 0 HL(t
1 2
+ tp)]*! 2 = 5.375/(65 .4X 1.25) ' =0.6
a cylindrical shell
in Fig. 7.5:
in.
1
shown
radial load
P (+ outward,  inward),
moment ML in plane xy,
2. longitudinal
3. tangential (circumferential)
moment
4.
5.
shear K(tangential
in
Vu longitudinal VL ).
plane xz,
can be subjected to
LOCAL STRESSES
194
rQ
195
ferential centerline.
= mean
IN
As
can be expressed
shell radius
by
a general equation:
(KbWjt2 )
o t = a0 = (Kn N+ft)
where $
taking
is
Kn K b equal to unity,
,
=(^0/O(6A//f2 )
a f = a0
or
Cylindrical shell with a radial nozzle under principal types of loads.
Fig. 7.5.
The shear
a,
stress in shell
maximum
and the
T'
V /nr0 t
t
VL
or
stresses in
most
VL a
(including
and
a),
N$
The main
P
in the case
given
is
Cp (P/t 2 ).
is
is
stress
by
L
of spherical
Cp
in tension
ot =
The maximum o t
t is
For
The value
is positive
= [AV(/Y/?)t] + (6M0 /P) is
then given by
VL /nr0 t.
or
+P
ot
=cp (p/n
shells, the
in ref.
7.9,
maximum
stresses
due to?,
ML)
and 3/ r important for design purposes. Since these charts were developed on the
,
rigid,
is
properly reinforced.
The parameters
2. Stress
Due
to Tangential
Moment
Stresses
added to the
o t = a0 =
Due
shell
algebraically
pressure stress.
to Radial
Load
<
The
/Rt
2
($)
P.
2
INtKMJ&fi] (Mt/R 0t) + [MtKMJRfi]
ot =
Ct (M /t2 RP)
t
196
LOCAL STRESSES
IN
197
LOCAL STRESSES
[SM^KMflR j3)]
IN
from data
is
199
additive
to pressure stress.
due
3. Stresses
makes
shell
The longitudinal
the
design
to Longitudinal
Moment
ML
The curvature of
a cylindrical
stress
o t and govern
ML
combined longitudinal
stress.
and pressure
stress
maximum
=CLt(MJt 2 R$)
2
The values of CLt  [N^KMi/R &)y] +
7.9 using the data from the ref. 56.
Oi is given by
[6A^/(ML //?0)]
stress
oL
The
CUi
values of
[1VX
are
plotted in Fig.
7.10.
Example
7.2.
structural clip
is
shown
in Fig. 7.1
stresses in shell.
S a = 15,000
psi.
Shell parameter:
Attachment parameters:
c =
(14X
10)
,/2
/2 = 5.92
0 = 5.92/60.25 =0.10
Stress
from + P:
o't
=Cp P/t 2
= 0.60 X 1,000/0 .5 2 = 2,400
shell
all
around and
Estimate the
psi
maximum
200
li'y.:
iz:
.11 Z,
_rr;
:.
:r
..rr"
:.'
,'
'.
 +4U 4 41.
jriii ilji
zuvz
'.
:tr:.
",
Site
Tr.z.

_"
H
~tU
;:r:r.
;
"L
;+*
;
UT.
4J4
::
;!
..,
Kill.
41"?
In
"fiii
\
....
r
si i
4i
~r
*
"
t
.
......
.......
..4.1
..
tin
.:.
1571
......
i.
11 "ii" 7.7
'fF i;r
i j.i v
:
:.
'
J.
!Trr
;;if
lit
Ha.
*
'
'
4.
i
i
4
;
:
'
"
Hit
ffi
*,
tT,n
Ij
Ui
hip.:
HrjH'150 = 7
200 = 7
i'lil
lii
:
'.
'
':;t
ill
V. tt
tf'.ti
'
0.03
Fig. 7.9.
Stress
from
0.2
0.1
ML
Stress factor
0.3
shells.
0.1
= 9,960
psi
from pressure:
o t =pR/t
= 100 X 6025/0.5 = 12,050
psi
0.03
0.2
0.1
Fig. 7.10.
Stress factor
Q,^
0.3
202
LOCAL STRESSES
IN
clip
support
>pon cup
2.
/+P
= 1000
1000
lb
14
ML
= 50,000
63
in. sq.
by
thick
olate
11
^iut
in
<
^^^^^
Ibin.
11
f o.d.
203
by f thick
pipe
R,
1.30
=60
Section a3
28
Shell
Pipe
pressure^p = 100psig
internal
after welding
is
1150 F
completed
rad,
TT^ZX^
^<M^tX^
Detail of junction
Fig. 7.11.
between
shell plates
Detail of junction
(a)
Combined maximum
No
stress:
is
psi
< 2Sa
required.
(b).
The 12
in.
of
this
book. Here,
it is
Design data and measured stresses from reference 127. In Fig. 7.12 (a) and
is
shown. Measured
stresses
on
the
outside and inside of the shell and pipe simulating nozzle under various loadings
summarized
in Tables 7.1
(b)
Fig. 7.12.
in industrial practice.
are
shell as well as
the pipe sizes and pipe thickness are in the range of generally used actual vessels
1.
on
7.2.
and 7.3.
LOCAL STRESSES
204
Measured StreiMt
Table 72.
Tabic 7.1.
IN
in Shell
Mc
205
in psi.
Type of Load
Tiantvencbcndini Momeni
Mr
"
410.000
tn.lbi
AND
SHELL.
CAGE
LONGITUDINAL
C1RCUMFER.
OUTS.
NO.
OUTS.
INS.
INS.
LONGITUDINAL
C1RCUMFER.
INS.
OUTS.
OUTS.
OUTS.
INS.
OUTS.
4360
760
1040
2840
3280
2170
5260
210
1790
4050
5540
2800
24
4560
5190
3540
410
3380
IS
6950
8980
2170
2420
2140
INS.
SHELL AND
260
24
2550
3930
200
800
18
2470
3690
5640
9400
1880
2840
960
4650
700
3000
5100
6560
3000
1370
860
7460
1500
1660
3920
4510
910
3920
7330
7040
4080
1660
10
ft
3
\n
2310
2690
4330
1140
640
5030
2060
260
15
1340
1870
3080
280
12
4780
970
4700
770
4360
7440
2340
150
120
490
J20
120
10
9480
3930
7980
3890
8830
9530
3430
80
200
280
320
1620
130
7260
5270
4190
2660
8820
6690
5700
8200
8500
1125
10780
6180
9340
2710
14880
8630
11960
6570
11650
13280
6500
1935
200
610
200
9780
11400
3540
11760
5990
12080
7900
20300
15000
13790
9240
12760
15160
7690
3640
490
450
320
11060
4680
10300
4020
7x
20400
19860
10950
10020
15550
16200
8910
4280
770
610
650
370
990
2010
7110
8160
10140
2720
11470
6810
4900
3160
7300
7580
2110
240
2150
1700
1670
3480
740
400
530
930
320
530
525
1450
490
120
1540
200
10300
14090
920
16390
13860
10970
11630
9240
3160
9780
9080
10130
220
1560
3190
100
540
1210
2610
1370
1470
1980
2610
3120
1020
730
.s
DC
510
240
24
220
570
16
970
360
890
850
1740
1100
2085
1510
120
1830
2360
1060
1280
410
890
S50
280
640
1310
2170
4080
830
570
IS
1700
610
2880
2200
700
2200
3760
4270
1430
320
12
4010
810
4620
2150
4530
3240
535
1740
40
1420
890
1520
1940
4680
1180
100
10
4750
970
4180
1910
4350
4450
1540
930
1050
650
240
730
5030
3530
5070
3410
5170
8280
2910
370
40
360
280
1560
80
1180
410
120
2800
2340
1170
490
2690
890
1050
100
1B80
570
60
700
3190
12400
17400
4940
2420
2100
380
380
14060
8950
M
ML
thick
1660
1310
2420
830
3750
2620
1640
6280
4080
3250
890
5990
4620
3540
1400
in
oc
490
730
290
1820
10
570
120
40
5770
1790
.5
1180
730
30
11160
2490
12
120
570
2350
3820
6820
IS
690
1050
2420
19890
J=
1420
1580
INS.
4210
DC
18
INS.
650
OUTS.
12050
7x
24
JD1N.
1220
INS.
INS.
LONCIT
OUTS.
OUTS.
OUTS.
INS.
480
17850
INS.
CIRCUMFER
MINOR
5120
.a
thick
OUTS.
OUTS.
LONCIT. CENTERLINE
CENTERLINE
4S*
MAJOR
LONGITUDINAL
CIRCUMFER.
CAGE NO.
INS.
3950
SheU
MINOR
MAJOR
CIRCUMFEREN. CENTERLINE
LONCIT. CENTERLINE
CENTERLINE
4S*
3470
320
4810
1980
3190
7560
4940
3220
1910
4680
5000
3000
6090
3930
6200
3810
5100
6310
7010
2840
5260
1820
6440
3540
1280
7x
5070
5600
6000
11000
8750
610
80
570
1100
3250
5290
1820
6310
9240
4710
3600
4780
5510
3730
7x
7580
7940
5310
4420
5310
7260
730
1870
4020
240
r\
DC
2.
Computed maximum
(a)
4400
3250
6820
5830
2930
2O40
7840
6500
2040
2930
5830
6820
graphs in Fig.
in shell
shell
parameter
parameter y =
From
.03
maximum measured
j3
lbs.
R/t=
Fig. 7.6
DC
Here
6450
4700
6350
it
stresses,
computed on the
basis of the
exist in
elastic theory and exceeding the yield point of the material cannot really
locations
critical
out
the
point
stresses
the shell. However, these high calculated
and 7.10.
Maximum stress
value.
2.08
28/1
.3
= 21
where the
2.08
stresses
ot
from
at
psi. In Fig.
7 = 28/2.08 =
13.5
.5
^Cp = 0.7
= 36700
in.
may initiate.
above calculated
Fig.
7.6.Cp =0.8
2
max. o t = 0.8 X 88600/2.08 = 16400
206
Table 7.3.
LOCAL STRESSES
Moment M L
IN
207
in psi.
Type of Load
Axialbending (Longit.)
ML
410,000
Moment
in. lbs
CIRCUMTERENTIAL
CENTERLINE
SHELL AND
GAGE
LONGITUDINAL
OUTS.
OUTS.
24
380
510
250
IS
320
410
540
410
15
160
60
480
12
190
250
640
10
190
450
30
220
she
k
thic
MAJOR
OUTS.
INS.
730
NO.
CENTERLINE
*S
CIRCUMFER.
INS.
LONGIT. CENTERLINE
MINOR
INS.
OUTS.
1360
980
510
1370
2580
700
290
1370
3760
380
990
3920
830
3190
3920
610
1660
5600
CIRCUMFER.
OUTS.
INS.
INS,
LONG1TUDIN.
OUTS.
INS.
360
990
1500
890
160
480
1500
2330
160
480
540
990
2520
2740
610
1080
250
4300
2580
1310
1120
2040
1260
6280
2490
3470
4510
5420
2230
10580
5000
8700
4560
410
990
1050
2770
9280
7970
6870
510
12050
5510
12620
8190
7x"
700
830
100
1270
9120
8380
63B0
730
105 20
5160
9400
6050
DC
860
70
410
480
6120
3890
7360
5670
7330
3950
8440
8280
60
540
160
320
1820
640
260
20
890
190
570
360
IS
220
410
220
860
20
1620
60
640
1370
410
700
1050
IS
130
220
130
220
480
1720
100
100
1820
1180
700
960
12
160
480
640
570
990
2200
380
290
2580
1340
1370
920
24
=i
she
Fig. 7.13.
maximum mea
sured stresses.
thic
10
250
190
7x
410
380
450
130
1980
2330
1050
670
2800
1370
1560
920
380
800
3530
2990
2070
710
5420
1080
3510
4170
190
640
1080
4800
4110
2870
380
6370
3350
5260
2900
760
860
1530
5540
3980
2900
510
6080
3730
3860
2290
540
250
320
4710
2870
5030
4210
72O0
4400
7100
5960
130
DC
(c) Stresses
moment ML = 410000
2
o t = 0.35 (410000/1 .3 X 28 X 0.184) = 16500
(b) Stress
.3in.
thick shell:
ot =
maximum a t
in tension at point
2
a, = 0.57 (410000/1.3
from
= 410000
B in Fig.
in.lb.
ol =
7.5.
X 28 X 0.184) = 26840
2.08
in.
CLL {ML jt
R$) from
2.08
in.
thick shell:
from
Ct
CLt =
0.35
CLL = 0.42
psi
= 7135
psi
o.d. pipe.
ol
Fig. 7.9. >
Fig. 7.10
This stress compares quite well with the measured stresses from Table 7.2 which
is
Fig. 7.9. *
in Fig. 7.5.
Fig. 7.8.
in.lb.
X 28 X 0.184)
= 0.61
= 8105
psi
psi
3.
if
stresses
seem
to
LOCAL STRESSES
208
be on conservative
side, particularly in
would
it
seem
tice,
the majority of the loads on nozzles are nearly always due to thermal ex
maximum
the local overstress in the process vessel shell can lead to extensive damage, difficult
and even to a
loss
of life. However,
the analytical stress estimate neglects the stress reducing influence of the nozzletoshell fillet
stresses
IN
thickness of the reinforcing pad required for internal pressure must be increased.
The width of the reinforcing pad is usually calculated so that the stresses at its
edge will be below the allowable stress. This is done by assuming the reinforcing
pad to be the attachment, as was done in Example 7.1. The width of the reinforcing pad, unless intermediate welds are used, should not exceed \6tp or
16(f  C.A.), otherwise the pad or shell carrying heavy bending stresses can fail
in buckling.
To
pads or structural
clips
stresses.
stresses in
loads (P y
maximum compound
for the
and
ML
it
stress
what
on
different centerlines
compound
heavy loadings in
Fig.
in.)
under
the stresses in the shell are distributed around the nozzle under different loadings.
They
be combined
209
stresses
for
how
if
maximum
the
to com
56
dif
stresses
in Figs. 7.2
on
and
7.5.
However,
if
stresses are
computed Each type of load has to be treated separately and the final stresses
added. In most cases, the combined stress at the nozzleshell junction will be
.
maximum. According
the
same point.
shown
to
measurements,
stress
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
7.5
The following
1
are
body
resultants
Nq,
Nx
becomes much
6.
shell
good approximation of
shown
in
in the
above analysis
is
cannot exceed
Table 2.1
the cylindrical
by
using
stresses in
larger.
the peak stresses can occur across the base of the nozzle instead of in the shell.
To prevent this, the section of the nozzle welded to the shell and under heavy
external loads should be
made
thick
enough so
If
required
into the shell will approach the distribution assumed in rigidinsert theory,
is
which
particularly important
The computed
stresses are
nominal and do not include the stress concenPeak stresses can become important for
fatigue
analysis.
The
stress
Fig. 7.14.
signed to
in ref. 57.
large nozzles
It
can be de
LOCAL STRESSES
210
7.
IN
211
it is
often necessary to consider the effect of stresses due to external loadings or ther
mal
stresses. In
maximum
combined
may
be determined by
stresses
should be considered
acting at the same point and added algebraically unless positive evidence
as
is avail
8. In only a few cases can pipes attached to pressure vessels be treated as open
end cylinders, where the longitudinal pressure stress is absent. This is true only
for straight pipes between the vessels or where low friction expansion joints or
other provisions incapable of transmitting the full longitudinal pressure stress are
provided; for instance, a water pipe with concrete anchors and a sleeve type
The end
d 2 p, where d
is
the inside
di
ameter of the nozzle and p is the design internal pressure) has to be considered
in the design and is usually added to the piping reactions, if any.
and perpendicular to
maximum
its
stress.
The
clip is
not
known
at present time.
A major
by
a plate
through the connecting weld. In filletwelded tee joints, some of the load will be
LINE LOADS
7.6.
by the
between the
shell wall. Generally, the load will be transferred into the shell
Structural plate clips welded to the shell transfer loads into the shell basically
lines.
The
in the
over a finite, square area; the results of such an analysis cannot readily be applied to line loads.
in
The
analytical
methods
59, are quite involved and prohibitively time consuming for practical
ref.
design.
The Code
G10
section
Division
to be used in
computing the
maximum
in
clips.
induced
shell
stress
under
assumed theoretical
shell
loadings will be
stress will
stress,
be at point
more
likely as
shell
shown
However, the
stresses in
rigidly
connected to
shell
and the
in Fig. 7. 16
circumferential
clip fails
is
clip.
overloaded
clip
a very
and the
narrow
by a clip with an irregular crosssecfrom the theoretical assumed stress distribution. Under such circumstances it would seem that the use of analytical formulas adjusted to concur with the results of experimental stress measurements
area.
analysis
by
The
212
LOCAL STRESSES
uniform
line load
IN
213
9^
l/2
2
2
/f
a L  Zq/20t  t 1.17?(/?f)
Tangential
otm "
<>
membrane
<W2r 
stress:
l> 0.64?{flf)
l/2
/f
at 
()
where
q$RI2t 3qv/20t
0
1.285/(/?f)
I/2
Formulas for stresses in cylindrical shell under uniform radial line load q
q as shown is causing membrane tangential compressive stress in shelL
Fig. 7.19.
in,),
(lb/lin.
equations:
=MJZL
h =M /Z
fx
Longitudinal
(a)
Fig. 7.17.
(b)
clip.
Circumferential
clip.
ZL
Zt
moduli
in the longitudinal
and tangential
where
on actual
vessels will
test
enough published
results of
make
stress at
approach suggested
such
in ref. 7.
clips
and L
under
and
maximum
will
stress
moment
under the
stress
maximum
induced
stress
computed by
the
stress:
2
1/2
51 = 1.17(tff)
/iA
5 2 = 1.75(tfO ,/2 /2 A 2
Substituting for q in the equation for oL in Fig. 7.13 and assuming that,
is
ti
is
The maximum
this possible.
However, the
and
directions, respectively,
5 3 = 1.75(/?0 ,/2 /3 A 2
The
stresses
added
due to
algebraically.
ML
superimposed on these
While
and
Membrane
this simplified
stresses
can be
from
t and P,
due to internal pressure have to be
stresses.
method
check of problems that otherwise might remain unchecked and provides a safe
design, as proven by experience. At minimum, the results can be used for a preliminary estimate.
Example
Fig. 7.18.
shell
7.4.
structural clip
is
214
LOCAL STRESSES
IN
215
procedure based on the method of superposition can be used. The contact area
subdivided into rectangular subareas and the loading
\\
= 60
ft,
to act
on the
imum compound
method
is
proportionately divided
is
on
this
L =
3
ZX
/6 = 42.6 in.
Fig. 7.20.
maximum
stresses at points
is
A B and C.
,
mechanical loadings:
L =2,000
Maximum Z x =
(2
minimum Z'x =
5.5
= +1,500
lb.
/j
Estimate the
maximum
Code allowable
Maximum
Stress
S a  5,000
1
from
/,
=P/L = 1,500/16 = 94
in.
5.5
(9
AtpointC: aL = S =
t
= 2,000
in.
ML /26.58 =
.17(3.72)0.0376
= 0.0068
0.0316ML
2
At points: aL =S, = 1.17(3.72)0.068 A/L /1.218
psi,
MJZX
4.5
f[=ML IZx
shell stress:
ft lb.
ML
j\
= 0.1995 ML
.210
0.1
max.
ML
The maximum stress is higher than the stress as computed by the previous
method, as could be expected since the simplified method does not take advantage of loads being distributed over small area. However, the locations of the
P and ML
ol
= 18,245
Stress
psi.
Pipe;
from pressure
24in. Sched.
Mean
o L (120 X 60.3)/(2
Combined maximum
80
in.
Stl.
stress:
in.
in.
in.
V'TF =3.72in.
o = 25 ,485
Example
7.5.
To
estimate the
psi<25
maximum
stress
fl
Fig. 7.21.
Support
clip
moment Mi.
216
ML
inside
Mr
outside
= + 0.0571
  0.0680
ML
inside
Mi
outside
=
cL =  0.0343
ML
ML
ML
= + 0.0818
Mjr
Point C: a/ = 0.1060
= + 0.1220
ML
outside (max.)
A/L
inside
Point
a t = + 0.04001
= 0.0814
ax,
Point B: a t
0.0815
= + 0.0944
ar =  0.0553
= + 0.1098
inside
outside
inside
outside
inside
ML
outside
maximum
but
still
a quick
8
Discontinuity Stresses
INTRODUCTION
8,1.
