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DESIGN HANDBOOK

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SECOND EDITION

PRESSURE
VESSEL
DESIGN

HANDBOOK

PRESSURE
VESSEL
DESIGN

HANDBOOK
Second

Edition

Henry H. Bednar, P.E

TECHNIP ITALY s.P .A.


BIBLIOTECA
INVENTARIO N

fi

<Jei3.!.??

42ti

KRIEGER PUBLISHING COMPANY


MALABAR, FLORIDA

Preface to Second Edition


Second Edition 1986
Reprint Edition 1991

In revising the

first edition

the intent has been to improve the

book by enlarging its scope. The stress


methods
been greatly enhanced in accuracy by numerical methods. These
reference

Printed and Published by

KRBEGER PUBLISHING COMPANY


KRDEGER DRIVE
MALABAR, FLORIDA 32950
Copyright

as a

repre-

available to a stress analyst.


sent a great addition to the analytical techniques

numerical methods with


Therefore, chapter 12 describing the most important
text new material and
the
Throughout
illustrative examples has been added.

new
1986 by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,

illustrative

Inc.

technical

Reprinted by Arrangement

book

can be of
errors have

All rights reserved.

handbook

analysis of pressure vessels has

No part of this book may be reproduced in any

form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including information storage and retrieval systems


without permission in writing from the publisher.
No liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein.
Printed in the United States of America.

It

little

examples have also been added. The writer believes that any
in

which the theory

is

not clarified by

illustrative

use to a practicing designer engineer. Also

examples,

some typographical

been corrected.

should be kept in mind that practical engineering

is

not an absolute exact

and unknown quantities so that


stresses can be made, particularly in
and
forces
of
estimate
reasonable
only a
practice do not have
involved problems. Almost all problems in engineering
science. There are too

many

variable factors

more

a single-value answer,

and usually they require a comparison of

alternatives for

solution.

Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data


Bednar, Henry H.
Pressure vessel design handbook / Henry H. Bednar.
p.

cm.

Reprint. Originally published: 2nd. ed.

New York Van Nostrand


:

proceed in every
Therefore, no definite rules can be given for deciding how to
designer must
The
inflexibly.
case, and the rules laid down cannot be applied
since he bears
judgment
personal
be guided by his former experience and his best
design.
the final responsibility for the adequacy of the
offered conto extend his gratitude to all readers who

would like
comments, particularly to Dr. A. S. Tooth of University of Strathclyde,
saddle supports.
Glasgow, Scotland for his comments on the stresses in shells at

The

writer

structive

Reinhold, cl986.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-89464-503-X (lib. bdg. acid-free paper)
:

1.

etc.

Pressure vessels Design and construction Handbooks, manuals,


I.

Title.

TA660.T34B44 1990
681'.76041-dc20

90-5043

CIP

10

Henry

H.

Bednar

Preface to

First Edition

for engineers who are enThis handbook has been prepared as a practical aid
vessels has to be done
gaged in the design of pressure vessels. Design of pressure
rules for satisfactory
accord with specific codes which give the formulas and
the codes leave
and safe construction of the main vessel components. However,
many design
solve
use
to
methods he will
it up to the designer to choose what
engiaccepted
latest
the
using
problems; in this way, he is not prevented from
neering analytical procedures.

in

scientific trainis based on many factors, including


knowledge of
data,
empirical
with
familiarity
judgment,
sound engineering
and available
years,
the
over
gained
experience
codes and standards,

Efficiency in design
ing,

work

design

technical information.

design

Much

of pressure vessels

of the technical information currently used in the


scattered among many publications and is not

is

available in the standard textbooks

on the strength of

materials.

practical vessel design.


This book covers most of the procedures required in
given here, and have
Solutions to the design problems are based on references
are encountered
they
as
long-time use; examples are presented

been proven by

solutions for a
in practice. Unfortunately, exact analytical

number of problems

compromises have to be made.

known at the present time and


calculation proMost engineering offices have developed their own vessel
this book will
that
hoped
is
it
However,
cedures, most of them computerized.
practical

are not

techniques, will conprovide the designer with alternative economical design


methods
in use, and will be
design
the
of
tribute to his better understanding
recomputer-generated
of
verifications
or
computations
convenient when hand
sults

have to be made.

the symbols as
particular system of notation has been adopted. Usually
defined as they occur.
and
used
are
sources
technical
particular
appear
in
they
Only the most important references are given for more detailed study.

No

Boiler
assumed that the reader has a working knowledge of the ASME
1
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division
companies
The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the societies and
It is

for permission to use their published material.


to the editorial
Finally, the writer also wishes to express his thanks

and pro-

completion
duction staff of the Publisher for their contribution to a successful
of

this

book.

Henry

H.

Bednar

Contents

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION /v

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION /vii


1.

2.

DESIGN LOADS II
1.1.

Introduction /

1.2.

Design Pressure/

1.3.

Design Temperature / 3

1.4.
1.5.

Dead Loads/4
Wind Loads/

1.6.

Earthquake Loads/ 13

1.7.

Piping Loads/ 21

1.8.

Combinations of the Design Loads/ 22

STRESS CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES/ 24


2.1. Introduction/ 24

2.2. Allowable Stress


2.3.

VIII, Division
2.4.

Range

for Self-Limiting

General Design Criteria of

Loads/ 25

ASME

Pressure Vessel Code, Section

ASME

Pressure Vessel Code, Section

1/26

General Design Criteria of

2/29
Design Remarks/ 38

VIII, Division
2.5.

3.

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL


COMPONENTS/ 39
3.1.

Introduction/ 39

3.2.

Membrane

3.3.

Cylindrical Shells/ 46

3.4.

Spherical Shells and Hemispherical Heads/ 55

Stress Analysis of Thin-Shell Elements /43

3.5.

Semiellipsoidal Heads/ 59

3.6.

Torispherical

3.7.

Conical Heads/ 66

3.8.

Toroidal Shells/ 71

3.9.

Design of Concentric Toriconical Reducers under Internal

Heads/ 62

Pressure/ 73
ix

CONTENTS

xi

CONTENTS

4.
.

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING


PROCESS COLUMNS/ 80
4.1. Introduction/

4.2. Shell

External Constraints/ 242

9.4.

Internal Constraints/ 244

9.5.

80

9.6.

Thickness Required for a Combination of Design Loads/ 81

Thermal Stress Ratchet under Steady Mechanical Load/ 254


Design Consideration/ 256

WELD

Support Skirts/ 85

4.4.

10.1.

Introduction/ 259

10.2.

4.6.

Anchor Bolts/ 91
Wind-Induced Deflections of Tall Columns / 103
Wind-Induced Vibrations/ 107

4.7.

First Natural Period of Vibration/ 121

10.4.

Groove Welds/ 260


Fillet Welds/ 264
Plug Welds/ 277

4.8. Illustrative

10.

10.3.

Example / 129

10.5.

10.6.

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS/ 143


5.1.

Support Legs/ 143

5.2.

Support Lugs/ 153

10.7.

10.8.
10.9.

6.

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS FOR LARGE HORIZONTAL


CYLINDRICAL PRESSURE VESSELS/ 161

11.

General Considerations / 161


6.2. Maximum Longitudinal Bending Stress in the Shell/ 161
6.3. Maximum Shear Stresses in the Plane of the Saddle / 165
6.4.
6.5.

Circumferential Stress

Horn of the Saddle / 169


Head Used as a Stiffener/ 172

at the

Additional Stresses in a

6.6.

Ring Compression

6.7.

Design of Ring Stiffeners/ 175

6.8.

Design of Saddles / 177

in the Shell

over the Saddle / 173

LOCAL STRESSES

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON

ATTACHMENTS/ 186

General Considerations/ 284

11.2.

Noncorrosive Service/ 285

11.3.

Corrosive Service/ 290

11.4.

Bolting Materials/ 293

11.5.

Stainless Steels/296

11.6.

Selection of Steels for

8.

7.1.

Introduction/ 186

7.3.

Reinforcement of Openings for Operating Pressure / 186


Spherical Shells or Heads with Attachments / 188

7.4.

Cylindrical Shells with Attachments/ 193

7.5.

Design Considerations/ 208

7.6.

Line Loads/ 210

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES/ 217


8.1.

Introduction/ 217

8.2.

Procedure for Computing Discontinuity Stresses by the Force

8.3.

Cylindrical Shells/ 221

8.4.

Hemispherical Heads/ 226

8.5.

Semiellipsoidal and Torispherical Heads/ 230

8.6.

Conical Heads and Conical Reducers without Knuckles/ 230

Method/ 220

9.

THERMAL STRESSES/ 241


9.1.

General Considerations/ 241

9.2. Basic

Thermal Stress Equations/ 241

Hydrogen Service/306
Aluminum Alloys/ 309

NUMERICAL METHODS FOR STRESS ANALYSIS OF


AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS /312
12.1. Introduction/

312

12.4.

Element Analysis, (FEA) Displacement Method/314


Finite Element Analysis, Force Method/ 376
Method of Stepwise Integration/ 380

12.5.

Method of

12.2.
7.2.

Welding Processes/ 281


Weld Symbols/ 283

11.1.

11.7.

12.

Design Allowable Stresses for Welded Joints/ 278


Stress Concentration Factors for Welds/ 279
Defects and Nondestractive Examinations of Welds/ 280

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS/ 284

6.1.

7.

DESIGN/ 259

4.3.

4.5.

5.

9.3.

12.3.

Finite

Finite Differences /381

APPENDICES

/ 385
Al. Wind, Earthquake and Lowest One-Day Mean Temperature Maps/
387
A2. Geometric and Material Charts for Cylindrical Vessels/ 389
A3. Skirt Base Details/ 391
A4. Sliding Supports for Vertical and Horizontal Vessels/ 392
A5. Glossary of Terms Relating to the Selection of Materials/ 394

A6.
A7.
A8.
A9.
A10.

Standard Specifications Pertaining to Materials/ 404

Flanges/ 405

Elementary Matrix Algebra/410


References/ 416
Abbreviations and Symbols/423

INDEX/ 429

PRESSURE
VESSEL
DESIGN

HANDBOOK

Design Loads

1.1.

INTRODUCTION

are referred to as
The forces applied to a vessel or its structural attachments
in vessel design is to
loads and, as in any mechanical design, the first requirement
which the vessel
determine the actual values of the loads and the conditions to
basis
of past experion
the
will be subjected in operation. These are determined

ence, design codes, calculations, or testing.


A design engineer should determine conditions and

all

pertaining data as

conservative. The principal


thoroughly and accurately as possible, and be rather
are:
vessels
pressure
of
design
loads to be considered in the

design pressure (internal or external),

dead loads,

wind

loads,

earthquake loads,
temperature loads,
piping loads,

impact or cyclic loads.

Many
must

possible; the designer


different combinations of the above loadings are
loads for an ecosimultaneous
of
probable combination

select the

most

nomical and safe design.


one of the following
Generally, failures of pressure vessels can be traced to
areas:

material: improper

as
selection for the service environment; defects, such

inclusions or laminations; inadequate quality control;


design:
tions

engineering computaincorrect design conditions; carelessly prepared


absence of
specifications; oversimplified design computations in the

and

available correct analytical solutions;

and inadequate shop

testing;

procedures; inadequate infabrication: improper or insufficient fabrication


as stainless steels;
such
materials
spection; careless handling of special

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

change of service conditions to more severe ones without adequate


provision; inexperienced maintenance personnel; inadequate inspection for

service;

Design pressure is the pressure used to determine the minimum required thickness of each vessel shell component, and denotes the difference between the
internal

openings in the vessel wall.


vessel shell

must be designed

and the external pressures (usually the design and the atmospheric presIt includes a suitable margin above the operating pressure

(10 percent of operating pressure or 10

is

5 psi.

Minimum

psi

minimum)

design pressure for a

plus any static head of

Code nonvacuum

For smaller design pressures the Code stamping

is

vessel

not required. Vessels

with negative gauge operating pressure are generally designed for full vacuum.
The maximum allowable working (operating) pressure is. then, by the Code

gauge pressure permissible at the top of the comoperating position at the designated temperature. It is based

definition, the

maximum

pleted vessel in

its

DESIGN TEMPERATURE

1.3.

Design temperature

is

more

a design environmental condition than a design load,

since only a temperature change

increased brittleness with falling temperature, and the accompanying dimensional changes are just a few of the phenomena to be taken into account for the

Code definition, the required thickness is the minimum vessel wall


thickness as computed by the Code formulas, not including corrosion allowance;

heat transfer formulas and,

By

is

the

minimum

ance; the nominal thickness

is

required thickness plus the corrosion allow-

the rounded-up design thickness as actually used

from commercially available material.


the nominal vessel thickness minus corrosion allowance

in building the vessel


If

The required Code

design temperature

is

larger than the

required thickness, either the design pressure or the corrosion allowance can be

is

not

less

For most standard

if

possible,

vessels the design

mean metal vessel


computed by standard

than the

wall temperature expected under operating conditions and

the

the design thickness

restraint or certain

material for construction. Decrease in metal strength with rising temperature,

design.

vessel thickness, exclusive

combined with some body

temperature gradients will originate thermal stresses. However, it is an important


design condition that influences to a great degree the suitability of the selected

of corrosion allowance, and the thickness required for other loads than pressure. In most cases it will be equal or very
close to the design pressure of the vessel components.

on the nominal

most severe combination of

engineering stress formulas, without consideration of large increases in stresses at


the gross structural discontinuities, cannot exceed the Code allowable stress.

sures-see Fig. 1.1).

the operating liquid.

to withstand the

coincident pressure and temperature under expected operating conditions. The


nominal stress in any part of the vessel as computed from the Code and standard

DESIGN PRESSURE

1.2.

increased, or any excess thickness can be used as reinforcement of the nozzle

The

corrosion.

supplemented by actual measurements.

temperature

is

the

maximum

temperature

of the operating fluid plus 50F as a safety margin, or the minimum temperature of the operating fluid, if the vessel is designed for low-temperature service

(below- 20 F).

vacuum towers

In large process vessels such as oil refinery

the operating fluid varies to a large

the temperature of

degree, and zones with different design

temperatures, based on expected calculated operating conditions, can be used

computations of the required thicknesses.


temperature for internally insulated vessels is determined by
metal
The design
heat transfer computations, which should provide sufficient allowance to take
care of the probable future increase in conductivity of the refractory due to gas,
for the design

standard atm

= 14.69

psia

\
atmos pheric

negative (psig)

absoiu te (psia)

(vacuum)

possibility

of a

loss

;al

at

absolute (psia)
1

^\ absolute zero pressure


(full

vacjum)

Fig. 1.1.

minimum,

the designer should assume a con-

50-100 percent higher than

that

given by the manufacturer's data, depending on operating conditions. A greater


temperature margin should be used when external insulation is used as well.

The

|
t

At

ductivity for the internal insulating material

(pstg)

stan dard

deterioration, coking, etc.

gauge

of

the shell should also

of the vessel wall

is

of a sizable lining section and the required rupture time


be considered. Extensive temperature instrumentation

usually provided.

For shut-down conditions the maximum design temperature for uninsulated


vessels and the connecting piping will be the equilibrium temperature for metal
objects, approximately 230F for the torrid zone, 190F for the temperate
zone, and 150F for the frigid zone.

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

The lowest design metal temperature for pressure storage vessels should be
taken as 15F above the lowest one-day mean ambient temperature for the
particular location, see Fig. Al .3.
The design temperature

for flange

temperature of the operating

through bolts

usually lower than the

is

fluid, unless insulated,

and

it

can be safely

as-

the design vessel temperature. However, the external

sumed to be 80 percent of

same design temperature

tap and the internal bolting should have the

as the

1.5.

WIND LOADS

Wind can be described

as a highly turbulent flow of air sweeping over the earth's

surface with a variable velocity, in gusts rather than in a steady flow.

When

the design computations are based on the thickness of the base plate

exclusive of lining or cladding thickness, the

maximum

service metal tempera-

ture of the vessel should be that allowed for the base plate material.

The design temperature of

vessel internals

is

the

maximum

temperature of the

is

usually horizontal; however,

it

may

possess a vertical

is

component when passing

affected by the earth surface

and increases with the height above the ground to some maximum velocity at a certain gradient level above which the wind velocity remains constant.
The shape of the velocity profile above the ground depends on the roughness
friction

open country, wooded hilly countrycan be expressed by the power-law formula

characteristics of the terrain, such as flat


side, or a large city center.

operating liquid.

The wind

can also be assumed to possess a certain mean velocity on which local threedimensional turbulent fluctuations are superimposed. The direction of the flow
over a surface obstacle. The wind velocity

vessel.

It

ycc z n
1.4.

DEAD LOADS

Dead loads

due to the weight of the

are the loads

permanently connected with the

vessel.

vessel itself

Depending on the

and any part

overall state, a vessel

can have three different weights important enough to be considered in the

Erection (empty) dead load of the vessel

is

the weight of the vessel without

any external insulation, fireprooflng, operating contents, or any external


tural

attachments and piping. Basically,

hoisted

on

Each such case has


2.

is

the weight of a stripped vessel as

some small-diameter columns the removable

the job site. In

(trays) are shop-installed,

it

struc-

and they have to be included

air

is

mass unit

q i0 =
where

the weight of the vessel plus internal or external

K30

is

all

by the

ing liquid, sections of process piping supported

equipment required

vessel, all structural

and inspection (platforms, ladders,


and any other process equipment (heat exchangers)

for the vessel servicing

trolleys etc.),

pV2l2

the elevation

is

30

ft,

the

at the height

is

of 30

ft

above the ground on

a flat surface

given by the equation:

2
00.00238 (5280/3600) V\ 0

= 0.00256 V\ 0

dead load of the

welding

at 30 ft height above the ground in mph, maximum


measured on the location over a certain period of time
above the ground in pSf
q 30 = basic wind velocity pressure at 30 ft height
3
p = 0.00238 slugs per ft air mass density at atm pressure, and 60F.

= basic wind speed


as

The magnitude of

attached to the vessel.


test

is

used to correct standard-height velocity readings for other

perpendicular to the wind velocity

the weight of the in-place completed

is

internals (trays, demister, packing, etc.) with operat-

Shop

moving

internals

insulation, fireprooflng,

3.

heights above ground with any given terrain profile (see Fig. 1 .2).
The velocity (dynamic) pressure representing the total kinetic energy of the

in the erection weight.

vessel in full operation. It

shell, after all

and

to be investigated separately.

Operating dead load of the vessel

permanent

terrain

Since the standard height for wind-speed recording instruments

power formula

design.

where the value of the exponent n depends on the


above the ground level.

is

vessel consists

only of the weight of the vessel

finished, filled with test liquid.

the basic

wind

velocity

K30

used in determination of the

design pressure q 3Q depends on the geographical location of the job site. The
wind pressure q 30 is used to compute the actual wind design loads on pressure

with the

and connected equipment. However, since the wind velocity V is influenced by the height above the ground and terrain roughness and the pressure
q itself is influenced by the shape of the structure, the basic wind velocity

used as a design load only

pressure q 30 has to be modified for different heights above the ground level

vessels

Field test dead load


internal insulation
test liquid instead
if

the vessel

The

is

ice or

is

the operating dead load with only external and/or

removed

for inspection purposes

of operating liquid. This load

expected to be tested

snow load

in field at

as well as

personnel with portable tools)

is

any

live

is

some

and

filled fully

future date.

load (weight of the maintenance

considered to be negligible.

and different shapes of structures.


In doing so either the older,
the

new

revised

somewhat simpler standard ASA A58.1-1955

ANSI A58. 1-1972

or

are generally used, unless the client's specifi-

PR ESSURE VESSEL DESIGN

DESIGN LOADS

HANDBOOK

The geographical

1.

and includes the shape factor 1.3 for


heights up to 500 ft above the ground.

1500

surface and the gust factor 1.3 for

flat

No

distinction

recurrence interval of the highest

mean
The wind design

ness or
-

located on the wind pressure map,

is

of the standard). The basic wind pressure p is selected. It is based on


maximum regional measured wind velocity V 30 (excluding tornado velocities)

(see Fig.

the

area of the job site

wind

is

made

for terrain rough-

in the area.

pressures p z> corresponding to the basic wind pressure p,


above the ground are given in Table 3 of the standard.
zones
height
for various
based on the seventh-root law to express the variaheight
factor
a
They include

1200

2.

900

wind velocity with the height above the ground.


factor B for round objects is equal to 0.6 and is applied to the
shape
The
3.
are actual
design pressure p z The shape factors, as they appear in the standard
in
included
shape coefficients divided by the flat surface factor 1 .3 which was

tion of the

the basic

wind pressure p.
windward surface area projected on the

4. If the

wind is A ft
assumed to act

direction of the

the area
30

is

at

vertical plane

normal to the

then the resultant of the wind pressure load over


the area centroid and is given by

V = wind
open,
flat,

flat

coastal region;

wooded

rough,

ft

Wind

gradient level

900

200

1500

ft

gradient

ft

open country at the standard height 30


the wind velocity is

ft is

level

exponent n

1/3

flat,
ft

velocity

profiles over three basic terrain roughness characteristics.

velocity

in

large city centers

1/4.5

1/7

wind velocity

area;

Pw =ABp 2

town; large city,


suburban areas

open country

900

Fig. 1.2.

Pw

V 30

If the

60 mph,

at the

above formula for cylindrical vertical vessels is not less than 13 psf forl/D < 10
the
and 18 psf for L/D > 10, where L is the overall tangent-to-tangent length of

in

vessel

nominal diameter.

the suburban area

is

the same,

i.e.,

= 100

Wind Loads

as

Computed

in

Accordance with ANSI A58.1-1972

the wind velocity at the standard level in the

The

is

K 30

D is the

and

= 60(900/30) 1/7 = 100 mph.

In the same region, the gradient wind velocity


mph, and the gradient level is 1200 ft; hence

suburban area

pressure forces are applied simultaneously, normal to all exposed


surfaces of the structure. The minimum net pressure (Bp z ) in the

The wind
windward

vessel

lb.

= 100(30/1200) 1/4

- 44 mph.

qP

effective
in psf at

wind velocity pressures on structures q F and on parts of structures


the following
different heights above the ground are computed by

equations:
cations dictate otherwise. Although the former standard
extensively used for

many

years and

it

is still

used

in

some

is

obsolete,

codes.

It is

was

it

q F = K z Gp<l30

therefore

some time to come the designer will encounter designs


where the wind loads were computed on the basis of the old standard. Also the
designer may become engaged in the construction of pressure vessels for petroquite probable that for

chemical plants

in

foreign countries

where long-term wind velocity data

lacking and the design procedures are specified

more

in

line

with the

where

are

now

Kz

obsolete specification.

Wind Loads

as

The procedure

Computed

in

Accordance with

for calculation of the

surface of the structure

is

as follows.

ASA

minimum

Specification A58. 1-1955

design wind load normal to the

GF
GP

= velocity pressure coefficient depending on the type of the terrain surface


computation,
(exposure) and the height above the ground z. To simplify
instance the
height zones of constant wind velocity can be assumed. For
over the zone
pressure q F at 100 ft above the ground can be applied
extending from 75 to 125 ft above the ground.
= gust response factor for structure
= gust response factor for portion of structures.

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

to include the effect of


variable gust response factors were introduced

The

rises in

sudden short-term

wind

velocities.

The values of

GF

and

GP

depend on

characteristics of structures. For


the type of the terrain exposure and dynamic
may become significant, detailed
action
gust
which
for
tall cylindrical columns,

shown in the Appendix to the


which depend on the first
values
contains
G
for
equation
the
standard. Since
F
turn depends on the vessel wall
natural frequency / of the column, which in
(wind, weight, and
thickness t to be computed from the combined loadings
involved in successive approximapressure), the additional mathematical work
computations of

GF

are usually required as

may render this standard less attractive than the previous one.
The q F and q P values have to be further modified by a net pressure

tion

Cf for

different geometric shapes of structures.

If the projected

to the

coefficient

windward

wind direction

may be computed by

is

ft

area of the vessel section


2
,

the total design

on

a vertical plane

wind load

P w on

normal

a vessel section

not change with the height above the ground,

GF - 0.65

Cf from Table 15 of the standard and the


wind load on the vessel sections of constant
wind design pressure may be evaluated by equation P w = CfAq F
4. Using the net pressure coefficient

ber of manholes, etc. are known and a complete layout is unavailable.


To arrive at some reasonable approximation of the projected area, some assumptions based on past experience must be made. An approximate layout

different

large

wind

loads,

is

drum with

time-consuming and not really

to computing

which

to increase the vessel diameter

is

top platform

as in

justified.

often used and

is

recommended here

to the so-called effective vessel diameter to

approximate the combined design wind load:

De = (vessel o.d. + twice insulation thickness) X Kd


The

Exposure A: centers of large


Exposure C:

coefficient

Kd

is

given in Table 1.1.

The required projected area>4

will

then

flat,

open

cities,

structure such as

Using as

A =De

rough and hilly terrains;


areas, suburban areas;

XH

wooded

where

grass country, coastal areas.

large petrochemical plants will

Hs = length

of the

shell section in the

zone of the uniform wind velocity.

However, the effective diameter D e can be derived by a simple procedure which


allows the designer to adjust D e according to the actual standard vessel layout.

belong to category C.

computing the minimum design wind load on an enclosed


a tall column can be summarized as follows.
for

criteria

the anticipated service

life

of the vessel and the magnitude

speed K30 is selected


of the possible damage in case of failure, the basic wind
location
and modified
job
particular
from Fig. 1 or 2 of the standard for the
book.
this
of
Al
Appendix
by special local conditions; see also

Table 1.1.

VESSEL OUTSIDE DIAMETER


INCLUDING INSULATION

COEFFICIENT

than 36

1.50

less

36 to 60

60

in.

in.

84 in.
84 to 108 in.
over 108 in.

wind pressure q 30 = 0.00256 V is computed.


The
effective wind velocity pressure q F is given by q F =K 2 G F q 30
3.
determined
from
K
and
selected
are
velocities
wind
z
constant
of
height zones
response factor G Fi which does
Fig. A2 of the standard for each zone. The gust

The
The

resulting

be equal to

The procedure

2.

approach

An approach

roughness categories selected are as shown in

b. Exposure B: rolling terrains,

1.

probable platforms, ladders, and connected piping

paratively simple, for instance a short vertical

Fig. 1.2.

Most

all

wind shears and wind moments at


heights above the ground can be computed. Unless the vessel is com-

made and with

is

c.

not possible for the designer to evaluate the projected windward area ,4 of
a tower and all appurtenances accurately. When a vessel is being designed only
the main features such as the inside diameter, overall length, nozzle sizes, num-

appurtenances such as top platforms with trolley beams,


using appropriate Cf and q F
piping, etc. can be computed in the same manner,
to the wind load acting
added
be
must
with allowances for shielding effect and

a.

the total

It is

Fig. 5.8, this

terrain

Computation of the Projected Area

pressure (Cf q F ) in the above formula should be not less


structural frames. The
than 15 psf for the design of structures and 13 psf for

on the entire vessel.


The three standard

in ft

can be

The minimum net

wind loads on

sketch of the vessel with

lb

computed from the equation

+ 1.95 (os/P).

projected area

equation:

Pw =ACfq F

is

basic

Source:

to

Ref. 6.

Kd
1.40

1.30
1.20
1.18

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

10

The formula above does not include special attached equipment such as heat
exchangers or large-top oversized platform with lifting equipment, whose wind
loads and moments are computed separately and added to the above.

manhole
caged

KA

11

ladder

Determine the wind loads acting on the process column shown

insulation

Example

thickness

Fig. 1.4 with an average wall thickness of 1 in., insulation thickness 1.5
located in the vicinity of Houston, Texas, using:

insulation

1.1.

in

in.,

thickness

15'

a.

ASA A58. 1-1955

b.

ANSI A58. 1-1972.

=K

= 8.3 ft. From Fig. 1 of the


a. Effective diameter D e
d X o.d.= 1 .30 X 6.4
standard the basic wind pressure is p = 40 psf. From Table 3 of the standard
the

wind design pressures

are

platform
o.d. vessel-

pipe

p z =30psf,
40 psf,
50 psf,
60 psf,

o.d.

Fig. 1.3.

Assumed column layout

for determination of the effective

De

According to an assumed typical section of a process column shown

Adjusted platform area. Assuming half of the platform, 3

each manhole, spaced at 15


(42

Wind

loads in

X 18)/(15X

12)

=4.2

ft,

ft

in.

wide

in.

the

ground

ft

100 to 499

w, = 0.60 X

83 X 30=

w2

w 3 =0.60X

w4

The increase in the column diameter can be taken as 12 in.


Assume the largest pipe in the top third of the column running to

above items can and should be adjusted according to the actual standard

layout as used.

From
psf;

a 6-ft-diameter

column with

lb/ft

= 0.60

8.3

X 40 = 200

lb/ft

8.3

X 50 = 250

lb/ft

= 0.60 X 8.3 X 60 = 300

100 years recurrence

b. Selected:

level.

For example, the effective diameter of

150

B X De X p 2

are

1-in.wall

Fig. 2 of the standard: basic

design pressures are q F =

From

Fig.

A2

T=

sec/cycle.

wind velocity

Kz G F q 30

ib/ft.

type-C exposure; damping^ factor

interval;

0 = 0.01; fundamental period of vibration


All the

ft

vessel

to the ground.
4. Piping.

50 to 99

30

above ground

at

the equivalent increase in the vessel diameter

Caged ladder. Assume one caged ladder running from the top of the

3.

ft

pounds per one foot of column height,

Vessel shell outside diameter with twice the insulation thickness, if any.

ft

49

to

in Fig. 1.3

the principal parts contributing to the total wind load are as follows:

2.

0 to 30

elevation

is

K30

= 100 mph;^ 30 = 25.6

of the standard:

thickness, 2-in. insulation, and a 6-in. nozzle in the top third with 1-in. insulation

is

computed

De

as follows:

(vessel o.d.

tf 3 o

1.0,

+ 2 X insulation thickness)

+ 2 X insulation thickness) + (platform) + (ladder)


= (74 + 4) + (6.625 +2) + 4.2+ 12 = 102.8 in. = 8.6 ft
+ (pipe

Gust response factor

is

o.d.

The factor^ = 102.8/78 =

.31 is in

agreement with the value

in

Table 1.1.

*so =

GF

tf 9 5

1.2,

= 0.65 +

.95

1.40,

^ 12 o

(oy/P) = 0.65 +

= 1.50.

.95

X 0.332 =

for enclosed structures:

os/P=

1.7[7X2/i/3)] [0.785 ?F/j3 + 5/(1 + 0.002c/)]

1/2

=0.332

.297

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

12

6'

Wind

l*4J

120'

el.

Pw

Wind load

M (Ib-ft)

<ib}

el.

(lb)

Shear
Hbl

Wind moment

M Ob-ft)

120'

60,000

6,000

6,000

lb/fi

y
6

(\b)

i.d.

Wind moment

/cs

300
100'

Shear

load

13

12,850

60'

10,000

70'

if)

II

2,190

60'

16,000

500,000

18,500

672,500

2,500

50'

5,475

3,000

f2

35'

15,040

60'

25'

2 5'

321 250

CM

II

30'

1,000

21,500

972,500

35'

22,500

1,082,500

30'

1,095

20,515

905,140

21,610

1,010,455

25,330

1,479,855

27,190

1,742,455

25'

2 5'

3,720

3,000
10'
's.

O
in

25,500

10'

,562,500

1,860

10*

1,500

1 D'

=L

27,000

0'

Fig. 1.4.

1,825,000

Fig. 1.5.

Conditions and resulting wind loads for Example 1.1a.

where, from

A3. r(2/i/3) = 7X80) = 0.149


l/2
/> = 0.092
K30 //= 1.12 X 1 X 100/1 =112
Fig.A4. 1.12(A: 3 o)
=
Fig.A5. 0.88 fh/(V zo y/^o) = 0-88 X 1.0 X 120/100^13 = 0.862 and h/c
Fig.

h/d= 120/6.5 =
Fig.

A6. structure

size factor:

<?

F = 0.1

18.5

S=

F = 25.6X

.0 for

1.297

Conditions and resulting wind loads for Example 1.1b.

w2

w so

= 0.66 X 8.3 X 40 = 2 19

lb/ft

w3

w 9S

= 0.66 X 8.3 X 47 = 257

lb/ft.

The method of determining wind loads on vessels of two or more diameters


the same as for a vessel of a uniform diameter. When the conical transition
section is no more than 10 percent of the total height, cylindrical sections can
is

h = 120.

be assumed to extend to the mid-height of the conical section. Otherwise, the

X 2 = 33.2

transition section should be considered as a separate section.

therefore

? F30 = 33.2

X l~34psf
1.6.

qFS0 =33.2X

1.2

= 40psf

1.4

= 47

EARTHQUAKE LOADS

General Considerations

q F9S = 33.2

Wind loads

in

pounds per foot of column height,

psf

w = C/ X De X

q Fi are

Seismic forces on a vessel result from a sudden erratic vibratory motion of the
ground on which the vessel is supported and the vessel response to this motion.

The
Wj =

w 30

= 0.66 X 8.3 X 34 = 186

lb/ft

principal factors in the

damage

to structures are the intensity

and the dura-

tion of the earthquake motion. The forces and stresses in structures during an

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

14

15

earthquake are transient, dynamic in nature, and complex. An accurate analysis


office.
is generally beyond the kind of effort that can be afforded in a design

To

simplify the design procedure the vertical

motion

is

component of

the earthquake

usually neglected on the assumption that the ordinary structures pos-

enough excess strength in the vertical direction to be earthquake resistant.


The horizontal earthquake forces acting on the vessel are reduced to the

sess

equivalent static forces. Earthquake-resistant design

is

largely empirical, based

on seismic coefficients derived from the performance of structures subjected


in

the past to severe earthquakes.

building codes

is

The fundamental requirement

that the structures in seismic risk zones

withstand a certain

minimum

set forth in

must be designed to

horizontal shear force applied at the base of the

any direction. Having assigned a minimum value to the base shear


based on the past experience, the problem which arises is how to resolve this
shear into equivalent static forces throughout the height of the vessel in order
vessel

in

to determine the shear

and the bending moments

elevations as well as the overturning


in

large part

moment

in the structure at different

at the base.

The

result

depends

Earthquake loads and shears for a

Fig. 1.6.

a uniform cross section

column of

rigid

and

weight.

on the dynamic response of the structure, which may be assumed

For design purposes


fixed at the top of

Values of the Coefficient

Table 1.2.

either rigid or flexible.

is

shears

loads

it

its

is

sufficient and conservative to assume that the vessel

foundation; no provision

is

usually

made

for

ZONE

ITEM

ZONE

c.

ZONE

ZONE

any effects
Vessel

of the soil -structure interaction.

0.05

0.10

0.20

0.25

0.50

1.00

Equipment attached
to vessel

Seismic Design of a Rigid Cylindrical Vessel

Source:

The structure and its foundation are assumed to be rigid and the assumed earthquake horizontal acceleration of the ground a is transmitted directly into the
vessel. The term rigid is used here in the sense of having no deformations.
Each section of the vessel will be acted upon by a horizontal inertial force
equal to its mass and multiplied by the horizontal acceleration a of the quake

movement,

Ref. 4.

c - a/g, an empirical seismic coefficient, depending on the seismic zone where


the vessel

is

located.

The usual value of c, when used, is given


The overturning moment at the base

Mb =P

acting at the center of the gravity of the section.


is

equal to

AP

The overturning moment

.2.

equal to

Pe

times the elevation h of

Xh.

at

times the distance of the center of gravity

of the vessel section above the section plane (see Fig. 1.6). Their resultant^ is
assumed to act at the center of gravity of the entire vessel and is given by the

The simple

rigid-structure

heavy vessel or
to apply

approach was used in early building codes. For a short


drum on two supports this design procedure is easy

a horizontal

and probably justified. However,

it

slender process columns, regardless of their

equation

Pe =Ma = (alg)W

cW

where

g=

is

the center of gravity of the vessel above the vessel base:

AP^AWia/g),

an arbitrary elevation

Table

in

Mb

W - operating vessel weight during the earthquake

tall,

properties.

Seismic Design of Flexible Tall Cylindrical Vessels

The sudden
gravitational acceleration

cannot be reasonably applied to

dynamic

tall

erratic shift during

cylindrical vessel relative to

an earthquake of the foundation under a flexible


its

center of gravity causes the vessel to deflect,

since the inertia of the vessel mass restrains the vessel

from moving simultane-

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

16

17

equal to the product of the weight and empirical coefficients:

V = ZKCW,
where

W~ normal

operating weight most likely to exist at the time of a possible

future earthquake;

Z earthquake

zone factor, a numerical coefficient dependant upon the


is located and found from the seismic

seismic zone in which the structure

zoning maps in

Z = 0.25; zone

K - structure
Natural frequency

where

is

y-

Sketch of

mode

3 (see also Appendix Al); for location in zone 1,

2, Z = 0.50; zone 3, Z =

coefficient,

dynamic seismic forces; A" is based


on the earthquake performance record of the type of the structure; for

the uniform weight of

beam

cylindrical vessels supported at base the

shapes for a cantilever

beam of

for other structures

a uniform cross section and

C* flexibility

weight.

K may vary from 0.67

factor, a numerical coefficient

the vessel and given by the equation

mental period of vibration of the

foundation. The vibration initiated by the induced elastic deflection is then gradually reduced by damping or partial yielding in the vessel.
From experience and theoretical studies it can be assumed that a structure

ously with

its

with a longer
less total

tall,

and higher damping will be subjected to

with a

shorter Tand smaller damping capacity,

period of vibration

damage than

a structure

accuracy of

T is

equation, since

is

taken as equal to 2;

depending on the

C = 0.05/F l/3

where

is

of

flexibility

T is

the funda-

vessel, in seconds, in the direction

under

the factor Cis usually taken as 0.10; a great

not needed in computing the coefficient

C in

the above

inversely proportional to the cube root of

the true period (see Section 4.7 for the procedure used to
basic period of vibration of

7*,

and

tall,

compute

the

slender, self-supporting process columns).

beam of uniform

cross section

and weight are

The

building codes prescribe the distribution of the base shear

become complex and determined by


caused by vibration is then equal to

superposition.

The force on

matical analysis, based on

still

incomplete

field

earthquakes would not be justified

data derived from observations

in the practical design.

Appendix

Fx =(F-F,)w^/vv,*,

a vessel section

its

where

Ft = 0.004 V(hJDa )2 <

A9.'

0.15

V is

a portion of

K assumed

concentrated at

the uppermost level h of the structure to approximate the influence

of higher modes. For most towers Ft =0.15 K, since h/Ds > 6.12;
- the lateral force applied at levels h f , h x respectively;
Wi, w x = that portion of W which is located at or is assigned to levels /,
F/,

For practical design purposes the building codes [3, 5]* require all freestanding structures in seismic zones to be designed and constructed to withstand
the minimum lateral force V applied at the base in any horizontal direction and
in brackets refer to the references in

over the

illustrated

mass and the vector sum


of the accelerations associated with each mode. Each point under vibration can
experience a maximum dynamic shear. Obviously, an involved, detailed mathethe product of

height of the structures in accord with the triangular distribution equation

in Fig. 1.7. Since the vessel will try to vibrate with a combination of natural
frequencies, with the first frequency predominant, the resultant motion can

Numbers

s,

value

to 3.00;

will

for a cantilever

of the past

T< 0.12

hence does not change appreciably with small variations of 7, and the
assumed fixity at the base will tend to make the calculated T smaller than

it

be excited into a transverse vibratory motion, consisting of


relatively simple deflection curves called modes, with the first fundamental
mode predominant. Each mode has a unique period of vibration. The first three

freedom and

modes

consideration; for

has the strength to withstand the sustained deflections.


slender vessel represents a distributed system of multiple degrees of

provided that

first

numerical coefficient related to the inherent

resistance of a structure type to the

^[^Ji]*

per unit length.


Fig. 1.7.

ref.

Fx

respectively;

Ds

= the plan diameter of the

For check, the

vessel.

total lateral shear at the base

is

V - Ft +

F/.

at,

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

18

The force acting


vessel

laterally in

any direction on any appendage connected to the

given by the equation

is

Fp =ZCp Wpj

is

r=

p is the weight of the appendage and Cp is taken equal to 0.2. Force


applied at the center of gravity of the attached equipment.

where

Fp

be shorter than that of the stepped-down column


formula for a uniform-diameter cantilever beam,

will

(2.70/10 )(////))

Fig.

(wD/0 1/2 =(2.70/10 5 )(100/5) 2 (850X

(For more accurate computation of

Ft = 0.15 V=

in

1.3 kips,

and from

T see

the

Example 4.4

1.8.

5/0.5)

19

Using the

'2

in Section 4.7.)

sec.

Force

Fig. 1.8,

Since the higher modal responses contribute mainly only to the base shear,

moment b and the moments


h x above the base can be reduced by means of reduction coefficients/ and JXi and are given by the following equations:

but not to the overturning moments, the base

Mx

Ft =

(V~

t)

WjhilXwihi = 7.2w, Aj/4630 = 0.001 6wj*f.

at levels

The

transverse design shear

Vx

at

h x elevations

forces Fj above the section elevation h x

Mb =J (fthn+^Fih^,

where

0.45

</= 0.6/7

2' 3

<

ments

=J +

For structures where the

total

mass

is

(1 -

J)(h x /hf

predominantly concentrated at one

would seem reasonable to expect the structure


fundamental mode, J = 1 .0 is recommended.

the

it

Example

1.2.

vertical process

AM
AM

sections; not

number depending on

more than 10

at the center

and the seismic loads F, and the moments

From

Fig.

.8

(H

1.3

=4.3X

h x ) + "LFiQii

17 + 3

17 +

hx )

or

17/2 =47.6 kips-ft

2.4X 17/2 =

93.5 kips-ft

etc.

a cylindrical

x are
the total lateral force at the base

V=ZKCW=

0.05

is

sections are usually required,

the weight distribution.

assumed to be concentrated

is

the earthquake load distribution on a vessel with variable mass

usually divided into


the exact

level

concentrations or on a vessel of two or more diameters the entire vessel

section

sum of all

The weight of each

of gravity of each section

computed.

V equals

X 85 =

8.5 kips

where
A*

=2

W = 85
-

Z=
C=

In

for

kips, including steel shell, trays, operating liquid, insulation, etc.

for

zone 3
t/3
= 0.05/1 1 / 3 =0.05.

0.05/r

computing

column

it

would seem

5-ft i.d.

X 100

ft

to be conservative to

assume that the period T


w = W/H

high with uniformly distributed weight

Fig. 1.8.

lateral

1.0 the incremental

to vibrate primarily in

Compute the seismic loads and moments acting on


column of two diameters, as shown in Fig. 1 .8.

To determine

/=

/-I

and/or

equal to the

at particular section planes are

AA/X =
where Jx

is

Taking

Conditions and resulting earthquake loads for Example 1.2.

mo-

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

20

The

total

moments

acting at particular section planes are

'.

At the base

M = AA/ =47.6 kips-ft


M =M + AM = 141.1 kips-ft, etc.,
2

shown

in Fig.

.8.

the shear

is

Vb

as

Y = //,

moment

Total overturning

and the moment

V-F

is

used to

size the skirt

sections such as

= 670.8 + 4 = 674,800

h x = 66

for checking the stresses in the shell

or

ft

and the

Ft =V

M b =J[F H + (V-F )(2H/3)].


t

VorF, = 0.15Kand/=

Moments

6 at section

at

other

h x = 10

ft

1,

Mb -0J16VH.

critical

are used

skirt-to-shell weld.

Design Considerations

Example

Determine shear forces and moments due to seismic loads acting


on cylindrical vertical column of a constant diameter and uniformly distributed

weight

Ib-ft,

base and the anchor bolts.

at section

is

at base,

21

1.3.

(lb per ft), as

shown

in Fig.

.9.

the
only reasonable to assume that during a severe earthquake exceeding
absorb
the
dyand
yield
will
structure
the
assumed design value some part of
logical
the
most
are
bolts
anchor
The
failure.
major
namic energy, preventing a
It

is

structural part to prevent, through partial yielding,

any other damage to the

buckling of the supporting skirt or shell. If the anchor bolts are


vessel, such
to yield under
to perform this function they should be long and resilient enough
as

vessel, preferably
an extreme overload, and they should be firmly attached to the
through a full ring stiffener, as shown in Fig. 4.3, Type A.

Most codes allow an increase by one-third in the allowable stresses under


earthquake (temporary) conditions. The ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section
VIII, Division 1, UG23d (1983) allows an increase of 20 percent in the maxi-

mum

allowable stress

Sa

for stresses in the vessel shell caused

combination with the wind


factor

k=

1.2

is

limited

Fig. 1.9.

by the allowable design temperature, Table UG-23.1.

the codes present only the


the equation for the force

independent variable,
vessel height

is

it

F,-

=(K-

loadings in

Division 2 allows an increase of 20 percent in allowable stresses for the pressure


realize that
parts and structural parts. At this point it would seem important to

loads

From

by

or earthquake loads. However, the stress increase

fV) w^/EH^/if, with h t the only

can be seen that the distribution of

triangular. If the total lateral force at base

throughout the

V - ZKCW

is

at

by

minimum

requirements, which should be increased

the designer according to his judgemnt after a careful assessment of

all

design

conditions.

any

horizontal plane at elevation h x above the ground at section x-x, the shear force

1.7.

PIPING

LOADS

is

Vx

= Y(FH +Fx )/2+Ft


= ?l(V-Ft) wH/(wH 2 I2) + (V~Ft )w(H- Y)l(wH 2 l2)]
= (V-Ft )(2HY- Y 2 )/H 2 +Ft

and the moment

is

Mx =Jx [FtY + (V-

Y + Ft

vessel should be
In addition to the wind loads the piping loads acting on the
supported
by nozzles
sections
pipe
evaluated. They consist of the weight of the

the pipes.
into the vessel shell and of the loads due to the thermal expansion of
vessel
the
time
of
at
the
estimated
to
be
have
The thermal expansion loads

can be assumed that the total sum of the piping reactions of all side
The
nozzles will have a small effect on the entire vessel and can be disregarded.
design.

2
t )(3HY

Y')/3H 2

It

DESIGN LOADS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

22

23

the wind or earthquake


liquid head, the operating dead load of the vessel itself,
vibration, impact and
as
loads, and any other applicable operating effects such

Table 1.3.

NOMINAL SIZE OF
TOP NOZZLE

Mp

(in.)

(Ib-ft)

thermal loads.
Test design condition for a shop hydrotest, when the vessel is tested in a
the shop test
horizontal position, includes only the hydrotest pressure plus
3.

2110
4450
7900

4
6
8

weight of the vessel. For a field test performed on location, the design condition
includes the test pressure plus the static head of the test liquid, and the field

13000
19500
24500
34300
46300
61000
98400

10

12
14
16

18

20
24

test

dead load of the

vessel.

Wind

or earthquake loads need not be considered.

All insulation or internal refractory are removed.


operating design con4. Short-time (overload) design condition includes the

startup, or shutdition plus any effects of a short-time overload, emergency,


loads. At startup, the
design
increased
result
in
may
which
operations,
down
vessel

is

assumed to be cold and connecting pipelines hot. Wind or earthquake

need not be considered.


thermal thrust at the top nozzle can be considerable, and in such case should

be added to the other loadings acting on the

Mp

will

depend on the

The everage

where

by 3

is

size

vessel.

on the
approximately equal

of the nozzle, that

estimated as

The expansion pipe moment

is

of the process pipe.


ioM = 60Z>3 in lb-in.,

size

p
p can be
the outside diameter of the pipe connected to the nozzle, increased

in. (see ref. 7).

Table

.3

and the required

local reinforcement

p computed by the above equacomputed wind load. The actual moment

gives values of

tion in lb-ft and could be added to the

of the top

shell

head

may not be

as large.

COMBINATIONS OF THE DESIGN LOADS

1.8.

Many combinations of

loads considered in the design of pressure vessels

possible, but highly improbable; therefore

it is

practice to select only certain sets of design loads,

vessels. If a

severe loading combination does occur, the built-in safety factor


a

is

more

usually large

permanent deformation of some structural member,

without crippling damage to the


It is

be

which can most probably

occur simultaneously, as the design conditions for pressure

enough to allow only

may

consistent with good engineering

vessel itself.

standard engineering practice that

all

vessels

and

their supports

must be

designed and constructed to resist the effects of the following combinations of


design loads without exceeding the design limit stresses. (In

all

combinations

wind and earthquake loads need not be assumed to occur simultaneously, and
when a vessel is designed for both wind and earthquake, only the one which
produces the greater stresses need be considered.)

Erection (empty) design condition includes the erection (empty) dead load

of the vessel with


2.

full effects

of wind or earthquake.

Operating design condition includes the design pressure plus any

static

The maximum

stresses as

exceed the design limit


Chapter 2 of this book.

computed from

stresses; see

the above design conditions cannot

Table 2.1 or AD-150.1 and Fig. 2.2, in

STRESS CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES

25

increasingly important consideration in the design of pressure vessels as it has


become apparent that the majority of fractures are fatigue rather than static-

the operating cycles

number of

loading failures. If the

is

larger than several

thousand, fatigue analysis should be considered. Here the allowable stress and
the stress range must be related to the number of loading cycles anticipated
during the service life of the equipment. Fatigue failures usually occur in the

zone of the

Stress Categories and Design


Limit Stresses

maximum

stress concentration.

The designer must not be content to understand the properties of the construction materials to be used in the vessel. He must also consider in detail the
nature of the loads acting on the vessel (mechanical, thermal, cyclic, dynamic,
static, temporary). Knowledge of these loads and the resulting stresses, obtained
analytically

INTRODUCTION

2.1.

maximum

After the design loads are determined and the

dividual stresses

require the

by type,

same safety

For instance, when

by

due to the

stresses

loads are computed, the designer must qualitatively evaluate the in-

design

since not all types of stresses or their combinations

is

loaded to and beyond the yield point

continue until the part breaks, unless strain hardening or

.takes place. In vessel design, stresses caused

main

their

reduced

On

in

characteristic

is

by such loads

stress distribution

primary and

are called

that they are not self limiting,

i.e.,

they are not

magnitude by the deformation they produce.

the other hand,

if a

member

is

subjected to stresses attributable to a

thermal expansion load, such as bending stresses in shell at a nozzle connection

under thermal expansion of the piping, a

permanent, local deformation

slight,

the shell wall will produce relaxation in the expansion forces causing the

in

stress.

The

stresses

due to such forces

are called

secondary and are

self limiting

or self equilibrating.

The

between primary and secondary loads and

stresses

is

be applied to the calculated values of stresses produced by self-limiting loads.

produced by

stresses

calculated stress levels shall not exceed

static loads,

such as the bending stresses at a gross

structural discontinuity of a vessel shell under internal pressure, have the

2.2.

stresses

of

its

and can be treated

from the dynamic (impact) loads are much higher

from

static loads

application

is

of the same magnitude.

load

is

dynamic

if

than

the time

smaller than the largest natural period of vibration of the

body.

structure

may be

load for which


is

it

subjected only rarely to the

maximum wind

has been designed. Therefore, an increase

in

or seismic

allowable stresses

permitted for such temporary loads in some codes. Fatigue caused by periodic

variation of mechanical or thermal loads over ODeratine cvcles has

become an

that the

ALLOWABLE STRESS RANGE FOR SELF-LIMITING LOADS


vessels are the

at shell struc-

In the study of self-limiting stresses, fictitious elastic stress calculated as twice


the yield stress has a very special meaning. It specifies the dividing line between

the low cycle loads that,

when

successively applied, allow the structure to

"shake down" to an elastic response, and loads that produce a plastic deformation every time they are applied. This can be illustrated in an idealized stressbehave in elasticstrain diagram as shown in Fig. 2.1. Material is assumed to
to an applied thermal expansion load of the
a nozzle an elastic deformation occurs at some point in the

perfectly plastic manner.

vessel shell

from

to B. At point

mation to be

to

BCD. The

in Fig. 2.1

and a

the thermal load

is

plastic irreversible

deformation from

sufficiently reduced by the plastic defor-

with the internal

resisting stresses in the shell.

When

piping return to their original position, the stresses recover along

the nozzle and

cycle from

Due

in equilibrium

elastic portion

of the permanently

in intensity

is

stress limits or, in their

ture discontinuities.

same

similarly.