As discussed
cal
in
Chapter
symmetri
terials. If
displacement
would
differ
AR
radial
adjacent shell component. Since the shell elements form a continuous structure
at
two
geometry of the
shell
components
at
re
by such
abrupt change in
tinuity stresses.
beyond
the
forces and edge moments as unknown quantities, it is called the force method.
The force method offers a solution of local bending and shear stresses in boundary zones of junctions, where membrane theory is ineffective since it does not
include any bending across the shell thickness or any perpendicular shear in its
basic differential equations.
Discontinuity stresses themselves are usually not serious under static loads
if
but they become important under cyclic loads. Under a steady load they are
considered to be of selflimiting nature, and higher allowable stress
for the
combined
membrane
stresses
caused by
all
permitted
is
stress.
and thinner
shelts
to
of high
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
218
strength materials
makes
it
more important
to evaluate
all
membrane
stresses
and
radial
219
discontinuity stresses.
The
method can
problem.
blocks, as
shown
largediameter
pipe
is
anchored at intervals
rigidly
is
In the
membrane
AR. At
concrete
in
of intensity P, the
section OO,
prevented by the
method
o t = PR/t,
concrete
rigid
AR
The
force
(as
in
any
OO
(lbin./in.)
of
stress at section
00
0O
shell
method
is
this availability
the deformation
is
(M 0 =
or discontinuity stresses.
common
this
Q 0 andM0
membrane
is
For most
o
RoJE = R 2 P/tE.
moment Af0
section 00
is
statically indeterminate
In the forcemethod solution [Fig. 8.1(c)] the released edge of the pressurized
0 (lb/in.) and the edge
shell at section 00 is subjected to the shear edge load
final state
released
AR
o L =0,
w0
1
lb/in.) or unit
bending
mome
.t
1 lbin./in.).
at the
shell
edge where the combined stress curve has a zero slope. Because of bending
l
(a)
(Rt)
t2
= length of
both the inner and outer surfaces must be checked for maximum and
minimum stresses. The location where the various combined stresses are maxi
stresses
mum
away from
by minimummaximum
theorem. The principal stresses developed in the shell at any location away from
the loaded edge are expressed in terms of deformation w(x) and bending mo
in
computed
Q Q andM0
forces
and the variable x, representing the distance from the loaded edge of the shell
in the direction of decreasing stress. The location of the maximum stress can be
obtained by equating the
first stress
is
this
to zero.
book. For
all
How
practical
maximum
the
stress to
In general, a shell
the follow
Membrane
AR
solution
(c)
is
zero.
Wq
= radial
Forcemethod solution
displacement due to the end
Fig. 8.1.
force
Q0
free edge,
Q0
= 0 and
w0
=0
= 0 and 6 0 = 0, (see Fig. 8.1)
2.
3.
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
220
smaller than longitudinal and tangential stresses and a biaxial stress state
It
is
edge force
Q0
is
positive
tends to
221
is
assumed.
in
CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
8.3.
crease radius/?.
moment
Radial deflection
(c)
AR
is
positive
is
and tends
positive
when
to increase
it
may
when
it
increases
00
most
In
R.
8.2.
0 (lbin./in.),
The procedure
by
composite vessel
shell
under investigation
is
rota
(lb/in.)
practical cases, the length of the cylinder exceeds the attenuation (de
as described
Q0
below:
of the midsurface of a closedend cylindrical shell
Radial displacement
1.
Q0
method can
1.
and end
For thinwall vessels the bending effects of the edge loadings, replacing the
actual boundary or joint conditions, are confined to a narrow zone. In most
rotationally symmetrical, geometrically complicated vessels this narrow zone can
w0
ence the effects of the loading conditions at the other end of the cylinder.
required.
is
under the
in Fig. 8.2
end deflections
causing tension
R. However,
P is
given
by
elements, each with a single (or gradually changing) principal radius of curvature
2.
The edge
radial
Any
wp
PR R
A*=w = ^[l0'/2)]
in.
computed.
a single material.
There
f
and 0 f
is
2.
sumed at this point. Equilibrium of forces at the junction requires that shear
Q 0 and moment 0 at the edge of one component be equal and of opposite
direction to those at the matching edge of the other component.
5. Using existing, tabulated formulas, the edge displacements w 0 and rotation
6 Q of each shell element at junctions due to Q Q and
0i respectively, are com
ing
Radial displacement
moment M0
w0
00 due
0.
Q0
and bend
Qo
puted
6.
in
terms of
growth
of one edge
7.
is
The two
w2
at the
Q0 andM0
w = wp + w
forces
radial
unknown edge
w0
is
equated to the
Q Q orM0
is
total
tion of
Q0
or
would
sign convention:
unknowns
Q 0 andM 0
8.
9.
To
Q0
and
Force
0 are
computed.
superimposed on pressure
stresses,
thermal
stress, etc.
ular to the middle surface of the shell are neglected, since they are usually
Q 0 and moment M Q
positive as
much
Fig. 8.2.
shown.
are
222
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
where
M{x) =
3(1p *)"
0 
for v
^y^
e0
+ [e*(coi
<fc
sin fix)]M 0
Q(x) = [e"^(cos
,2
jSx  sin
0x)]
G0
 [2fie^
sin (Sx] A/ 0
x
&x
cos fix) and (e~& sin fix). From
shows the plots of the functions (e'
the plots and their superpositions it can be seen that the flexibility influence
functions (terms associated with Q 0 and
0 in the above equations) decay very
rapidly from the origin 0. At a distance x  n/fi (or fix  tt) from the origin, the
Fig. 8.3.
D = Et
End
223
j\2{\
 y 2 ).
00 clockwise
is
given by
effect
Q0
and
M0
would diminish
significantly.
Using
=
fi
i/a
,ad
'2F5 5d
'
The
Q 0 andM 0
Ol = Wilt)
ot =
W)
(t>M L lt
(6M
/t
2
)
6M0 It 2
at section
w0
which causes
pending on the
caused by the
effect are
4.
sign
w 0 jR
in
radius/? equal
moment M 0
produced
stresses equal to
6vMQ /t 2
resulting
to internal pressure
up the
designer to decide
between are small enough to stay below the allowable stresses. Code
2
for a minimum distance between two structural
Division 2 prescribes 4{Rt)^
are here
It is
discontinuities.
Ew Q /R.
of deflection w 0
stresses in
= (EwolR) {6vM 0 lt 2 ).
still
x 2
whether he can use the minimum distance 2{Rt) ^ between the loads or discontinuities (see Table 8.3.) and whether the maximum calculated combined
are
(bending only,WL = 0)
00
Q0
and
The slope, deflection, moment and shear become negligibly small at fix = 5.15.
2
The corresponding shell length x = L B = 4(RfV for v = 0.3 is sometimes called
the bending boundary zone. It can be shown that L B can be generalized to any
1/2
shell of revolution under axially symmetric edge load by defining Lq = 4(/?r)
where
Example
is
8.1.
The top
half of a
at section
o L =(PR/2t)(6M0 lt2 )
o, = (PR/t) +
a r  ~P\2 (average).
5
loadings
Q0
at
and
e _ cos
3
2fi
0 are
fix
Qo +
2pD
1.0
e~ *(cos
fix
Wd
sin fix)
e'^
cos
Go+
fid
fix
2.0
3.0
4.0
Fig. 8.3.
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
224
225
A285
gr.
C.
are given:
2.
Radial growth:
Drumi.d.: 120
A285C
Sa = 13,750
at
650F = 21,800
Sy
psi
maximum
at
at
= 02 = 0
X 10" 6
in.
in.
rad.
all
0,
Displacements:
psi
the stainlesstocarbon
at
all
=0.209,
steel
Qo
~
20\D
Rotations:
Qo
steel shell
steel shell to
end
= 0.568 X 10 6
=0.071 X 10 6
^
M
M0

D2
0 2 =0.296,
650F = 15,200
stresses
summation of
304L:
3.
the
Sa = 13,700 psi
5 atm = 15,600 psi
Sy = 25,000 psi
psi
= +344,335 X
Rotations:
Sy
10" 6
650F
6
6
, = 25.1 X 10 and "c = 25.3 X 10 psi
6
as = 9.87 X 10" and a c = 7.33 X 10" 6 in./in./F
steel
A7 = (65070) = 580F:
in.
Carbon
temperature
AT = +256,415
= axR x
52
Maximum
rise in
Go
w2
Qq
_
=
77:
2$\D 2
M
_
52 
P2 D2
and
Radial deflection:
w,
w2
(v/2)]/Ec h = +13,617
t
= +27,330 X 10" 6 in.
*PR R[\
Rotations:
X 10" 6
in.
effect of the
moment
NL
two
shell plates.
will
lb/in.
tbin./in.
=360
= B 2  0 rad.
4. Total
The
Qo = 335
M
the force
Q0
and the
stress raising
of the force
(a)
combined
Carbon
and a t
stresses
steel shell:
= +8,910
= 2,150
a , = (/>* /r
psi (inside)
psi (outside)
+ {Ec w 0 //?
(6
/'? )
where
Assumed
Q0
fl
"00 =
positive directions of
and Af 0
as
shown. Eccen
T^T
yP D
x
+
2ft
6
 +39,560 X 10~
in.
tricity e disregarded.
Hence
Shell 2,
stainless steel
Fig. 8.4.
= + 21,700
psi (outside).
^
M
226
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
where
psi (inside)
Summary.
'=^ ^r+
The calculated o L
weld seam
ferential
weld
residual
rotation d Q due to
at
61
616X,0
"
6in
occurred as
a fissure parallel
is
3.
The
Q0
and
v )l(Rt)
WO
ot =
yi A R.
MQ (4\*IREt).
Q0
(6MJt 2 ) = (BWo/K)
and
M0
at
section
(toMoft 2
00
are
4.
to internal pressure
P and
Q0
and
at section
here a distinct
is
[3(1
far
inspection would not prevent final breakthrough, since the fissure would origi
0*=
2
0o = Qo{2\ lEt) +
stress first
in
X=
psi (outside)
End
0t
227
o t = (PRjlt) +
possibility.
(Ew 0 /R)
(6vM 0 /t 2 )
oL =(PRl2t)(6M 0 It*)
o r = PI 2 (average).
8.4.
HEMISPHERICAL HEADS
The discontinuity
formly distributed
edge shear
line
The
Q0
is
is
on a hemi
w0
as follows:
is
positive
positive outward.
Example
8.2.
spherical head
= (PR 2 /Et)$(\
6=0
Determine the discontinuity stresses at junction of a top hemiand cylindrical shell of a largediameter vertical vessel (Fig.
8.6)
v) in.
rad.
Radial displacement
at
section
00 due
to the loadings
Q0
and
in
Fig. 8.4:
wQ
Q 0 (2R\lEt) + M 0 (2K
full,
Inside radius:
Material:^ 515
Sy 23000 psi.
1.
= 120
gr.
in.,
60,
Sa = 14,300
Edge loads
E = 24.8 X
10
psi,
is
SEQ.6P~
==L27ln
Q0
are positive as
and Af0
shown.
PRi
t
Fig. 8.5.
v = 0.3,
150X 120
PRi
ts
psi,
2SEQ2P
150X120
2X
"
228
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
229
58,600
96Q 0
IOM0 = 48,637 +
272<2o +
4QM0
2M0 =40Q 0
lOfio "
12M0
Hence
(in the
=12
Qo = 33
3.
lbin./in.
Combined
stresses at section
lb/in.
OO:
Fig. 8.6.
Shell:
2.
2
oL =(PRI2ts ) + (6Mit ) = (150 X 120.63)/(2 X 1.27) + (6 X 72/1. 27
= 7,146 + 260 = + 6,880 psi (inside)
Edge displacements:
= + 7,460
Shellpressure:
a,
w = (PRiRIEt)[\(vl2)]
_ 0.85 X 150 X 120.63
24.8
= 58,600 X
10
10" 6
= + 13,570
in.
oL = (PRl2t h )
Shelledge loads:
do =
HQol2P D)
+

psi (outside)
10" 6
in.
Head:
0=0 rad.
w 0 =(Qo/20 3 D)
psi (inside)
w 0 = 3900 X
1.27
psi (outside)
X 120
(6M0 lt h2 ) =
2
a t = (PR/20,) + (EwJR) (6vMlt h )
= 1 4,323 + 1 ,263 + 330 = + 1 5 ,256 psi (inside)
= 15,920 psi (outside)
w0
= + 6,130 X 10" 6
Headpressure:
w=
6
2
(1  v){PR jEt) = 48,637 X 10
9=0
Headedge
vv 0
60
Check
total deflection:
in.
rad.
Shell:
58,600
in.
Head:
6
48,637 + 6130 = 54,767 X 10"
in.
loads:
:i
lO"
10" 6
6
Co + 40 X \0'
C0
+ 12
Note: Any discontinuity stress will be further minimized by the plate taper at joint, as
required by the Code welding detail in Fig. UW13.1.
The interested reader will find a practical discontinuity example in the ref. 2.
M0
10" 6 A/
8.5.
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
230
SEMI ELLIPSOIDAL
Semiellipsoidal Heads
work
both principal
In semiellipsoidal heads
becomes
radii
difficult,
in
terms of edge
is
is
is
ellipsoidal
dis
continuity stresses.
If for
some reason an
ellipsoidal
head with
a higher
Rfh
ratio
is
used and
dis
in
at the conecylinder junction, replacing the cone with an equivalent cylinder at the junction
is
much
simpler
in
standard design.
The
231
overall
stresses
computed according
stresses calculated
by more exact
analytical
methods.
Also, design stress limits are suggested here to help the designer in evaluating a
design for safety.
ref.
ferent ratios
Torisphericat Heads
at
points a and 2 (Fig. 3.14). Since these points are in practice close together,
the edge loadings affect each other to a large degree ancl again the analysis be
comes
in
standard 2
torispherical head
is less
an assistance
in
Cylinder.
The
radial deflection
Q0
lb/in.
is
w(=AR) and
given by
w=
1/2Z)0
The thickness of
stress
is
in
< 30
degrees
is
com
discontinuity stresses
both cylinder and cone, replaced here by an equivaThese values are known as influence coefficients.
in the discussion
Conical heads and conical reducers without knuckles are frequently utilized
ing
lb/in.)
8.6.
radial displacement
1
Since the total combined stresses in the knuckle region are several times higher
than
No
special
analysis of
normally required.
arises,
how
smaller
larger than
30
is
more
detailed analysis
in order.
The equations for the edge forces and moments for conical shells, being
dependent on the cone apex angle (2 a), are much more complicated than for
at
Fig. 8.7.
point
232
where
0=
v )jR 2 t2
[3(1
6 =
J/
XI2D&
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
= w0,
= f 3/12(l
Z>
 i^).
deflection
AR
AR
= l/20 2 =
AR
AR
wc
cos
a=
[(1
The
cos a)l(2D c $
3
)]
cos
by planes
Juncture L.
From
/+F=(PRtana)/2=Z.
ct/n
2
2
l
1 2
[3(1  p )l(Rlcosa) (nt?] t* = 0(cos a/*) '
Using the formulas from Table 8.1, the total radial deflection of the cylindrical
is equated to the total radial deflection of the
shell due to force / and moment
k3 )
a//i)
The
Q
AR
radial displacement
= w(/3cosa//i 3 ^).
2
)
^ =
(l/>cW =
vv(2/3 /fc
a//i
Mw& =
3
[(Fw cos 2 a)/n 3 k
(2)
2
Similarly, the total rotation of the cylinder edge is
where cosoc/n 3 k 2 = \/n
equated to the total rotation of the cone edge. The end rotation of the conical
shell due to pressure is neglected. This assumption is a source of discrepancy
between approximate and more accurate analytical methods.
*2 )
fwP +
Mw2$ 2
(Mw2& 2 ln 3 k).
(3)
3
).
These
!bin./in. are
AR
and the
=0
fw
/3
,/2
X cosa)/(2i5 c
0 = (1
shells
=* 3 Z>
* = (cos
(1)
by
where
> C
0c=
is
at junctures
displacement
lb/in. is given
h>(cos
lbin./in. are
Moment M
radial
a=
2w0 2
6 = 1/0/) =
and
w/3
F, and Edge
drical shells,
The end
f,
233
is
a set
of three
linear
simultaneous equations:
f+F = Z
fM$ = (Fkjn)
Table 8.1.
UNIT LOAD
UNIT
(l lb/in.)
PERPENDICULAR TO
AXIS ON END OF
Unit shear
Unit
CYLINDER
w0
perpen
dicular to axis
Rotation of
20
w
0 cos a
Circumferential
+ w deflection
3+0 rotation
cos a
6 (rad.)
membrane
CONE
Sign convention used:
meridian
'\ cos 2
kn 3
stress
Rs
(psi)
For y = 0.3,
= (1/2D0
) 
X cos a
Radial displacement
(in.)
= (F/n
(1 Ibin./in.)
moment
AR
2A//3
(Mfln )
(M2&/kn 3 )
ON END OF
CONE
CYLINDER
/+
MOMENT
Fig. 8.8.
positive as
shown.
endmoments
234
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
will
235
in
is
f = ZV,
The formulas
F = Zf=Z(\ V
M = Z(2I(5) V
oL
o L = (PR/0(0.5 + Xy/Rft)>
where
+n
k[\
1
(\
+2n
+ k
The
2
forces,
/ and
in
4(kn* +
membrane
in
compression
in the
shown
Moment
in Fig. 8.8
is
and
also positive,
coefficients
The end force TS = (PR 5 tan a)/2 has the opposite direction
L shown in Fig. 8.8, and so do forces fSi Fst and moment
Stresses in
in the
cone
60.
ref.
Cone
design pressure
P and
discontinuity
at Junctures L
The combined
moment
is
juncture/,
oc)
is
PR
(0.5 +
4.669
+ (6A// 2 1 2
tangential
and S
/v5?/f]
where
= (4.669/ 2
)72 tana
and
moment M,
is
stress a,
in
cone
shell at
in par.
(PR/*if
coso)Z(l
= (PR/t)
ZV
)] 
(2K2 / 2 )}.
L285VR/7(K,
0.91/1.285 )(R 3

)(Fi
stress
1.25
1.5
1.75
1.25
1.5
1.75
0.155
0.159
0.151
0.142
0.325
0.335
0.330
0.317
0.300
0.087
0.155
0.068
0.1573
0.0647
0.070
0.058
0.054
0.179
0.152
0.135
0.122
0.113
0.049
0.0356
0.325
0.214
0.147
0.104
0.074
stress
0.104
a = 45
n
a r the bending
(+6vM/t 2 ) has
differential shell
element
a = 30
A"
2K2 )tana
2K2 )tana].
combined
'V />
a
15
2V2 )
(PR/0 (PR/2)(E/R)(6X
{[(*/)(!  K,
fw(ElR) + Mw$(E/R)
is:
Table 8.2.
= (PR/0[1
juncture
(circumferential)
hoop stress
given by
= (PRI0 Zw(ElR)(V
Qtm = (PR/t)
= ^/ 2
given by
average discontinuity
/,
longitudinal stress o L
combined
V2
total
given by
The
Shell at Juncture L.
shell at
= (PR/0[(0.5/ii cos a) +
and Cone
2K2 )tana.
where K=].285(K,
to
Stresses in Cylinder
that at juncture
Combined
tan
o L = (PR/2tn cos
Juncture S.
X = 4.669 V2
suggested in
1)
causing compressive
where
a tm =(PR/t)(\ Y\fRft)>
+ 2kn)]
~ kn* + 2k 2 n* + 2kn 2
* "[
v
Both
for
Of
= 60
1.25
1.5
1.75
1.25
1.5
1.75
0.533
0.545
0.524
0.496
0.837
0.871
0.218
0.197
0.180
0.461
0.383
0.863
0.334
0.833
0.300
0.789
0.293
0.552
0.255
0.533
0.352
0.242
0.172
0.125
0.837
0.557
0.387
0.272
0.197
0.271
By
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
236
V2
{[(*/)(!
it
^i)]
and
finally
2V2 )'
237
a tm = PR it[(] In cos a)
Ys/Rh].
so that
a tm = (Ptf/f){(l//icosa> [1.285(K,
 2
K2 )
Table 8.2.
To
(+6kM/hV)
juncture
maximum
mum
The upper
sign
means
tangential compressive
on
marized
in
all
Table 8.3.
8.3. In ref. 19, page 498, is an example of a rigorous analtyical solution of discontinuity stresses at a cylinderconical head junction with design
Example
1.
shown
in Fig. 8.9
Computed
stresses
from
results.
ref. 19.
Juncture L
stress in cylinder,
membrane
tangential:
30,880
psi
+42,260
psi
Membrane
tm
= 5,712
\ cos a
psi.