Code allowable

The most important self-limiting stresses in the design of pressure


pressure
stresses produced by thermal expansion and by internal

line
self-limiting properties as thermal stresses

Stresses

essential to proper vessel design.

absence, stress limits based on the current good engineering practice.

attached piping on

practical difference

obvious; the criteria used to evaluate the safety of primary stresses should not

Some

is

chief requirement for the acceptibility of a Code-designed vessel

factors in protection against failure.


a pressure part

a mechanical (static) force, such as internal pressure or weight, the yielding

will

and as accurately as possible,

Suitable precautions expressed in the design safety factors are the responsibility
of the design engineer, guided by the needs and specifications of the client. The

to

the limit or the

from

C to D represents prestressing in

strained shell fibers in


lies

compression

such a way that the next operating

o 2 =2o y represents
shakedown to be possible. At

entirely in the elastic range. Stress

maximum

stress range for elastic

high operating temperatures the induced hot stress tends to diminish, but the
sum of hot and cold stresses remains constant and is referred to as stress range.
The shakedown load, sometimes called the stabilizing load, is then the maxi-

mum

self-limiting load that,

when

applied to a vessel, will on removal leave such

STRESS CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

26

27

Paragraph UG-23c states that the wall thickness of a vessel computed by


the Code rules shall be determined so that the maximum direct membrane
ay

stress,

< a, < 2o y

2cV

o3

>

2a K

as listed in

UG-22

(internal or ex-

ternal pressure, wind loads or seismic loads, reaction from supports, the effect of
temperature gradients, impact loads) that are expected to occur simultaneously

during normal operation of a vessel, does not exceed the maximum allowable
metal Code stress values permitted at the operating temperature. The direct
membrane stress can be here defined as a normal stress uniformly distributed

a, o 2 o 3 are fictitious stresses,

based on actual strains

and modulus of

due to any combination of loadings

e,

e 2 3

across the shell thickness of the section under consideration.

elasticity E.

The above requirement implies

the use of the maximum-stress theory of

on the assumption that for thin-shell pressure vessels the radial compressive stress o r due to the design pressure can be disregarded, and that the
more accurate maximum-shear theory gives approximately the same results. The
failure,

localized discontinuity stresses

Schematic

Fig. 2.1.

built-in

illustration of the stress-strain relation during a

moments of the

internal residual stresses that

shakedown.

any subsequent application

and the structure returns to the original state, a compressive yield from D" to
is introduced. At the next operating cycle the stress is in the plastic range

D'

plastic strains are particularly objectionable, since they lead to

Repeated

a failure in short time.

While the failure stress for the direct membrane stress o due to a mechanical
load is equal to the yield stress ayi and when the failure stress for the bending
stress

to

ob

From
be

is

ayt only a limited, one-time, permanent deformation from points

occurs from self-limiting loads up to the computed stress o equal to 2o y


the above discussion it can be concluded that different stress limits can

set for

this

1.5

by the
details

such as cone-cylinder junctions. Otherwise, detailed analytical stress

stresses

analyses of secondary or fatigue stresses are not required and no design stress
thermal
limits are imposed for them. Design limit stresses are not included for

of the same or a smaller load will cause only elastic stresses in the vessel. If the
plastic deformation from A to B" is too large, then when the load is removed

again.

expansion bending

stresses

and discontinuity bending

stress plus

primary bending

Table 2.1

gives

stress

recommended

(<1 .5Sa ).
design allowable stresses for stresses due to

various loads not included in UG-23c.


for secondary stresses in

As noted above, design

limit stresses

stresses are

not specified

combination with pressure

maximum

way we can

calculated stresses caused

achieve

more economical, but

by

still

different types of loads. In

safe design.

in the

Code. However, paragraph l.Sg allows higher allowable

at cone-cylinder junctions; this

would

GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA OF THE ASME PRESSURE


VESSEL CODE. SECTION

VIII,

DIVISION

of the

ASME

Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII provides the

necessary formulas to compute the required thicknesses and the corresponding

membrane

stresses

of the basic vessel components due to internal and external

leaves

up to the designer to use analytical procedures for comdue to other loads. The user furnishes or approves all design

it

puting the stresses

it

requirements for pressure vessels, U-2.

it

would be well

Code requirements

to

remember,

represent only the mini-

the designer should feel free to apply stricter design limits

when

nec-

essary according to his judgment and experience.

Code allowable

stresses are generally

used also for the design of important

nonpressure parts, such as support skirts for


While Division

stresses for stresses

indicate that different stress levels for dif-

ferent stress categories are acceptable. In conclusion,

mum, and

pressures,

stresses.

However, it is a general practice to provide detailed stress analysis for the vessel
components outside the Code approved details using either the maximumallowable stresses
stress or the maximum-shear theory of failure, and to select
stresses
computed
or
for
operations
for design conditions other than normal
membrane
primary
direct
or
stress
(<S
membrane
other than direct primary
a)

as previously pointed out, that the

2.3.

plus bending) are taken into account


and the Code approved design rules for

(membrane

Code low allowable

tall

columns, supports for func-

tionally important vessel internals, and also for the welds attaching such parts
with appropriate joint efficiencies. The allowable stresses for the less impor-

tant nonpressure replaceable structural parts

may

be higher than the Code

Reference 12 serves as a
parts at high
nonpressure
useful guide for selection of the allowable stresses of
stresses

and can be conveniently taken from

temperatures.

ref. 9.

STRESS CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES

VESSEL CODE, SECTION

| c c

various load combinations are allowed

a
v

c o

fc

3
*
a*
3 _.
2

el

s S

1 2*

5^

in

.2

g g

<*

corrosion,

ti

S25l
w>

3 u

ns<
5WJ

X X

-J

aa

Sh5c

5
**
..
w

.t:

*- t3

* 3 g *

9-

who

tion, but also for

and type of

certified

by

required to prepare

is

all

becomes the

responsibility of the

design computations proving that

its

ease of applica-

directional applicability to fatigue stress analysis. Specific

its

design details for vessel parts under pressure are provided, as well as the rules
and guidance for analytical treatment of some types of loadings. A set of conv

u 2

-7

is -e

>
> o

ditions

is

established

(AD-160) under which

quired. Evaluation of thermal stresses


3. Strict

>>

tional

tests

quality

is

a detailed fatigue analysis

is

re-

also required.

control must be maintained

by the manufacturer. Addi-

(ultrasonic, impact, weld inspection) are imposed which are not

"S

X X

The report must be

preference to maximum-distortion-energy theory not only for

al-s

en id

a tJ

the responsibility of the user.

of pressure vessels has to certify the design report. Stress classification and a
detailed stress analysis are required. Maximum-shear failure theory is used in

00

0 N

li

sufficient data per-

all

service (static or cyclic),

the design as shown on the drawings complies with the requirements of the
Division 2. Again, a registered professional engineer experienced in the design

**

; 5 5 ? u o
"3

is

manufacturer,

-a

3!

o B w u C
SS C

method of support, type of

structural soundness of the vessel

The

2.

^3 .2 *

S.3E*2.5^~-2-o3
w u C ?
'2
e n "

to

as follows.

Specification of the design conditions, including

taining to the

2 2

E E

IE

0.

are permitted to

registered professional engineer.


*S

ft
w

-a

C
- a s

-to

the factor k in Table AD-150.1.

by using

The most important points can be summarized

1.

^W

Division

73


v *>

Code

control requirements are imposed.

^-g

the

preserve the high degree of safety, strict design, fabrication, and quality-

To

to *o
IN to

in

achieve material savings in vessel construction. Also increased stress limits for

='5 3

DIVISION 2

VIII,

Higher basic allowable stresses than

s s 1 5 g 2

GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA OF THE ASME PRESSURE

2.4.

sal .si

S *5 W
X o oS
<JH
5 ~)
<

US

IIS

V)

29

required in Division

it

w W

o
'3

u
oc

UJ

3 0

fc

f-

'

J*


u
3 3

OD

s*

Stress Categories

4)

One of

Q
8

a.

OA

c c

9i-o

o5

-9

& .5t2

"3 -3

0 C

-s

o o

^
5 1

c
o

aO

.s

U.

a,

5
_
J,

a. a.

O O

oo

S E

u g
5 *
O
0 3 .2
-

-o

.-1

*L

"2 S
p
E E/3 o E/3

33- =

0 c
0

o * E

E E
II

-3

6?

c S3
-

o o

UOH
I-
^

*j

1
'3

5 a

"3

tS

fi

*5

-tS

an accurate classification of

establishes different allowable stress limits (stress intensities)

for different stress categories.


Basically, the stresses as they occur in vessel shells (see Fig. 2.2), are divided

into three distinct categories, primary, secondary, and peak.

>

produced by steady mechanical loads, excluding disconmain characteristic is that it is not


self limiting. Primary stress is divided into two subcategories; general and local.
1

tfl

X OT K

" a.c

location. Division

is

the loads that cause them, their distribution, and their

0 "

^g3g, w 0=5

ca

'CrsMtntB-oiawo

uu

-o
nj

S.

the design requirements of Division 2

stresses according to

Primary

stress

is

tinuity stresses or stress concentrations. Its

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

30

General Membrane.

Primory
Locol Membrona

Description
(For eiamples,

Average primary
stress across

Average stress
across any

solid section.

ee
T.ble

Excludes discontinuities and

solid section.
Considers ditconlinuiiies
but not con*
centralions.
Produced only
by mechanical
loads.

Siren
Category

concentrations,

4-120.1)

Produced only by
mechanical loads.

STRESS CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES


(a) General

Secondary

Membrane

Banding

Component

primary stress
proportional
lo distance
from centroid
of solid

section. Excludes discontinuities and


concentrations

Produced only
by mechanical
loada.

Increment added
to primary or secondary stress by a con-

SeH-equilibrating
stress necessary
to satisfy con-

( 1 )

linuity of stfuciur*t*
at struc-

Occurs

Certain thermal

tural discontinuities. Can be

(2)

ical load or by

not distort ion ol

dilferentia) ther-

vessel shape.

stresses which may


caused by mechan- cause fatigue but

mal expansion.
Excludes local
stress concentra-

(Note

PL

4)

imposed on the

Any

vessel

by the equilibration of

yielding through the entire

thickness will not distribute the stress, but


carried to failure. General primary stress

is

divided into primary

method shows

stress and primary bending stress; the limit design

membrane

that a higher

can be applied to the primary bending stress than to the primary


membrane stress. Typical examples of general primary membrane stress in the
and stress due to vessel
vessel wall are: stress due to internal or external pressure

stress limit

of primary bending stress


0

shell

will result in gross distortions, often

weight or external moments caused by wind or seismic forces.

tions.

Symbol

stress, is

external and internal mechanical forces.

plus Bendinoof

primary

Pooh

31

is

(b) Local primary stress

A typical example

the bending stress due to pressure in


is

produced by

flat

heads.

the design pressure alone or

by other

self-limiting characteristics. If the local primary

It has some
exceeds the yield point of the material, the load is distributed and carried
by other parts of the vessel. However, such yielding could lead to excessive and
stress
unacceptable deformations, so it is necessary to assign a lower allowable

mechanical loads.

Combination
of stress

stress

components
and allowable limits
of stress

limit to this type

intensities.

of

stress

than to secondary

stresses.

An important

property of

remains localized and diminishes


local primary stress is that the maximum stress
Local primary stress
application.
rapidly with distance from the point of load
Both, however,
stress.
bending
and
divided into direct membrane stress
can be

local primary stress


have the same stress intensity limits. Typical examples of
internal pressure at
to
due
stresses
membrane
local
and
are stresses at supports

structural discontinuities.

Use

operating loads

2.

The

basic characteristic of secondary stress

yielding will reduce the forces causing


NOTE.l

appl-es lo the range of stress intensity When the secondary stress is due to a temperature
shall be taken as the average of the S
values
at which the stresses are be.no analyzed, the value of S
for the highest and the lowest temperature of the metal during the transient When part or all of the

- This limitation

excursion at the pome


tabulated <n Part AM
shall be taken as theS, value for the highest temperature of the
secondary stress <s due to mechanical load, the value ol S
metal during the iransiem
NOTE 2 - The siresses m Category 0 are those parts of ihe total stress which are produced by thermal gradients, structural
discontinuities, etc and do not include primary stresses which may also exist at the same point It should be noted, however,
directly and, when
that a detailed stress analysis frequently gives Ihe combination of primary and secondary stresses

divided into

membrane

stress

factor,

K. then P

MQTE
full

* O. Q - O. F
P IK~ II and the peak stress .ntens.ty equals P *P tK-D* KP
obtained from the fatigue curves, Figs 5-1 10 1. 5 1 10 2 and 5-110 3 The allowable stress intemuy

m - S, Pb

- Sa

>s

range ol fluctuation is 2 Sa
4 - The symbols P

=-

(or the

NOTE

representing the six stress

NOTE

5 -

The

P^. Pb

components o t

k (actors are given in

o/,

O,
or

and F do not represent


(b r/,. and rft

single quantities, but rather sets of

quantities

Table AD-150.1.

has been revised as follows:


This limitation applies to the range of stress intensity. The quantity lS is defined as three
times the average of the tabulated Sm values for the highest and lowest temperatures during
the operation cycle. In the determination of the maximum primary-plus-secondary stress
intensity range, it may be necessary to consider the superposition of cycles of various origins
that produce a total range greater than the range of any of the individual cycles. The value
of 3S
may vary with the specific cycle, or combination of cycles, being considered since
the temperature extremes may be different in each case. Therefore, care must be exercised
to assure that the applicable value of 35m for each cycle, and combination of cycles, is not
exceeded except as permitted by 4-136.4.

The above Note

Fig. 2.2. Stress categories and limits of stress intensity. (Reproduced from the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2 (1977 edition) by permission of the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.)

that

it is

and bending

stress,

self-limiting.

Secondary

stress

Minor
can be

but both are controlled by the

same limit stress intensities. Typical examples of secondary stress are thermal
stresses

and local bending

stresses

due

to internal pressure at shell discontinuities.

Similarly, if the stress in


(or P i * P
appropriate, thu calculated value represents the total o( P
L
b * Q and not O alone
Category F a produced by a stress concentration, the quantity F i* the additional sness produced by the notch, over and
above the nominal Stress. For example, it a plate has a nominal stress intensity. 5, and has a notch with a stress concentration

is

excessive stresses.

3.

Peak

stress is the highest stress at

some

local point

under consideration. In

distortion, but
case of failure, peak stress does not generate any noticeable

it

fractures.

Gen-

small-radius
tions due to local structural discontinuities such as a notch, a

fillet,

cracks, stress-corrosion, and delayed

can be a source of fatigue


only for vessels in cyclic
erally, the computation of the peak stresses is required
stress are thermal stress
peak
of
examples
Typical
service as defined by AD-160.
and stress concentracladding
integral
steel
stainless
plate
with
steel
in carbon
a hole, or an incomplete penetration weld.

Combination of

Stress Intensities

According to the shear theory of

failure used in Division 2, yielding in a

member

under loads begins if the maximum induced shear stress equals the yield shear
maximum shear
stress developed in a test sample under simple tension. The
largest algebraic
the
one-half
equals
consideration
under
point
the
stress r at

STRESS CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

32

difference between any two out of three principal stresses (a Xi


point.

ct 2

>

at that

^3)

occurs on each of two planes inclined 45 degrees from these two

It

principal

For

stresses.

maximum

oi

shear stress t

is

>02>o li
by

maximum

r = (o 3

-a

)/2.

definition the equivalent intensity

Twice the

The procedure

for

< \ Su
2.

Local membrane

computation of the

stress intensities

can be summarized as

The maximum allowable

stress intensity.

PL

stresses

is

The maximum

under investigation the designer selects an orthogonal


and r.

a point

coordinates: L,

f,

set

of

The stresses due to the design loads and moments are calculated and decomposed into orthogonal components o r o L and o t parallel to the coordinates.
2.

According to the types of loads, the


sified and combined in the following way:
3.

stresses or their

components

are clas-

= sum of all general primary membrane stress components


Pi = sum of all local primary membrane stress components
Pb - sum of all primary bending stress components

Q - sum
F - sum

of all secondary (membrane and bending)


of all peak

Pb

as

stress

is

limited to

stress intensity.

when applicable.
The maximum

stress intensity

membrane

stresses plus the

primary bending

.5S m times the factor k

Primary plus secondary


based on the primary or

local

PL +P b + Q) cannot exceed the value


operating conditions, usually less
under
computed
of 35 m All stresses may be
2S
(3S
severe than the design conditions
m < y ).
secondary

stress plus the

stress

(Pm or

Peak

If fatigue analysis is

intensity.

stress

maximum

conditions, the

stress intensity

bined primary, secondary, and peak

required for cyclic operating

S must be computed from

stresses

(Pm or

PL

Pb

components

the com-

Q + F)

under

fatigue curves.

Pi Pb> Q> and F can represent a triaxial stress combined with shear, and as
such they would be defined by six stress resultants. In this case the principal
*

>

stresses (a 1(

a 2 ,a 3 ) must

ever, the coordinates (L,

first

r, t)

be evaluated for each category separately. Howcan be and usually are chosen in such a way that

the stresses o L> o r , o t are already the principal stresses of the particular stress

category.

Table AD-150.1

Stress Intensity

k Factors for Various Load Combinations.


Calculated Stress

Load Combination
(Sec AD-110)

Condition

Design

A The

detign pressure, the dead

Limit Basis

* Factors

Based on the corroded

1.0

thickness at design

load of the vessel, the contents

The maximum

4\
(e

intensity S is
operating conditions. The allowable value Sa for this peak stress
with
the use of the
operations
cyclic
for
analysis
of
methods
the
obtained by

components.

stress

4.

5.

Pm

stress intensity

.5S m times the factor k when applicable.


for S
bending (P b ) stress intensity.
3. Primary membrane {P m or PL ) plus primary
or PL stresses plus the bending
stress intensity S based on P
stress

At

).

is

derived from

follows.
1.

Sm

materials.

of combined

stress or stress intensity.

<%S

when applicable (S m
y or
the basic allowable design stress value (in tension) for approved

times the factor k from Table AD-150.1

Sm

33

pm)

-g->

Code

stress intensity

under consideration,

5
is

is

calculated for the particular stress type

or combination of types (e.g.,

PL

Given principal

stress intensity limits.

Then S

Pb + Q)

of

and compared with basic

o ly o 2) o 3

stresses

of the vessel,

in the

the mechanical equipment, and

external attachment loads


6 Condition A above plus wind

category

metal temperature

the imposed load

1.2

Based on the corroded

1.2

metal temperature
Based on the corroded

thickness at design

load

call

= a
1

-a 2

S 2 3=o 2 ~o 3>

C Condition A above plus earthquake load

S 31 =a 3 -a|.

thickness at design

metal temperature

(NOTE: The condition

the absolute value of the largest of these differences:

of

structural instability or

buckling must be considered)

S = max (|SiaUSUS3il).

Operation

The actual operating loading


This

conditions.

is

the basis

Based on corroded

See AO 160
and Appendix 5

thickness at operating

pressure and metal

of fatigue lift evaluation

optratmg temperature

Basic Stress Intensity Limits

One of

Tnt

the requirements for a design to be acceptable

intensities

shown
I

as

will

is

that the

computed

stress

not exceed the allowable stress intensity limits of Division 2. As

in Fig. 2.2 there are five basic allowable stress intensity limits to

General primary membrane

computed on

basis

of Pm

stress intensity.

stresses

The maximum

cannot exceed a

be met.

stress intensity

stress intensity equal to

A The

required test pressure, the

dead load

of

the vessel, the

1.25 for hydrostatic


test

and 1.15

contents of the vessel, the imposed load of the mechanical

pneumatic

equipment, and external attach-

limits.

AO-151

for

test.

See

Based on actual
design values at
tet temperature

for special

ment loads

Reproduced from the ASMS Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2
(1977 edition), by permission of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

34

STRESS CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

sum of

In addition to the above conditions the algebraic

not exceed

stresses should

4S m

+ ca + a 3

< 45 m

all

35

1000

three principal

500
400
300

definitions apply in the above discussion:

The following

100

Membrane

stress

normal

is

or compression)

component (tension

stress

(0

uniformly distributed across the thickness of the wall section.

Bending

stress

is

normal

component

stress

>

linearly distributed across the

thickness about the neutral axis of the thickness of the wall section.

Shear

stress

is

a stress

component tangent

to the plane of the section

50
40
30
20
10
10

50

20

100 200

and usually
Permissible

stress (in contrast to the primary bending stress) is a bending


of displacements, physical continuity of the
compatibility
stress needed for
for overall equilibrium of forces acting on a
needed
not
but
loads,
shell under

Secondary bending

two

tion of

typical

example

is

the discontinuity bending stress at a shell junc-

different wall thicknesses under pressure.

regardless of

any other

is

stresses that

occur in the part.

Endurance Limit denotes the alternating


(more than 2 X 10

stress

which a specimen can

infinitely

cycles) sustain in a fatigue test.

number of cycles

X 10 5

10 6

6
5 X 10

4xx steels, with ultimate


Fig. 2.3. Design fatigue curve for low carbon, low alloy and series
"= 30 x 10 6 psi. Source:
strength <80 ksi and temperature not exceeding 700F and
reference 2.

plotted against the permissible

puted assuming

the theory predicting that yielding in a


Maximum
principle stress induced at some point
maximum
the
when
structural part begins
yield stress in a simple tension test
the
equal
to
value
the
reaches
in the part
principle stress theory

5 X 10

2 X 104

assumed uniformly distributed across the thickness of the wall section.

structure.

5000 10*

500 1000 2000

however

it

cycles N,

Sa has been com-

of the materials and has the dimension of

represents the stress only

exceeded. Beyond the

modulus of

number of operating

elastic behavior

elastic limit,

it

if

stress;

the elastic limit of the material

represents actual strains multiplied

is

elasticity, ficticious stresses (see Fig. 2.1).

For fatigue analysis only the stresses that vary during the cycle have to be conoperating
sidered. The stresses due to steady loads, which do not vary during an
their efstresses
and
mean
cycle, need not be considered since they are taken as
technique.
modifying
curves
a
by
fect was included in the fatigue design

Fatigue Strength denotes the average maximum alternating stress which a specimen can sustain for a given number of stress cycles.
Stress

Significant stress

means

a stress or a stress

component

that cannot be omitted

with respect to other stresses without effecting the design.

Stress range

SB
'

\^

all

materials subject to cyclic loads break at stresses

much lower

than the

rupture stresses produced by steady loads. This phenomenon is referred to as


alternating mechanical or
fatigue. When the design conditions involve varying or

thermal loads and under the Code Div. 2 rules a fatigue analysis has to be made
(Appendix 5) the permissible design stress must be based on the Code Div. 2
fatigue strength.

The Code

Div. 2 allowable stress cycling data are expressed

the design fatigue strength curves

lowable

stress

Sa

N (see

Fig. 2.3).

Sa

amplitude (S fl/f in Fig. 2.4) of the alternating

is

the

maximum

stress range

Sr

by

|,

stress

stress intensity

ax

tan
in.

One varyinq*
load cycle

al-

It's

amplitude

or alternating

\A

Fatigue Design.

Nearly

not

by the

Fig. 2.4.

Fluctuating stress due to varying load.

time

stress CATEGORIES AND DESIGN LIMIT STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

36

There are two procedures to be followed


intensity

S ait

in

computing the alternating

37

See Code Div. 2, Par. G-106, Example No. 6 for an illustrative problem in fatigue

stress

analysis.

Fatigue strength reduction factor or Factor of stress concentration infatigue K.


1.

The principle

cycle. (This

is

stresses (o u

Any abrupt change of

o 2 and a 3 ) do not change directions during a

the usual case in the design of pressure vessels.)

The

stress

compo-

nents S (o t o L or r tL r Lr T rt ) during a cycle due to the fluctuating loads are com


puted at a point in the part under investigation as functions of time, and the prin
ciple stresses {a x

0 2 and a 3 )

are evaluated.

to be included in the computations.

If

the

stress

concentration factors have

maximum

algebraic (absolute) differ-

The

>

is

stress

The

plotted for better clarity.

maximum Sa is found from


is put equal
as computed. If computed
Code fatigue curve and Sa >
to Sa the maximum allowable number of operating cycles TV for the part can be
read from the fatigue curve. Sa has to be adjusted if the part material has a different modulus of elasticity than E given on the Code fatigue curves.
2.
The principle stress directions change during the cycle. First, all stress components due to variable loads at a point under investigation of the vessel S are
For the required number of operating cycles TV the

tinuities

nent of the cycle

SQ

is

computed and identified

as S' (a't o'L a'r

principle stresses corresponding to S' are then

half of their

5 aU

maximum

.)

or

S S

S0

computed (Oi a 2 o 3 ) and oneany time in the cycle is

algebraic (absolute) difference at

is

then the ratio of the fatigue strength without

values are usually

with the given

stress concentration.

computed and modified by experimental

Code

stress

concentration factors are acceptable under

rules.

Fatigue Curves. The ASME developed a set of generalized S a - TV fatigue curves.


The permissible alternating stress intensity Sa from those charts must be multiplied by the ratio E (given in chart)/ (used material).
The curve in Fig. 2.3 can be expressed by equation [132]
:

2xio 6 T' 17

[KSa

- 11

000

computed

where

N = design allowable cycle life, cycles per operating life


K = fatigue stress reduction factor (an alternative term for factor of stress concentration in fatigue). When KSa < 1000 the plate can be assumed to be
1

below endurance

limit.

[135].

Cumulative Damage. For several loads with different alternating stress amplitudes
a tin* 311 damage relationship is assumed and cumulative damage is

nJN

Stress intensification factors

have to be taken into account by using appropriate stress concentration

Next, the algebraic difference between the stress component (at any
point in time) S and the maximum (or minimum) corresponding stress compo-

equal to

theoretical K

not available, the theoretical

structural discon-

factors.

The

joint, threads) along the path of

data that include the effect of material ductility. If the experimental data are

the

the

all

computations. The factor K

a stress concentration to the fatigue strength

>

evaluated as functions of time for a complete cycle. Again

weld tee

accounting for the effects of the structural discontinuities have to be used in

of
cr
o2
ence in the cycle between the principle stresses (oi
3 as functions
=
intensity
5
stress
/2.
the
alternating
then
-o
o
rl3
to5
time) is equal
2
x
M3
Usually, a diagram (principle stresses versus time)

a section (fillet

the stress flow will reduce the fatigue strength.

as follows:

+ n 2 /N2 + .... +

njN <
t

From

reference 7 the fatigue curve can be expressed as:

N' = {K'l&Srf
where K' and n are the material constants. For

K' = 780000 and* = 5.


N* = number of cycles to

where

n t = number of
load

steel

with U.T.

< 60000 psi:

stress cycles during the operating life

of the vessel due to the

failure in fatigue

0 = stress intensification factor


Sr - calculated stress range based on cold E.

Nj = maximum permissible number of cycles for the alternating calculated


to the load Distress intensity
(sa) due

Comparing both curves we can find the approximate safety


fatigue curve in Fig. 2.3.

factor built in the

38

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

2.5.