Total tangential:
membrane
tangential:
tm
852
\n cos a
psi
5,712 + 9,140
"
3. 428 psi
1+
S
stress in cylinder,
Material:
steel
6
E = 30 X 10
= 0.25
longitudinal:
membrane
Combined
inside
Combined
tangential:
longitudinal:
Juncture
outside
a L = 5,690 + 36,560 =
longitudinal:
Combined
Obtained.
data as
Combined
S Can Be
tension.
has to be added.
pressure.
f,
and Y
obtain the total tangential calculated stress o,, the bending stress
Table 8.3.
pe
The coefficients
tan a] VE/i"
tangential:
V?)
_
ex is
stress in cone,
longitudinal:
ts
membrane
_pr J
tangential:
tm ~
t
\n cos a
i
[ncosa
^pe
P
8 I
fl\
R = 24
S\
/A
y
= 45
Fig. 8.9.
238
DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
Membrane
239
tangential:
Total longitudinal:
"
ff
=
L = 4,764 + 25,715
a tm =(PRlt)[(\ln cos a)
20,951
psi
+30,480
psi
Yy/Rft)
= (300 X 24.3/0.633)[(l/1.192
= 13,666 18,267 = 4,601
Membrane
0.707)  0.256V24.3/0.633
psi.
tangential:
Total tangential:
a tm =5,898
12,881 psi
psi.
psi.
Total tangential:
The
11,891 psi
87
computed by
stresses as
this
o t = 5,989 + 5,902
= 24.3
Wherever the
psi.
in.;
n=
1.192;
Total longitudinal
33,487
psi outside
+45,003
psi inside.
5,758 + 39,245 =
Membrane
o tm
60, the longitudinal stress cannot exist in the vessel wall in calculated intensities
A
tangential:
=Wf)(l
= 11,516
"
>V7O
18,267 = 6,750
0.256V2O70633)
psi.
the shell due to the hydrotest are objectionable, since they tend to increase the
When
f 18,524 psi
= 6,750 + 0.3(39,245) =
psi.
cone
Using
o L = (PRIt)[(0.5/n cos a) +
tV^]
= 6:832 + 27,614 =
is
stress [74]
Total longitudinal:
the shell
o L should remain below the yield point. However, the relaxation of the longitudinal stress o L by yielding will increase the tangential component membrane
stress by an amount equal to roughly onehalf of the reduction in longitudinal
+ 5,024
In the
Total tangential:
(b)
it
vided no local buckling occurs. (Of course, any visible localized deformations in

ductile heataffected
o t = o tm + (6uM/t 2
stress
in ref.
'20,782
psi
.+34,446
psi.
+ 0.387V24.3/0.633
this
reasoning, the
par.
UA53, 4Sa E
ing)
and \.5Sa E
in
rather as the
maximum
The following
maximum
stress
o L and o tm
are
assumed
are the
maximum
and 2 as
a guide.
240
Maximum Allowable
1.
<
o tm
2.
Hydrotest pressure:
o tm
< 2S atm
where S a
is
the
Design Remarks.
1.
When computing
L and S
in Fig. 8.8
the effect of the edge radial displacement of cylindrical and conical shells and
the rotation of the meridional tangent of the cone shell edge produced
pressure alone were neglected.
of the stresses
is
This
is
by
the
2(Rhtl cos a)
the allowable
'2
for cases
maximum, and
when
limits.
is
given as
the
compound
stresses
should be used
9
Thermal Stresses
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
9.1
Whenever there
is
a considerable difference
between the
vessel operating
tem
maximum
allowable stresses.
Thermal (or temperature) stresses in a structural member are caused by temperature changes and accompanying dimensional changes. In addition to being
subject to a change in temperature, to develop thermal stresses the structural
member must be restrained in some manner. The constraints of the member in
the usual thermal stress problems that occur in the vessel design may be divided
into external and internal constraints. This division is convenient, since the
analytical
more
difficult to solve..
It is
temperature
is
considered. Induced
material.
thermal stresses
However, thermal
BASIC
means
visualized as
that a small
Chapter 2.
A body can be
of the cube
to be
9.2.
If the
is
of a unit cube
is
A stress
ax
ox = aE(T x
is
induced:
T)
241
in
THERMAL STRESSES
242
compression for 7\
>
T,
where a
is
stress
is
then
(in./in./F).
2.
Thermal
243
o = Ea(T x 
ratm )
compression
in
where
oy
3.
Restraint in
all
Example 9.1. Determine the local stresses in the carbonsteel vessel shell at
point B and stresses in the stainlesssteel (Type 304) weldedin pan tray at point
A as shown in Fig. 9.1. At startup the pan temperature will be the same as the
y
These equations are the basic equations for direct thermal stresses under external or internal constraints, and represent the maximum thermal stress for the
They can
particular constraint.
refer to
or to an element of a body.
The equation
The
stress
the
is
maximum
body or an element.
in
produced
steels, this
at the surface
maximum
the
rise in
temperature) +
can be produced
in a
point ),
or cooling. For
rise in
temperature)
(AR due
temperature displacements of
to find the
by outside
forces and
stresses
mE
c t)
<*s(Tp 
moments
body
or a system of
members
method of
stress
Tc =
70F, and
line
body
load q:
are fully or
computation
and the
where 0 =
.285/(tf f)
l/2
for v
= 3/10.
forces.
this
strength
formulas applicable
is
the
to
in
a steel
a/,
<T
the
temperature distribution
If Tallin
problem. The
generally uniform.
growth A/,
10)Ri
(qL 13EJ)
2
+ (4L>/Es tl)] = as (T  70)*,  (PR /Ec t)[l  (u/2)]
p
produced by those
B) = (AR
i.e.,
EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS
partially prevented
is
psi/F.
for
If the
2
(R/Ec )(o t vo L ) + ac (Tc  10)R+(qR mEct) =
q[(R 2
9.3.
(AR of
stress that
Tp
in
of
will
change
tt /.(r,
/,
will
aaF(T
Any
in the length
of the pipe:
r m ).
in
required to
be
TMm ).
Fig. 9.1.
=K
THERMAL STRESSES
244
1 ;
tangential
o t = (qR (3/2f) +
2. Total stress in
in tension:
is:
pan
T[h/2)
aL =
longitudinal:
245
at
points
(3 qvj2&t )
+ (PR/t).
is:
2
o b = (6qL/t ) + (liquid and pan weight l2nt p R A
< Sa
of pan plate.
Fig. 9.2.
INTERNAL CONSTRAINTS
9.4.
The shape of
distribution throughout
that it does not permit free expansion of the individual body eleaccordance with their local temperatures, so that stresses are produced
in the body in the absence of any external constraints. This can be visualized
better if a body is assumed to consist of unit elements such as cubes or fibers,
may be such
ments
in
each with a uniform average temperature differing from the temperature of the
adjacent elements.
defined in terms of the variable y. The stresses resulting from the uneven
temperature distribution can be determined by the equivalent thermal load
is
method.
To determine
ture gradient develops, for instance with heat transfer, the cylindrical elements
will
be
at different
individual
cylindrical
elements
will
be
upon return
constrained
by each
other,
some
thermal
At
become
However, most
vessel
is
end, force
stresses
a/sTO').
will
is
is
restored
at
become uniformly
area:
stresses. In
F=
simpler cases, exact analytical solutions are possible and result in closed formulas,
which are sometimes cumbersome. For a practicing vessel engineer the rule is
to use available closedform results, and when necessary to simplify the problem
to obtain only the most important stresses. However, the lack of derived formulas
sometimes necessitates the use of approximate methods.
dFdy^
aET(y)tdy
+ * /2
1
o'x
=F/ht =
T
h J
ah:T{y)dy.
h/2
and only
as they
Since
is
distributed nonuniformly
moment
at
is
introduced:
A/2
z
(dF)y=
+H/2
aET(y)tydy
246
THERMAL STRESSES
247
is
the
method
as used to solve
in refs.
66 67 68
and 122.
o x or
,
o x = cT(y) +
+h/1
12v
aET(y) dyf
H JH/2
hn
<xET{y)y dy.
It
J h/1
1.
Example
Assuming
9.2.
temperature distribution
a linear
T0
at point 0,
determine the
in the plate
bar of
An
total strain
is
stress free.
The
is
stress distribution in
the bar.
r(y)r0 [i+Gy/A)].
2.
My
restrained bar with axial gradual temperature variation T(x) and average
temperature
= +hl2,
Ta
o x =EotTa>
<2r'
*
HI I
Br) * */.
"'
Br) *]
with
all
sections in compression.
The temperatuie
full restraint in
and the
distribution
aET0
is
in
varying temperature
body
in the
by
itself
it
linear
in
bar
is
=oET(y)l(\p).
a solid
in the
f*
h/2
UyE
+h/2
For a
If the
=oz
a constant curvature:
(l//?)
clamped
Assuming
the previously derived stress formula for a bar the following equation
2aET(y)
temperature distribution
stress biaxial.
can be written:
absence of constraints.
However, the
tion giving
rise
produced
= 0.
Then from
This result
uniaxial, the
is
ox
o x = ~2<xET0 + ctET0 +
is
= 0 and ox =
ax ~ oETq.
at ends,
is
=(2aT0 )lh.
linear
T0
[1
9.3) with edges clamped (an approximation to a thick vessel wall) at point
(the inside of a shell with a high operating temperature), the stresses are
ctETQ
tf the
bar
is
ox = o z =
[2oT0 /(l
 )]
+ [<xETol(l 
v)]
oT0 /(l
 u).
248
THERMAL STRESSES
249
is
given
by
a =
Ea(Ta
 r,)/(J  v)
= Ea{Ta
where
 7/(l  u).
in a Large,
Thick Plate
b = outside radius
instance due to a crack in the inside shell refractory, in an otherwise cold plate
of temperature
r (Fig. 9.4),
the
maximum
o>
stress is given
= o t = aE(T x
by:
T)/2;
in a shell, for
Stresses
function of
stresses.
r:
2
2
o r =CLE(T x  T)a /2r
ot =
These
stresses are
maximum
aE{T
T)a l2r
stresses since
any
rise in
Fig. 9.5.
The maximum
is
(br)ATKba).
stresses are:
aEAT \
Fig. 9.4.
temperature
2b
+a
is
at r
ot  oL  +
b:
For thin
at
THERMAL STRESSES
250
with a = b the
shells
maximum
= a:
ot
aEAT
or fixed.
b + 2a 1
3(b+a)\
but
it
aEAT
down
joint
in
compression
The
is
onehalf the
maximum
3. In addition to the
^ in tension
is
welded to the
shell.
skirt end.
stresses
which
skirt.
from
all
assumption of a linear temperature gradient is satisfactory. The solution of thermal stresses in cylinders with radial thermal gradients may be simplified by using
a
above
possible
end
along the skirt any temperature gradient will cause an angular rotawhich is restrained by the welded joint equivalent to the
unpressurized
which
deformation.)
itself
shell
At the skirtshell weld junction the skirt and shell temperatures will be nearly
the same so that no radial difference in expansion occurs. However, from the
qlE AT.
ztr = b:
by
stresses are:
~oL 
(A
in the cylinder,
'
251
[1
59]
Support
skirts
stress ranges at
the welded
and other
joint,
and (b)
long enough to reduce the temperature difference between the bolteddown base
of the skirt and the concrete base, in order to prevent any possible distortion of
the skirt.
Temperature Gradient.
In a spherical shell the principal stresses o t
tion are given
and o r
at the point
under considera
by
known. The
2Ea_
To perform thermal
stress analysis
of the cylindrical
the
minimum
skirt
rarely
below 6
ft.
At
this
in practice
length the
outside, as
shown
in Fig. 9.6.
2Ea_
v[2(b
In
insulated, in
be uniform and
equal to the temperature of the operating liquid. However, heavy tubes in heat
exchangers
will
Thin Cylindrical Support Skirts of Hot Vessels with Axial Thermal Gradient
2
moments
produced by the
vessel
there are thermal stresses in the cylindrical skirt supports of hot vessels
down
in axial
direction.
The
I
additional stresses
in skirt
Temperature gradient
supports
stresses will
will consist
Ts =
of the following:
is
free,
clamped,
temperature of cylinder at x 
total temperature d>p
shell temperature at distance x under given ambient conditions.
Fig. 9.6.
and
inside.
THERMAL STRESSES
253
252
Examining a
the distance
strip
x from
the end
by
T(x) = (Ta
T )e mx
5
Ts
where
Ts
T0 G 0 )l(Gi
~ (Tfit +
Gtltolkd +
C0
m
At
jc
iUhdY
[fro/*o) +
= [R t
G0 )
(l/M]"
(G^G 0 )] " a
Fig. 9.7.
dT(x)ldx=m(Ta
r3 )F/ft
Support
more
general
method
for
The maximum
be used for estimating the skirt metal temperature at the base.
gradient of up to 25F/in. is considered acceptable.
Tne analytical determination of thermal stresses due to a thermal gradient in
equation for
semiinfinite cylinder depends on the solution of the differential
a
skirts
for
open,
as
shown
This design
is
radial expansion.
ft
below the
skirtshell
is
if
the temperature
minimized by the
shell insula
in Fig. 9.8.
However, some
difficulties
vessels a
support
skirt
lapped to the
d*w/dx* +
4^w =
(Eta/DR)T(x)
where
oc
3
>=/Y/ /12(l
/3=[3(1
)/KV]
!'
moment M L and
ML =
The
Dd2 w/dx 2
Q at
 Dd 3 w/dx*
any location:
solution and application of the results of these equations to various boundinterested reader will find
is beyond the scope of this book. The
0 100
ary conditions
Fig. 9.8.
Generally,
it
many
cases exceed
with
300
500 600
air pocket.
skirt
254
bottom
THERMAL STRESSES
would seem to be
A more
involved analysis
becomes necessary
If the
for
here.
AL =
cylinder increases by
(ct 2
Short, longitudinal slots located below the weld joint have not proven com
and
weaken
The
crease in temperature
The
Application of
may
result
in cycling
may
is
of the
of the bar,
on the
restored.
in the cylinder
is
given by
rigid slab
phenomenon
is
ao x = Oj(a + b) oy b.
called thermal
is
of combined
failure.
The
will
stress
example.
by the cylinder
free length
ing temperature
ratcheting and
is
T) over the
part of the load to prevent further yielding of the bar and the force equilibrium
9.5.
raised to T\
enough, yield
large
is
is
 ot\)L (7^ 
255
is
It is
assumed
manner.
Since the system forms a continuous structure the total increase in the
common
length must be the same for the cylinder and the bar. However, the part of the
First Half of the
The
initial stress
perature T,
Thermal Cycle
a,
induced
in the cylinder
is
given by points
now permanent.
is
at
and
) is
=B
= W/(a + b)
in Fig. 9.10.
The system is cooled to initial temperature T and the situation is now reversed.
The free length of the bar has been increased by the permanent plastic elongation and the bar unloads a portion of its load along the line Bi = B 2 The
cylinder takes over this part of the load. Assuming area a is such that yield stress
.
is
plastic
A2
However, no
Since the final lengths of the bar and the cylinder must be the same, point
A%
lies
point
on the same
is given by
B2
The
tensile stress
o 2 in the bar
at
B2
bo 2 = ofa + b)  ay a.
At the end of the next thermal cycle the
point
B4
in the bar
and to point
A4
final state
of stressstrain will
shift to
by dashed
lines
in Fig. 9.10.
The
lengths of the bar and the cylinder are permanently increased in each
stressstrain diagram,
at the
will be,
from the
THERMAL STRESSES
256
ep
=^aAT^e(A )e(Y)l
[e(p t ) e(B2 )\
AaAT [c{Y)e(4i)]~
AoAJ
[(o y 
a 1 )IE]
[e(Pi) e(B t )]
 [(o
AaAr+
If
o y  Oi
is
[0i(a
(Oy/E) +
[a,(fl
257
we
o2 )ffl
get
 (a b/aE)  (o /E)
y
y
AaA7
l(o y  Oi)IE] [2
(b/a) + (a/*)]
is
maximum and
equal to
AaA7\
It
is
Therefore ratcheting can not develop in joints like the flangebolt joint. A
practical example of thermal ratcheting would be the cyclic growth of a thick
cylindrical shell of
3.
9.6.
In the design of pressure vessels the designer tries to eliminate or at least ministresses as
much
Sometimes
change
in design
is
instance, in the case of a large U*tube heat exchanger too large a difference
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
mize thermal
if
shell.
as possible. Several
methods
between the in and out temperatures on the tube side caused the tube sheet to
warp and a leakage occurred. The suggested remedy was to replace Utube design
here.
4.
1.
One of
ways
is
by
tached to a process column by two brackets. The top bracket carries the entire
weight of the heat exchanger, while the bottom bracket with slotted holes
supports the heat exchanger horizontally and provides for the vertical differential thermal expansion. The nuts on bolts in the bottom bracket are hand tight
drums on
2. If
is
external
constraints
shown
in
Fig. 9.1,
a steep
temperature
by proper contouring of
thermal
shown
stress.
of proper material
in Fig. 9.12.
in
hightemperature service
258
tively,
at
a h and a ( of the
coefficient
occurs
when
the joint
returns to
if
If
ot h
>
the bolt
a,, leakage
is
at
permanent
set
af >a h the
bolt
high temperatures.
On
normal temperatures.
"of
tightened
If
6.
as was
Fig. 9.8.
7.
stresses.
Thermal expansion
is
stress
component is usually in bending. In vessels, the steady state thermal stresses will
when
be reduced in time to lower levels by relaxation. In cyclic operations,
and
the
(several
thousands)
low
life
is
number of cycles during the vessel service
maximum computed
principle stress
is
treated
ture does not occur. However, at higher cycle numbers, this load has to be
since
there
is
a posstress
allowable
reduced
substantially
as a fatigue load with
sibility
10
Weld Design
INTRODUCTION
10.1.
Today, welding
is
the
lifting lugs,
tached to vessel wall by welding as well. Welded joints, instead of bolted joints,
are sometimes used for pipingtovessel connections to obtain optimum leak
A structure
weld
is
as
whose component
Forge welding
1.
2.
is
is
called a
in plastic
weldment.
and molten
filler
metal.
methods:
is
The
Fusion welding
weld.
hightemperature service.
states,
joint
in
by welding
The seam
is
a process that
to be welded
is
if
required,
is
supplied by melting
Pressure welding
lizes the
the
two
is
uti
industrial
welding method
is
arc welding,
is
which
is
any
generated by
an electric arc.
Residual stresses in a weld and in the region adjacent to a weld are unavoidable
and complex, but they are not considered dangerous when static loads are applied. If the weld residual stress is superposed on the stress caused by an external
load and exceeds the yield point of the material, a small
yielding will redistribute the stress. This
is
amount of local
plastic
is
260
WELD DESIGN
Types of Groove Welds.
Table 10.1.
DOUBLE
SINGLE
h>
fE^ZE^
Square
Oouble Vgroove
(a)
(b)
butt joint
Single Vgroove
(c)
angle joint
Double filletwelded
(d)
tee joint
tee joint
Bevel groove
Double
(e)
filletwelded,
(f)
V groove
lap joint
^n3>
Single filletwelded
(h)
Two
groove
corner joint with
backing fillet weld
fillet
weld corner
plug welds
joint
(g)
0. 1
material.
nese
Carbon
content
Edge
up
joint
.J~72
are
used
>
construction
as
it
may
after welding
it
becomes
ferritic at
different design
usually divided into five basic types: butt, tee, lap, corner,
and
edge.
sively, particularly
than
fillet
GROOVE WELDS
as
shown
may
is
usually specified
differ for
shop and
Some welding
processes
in
Table 10.1. All types of grooves shown can be used in butt, tee, or corner weld
(e.g.,
easier to design
required depends
careful fitup
is
specifications, ref.
82
are capable of
very deep penetration, while others (e.g., manual arc welding) are not.
The strength of
The types of joints should never be confused with the types of welds. In Fig.
10.1 the basic types of welded joint in combination with different types of
welds are shown. For a designer, the immediate task is to select the joint design
and the type of attachment weld, and to compute its size.
joints.
a slight
For design purposes, welds can be divided into three basic types, calling for
10.2.
groove
causes dimensional changes in the weld due to temperature reduction and phase
welds.
as &e
groove
U
in
1X3
of 0.300.80 percent
present in steel
>
3
Fig.
z3~l3
r
2
261
to shear, tension, or
which
is
the
groove weld
is
weld metal,
.00.
It is
WELD DESIGN
262
263
forceflow lines
Sa
Sas = allowable
T=
/,
of the
at joint
 length of the
Fig. 10.2.
is
fillet
equal to
welds here
the width
T times L.
is
same
reinforcement, by grinding flush, increases the fatigue strength of the weld and
therefore required by some codes.
is
weld metal
if
in
is
illus
maximum
stresses in a groove
components
allowable stresses of the base metal times the weld joint efficiency.