DESIGN REMARKS

material for ordinary carbon steel or lowcan safely be said that the savings in
to the rules of Division 2 will be more than
alloy steel vessels designed according

It

costs.
by the additional engineering and fabrication
as Division
long
and
as
often
as
Since Division 2 is not used

offset

1,

most

vessel

designers are more familiar with Division 1


small external loadings such as
'Geometrically simple important vessels with
some savings in accordance
reactors could probably be designed with
spherical

with the rules of the Division 2.

3
Membrane

Stress Analysis of

Vessel Shell

3.1.

Components

INTRODUCTION

closed
structures with shapes resembling curved plates,
pressure vessels are
design
vessel
pressure
In
shells.
to
as
or open, are referred
pressure. Most pressure vessels in inclosed containers for the containment of
shapes: spherical or cylindrical with
dustrial practice basically consist of few
torispherical, or flat end closures.
hemispherical, ellipsoidal, conical, toriconical,
bolted together by means
The shell components are welded together, sometimes

In structural analysis,

all

of flanges, forming a

shell

with a

common

rotational axis.

surfaces of revolution,
Generally, the shell elements used are axisymmetrical
line, called a meridian
straight
simple
formed by rotation of a plane curve or a
the meridian (see Fig.
of
plane
the
in
rotation
or generator, about an axis of
meridional plane and contains the principal merid3 1)

The plane

is

called

Only such

ional radius of curvature.

shells will

be considered

in

all

subsequent

discussions.

be specified using the form ot


For analysis the geometry of such shells has to
principal radii of curvature, and the wall
the midwall surface, usually the two
be
point on a shell, e.g., the point a in Fig. 3.1 can
thickness at every point.

and the radius/?. In engineering strength of materials


thickness is quite small in comparison with
a shell is treated as thin if the wall
the wall thickness t to the minimum
the other two dimensions and the ratio of
10. This also means that the
\0oxRJt>
curvature is R /t>

located by the angles 0,

principal radius of

<p

external loads in the shell


compressive, or shear stresses produced by the
thickness.
wall
the
over
distributed
equally
can be assumed to be

tensile,

wall

(membrane) shells in
Further, most shells used in vessel construction are thin
that bending stresses
is
characteristic
important
whose
R t 500r,
the range 10f
in close proximity
only
intensity
high
are
of
loads
external
due to concentrated

<

<

length or the decay length,


to the area where the loads are applied. The attenuation
significantly reduced, is limited
are
stresses
the
where
load
the
from
distance
the
112

and quite short-e.g., for a cylinder, (Rt)


The radial deformation AR of the shell under a load
.

is

assumed to be small

Section

Rt
RL

i>

Section

-A

R$

or

R$

or

radii

Rt

of curvature
R^ = R t ).

sin 0, radius

RL

and

fl f lie

of the parallel

on the same

line,

41

B-B

- longitudinal (meridional) radius of curvature of the surface, also

for sphere,

tangential (circumferential) radius of curvature of the surface, also

Both

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

40

R2
K

but have different lengths (except

circle.

= shell thickness.
= angle in the meridional plane section between the plane normal to the meridional
plane and the axis of rotation.

e = angle in latitudinal plane section

between meridional plane and reference meridional

plane ixz).

Area abed, the differential

two

parallel circles, since

shell

it

is

latitudinal planes. All radii are


Fig. 3.1.

R L d<t>

element

R t dd,

is

cut out

by two meridians and

convenient to investigate the stresses in the meridional and

mean

radii

of shell wall

in

corroded condition.

(a) General external load

symmetrical

axkilly

with respect to the wall thickness (<t/2) and the

below the proportional

maximum

stresses

remain

(b) Shell plane

stress.

on the shell, the loading on a shell


element can be divided into three components; Pq, P# and/9/? as shown in Fig.
3.2a. A thin, elastic shell element resists loads by means of internal (body)
is

and

stress couples, acting at the cross sections

of the differential

element, as shown separately for clarity in Fig. 3.2b, c, and d. The surface forces
act

on the

For uniform internal pressure

membrane

surface, outside or inside, while the

of the element. Since the element must be

body

forces act over the volume

in equilibrium, static

equations can be derived.


In general, there are 10 different internal stress resultants:

equilibrium

(c)

clement of an

a differential

stress resultants

A^,

Ne

in

P<t>-Pe

Transverse shear stress resultants

and

QB

s b and

PR

= P.

tension or compression and

shape of the clement N$ e =


= #6* = 0 and
For axisymmctrically loaded shells, N^ Q

acting

stress resultants

shell.

components P R Pq, P& acting on

in shear. Neglecting the trapezoidal

limit of the shell material.

If a general external (surface) load

10

Definitions pertaining to shells of revolution.

NQ

N$ $t N Q(t)

Membrane

state of

<t>-

de =

For axisymmctrically loaded

M+

Qe

shells

0.

resultant couples
9%
e0 Torque
Bending stress resultant couples
0 and torque
and Mqq = 0 for axisymmetrically
couples are neglected in bending shell theory.
e<t>
(d)

loaded

shells.

Fig. 3.2.

Stress resultants (tension shear), bending

and twisting stress couples


components PR

under general load


tial element of an axis symmetrical shell

at a differen-

and P e

42.

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

#0, Nq

NQ

= membrane forces acting in the plane


<t>

!of the shell surface,

43

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF THIN-SHELL ELEMENTS

3.2.

lb/in.
Q<i>>

Qe -

M$>Me
Mqq.Mqq

- bending
- twisting

stress couples, lb-in./in.

From

be obtained.

solution of such a system of differential equations within the given


is

very difficult and can be accomplished only

(N^ B Ne<p)
,

sure are equal to zero,


stress resultants

when

boundary

for a

membrane

analysis to be valid can be

<p

(see Fig. 3.2b).

simplifies the solution.

must be applied

assumes that the basic

summarized

The membrane

the resultant stresses in shell are:

way that the


Membrane

internal stress
stress analysis

compression, and shear

the shell plane and that a thin shell cannot respond with bending or transverse

shear forces. In practice,

all

thin shells can absorb

some load

in

bending, but

these bending stresses are considered secondary and are neglected. If under a

concentrated load or edge loading conditions the bending stresses reach high
values, a
if

more

detailed analysis has to be

made and

the shell locally reinforced

necessary.
2.

Any boundary

reactions, such as those at supports,

must be located

in the

meridional tangent plane, otherwise transverse shear and bending stresses develop in the shell boundary region.
3.

The

can be computed from basic static equilibrium equations and

in such a

shell resistance forces are tension,

some

the internal stresses are due

=Ne

All external loads

reactions are produced in the plane of the shell only.

in

applied to

for a xisym metrical loads such as internal pres-

which further

~N

as follows.

rigorous

Once the stress resultants are determined the stresses in the shell
can be computed.
Fortunately, most vessel problems occurring in practice can be solved with
satisfactory results using a simplified approach. The main reason for this is that
under certain loading conditions which occur in practice with shells of revolution, some stress resultants are very small and can be disregarded or, because of
axial symmetry, are equal to zero.

shear stress resultants

The main conditions

stress

special cases.

Membrane shell theory solves shell problems where


only to membrane stress resultants Nq.Nq, and

such a way that the reacting

changes in curvatures

strains,

resultants to the midshell surface displacements can

a vessel act in

in Fig.

equations for static equilibrium.

a linear stress-strain relationship

(Hboke's law) the additional required differential equations relating the

conditions

shown

the geometry of the shell before and after

and twists can be established, and assuming

on

3.2b will be predominant and the bending and


transverse shear forces so small that they can be neglected. Here there are only
which can be determined from the
three unknowns, A^,
d) and Nqq
9<t>y

stress couples, lb-in./in.

deformation under the load, the direct and shear

practical cases the loads

stress resultants

which must be in equilibrium with the external forces. Since there are only six
equations of static equilibrium available for solution, the problem becomes four
times statically indeterminate.

most

In

transverse shear, lb/in.

The

shell including the

boundary zone must be

action of the stress resultants.

Any

free to deflect

under the

constraints cause bending and transverse

shear stresses in the shell.


4. The change in meridional curve is slow and without cusps or sharp bends.
Otherwise bending and transverse shear stresses will be included at such gross

geometrical discontinuities.

o L = 0$ =N$lt

longitudinal stress:

o t = o9 = Ne /t

tangential stress:

Bending

shell theory, in addition to

resultants (Fig. 3. 2d)

unknowns exceeds

the

number of

the

membrane

stress

longitudinal stress
tangential stress

shear stress

o L = a0
o t = oe
t0

stresses, includes

bending

(Fig. 3.2c). Here the

N$

and

from the deformation

Ne

-Q^/t.

stress

and addirelations.

and the resultant moments

in shell are:

=N0 /t 6A/0 /r
=Ne /t 6Me /t

is

number of

the static equilibrium conditions

resultants

Mtf>,Me are determined the stresses

The membrane

the wall thickness

membrane

and transverse shear forces

tional differential equations have to be derived

Once

stress resultants are

the wall thickness. This can be

is

about

assumed

Rjt>\0

assumed uniformly distributed across

if

the ratio of the radius of curvature to

and the change

in the wall thickness' if

any

very gradual.
6.

The

radial stress

or

is

small and can be neglected.

plane state of stress

is

assumed.

The middle surface of the entire shell is assumed to be continuous from


one section of the shell component to another across any discontinuity. In
practical vessel design two shell sections of different thicknesses are welded
together to give a smooth inside contour. At the junction the lines of action of
are not collinear and this eccentricity introthe meridional stress resultant
7.

duces additional
8.

The

stresses.

loadings are such that the shell deflections are small (AT?

the elastic range.

<

f/2)

and in

44

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

To summarize,

a shell will carry the load

by membrane

stresses

only if it

is

thin,

properly shaped, and correctly supported.

Membrane

Stresses

of fundamental importance
This last equation (the first equilibrium equation) is
subjected to loads symshells
membrane
axisymmetrical
for stress analysis of
radius of curvature
principal
The
rotation.
of
the
axis
metrical with respect to
negative
(if it points
be
axis),
vessel
the
toward
it
points
be positive (if

RL

Produced by Internal Pressure

45

can

vessel axis), or become infinite (at an inflection point). In the


above analysis the radial stress a r was assumed to be negligible (average o r = ~P\2 ).
The second equation of equilibrium required to solve for o t and aL can be
obtained by summation of the forces and stresses in the direction of the axis

away from the


The most important case

in the vessel design

subjected to internal pressure of intensity


sure

is

an axisymmetrical load;

is

a thin-shell surface

P (measured

in psi).

The

of revolution,
internal pres-

can be a uniform gas pressure or a liquid

it

pressure varying along the axis of rotation. In the latter case usually
tions are
stresses

performed to find the

two

calcula-

due to equivalent gas pressure plus the

stresses

shell

element under uniform internal pressure

axisymmetrical the entire

finite shell section

can

be used at once as follows:


2irR(to L sin 4>)=PnR

is

Due to uniform pressure and axisymmetry there are no shear


on the boundaries of the element abed (N$ e = e0 = 0). The stresses oL
and o t are the principal stresses and they remain constant across the element
(dN e lbd)dd = 0 and (3^/30) tf0 = 0. The first equilibrium equation in the
in Fig. 3.3.

direction normal to the shell element (see Fig. 3.3)

sin (dd/2)]

[2R L

Substituting sin (de/2)

sin

(#)]= 2o

(ds 2 l2)IR t

and

ds x

t sin

sin (d<pl2)

Substituting this value into the

is

sin (c?0/2).

= (l/)(a f

If e t

radial

(ds t I2)/R L

growth

AR

vo L )

equilibrium equation yields

is

the unit elongation in the tangential direction, the

can be derived as follows.

2tt(K +

PdSi ds 2 = {o t /R t )tds d$ 2 + (o L IR L )tds ds 2


l

first

o t = (PR t lt)[\-(R t l2R L )],

(dd/2) + 2o L ds 2

AR) = 2nR +

2irRe t

AR=Re
P/t = (o t !R t ) +

a L =PR/2t sin0=/K,/2r.

stresses

P[2R t

is

due to the liquid weight.

freebody diagram of a

shown

of rotation. Since the shell

= (RlE)(o t

vo L \

(oJR L ).
where

E is

The
is

the modulus of elasticity.


biaxial state of stress
third equation required for static equilibrium of a
in the tangential
stresses
resultant
the
load
and
since
satisfied,

automatically

of rotation.
direction are defined as symmetrical with respect to the axis
change in the radius
that
a
out
point
to
important
seem
At this point it would
the membrane-stress
of curvature will introduce in the shell bending stresses that

=R =R

example R L
t
analysis assumes negligible. Taking a spherical shell as an
unit shell
and stresses o = o = o =?/2r due to the internal pressure, the
L

elongation e t

is

given by the following equation:


et

The change

in curvature

= (olE)(\ -) = (PR/2tE)(\
from

\IAR=(\lR')-(\iR) =

to

R'=(R

AR)

i>).

= R(\ + e t )

is

given

by

-(e t IR)l(\+e t )-e t IR = -(Pl2tE)(\ - u).

For a thin spherical plate with equal curvatures in two perpendicular directions
curvature is given
the unit edge bending moment causing the change \/AR in the
2
3
rigidity of the
=
flexural
= D{\ +v)IAR where D Et /\2(\
v ) is the
by

46

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

shell.

Substituting for

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

47

axis of rotation

l/AR

yields

M = -D(\
A negative moment
.

The bending

'.

- v2

){Pj2tE) = -(?f 2 /24).

compressive stress in outside fibers.


2
a=PR/2t or
o b = 6M/t = ?/4

will cause

stress

is

\olo b

= 2Rlt.
Section a-a
(latitudinal)

Obviously the bending

stress

o b can be neglected,

as

was the

radial stress

or

Fig. 3.4.

Asymmetrically Loaded Membrane Shells of Revolution

asymmetries in the load application, a shear stress resultant Nqq


be induced in addition to two other membrane stress resultants N$ and e

Stresses in cylindrical (closed end) shell

under internal pressure P.

If there are

will

The problem

as in Fig. 3.2b.

ferential equations

ditions will be

of

static

sufficient

will still

be statically determinate, since three

From

the

first

equilibrium equation,

dif-

(oL

equilibrium in the plane with proper boundary conto

compute

all

three

membrane

stress resultants

so that

without calling upon the midsurface displacements. However, the longitudinal


o L and the tangential o t stresses will no longer be the principal stresses in shell.
In the design of pressure vessels such an asymmetrically applied load

wind

force

puted

on a

stresses

cylindrical column. Using membrane

tall

are identical or close

elementary beam theory, which

is

enough to the

a concise

14, 17, 18,

3.3.

is

the

theory the com-

stresses as

o t =PR/t.

The

radial

growth of the

computed by

discussion of asymmetrically loaded

The interested reader will


membrane shells in refs.

and 23.

radius

= (R/E)(o t

vo L )

- vj2).

is

cylindrical shell

is

the

most frequently used geometrical shape

internal pressure. In the

in

terms of the inside

Rf
ot

=PRlt=P(Ri

+ 05t)lt.

in pressure

developed by rotating a straight line parallel with the axis of


rotation. The meridional radius of curvature R L - 00 and the second, minimum

The

shell thickness

is

therefore

is

radius of curvature

is

the radius of the

conditions of static equilibrium

shown

in

or

a L = PR/2t,

l(o t - 0.5?).

Fig. 3.4. In the longitudinal

direction,

2nRo L t=PnR 2

t=PR

R =R.

The stresses in
? can be computed from

formed cylinder

a closed-end cylindrical shell under internal pressure


the

no end rotation of a cylindrical shell under


above formulas, E is the modulus of elasticity.
The tangential (governing) stress can be expressed

There

CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

vessel design. It

is

= (PR 2 IEt)()

Under Uniform Internal Pressure

The

shell

AR=Re

generally used for stress computations in

process columns under the wind or earthquake loads.


find

stress

+ (o t IR)=Plt.

The Code stress and shell thickness formulas based on the


mate the more accurate thick -wall formula of Lame:

SE =

(PRdt) + 0.6?

or

= PRtl(SE

inside radius approxi-

0.6?),

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

48

using 0.6P instead of 0.5?, where


the allowable

Code

stress.

is

Code weld

the

joint efficiency and

is

support

Both o t and o L

are principal stresses,

without any shear

stress

on the

side of

If a spiral-welded pipe (Fig. 3.5)

is

r
K

subjected to internal pressure

P, determine the normal and shear forces carried

by

a linear

support)

pears as in the following example.


3.1.

{line of

the differential element. However, at other section planes the shear stress ap-

Example

t stiffener

line of

See also reference 169.

49

inch of the butt

weld.

\ben\

^\ stiffening

line

f|v4 ^-1

L =

two

distance between

lines

of support

L s - sum of the half of distances from

iY.

port
// =

on each

stiffener to the lines of sup-

side of stiffener

depth of head

\ weld

Fig. 3.6.

seam
Fig. 3.5.

replaced by -P. However, thin-wall vessels under external pressure fail at stresses
lower than the yield strength due to instability of the shell. In addition

much

At point 0,
l

=PR/2

and

=PR

temperato the physical properties of the construction material at the operating


(collapsing)
the
critical
ture, the principal factors governing the instability and

lb/in.

pressure

Normal tension

Pc

are geometrical: the

and the outside diameter

is

DQ

unsupported

shell length

L, shell thickness

assuming that the shell out-of-roundness

is

f,

within

acceptable limits (see Fig. 3.6).


5

The behavior of
= (/?K/4)(3- cos

Shear

thin-wall cylindrical shells under uniform external pressure/

differs according to cylinder length.

lot).

Very Long Cylinders. Subjected to a critical pressure PC1 the shell collapses
two lobes by elastic buckling alone (see Fig. 3.7), independent of the
supported length L. The stiffeners or the end closures are too far apart to exercharacteristic
cise any effect on the magnitude of the critical pressure. The only
equation [118]:
ratio is t/D 0 and the collapsing pressure is given by the following
1

is

into

h = Wx
As a practical
not

rule the

less, for fabrication

- ly) sin

minimum

2a] /2 =

(PR/4)

sin

2a.

thickness of carbon steel cylindrical shells

is

and handling purposes, than the thickness obtained from

Pc =

the following empirical formula:

min.r=
where

is

[(Z),-

+ 100)/ 1000]

[2E/(\

-v 2 ))(tlD o y

in.,

the shell inside diameter in inches.

Under Uniform External Pressure

To compute membrane compressive

stresses in a cylindrical shell

external pressure the internal pressure formulas can be used,

if

under uniform

the pressure Pis

Fig. 3.7.

lobes

Two-lobe collapse of a pipe under external pressure. The

may be irregular.

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

50

where

E is

the

modulus of

elasticity

and for

accuracy:

= 0.3:

2A2E
Pc

= 2.2E(tlD 0 f.

(a)

The minimum unsupported length beyond which Pc is independent of L


the critical length L c and is expressed by the equation

Lc =
and

for v

1.14(1

-^)

1/4

0 O (JVO

is

where 0.45(///>o )

Pc

0,s

Intermediate Cylinders with

2.

L Cl

L<L C

plete circumferential belt at

If the

formula

length

is

carbon

for

steel shells (for v

= 0.3) in

refs.

Sc

Short Cylinders.

If

of

failure

fluence of

is

common

120 and 121


the -cylinder will

Pc

At

this

point the

or negligible. In the design of the


1

and 2 have

fail

by

of the material.

= (S y tlR Q ). This type

only in heavy-wall cylindrical shells.

thin-wall pressure vessels only the cases

in-

vacuum

practical significance.

theoretical elastic formulas for the critical pressure

Pc

at

which

SJE

is

number of

here treated as a variable factor

A,

this

geometric chart can be

physical properties of the


used for all materials. To introduce the particular
relating the value of the
required,
material, an additional material chart is
the particular material.
for
pressure
to the collapsing
c
collapsing ratio
curve
(SJE)-(S
strain-stress
C = Pc D/2t) for
The material chart is actually a
in terms of the
coordinate
the
obtain
To
the material at a design temperature.
four, the hoop
of
factor
safety
with
a
pressure P

SJE

allowable working
is

=PJ4

again employed:

inter-

mediate cylinders would collapse under radial uniform external pressure or


under uniform radial combined with uniform axial pressure, are derived in refs.
25 and 118. However, their solutions depend on n, the

<L C

(2)

Both equation (1) (vertical) and (2) (slanting) are


values as variplotted with SJE values as variables on the abscissa and (LlD 0 )
Appendix
(see
ables on the ordinate for constant ratios (t/D 0 ) in Fig. UGO-28.0
A2). For better clarity the plot is labeled as (D 0 /t).

formula

The

in the tangential stress

L>L C and

for cylinders with

formulas can be used:

L on Pc becomes very small

CO

0)

psi

L becomes short enough


stress

= 0.3,

at collapse:

S c IE=\30(tlD o y KLlD o )

plastic yielding alone at high stresses close to the yield strength

The ordinary membrane

practical cases, using v

SJE=\.\(tlD 0 f

Since
3.

obtain a set of two equations giving the tangential

for cylinders with

K and the number of lobes n that would produce


D 0 jt and LjR 0 can be read from the charts plotted

for given

all

and (b) are substituted for pressure

P = 2S(t/D0 ) we

decreased below the

the value of the collapse factor

minimum P c

dependent on two characteristic ratios (t/D 0 ) and (L/D 0 ).


In the formula for Pc from reference 106.

the

[(LID 0 )- 0.45(r/D o )

can be disregarded and for

Pc

Pc =KE(t/D o y

$
Pc = 2.60E(tlD o ?' KWo)-

and the number of lobes in a comcollapse n will tend to increase and will become

the critical pressure

can be simplified to

stress
'

2 3/4
(1 " v )

(tlD 0

1/2

If equations (a)

critical distance

called

= 0.3

L c = l.llD 0 (D o /r) 1/2

51

lobes at

and they are cumbersome for a routine design.


To eliminate the dependency on n and to simplify the whole procedure of
computation for the wall thickness t for the vacuum .vessels at different design
temperatures, the Code adopts the following procedure (UG-28). For cylindrical

Sc

=Pe D0 l2t = (4Pa )Do l2t

and

collapse,

L<L

formulas are replaced by the U.S.


with
C the more accurate elastic
Experimental Model Basin formula, which is independent of n and is of sufficient

shells

Pa Dolt = Sj2.
The material chart is then plotted against the same abscissa SJE, called factor/!
design temperature
(see Fig. A2.2 in Appendix A2), for a specific material and
together. Since
plots
the
two
ties
Factor
A
factor
B.
as ordinate P Djt. called
a

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

52

the

modulus of

the geometric chart


stress ratio

P = B/0J5(D o lt)

for

In practical design

is

D Q lt >
when

the

factor

P = B/Q.15(D 0 /t). When

B by 0JSDo /t, which

in.)

critical

reduces the safety factor to

St.

max.

(to avoid tripping the ring)

J_

3.

D Q /t

to obtain the factor

from the geometric

maximum

the

new

(2) designing a

(the

A. Using the factor

allowable

external

minimum

for carbon steel shells

B = 0.15P(Do lt). From the

A move

pressure

vertically

is t

Stiffener ring for

Fig. 3.8.

vacuum

vessels,

is

cylindrical vessel to withstand the

moment of inertia of the

stiffener,

= (D t +

I=0.035DlL s PjEin\

material chart

on the geometric chart

to

and horizontally to the LjD 0 axis. The maximum stiffener spacing


or the maximum allowable unsupported length of the cylindrical shell will be
L - (L/D 0 ) DQ Several trials are usually needed to obtain the most economical
the

h =
weld

critical pressure.

under external pressure. From the material chart

and compute the factor

find the factor

DQ \t the

L/D0 and

10.

and

external pressure P, assume

D0 it

ratios

(1) checking the existing vessel for allowable external

for cylindrical vessels

100/1000

which

at

used to determine the uniform allowable external pres-

factor

compute L/D 0 and

determine

To summarize,

for several temperature intervals.

S c /ZT(factor A ) will be produced in the shell at some

The material chart


P by dividing the

pressure,

reduce for temperatures above 300 F, the

starts to

used to estimate

is

sure

chart

elasticity

must be drawn

material curves

53

line

and substituting P c = AP and

P=

5 psi for

vacuum

vessels,

I=2.\DlLjEin\

combination of

shell thickness, stiffener size

Stiffener Size.

and stiffener spacing.

In computing the adequate size of a stiffening ring Levy's

formula for buckling of a circular ring under uniform external pressure (L S PC )


in lb

per inch of circumference with the

moment

of inertia Is

is

is

the approximate

thickness

ts

moment of

based on the calculated distance

used:

ts

(L s Pc ) = 3EIs IRl=24EIJDl
If the

or

inertia required for the stiffener.

for a plate stiffener

with h = St s

L s and

E-

0M6SD o (JLjD o )

operating temperature

be made by multiplying

is

6
28 X 10

t*

higher than

can

(Fig. 3.8)

and

The required

now be

estimated

psi:

As =

8fJ.

room temperature,

6
l
by (28 X \0 /E') i* where E'
,

is

the correction can


the value of

at

operating temperature. For a preliminary estimate of stiffener sizes of different


/,

- (DlL s tl\2E){Pc D 0 l2t) = (DUstll2)(Se lE).

materials, see ref. 32.

To
The collapsing strength of the

ring

is

taken as 10 percent higher than the strength

of the ordinary shell (12

ring can be increased for

computation by the

1.1

14).

The

thickness of the shell reinforced

of the stiffener and the effective shell thickness

Is

A s /L s where A s
is (r + A s lL s ):

ratio

is

by

For

E for

carbon

steels see Fig.

decrease the size of the stiffener the

the stiffener to be included into the required

=DlL s (t + A s lL s )Al\4w.\

is

rs

= (D 2o L s )(t +

A s lL s )All0.9

neutral axis of

read from the material chart for the material used

(UG-29). In the above formula,

monly used shape

As

has to be

first

estimated.

The most com-

for ring stiffeners are bars with a rectangular cross section and

cut-outs of plate, as

shown

in Fig. 3.8.

moment

shell sections adjacent to

of inertia (Fig. 3.9). Then

the area

shaded area

where the value of

A2.2.

Code allows

Using general formula for the required

Fig. 3.9.

in.

4
.

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

54

stiffener rings act as external lateral restraints, increasing the critical col-

The

lapse lateral pressure

Pc

(psi)

by shortening the unsupported length of the

shell

On

ther-

sections.

on the outside of the

vessel.

mally insulated vessels, they must be adequately insulated. If placed inside the
vessel, they would obstruct the flow, cleaning etc. If any gaps between stiffener

and

shell occur, the applicable

Code procedure to

establish the

maximum

un-

Sometimes the same

vessel, reinforced

with heavy stiffeners,

is

subjected oc-

casionally to inside operating pressures. Large discontinuity .stresses in the shell

can develop adjacent to the stiffeners, and they should be checked [51]
The stiffener-to-shell weld (Fig. 3.8) must carry the load PL S (lb per inch of
the stiffener circumference), and has to be designed accordingly.

intermittent on both sides of the stiffener with the


(8f for external rings)

is

fillet

weld

Code permitted spacing

removed, the cylinder returns into original unstrained condition. At the critical
is in neutral equilibrium. At any further increase of
Lc the
shell deflection increases not in proportion to the load. The strained cylinder
passes into unstable equilibrium, caused by inelastic action at some section of

If the ratio

fail

Under Uniform Axial

by buckling

However, the

plastic yielding

equal to the yield

Lc

NLc

is

than the theory predicts, between 40


drical shells occur at stresses
theoretical
load. To adjust the formula with the
predicted
to 60 percent of the
experimental results an empirical constant is introduced:

oLc = 0.605

where the empirical factor

K=

of the material

Rjt

- 0.901 (1 - e' a )

test values 0.5 is

and

can be taken as

l/2
a = 0.0625(i?/f)

taken as equal to

K then:

when

aLc -Q3EtjR.

compressive stress under

the cylindrical shells will

the critical collapse stress

for the critical

(mirumum)

fail
is

rather

close or

The allowable Code compressive


the same

stress for axially

loaded cylindrical

shells

is

as the allowable stress for spherical shells:

elastic

buckling stress for the

with the ends simply supported can be derived using the strain

=NLc lt = EtlR[3(\

- v2
)]

1'2

and for

= 0.3

Sa = 0.0625 Et/R

for the elastic range

Sa - B (read from

the

Code material

and

charts) for plastic range.

Clearly the limiting stress in the above formula

is

the yield stress of the con-

struction material. However, if safety factor equal to 10, as used in

= 0.605 Et/R.

the critical axial compressive load in lb/in. of circumference.

sion

The length

compressive stress aLcy in contrast to overall or interstiffener collapse


stress under lateral pressure, does not depend on the unsupported shell length I.

is

Code

divi-

applied against the critical theoretical stress oLc then this allowable

compressive stress will govern in a considerable range

responding to the

3.4.
critical

of

KEtlR

K for shells with L/R < 5

axial

of a half sine wave of the deflected shell equals to:

The

buckling of fabricated cylin-

failures in

much lower

energy method [131]

oLc

show that the

stress.

The general equation


cylindrical shells

test results

Pressure.

at a critical longitudinal

proportionate limit. At lower ratios of

by

some

or material.

Basis for establishing External pressure Parts.

R 0 /t becomes too large (>300) thin wall cylindrical shells under

pressure will

elastic strains at

points in the shell increase into plastic strains. It is


collapse will be initiated at the section with the largest imperfections, geometric

If the average

Cylindrical Shells

by any small disturbance. The

the shell, leading to collapse

Appendix Q.

stress the cylinder

usually satisfactory.

Only an outline of the analysis of the effects of the external pressure on the
cylindrical shells has been presented here-the minimum required to design a
vessel under external pressure. The interested reader will find a detailed development and description of the Code charts in ref. 26 and a detailed discussion of
cylindrical shells under external pressure in refs. 18, 25 and 1 18. See also Code
1

stress

intuitively obvious that the

supported length of the gap will apply.

Div.

o Lc (or load Lc ) the cylinder is in a stable equilibrium,


throughout the cylinder is below elastic limit. If the load

critical stress

is

stiffener rings are generally placed

The

Below the

meaning, that the

55

critical stress

o Lc

is

Fc

= irDt oLc

oiR Q jt. The

total load cor-

SPHERICAL SHELLS AND HEMISPHERICAL HEADS

Whenever process design

or storage conditions permit or high design pressure

requires, a spherically shaped vessel

is

used. Although

it

is

more

difficult to

56

fabricate than a cylindrical shell,


cylindrical

On

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK


it

large-diameter cylindrical vessels, hemispherical heads will introduce negli-

gible discontinuity stresses at junctures.

around an

spherical shell

is

developed by rota-

jE

voJE)=PR 2 ltE\(\

where E is the modulus of elasticity.


Both stresses o L and o t are uniform across the

axis (see Fig. 3.10).

radii are the

same and the

stresses

o t and o L

are the

same. From

the equation specifying the static equilibrium at section a-a in Fig, 3.10,

nR 2

cos

stress

cylin-

formula for the sphere thickness can

be used to compute the thickness of the hemispherical heads. If the radial


growth of the cylinder and connected hemispherical head were the same the
discontinuity stress would be eliminated. However, the thickness of the shell

would not be
(a L cos a) t2nR cos a -

such an extent that the

The
Code

shell thickness in tension.

UW-13.1) be minimized by a design taper between the head and the

drical shell to

Spherical Shells or Heads Under Internal Pressure.

fully utilized. If

AR C

AR S then

ccP

(PR 2 /2Et c )(2

we conclude

~ v)/2]

discontinuity stresses at the cylinder-hemispherical head junction can (per


Fig.

Both principal

under the same pressure, with minimum exposed surface.

shell

tion of a circle

AR = R(o

requires only half the wall thickness of the

57

= (PR 2 l2Ets )(\

- v)

- v)

that

or

o L =PR/2t.
fJ

= rc(l-f)/(2-f) = 0.4lrc

But

where

oJR

+ o t tR=Plt,

ts

tc

= thickness of the hemispherical head


- thickness of the cylindrical shell.

so that

Spherical Shells and Heads

o t =PR/2t = o L

The Code

stress

formula, based on the inside radius and the joint efficiency E:

The membrane stresses


be computed from the

-P

SE

= PRil2t +

QAP

or

Under External Pressure

PRrfQSE ~

0.2/0,

for P.

shells or

However,
heads

will

in spherical shells

stress

as in the case
fail

or heads under external pressure can

formulas for the internal pressure

of thin cylindrical

/>,

substituting

shells, thin-wall spherical

the yield stress in the shell

by buckling long before

is

reached.

where

0.1

is

the correction factor.

The

radial

growth

AR

is

To

establish

spherical shells,

the

maximum

allowable external pressure P'a

hemispherical heads or sections of a spherical

to be able to develop characteristic lobes


procedure has to be used, as described below.
cos a

axis of

" rotation

at

collapse, the

Spherical shells have only one characteristic ratio


side radius

and

is

the shell thickness.

The

sure P'c for perfectly formed spherical shells


2
P'c = (tlR 0 )

R 0 jt,

in

the design of

shell large

where

RQ

is

shells P'c

the out-

theoretical collapsing external presis

given by

2El[3(\-v

1/2

)]

and for v = 0.3,

For commercially fabricated

enough

convenient Code

2
can be as low as P'c = 0.3 E(t/R)

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

58

For thin fabricated


equation

is

59

with permissible out of roundness the following

shells

used, including the safety factor for the allowable external pressure:

P'a =(Ell6)(tlRo)
In order to use the material

Code charts

2
-

for cylindrical shells to determine the

allowable external pressure P'a for spherical shells in the elastic-plastic region,

made. The material charts

the following adjustment in computations must be

were plotted with S c /2 =

Sc
maximum
where

is

Pa D 0 /t = B

S c jE-A

(ordinate) against

the critical stress in a cylindrical shell

at'

a abscissa,

and

collapse

Pa

is

the

allowable external pressure for cylindrical shells. The abscissa for a

spherical shell can be

S'c = P'c

computed from

Fig. 3.11.

R 0 /2t = 4P'a R 0 l2t = (2R 0 /t)l(EIl6)(tlR 0 f

oL

is

maximum

at

(a L !R) + (o t /R) = Pit for

0 = 0 O From
-

giving

o t = -a L

P=

0, obtain

s'jE-o.nsi(Hoit)*A,
where S'c

mum

is

the critical stress in a spherical shell at coDapse- and P'a

allowable external pressure on a spherical

shell.

is

the maxi-

disregarded,

P are

However, since a spherical

can sustain twice as high pressure at the same strain as a cylindrical

shell

The shear and bending stresses at the section at 0 are


(b) Membrane stresses due to the internal pressure
o t = o L =PRj2t.

shell in

B must be adjusted correspondingly, i.e., multi2B = PaD0 /t and the maximum external pressure for spherical

tangential direction, the factor


plied
shells

by 2

so that

and heads P'a

is

Both membrane

then given by the equation

from

stresses

P and q

have to be superposed. The ring flanges

a gross structural discontinuity

on the cover represent

where

large secondary

To evaluate them a more


analysis would be required. However, away from the ring flanges at a
1/2
the simple membrane stresses will be significant.
greater than (Rt)

bending and shear

P'^BKRolt).

stresses will

develop.

involved
distance

The

permissible axial buckling load for an arbitrary shell of revolution

approximated by that of a sperical

shell

R t of the

tangential radius of curvature

with a radius equal to the

is

safely

maximum
3.5.

shell at the location.

SEMI ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS

Semiellipsoidal heads are developed

Example

3.2.

spherical cover subjected to internal pressure

in the

by

a flanged

opening, as shown in Fig. 3.11.


applied at the top ring flange

P has

uniformly distributed force q (lb/in.) is


connected pipe. Compute membrane stresses

cover due to the internal pressure and the force q.

(a)

Membrane

equation

stress

q2nR

sin

<p 0

used end closures


psi

l2-nR sin

sin

rotation of a semiellipse. Heads with a

in vessel design, particularly for internal pressures

and for the bottom heads of

q.

The equilibrium

tall,

above 150

slender columns. In the following analysis,

components with no

restraints at

edges under uniform pressure P.

0 = oL t

sin

Under Uniform
Since both

=q

by

to minor axis h (Fig. 3.12) are the most frequently

is

or

oL

semiellipsoidal heads are treated as separate

due to the axisymmetrical load

in the axial direction at angle

2:1 ratio of major axis

0 o /r

sin

stresses

0.

RL

Internal Pressure

and

vary gradually from point to point on the ellipse the

o L and o t vary gradually

also.

The main

radii

of curvature

RL

and

60

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

'are given

The

by

= [R*lh 2 +

R L =R 3 h 2 lR A
t

(1

-R 2/h 2 )x 2

tangential stress

112

o t can be determined from

(o t IR t ) + (o L lR L )

61

= Plt

o t = (PR t lt)[\'(R t l2R L )].

or

At point

2
At point l,R t =R L = R /h and at point 2,R L = h jR and R t =R. The stresses
stress on the sides of the
shearing
o L and o t are the principal stresses, with no
2

ot

= PR 2 l2th=o L

differential element.

The longitudinal

=PRj2t

o L can be found from the equilibrium equation written

stress

for the latitudinal section

A-A

2nR a ta L

sin

in the vertical (axial) direction:

0 = nR\P

aL

or

and

at

point 2,
2
2
o t = (PRlt)[\-(R /2h )].

=PR tl2t

At point

From

the equation for a t at point 2

remains tensile;

oL

For standard 2

=PR 2l2th

if
:

\2h

>\oiR>

ellipsoidal

can be seen that as long as R}\2h < 1 o t


1.41//, a, becomes negative, in compression.

it

heads with

R-2h
2

o t =(PRlt)[l-(4h i2h
and

2
)]

=-PR/t.

at point 2,

The

radial displacement at point

a L =PR/2t.

AR =R(o
AR

is

lE

positive for (R/h)

is

2
uoJE) = (PR l2tE)[2

+ c

<2

and negative for

(R lh

(K/fc)

) - v]

+ v

> 2. Since

there

head the only gross disare no discontinuities in a uniformly thick ellipsoidal


shell, which increases
continuity is the juncture of the head to the cylindrical

axis of

rotation

the stresses in the knuckle region.


rm

X =

Membrane

ft,

\
1

r?1i
Y

Code

inn
p

tensile stress, if

used alone in design for various R/h ratios without

at the head-shell junction,


including the effects of the discontinuity stresses
the design procedure the
simplify
would result in too low a head thickness. To
of ellipsoidal heads to
thickness
the
formula
for
the stress design

knuckle ring

relates

modified by the
the tangential stress of the cylindrical shell of the radius R,
is based on many
which
K,
factor
intensification
stress
empirical corrective
tests.

The Code equation

for the

maximum

allowable stress in the head becomes

^0 /

SE = (PDil2t)K + Q.\P
~

R a /sin 0, tangential radius of curvature.


= longitudinal (meridional) radius of curvature.
Fig. 3.12.

Geometry of

a semiellipsoidal head.

where the factor QAP modifies the stress for use with the inside diameter >,2
2:1
and factor K = [2 + (D/2h) ]/6 and E is the weld joint efficiency. For
to that of
equal
nearly
=
very
is
thickness
the
head
1
and
K
ellipsoidal heads

COMPONENTS
MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

62

low discontinuity stresses at the headellipsoidal head is a satisfactory construction

region as in the cylindrical


same maximum membrane stress in the crown
tonsphencal head
available
The most commonly used and commercially

the connected cylindrical shell. With

give the

shell junction the standard 2

shell

-at all

type

pressure levels.

In large, thin-wall heads with ratios R/t

> 300

and Rjh

> 2.5,

a failure in the

o t in compression can occur either


knuckle region due
wrinkles
in the meridional direction
(circumferential
through elastic buckling
the yield stress or through
than
less
much
stress
a
at
thinning)
wall
without any
parameter here is the
plastic buckling (at lower ratios Rjh). The main dividing
to the tangential stress

ratio R/t.

The

between the two modes of failure is not clearly


transition, elastic-plastic range, where both types of failure

division line

defined and has a

compressive,
can occur. The combination of tensile, longitudinal stress o L and
failures
most
when
tangential stress o becomes significant during hydrotests,
t

occur.

Unfortunately, there

is

no completely

reliable analysis available for predicting

pressure at this time.


a buckling failure of a semiellipsoidal head under internal
refs.
guidelines
in
the
22,
30, 31 61, and 62.
However, the reader will find some
,

is

with the

minimum knuckle

radius equal to 6 percent of L t In spite of the


and torispherical heads, the sudden change in
.

between semiellipsoidal
from L to r introduces large disthe radius of curvature (point a in Fig. 3.13)
semiellipsoidal heads. Howstandard
the
in
continuity stresses which are absent
is shorter
depth of dish
the
and
fabricate
to
expensive
ever since they are less
used for low
heads, torispherical heads are quite frequently

similarity

than in ellipsoidal
design pressures

(<300

The knuckle region

psi).

is

quite short, and the dis-

influence on the discontinuity stresses


continuity forces at point a have large
with
junction. Also, bending stresses in a knuckle
at point 2 the head-cylinder
thickwall
the
across
more hyperbolically
sharp curvature will be distributed
beam. The local plastic strains induced
curved
in
a
as
much
linearly,
than
ness

tend to cause the knuckle radius to


a head with a better

by high discontinuity stresses at point a


thus forming
merge more gradually into the crown radius,
shape to

As

resist

the internal pressure.

heads, to simplify the


in the design of semiellipsoidal

an adequate head thickness

the

procedure of finding

Code introduces an empirical correction

Under Uniform External Pressure


on
The membrane stress distribution in an ellipsoidal head due to pressure acting
stress
spherical
the
in
-P
for
P
substituting
computed
by
the convex side can be
buckling
formula for an equivalent radius of the crown section of the head, unless
governs.

The design pressure on the convex side of the head is usually much smaller in
magnitude than on the concave side, and the Code design procedure (UG33d)
The procedure is
has to be used in determining adequate thickness of the head.
the
based on the analogy between the maximum allowable compressive stress in
maximum
the
and
crown region of the head with an equivalent crown radius R
with the
allowable compressive stress in the externally pressurized spherical shell

same

radius.

No

buckling will occur in the knuckle region because of the induced

occurs.
high tensile tangential stress before deformation in the crown region

3.6.

TORISPHERICAL HEADS
two circular arcs, a knuckle
crown segment with crown radius L (see

Torispherical heads have a meridian formed of


section with radius

r,

and a spherical

Fig. 3.13).

H - depth of dish
-

Under Uniform

The maximum

Internal Pressure
inside

crown radius

for

diameter of the adjacent cylindrical

Code approved heads equals


Under internal pressure

shell.

the outside
this

would

63

sin
Fig. 3.13.

4>

= corroded thickness
= (R - r)l(L - r)

Geometry of a

torispherical head.

64

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

factor

pensate

into the formula for

membrane

stress in the

formula for the

maximum

Code
Since the tangential compressive stress in the knuckle region of a torispherical
head is much larger than that in a semiellipsoidal head, the possibility of failure

allowable stress in the head becomes

SE

o t = (PLl4t)[3-(Llr)].

crown region, to com-

for the discontinuity stresses at the shell-head junction. The

would seem to be higher. Large,


lapse by elastic buckling, plastic

= PLiM/2t + 0.\P

Because the moduli of


the same, there

t=PLiMI(2SE~

65

is

thin-wall torispherical heads are

elasticity for

no advantage

known

to col-

yielding, or elastic-plastic yield in hydrotests.

ordinary and high-strength steels are almost

to using high-strength steel for large-diameter,

thin-wall torispherical heads.

0.2P),

predict a possible failure under internal pressure the following approximate

To

formula for the collapse pressure of

where

head with

a torispherical

large

d Q \t

ratios

can be used [29, 107]:

A/=i[3
for rt

~ 0.06L/,

Membrane

M=

stresses

.77 and

E is the

due to

a /r

1/2

f)

PJoy

weld joint efficiency.

inside pressure in the

= [0.43 + l.S6(rld)](t/L) + 34.8 [1

at

Pc =
oy ~
d=
t

therefore

yield strength of the used material, psi

vessel diameter, in.

= head thickness,

in.

radius, in.

For standard torispherical heads with L t

o t = (PLlt)[l-(H2r)].
calculated

Pc = o y {[0.8836 +

stress in the

knuckle at point a, while in the spherical cap the stresses are both in tension and
equal to Oi = o t =PL/2t. The actual compressive stress o t will be affected by

and the

-d Q

and

r(

= 0.06tf o the equation can


,

be written

membrane compressive

the tensile stress in the adjacent spherical segment,

0.00081

collapse pressure, psi

L = crown

maximum

r = knuckle radius, in.

(o t lL)+[(PLl2t)lr]=P/t,

the

point a in Fig.

{o t IL) + {oL lr)~Plt

is

4.83(r/d)] (tlL)

where

knuckle

3.14 are calculated as follows:

The above o t

final average at

point

a could be estimated [22] as an average stress equal to

24.7149(f/tf 0 )] (t/d 0 ) - 0.00081}.

The above equation could be used


ellipsoidal heads

if

to estimate the collapsing pressure in semi-

values for r and

L approximating

closely

the ellipse are

substituted.

D/2h = 2 have torispherical properties equivalent to


head with LjD = 0.90 and r/D = 0.17 [2]
The use of the above empirical formula [107] in preference to the formula
Semiellipsoidal heads with

a torispherical

from reference 29,

PJi =
is

[0.33 + 5.5(r/rf)](r/L)

justified here because the

practice the actual


r

Membrane*

pressure stresses in the


knuckle of a torispherical head.

[1 -

computed

Pc

2.2(r/d)](tIL)

is

minimum

0.0006,

closer to the test results. Also, in

head thicknesses are always taken 1/16

(nominal thickness) than the


Fig. 3.14.

+ 28

in.

to 1/8 in. thicker

thicknesses taken in computations to

account for the possible thinning of plate in some locations. This would make
the Drucker's formula too conservative.

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

66

Determine the maximum allowable internaLpressure for a standard


torispherical head, d 0 = 10 ft, t = 0.25 in. minimum, ay = 32,000 psi.

Example

67

3.3.

a,

w l cos a

d 0 /t= 120/0.25 = 480.


Code allowable pressure

is

P = 2SEtl(LtM+Q2t)
=

(2X

= 35

5000 X 0.25)/(120 X

.77

+ 2 X 0.25)

psi
axis of rotation

Code

yield

a = half apex angle

is

^ = 35 X 32/15 = 74

R t = Rfcos a, tangential radius of curvature


Rl = , longitudinal radius of curvature

psi

Fig. 3.15.

Buckling pressure

Pc

= 32,000{(0.25/120)[0.8836 + 24.7149 X 0.25/120]


= 36.5

The equilibrium condition

0.00081}

2nRa L t

psi.

had to be subjected to a hydrotest of


thickness would be necessary.
head
the

If the entire vessel

an increase in

P-

35

1 .5

= 53

psi,

Under Uniform External Pressure


As

in the case

maximum

of semiellipsoidal heads the Code procedure for computing the


P uses the analogy between the compres-

external allowable pressure

crown region of the head with the allowable compressive


the sphere of equivalent radius, and must be followed (UG33e).

sive stress in the


in

Geometry of a conical head.

is

stress

in the vertical direction at section a-a yields

cos a =

nR 2 P

and

o L = PRjlt cos a.

The above stress formulas are the cylindrical formulas where R has been replaced
by K/cos a.
The end supporting force to L =PR/2 cos a lb/in. at section a-a in Fig. 3.15 is
shown in the meridional line as required if only membrane stresses are induced
in the entire conical head. In actual design, where the conical head is attached
to a cylindrical shell, the supporting force PR/2 lb/in. is carried by the cylindrical
shell, as

shown

in Fig. 3.16. This

arrangement produces an unbalanced force

(PR tan o)/2 pointing inward and causing a compressive stress in the region of the
junction. Obviously, the larger the angle a, the bigger the inward force. This
inward force has to be taken into consideration when discontinuity

3.7.

CONICAL HEADS

Under Uniform

Internal Pressure

generated by the rotation of a straight line intersecting the


axis of rotation at an angle a which is the half apex angle of the formed cone.
If the conical shell is subjected to a uniform internal pressure P the principal

conical head

stress

stresses at

ot

is

at section a-a in Fig.

ii

n
i
R

'S//*tana)/2
^

/\ot

3.15 can be determined from the equations


P

o L i +

oJR t

= Pit

and

o t = PR tjt = PR/t cos

ot.

Hill

Fig. 3.16.

Force diagram

at cone-cylindei junction.

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

68

cone-cylinder junctions are investigated. The angle a

(UA5b and

therefore, limited in

Code

rules

Otherwise the Code uses the membrane stress formula for conical

c).

(UG32g)

shells
shell

is;

design to 30 degrees, and the junction has to be reinforced per

Code

maximum

to determine the

stress

and thickness of

a conical

with the joint efficiency E:

69

an equivalent length L e = (L/2)[l + (D L IDS )] of a cylindrical shell of the


diameter D L (L e =Hl2 for conical heads) and the effective wall thickness

= rcosa(UG33f).

f*

Usually the sharp cone-small-diameter cylinder junction, points in Fig. 3.17,


requires reinforcement for discontinuity stresses (UA8c).

The

stiffening ring for

the small cylinder (necessitated by external pressure) should be placed as close

SE = PDi/2t

cos a + 0.6?,

to point
sion (b +

where 0.6?

D(

the correction factor accounting for using the inside diameter

is

in the stress

formula. If a special analysis

can exceed 30 degrees. However, beyond a

is

presented the half apex angle a

> 60 degrees

the conical shell begins

to resemble a shallow shell and finally a circular plate.

The

radial

growth

at section a-a

L e)

where

The

E is

the

forcement the

DL
is

and

te

for the external pressure, unless

required; where there

is

additional rein-

equal to (R L t L ) lf2 l2. The resultant disstresses at the point B are in tension and oppose the

maximum

membrane

distance b

is

compressive membrane stresses due to external pressure. The force component

is

2
jE)- (uoJE)] = R P[1

- (v/2)]

\tE cos a,

in Fig. 3.17 points

outward. The half apex angle a

is

here limited

60 degrees. The interested reader will find the development of the Code design method for reducers under external pressure and other loads in ref. 126.
to

modulus of elasticity.

rotation of the meridian at section a-a

is

= 3PR tan ajlEt cos

vertical

component V

at

any point

on

the reinforcing ring

V = Mc/I = MR

conical head or a conical transition section under

determined by the same

Code procedure

where the actual length of the conical section L

moment
equal to

in Fig.

=M cos dlnR

d/nR 3

cos

lb/in.

as for cylindrical

3.17

is

replaced by

and

T2

=M cos d/nR
~M cos 6 itR

cos**!

cos

a2

Since a 2 >ot i9 the resultant radial force

H=T

sina 2

// = 7W(tana 2

tan

The maximum

force

sin

H on the ring tension side will be:

^
)

cos

6/nR 2

lb/in.

H on the ring occurs at

that the ring resists the

d = 0 and 180, on the assumption

load without bending.

The outward radial force H induces a circumferential force Fin

D L = outside
Ds = outside
Fig. 3.17.

is

[22]:

The required thickness of the


is

Frustums under External Moment.

intersecting cone frustums in Fig. 3.18 are subject to an external

Two

a.

Under External Pressure

external pressure

Two Cone

Forces on a Ring at Juncture of

M. The

shells,

with

additional reinforcement at point

(PR tan a)/2

AR=R[(o

dimen-

should be no larger than the Code allowable distance between the

stiffeners for the larger cylinder,

continuity

maximum a = (R s ts) lf2l2. The

with the

as fabrication allows,

the ring equal to:

diameter of the large cylinder

diameter of the smaller cylinder

Conical shell reducer with outside stiffeners.

HRdB

= FdBj2 + Fdd/2 and

F = HR ~ M(ton

ct 2

tan

cos 6/irR lbs per arch length

in.

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

70

71

Cone

cos (0

d0/2)

Reinforcing ring

Fig. 3.19.

Clearly an assumption

by

is

made here that the unbalanced force// is counteracted


by membrane forces only, in ten-

the ring, and the conical shells are stressed

sion and compression.


If

the cone

a cylindrical shell

then the angle

ol

0.

TOROIDAL SHELLS

developed by the rotation of a closed curve, usually a circle about an


shell, such as
axis passing outside the generating curve. While an entire toroidal

Section a -a

Two conical frustums with

by

replaced

max.

3.8.

Fig. 3.18.

1 is

a ring at the juncture.

toroid

is

an automobile

tire, is rarely utilized

segments of toroidal

by

shells are frequently

itself in

the design of pressure vessels,

used as vessel components.