Example
10.1.
size
F = 60,000
its
welds would be too large. The resisting weld area equals to (h + h )L.
2
In Fig. 10.4 a tee joint with a fullpenetration doublebevel groove weld plus
fillet weld on each side is shown. The throats of the fillet welds
may be included
lb
10
1i
"j
,18
in.
in
computation of the
i.d.
= 0.50
Zx =
Fig. 10.3.
weld of
the standard stress formulas are used with properties of the weld
different
where the weld reinforcement reenters the base metal is a source of some stress
concentration and potential failure under repetitive load. Removal of the weld
In Fig.
trated. If the
is
To summarize,
In Fig.
Fig. 10.4.
in
117
= 27.47
Material:
x/
<SMAW
Fig. 10.5.
Lifting lug.
in
in
SA106 gr. B
S v = 35,000
psi
264
Bending
S b = MjZ x =
stress:
=
Shear
2X
Combined maximum
Combined maximum
S = (S b /2) +
X 60,000/27.5 = 4,370
psi.
psi.
= [(10,260/2) 2 + 4,370"]
1/2
= 6,740
psi.
tension:
[(S b /2)
+S s2
l/2
]
psi.
(a)
Double
*'
ne*
Double
(b)
with partialpenetration
bevelgroove welds
Safety factors:
S.F. = 0.6
in shear:
T=
w=
X 35,000/6,740 = 3.12
in tension:
Fig. 10.6.
are acceptable.
Both maximum stresses in shear and tension must be smaller than the allowable deweld stresses in tension and shear for weld. Also the stresses in the shell have to be
Note.
sign
265
shear:
S's= [(Sbtt?
S s = 2F/a =
stress:
IFe/irr
WELD DESIGN
stress formulas.
stress analysis to
compute
checked.
Definitions relating to
all
it
the proper
is
fillet
fillet
welds.
amount of
the
fillet
in
FILLET WELDS
In
fillet
weld
two surfaces
is
at
low, but so
its
The 45degree
r).
is
fillet
stresses,
and distortions.
order to determine the nominal (average) stresses and the size the
fillet
welds from standard tension, bending, and torsion stress formulas, weld section
properties such as area, section modulus, and polar modulus must be computed.
critical sections
two ways:
critical
as an area or as a line.
definitions are
shown
in
computations no credit can be taken for the weld reinforcement. A onesided fillet weld in tee or lap joints should be avoided because of its
very low static and fatigue strengths. The face of the fillet weld may vary from
Fig.
10.6. In stress
convex to concave.
Stresses induced in filletwelded joint are complex because of the eccentricity
of the applied load, the weld shape, and notch effects. They consist of shear,
tension, and compression stresses. Distribution of stresses
fillet
conditions
it
is
fillet
is
shown.
analytical
Fig. 10.7.
266
Table 10.2.
Fillet
Critical Section as an
fillet
Area
welds: parallel to
DOUBLE
TJOINT WITH
TRANSVERSE DOUBLI
FILLET WELDS
maximum
stresses
10.2).
difficulties arise
The
A number
loadings simultaneously.
The
made
1.
Welded connec
test results.
is
sin
minimum
the
crosssectional
area
It
Code
is
Division
where the
1,
leg size
fillet
The nominal
stress.
is
Average shear
The exception
computa
in
"
Maximum
in this case.
the
maximum stresses,
maximum
of
fillet
maximum
and use
must be combined
in
is
<t>
is
stress.
in fillet
Therefore,
welds)
1.414F
tl
wl
weld
is
tl
at the
sum of all
in
agreement with
tests
and
is
it
totally arbi
gives conservative
weld
It is left
up
sin 0) (cos
0+
max. S*s =
1.2F
with
wl
Sn =
"
fillet
welds.
transversely stressed
fillet
at
wl
max. combined
a
1.22F
+5
wl
occurs
stress
by the allowable
stress
1.2F
with
wl
wl
stresses at
of the
wl
wl
F_
wL
S*3
a 1.12
at
0.5F
Ss =
base metal, assuming the weld metal to be stronger, times the joint efficiency
for the
sin 0)
wl.
sizes
to the
(F
any angle 0:
at
three stresses:
sin 0)
wl,
max. S n
All stresses to be
<$>
considered as a vector
cos
any angle 0:
at
_ (F cos 0) (cos 0 +
Maximum average
0 = 67.5 degrees:
= weld leg
= 0.707w weld throat at 45degrec plane
Fn = F
1/2
in the case
F cos 0
F sin 0
F
Ff = f sin
wl
in
cutting plane:
L =
F(sin
F=
52 S 3
+ cos 0)
bination of stresses S,
stress at angle
where
at
it
e disregarded
<p
to determine
cos
plane:
tl
stresses are
a, section
<p
at
wl
WELD DESIGN
268
Some
used
in
combination with
However,
if transverse
welds are
When
it is
(b) Stresses
= 0.707w/, 2 /3.
Zx
assumed that
the load
stress
a = 2tL = 1.414w/>.
Area:
Section modulus:
and
parallel
(a) Critical
269
from force/*.
is
with reference to the group to determine the capacity of the entire group of
Bending:
S,
=MjZ x
= Pe/Z x
Direct shear:
welds,)
6.
is
maximum S =
axis of the
(S] + S
'
.)
<ES a
disregarded.
7.
computed by
Stresses
The
only.
stress
(c) Stresses
from force F.
< ESa
Shear:
The
8.
effect
stresses in the
of possible
weld
is
The
neglected.
by welding on the
(d)
Maximum combined
stress
maximum 5=
These assumptions result
in conservative
weld
seem
weld has to be
is
first
assumed for
stress
sizes.
Example
and
as
is
to be justified.
is
computations.
10.2.
in Fig. 10.8.
fillet
If later the
of the
maximum
fillet
stress
weld
possible bearing
<ESa
,/2
the shear
S2
Example
is
is transmitted through the fillet welds only and no credit is taken for
between the lower part of the clip and the vessel wall. The assumption that
is
is
generally accepted.
subjected to forces
10.3.
force F, as
ciency
shown
E is based
in Fig. 10.9.
on the weld
Determine the
with
fillet
t.
Bending
stress:
leg w.
S = qjwL
{
q  Fej(w + T).
where
S 2 = F/2wL.
stress:
1
Combined maximum
Fig. 10.8.
stress:
S
(S
+5 2.)
7
Fig. 10.9.
'
welds
is
subjected to
this
Shear
Av
+ S 3 ) 2 +5]
[(S,
shown
F and P.
too far from allowable stress the computations must be revised. However,
procedure
due to forces
<ESa
270
WELD DESIGN
271
T
mm
centroid of
the total
weld group
b
Structural clip subjected to an eccentric twisting load P.
Fig. 10.10.
Fig. 10.11.
Example
shown in
10.4.
Determine the
maximum
Fig. 10.12.
clip
Fig. 10.10.
(b)
(a) Critical
The maximum
torsional stress
S^Pie + b
n) r max
is
at point
A:
Throat area:
where
= [(b
r max
nf
+ (d/2) 2
>
2
.
The procedure
is
as follows. (1)
moment
is
J of
of inertia
its
own
inertia
JQ of each
Sy = Si
cos
S H  Si
sin a.
computed
(c)
The
is
is
S 2 =P/(2bt +
the distance
the
is
/ = 2bt [(b 2 l
summation of d\\J^s of
moment
2) + r\
S2
is
(d)
vertical
and additive to S v
S*
]
stress at
point
A combined
is
/is
+ dt [(d 2 l 12) + n 2
dt).
[(S 2
+S V ) 2 +S 2H
l>
<ESa
where
This
method
is
simpler and
more
using linear
moments of
inertia, polar
It
method" by
in
272
by
a line, multiplied
its
J w and I w of
uniform thickness
t,
Table 10.3.
Linear
Z w r.
/=S X
force
in lb/lin. in.
is
unit
OUTLINE OF THE
WELDED JOINT
formulas
are
combined
and mentally more acceptable picture than does the previous method. The linear
moments J w and I w and the linear section modulus Z w of a weld outline can
..
1.
(in.
0(in.
3
)
JW
w
12
A1
rf
U
z w =
7w
+ Jul/
VM 2
6
Draw
fillet
3

moments.
2. Draw the proposed weld outline and select orthogonal reference axesx.jy,
z, usually axes of symmetry with the reference point 0 in the centroid of the
weld outline. Compute the linear properties of the total weld outline (length L,
acting forces and
all
J Wi and Z w
3.
xx
POLAR MODULUS i w
ABOUT CENTROID
,2
0
C
The required weld leg w is then determined by dividing the resultant computed
/ by the allowable unit force fw The entire design procedure to compute the resultant /can be summarized as follows:
weld and
SECTION MODULUS
Z w ABOUT AXIS
KrHi
unit force
easily
Zw
,iftx
moments with
forces and
all
Zw
= bd +
Zw
= bd +
_2bd + d2
bd
KHfa
,o
as required).
Determine
Zw
<r
{b
Jw
df
fyt fz due
to
all
added
w equal
to one inch
the same
/=(/+/WD
weld
maximum
if at
5.
5.
computed and,
is
unit force
fw
^x
Sa
is
the
maximum
efficiency of the
in lb/lin. in.
on an equalleg
fillet
3(/>
is
is
then
1
fillet
(in.).
is
{2b + d)
that
it
+ 2d) z
12
2
d {b+d)
(fc + 2d).
+ d)
2M + d 2
w
w=///w
b (b + d)
the joint
is
12
(b
Jw
leg
fw = ESa
The required minimum weld
area, then
6.
fillet
1/2
fw = 0.707 ES a
where
{2b + d)
Jw
by
given
d

3
2
_</ (2fc+d)
11
~b+id
mW
+ 2d) 3
12
{b
(6
+ d) 2
+ 2d)
3(6
273
WELD DESIGN
274
{Continued)
Table 10.3.
OUTLINE OF THE
WELDED JOINT
POLAR MODULUS J w
ABOUT CENTROID
SECTION MODULUS
Z w ABOUT AXIS
x x
(in.
0(in. 3 )
r=H
=6
2
Abd + d
275
(2),
J ui
_4bd 2 +d*
w
d*(Ab+d) ^ b*
6(b + d)
66 + 3d
Fig. 10.13.
zw
= bd + 
_ b
'
+lbd 2 +d
6
/,
Shear:
f2 = V/L =
mw
= ... +  
2M
<>,
26
+6W 2 +d 3
"
1
<>
/=
^.
Leg
Example
in. Fig.
(a)
Weld
10.5.
10.13,
here.
Determine the
Sa = 12,000
size
of the
fillet
E 0.55
Weld properties;
length:
2,550/12 = 215
lb/in.
lb/in.
lb/in.
size
[(/i
+ h) 2 + /ll
size:
1/2
2
= [(215 + 1.275) 2 + 215
'2
recommended
Weld
6/12 = 1,275
in the
is
Shear:
(d)
nd
(c)
Z. w
= Ve\Z x = 2,550
Bending:
Fillet
is
= 1,505
in.
added only
if
the vessel
is
Welds
According to the importance and the magnitude of the load transmitted, fijlet
welds can be subdivided into primary and secondary.
Primary welds carry the entire load in some way, and if they fail the structure
clip
fails.
leg.
example
is
members of
the structure.
An
L = 2d = 6 X 2 =
Zx
= 2^ /6 = 12
in.
2 in.
2
all,
lb/in.
cations [79]
recommend
minimum
fillet
weld
size
AWS Specifi
WELD DESIGN
276
Table 10.4.
THICKNESS T OF THICKER
PLATE WELDED (in.)
5in. centers
2in.
x = (3/5) 100 = 60
percent. Use
in.
weld, 3
in.
long on
made
a circular weld
is
either
by
in heavier plates
16
3
8
\\<T<l\
plug weld
member
with
is
PLUG WELDS
10.4.
3
16
\<T<\\
wc
continuous weld
Sizes for
277
(
in.
one
filled;
filled.
Plug welds in vessel construction are used most often to fix the corrosion
resistant lining to the base metal.
They
are
sometimes used
welds
as strength
2
5
6<T
as given in
minimum
of welding can be
in addition to
reduced by using intermittent welds. The size of the intermittent weld can be
computed from the condition that the strength or the areas of both (continuous
Code
wc L
in
percent of length
= Wi(xL)
recommended
is
wc
if
computed by
wc
P=
js
fillet
re
The
expressed as a percentage of
Division
welds
x = (w c /w,) 1 00
and
welds for
the
plug weld in
Code formula:
0.63(6? \)
Sa
where
Sa 
d=
the
T=
bottom diameter of
T + %<d<2T+
structural nonpressure attachments, inside and also outside, welded to the pres
sure parts,
minimum
ness,
length of an intermittent
whichever
is
larger.
fillet
The minimum
in.
weld
1^
is
practical size
is
seal
in.
difficult,
should be
is
in.
welds.
w, in
is
in.,
fillet
weld
10.7.
LENGTHSPACING FOR
INTERMITTENT WELDS
35
60
50
40
30
25
48
25 410
310
28 312
24
slot welds.
shown
in Fig. 10.14.
Intermittent Welds.
PERCENT OF LENGTH OF
CONTINUOUS WELDS
4d.
Plate materials:
Table 10.5.
larger than
Similar to plug welds, but not too often used in pressure vessel design, are slot
welds for transmitting larger loads than plug welds. Fillet welds in slots or holes
Example
SA515
grade 60,
fillet
5,000
P=
Sa =
weld:
F=4X
psi,
0.63(d
E = 0.50
based on weld
2
) 15,000 = 5,320
leg.
lb.
P+
F=
18,450
lb.
36
(18,450/4 X
<
30 percent.
15,000)
X 100 = 62
percent.
lb.
WELD DESIGN
278
defined as the design stress intensity value of the welded material (weld metal
weaker) times the nominal weld area and multiplied by a Code reduction
dia
if
*j
factor.
t
not
and
Code Appendix
AISC Specifications
4
welds
fillet
is
the
minimum
5.
[34] are often used for the design of structural parts conlifting lugs, supports, etc. The permissible design stress
material
if
throat area
weld
for
described in
i_.
279
leg for
w=
computation:
\h
in
is
The allowable
same
weld
ing on the electrode used. Here the nominal composition of the electrode
must
'
be considered by the designer when selecting the joint efficiency for the weld.
Fig. 10.14.
Summary.
applicable codes and specifications. In the absence of definite rules the designer
10.5.
An important
is
good engineering
practice
would be
to
ing stress or safety factor for the pressure or structural attachment welds used in
E = 0.801 .00
E  0.600.80 (based
E = 0.450.55
E = 0.600.80
E = 0.80.
on throat area)
It is
efficiency factor
approximations in the
stress
The upper
computations.
magnetic
Code Division
mum
specifies in Table
the maxi
allowable joint efficiencies for welded joints of main pressure vessel seams,
with certain limitations. The joint efficiencies depend on the type of weld and
the degree of radiographic examination. Paragraph UW15 gives the allowable
stress values in terms of percentages of the plate material for groove and fillet
UW18
S a and
,
the joint
efficiency values
would be used
for welds
examined by radiographic,
The term
joint efficiency
is
is
The allowable
stresses for
will
be substantially
They
be based on the endurance strength S N of the base metal and related to the
number of working cycles TV. For instance, the endurance limit of buttwelded
joints could be taken as S'N = 0.855^ In addition, concentration factors have to
will
maximum
effi
ciency of 55 percent.
Code Division 2 requires for all pressure shell welds a full radiographic examination. The strength of welds so inspected is considered to be the same as the
strength of the base metal (AD 140). All welds, groove or fillet, joining nonpressure parts to pressure parts (AD920) must be continuous, with strength
10.6.
joints, defects
and imperfections in the welds, and also the different metallurgical structures
of the weld metal, the metal in the heataffected zone, and the base metal.
280
Table 10.6.
WELD DESIGN
jTjoint
0 = 1.2
fi
0 = 2.0
on
stresses
if
the weld
comes
significant.
The
is
in a ductile
hard and
brittle, or
test
method
Any
tions, will
examination
is
is
radiography (RT).
It
auto
dark spot.
A good radiographic
is
used
(UT)
Ultrasonic examination
is
many
flaws such as laminations or slag inclusions in thick plates, welds, castings, etc.
aluminum
being examined, such as gas pockets, slag inclusions, and incomplete penetra
10.7.
steels or
matically provides a permanent record of the internal quality of the weld material in
The
finish passes
must be inspected.
1.5
& = 2.7
and the
281
complementary.
as follows:
form of voids,
incomplete fusion between weld beads or weld and base metal,
lack or insufficient penetration of the weld metal in joints,
slag inclusions or porosity in the
starts
fitup
many
knowledge of
of welding process used and the welding conditions greatly affect the quality
of welds and the estimated weld efficiencies in strength computations of nonleft
by weld metal.
connection depends on
the
WELDING PROCESSES
final
wellwelded
good
ensure good quality welds in addition to good design. The designer usually
specifies
by
most important
basic
all
(SMAW)
is
re
is
of
is
produced by the
SMAW
electrode welding,
metal for
form
slag,
it
as
as well as a small
cools. Shielding
is
amount of
air
into the
used on multilayer welds, each bead should be so examined to inspect the weld
properly. In practice at least the root and the finish passes are routinely inspected.
of very good quality. However, the rate of weld deposition (the weight of weld
is
The magnetic particle test (MT) is suitable for detecting cracks, porosities,
and lack of fusion at or near the surface in ferromagnetic materials. Since this
method depends on the magnetic properties of the material tested, it can not
loss
is
is
SMAW is
or to repair work.
WELD DESIGN
282
used
in
Fillet
Vgroove
Bevel
is
it
coil
is
283
Weld symbols.
used as elec
trode. Weld puddle and arc are protected by liquid slag, formed from granular
mineral flux deposited ahead of the arc. The rate of weld deposition is high.
In practice, automatic welder moves on average at a rate up to 60 inches per
minute.
is
manual
cut.
Flame
cutting, either
When lowcarbon
steel
is
flame cut, no detrimental effect in the heat affected zone can be assumed.
(GMAW)
the
Resistance Welding
The heat of
fusion
at
than the
less cost
GTAW
electric current.
is
No
is
rate.
ment
is
(RSEW)
at
must be applied
required. Pressure
is
for
good
(RSW)
or resistance
seam weldv j
of a vessel
shell.
metals
which
is
is
used
required.
when
An
arc
formed by
is
added separately
from a rod or a continuous wire. Inert gas flows around the arc and the weld
puddle to protect the hot metal. Weld deposition rate is comparatively low.
Gas Welding
10.9.
WELD SYMBOLS
Heat of fusion
is
generated by burning
is
about 4,000F.
OHW
is
for combustion.
The highest
low
The oxyacetylene process (OA W) uses acetylene gas. The maximum obtainable
temperature is about 6,300F, suitable for welding most commercial metals. No
flux is used when carbon steel is welded. Almost always used manually for small
shop or maintenance welding, and suitable for all positions, OAW requires
manual skill. Welds are of good quality, but weld deposition rate is relatively
low.
is
formed.
An example
how
is
285
510 years: Carbonsteel piping, heatexchanger tube bundles, and various pro
11
cess
column
The
selected material
internals.
must be suitable
number of
maximum
more extensive treatment of the selection of materials for industrial pressure vessels is beyond the scope of this book, see refs. 83 to 100.
The selection of construction materials for Code pressure vessels has to be
made from Code approved materia! specifications. A metallurgical engineer
most economical materials of low
first
future maintenance cost that will be satisfactory under operating conditions and
that,
many
factors supported
must be considered
in. total;
otherwise an alternative
NONCORROSIVE SERVICE
11.2.
(from 425F to
low alloy
aluminum
criteria
and austenitic
do not exhibit
.alloys that
loss of the
.1).
impact strength
(For
at
very low
There are
of
is
who
will
service environ
This chapter should serve as a brief information guide for a vessel engineer
or
However,
service: noncorrosive,
ticular job.
possible.
it
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
is
would seem
ment,
11.1.
divisions
in selecting the
most
suitable materials.
socalled
test results
They include
state.