Since the radial forces have no tangential component the tangential shears in the

juncture

is

due to the increment

From

element Rdd.

in the circumferential force

Fig. 3.19 at point

we

Fin

a differential

get tangential force acting

on the

Membrane

Cross Section under Internal Pressure

ring:

5 = Af(tan
which

ct 2

tan

otj

)[cos (6 - d8/2) - cos (0 + dd/2)]

Figure 3.20 presents the geometry of a toroid.

juR

ct 2

in the vertical direction

tan c^) sin OdOjirR per differential arc 6

and

S=

[A/(tan

The above

ring

a -

is

a2

tan a x )jitR

sin

in lbs per arc

forces have to be taken into account

of length

when

is

R 20 )P =

(o L t sin <t>)2nR

1 in.

sizing the reinforcing

and the connecting welds. The required cross-sectional area of the ring

H max. R/Sa where Sa

find the principal stresses,

expressed as follows:

n(R 2
7

To

a t a ring-shaped toroidal section is isolated and


internal pressure P and membrane stress o L
between
condition
equilibrium
the

longitudinal o L and tangential

for small angles reduces to:

5 =Af(tan

Stress Analysis of a Toroid with Circular

the allowable stress of the ring material.

is:

and

a L =P(R 2

Rl)l2tR

sin

0 = (Prlt)[(R +

R 0 )I2R]

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

72

[o t IW*nii)]+(a L lr)

axis of

73

= Plt

rotation

the stress o t can be determined:

=P(R

ot

R 0 )l2ts\n

or

a t = Pr/2t.

To summarize, both
they

stresses

stress in a straight cylinder.

3.9.

o L (variable) and o t (constant) are

are the principal stresses. Stress

oL

at

point b

more accurate

is

analysis

in

tension and

equivalent to the
is

offered in

ref.

maximum
23.

DESIGN OF CONCENTRIC TORICONICAL REDUCERS


UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE

For a transition section between two coaxial cylindrical shells of different diameters a conical reducer with a knuckle at the larger cylinder and a flare (reintrant
knuckle) at the smaller cylinder

is

very often preferred to a simple conical sec-

tion without knuckles. The main reason

for this

is

to avoid high discontinuity

stresses at the junctures due to the abrupt change in the radius of curvature,
particularly at high internal pressures (>300 psig). This can be further aggravated

Rt =

R/sin 0, tangential radius of curvature


meridional radius of curvature

Rl =f

by a poor fit of the cone-cylinder weld joint. The conical transition section with
knuckles has both circumferential weld joints away from discontinuities and
usually a better alignment with the cylindrical sheDs; however, it is more expen-

sive to fabricate.
Fig. 3.20.

Geometry of

a toroidal shell.

The knuckle

at the large cylinder

can consist of a ring section cut out of an

ellipsoidal, hemispherical, or torispherical

At point

where

R0

- r,

in a

o L =(Prl2t)l(2R 0 ~r)l(R 0 -r)]

At point

2,

where

R =R 0

b,

where

R0

form of toroidal

rings of the

same

plate thickness as the conical section.

In the following discussion the required radii for the knuckle r L and the flare

computed using the principal membrane stresses as governing criteria for


the case where the same plate thickness is used for the entire reducer.
The Code specifies only the lower limit for the knuckle radius r L "rLi shall
not be less than the smaller of QA2(R Li + 1) or 3r while rs has no dimensional
requirements" (Fig. UG36). The stresses in the conical shell section at point 1 in
Fig. 3.21 are given by

rs are

r,

o L =(Prl2t)l(2R Q +r)l(R 0 +r)]


At 'point

head with the same thickness and

shape as required for a complete head. More often, both knuckles are fabricated

o L =Pr/t.

Note

that

fact that
is

by
it

is

the geometry of a toroid, oL is the longitudinal stress despite the


tangential to the circle. The meaning of a L and o t for the toroid

Oi - PL i I2t c = PR j I2t c cos a


and from

the reverse of that for a straight cylinder.

From

the equation

{oL

+ (atlL x )-Plte

74

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

75

we have
o t =PLiltc =PRilt c cosa
oL

=PRJ2t

small cylinder

and the cone thickness


tc

2'*,

aL

=PL 7 l2t c

=PR

ISa

E cos a = (PR L lSa E){[\

Minimum Knuckle Radius


The knuckle at point
membrane stress o L as

- (r lR )
L
L

(rL

cos a/* L )]/cos a}.

r/.

3.22 will be subjected to the same longitudinal


the conical section on the assumption t c = t KL
1

in Fig.

oL

=PLj2tKL

and from
(o L lr L )

+ (a t /L l )=Plt KL

we have

Ot-iPLjtK^ll-iLJlrt)).
Since L

will in practice

be always larger than 2r L

ot

will

be negative

(in

component of
compression) membrane stress and maximum at 1. The inward
the vertical
on
pressure
internal
o L o L sin a, will be partially balanced by the
point 1 is
at
curvature
of
radius
It
projection of the knuckle ring. The principal
of the
geometry
the
fixed
by
alike
and
shared by conical and knuckle sections
terms
of R L
in
computed
be
now
r
can
cone. The second radius of curvature L
,

~rL + rL
*i

j
|

cos a

cos a) =

^1 -

zinJRjMX -cosa)
cos a

[1

(1 -

cos a)j

assuming

"!

(1 - cos a)

'

p + (/>/*,)(!- cos a) 1

*2
*

Fig. 3.21.

Membrane

cos a
j

stresses in conical transition section with knuckles. All

to the shell-plate midsurface in corroded condition.

dimensions are

tc

KL

From

stresses

a t and o L by inspection

the tangential stress

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

76

will

govern and can be expressed

a t = (PL x

KL )[\

lt

[(2r L cos

terms of R L

at

point

- rL

RL

+r L

+ rL

{R,l2rL cos

(r L sin

a)/2r L cos a]

a//? L ) -

2]/2 cos

either r L

a}

ajR L )

> 0.12 [R L

+ 5 cos a)

or

(f/2)]

3f.

to be increased.

would have

large or t KL

Flare Radius rs

Similarly, the
(r L sin

*l/0

would become too

Minimum

or

= (^L/-^){[(i? L /rL ) +

For instance, for a = 30 degrees, rL = 0.188/^


membrane stress {2S a E) is
It can be seen that if the allowable compressive
selected the knuckle radius r L does not differ a great deal from the minimum rL
were limited to 1 .5S a E,
as required by the Code. However, if the tangential stress

a)]

cos a)

- r L cos

= -(PRLltKL){[(RLir L ) +

rL

t:

(Lj2rL )] = (PRJtKL cosa)[l

~ {PltKL cos a)(R


L

in

77

membrane

stresses at point

2 in Fig. 3.23 are

2
2]/2 cos a}

o L =(PL 2 /2t Ks )
In replacing

must be met:
the

Code

mum
The

-a f with

rules;

the

maximum

and, second, the knuckle radius r L should be kept to the mini-

required, since the larger r L


stress

-o t

S a two criteria

allowable compressive stress

is

the

maximum

knuckle. However, since there

is

calculated compressive

membrane

stress in the

continuity between the knuckle and the conical


1

be smaller and

will

could be estimated as the average of o t in the cone and knuckle [22]

It

also

has to be remembered that the stresses o t and o L do not represent the entire
stress profile, but are only stress components used as design criteria in absence

of a more accurate analysis. The discontinuity stresses would have to be super-

imposed to obtain the complete


is

fabrication,

cos a/R s )] /cos a}

the

which

would occur

failure

and

o t = (PL 2 /t Ks )[\+(L 2 l2rs )]

= (PRJtKs){Wslrs) +
always

(.r

s sin

a/tf ff)

in turn

+ 2]/2 cos

t Ks

rather in local yielding than elastic

on the above reasoning it would seem acceptable to use for the


maximum allowable stress (2Sa E) <Sy where Sa is the Code allowable stress
in tension and E is the weld joint efficiency. From the condition t KL = t Ci

From

+ rs - rs cos a)/2rs cos a]

a)},

in tension.

Using the allowable

approaches a cylinder with

Rs

a+

cos a)lt Ks cos a] [(2rs cos

= [P(R +
S

stress for

a t equal to (2Sa E)

state of stress.

a section of a torus

an increasing radius R 0 in Fig. 3.20, the maximum allowable compressive stress


Sa should be the same as required for cylinders. With small ratios r L /t KL as used
in

- (r
s

the higher the fabrication cost.

section, the final tangential stress in the knuckle at point

Since a knuckle

= (PR s I2t Ks ){[\ + (rJR s )

the substitution should be in accordance with the intent of

first,

= (PR s l2S a E){[(RJrs ) +

the condition that

(PR s l2S a E){[(RJrs ) +

t Ks

(rs sin

tc

we

(rs sin

< Syy t Ks

a/R s ) + 2)/2

is

given by

cos

a}.

get

a/*,) + 2]/2 cos

a}

.buckling. Based

>

(PRJ2Sa E){[(R L lr L )

+ (r L sin

a/R L )

2]/2 cos

(PRJSa E){[\

a}

(rJR L )

(r L

cos

a/R L )] /cos a}

J,

\
2)

After simplifying,

(I

+ 4 cos a

- 5

and the minimum radius r L

cos

in

a) r\ -

2R L (\

+ 2 cos a) r L +

terms of the given

RL

R\

and the angle

=0

ot is

(PRJSa E){[\

{rJR L )

+ (r L cos a//? L )]/cos a}

MEMBRANE STRESS ANALYSIS OF VESSEL SHELL COMPONENTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

78

the

minimum

79

can be computed in terms of tl s and a:

flare radius rs

sin

with (K L

- /*

+ [2R S

at

2Sa Et c cos

rs

Psm 2

Again

is
it

- r
L

+rL

R2

cos a)]rs +

+ rL cos a) = Ry = (5 a f c cos a)/P, the minimum

where

4 cos a(R L

not made

a-PR s

(2S a Et c cos
\

[\

less

than

QA2[R S

+ (r/2)] or

sin

is

a
f2

aj

stresses

'

based on membrane

components only, on which the discontinuity

/1

given by

3/.

has to be remembered that the above analysis

pressure stress

is

R S2

a- PR S\ 2

Psin 2 a

0,

have to be

*L

superposed to obtain the entire stress profile.

from the above equations the

Clearly

Membrane
In order to

Stresses in Knuckles

compute the

Due to External Loads

stresses in cylindrical

knuckle and

and conical sections due to

the radii rs and rL

exter-

moments, and weight), standard formulas for


used and the resulting stresses are combined with

nal forces (wind, earthquake

bending and compression are


the pressure stresses.

To

obtain

some

To be

due to external loads

about the combined membrane stresses and

in the

knuckle region the following procedure has been

load due to the external loads

is

Note

determined:

1.

M and

where

is

I:

W are

external

2R

or to

2:

Cone

ref.

should be used
to the external

in

moment and

(Rl -

> (Rs +

See Fis- 3 - 24

Both values of

is

added

Third, substituting

to the internal pressure

Pe

P:Pe ~P + AljD.

into the knuckle stress equations the increased

brane stresses a t are computed. The stress at point

tan 0 =

sin

2.

(Rl

~ *l)

(*L

" rL ) - (R s

7=

(r5

a =y - p

tan 0 =

is

o t = (PLjt) + (Pe L 2 It)(L 7 !2rs )


where

t is

rs )

(R s + rs)-Ui L -r L )

mem-

is

o t = (PL l lt)-(Pe LJt)(L l i2r L )<2Sa E.


2

+ r L ) cosff

7=

(rs

a)
a

stress at point

Rl

ot,

< (R s + r s)- Not shown.

sin

and the

with

taken here uniform around circumference.

Second, the "equivalent" internal pressure Pe causing the increased longitu2


dinal stress is computed. From / = (P'nD l4)lnD the additional internal presis

in Fig. 3.24

subsequent computations. The longitudinal force in shell due

moment M

dimension a

load at point under investigation, and

respectively (see Fig. 3.21).

< 2Sa E

the uniform corroded thickness of the conical reducer.

should

101.

angle. Generally the

= (4M/ttD 2 )' (W/nD)

2R 2i

less)

interested reader will find proposed design formulas for the thicknesses of

The

a -y+0

equal to

sure P' = Al\D

reducers with very small knuckle radii (3/ or

process sketch of a process column and the cone half apex angle
convenience the computation is here included.

-successfully used.
First, the longitudinal unit

safe, toriconical

various reducer types in

stresses

intensification of the stresses in the

due to internal pressure can be reduced by increasing

be treated as sharp cone-cylinder intersections.


Note

criteria

flare regions

cs 0

and

Rs

given

on the

has to be computed. For

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

81

technithe correct interpretation of the engineering drawings by the fabricator's


cal staff.

SHELL THICKNESS REQUIRED FOR A COMBINATION


OF DESIGN LOADS

4.2.

4
Design of

The

Tall Cylindrical

Self-Supporting Process

Columns

shell thickness

of

tall

slender columns, as

computed by

the

Code formulas,

based on the internal or external pressure alone, is usually not sufficient to


withstand the combined stresses produced by the operating pressure plus the
weight plus the wind or seismic loads. According to Code Division 1, the shell

computations are based on the principal stresses-circumferential


the design pressure or longitudinal stress due to the design pressure
due
to
stress
wind or earthquake load. Since the longitudinal stress increases
weight
plus
plus
from top to the bottom of the column, the shell thickness has to be increased
thickness

4.1.

INTRODUCTION

Tall

cylindrical process

columns

built

today are self-supporting,

supported on cylindrical or conical shells

(skirts)

with

i.e.,

they are

base ring resting on a

concrete foundation and firmly fixed to the foundation by anchor bolts em-

bedded

in

concrete. Basically, they are designed as cantilever beams.

third of the vessel

construction

wires

is

and

still

number of guy wires

designed as an overhang

by means of the guy wires,


additional space required

design impractical in

sels

at

elevation

taking part or

in the

ground,

beam with one

fixed end and one support,

axial force

as are possible vibration difficulties.

for the

guy wires and

modern petrochemical

all

designing

by an outside

them

as

However, the

their anchorage renders this

then compared with the Code allowable stress values in tension or compression permitted at the design temperature. In computing the shell thickness at
memselected elevations it is often advantageous to proceed on the basis of the

brane unit force

Assuming

The

plants.
tall,

slender ves-

guided columns, which are supported

service platform built

(lb/lin. in.)

that a

then to use the unit stress o L

(psi).

slender vessel resists the external loads as a cantilever

tall

the external loads produce bending and shear stresses in the vessel shell.

beam

direct shear having a small value

is

disregarded in computations. The princi-

pal stresses governing the cylindrical vessel thickness required


1

cases the cost of special material required for special

may be reduced by

some

an angle anchored

process column held by guy

stacks.

tall

on the column. The thickness of the


of the foundation, and the number of anchor bolts are reduced

shell, the size

some

at

used today for

with the guy wires exerting an

In

Detailed stress computations consider the effects of each loading separately.


The pressure tangential (circumferential) stress and the combined longitudinal
stress are

Several decades ago they were sometimes designed with a guy ring in the top

below the elevation, where the summation of the longitudinal stresses becomes
larger than the circumferential stress due to the design pressure alone.

(the

maximum

The tangential

stress failure

stress

a t due to the pressure

up from the ground and

by Code Division

theory) are given below.

ot =

is

given

by

PD/2t<Sa (ps\)

of the wind load.

The main dimensions of

a process

column,

i.e., its

overall length

and

inside

where

diameter, as well as the operating pressure and temperature, sizes of nozzle connections, type of trays, and other internals are determined

by the process

engi-

neer and transferred to the vessel engineer on an analytical data sheet with a

sketch of the process column, including

all

material specifications and corrosion

The

vessel engineer

He

of the support, and the


ing

responsible for the mechanical design of the process

is

will originate the

showing

all

size

computations of the

shell thickness, construction

of the anchor bolts, as well as an engineering draw-

other required structural details in addition to the above.

The engineering drawing


working drawings, which

serves the fabricator to prepare

are routinely

checked by the

all

necessary shop

vessel engineer to secure

diameter,

= corroded thickness of the

Sa = Code

allowance as selected by a metallurgist.


tower.

D = mean corroded shell


P- design pressure, psi

in.

shell, in.

allowable stress, psi, reduced

by joint

efficiency

The unit force is I, = PD/2 < Sa t (lb/lin. in.).


The combined stress in longitudinal direction a L due
weight W, and applied
consideration

is

moment

given as follows.

with

and

if

required.

to the pressure

M taken at

dead

the elevation under

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL. DESIGN HANDBOOK

82

On the windward

Substituting for o t and oLi

side,

2
oL = (PD/4t) + (4MlnD t)

= (PD/4) + (4M\^D 2 )

and the

(W/irDt)

W/nD)

= (PD/4t) + (4MlirD 2 t) + (W/nDt)

Ib/lin. in.

and the shell thickness is therefore


2
allowable
t = [(PD/4) + (4MlitD ) + (W/irD)] /Code
-

W/nD)] /Code allowable

leeward side,

oL = (PD/4t)
= (PD/4)

(4M/irD

) -

The maximum compressive


line

on the leeward

side

is

somewhat

larger

than the thickness calculated previously by

maximum

stress theory.

(4M/nD 2 1)

stress

stress

which

On the

get

2
iPDllt)- [(PD/4t)- (4MlirD t)-(WlirDt))

psi

shell thickness is

= [(PD/4) + (4M/nD 2 )

2.

we

83

The design procedure for tall process columns of two or more diameters is the
same as for a tall slender vessel of a uniform cross section, except that stress anal-

W/itDt) psi

(W/iiD)

stress in the shell is

when the

ysis of the intersections

lb/lin. in.

induced

internal pressure

is

at the

bottom tangent

equal to the atmospheric

shell sections

be taken into consideration, as indicated in sections 3.9 and 8.6.


weight
In addition to external pressure and their own operating
vessels are subject to additional loads such as

tural design to

pressure:

of the reducers with the cylindrical

Code requirements has

tall

should

vacuum

wind and earthquake. Their

struc-

to be supplemented with a check for inter-

due to the effect of the combined loads, axial and bending, and
adequately sized, the
the external pressure. Assuming that the stiffener rings are
and A)Amagnitude of the critical collapse stress depends on two ratios: L/D 0
stiffener collapse

oL =
or for

(4M/nD 2 t)

(W/kDt)

< Code allowable stress,

are
The Code graphs from which the allowable external pressure P is computed
axial
in
increase
the
to
based on uniform external pressure alone. However, due

vacuum vessels:

0l =

(PDl4t)

(4M/irD 2 t)

(WjnDt) < Code allowable

The maximum axial buckling can occur locally at a section where the above
combined longitudinal stress oL reaches the magnitude of the critical buckling
Therefore, oL cannot exceed the Code allowable stress for cylindrical
stress.
shell in axial compression (UG 23b and d).
If the failure of a thin-wall cylindrical shell occurs by bending the several formed
waves at the location of the collapse, then the stress would be similar to waves
formed around the circumference under a uniform axial collapse load. It can
therefore be safely assumed for all practical purposes that the buckling under
combined loads (bending plus axial) occurs, where the maximum stress becomes
equal to the

critical

buckling stress for axially loaded cylindrical shells

[1

18]

in

elastic or plastic range.

At

this point

ness, based

it

will

be interesting to compare the Code Division

on the above maximum

stress

shell thick-

equations and the shell thickness as

computed on the basis of maximum shear theory as used in Code Division


The maximum shear stress on the leeward side under internal pressure is

T~(at

- <Xl)/2 or

at ~

Ol< Code allowable

stress.

the ability of the vessel shell to take full design external presmeans that the shell thickness
sure (15 psi for vacuum vessels) is reduced. This
reference 27 enables the dein
The computational procedure

compressive

stress.

2.

stress,

must be increased.
signer to use the Code charts
pressure

and

in

computing the

maximum

external "equivalent"

the corresponding thickness.

different design approach has been suggested in reference 164. Here, an

method is used to predict the sufficient strength of cylinlateral


drical shells under the combined action of compressive axial loads and
value
the
critical
on
loading
of
one
type
of
The
effect
uniform external pressure.
equation
given
an
by
applied,
is
simultaneously
loading,
of
type
of the other
empirical "interactive"

representing an interaction curve, involving ratios

oJoLc

and o t lo tc where oL
,

and a t are calculated compressive operating stresses and o JC is collapsing stress


under lateral external pressure alone and aLc is the collapsing stress under axial
load alone.

The

interaction curve will terminate at points (1

0) and (0, 1) on oL /oLc and

o t jotc axes. It will primarily be a function of the loadings and the geometry of
cause
the structure and represents all combinations of a f /a te and o L jOLc that will
deterbe
can
/o
value
of
o
maximum
the
L Lc
a failure. Thus if o^o^ is known,
mined from the

curve.

The

straight line interactive equation

may

be used, pro-

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

84

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

vided that the same safety factors in tangential and longitudinal directions are
used.

Then

otlk(o tc /S.F.) + oL lk(aLc IS.F.)<l,

4.3.

where oLc lS.F. and oLc /S.F. can be taken as the Code allowable compressive
stresses; k is the Code allowable factor equal to 1.2 when applicable. S.F. is the
safety factor in the strength design

increased before the structure will

i.e.,

fail

number of times

the

the load might be

due to of stress, ususally established with

Since the S.F. in axial Code allowable stress

It

S c /2),

is

lateral

and end pressures which

SUPPORT SKIRTS

Design of the Support Skirt Shell

The support skirts are welded directly to the vessel bottom head or shell, as
shown in Fig. 4.1. The factors determining the skirt thickness tsk can be summarized

respect to yield stress, buckling stress etc.

direction (B -

The Code stress a^/S.F. is taken under equal


makes the result again too conservative.

85

as follows.

higher than in the tangential

the above formula gives too conservative results.

has also been pointed out in reference 164 that the

method needs more exHow-

perimental verification, particularly on large welded steel cylindrical vessels.

ever, based on up-to-date test results, the straight line equation seems adequate
and conservative. The interaction curve method eliminates the need for theoretical derivation of the maximum combined stress.

Example

From

4.1.

100 feet high with

reference 27 a

tall

vacuum

10 feet

vessel,

in

butted weld
blends smoothly
into head contour

diameter and

of SA285B.
The total vertical weight is 200,000 lbs and the moment of external forces at the
bottom t.l. is 2,000,000 ft-lb. Design temperature is 200F. Check if the shell
thickness is adequate under combined loadings by the interaction method.
stiffeners

6 feet apart has a

shell thickness

0.375

in.

(a)

2
oL = (TO/4 + AMi-nD + W/irD)lt

= (15 X 120/4 + 2000000 X

Type

12/tt

120

+ 200000/tt 12)/0.375

1.

{b)

Straight

psi in

B=

0.6 and

D0 jt = 320

compression

= 27,000

psi,

S.Y./2 = 13500 psi

= 0.00042

15 max.

psi in elastic range

tl(ko tc /S.F.) + oL l(ko Lc IS.F.) =

8280/(1

psi in

psi (in plastic elastic range), S.Y.

L/D =

B = 6300

.2

.0

and taking k =

X 10500) + 2400/(1 .2 X 6300) = 0.98

1 .2

&

<

more conservative than the result in reference 27.


would be obtained by using S.Y./2 for OiJS.F.

result

able result

is

1 .0

is.**
P.
(a)

Type

The

weld blends smoothly

= 0.125/(i? o /0 = 0.125/(60.375/0.375) = 0.00078

10500

a fc /S.F. for

joint efficiency " = 0.55,

into shell contour

compression

o r =PR/t ~ 15 X 60/0.375 = 2400


oLc /S.F. for

Weld

based on the weld leg equal to t^.


lap

= 8280

Flared

Skirt butted to the knuckle portion of the head.

A more accept-

2.

.
(b)

Straight

Flared

Skirt lapped to the cylindrical portion of the shell.

Weld

joint efficiency

based on the weld leg equal to tsk.


Fig. 4.1.

Types of support

skirts

and skirt-to-head welds.

~ 0.80

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

86

1.

The maximum

weight

longitudinal

slress

due to the exjernal moment

In Fig. 4.1 two typical constructions of support skirts and their attachment
is the most often used design for tall vessels.

and

W at the base is

welds are shown. Skirt type 1(a)

The
aL =

(WlirD sk tsk ) (4MlitD*k tsk )

centerlines of the cylindrical skirt plate and the corroded shell plate are

approximately coincident.

psi.

If the skirt plate is thicker

plate, the outside diameter of the skirt


2.

The longitudinal compressive

the vessel

is

stress at

tested in vertical position,

oL =

"

the base under test conditions,

if

the bottom

is

W T /TiDsk tsk

3.

The maximum

weld, with the weld joint

stress in the skirl-to-head

depending on the type of the

often determines the support

skirt

effi-

and weld used (see Fig. 4.1), quite

In

Type

2(a) the skirt

4.

Code allowable

skirt thickness

flection; usually

t sk

for

sk

tall

is

should be satisfactory for the allowable column de-

towers

is

chosen not

less

become

excessive and

may

too high

have to be

is

is

attached to the flanged portion of the bottom head in

does not obstruct an inspection of the head-shell weld seam.


more difficult to fabricate and is used mainly for high external

loads, high design temperatures, or cyclic operating temperatures.

stress

= weld efficiency.

The

is

it

between the outside diameter of the


where

than the bottom shell

to the outside diameter of

under the imposed external moment

support, the stresses in the head can

such a way that

skirt thickness,

[WnDsk ) + (4MlirDlk )] IE X

made equal

analyzed more thoroughly.

This type
t Sk

shell. If the uplift

is

and the anchor bolt spacing becomes too small for the bolt size, the skirt is
designed as flared Type 1(b). The localized bending stresses induced in the head
by a Type 1(a) skirt are considered acceptable. However, with a Type 1(b)
skirt

ciency

87

essential.

flared skirt

shell

of Type 2(b)

is

good

and the inside diameter of the

fit

skirt

used for very high columns with extra

high external moments.

than the corroded bottom

shell section plate thickness.

5.

Support

skirts for large-diameter vessels,

which have to be

Skirt Base Design


stress-relieved in

base types are illustrated. In Type

the field in a vertical position, must be checked to determine whether the

In Fig. 4.3

thickness will withstand the weight under high-temperature conditions.

the anchor bolts are located off the centerline of the skirt plate.

6. If a large access or pipe


stress at a section

opening

oL = tf/f*[(!rf&/4)
If

oi

is

is

located

in

the skirt shell the

maximum

through the opening can be checked:


"

(WW2)]

two most frequently used

top stiffening ring

is

skirt

continuous

provided to reinforce the support skirt shell against un-

desirable localized bending stresses.

m*D* -

Y)tsk

too high the opening has to be reinforced (see Fig. 4.2).

The disadvantages of the Type B


by the access openings for the

shell

between the openings


a minimum. The bolt

for buckling.
circle is

skirt

base are the weakening of the skirt

bolts and the necessity to check the plate

Both dimensions e and

equal to the

the weld connecting the pipe sleeve to the skirt

is

should be kept to

of the skirt shell, and

mean diameter

stressed in shear only because

of the holding-down bolt force.