This distinction
is
the following;
brittle
is
the
called
which
at
transition
a material
temperature and
is
from
readily determined
Charpy impact
tests
(ULT 23) the higher yield and tensile strengths of alloys at very low
temperatures can be used to reduce weight and cost where possible. Because of
materials
the low reactivity of most chemicals at very low temperatures, corrosion prob
is
minimum
(MPY)
a total
corrosion allowance
is
in mils
established which
is
service life
(0.001
in.)
added to the
calculated required thickness. Typical design lives are given below for several
limit
is
20F),
lowalloy and finegrain carbon steels tested for notch toughness are found to
perform
satisfactorily.
carbon
Up
to
+33F
to about
+800F) low
in
an
manner; that is, the structure returns to its original dimensions when applied forces are removed and maximum stress is below the yield point. The
elastic
shells,
is
1015 years: Carbonsteel drums, removable reactor parts, and alloy or carbontower internals.
steel
CO
u
<
X
o 2

(_
parts
(
co
D
z
CQ
3.
co
tfl
H
J
0
n
a<;

a
<
co
v E
6 S
I S g .5
en co
s
S3
2
3
%
sure
TS
Si
kH
CO
o o
>*0
00
CQ
O
co
si 5,
g
CQ
So
CO
3'S
CQ
(A
CQ
t?
CO
r>
gr gr
00
CQ oo
gr,
93 94
&2
SAl
'5
cn
o C c o
if
gr.
94
SAl
4)
SAl
&
=>
>
41
CO
3S
304
F12
00
< m
co U.
to
<N
kH
ob
*o
O
5
<
CO CO
t
3^
CO o
grades
. E '3JS 2
316H,321H,347H
SA182gr.
SA182gr.
82
a 73
<
SAl
316H,
types
CO
o co
<
CO
< s <
f">
SA335
347H
Pll
P12
P22
SA335
SA335
304H,
<
< <
CO CO CO
>.
SA335
321H,
*
**
,E
"
S
Z
41
tesi
)act
a
Iiui
<
CO
r*J
ft!
.3
co
co
SA5:
rs
Zi
V>
"T
2 S 6
o a
o a
**"
o>
3
n D i
fl
is
J=.
e V
E
d J9>>T3
_e
sO
*J
J
**
la
T>
i
fi
gr.
gr.
stainless
21
types
16
a
i*
(9
22CL1
12C1.1
11
B,
o
thick
thiol
ti
(see
O.l
BorC
:
all
X
all
gra<
304,316,
grades,
Iiui
t?
S
ft B
...
>act
all
4)
led
over
ft
w
2 ^ o
5 E
SA312
m
ted
0 u
c g
W M W
k c
o d
PI
=2
(0
CO
ro
i*
4>
CN
O0
<
CO
tH
IS
E c
=
=
ftO
s
>>
cm
i<"
bO
<N
OO
00
U.
.2
3
" >
a a sO
rs
(N J"
00 Tf fN
< O ^
en <!
<
to b to
Fll
5 _ &
o a a!3!
H,
s
b
rt
<=
SA193
ex
11.5)
.2
preferred
gr.
gr.
310
SA516all
thicknesses
thicknesses
321,347
io
<
co S 3
<
CO
2
t
< "!
CO
SA387gr.
SA387gr.
section
347
SA204
SA204
SA387
Incoloy
Type
SA240
*n
roo
^>
c S
o
+1500
OOTI+0O0I+
+876+1000
CC td
a.
U
H
+1100+1500
\C
p
r
ajBipauiiaiui
above
ssjniBjadiuai pa jb a 3(3
Is
infill
288
occur
in
mechanical prop
in steels.
and cease to
carbon
stress
steels until
is
Ferritic
{straight
chromium)
stainless
not occur. The allowable stresses are obtained from longterm creep tests and
stress rupture tests at elevated
on hightemperature endurance
temperatures.
Few
data,
4.
Austenitic stainless
stresses in the
Code
steels.
to be based
steel
if
5.
A large number
carbon
is
generally a
for temperatures
and Incoloy.
may
SPECIFICATION
ASTM
No. 5) is preferred in
and impact strengths and
requirement
is
A(SA)285
gr.
Carbon
iiuckiicss
A(SA)515
These vary
i.
in,u.io purtcni
iiidA.
(ASTM No. up
Carbon
Carbon
A(SA)283 gr.CorD
Carbon
A(SA)36
Carbon
gr.
A(SA)516
gr.
size
size
5)
C max.
in
is
all
650F
be
difficulty
gr.
A, B,
A(SA)302
gr.
l^Mn^Mo
A(SA)387
gr.
^CrtMo
gr.
12
gr.ll
rication
Steam
boilers
lCrtMo
1200F
Each grade
lCr MoSi
1200F
classes, Cl.l
is
and
2,
depending on
2^CrlMo
1200F
tensile strength,
21
3CrlMo
1200F
5Cr^Mo
or
60
Carbon
200 F
lowtemperature service
2^Ni
A(SA)203 gr.CorD
3f Ni
A(SA)353
9Ni
A(SA)410
CrCuNiAl
gr.
or
90F
itization
hydrogen attack.
may be
required to
resist
oxida
two
of different
22
A(SA)442gr. 55
A(SA)203
service.
available in
gr.
gr.5
be
Elevatedtemperature service
gr.
of fab
and welding as well. The final overall cost of a carbon steel vessel may
much less than the cost of an alloy steel vessel.
2. Carbonmolybdenum steels, low chromiummolybdenum alloy steels (up
to 3CrlMo) and intermediate chromiummolybdenum alloy steels (up to
9CrlMo). Some of these can be used up to 1200F, where resistance to graph
C^Mo
A(SA)204
tion, sulfidation, or
to 5)
may
Carbon
REMARKS
number of
gr.
TYPE OF
STEEL
ASTM(ASME)
lower temperatures.
microstructure
SA 204
complex
be preferred.
in the
Table 11.2.
1.
The mechanical properties of alloys are affected both by chemcomposition and by grain size. Usually, at low and intermediate operating
steels
some
to a high degree.
better
in
limits.
ical
steels.
applications.
service lifetime
from
3.
289
150F
320F
Max. 0.12 percent C, min. operating
temperature 125F
290
enough to keep the wall metal temperature at a level where the full strength of
the metal can be used in computing the shell thickness. Internal insulation is not
practical,
however,
in
steels
commonly used
by type.
materials.
The
is
it
fabrication.
carbon or lowalloy
In general, three
as protective lining
methods of
steel shells
backing
up
to
f in.thick vessel
plate; above this thickness
ferritic
if
PWHT
used
CORROSIVE SERVICE
11.3.
291
welding
is
temperatures
cladding
may
result in inferior
Table 11.3 lists some frequently used cladding materials; the backing
material
can be any carbon or lowalloy steel.
lay cladding.
An
Integrally Applied Cladding
is
by hot
strength required
minimum 20,000
psi in shear
~~
in. is
advantages.
It
Any
The
liner material
are
wide
"T
in
is considered
of an integrally applied liner
FiI ler
SheetType Lining.
fitted,
many
^f
in. thick.
in.
by welding
usually
exceed 
is
used for integrally clad plates can be used for sheet or strip
lining.
rolling of as
semblies of carbon or low alloy steel plates (backing) and corrosion resistant
sheet (linear) which have been welded at the edges. In rolling at high tempera
The bond
metals.
alternative
is
loaded internal support clips can be directly attached to the cladding; and the
continuous bond eliminates the possibility of any corrosive substance getting
between the cladding and the backing metal. It would seem that differences in
and attached
The
are used.
ment welds
is
in
seam
resistance welds
threefold:
thermal expansion might introduce peak stresses leading to cracks in the cladding,
particularly in the region of welds, but based
tegral
cladding perfor
However,
ms
special tests
on
may
is
2.
292
Table 11.3.
ASTM(SA) STANDARD
SPECIFICATIONS FOR
INTEGRALLY
CLAD PLATE
ALLOY CLADDING
METAL
ASTM (SA)
SERVICE
08
U.Uo
K A 1740 Tvnr
i v
IltdX.
7fr Al
1
1
15Cr
17Cr
1041
0 03
316L
J
347
zuu
700
ntn A
zuu nnoic
h
construction
is
vessel
expensive than
a vessel
is
preferred.
is less
notes 3, 5
Weld overlay cladding is another frequently used method to produce a continuous bonded layer of corrosion or wearresistant alloy on a base metal. In
notes 3, 5
C max
1
310S
C
L
way
...
REMARKS
1
LiiromiumniLKii
A /C 41 ">A/t
tnolc /\(,i3njiO*t
siceis,
fabricated in this
TEMPERATURE
.6
fl
429
430
293
MAXIMUM
A(,oAj iypc*tiuo
Chromium steels,
A \ T
T
AA /C
J.O
OA)
ill
800
ouu
J1UIC u
ment
method
is
where the
liner has
been stripped
25Cr20Ni
0.03 C max.
note 6
jldUtll'ivU
note 6
note 6
Cb
800
stabilized
welded
it
must be
weld over
/CD"!
A(SA)265
400
*t Uu
Inconcl 600
Incoloy 800
77
soo
Mrnrl
IVHjNL.I
168
409
424
1200
1200
1.
2.
Bl 52
Cu
Pdcoxidized
alloy
No. 102
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
mum
90Cu10Ni
70Cu30Ni
No. 715
and introduce
may
metallurgical reaction
base to the austenitic weld, with resulting pollution of the alloy layer.
in.
is
3. Differences in
Internal parts (trays, pans, baffles, etc.) are of the same class of alloy as the shell lining.
Maximim service temperature of the lining can be controlled by the maximum service
temperature allowed for the backing material.
The Code does not recommend the use of the Crstainless steels with a content of Cr over
14 percent for service metal temperature over 800E.
Operating temperatures should be outside the temperature range from 750K to *>S0F,
where the material is subject to embrittlement.
Not suitable for welding,
Because of the different thermal expansions of austenitic steels and carbon steels and
graphitization of carbon steels the operating temperature is also quite often limited to
800
distort
oxygcnfrcc,
ferritic
copper,
No. 122
B432
Incoloy 825
become important
for
hightemperature service (over 800F). Each time the austenitic weld overlay on
carbon
steel is
(<4
in.) are
usually
made of solid
alloy steel
up
to
800F
is
E.
liner sections to
compress
elastically; in
liner
time
from buckling
this
11.4.
BOLTING MATERIALS
changes into
Bolts for Pressure Connections
The spacing of the spot welds should be close enough to protect the
permanent buckling in case of seepage of the test liquid behind the
against
and
in
Usually, sheets and strips are welded to the vessel wall after the vessel
tirely
liner
liner
is
en
base plate before rolling or forming. Carbonsteel surfaces are prepared (by
Code. Bolts are designed not only for strength but also for tightness
at the joints. In
by the bolts must exceed the sum of the force due to the operating fluid pressure and the force necessary to keep the joint tight. The latter depends on the
gasket material and the design of the joint.
Bolts have to be tightened to
some
and corresponding
294
elastic stress. In
with
is
When
ASTM(SA)
SPECIFICATION
ALLOWABLE SERVICE
METAL
TEMPERATURE (F)
TYPE OF STEEL
REMARKS
AISAH93
B7
lCr^Mo
201000
B16
lCrf Mo
201100
see
B5
5Crf Mo
201200
ferritic steels
and coefficient of
B6
important. Since the relaxation can occur also in the flange and
is
is
Table 11.4.
called relaxation.
relaxation
some of
er
note
20 900
thermal expansion.
Allowable bolt stresses permitted by the Code include high safety factors and
A(SA)193
gr.
retightening will be
may become
A maximum
required.
severe
design temperature of
its
450F was
B8C
gr.
carbon
A(SA)320
gr.
L7
B8
CrMo
B8C
B8F
temperatures. Generally, they are used on pressure joints for low temperatures
on hightemperature
series)
It
is
it
common
is
problem with
SA193
In practice,
when
gr.
B8 (type 304)
1 1
.4
and
.5
Type Gn
as operating
and nuts.
in sliding
con
SA194
gr. 8F (type
To minimize
made up with a
temperature
and flange
A453 with
is
rises either
set
(300
series).
B8T
\
treat
"
Table
1 1 .5.
SPECIFICATION
(SEE
NOTE
2)
TYPE OF STEEL
A(SA)194
or 2
gr.
gr.
2H
carbon,
QT
gr.
QT
CMo, QT
gr.
12Cr (410),
gr.3
gr. 7
5Cr,
QT
ICr^Mo
Type 303,
For instance,
316, S.Tr.
used by some valve manufacturers for bolting for nuclear austenitic stainless
gr.
8T
8C
321, S.Tr.
is
valves. Specification
grades
max, service
min.
temperature
+100
min.
min.
min.
ALLOWABLE SERVICE
METAL
TEMPERATURE (F)
20 900
carbon
8M
min.
8F
is
min.
Notes:
1,
For use at temperatures from 20 F to 50 F, this material must be quenched and
tempered.
2. The identification Cl.l describes solutiontreated material. When increased mechanical
properties are desired, austenitic bolting can be both solution treated and strain hardened (CI. 2).
justified.
gr.
steel
gr.
processing, and
303
3I6
321
150
425
425
325
325
325
gr.
special
it
QT
leakage occurs
note 2
20 450
ASTM(ASME)
Paste.
Specification
300
As previously mentioned,
see
galling.
Tables
austenitic steels;
201500
Type 304
347
B8M
usually
like metals.
their
is
tact
C1.1
A(SA)307
Austenitic stainless steels have low yield strength and tend to gall at higher
316
321
347
low resistance
to relaxation.
Type 304
CU
B8T CU
Cl.l
B8M
take into account the fact that additional torsion and bending stresses induced
in bolts
B8
a highalloy
gr.8
S.Tr.
347, S.Tr.
304, S.Tr.
501100
201100
1501100
20 800
201000
325 800
3251500
3251500
4251500
4251500
Notes
Impact test is required for Type 303 in lowtemperature service if the carbon content
1.
above 0. 10 percent.
2. These are the product specifications; no design stresses are required.
is
296
the corrosion resistance of such steels approaches the relatively poor corrosion
is
SA307
gr.
A 193
or
gr.
The
expensive materials
less
can be selected with properties suitable for the design environment. For non
nickel and
is
is
same material
stresses.
good guide
it
No
grades 304 or 3 1 6.
protective coatings such as paints are applied to the surface of stainless
known
chromium content of
1 1
than 30 percent,
less
1.
classified as heatresisting
2.
3.
the straight
is
carbon, manganese,
and
sulfur,
all
of which
nickel.
chromium and
iron.
may be
added,
many
other applications.
Some of the
the service
life
series)
in
percentage; and
re
sified as
equipment and
steel
alloys.
silicon,
cost
30 percent;
including
The
sure vessel and piping construction can be divided into three main groups:
General Considerations
are
all
STAINLESS STEELS
Steels with a
some manner by
welding heat, which modifies their resistance to corrosion and changes their
of stainless steels varies with type, form, and quantity, and not
11.5.
amount
as the internals.
molybdenum
steel;
or
used.
as the
commonly
297
hardening stainless
of pressure
steels
can be
clas
vessels.)
become corrosion
of the formation
and C
in solid solution
with iron.
of an unreactive film which adheres tightly to the surface of the metal. This can
be chromium oxide or an adsorbed oxygen film that acts as a barrier protecting
the metal against further attack in certain types of environment. This protective
film,"
which
is
not
visible, is
it
may
be
nitric acid
it
also helps to
chromium content
is less
than
1 1
discontinuous, and
content austenitic stainless steels (grades 309 and 310) are resistant to oxidation
zation.
is
stainless steels
are furnished
is
grainboundary
by producers
sensiti
in solution
solvent.
in the austenitic
299
weld
maximum
To
298
is
precipitate
the tem
rise in
1.1).
The
effect
is
deple
it
is
The
develops,
out and
chromium
corrosion
is
is
is
rest
all
the material
by
result in sensitization
of a band of material
in. wide
weld on each side (Fig. 11.2). These
two areas are the heataffcctcd zones where the steel has been held in the sensi
slightly
parallel to the
is
steels.
may
is
when
operating temperature
possible.
Welding
Fig. 11.2.
Sensitization of
shell.
heataffected zones
drastically
in
is
its
temperature
is
in
between,
raised well
comparatively rapid.
some
low temperature.
ductility loss at
Group L
These
are
the
normalcomposition,
to sensitization,
cutting of openings.
to give the
scattered intergranular
weldment
applications.
relieving
low chromium
(depleted) areas
To
is
is
it
welded or
may be
for
necessary
for certain
procedure
environments
at that
chromium
are susceptible
carbide deposits
grain boundaries
To
188,
socalled
is
maximum
a stress relief are equal to the depressed yield strength at the stressrelieving
much
continuous intergranular
carbide deposits
Fig. 11.1.
steeL
To summarize,
when no welding
or stress relief
300
II.
boundary
sensitization
columbium which
is
301
stainless steels,
chromium, which
A. Austcnitc grain structure in fully annealed Type 304 (prior
to welding). Outlines of crystal grains as made visible under the
microscope by etching prepared specimens with a suitable reagent. This microphotograph shows absence of intergranular
carbides
tend to precipitate at the grain boundaries, but rather remain dispersed through
unstabilized steels.
air.
locally
adjacent areas. However, under certain special heat treating conditions they can
known
as
the crystals.
cost
is
as knifeline attack.
quite high, and therefore they are used only for special jobs, such as for
when
to intergranular corrosion
They
by
immunity
the process
environment.
Group
ill.
304L
like
or 316L. Grain
boundary
sensitization can be
is
their cor
rosion resistance.
To summarize,
solid
They
plate or for
internal
normalcomposition stainless
ing the carbon.
steels
However, they
subject to sensitization
if
material.
They
are
group
TI,
in the
8001 500F
at
Fig. 11.3.
operating temperatures
Steel Corporation.)
chromium
stainless steels
of
this
group
is
is
with
typical
302
1800
303
weld
800
1min.
10sec.
1Qmin.
1hr.
10hrs.
1000
lOOhrs.
The
sensitized
hrs.
Time
Effect of carbon content on carbide precipitation (depicted schematically) in
Fig. 11.4.
The
stainless steels.
figure
it
become
brittle
it
no
is
general transforma
However,
in air.
it
weld
ment, that
is,
are cooled
air
/.ones,
cooled
at
normal
rates. If
they
chromium
is
1450F allows
ferritic
mediately adjacent narrow bands of base material on both sides of the weld, as
shown in Fig. 11.5. The composition of electrodes used for welding ferritic
stainless steels
is
is
much
less
notch toughness
temperature
is
ferritic stain
rich
has
aprime phase.
When
it
is
at
When
room
hard and
to
treat
the expense of
its
part
maximum.
Postweld heat treatment with controlled cooling will reduce residual stresses
and
transform to ductile
content,
their strength
Type 410
ductility.
as alloying element.
Welding of
chromium
heating to a
are
16 percent
sensitive in heataffected
They
magnet.
may
in
less
also
steels
ferritic
in vessel construction,
cladding (grades 405 or 430S), heatexchanger tubing, and vessel internal hard
by
seldom used
are
chromium
ferrite.
stainless steels
is
markedly
reduced with above 14 percent chromium. With increased carbon content, they
remain hardenable above 14 percent up to 18 percent chromium. With 18 per
cent
tensitic)
and nonhardenable
parts.
They
welding
is
(ferritic) steels is
are the least corrosion resistant of the stainless steel grades, and if
used
in fabrication
heat treatment
is
required.
304
when
resistant
checked by
in
condition.
Table
1 1
.6 lists
as well their
approximate price
ratios,
Table 11.6.
easily
failures
40S
2CrAl (0 08
C max and
0.85
0 100 30 All
429
430
446
15Cr (0.12
17Cr (0.12
27Cr (0.20
C max.)
C max.)
0.90
C max.)
410S
409
410
Selection of the right grade, with possible heat treatment for a particular seris
FACTOR
NOMINAL COMPOSITION
Ferritic
vice,
RELATIVE COST
STAINLESS STEEL
ASTM TYPE
Most
305
usually done
by
0.90
0.85
0.80
Austenitic
causes
201
17Cr4Ni6Mn
302
18Cr8Ni (0.15
granular corrosion, stress corrosion, pitting, and crevice corrosion. Localized cor
303
rosion attack also occurs quite often at areas contaminated because of improper
inter
0.95
304
18Cr8Ni (0.15
18Cr8Nt (0.08
C max.)
C max.)
C max.)
304L
18Cr8Ni (0.03
1.10
316
C max.)
1.40
316L
2.01
18Cr10NiTi
1.32
1.04
1.00
steels will
steels.
317
Since austenitic stainless steels are used mainly for highly severe environmental
service conditions, they are
317L
tures
more often
321
347
a great effect
on
fatigue
are often
minimum
stress
avoided, and butt welds should preferably be used and fully radiographed.
The
edge of the weld deposits should merge smoothly into the base metal without
undercuts or abrupt transitions. Sound, uncontaminated welds are important.
The welds should be located away from any structural discontinuities. Weld
and contract to
selfdraining without
any
crevices or spots,
where
dirt
2.20
(stabilized)
1.70
1.56
1.70
2.05
2.22
to Table 12.6. The straight chromium steels (Type 400) suffer from pitting corrosion,
while austenitic steels (Type 300) are susceptible to stress corrosion. Therefore, for extra
corrosive environments, new high alloy stainless steels with both higher resistance to pitting
corrosion and stress corrosion are sometimes used (151). They are austenitic alloys with the
following designations:
Note
ASTM
deposition sequences should be used that will minimize the residual stresses.
Austenitic stainless steels conduct heat
1.55
18Cr10NiCb (stabilized)
23Cr12Ni (0.20 C max.)
23Cr12Ni (0.08 C max.)
25Cr20Ni (0.25 C max.)
25Cr20Ni (0.08 C max.)
309
309S
310
310S
max.)
They
B 62S
(plate
B 677
B 709
3.5
1.5
Mo,
Cu)
1.0
Cu)
is
over
306'
when thoroughly
maximum
resis
blistering
carbon
307
steel, in the
cleaned surfaces should be taken and maintained during fabrication, storage, and
made
at
all
from coming into contact with other metals. For cleaning, only clean
wool and brushes should be used. If flame cutting is used, additional metal should be removed by mechanical means to provide clean, weldable
edges. All grinding of stainless steels should be performed with aluminum oxide
faces
stainless steel
which
crack
viously used
heat
bonded with resin or rubber, and not preon other metal. Proper identification and correct marking of the
ing results,
Under the
consequences.
is
visible
is
stresses,
stresses
Hydrogen embrittlement,
is
11.6.
Since
residual
is
only
temporary
restored.
Damage by
Preventing Hydrogen
high partial pressures of hydrogen, the material selected for vessel construction
Plain carbon
for such
operating temperatures and high pressures or low pressures and high tempera
The mechanism of hydrogen damage in steels is based on the fact, that the
monatomic hydrogen diffuses readily through metal, whereas molecular hydrogen does not. Diffusion of atomic hydrogen through steels depends on a number
of factors such as temperature, partial hydrogen pressure, time and composition
of the material.
is
hydrogen atoms enter the voids in the steel and then combine
hydrogen, they can no longer diffuse out.
is
attack
it
is
To
steels.
and hard
steels
sufficient ductility to
is
ferritic steels
may
considerable.
molybdenum
addition to
chromium
or
or both.
In selecting steels for petrochemical service the Nelson curves [87, 119],
which show the operating limits for steels in hydrogen service, are strictly
followed and extensively used. According to these curves carbon or lowalloy
mum
of
steel.
if
on or below or to the
left
operating partial hydrogen pressure and temperature inside the vessel are
in
the petro
from time
in
Sound,
steel.
low
if
service at
steels are
At higher temperatures
form molecular
in
hydrogen
if
to
hydrogen
suffer blistering
will
in size, gross
hydrogen
can'build up, which can either crack the shell plate or,
steel
The damage
inclusionfree
hydrogen damage to
of a
tures.
and lowalloy
tice.
to time
Some of the
curves are
shown
in Fig.
latest revision
1 1 .6.
308
inlong
<fe.
309
rwzle
fissure
6.0 Cr 0.5
reinrorcmg paa
Mo (SA357)
>L
MoTsA387E)
3.0 Cr 0.5
2.0 Cr 0.5
<
Mo (SA387D)
/
fissure
heatexchanger
channel shell
Carbon
large original
(SA516)
steel
lamination
in
plate
A204
Material:
gr.
B
7FinF
Design temperature:
J_J
300
0 100 200
XR
S.R., Full
500
2000
1500
1000
2500
3000
^ig. 11.7
Hydrogen
Fig. 11.6.
Suggested operating pressuretempeiatuie limits for some carbon steels and low
surface decarburization due to the hydrogen attack occurs. (Source: ref. 119.)
hydrogen
still
is
shell.
Also, a nozzle
steel
steelclad
fillet
in ferritic
steel layer.
it
is
less
11.7.
ALUMINUM ALLOYS
aluminum
In petrochemical plants
materials
for
pressure
vessels.
In spite of
many
weight, good corrosion resistance) they cannot match the steel alloys in price,
strength above
room temperature,
atmospheres. Also,
combined with
Special design
hydrogen atmosphere
may
at
be
high
well
designer should carefully avoid any stress concentrations, include in specifications additional tests for
in the
material with a
Figure
1 1 .7
minimum of
shows
and service
life in
heavily polluted
If
aluminum
alloys are
and workability,
is
employed
which
is
for lowtemperature
equipment such. as
is
required at tempera
tures below 150F, the easily worked alloys 5083 or 5086 are used; at tem
5454
aluminum
resid
become more competitive with stainmore often used. There are no Code requirements for impact
testing of wrought aluminum alloys down to 425F, or for cast aluminum
alloys down to 325F. The alloys 5050O, 5083O (preferred), 5086O, and
54540 are most frequently used. On average the coefficient of thermal expansion
6
a for aluminum alloys is about twice as large as that for steel (a = 12.9 X 10"
in./in./F for alloy 3003), an important factor in the design of piping for cryo
a fracture in a heatexchanger
ill
reliability,
as a
For cryogenic
less steels
in
and impurities
residual stresses.
in the plates
in. thick),
many
and
vessels
alloys
are
310
genie temperatures.
The modulus of
elasticity
(E  10
10
at
of aluminum alloys
is
only one
the
elastic
The second
is
zero,
aluminum
it
the weight.
alloy:
Aluminum
surfaces
which
will
be
in
strength of
aluminum
The
series.
annealing range.
treatment
is
in the
but unstable: After an aging period of several days at room temperature, pre
alloys
in
aluminum alloys, reduces the weld strength, and impairs corrosion resistance.
The Code recognizes this by allowing the vessel designer to use the allowable
stress values of 0 o; 7 type alloys as welded material for welded constructions,
which include practically
recommended
all
vessels.
is
is
not
possible.
1.
2.
copper,
3.
manganese,
4.
silicon,
5.
magnesium,
6.
magnesium and
7.
zinc,
8.
other elements.
silicon,
letter,
two
If
digits identify
no
F temper
are
more
digits),
digits).
HI:
strain
hardened only,
H2:
strain
H3:
strain
treatment,
artificially aged.
by
Aluminum
as fabricated,
cipitation of constituents
The
last
F:
The
The
num
311
The second
digit
is
quarterhard, 4
is
halfhard,
is
strain
is
hardened,
full
is
full
hard.
designated by the digit 9. The third digit indicates a variation of the twodigit
is
NUMERICAL METHODS
313
Sleevetype
Pressure takeoff
12
Numerical Methods for Stress Analysis
of Axisymmetric Shells
Fig. 12.1.
INTRODUCTION
12.1.
By
inspection, the
maximum
stress will
By
is re
at point
analytical
method, the calculations become lengthy and can be considered more as rough
technique
stress estimates than as a satisfactory solution, and some experimental
most impossible to
for stress
Although most
there
is
solve
and loadings difficult or alby analytical methods with acceptable accuracy. Usually,
not a closedform analytical stress solution available for the actual physi
cal shape,
lytical solution
desired
is
unknown
large
Much
axisymmetric
2. Finite
3.
4.
shells [20]
method (FEA).
those methods possess distinctive advantages over the others. Howthe others.
ever, for certain types of problems, one method may be preferred to
Usually, the results by one method are checked by another to ascertain the de
None of
becomes impossible.
In the past, the approximate analytical stress solutions of such difficult vessel
parts
have to be applied.
1.
will
tained
measurements
stress
measurements such
as:
by
stress
measurements.
1
Photoelastic
coating). This
is
3. Brittle coatings,
Hydrostatic tests of
fullsize or
and conical
parts. It is
ing of cylindrical
their theoretical
raisers, limited
to surfaces only.
4.
Numerical methods provide numerical approximations rather than exact soluacceptable accutions. They yield results valid for a particular problem with an
and
racy, but not a general closedform solution. Once the numerical techniques
best results.
314
NUMERICAL METHODS
315
The division of a complex system or a body into distinct separate parts (elements) in order to analyze the behavior of the entire system is a routine procedure often used in the engineering practice. If the system can be solved by applicamethods leading to differential equations (and an infinite
number of elements) the system is called continuous. If on the other hand the
system is divided into a finite number of elements the system is called discrete.
As a general rule, the regions over which the bending effects are significant
and/or compound stress gradient is steep (stress raisers) should be divided into
tion of analytical
its
The most important numerical method is the finite element analysisdisplacement method. One of the reasons the FEA has been gaining predominance is
that the method can be formalized in a standard procedure that does not require
any engineering decisions to be made during the computation process and is
eminently suitable for computer programming. The method is also readily applicable to other fields (fluid mechanics, electricity, heat transfer etc.)
corners (nodal points, nodes) pinned with specified degrees of freedom. The
nodal points are the points where the forces are being transmitted. This makes
the stress analysis of the element possible.
By comparing Figures 12.3(a) and (b) it can be seen that as the plate of the
beam is divided into more elements, the more closely the discretized beam in (b)
resembles the solid cantilever beam under the load F in (a); for instance, the
the elements. However, the elements are not just cut out
tions of
more complex
computer programs
To develop
is
beyond
skill.
The nodal
ture,
FINITE
elastic
from the
original struc
specific patterns such that the overall continuity of the entire assemblage of
elements tends to be maintained under the strains induced by the loads. This can
be achieved
12.2.
if
is
a relationship in a
In the cantilever framed beam, Fig. 12.2, the distribution of forces and stresses
in all structural
Every member
members under
is
the load
presses freely
structure
is
of
many
the plate
beam
is
divided into a
(a)
Deep
(b)
cantilever plate
beam.
316
NUMERICAL METHODS
317
(trial,
element
is
crucial. It
actual element
is
as closely
accuracy depends on
it. (Here lies the main difference between the finite element
analysisdisplacement method and the matrix analysis of framed structures,
where the joint displacements are relatively few and readily evaluated.) Once the
known
computed. The system of external applied loads acting on the actual structure
has to be replaced by an equivalent system of forces concentrated at the element
nodes since
all
forces are
is
of the load. For distributed loads, equivalent point loads are established (by
inspection or computation) and applied at nodes. Simultaneous forces acting at
the same point are added.
it
to
some degree
in
rules of
relationship
between the given external load F (Fig. 12.4.) and the reactions
and displacements of joints can be derived describing the
at points of supports
behavior of the whole system under the load F. First, the stiffness influence coefficients
From
~AEjL
for
member
1:
kx
for
member
2:
lb/in.
two methods.
FEADisplacement Method Applied to
Fig. 12.4 represents a simple
(The example
where
a
Framed Structure.
Illustrative
example
The way to subdivide this system into discrete elements is immediately obvious.
The system consists of two line (onedimensional) structural elements and three
where the external forces are transmitted and the displacements
is assumed that every member has two pinned ends
and two degrees of freedom [Fig. 12.12(a)] Displacement u in the direction of
the xaxis and a displacement v in the direction of the yaxis are joint displacements under the load. The members can only resist axial forces and no bending
ing
on
are to be computed. It
posssible.
lb/in.
is
and 3 (F lx
Flyt
,F$ X
F3y )
or they can be
computed
The
forces at joints 1, 2
They
components* act
equilibrium.
The external
forces
F lx
etc. in Fig.
joint displacements:
joints, points
is
Fig. 12.4.
Load
Member
F lx
= kl ul
k x u2
Fi y = 0
Flx
kiUt +
k^ 2
318
and
NUMERICAL METHODS
in
or in matrix form:
*1
*i
*1
u2
v2
fJ
is:
o"
"I
n,
<
F*y\
319
cos
 sin
sin
cos
2x
sin
3x
cos
3,
cos a
cos
sin
or in short
or in short:
Mi
]k]
where
{5>!
{6}j
is
member
in global cordinates.
Member
"*2
3*1
'J
&2
*2
and similarly
/ 'N
u2
v2
cos
sin
=
1
"3
I
sin
cos
sin
a
ct
sin
oc
cos
or in short
or in short:
{F'h'\k'] 2 {S'h
(1)
{5'} 2
where {5'} 2
is
member 2
= IT]
{8} 2
consisting of nodal
displacements in local coordinates. (The words node and joint are used here
main equation
(1):
interchangeably.)
Before both matrix equations can be combined into one master stiffness matrix
for the entire structure, the stiffness matrix [k']
member 2
In global coordinates
Fk y
(all
assumed to be
its
is
T
transpose [T]
and
we
1
its
inverse [T]
is
equal to
get:
F2y
sin
~ F2x
sin
a+
F2y
cos
forces are
be positive or negative):
cos
F'sx* Fs x cos a
F'i y
xy
will
where [T]
F3x
sin
a+
F3y
sin
F3y
cos
[kh =
[T]
[k'h[T]
stiffness
NUMERICAL METHODS
320
zos*
out
sin
cos
sin
a cos a
sin
For
get:
a cos a
sin
a cos a
sin
we
cos
sin
a cos a
sin
cos
sin
sin
a cos a
sin
 sin
a cos
Flx =
ot
we can
321
*12
Fix =
a cos a
F2y  
a cos a
The forcedisplacement matrix equations of both elements can be now combined into one master matrix equation in global coordinates by the principle
(*2 cos
a + kx ) u2
(k 2 sin
Fix =
" (^2
F$ y =
(fc 2
cos
(k 2 sin
cos a) v 2
(2)
a) v 2
(3)
ae
cos a) u 2 + (k 2 sin
a) u 2 + (k 2 sin a cos a) v 2
a cos a) u 2
sin
(k 2 sin
a) u 2
of superposition:
Substituting the design data into the above equations (2) and (3)
t \x
~*1
Fly
*i
0
r
Fix
ki + k 2 cos
~k%
sin
u\
u2
k2
a cos a
sin
u2
v2
<)!
F&
>!
oj
k 2
sin
a cos a
2
k 2 cos a
ft 2
sin
k2
sin
&2
sin
a
a cos a
a cos a
fc 2 sin
^2
^a
&2 cos
&2
sin
F2x = 0 and
c s
a
a cos a
&2
sin
 2
sin
*2
sin
=2309 X
1000
10" 6
=10155 X
we
get, for
lb.:
in.
10" 6
in.
v2
a cos a
2
F2y =
V\
Fiy
"3
The above displacements can easily be checked from the Williot diagram and by
using the force method. From the known u 2 and v 2 we are able to compute the
displacements in the local coordinates (equal to ALi and AL 2 ) and the axial
forces
or in short:
It
is
and
stresses in the
members.
FEA
lems requires a considerable amount of matrix algebra. However, once the master
The
required at node
is
k i}
stiffness coefficient
i
in the master
system
stiffness
matrix [K]
is
the force
is,
programmed,
all possibilities
"
Example
12.1.
is
is
1.
Node
in Fig. 12.5.
released,
F% 
Mi
Pi 
^30
Mi
Step
2.
Node
2 released, nodes
^i =
2
k1
=AE/L=QJ5X
in.
Ui  Vi
 w3 =
L = 40in
v3
10
=0
=30 X
10
psi
k 2 =0.65 X 10 6
F=
"
ka u 2
F2
and 3
fixed:
= ka u 2 + k b u 2
F3 ~
10001b
a = 30,
established and
required then
is
to substitute
system as shown
Step
To
matrix (that
Step
3.
Node
3 released, nodes
Fi
=0
and 2 fixed:
F2 fcjMj
F3
=/c 6 3
kb u 2
NUMERICAL METHODS
322
*.
Spring
*s
Spring
all possibilities)
from
U/2Mi
n() =
(lb. /in.
(Ib./in.)
Fig. 12.5.
kt
dli/du =
is
323
/2^i
+ (ka + k b ) u/2
+ k b ul/2
springs.
ka u x u 2 l2
k b u 2 u z ll
F3 u
k b u 2 u 3 /2
F2 u 2
and
or combined in the matrix form:
"
~K
'Fx
F2
.Ft.
*.
(ka + k b )
K
_o
an/3w!
blildu 2
='ka u
0
*
"2
8
k
n/3 3 =
orF =ka u
t
+(ka + k b )u 2 k b u 3
M2 " F
F2 =0
=0
orF2 = ka u x
or
F3 = 
ka u 2
+(fc a
+k b )u 2
 kbu 2
kb u 2 + k b u 3
."3
in matrix form:
if
"
"K
would seem important to point out that if the external load for
instance F2 ~ 0 then the summation of all internal forces around the joint 2 is 0
since the ioint is in equilibrium. With u = 0:
At
this point
it
F*
Fy
K
(ka
K
_o
+k b )
k b
k
M
lu 2
k_ l"3
or in short
minimum
potential energy.
The principle of minimum potential energy states that if the potential energy
of an elastic loaded structure (linear or nonlinear) is expressed as a function of
the unknown joint displacements, then the structure will be in stable equilibrium
when
make the
n for
is
given
node
n=
U+Wp =ku
l2 Fu.
on
is
common
proper
The type of
will
NUMERICAL METHODS
324
325
(b) The location of the points where the stresses will be evaluated determine the accuracy of the results. If the body is inadequately discretized, then
the resulting computer analysis can lead to erroneous results and misleading pre
maximum
dictions of areas of
strains.
2. Derivation of the element stiffness matrix fkj relating the nodal displacements to nodal forces on the basis of the geometric, material properties and
chosen degrees of freedom. The elements of the element matrix are the influence
basic
from
all
ematical
It is a
work
together.
as indi
vidual elements just cut out of the system. Therefore, the computation of the
stifness coefficients
function giving displacements at every point within the element in terms of nodal
as possible.
series
of the type
y=
a 1 + azx + a 3 x +
is usually selected to represent the displacement function since they can easily be mathematically manipulated by limiting the number
The above
FEA
procedure
is
method [137,
Fig. 12.6.
stiffness coefficients.
Discretization
1.
of the
Plate.
So
and
as
would
result in
= Fjh 6Fy'jh 2
and for/ =
/i/2
{6} gives
is
15}=[K]5.
and
{F}.
stresses in the
Illustrative
elements (usually
at the centroids or at
(2/ 4
+/ 3 )
*a=(*/6)
(2/ 3
+/ 4 )
For
tion for
the
axis:
R4
F and # 3
0.
The system forcedisplacement matrix equation can be written for the plate in
same manner as for the bracket in Fig. 12.4, if we assume ele
where
B elastic:
(F)
is
[K]
is
Example
shown in Fig. 12.6 will be anaFEAdisplacement method. The system torcedisplacement equadetermining stress and displacements has to be formulated.
by
from the
known
loads.
lyzed
andA 4 =(*/6)
{F}=[K]{S}
computed and
ments A and
tions:
 4F/h
7F/h
/3
{S}
is
unknown nodal
displace
ments to be computed.
In the previous examples the stiffness matrix [K] consisting of stiffness coef
NUMERICAL METHODS
326
m (xy)
and
2U 2
4(0,^1
y7
is
any point
in the triangular
327
v.
pF
Element B
is
force vector,
(their
components) acting
at
3(0,01
short {/}.
Element
^^^^^
1U V
\
Two
0)
lines are
is
dividing
was
ficients
easily
lines.
There are
Fig. 12.7.
all
nodal displacements,
in short {5}.
six
fore a plane triangular element has six degrees of freedom. These are
Here, however, the computation of the stiffness matrix of the system represents
a
major
evaluated.
2.
The procedure
(b) Selection
(a) Selecting
2.8),
where
)t
(u, v)
of any point
local coordinates).
and 3 are the vertices of the triangle and the nodes with defined coordi
nates (x l y l
within the element under the nodal forces can be written as some function of
the choice of the displacement function as closely representing the actual strained
(x 2 y 2 ), (xsys), respectively.
element shape
as possible
siderable mathematical
is
skill.
desirable for a
The
good end
result.
some degree
is
u
r
"HI
0
^
2(x 2 y2
"i
^ fu
Element thickness
(a)
Elements
and B unstrained.
(b)
Elements
and B strained.
the
first
FEA
Fig. 12.9.
element.

is
given
by
NUMERICAL METHODS
328
two
linear polynomials:
329
or in short
u  a x + a 2 x + a 3y
v~a 4
+ a 5 x + a 6y
can
now be expressed
in terms
coefficients
displacements {5}:
or
{a}=[AV
{5}.
is
xiy 2 x 2 yi
x x y 3 +X3.V1
y% y*
y$yi
x 3 x 2
xi
y\ y%
x2
as
\a6 J
i _
2A
minimum of six
a 6 ) are required. The coefficients are also called
displacement amplitudes, since their magnitudes govern the magnitude of the
displacement amplitude, while the number of terms retained in the polynomial
Since a triangular plane element has six degrees of freedom, a
coefficients (a x
a 2i a 3
= (x 2 y 3
two common nodes will remain linear even in a strained state. This insures physical continuity between the elements; however, the resulting condition differs
from the actual strain and stress distribution. Unless this is minimized by using
triangular elements or using
Unknown
the nodal
v.