Base Ring Design. To distribute the
concrete foundation a plate base ring

is

vertical

load over a sufficient area of the

used. In addition

it

serves also to

accom-

modate the anchor bolts. For the determination of the base ring thickness of
both Types A and B the method in the AISC Manual is generally applied. The
load is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the entire width b (see Fig. 4.3).
The effect of bolt holes and any reinforcement by the vertical stiffeners is disregarded. If the bearing pressure p due to the dead-weight load W combined
with the external
Fig. 4.2.

Plan section through a large access

opening in the support

skirt.

moment

is

2
p - [(W/nD sk ) + (4M/irDsk )]/b

kips/in

2
.

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

88

where n is the dimension in Fig. 4.3 and S b


2
S b - 20 kips/in. the formula becomes

89

the allowable bending stress. For

is

centerline

of hole

for^

tb

anchor bolt
2

min.

in.

nLiih
h

>

c/

i.d.

tb

of base ring

o.d. of

in.

for a

lower allowable

stress S'b (psi) as

follows:

=(0.l5pn

The maximum allowable bearing


crete depends

X 20000/5 i) l/2

Fb

in.

pressure between the base ring and the con-

on the compressive strength

f'c

of the grade of concrete used.

If

the specified compressive strength (usually between 2 and 5 kips), then,


f'c
b for direct
per AISC Manual, Section 1.5.5, the allowable bearing pressure

bolt circle

'

vertical

base ring

c/,

The above formula can be corrected

stiffener

''1

top stiffening
'ring

'///////*///
V,7 f > >"'7~7

= (0.15 pn 2 )

is

base ring

Type

dead load

is

Fb =02Sf'c
when

the entire area of the concrete support

is

covered and

F=0375/;
washer

when only
pipe

Fb =Q3

sleeve

d,

-J

d=

i.d.

f'c

one-third of the area of the concrete base


is

<F

of base ring

maximum

value of

bearing

(AISC Manual, Section

1 .5

.6).

base ring

o.d. of base ring

Skirt-to-Base
c

= wrench

o.d.

+ clearance

Type B
Fig. 4.3.

covered.

generally used and recommended, and the

can be increased by one third for bearing


pressure p
b The above value of Fb
pressures produced by combined dead loads plus wind or earthquake loads

bolt circle

d0 -

is

Types of skirt

base.

Ring

Weld.

In

Type

the holding-down force of the anchor

by welds connecting the top ring, vertical


bolts is
stiffeners, and the base ring plate, in Type B by the weld between the pipe
sleeves and the base ring plate. However, the weld between the skirt and the base
transferred into the skirt shell

ring

is

assumed to carry the

total load

and designed

as a

primary strength weld,

preferably continuous.

then the

maximum bending stress

in the

base ring plate

2
2
o b =(pn l2)l(tll6) = 3pn

and the required base

plate thickness

given

by

On the windward

ltl<S b

side

lx

of the vessel the weld has to


2
= (4M/irDsk
)

(W/irD sk )

resist the full uplift load,

Ib/lin. in.

the leeward side for the down-load condition any size of weld would
theoretically be sufficient. However, since most skirts are so large that their

On

is

f>=(3p/iVS

is

l/2
ft

in.,

ends cannot be machined accurately enough to produce a uniform bearing,

it

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

90

would seem

justified to size the

skirt

difficult to estimate the

of the weld

full

= (4M/nD 2k ) + (W/nDsk )

h
assuming that the

weld to take the

is

down-load:

for axially loaded

columns per the AISC column formula should not exceed


P/2a

lb/lin. in.,

not in contact with the base ring, since

it

would be

approximate number of contact points. Then w, the

a =

r
/2

//vv

in.,

(n

where the allowable weld unit force fw

(lb/lin. in.

of one-inch weld)

/w = 133 Sa X 0.55

for

fw ~

for the test condition

.20

Sa X

0.55

17000

0.485 (L/rf

psi,

(I/a)

0.25), the cross-sectional area of one stiffener,

v (n

L = length
=

<

where

size

leg, is

91

of the

112

in.

stiffener, in.

= 0.289f k>

trie

radius of gyration of the stiffener, in.

P = the maximum bolt load, lb.


0.25) = effective width of the stiffener,

in.

is

and \\ in., depending on bolt size. Where


from external loads the top ring section can be omitted between bolts and the design reduces to a bolting chair. The
minimum size for bolts ( to 1 in.) is selected and the anchor bolts serve merely

The thickness t v
no uplift or only

wind or earthquake

is

usually between

a very small uplift results

to locate the vessel in place.

and S a
ever

is

is

the allowable stress for the skirt base plate or skirt shell plate, which-

smaller.

Skirt Material

Top

The continuous top ring with anchor bolt holes and


welded to the skirt shell as shown in Fig. 4.3, Type A, helps to distribute the
bolt holding down reactions more evenly into the skirt shell. To determine the
required thickness t r would require an involved stress analysis, including the base
Stiffening Ring.

ring, vertical stiffeners,

and

from the concentrated load

skirt section.

at the

The thickness

tr

edges of the bolt holes.

could be computed

rectangular plate

with dimensions n and c can be roughly approximated by a beam with the longer
ends fixed, load

on the

plate,

and minimum section modulus

Based on the above simplifying assumptions the thickness

tr

where

Ab

is

the

maximum

=[Pc/4S b (n-f)Vt 2

Sa ) and S b

is

{n - /)/6.

can be estimated by

Since this

same

is

skirts are

carbon

for thicknesses

steels,
in.

A283

gr.

and above.

a very important structural part the allowable stresses used are the

as for the pressure parts.

The heavy base rings are also fabricated from A285 gr. C with yield strength
Sy = 30000 psi. Since the allowable bending stress for structural steels with Sy =
36000 psi in the AISC base plate formula is 20000 psi, the allowable bending
stress for A285C to be used in the AISC formula can be determined as follows:

S = 20000 X 30/36 = 16700

psi

weight only

in. t

bolt load (approximated

times the bolt allowable stress

tr

Z=

The most frequently used materials for support


C for thicknesses up to | in. and A285 gr. C

by

.25 times bolt stress area

.33

S=

.2

X 16700 = 22200

X 16700 = 20000

psi

psi

weight plus wind


test

weight

the allowable stress in bending

for the top ring material.

Higher allowable stresses are acceptable for the base ring than for the skirt
because minor deformations of the base ring from overstressing would not

shell

Vertical Stiffeners.

The

vertical stiffeners in Fig. 4.3,

Type A,

are

welded to

the skirt and top and bottom base rings. The distance c between stiffeners

minimum

kept to the

that fabrication allows for the

computed bolt

size.

On

the

leeward side the stiffeners are stressed in compression and their thickness can be

computed

as that

simpler and

column.

of a plate supported on three sides with one side

more conservative approach

If the thickness t v is

is

free.

to treat the stiffener as a plate

assumed, then the

maximum

cause any damage.

is

allowable unit stress

4.4.

ANCHOR BOLTS

Self-supporting columns must be safely fixed to the supporting concrete foundations with adequately sized anchor bolts

embedded

in the concrete to prevent

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

92

overturning or excessive swaying from lateral wind or earthquake loads. To


compute the tension stress in the bolts and their required size and number one

bolts.

The maximum

F = Tnd/N = (4M/dN) -

of three methods can be applied: (1) a simplified method, using generalized


design conditions and ignoring dynamic effects and necessary preloading of
bolts; (2) a

more complete method, considering


on bolts.

initial

preload on bolts; and (3)

F on the bolt at distance x = d/2

force

and the required bolt area

(W/N)

from the axis y

93

is

lb/bolt

is

disregarding initial preload

Ab =
Simplified

moments

acting

on

a tall

slender vessel are

shown

The anchor

Assuming that the column

clearly counteracted

uplift force

follows.

given

per bolt due to the outside

The maximum tension on the

bolt circumference in lb. per lin. in.

(W/O

= (AM/ird 2

(W/nd)

effect of the external overturning


sizing the

4M/nd 2

stress,

anchor bolts and,

is

larger than

W/nd

there

is

= bolt tensile stress area,

in.

M - overturning moment at base due to wind or earthquake,


W=

weight of the vessel, operating

d=

bolt circle diameter, in.

(W Q )

or'erection

(W e ),

gives acceptable results

and

is

Sa

is

very simple to apply.

lb

Ib-in.

is

initial

tightening of

required to reduce the variable stress range or any other impact

on the nut under operating conditions.

The maximum
turning

moment

force per bolt resulting from the

M and

the

initial

combined action of the

over-

preload could be found by an approximate

analysis with the following design conditions assumed, as follows.

~ nd l4, linear section modulus of the bolt circle,


nd circumference of the bolt circle, in.

The initial bolt preload together with the weight of the vessel is large
1
enough to maintain a compressive pressure between the vessel base plate and the
.

x =

generally accepted for

outside diameter of the base ring, in.

di = inside diameter of the base ring, in.


= total number of anchor bolts in multiples of 4

C=

it is

conservative allowable stress

if a relatively

Since wind and earthquake loads are essentially dynamic,

effect

ZL

bolt preload, and the dynamic

moment. However,

Preload in Bolts Considered

the bolt nuts

d0 =

does not try to establish more

it

initial

a positive uplift force inducing tension

with magnitude depending on the distance x spanned by half the anchor

Ab

it

is

lb/in.
Initial

If

simplified, since

accurately the actual design conditions, the

used in the design,


-

is

it

between the base ring and the foundation.

friction

is

by

T = (M/Z L )

by the

Obviously, this approach

y in Fig. 4.4, the maximoment M is determined as

about the axis

will rotate

bolts are not designed for the horizontal shear force since

in Fig.

4.4 as assumed for the anchor bolt analysis.

mum

Method

forces and the

The

{(4M/d)~ W]/NSa

2
in.

concrete pedestal under design loads.

distance of an anchor bolt

from the neutral axisy.in.

Sa - allowable design stress for the anchor bolts, psi

2.

As long

as this

compression exists

at the

contact area the skirt base and the

pedestal behave as a continuous structure and the support base will rotate about

the neutral axis of the contact area (axis.y in Fig. 4.4).

Under moment
becomes

M the

maximum and

the

minimum

pressure

area

Sc =

m/A c

+ (W/A c ) (Md0 l2Ic ),

where

A c =n(dl-df)/4
/c

=*(dJ-d?)/64

on the contact

94

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

and Fi

is

minimum

the

initial

bolt load

due

to pretightening of the^bolt nut, lb/bolt.

to maintain the compression

(Md0 A c /2NI c )

Fi =

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

is

when S c =

95

The

0:

2
{WIN) = Sdo M/N(d 0 +d})- (W/N)

or, after simplification,

F( =

(4M/Nd)

(W/N).

The external moment A/ in the above equation is the maximum design moment.
Actually, it fluctuates from zero to some maximum value. The maximum force
on the bolt due to

this

moment

is

given by

Fa =(4M/Nd)-

(W/N).

However, since the anchor bolt forms an elastic joint with the skirt base on the
concrete pedestal, pretightened by the force Fit only a part of Fa will be carried

F = initial bolt preload, lb/bolt


Fa = applied operating load, lb/bolt
F = combined total load on a bolt, lb/bolt
Fc = compressive load on the vessel support
t

by the bolt [33]

The

total variable load

diagram

in Fig.

M can be visualized from the

moment

per bolt under

4.5. Using the diagram, the following equation can be derived:

c'F^c'F,- e\F-

F,)

F = Fa

Fc = Fa

+ Fi

S=

(F,/A b ) +

Substituting the components for

Fa we

of elongation of the bolt,

rigid, c'

lt,fA s

of the bolt material,

Es

As

in. /lb

where l b
is

is

the bolt length,

is

(F

CFa
Force-deflection diagram for anchor bolt and support base.

(CFa /A b ).
Table 4.1. Stress Concentration Factor Kior Threaded
(American Standard) Steel Fasteners Subject to
Tesnile Loads.

get

However,

is

quite small.

if for

instance c

The actual
is

value

one sixth of

is

modulus of

is

for hard elastic joints

evaluate.

the

Fam ~ CFJ2, steady load component of CFa in bolt


Far = CFa /2, variable load component of CFa in bolt

F/) e'/c'

ROLLED
FASTENER

CUT
FASTENER

Annealed

2.2

2.8

Quenched and tempered

3.0

3.8

the stress concentration factor from Table 4.1 applied to the variable

component only.
The factor C = cj(c + e)
of C would be difficult to

is

the support steel area in compression, and

Eb

the modulus of elasticity of the vessel base

F = F +Fam KFm%
where

= F^

- rate of compression of the combined supports, in./lb. If the concrete foundation

Fig. 4.5.

tensile stress in the bolt

Fc

c'

Ifr/A fyEfj, rate

elasticity

= Fi +[c'/(c' + e'))Fa = Fi +

and the minimum

a bolt; at point a,

assumed to be

Fe -F,-(F-Fiie'lc'

under

e'

E s \s

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

96

e\ then

C-

maximum

0.]43 and the

tensile stress at the thread root

would be

The

97

bolt thread, bolt head and ring surfaces are usually cleaned in the field

before assembly with oily shop rags. This would result in friction factors: thread

f = 0.1 and surface friction f2 = 0.15 used in the above formula for the
minimum required torque T. Ordinarily, simple manual wrenching without veri-

S = F/A

friction

= [Fj + (0.143

FJ2) +

X 0.143 Fj2)]/A b

(2.2

Measured control of

fication of the actual bolt stress meets all practical needs.

= (F,/A b ) + (0.229 FJA).

the bolt stress

is

employed only when there

is

some

special or important reason

for doing so.

From
initial

Fig. 4.5

load Fg there

apparent

Far

it

how

is

obvious that

is

not

initial

and thus improving the fatigue

moment

tive to the total force

The required bolt

long as the force

Fa

does not exceed the

a substantial increase in the total bolt

important the

to. the excessive

as

M beyond

preload
life

is

of the

in

load F.

It is

also

reducing of the variable force

bolt.

Any

the separation point

force load per bolt due

is

algebraically addi-

Ab

is

usually defined as the

maximum

load a bolt can

percent of proof load

is

quite

common; however,

there

is

a possibility that too

high a preload can impair the fatigue strength of the bolts. If an anchor bolt
it is

usually

by

elongation. Loading

beyond the

fails,

yield point results in loss of pre-

tension in bolt due to permanent deformation.

F(de).

area

The proof load of a bolt

withstand without a permanent deformation. The preloading of bolts up to 75

is

given

by

Example

A b =F/Sa

4.2.

M - 1.2 X 10

erection weight

Neglecting the term with the factor C, the expression for the required bolt area

reduces to

anchor

bolts.

tall

ft-lb.

We

As a

column (Fig. 4.6) is subjected to a wind moment at base


The operating weight W0 is equal to 200,000 lb and the
is 150,000 lb. Determine the required size and number of
estimate, assume

first

N=\2.

Required bolt area under operating conditions

Ab

is

= [(4M/d)- W]/NS a
= (1/12 X 15,000) [(4X

1.2

X 10 6 X 12/79)

200,000]

or approximately

= 2.93

Ah

in

(4M/d)- (W)
NS,

Use 12 2^-in.-diameter bolts with

stress area

Ab

- 3.25

in.

computed by the simplified method.


it would seem that the simplified method combined
with conservative design bolt stresses (because some terms were disregarded)
which

is

From

the form as

the above discussion

represents a satisfactory design.

An

additional design safety factor

is

the use of the highest wind velocity

that occurs at infrequent intervals. If a loss of initial tension in the bolts occurs

because of creep under heavy winds, the bolts have to be retightened,

all

bolts

6.5'

100'

equally as possible.

The minimum approximate

initial

torque for the required

T'Fi(l +N'd b )/2irN'\b.-m.

is

given

by
10'

-d = 73

where

-d
-d

N' ~ number of threads per inch of the


d b - nominal bolt diameter, in.

bolt
Fig. 4.6.

= 79
= 85

Maximum

bolt

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

98

stress

c(cos 8

under erection dead load

cos oc

is

S = (729,114- 150,000)/(12X 3.25) =14,850


Bolt spacing

99

psi.

is

(ttX 79)/12 =20.7

Maximum bearing pressure on

contact area

in.

is

Sc = (NFi/A ) + (W/A c ) + (MdoiVc)


= (12 X 3.25 X 15,000)/1490 + (200,000/1490)

(1.2

X 10 6 X

12

X 42.5)/(1.168 X 10 6 )

= 393 + 134 + 525 = 1052

Maximum

Initial

psi.

allowable bearing pressure on concrete

Tension

Fb

=0.3 X 3000 = 900

Fb

.33

in Bolts

using f'c =

3000

psi.

weight only

psi

X 900 = 1200

is,

weight plus wind.

psi

Neglected
Section a-a

Nuts are assumed to be hand

tight

on

no

bolts, with

initial

load on bolts. Be-

cause of the column weight a certain compression between the base of the

Es Ec -

column and the concrete foundation will exist, but can be partially overcome by
the .external moment M. The vessel base will partially separate from the pedestal
and will be held down by some anchor bolts on the windward side.
is resisted by a portion of the anchor bolts and the bearing
The moment
pressure between the vessel base and the foundation. The total bolt area can be

Ss = maximum allowable tensile stress for steel


Sc = maximum allowable compressive stress for concrete
Ss = stress in steel at variable angle 6 from a to n, in tension

modulus of
modulus of
n = Es/Ec

replaced

by an equivalent

As

elasticity

of steel

elasticity

of concrete

S'c = stress in concrete at variable angle $


r = bolt circle radius

area of steel cylindrical shell:

= NA b =

nd

ts

or

ts

from 0 to

a, in

compression

Fig. 4.7.

= NA b lna
and

as

shown in Fig. 4.7.


The result is a composite

cantilever

beam with an unknown steel area in

and unknown concrete area in compression (section


given external loads W and M.

a-a

of Fig.

The design procedure used to compute the required


beam theory.

4.7), subjected to

steel area

As

k = \i[\+(S s /nSc )).

tension

under the assumption that both


is

similar

maximum allowable stresses Ss and Sc


maximum allowable stresses occur simultaneously

This equation will specify k in terms of

at the

mpst remote elements from the neutral

axis. Further,

to that erhployed in reinforced


First, the location
shell es

=Ss/Es

and

of the neutral axis


in concrete e c

tances from the neutral axis. If

established.

is

=SC /EC

Ss and S c

are the

then from similar triangles (Fig. 4.7, section a-a)


e s /e c =

(SJEa

WJE

The

cos a = [(d/2) - kd) /(rf/2)

strains in the steel

=1-2*

are directly proportional to the dis-

e)

we

(1 -

maximum
get

k)d/kd

allowable stresses,

and
S's =
S'c

Ss

=SC

(cos

a-

cos 6)1(1 + cos a)

(cos 6 - cos a)/(l - cos a).

Since the allowable stress


will

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

100

move from

the

Ss

axis

larger resisting steel area

nS Cy

larger than

is

the position of the neutral axis

toward the compression area. This

and

will

produce

Substituting the above result into the previous expression for 7\ the thickness

of the

steel shell

can be computed:

lower total number of anchor bolts than com-

puted by previous methods.

M-

The summation of elemental forces on the steel area in tension, 2 / \S'S dA Si


can be represented by a force resultant T located at the center of tension at a
distance

from the neutral

From

the

W(zd) \
(jd)

["

[(7T -

+ cos a

a) cos a + sin

axis. After integration,

and the required bolt area

= Ss ts d[(n - a) cos a +

sin ot]/(l

is

+ cos a).

A b =ts nd/N in. 2

summation of the moments of the elemental forces about the neutral

axis the distance

From the summation of the


the minimum base ring width

can be determined:

101

on the

vertical forces acting


tc

vessel,

T+W- C = 0,

can be determined:

ff

"0

S s dA s

r (cos

a) cos

a+

- cos 6)

(3 sin

= [(T + W)/Ss d]

tc

a cos a)/2 + (n

a)/2

To accommodate

'

[(1

the anchor bolts

a- a

- cos a)/(sin

t c is

usually

made

cos a)]

larger than required

by

computed location of the neutral axis. To maintain


axis
and the validity of computations the area A s is
neutral
of
the
the position
increased in direct proportion to A c However, the stresses in bolts will decrease
in inverse proportion to A c If t c and A c only are increased the neutral axis
shifts toward the compression side and A s becomes oversized and can be decreased. In order to find the minimum A s a redesign would be required.
Only an outline of this method has been presented here. The interested reader
the above equation for the

2 [

(7r

Similarly the bearing force resultant

- a) cos

C and

a+

sin

the distance

Z, 2

'can be computed:

C=

tc

dS c

[(sin

or

cos

ot)/(l -

cos a)]

and

will find

^2 = idf2) [a cos

The distance jd between the

(3 sin

forces

a cos a)/2 +

T and C is

jd=L
The distance zd of

the force

the
(a/2)] /(sin

a cos

a).

any additional information

method

is

of the loads

as static. If

by

42-45. The main shortcoming of

high allowable stresses are used, the design can lead to

unconservative results, and this


given

in refs.

the omission of the initial preload in the bolts and the treatment

is

probably

why

this

approach has not been

generally used.
In practice, a considerable preload always has to be applied, and the bolts used

C from the^

+Z, 2

in excess

should be of sufficient size to permit retightening

requirements in order to prevent large stress fluctuations.


axis

is

given

by

of

On

minimum

design

few occasions

in

the writer's experience, excessive swaying of process towers developed simply

because the anchor bolts were not pulled up tight enough by the erection crews.

zd -Li +rcosa.

From

Allowable Stresses for Carbon Steel Anchor bolts


the

summation of moments of

force C, the value of the force

can

known forces about the location of the


now be computed in terms of the known

all

loads acting on the vessel:

The standard material used


with a

minimum

for

anchor bolts

tensile strength

is

of 60,000

carbon
psi.

steel type

A307

gr.

or B,

Bolt threads, standard coarse

thread series or eight-thread series, should preferably be rolled, with forged nuts

M-

W(zd)- TQd) = 0

of heavy

series.

two nuts (one

T=[M-

W(zd))/(jd).

be expected.

Sometimes

a corrosion allowance

as a lock nut) per bolt are

of

in.

is

specified and

used where frequent heavy winds can

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

102

stress in tension for the

The allowable

threaded part of the anchor bolt

is

matter of safe design, subject to engineering judgment. The allowable stress for
A307 bolts in the AISC Manual is 20,000 psi. This high allowable stress would
require an accurate stress analysis with well-defined static loads. Noting that

wind and earthquake loads

dynamic

are

103

base ring

loads,

always a possibility of overload,


a failure of a process column would cause a large loss of property,
bolt material is comparatively cheap,
there

is

inspection of the anchor bolts

any repair in the field

it is

is

is

often inadequate, and

permit a slight
adjustment of the bolt to fit
filled later to

very costly,

the hole

in

the base ring

tack wetd nut to washer and bolt

reasonable to accept lower allowable stresses.


common engineering practice to select the allowable stresses for carbon

It is a

steel

anchor bolts

as follows:
Fig. 4.9.

Sa -

under operating conditions

,000 psi

S a = 15,000 X
= 18, 000

1.2

WIND-INDUCED DEFLECTIONS OF TALL COLUMNS

4.5.

under empty (erection) condition.

psi

sustained wind pressure will cause a

magnitude of the deflection

typical details of installed anchor bolts are

The required length L of the


designed by the civil engineer.
strength of the bolt.
bolt diameter.

tall

column to

deflect with the wind.

The

seriously influence the performance of a

process column and has to be limited to a certain value. If too small a deflection
at the top of the column is specified by the client's specifications, the shell

Types of Anchor Bolt

Some

may

bolt
It

Minimum

The dimension h

length of the bolt, the higher

embedded

its

shown

in Figs. 4.8

is

and 4.9.

the concrete foundation

has a holding power equal to the

bolt spacing
is

in

is

full tensile

usually set at 10 times nominal

usually specified as 12 in.; the longer the free


resilience, i.e., its ability to absorb

an impact

load without permanent deformation.

thickness must be increased and the price of the tower will increase. Most

engineering specifications ask for a

column height.
The deflection

at

the top of

maximum

slender columns

(HjD

>

ft

of

is

routinely

are often computerized; however, a

need may

tall

checked. Deflection computations

deflection of 6 in. per 100

such calculations to be made by hand.


matter what short-cut analytical method

5)

arise for

No

is

used, the computations are

comparatively lengthy and subject to error. The method should be, flexible
enough to permit easy inclusion of such variables as shell thickness, modulus of
elasticity due to changes in operating temperature, and wind pressure above the

ground. The method should also be as simple as possible and permit the use of
the results from previous computations of the wind moments and the wind
loads for the determination of the shell thicknesses.

There are a number of methods which can be used.

The method of superposition can be applied here to advantage. The vessel is


assumed to be a cantilever beam firmly fixed to the concrete pedestal. The effect
of foundation movement is considered negligible. The six basic formulas used in
this

method

are

shown

in Table. 4.2.

Consider the cantilever beam of Fig. 4.10. Using the formulas in Table 4.2
Fig. 4.8.

Anchor

bolt for small vessel.

the individual deflections in Fig. 4.10 can be easily evaluated:

104

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

ii K/'i

=
1

7,

/,!

^2

<LL

El 2 I

^1
2 J

&A

l2

105

'w 2 L 2
7 2

^3

2-

7 3

_ (L, + L 2 )L 3 \W 3 L 3
6
1
fl,

Eh

QsL*

1
3

2 J

W> (

= total wind load on sections

wi,

A,- 4 =

Ql

Eh

(L,

A,-,=

+L 2

+/,,-,

<) 2 Z, 2

A l_ 2l Ai_ 3

)Z, f

Cantilever

Beam Formulas.

END ANGLE 6 AT
FREE END
Wi.

- wL

+ A/ 2

;etc.
/,

at point

due to the wind loads

IV/,

end load Qt

and end moment M.


,

etc.

= deflections at point

67

due to the end angles 6 2 G 3> etc. induced by the


end loads Q 2 Q3, etc., and end moments
2
,

wind loads

W 2 W3

Af 3 ,

the ends of the respective sections.

etc., at

etc.,

Schematic diagram of load and deflection for sections of a cantilever beam using

the superposition method.

END DEFLECTION

The
W

and so on, where

= deflection of section

Fig. 4.10.

TYPE OF LOAD

w2I 2

Eh
Table 4.2.

of column height.

.8

W2

wjt i,

in lb per ft

above the
/, equal to the summation of all HMoads
- piping thrust, if any. Q 2 =
+ Q i Qz = W 2 + ? 2 etc
X
= end moment acting at points i, due to the loads above the point.
x
+
=
=
+A/
A/
+
(W
L
L
/2)
piping moment, if any.
3
t
3
2
QX X
2

Mj]

QjU

i.

wind loads

are the unit

= shear load at point


point.