The
known
result
is
six
y 2 ys
x 3 x 2
~x 3 y 2 )
x\y 2 ~x 2 yi
y 3 yi
y\ y2
*i*3
*2 Xl
xiyz +
x^i
ol
w3
v3
We
unknown
xty^ + ix^ ~x 2 y^
(x x y 3
coefficients (a lt a 2i
in
a 6 ) of the polynomials
become
linear
combina
(to be
coordinates (x i7
nodal displacements.
0
u
tions of the displacements of the nodal points. The inversion of the matrix [A]
is usually performed by a computer.
(d) Using the above relationship, displacements of any point m within the ele
more
The
(c)
x 2 y 3 x 3 y 2
No gaps occur between the sides of adjacent deformed elements because the
displacements are assumed to be linear. The adjoining sides of two elements with
will
*l
many
x 3
"
/a l u +
1
ot 2
u2 + a3u 3 \
2A
V= {
+ fc"2 + fe 3\
2A
2A
where
/M
72
~*i
*3
y%
73
= X2
Xi
x 3y2
ft
=y 2
ol 2
=x 3 y
x xy3
ft
=y 3 ~y
~ *2JVi
ft
^1
2A
~ a + a +oc 3 where
2
x
"
y3
v at
= *3 "*i
x 2 y 3
a3 = x l y 2
X +
)
7i
ot x
2A

X +
2E~^r
2A
y
)
triangle element.
330
(e)
From
the theory
of
elasticity
aw
bv
y*> =
3nd
NUMERICAL METHODS
of the displacements)
dv
we
or in matrix form:
have:
v
bu
te*Ty
is all
ticity.
Jd
Oy
we get:
Ox
+ a 2 x + a z y)/bx = a 2
ex =
e
v
Ifxy,
This
331
1
1
lv 2
or
or
"o
 [D]
a2 I
{e}.
is
I
and
get:
"i
= [C]
we
0$
or simply {e}
matrix {e}
{a}.
3
Substituting for {a}
we
= ID]
[D)[B]
get:
[B] {8}.
'xy
"3
where [5] =
[C]^]"
The
x3
x3
x2
x 2
y 2 y z x
Xj  x 3
x3 y 3
x2
x 2 x x y
y 2_
It
is
displacements.
(f)
The
last equation relates internal stresses (ox o Txy ) to the nodal element disy
displacements {6}.
Clearly, once the nodal displacements under given external loadings are known,
state
ex
= ox /E
ey
= vox/E + o /E
y
= 0)
POy/E
yxy =Txy/G =
2(\
+v)Txy /E
we used
known
is
(CSTG).
The value of nodal displacements depends on external forces. The next step
between the assumed state of stress of the element and the
nodal statically equivalent forces (fXx ,fiy
/3y ) that would cause this type
of stress. In a simple triangular element, they can be derived by the direct equivalent force approach which is also the most illustrative. The total force acting at
the node 1 in the x direction in Fig. 12.10 is:
(g)
is
can be expressed
fix
= lo t(y*
x
yi) + ox t{y 2 yi)]/2+
'frx<>2
yz)+Txy (x z x 2 )]/2
and
[rxy t(x 3
~x
)~ r xy t(x 2 x,)]/2
similarly for fi
y
J2x ,f2y Jz x ,h y
332
/s
O ^
X H
1
^^
>\
f*
>
7^7
+
?
w 2 "
\#
/">
x x
t
^w ^
m
X
<**
*t3
5
.
"
^ O.
w ^
" r
H
i
i
J
^^
X
!*
*
O
m
^1
cX
/~
X
1
J?
^ ^
/^
M
X
X H
&
X*
'
?s
rn
c*
Ps
1
 S "
<n
z +
/~>
(*
<N
H
M
rt
*
1
<
Ou ^
s
w
+
Fig. 12.10.
V5
w +
^ O ^
1
">
&
^>
.
^>
V57
Si
15
N r +
V
13
or in matrix form:
7,;
">2
*3
*2~
(N
rJ.
X
"1
fiy
hx
J>3
"*2
y%
yi "^3
"*3
iS
jT
tn
UPI
^
1
^
1
^ ^
^H
h  &
0^>T3 ^
n +
"
X 2 *1
y\ ">
X
yS
2
1
AtlB]
/
fl
*1
{f} =
f*
in the
is
O
+
X*
16
w+
i
1
OK S
i
m s
jT
w r +
K
I
t3
O.
O ^
x x
1
^>
to
N O,
<s
<n
=At[B] T [D][B]
A is
page 333.
[B]
is
:T
w c
1
t is its
form for
'fit]
is
as
shown on
aT
S
+ w
.
t3
~*
X*
1
H
t
S m
si
x,
ff
At[B] T [D]
X
1
where
OK
**3
[k]
2 
is
to
{D][B]{6}.
The product At[B) T [D] [B] provides the forcenodal displacement relationship
and
/s
y* ^1
*1
fix
<f*y>
13
<
fry
'
^ ow ^
i
n
13
334
NUMERICAL METHODS
d l2
in case
of the plane
stress
However,
(o2 = 0) are
in
[k]
is
335
as follows:
rfll<*M/0l' a )
rfiarfai^/Of 2 )
tf 33
=72(1 +
k\2
ki3
ki4
*15
ku
k2 \
k% 2
k23
k2 A
k 2S
k26
*M
k%2
^33
^34
k 3s
^36
&41
k*2
&43
^44
k4 $
^46
*SI
ks2
ks3
&S4
k ss
k 56
*61
k 62
k 63
&64
k6s
[*]
0)
kixm s
ku
^[dn(y 2
matrix
[fc]
are
named by
letters
fc,
for instance,
y*) +^33(^3 ~x 2 f]
subscripts correspond just to the
The
then the matrix equation for a triangular element can be written in a closed form:
kixvi
kixui
k\ XV 2
klxu3.
klyu2
klyv2
kly U 3
klyv3
in the matrix.
The
above simplification in subscript notation means that only one symbol is used to
denote joint displacement components and only one symbol is used to designate
joint force components, e.g., f3x k $l u t + k S2 v x + k$^u 2 + k S4 v 2 + * S5 u 3 +
k S6 v 3
3. System
.
fix
k\yv3
k 2x u2
k 2xv2
kzxui
k2xv3
hy
k 2yui
k 2yu2
k 2 y v2
k2yu3
k2yv3
fix
%3xul
^3xu2
k$xv2
k^xus
k$xv3
Jly,
^3yvl
^3yu2
k$yv2
klyu3
For element
kA
kA
k IXV3
*
kA
k Ayvl
A
k
* \yu2
kA
lyv2
kA
* Xyu3
kA
K
fax
kA
kA
kA
^2xu2
kA
K
kA
*'2xu3
kA
*
2xv3
fay
kA
kA
*2yvl
kA
kA
*"2yV2
"2yu3
kA
kA
*2yv3
**
kA
3XU\
kA
kA
K
3xu2
kA
kA
K
3xu3
kA
*
3XV 3
kA
kA
kA
K
kA
K
kA
kA
K
<
<
yV l
v2
lyul
3yu2
2XV2
3yv2
ft
3yu3
\yv3
<
"3
3yv3
For computation of the matrix [B] the proper coordinates of nodes have to be
used, (xj = L x y x = 0 etc.) along with the area of the triangle Lh/2.
"3
coefficients
ft.
ft
* 1XU2
fax
The
kA
hy
&3yv3
[K]
K lXUl
(f
Jlx \
v
K
Stiffness Matrix
(w,
are referred
For element B:
lr B
'fax
fSr
The two subscripts used here with k, for instance, k lxu3 denote the force
(component of flx ) which must be applied at node 1 in the* direction to sustain
a unit displacement in the x direction at node 3 (u = 1) with all other nodal
3
displacements controlled to be equal to zero. For an element with six d.o.f., the
[k] matrix is of the sixth order (6 X 6) and symmetrical, k
2yul = k lxv2 due to
2xu2
kB
K
2xx/2
B
k
*2XU$
k 2XV3
*
k
*2yv3
kB
"
kB
*>2xv4
"2
kB
kB
K
2yv4
v2
fay
*2yu2
kB
kB
kB
K
2yu3
fax
kB
K
3XU2
kB
k 3XU3
K
k
^3xv3
"3xu4
kB
kB
K
3XV4
fay
kB
kB
kB
kB
3yv3
kB
K
kB
fax
kB
K
kB
kB
kB
kB
K
kB
kB
K
4yv2
B
k
K 4yu3
kB
K
4yv3
k 4yu4
*2xu4
"3
4
ft
Zyul
4xu2
reciprocity.
fay
t
3yu3
3yu4
4XU4
ft.
3yv4
kB
K
4xv4
kB
4yV 4
ft.
U3
"4
NUMERICAL METHODS
336
Again to evaluate the matrix [B] the proper node coordinates have to be used
along with the area of the triangle Lh/2.
The combined
is
K lxvl
kA
A
k
*
A
K
2xul
!r
2xvl
K lxu2
kA
kA
kA
K
IXV3
kA
K
iyu2
kA
K
kA
K
\yu3
kA
K
ly V 3
A
K
A
K
k 2xu3
K 2xv3
Ir
2XU2
\yv2
lr
2xv2
kA
K 2yv\
kA
K
2yu2
+k 2yU 2
lr
kA
K 3XU2
kA
*2yv2
+k 2yV 2
]c
kA
kA
K
2yv3
"1
"2
kB
*2xv4
^2
Q
+ k 2 yu3 + *2yt;3
i^
0
'
B
+k B
2xv3 k
+lc 2xv2
kA
K
2yul
K 2yu4
displacement vector is
required for solving the system matrix equation, since the
unknowns.
the
of
entirely
consist
to
assumed
vector
The applied external nodal loads in overall equilibrium form the load
the nodal force vec{F} for the entire structure. {F} is not to be confused with
equivalent to the internal
tor for the individual elements {/}, which is statically
load (term in the
applied
externally
stresses in the element. At any node the
forces (terms in
nodal
the
of
sum
the
{F} vector) must be in equilibrium with
external load is
no
When
node.
that
at
the {/} vector) of all elements meeting
node are in
the
forces
at
nodal
element
acting at a particular node, than the
*2yv4
equilibrium.
<
5.
A
k
K 3XV3
"3X143
337
Stresses. Stress
"3
j
+ kfxu2
o
lr
0
0
kA
0
0
+ kfxv2
kA
kA
*3yv2
k yu3
+k B
+ k$yv2
+ kfyu3
kB
kB
K
3xv4
kB
kB
k 3yv3
K
+kz yv 3
^3
kB
K
4xu2
kB
K
kB
kB
kB
kB
K
4XV4
K Ayu2
kB
kB
kB
kB
kB
4xv2
K 4yv2
K 4yv3
*4yu4 * 4yv4
"4
*>4
or in short:
where the matrices [D] and [B] nave been already evaluated
The maximum and minimum stresses in the elements are then:
{F}=[K]{8}.
4.
From
the equation
2
 rl ]
0,2  (Px ~ o y )l2 [(ax  oy ) /4
y
=[*]{}
/e
can
now compute
with tan
the nodal displacements:
They
2<t>
for
1/2
it xy l (ox  ay ).
oy rxy ) in the
the applied loads are carried through the body. The stresses (ax
above triangular elements are constant within the elements.
,
{6}
To
each element.
1
a digital
computer
is
boundary
Description of
in
FEAdisplacement method the unknown quantities are the joint disthe points
placements of the structure. The joints of a structure are defined as
the free ends
and
support,
points
the
intersect,
of
elements
more
where two or
are equivalent to
of any projecting elements. The unknown joint displacements
of kinematic
degree
kinematic unknowns and their number is called either the
number of
The
(d.o.f.).
mdetermiriacy or the number of degrees of freedom
In the
338
d.a.f.
equals the
number of independent
NUMERICAL METHODS
system. Generally, the more d.o.f. an element has the more" powerful
instance, the plane stress triangle in Fig. 12.13 with
two
Node
for
node versus
d.o.f. per
Node
wt
Node
Node 2
it is;
u7
339
"J"
the triangle used for solving bending stresses in plates with three d.o.f. per node.
However, the more complicated the displacement functions become, the more
expensive the equations become to run through the computer.
The concept of the kinematic indeterminancy can be made, understandable if
we Consider the cantilever beam in Fig. 12.11. Although the cantilever beam is
statically fully determinate,
it is
1.
is
(bj
Beam element, 4
axial
two unknown
d.o.f.,
deformation neglected.
Fig. 12.12.
(a)
and rotation
Line element and beam element. Both are onedimensional elements, the
The elements used in
FEA. They
They have
all
six degree
is,
six dis
placements (see Fig. 12.13). The triangular element has the advantage of simplicity
and
ability to
irregular boundaries.
fit
Fig. 12.13.
However, in practice
this
element
should be avoided. For accuracy, a very large number of the elements has to be
used.
3.
Constant plane
stress rectangle
(two
(PSR) with sides parallel to global coordinode). The rectangular plane element is
d.o.f. per
stress triangular
signifi
Fig. 12.14.
metric
stress, and
whenever possible
4.
it is
is
flz
{/J
Fig. 12.11.
m lx
m
It
displacement vector
is
is
340
341
Fig. 12.15.
5.
NUMERICAL METHODS
It is
It
6.
and
d.o.f.
7.
origin
is
arbitrary. This
element
is
It
12.18).
8.
shell
problems,
12.19. Ring torus elements cannot be coupled with other types of elements.
9.
with 12
10.
is
node).
Tridimensional stress element in Fig. 12.21, also called brick element with
Fig. 12.19.
W3
24
d.o.f. total. It
it
does not
fit
into irregular
boundaries.
Fig. 12.17.
structure can
make
it
finite elements.
342
NUMERICAL METHODS
V"7
3
Fig. 12.24.
two
d.o.f. per
are quadratic.
shows
PSHQ
element gives
is
linear
per node
is
shown, and
d.o.f. per
reliable results.
node
is
Quadratic
in
ele
modeling of
343
Flat
tie
JU
achieved by:
More accurate results with smaller number of elements are
12.17.
Fig.
in
as
node,
each
at
freedom
(a) allowing more degrees of
as in Fig. 12.23(b).
(b) using additional side or internal nodes,
results. If all the nodes which are
complexity
However, a greater mathematical
used to define the undeformed
also
are
geometry
deformed
used to determine the
for instance, the conisoparametric;
called
is
element
the
shape of the element,
isoparametric. If only corner nodes of the
stant strain triangular global element is
as side nodes) are used
element define the undeformed shape and all nodes (such
element is called subparametric.
to determine the deformation pattern, the
benefits from knowing how the
In conclusion it can be said that the designer
to individual problems. Typvarious elements are accurate before applying them
of the FEAdisplacement
stress problems to be solved by application
ical
plane
method
are
shown
in Fig. 12.24
Pin
Fig. 12.25.
(b)
(a)
filling
Fig. 12.23.
the opening.
The
NUMERICAL METHODS
344
Axially
a vessel designer
to
which
Symmetric
345
Shells
can apply
finite
element
and
shell thicknesses
and
<J>et
M N N
0<ttt
e<tti
tt,
and
Axisymmetric
shells
in the
of prac
tical
shell
A and
B.
a thin
axisymmetric shell by
FEA
can be
di
and
six degrees
ringend nodes
are subjected to
The displacement of
is uniquely determined by two
components u and w' in tangential and normal directions. At each node, the
axial and radial movements and a rotation is prescribed. All three components
are required as the shell is assumed to be able to carry bending moments. The
coordinates for identyfying points on the meridian of the midsurface of the shell
a point
As
nodal
set
circle in
terms of
unknown nodal
in Fig.
stresses.
2.
displacements.
each
solution of this
(a) Selection
polar coordinates
s, measured along the meridian, or the angle 0 between the normal of the midsurface and the axis of symmetry. The type of shell
usually determines which of the two coordiantes should be used. For conical
is:
.a.
and the force element vector
it is
global system.
circle
used. Here
of one conical
They
circles
Selection
elements.
Fig. 12.26.
The element
'/./
stiffnesses
loads at nodal rings are axially symmetrical in and out of the plane of the shell.
fir
'
is:
NUMERICAL METHODS
346
for
one
(c)
nodal displacements.
coefficients (a's) are expressed in terms of
The
displacements u and
( f \
At node
At node
0
2: s
=L
=a x +a 2 L
u'2
w 2 =03
=
[*]
dw'/ds =
fu
W2
fir
fl
dw'/ds
[fc]
is
6X6
and has to be
is
of any point
(u' t s)
=a 3 + a 4
w'
f$
state
+ as
(/*,
of
u and
ele
stress:
To
trix
+a 6
s
must
be inverted.
a 2 =(u'2  u\)jL
+ 3a 6
2
s
L3
2L
3L
(a's) in
6) ma
The displacement
a s (2/LXdw'/*)i "
a6
[dw'/ds
a 4 = dw'/ds
= dw'/ds = a 4 + 2a s
vv'
+ 2a 5 L + 3a 6 L
or global coordinates
u = a 1 + a2
=a 4
2
3
L +a s L +a 6 L
In matrix form:
m2
are to
+fl4
/3i
where
The
of nodal displacements.
fir
347
(minimum)
coefficients (a's) in
=(UL 2 )(dyv'lds) 2
(MLXdW/ds)2 + (3/L)(w 2
(HL
)(dw' /ds\
(VL
w\)
)(w'2 
w[)
In matrix form:
is:
"
1
HL
<
w\
(dw'/ds),
<
2s
3s
V
m displace
3/L
2/L
2/L
HL
0
31
2/L
UL
l/L
^dw'/ds).
now
NUMERICAL METHODS
348
349
However, here the displacements are in local coordinates which means that
they are not algebraically additive with the adjacent conical element displacements. Therefore, they have to be transferred into the global coordinates i and r.
From
u\
Fig. 12.27
w\ and
cos
a+
0i
u\
w'j
we
=u
Wj sin a +
(dWlds), =
sin
cos
N \
0i
"six
ft
sin
0"
cos
I A
1
.A.
mm
For one
Pi
single element:
cos
sin
or
o"
sin
cos
1
> =
u2
cos
w'2
sin
02
sin
(1
u2
 p) COS a
2
(l3p +3p
X
sin
(1
3
)
1_
0 0
0*
l/l
III
3/L
2/f.
3/Z,
2/1*
HL 2
2/Z,
III
i
u2
III
3
where p = s/l
IT]
x <
or in short:
w2
sin
[A] {6}
p COS a
+ 2p
X cos a
 p)
a3p
w2
cos a
01
Unit
Fig. 12.27.
3
)
L(p 2p
+p
3
)
(3p
sin
2p
a
3
)
Op'
 2p
X cos a
J
)
X(p +p
3
)
NUMERICAL METHODS
350
A/*
where [^4] is the (2 X 6) matrix specifying the relationship between displacements within the element and the nodal displacements in global coordinates.
on
351
18,
we can
equation:
d/ds
cos
sin otjr
^9
Xs
Xe
ot/r
lds
(sin otfr)(d/ds)
meridional strain
any
radial displacement
is
we
cL
Adsfd<t>
RL
sin ot/r
cos ajr
d 2 /ds 2
(sin a/rXd/ds)
If
Xs
 Ar/r 
ee
d/ds
 (du/ds)
{Rl + w)IRi_ 
(1
expansion):
shell
(dufd<t>) d<t> (1
+ wIRtf
1
get:
tangential strain e f
Ads 
in the cicumferential
e/.
(u sin
a+
w cos a)/r 
(u sin a)/r
is
change
[A] <
in
is
+ (w cos
a>/f.
conical.
expansion
curvature X J> n 9 u,ar variation between the points a, b and after shell
R^d^): rotation of meridional tangent from a to a', ^ x and from 6 to
to a, b' divided by
b',
Xe
/
4>
and there
iu/Ri_)
+ dw/Rt_d&
in
radians
Xs" ^2
^O/RL^'^^ds
ioru/R^
d<t>
fore the stresses will not be determined as accurately as the displacements. After
differentiating the matrix [A]
change
in
Fig. 12.28.
(sin air)
W> 2
ab and cd
(cos
4>/r)
idw/ds)
{dwlds).
Derivation of expressions for the shell strains and changes in curvatures in terms
Xs
faces
element):
= 01
curvature
NUMERICAL METHODS
352
or in short
where [B]
is
(cos
ip
.l
p)(cos a
(1 
sin a)/r(l 
+ 2p
3
)
a)jr
3p
1
L(p2p
*2p i
+ p
3
)
sin
a)/r
(1
x (sin 2a)/2r
4p + 3p 2 )
(sin a)jr
(sin
sin
M3p 2
X (COS
2p J )
x (cos a)lr
tt)/f
Up)
(l/i)(6p
2a)/2r
(sin
sin
2p
2
(l/L)(6p + 6p )
p=s/L:
a)/L
(sin
a cos a
(3p
x cos a
6) matrixand with
(cos a)/
X (CQSa)/r
(l/)(6p + 6p 2 )
(sin
a
J
p) sin
x (cos
+(1
(sin a)(L
2a)/2r
(sin
get:
= [B] {8}
{e}
(1
we
353
~(l/)(2 + 6p)
x cos a
6p 2 )
a/L)(6p6p 2 )
a)//
(sin
2a)/ 2r
(2p + 3p J )
X
(sin a)/r
stress resultants to
strains (es
Xa) and
e e>
way
in this
(Ns
Ne M M B
,
Si
are related to
neglected.)
(f)
due to
Q0
can be
The
Et
Ns=
bending
lbs/in.
substituted for the internal resisting forces. In doing so the principle of virtual
to advantage. During a virtual (hypothetical, imaginary)
element
of a deformable body in overall equilibrium will be
each
deformation
in shape. The forces acting on the element (both
deformed
and
also
displaced
lbin./in.
^ (Xs + Xe)
and external nodal loads) will perform a virtual work [1 37, 1 39]
work, performed by external loads {/}, in our case acting at nodes
of the elements, is equal to: W ext = 2 {/}S, where 5 is the nodal displacements
in the direction of the loads. This work is equal to the virtual deformation work
= / oed (vol.), ^here
done by the stresses alone (absorbed by the element):
internal stresses
Et
Ms= YT7Jj(^
+ ^)
lbin./in.
The
7
1 "
y2
[Z>] is
is
0
0
where
The equation S{/}5 = foed (vol.) represents the principle of virtual work: "If
a deformable body in equilibrium under the action of a system of loads is given a
very small virtual (hypothetical) deformation, then the virtual work done by the
or in matrix form;
N$
is
virtual
0
0
vt
is
we
when
is
/12
work done by
element to distinguish
it
from the
354
NUMERICAL METHODS
355
Pi
{5}*= <
The
{hi
performed
total
virtual
then
AW^d (area) =
work
is:
InA
{es e Xj x*}*
Vd (area)
<
/i,
Uj
Substituting for the strains and stress resultants, stress resultant couples,
ht
kz
[B]
composed of nodal
within the element
and not to be confused with the load vector {F} for the overall structure.
The virtual nodal displacements {6}* will cause virtual strains within the
{5}*
[D][B] {6}
d (area).
J
is
get:
/area
m 2>>
element forces
we
wext
ele
we can write:
is:
{}*
{/} = (jf
IB]
{/} =
W T W[B]2itrLd)j{8}.
{8}*
[D] [B]
(area)^ {8} or
w
Pi
Xs
(l
In short
Xd
where
or in short
All
it
to* =[*]{}'
is
its
JJ [B]
therefore known.
The
and the matrix multiplication carried out before the integration, term
by term, can be performed with respect to p  s/L between the limits 0 to 1
terms of
[k]
Si
3.
After the stiffness matrices of individual elements [k] have been combined
356
NUMERICAL METHODS
into
357
one master system matrix [K] the nodal displacements can be computed:
,
Nodal circle
4.
forces acting at
circles.
(Wj
stress resul
and stress resultant couples at nodes or any point within the element can
be computed by adjusting the element matrices [B] using the appropriate radius
tants
r, a,
p and L.
Fig. 12.29.
as coordinate
axes.
Net
t
ft
V>hWi<
becomes:
Jlr
k\ru\
k lru2
k\rv2
^lruS
k\rv3
fiz
k\zu\
kizui
k\zv2
*l2u3
k\zv3
hr
stress:
%2rvl
*2ri2
^2ru3
<
oL
=Ns/t6Ms/t
ot
fu
^2zul
hr
.
in several large
computer programs.
^3ZUl
*J
&2ZU2
&2ZV2
^2zu3
^2zu3
v2
k$ru2
%3rv2
^3ru3
&3rv3
"3
ktzui
k$zv2
kszus
^3zi>3
y3
or in short
B.
{/}[*]{*}
The
where
steps in derivation of the element stiffness matrix are as follows:
2.
1.
Selection
ments
(rings
structure
is
[k]
is
the element (6
6) stiffness matrix.
crosssection.
(a)
given
no tangential displacement due to the symmetry of the shell and load. However,
the tangential stress has to be included in the elasticity equations when
forming
u = ai +a 2 r + a 3 z
The equilibrium matrix equation of nodal forces {/} in terms of nodal displacements for one element to be combined into the system matrix equation
= a4
is
+a s r + a 6 z
coefficients.
Combined
in matrix
NUMERICAL METHODS
358
359
2\
a2
{J~[o
This linear displacement field assures continuity between the elements since lines
which
(b)
The
state of displacement
ments of any point within the element (u, v) is expressed in terms of unknown
nodal displacements (u t v 1 ,u 2 ,v 2 ,u z and u 3 ). This is accomplished by substituting nodal coordinate values (given by geometrical configuration of the body)
Fig. 12.30.
into the above equation and solving for the coefficients (a's):
'l
r%
22
0
<
{5}
r2
23
{a}=[AV
'0
0~
v)
[0
zJ
From
(c)
23
ez
= bvjbz =a 6
= u/r = ai/r + a 2 + za z /r
7rt
~ 9w/92 + bv/br = a 3 + a 5
The
{5}.
tangential strain e e
shell is
>2*3 r*Z2
is
components
done by computer:
becomes
in.) is
riz 3
+r 3 z 1
r x z2
r 2 Zi
22
Z 3
z3
*i
2\
*2
t*
r 2
T\
~r%
r2
r x
r 2 z
=d/2 A)
0
r2 Z3  r$z 2
^1^3 + r 3 z
r x z2
where
Z 3
Z2
T%T 2
of r. Therefore,
triangle 123.
'22
Z$
Zy
*1
T\  r 3
r2 ri
if
the
closed at the z axis (sphere, conical head) generally a small value (0.001
[A)~
body can be
er = bu/br = a 2
(a's):
be expressed in terms of
as
{a}
fl
where
= [A]
u\
now
nodal displacements:
a2
>=
or in short
Irz
l/r
z/r
10 10
l
=[C]{a}=[C][A) {6}=[B){i>}
360
Element
= [C] [A]
NUMERICAL METHODS
relates strains
anywhere
in the
element
361
or
{o}=[D][B}{5}
0
..ii::}.A
n
o
'3
^2
r 3 z 2
r2 z 3
rt
^i^+^zx
r 3
= (1/2a)
+(*2
r 3 )
0
rx z2
"*2
*1
i
J
z*z x
r 2 z x
ra  r x
(f )
z 2 )
is
element to
stresses.
0

The
set
of
elemental nodal forces {/} statically equivalent to the internal stresses. If there
are no nodal forces due to initial strains (asumed here to be equal to zero) then:
+(r 3 r2 )\
r 3 )
+ ('2 ri)!
r
'
r3
~r2
22
"*3
r2
z 2
Matrix [5] is a (4 X 6) matrixand includes two point coordinates rand z, independent variables. Thus the strains are not constant as they were in case
of a
The
stiffness
volume of the
matrix [k]
entire element
(vol)
= 2 ti r
is:
(d)
The
symmetric
ez
ee
= ar /
vor /E
oJE 
Inrdrdz.
Since the matrix [B] contains two independent variables, coordinates r and z,
The d
voq/E
(vol)
is
(r x
r2
voJE+o0 /E
7rz=rrz /G
where
[D] [B]
voJE voe lE
= vor /E +
=JJ
materials and ignoring the possible initial strains, for instance, due to
temperature
er
[B]
[k]
is
and
r 3 )/3
is
and
usually used.
A is the area
(z x
+ z2 +
of the
ele
assumed to be:
[k]=2x?A[B] T [D][B].
E  modulus of elasticity
The substitution of
+ v)
v = Poisson's ratio
3.
(e) Solving the
and z and
element.
{F}=IK}{5}
/
l
*(!
u)
vk\v)
vKi
v)
vK\v)
v/av)
u/ap) via*)
(1
0
 2v)
{6}=[K)
0
2(1  v)
{F}.
Trz 1
4.
The four
stress
T rz ) are
362
NUMERICAL METHODS
equation:
If
the load
is
is
is
363
must be
computed. This can be done in simpler cases by inspection and direct formulation
assuming the nodal forces to be statically equivalent to the actual loads. The
loads at nodes are then called lumped. If a strain energy method has to be used,
vi
"3
V y3
weight or forces due to acceleration or centrifugal action. Both the direct lumped
load method and the variational approach offer procedures to determine the
[DUBU
Vz/
If centroidal
consistent, that
components
are
(a)
satisfactory accuracy.
Lumped loads,
direct formulation
shown
much
simpler to assemble.
determined at the centroid of the element. This procedure yields the results of
consistent
nodal equivalent forces for an element. However, lumped load vectors are
coordinates f and z are substituted into matrix [B] for variable co
is,
is
in Fig. 12.31
External Loads
forces associated with the weight of the element are assumed to be equally dis
make
external nodal forces are the actual loads axisymmetrically distributed around
the shell.
2.25
in.
equivalent to
Example
12.2.
is
used:
Lumped
loads
hq/2
+hq
A
q
Fig. 12.31.
Quadrilateral element
mesh
hr
hq/2
k(ib/in.)
Fig. 12.32.
pullload.
364
NUMERICAL METHODS
365
and
to
Boundary
l2
(!')
J
line
of the plate
or
W=[D]{e}
Fig. 12.33.
10~ 6
in./in.
pressure
F and
P = 2000
psi
E=
30 X 10 6 v = 0.3, a = 6.6 X
thickness t = 0.2 in. is subject on its boundary side 23 to
and a uniform temperature rise of 100F. Determine the
shown
with
in Fig. 12.33
[B]
{Q}=f
Loads on nodes due to external pressure. Using the lumped load method,
on nodes 2 and 3 are (see Fig. 12.33):
(a)
the loads
F2 =F3 =(tXPX
we can
A) nodal
force
vector
[B]
{Q}=f
[D][B] {8} d
vol
[D] {e}dvo\
("
894 X 4)/4.47 =
800
lbs.
= Fix =
(
894 X 2)/4.47 =
400
lbs.
Qix
x 3 x 2 y 2 y*
Qly
Q2X
y z y x
(b)
ex
=(ox
vay )/E +
aAT
= (o
y
vo x )/E +
aAT
in./in.
is
and the
unaffected
stress
by temperature change.
can be described
e y = bv/by
{e}=[B]{5}
yi
y 2
x 3 y 3 y x
1V
(1  i0
x 2 xi
x 2 x x yi y 2
in
A = (l/2X2X4) = 4in. 2
ex = bu/bx
X!
where
2a
Q*x
7xy * rxy /G
The
> =
Q2y
"1
X!x 3
ex
vol
x iy y t
= 0.3
in.
X0.2
in.
= 0.8
in.
yxy = 0
vol
366
NUMERICAL METHODS
30 X 10
we get:
0.3
0.3
>0.8
0.91
0.35
Fig. 12.34.
Q lx
= 5143
2,,
= 10285
5143
1b
lb
Q2y
1b
23 x
01b
=0
'Zy
10285
lb
is
at
nodes
as follows;
5143

10285
4743
>
{Q}
lbs.
800
400
I 9485
See Fig. 12.34 for the physical interpretation of the resultant force vector for
the element.
Any
forces as
shown
on an element (body,
surface
and boundary forces) into equivalent nodal forces is usually included in the computer program. The analyst only defines the type of the load, for instance, internal design pressure of the pressure vessel. However, for some cases the equations
to be used to convert certain load types into node forces are given in the user's
manual.
Example
12.3.
is
used here
367
368
The
NUMERICAL METHODS
+12.0
+6.0
0.0
25
+48.0
6.0
0.0
26
+48.0
0.0
0.0
27
+48.0
+6.0
0.0
FEA
numbered
nodes
is
so that the
maximum
beam? has
pro
to be divided
ELEMENT INCIDENCES
They
usually done
elements.
stiffness
ELEMENT
1
initially
assumed fixed, as
in
in
> identifies
identifies
program
15
22
25
26
23
16
23
26
27
24
JOINT COORDINATES
JOINT RELEASES
NODE
1,3
FORCE Y
0.0
6.0
0.0
SUPPORT
ELEMENT PROPERTIES
0.0
0.0
0.0
SUPPORT
0.0
+6.0
0.0
SUPPORT
CONSTANTS
+6.0
6.0
0.0
E 30000 ALL
+6.0
0.0
0.0
+6.0
+6.0
0.0
LOADING THREE
+12.0
6.0
0.0
JOINTS LOADS
+12.0
0.0
0.0
JOINT 25 FORCE
7
8
1 .0
ALL
Introduce material properties
Y
2.0
369
370
JOINT 26 FORCE
JOINT 27 FORCE
Y
NUMERICAL METHODS
16.0
0.30093E 02
0.39878E 01
0.07457E 02
2.0
0.30075E 02
0.40878E 01
0.41619E 01
STIFFNESS ANALYSIS
0.09 146E
PRINT DATA
LIST DISPLACEMENTS
AT JOINTS
LIST STRESSES
LIST
AT NODES
1
01
0.41244E 01
0.09396E 01
0.37538E 01
0.07495E 02
0.09396E 01
0.37586E 01
0.07495E 02
0.09146E 01
0.36586E 01
0.41244E 01
25, 26, 27
TO 9
SUPPORT REACTIONS
0.3007 IE
02
0.40878E 01
0.41619E 01
0.30046E 02
0.39878E 01
0.07457E 02
TO 9
FINISH
as printed.
GLOBAL
79.5
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
79.5
Y DISPLACEMENT ZDISPLACEMEN
GLOBAL
0.02867
0.15983
0.00000
26
GLOBAL
0.00000
0.16007
0.00000
27
GLOBAL
0.02867
0.15983
0.00000
20
SYY
FY
FZ
0.07000E 03
0.05751E 02
0.06000E 03
0.43898E 01
0.33763E 02
0.05610E
02
0.23763E 02
0.42488E
01
0.23763E 02
0.42488E
01
ELEMENT STRESSES
SXY
4
0.34373E 02
0.19503E 01
0.35205E 02
0.05277E 02
0.09346E 01
0.37586E 01
0.17715E
01
0.07085E 02
0.17715E 01
0.07085E 02
0.09067E
02
0.09396E 01
0.37586E 01
0.44866E
01
0.35205E 02
0.05277E
0.34373E 02
0.19503E
0.07819E
02
01
02
8
0.33763E 02
0.05610E 02
0.06000E 03
0.43898E 01
0.05734E 02
0.44866E
01
6
FX
ELEMENT JOINT
25
sxx
NODAL FORCES
ELEMENT NODE
are given
JOINT COORDINATES
Computer output
'
0.36585E
01
371
0.07000E 03
0.05 75 IE
02
0.09067E 02
0.05734E 02
0.07819E
02
End
as
many
locations as practical to
displacement:
2
3
6
y = PL*/3EI= (20000 X 48 /3 X 30 X 10 X 12 X
ys =
(6VL/5AG) =
 (6
X 20000 X 48/5 X 12 X
12
1)
X 10
0.1
6
)
70
in.
= 0.008
in.
NUMERICAL METHODS
372
0.178/0.16 = 1.1125
is
anlysis
more
is
accurately
known,
is
373
flexible.
distributed loads.
At
least
two
The
stress
(35205
at section
It
psi) differs
a :Ma = 70 X 12 = 20 X 42 = 840
SXX
from the
Maximum
stress
SXX (ax ) in
SXX=M/Z = (20000 X
as
stress
and
computed
SXX
tors
kipsin.
node 6
this indicates a
the beam:
6 X 48)/12
stress
is
= 40000
is
off
psi
tool;
stresses a
5.75
its
its
theoretical
different results.
etc.
when
it is
building a
important for
him to become aquainted with the main characterises of various elements before
applying them to an important technical problem.
Large stress differences between the stresses at the same node of two joining
elements is often an indication that the mesh is not refined enough. However, at
a shell section
shell thicknesses
it
has to be kept in
it is
any slight deviation from the prescribed incomputer rejection or an erroneous output, and
mind
that
in results
8
5.6
,
5.6
51?
CSTG)
4.25
4.25
size,
(10%)
70
versus
4.4
on accuracy of the
PSHQ
style. It
is
size
(for instance
experience
solutions at
5.75,
Some elements
to point
by 13 percent
however,
such as mesh
In practice
considerable.
powerful
moment
Total
after evaluating,
provide better approximations than the others even with less total number of
elements. Since FEA is a numerical method, different computer programs, even
X = 60 + 33.76 23.76 70 = 0
r = + 4.25 5.6 + 5.75 4.4 = 0
2> * 6 X (70 60) 6(5.6 + 4.4) = 0

stress results
The following
is
FEAdisplacement method.
Advantages
'
4.4
1.
The
FEA method
as normally presented
Fig. 12.36.
374
vides a
NUMERICAL METHODS
computer solution
for thd
375
tern; while
variables or their derivatives are given. These values are usually mathematical
computer programs.
2.
of the
FEA
rical,
in analysis
When
classical analytical
tered
when
tions.
FEA
nonhomogeneous problems are handled with comby assigning different properties to different elements. A high degree
parative ease
of accuracy can even be obtained here. If large amount of elements are used,
the
computed
The
3.
are
stresses closely
elastic
much
equations used in
FEA
Limitations
1
Only
The
elasticity)
resulting equais
complex
computer prgram,
FEA of a
a great
problem also becomes a straightforward procedure. One must provide the computer with some basic types of input data: nodal coordinate values, element type
information, material properties, and loads. Handling of the computer output is
made
way
5.
Boundary conditions
by means of
require
trial
solutions or
may
a graph
if
the
and
is
comparatively a
straightforward process.
6.
(In a
FEA
and
sizes
depending on the
become comcomputer input and output become too elaborate and too
difficult to prepare
and
3.
Some
if
the elements
interpret.
is
writing of a
FEA, although conceptually simple, requires much computation and is praconly when a highspeed computer is available. Consequently, the FEA
method is not necessarily the most advantageous and cheapest method for solving
5.
tical
The
must be reviewed and interpreted with common sense engineercomputer input data may cause erroneous results. At
rough check by analytical method would be recommandable.
results
some points
Summary
be formed.
different shapes
vessel is
A general
engineer.
stress.
also
is
With the advent of the refined personal computers (microcomputers) and the
increasing number of the workedout computer programs using the FEAstiffness
method, it would seem important for a designer to know the basis of the numerical procedure for a better understanding and thus for a better interpretation of
376
NUMERICAL METHODS
377
the results. Although computer programs will be subjected to changes and development, the theoretical basis will remain the same.
Refs. 146 and 165 are here
12.3.
FINITE
Description of the
An
recommended
Method
\,
component
is known. This means that the solutions of differential equations describing the elastic behavior of the shell of revolution with a bending resistance to applied loadings can be obtained. The short
structural behavior
elements selected to
fit
this
is
way reduced
ring sections [Fig. 12.37(b)] connected with each other at nodal rings, representing elastic junctures. Each element is so selected to have constant material properties {E, T, etc.).
Thus an
Fig. 12.38.
at
junctures
1, 2, 3,
and/or
L of
the
element.
so chosen that the junctures coincide with the load application points,
and the
The surface
forces, loads, can be applied over the surface of the ring section
The
In the
F2 andM2 m 2 To achieve
2
Thus the
oe narrow, L < (Rt)
f2
must
edge forces will influence displacements at both ends of the segments and the
computational procedure becomes more complicated. The accuracy of the
method will also depend on the number of segments into which the shell has
been divided and how well they fit into the actual structure. Short toroidal seca certain degree of accuracy the elements
Rotational axis z
'
To
First,
sum of
is
as follows.
1, 2,
and so on
in Fig.
12.38 must be in equilibrium with any forces resulting from the external Toads
For instance,
(EX = 0, 2y = 0,
1M  0).
we
Heavy flange
Fixed end
f2
F2 Z e2
m 2 +M2 =Me2
(a)
Vessel
component of an
arbitrary shape.
Fig. 12.37.
(b)
Vessel
component segmented.
where f2t F2t m 2i 2 are the internal shell forces and couples
For internal pressure P:Z e2 PR 2 (tanaj  tana 2 )/2.
Second, to preserve the physical continuity of the
at the
node 2
378
NUMERICAL METHODS