Mf
Lj \WjL,

w2

WL

total deflection at the top

of the column

is

y =yi +^2 +y* +

BEI

A i-2

A -3

A i-

y is based on modulus of elasticity E at a design temperature,


y at another operating temperature (with ") is equal to y
multiplied by E\E\

If the deflection

Ql?

J"

27

37

MZ,

Ml 2

1EI

the deflection

Example

4.3. Evaluate the deflection at the top of the process

the wind loads

144

psf.

shown

in

Fig. 4.11.

Modulus of

elasticity

is

column with

F = 30X

10

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

106

Mj

Qj (lb)

W, (lb)

5' i.d.

(lb ft)
(ft

5/,(lb-ft

4 ')

2
>

WIND-INDUCED VIBRATIONS

4.6.
Section

(/)

Introduction
Early in this century

6,500

107

9.05 X 109

2.1

it

was observed that some

tall

cylindrical

chimneys were

vibrating with a high frequency perpendicular to the direction of comparatively

low-velocity winds. Since this type of vibration proved to be destructive to such


6,500

97,500

structures the

who
5,800

2.64

X 10 9

11.4

phenomenon

attracted the attention of

This type of vibration affects

379,500

of

18,700

1,600

tall,

slender cylindrical vessels. For instance, they have relatively thick walls,

with high

,000,500

2.1

first

frequency and resisting strength. Also, external piping, ladders,

and platforms tend to disrupt wind flow around the vessel, and vibrations tend
to be damped by the operating liquid in the vessel and in connected piping.
However, some process towers can be subject to wind-induced vibrations, and

9.05 X 109

may have

821,500

17,100

0'

to be checked for them.

Tall stacks are routinely

Design data for Example 4.2.

Fig. 4.11.

unlined steel stacks far more frequently

does process columns. There are several reasons for the relative immunity

X10 9

13.76

3.18

tall,

it

than

4,800

investigators

safe design of tall, slender cylindrical structures.

50'

12,300

number of

attempted to formulate a rational theory applicable to the economical and

tion

is

checked for cross-wind vibration.

usually required, however, to determine whether a

detailed examina-

tall

process column

needs to be checked for vibration-inducing aerodynamic forces.


Deflection at the top of the column in feet

figured as follows.

is

Basic

y\

6,500 X 30

=
8

y* =

2.1

X 30 X

30 2

10

0.0024

5,800 X 30

11.4X 10

ft

X 144

to a uniform stream of wind, a detailed study of the

6,500 X 30

97

3
is

30 X 30
1

1.4

X 10

5,800 X 30

4,800 X 30

X 10'

13.76

10

_4

12,300 X 30

11

90 X 10
9.05

U4,800 X 30

X 10 9

and incompressible. The flow pattern


is

observed

very low Reynolds numbers.


is

a dimensionless parameter expressing the ratio of

the inertia forces to the viscous forces in a particular fluid flow.

When Re

small, the inertia forces of the stream are small, the stream behaves in a
,
1

is

more

= 0.0216

2
surface pressure lower than the pressure
of the surrounding flow (min. full vac-

uum)

+ 379,500 =0.0770

L"

9
y
9 05 X I0 I

1
-f-

X 10 9
2

379,500

60 X( 30

X 30

12,300

real fluids at

The Reynolds number Re

30 2
13.76

+ 97,500

is ideal, frictionless,

symmetrical from front to back of the cylinder. The same flow

with

6300 X 30

is

wind flow around the

necessary. Fig. 4.12 shows the fluid pattern around a stationary

cylinder if the fluid

Principles

In the evaluation of forces acting on a long, stationary, circular cylinder normal

cylinder

Aerodynamic

,600

X 10

17,100
3

X 10

821

0052
2

[ifi^ + 12^2Llo + 821|S oo]


Total deflection

: 0.0905
= 0.2235

= 2.7

Fig. 4.12.
ft

Pressure distribution around a long

cylinder for ideal fluids.


in.

and

are front

rear stagnation points, respectively.

and

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

108

manner and the flow tends to be laminar. When Re is large, the inertia
compared to viscous forces and the fluid flow becomes turbulent.
Re has the same numerical value for two geometrically similar systems

viscous

the cylinder parallel to the direction of the flow, called drag.

forces are large

front section remains nearly the

If

same

front are

systems can be expected to be similar.

normal to the direction of the flow

For atmospheric conditions of


is

given

air

or lb sec /ft

4
,

air

where

Cp

values.

The value of

which

is

can be taken

mass density

outside diameter of tne cylinder, ft (characteristic linear dimension)


= 3.8 X 10~ 7 lb sec/ft 2 or slug/sec ft, viscosity of air.

the projected area

The
lower

it

(psf),

as

Cp

is

well established and, except for very low

equal to 0.9-1.1, until the critical range

numerical values are substituted into the above equation for

Re>

10

Re
s
,

Re

values,

beyond

drops to 0.3-0.5.

total drag force

Re

values,

consists of the friction

and the pressure component

Df. The drag force

is

Dp

component Df, predominant

Dp

at

due to the pressure resultant

for blunt bodies will be

much

larger than the force

dealt with in the design of pressure vessels as the

wind

load.

= 6,320 Vd,

for

wind velocity V

Re = 9,210yd,

for

wind velocity Kin mph.

Re

on

equal:

the drag coefficient, experimentally determined at various

on the cylinder. Usually,

When the above


Re, we get

pressures in the rear and in the

pressure acting

D = CD pV 2 /2

dju

is

The pressure on the


However in the rear, wake

flow around a long smooth cylinder the

where
,

no longer balanced. The unit

by equation

Re=pVd/ti

3
3
p = 2.4 X 10~ slugs/ft
V - wind velocity, ft/sec

The

action changes positive pressure to negative.

(including the position of the object in the stream) the fluid flow pattern in both

Reynolds number Re

as in Fig. 4.12.

109

in ft/sec, or

Development of the Force on

a Cylinder Transverse to the Direction of

Flow

Because of friction a boundary layer of retarded fluid forms on the cylinder

Development of the Force on

a Cylinder Parallel to the Direction of

Flow

surface.

A separation

of the flow occurs near the rear of the cylinder and a wake,

a turbulent region with a lower flow velocity than the surrounding free stream,

Re

The pressure distribution around the cylinder in Fig. 4.12 is given by p = q(\ 4 sin 2 a), where q = pV 2 /2 is the dynamic pressure at the stagnation point A
where the flow velocity is zero. The net force resultant acting on a unit length

develops. With high

of the cylinder

immediately behind the separation points

is

zero.

In actual air flow the friction and the air compressibility will change the flow

The streamlines do
The pressure pattern will resemble
4.13, indicating the development of a force acting on

pattern around the cylinder and the pressure distribution.

not follow the body contour back to the

more

that

shown

in Fig.

rear.

the separation points of the flow

the transverse diameter of the cylinder

By

friction

move forward toward

and the wake width increases

(Fig. 4.14).

the higher-velocity enclosing layers set the lower velocity fluid


in rotation.

Two

symmetrical vortices

with opposite rotational velocities develop, and as the wind velocity increases,

between the free stream and vortices increases.


At some point one vortex breaks away and passes downstream,

the friction force

in the free

Up

to the critical value of

alternately

force

disintegrating

stream [Fig. 4.14(d)]

on

(psf)

this critical

Re<5X

10

the vortices will

form and shed

either side of the cylinder, giving rise while forming to a transverse

on the

Re

fv Beyond
wake contracts

cylinder, at a frequency of vortex shedding

value the separation points

move backward,

the

and becomes entirely turbulent, and the vortex periodicity vanishes.


Von Karman was the first to analyze the formation of such vortices mathematically,

Schematic illustration of pressure


around a long cylinder for actual flows at higher
Fig. 4.13.

Re

values.

and found that maximum

stability in the

flow of vortices occurred

from the sides of a cylinder, as shown


in Fig. 4.15. The vortices moving downstream at a speed somewhat less than that
of the free stream form a so-called Von Karman vortex street or trail.

when

The

the vortices were shed alternately

cross thrust force L, like the drag force, can be expressed conveniently as

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

b
Fig. 4.15.

Vortex

a part of the stagnation pressure

trail in

q -

L=CL pV2/2

the

wake of

4.3tf

a cylinder.

pK2/2:

(psf of the projected area).

Unfortunately, in case of a cylinder no firm value of

Values for

Q,

Calculated

CL

value of

Cl =

111

has been established.

ranging from 0.2 to as high 1.7 are given in technical sources.


values based
1

.7

on

field

observations are usually low, while the

based on a mathematical analysis. Values of

is

CL

between

0.2 to 1.0 appear to be generally accepted and used in practice; a value of 1.0

considered conservative. For practical engineering computations, values of

is

CL

= 0.4-0.6 are recommended here.

Critical

Wind Velocity

The first
was done

original investigation of the vortex


in

1878 by Strouhal,

who found

forming and shedding phenomenon

the following relationship:

S=fyd/V
where

S=
fy =
d-

a dimensionless parameter, called the Strouhal

number

shedding frequency of vortices, cps


diameter of the cylinder perpendicular to the flow of the wind,

V = wind

velocity

The value of S varies with the values of Re. However,


between 10 3 and 10 s the value of S remains nearly
0.18 and 0.21, and
values of Re

The

>

10

is

in the range of .Re values


stable, equal to

between

generally taken as equal to 0.20 in computations. For

the Strouhal

number

wind velocity
frequency of wind vortices f v
first critical

ft

fps.

V
is

is

increases rapidly to 0.35.

the wind velocity at which the shedding

equal to the

first

natural frequency of the

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

112

column
(oxfv

/. It

can be computed from the Strouhal number, substituting

/=

l/T

where

= W/g

is

the mass

c - damping factor, resistance to motion in pounds

to one inch per second,

V =3.40rf/rmph.

k -

wind velocity can be taken

V2

as

6.25^

when
co

the vibration of stacks was

According to

observed

first

it

stresses

induced by such oscillations can build up and increase over those

calculated from static

At

to this

tem

wind load

problem

is

appropriate.

tall vessel, a

with a distributed mass of infinitely

periods of vibration, each of


tional curve.

called

cantilever

many

them accompanied by

pertaining to the resonance case can be derived

The

time

a distinct

mode

its

by using

a system with a single

in Fig. 4.16.

damped, forced harmonic motion of a system


degree of freedom expresses the displacement x of mass m be-

equilibrium position and

its

instantaneous location as a function of

mx

0,

c'x

kx

F cos co/

deflect the spring

system,
cor,

lb. It is

with the

maxi-

minimum

depending on the desired approximation

this differential

The complementary function

equation consists of two parts super-

the general solution of the

is

homogeneous

equation (the right-hand side set equal to zero). With two independent constants, the

system and

complementary function represents the


is

free

damped

vibration of the

given by:

x = e'^ 2m)t {C x

or vibra-

differential equation for

with a single

tween

beam, represents a sysand natural

However, the prevailing period of vibration will be the longest,


first, which is of main interest. The general conclusions

shown

vibrational freedoms

fundamental or

degree of freedom, as

pounds required to

analysis.

point some consideration of the basic vibrational principles applicable

this

equal

circular frequency of the impressed force F, rad./sec.

The general solution of


posed on each other.

supported, a forced resonant vibration results.

The

= the

was ascribed to resonance.

fy of the cross thrust force L coin/ of the cylinder, however it may be

frequency

this theory, if the

one of the natural frequencies

cides with

is

lb/in.

F cos ojf = harmonic periodic force impressed on the


mum when t - 0. It could also be taken as fsin

Basic Vibrational Principles; Magnification Factor

When

the velocity

lb-sec/in.

scale of a weightless spring, force in

by one inch,
critical

when

=/<//0.2(fps)

The second

113

sin u> d r

C2

w d f)

cos

where u> d = [(k/m) - (c/2m) 2 ] l ' 2 is the damped natural circular frequency and
Cj and C2 are constants which depend on two initial conditions. For small
,

damping coefficients c, as in the case of process columns, to d can be replaced


by co M = (k/m) 1 ^ 2 the natural circular frequency for a vibrating system with no
damping and no impressed force and described by the equation mx + kx = 0.
Free vibration disappears because of damping. Very light damping will allow
many oscillations to occur, but they will gradually lessen in amplitude and become negligible. However, it is quite possible that the intensity of the induced
,

free vibration, for instance

during an earthquake,

is

such that

it

will cause

damage to the vessel before it has the time to die out.


2. The particular integral is the simplest possible solution of the equafion,
with no integration constant, specifying the forced oscillation of the system:

spring

F cos
<A-

Flk

tjf

equilibrium

TP

position

L)
lillllll

IllllHlli

dashpot

+
]

cos (wf - 0),

2
[

cc

co.

where
System with a single degree of freedom subject to
viscous damping and externally imposed hamonic force.
Fig. 4.16.

2(mk) lf2

is

between

overdamping

the critical damping factor, representing the dividing line


(c/c c

>

nonvibrating

motion) and under-

114

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK


damping

<

(c/c c

1,

harmonic vibration). The damping factor c of

slender pressure vessel

F/k =

Xs

is

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

is

and for small values of c/c c

usually only few percent of c c

the deflection of the system due to the

F when acting as a static


0 = constant phase angle.

a tall,

115

maximum impressed

force

= 2n(clc c ).

force

The magnification factor

resonance can

at

The maximum actual amplitude x of forced vibration can be obtained by


Xs by the fraction

now be

Maximum M.F. =

expressed as follows:

7r/5

multiplying the statical deflection

Some
M.F.=

2
1/{[1 - (co/")

2
]

+ [(2^c)(/"k)]

investigators consider this value too high to apply against cylindrical

l/a

structures,

called the magnification factor.

For small values of c/c c (<0.2) the

maximum

and suggest that a

M.F. equal to 1/5

Damping

damping coefficients c and c c of the system are


not known, not readily measurable, and difficult to estimate with sufficient
accuracy. For free vibration with damping less than critical, the ratio of two
In practical computations the

is

losses

between the

xn

x n + /x =
1

e~

(- TTc/m co d )

is

known

Expressed

in

as the logarithmic

" 5

decrement and

{c/lmf ]

J'2

decrement 5 can be expressed by

~xn )/xn

is

co d

given by 6 = 7rc/mco d

and

mk

= c\ /4,

as the percentage

= 2n(c/c c )/{\

- (c/c )]
c

"2

decay per cycle

a freely vibrating vessel and thus provides a

in the

amplitude of

means of measuring the vibration

decay rate of a column

in field, since the value

damping, friction

due to resistance of the

= e~ s

terms of c/c Ci and substituting for

= (irc/m)[k/m

losses

by

Damping

a simple ratio,

(2ir/cj rf )]

x n andx + can be determined by


6

dissipated through heat

in addition to internal

any energy

air,

- 5, the logarithmic

which can be interpreted


where 5

and

shell

exp [-(c/2m)f]
= exp

is

to microscopic plastic action in the material.

of a vibrating column would include,

Since
[t

damping due

internal

external piping and internals, and conditions at the base support.

(see Fig. 4.17)

x n +\ _ exp Hg/2ffl)

with

a system can also be defined as the rate at which the material

in

absorbs energy under a cyclic load. The energy

amplitudes

in line

Logarithmic Decrement 6

Maximum M,F. = c c /2c.

maximum

more

maximum

value of M.F. will be reached very nearly at gj = u>

consecutive

is

measurements.

their actual

However, 6 lacks

field

full significance,

point of resonance and

is

of two consecutive amplitudes

measurements.

since

it

describes conditions

away from

the

susceptible to errors in measurement. Most available

data, however, are presented in terms of 6, although

process towers and stacks are not as extensive as

it

its reliable

would be

values for typical

desirable.

Values of 5 for welded towers and stacks and magnification factors based

on

field

measurements

are given in

values of 6 and M.F. in columns

Since a deflection

is

II

Table 4.3. Unless otherwise specified, the

and

III

can be used in most applications.

directly proportional to the applied force, the

maximum

transverse force per unit area of the projected surface of a cylinder at resonance

can be expressed by

L=(CL XM.F.)pK?/2 (psf).


Fig. 4.17.

For the

first

estimate a value of (CL

X M.F. ) =

(0.5

X 60) can be

used.

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

116

Average Values for 8 and M.F.

Table 4.3.

It

would seem

that at low-i?e flows the cylinder

is

117

dynamically stable, sub-

ject only to forced vibrations; at the higher-/?e flows a possibility of self-excited


II

III

STIFF SOILS

ROCK, VERY STIFF

vibration exists.

SOFT SOILS

Tall process

columns

Unlined stacks

Lined stacks

M.F.

M.F.

M.F.

0.126
0.105
0.314

25

0.080

0.052
0.105

40
60

0.052

30

0.035

60
90

30

0.070

45

10

number of

a large

field

observations
critical

it

wind

can be concluded
velocity

Kj

cor-

responding to a Strouhal number of approximately 0.2 pointing out the forced


vibration theory as the basic excitation. The formation of secondary peak

may

amplitudes at higher wind velocities in some cases


theory, particularly

forced vibration

elastically deflecting cylinders at higher

For a

Ref. 48.

Source:

that the

From

peak amplitudes appear at the

first

most

vessel designer the

after

Re

lead to modification of

the behavior of streams around

values

better

is

significant fact

is

known.

that the peak vibrations as

predicted by forced vibration theory are not inconsistent with the observed data
and can form a basis for the mathematical checking of a stack or tower for wind-

Conflict between Forced and Self-Excited Vibration Theories

induced vibrations.
All values essential to the

aerodynamic design analysis of towers and stacks, such

CL the Strouhal number 5, and particularly the damping data,


of wide differences of opinion among various investigators. Furthermore, the question has been raised whether forced vibration theory should be
used as the basic design-governing theory in the aerodynamic design of stacks
as the coefficient

Design Method Based on Forced Vibration

are subjects

The

first critical

wind velocity

von Karman vortices

are

formed. Since the frequency of forced vibrations

equal to the frequency of the impressed force, this would mean, that the stack

would

vibrate to

some degree

at a

frequency proportional to wind velocity. At

the critical wind velocity the frequency of vortex shedding


natural frequency of the stack or tower

/ and

fv

is

that'

is

poor agreement with forced vibration theory.


To explain this discrepancy other theories have been advanced, particularly
self-excitation theory. A self-excited vibration should take place only near the

the

first

period of

vibration in second per cycle.

The second critical velocity can be taken as V 2 = 6.25 Kj


The maximum unit pressure L transverse to the wind direction
the projected cylinder area

at

resonance on

is

L = (CL XU.F.)pV\l2

psf.

in

Assuming that wind pressure and tower mass effects are concentrated in the
to \ of H depending on exposure) and column stiffness
vessel top section
effects are limited to the vessel bottom section, the action of the total pressure acting on a cylindrical

mated by

its

tall

slender vessel at resonance can then be approxi-

resultant equivalent static force at the top of the column:

frequency of the structure. In self-excited vibration the impressed

motion is created by the motion itself and, when


motion of the object stops, the impressed force disappears. Once excited to

F = (CL XMf.)(pV\/2)(dXHl3).

alternating force sustaining the


the

7 is

the outside diameter of the vessel in feet, and

the frequencies of

approximately constant at the value of the natural frequencies of the stacks.

natural

by

equals to the

stack vibrations as observed in the field have nearly always been found to be

is

where d

resonance occurs. The principal

reason this theory has not been generally accepted

This

given

According to forced vibration theory the alternating transverse force acting on


a cylinder in an air flow originates from vortex shedding, which is independent
of the motion of the cylinder. This force exists at all wind velocities at which
the

is

V =3.40J/rmph

and towers.

is

vibration the cylinder controls the frequency of the impressed force [36, 47].

When

is

in

mph,

Vibration would continue through a wide range of wind velocities, and a par-

wind velocity would not exist. If the amount of energy extracted


by the cylinder from the air exceeds damping, the amplitude of oscillations will
increase until, in practice, an equilibrium between damping and the energy input

F = 0.00086(0, X

ticular critical

develops. However, a full satisfactory theory for a stack oscillating with self-

excited vibrations has not been mathematically

worked out by

its

proponents.

The equivalent
stresses

force

M.F.)(d X

HX

Vf).

maximum nominal
maximum resonance

can be used in computing the

at various elevations of the shell and also the

amplitude at the top of the

vessel.

The induced

stresses

must be superposed on

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

118

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

the stresses due to weight and operating pressure.

should not exceed the

combined

stresses are

in the design have to

No

maximum

The

total

allowable stress for the

too high and a possibility of fatigue

combined

sliell

stress

material. If the

failure exists,

changes

be made.

would be completed without an attempt to evaluate


The stress induced in the bottom shell section, welds, and

vibrational analysis

the effects of fatigue.

support

skirt

is

The following
stress range

Sr

completely reversed in bending with the

relationship between the


is

used as

a fatigue

number of

stress range

permanent guys. Special external damping devices are expensive, impractical,


and in practice not very effective. They do not seem to represent a satisfactory
solution.

As in any mechanical design the cheapest and most effective vibration-preventive


measures can be accomplished by a careful analysis during the design stage, even
at a higher initial cost.

SR = 2S.

cycles to failure TV and the

Ovaling

curve [74]

and 0

is

brief discussion will be offered here.


oscillating

where n and
For carbon

steel

The value of f$

Some
(3

are material constants

the stress intensification factor.

with an ultimate strength of 60,000

will

psi,

n - 5 and

K = 780,000.

vary according the type of construction, weld and inspection.

suggested values for 0 are:


1

.2 for

deformations of the upper section of stacks called ovaling or breathing.

formation. If the natural frequency of

= 1.8 for butt-weld joints


0 = 3 for fillet weld or incomplete penetration groove weld with the root unsealed between the bottom head and the support skirt.

occur once per vortex

a cylindrical shell

taken as a circular ring

coincides with the vortex shedding frequency, the shell will have tendency to

with the direction of the major axis varying

wind direction.
The lowest natural period of a cylinder taken as a ring

from perpendicular to

finish

a stack

The pressure pulsations which cause ovaling of

flatten periodically into an ellipse,

smooth

a shell plate with a

by this resonance phenomenon only a


The cross aerodynamic forces can induce

Since mostly unlined stacks are affected

N = (KlfSSR

119

parallel to the

is

given by

/3

The

fatigue

life

expectency Le

hours of vibration in a steady wind

in

at the

where

m = the

resonant velocity will be given by

mass per unit length of the

ring; for steel,

m=

in.

in.

0.28/386)

= modulus of elasticity, 27 X 10 6
4
3
/ = r /12, moment of inertia, in.

Z,e= AT/3,600.

psi

The

safe service life of continuous vibration

is

Substituting the above values,

we

get

Z-e/S.F.

No

T = d 2l66Qt

precise criteria for the safety factor S.F. can be given.

safe service life should

be

at least

equal to the

steady wind of resonant velocity at the job

However, the minimum

sum of probable time

site.

A safety

factor of 10-15, as ap-

and structure.

plied to cycles to failure, could be accepted for this type of load

From

the above discussion

it is

quite obvious that, with so

variable factors, the results of design

is the mean cylinder diameter in feet and thickness t in inches.


The resonant wind velocity which theoretically would induce ovaling is

where d

periods of

=
x

3A0d/2T

or

= \,\20t/d mph.

many assumed

computations can only be interpreted

as

approximations, the starting point for the evaluation of the vessel behavior.

Reinforcing rings with a required section modulus are added in the top third of
a stack to secure

it

from ovaling.

spiral vortex spoiler

can be used in place of

the rings [124].

Corrective Measures against Vibration

The most commonly used preventive measure

against vibration

is

a spiral vortex

spoiler welded around the top third of the stack. Another corrective measure
for an existing structure subject to excessive vibration would be installation of

Limiting Values for a Vibrational Analysis


It

would be advantageous

to be able to determine in advance

simple parameter whether a vibrational analysis

is

from

a single,

necessary. Unfortunately,

no

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

120

such parameter

which can be

Most investigations have been done on tall stacks,


cylindrical, tapered, or half-tapered; lined with gunite or

available.

is

straight

unlined; and of welded or riveted construction. The weight


distributed along the height, and there

is

In the above formula,

tower. For a flared stack,

the total height of a uniform-diameter stack or


can be replaced by an equivalent height

is

nearly evenly

no connected process piping involved.

is

121

H (cylinder) + H\2 (cone).

Empirical parameters intended for stacks, therefore cannot be blindly applied


to

tall

towers. As already mentioned, process columns are not afflicted with

For lined stacks,

WQ

includes the weight of the internal lining.

cross-wind vibrations very often. However, given the trend to higher, slender

of vibration will likely be of increasing importance. To


more reliable criteria, more research laboratory work and experimental
work on full-scale, field-erected, high vessels are needed.
The following can be used as general guidelines in deciding whether a vibra-

vessels, the possibility

4.7.

FIRST

NATURAL PERIOD OF VIBRATION

obtain

required.

tional analysis

is

The upper
60 mph, since

limit

of the

wind

critical

as

is

high as

putations,

wind
3.

further check

is

velocities at the site area

The

limiting

minimum

is

a further investigation justified.

height-to-diameter ratios

H/d

for vibrational analysis

are:

unlined stacks:

H/d

>

13

lined stacks

Hjd>

15

process columns:

H/d

>

15

diameter of the top half of the vessel

25

(ft) are

analysis

suggested in

H (ft), and
ref.

49 to

establish

tower

by the wind of
does not exceed

is

critical velocity

if

must be performed
performed

the total force

V (V
x

(1/0.560) (wH*/gEiyt

H = total height in feet


/ =

3
(fltf

f/8) (1/12),

moment of inertia of the

section, ft

per foot of the vessel, lb/ft

shell thickness, in.


shell

mean corroded

diameter,

ft.

2 if it is less

r = (2.70/10 s )(//A0

(wrf/0

T gives

,/a

sec/cycle

at the new operatthe vessel operates at higher temperature the period T


6
=
(29 X 10 /" at operating
ing temperature can be found from T'

TX

of thumb, complete vibratory analysis of

rule

not required

an important

If

analysis need not be performed.

According to an often used

a stack or a

is

average

analysis should be

slender vessels

Substituting the above values into the equation for

the need for a vibrational analysis, as follows:

W/Hd 2 < 20,


< W/Hd 2 < 25,
< W/Hd 2

tall

2
g = 32.2 ft/sec gravitational acceleration
6
=
E modulus of elasticity, 29 X 10 psi

t =
d-

weight Ff(lb), height

4. Possible criteria, relating to total

5.

T=

w = weight

20

of

where

wind velocity used in static pressure comrequired. Only if V falls in the range of prevailing

greater than the design

no

For a tall, slender cylindrical


criterion in design for wind or earthquake loads.
to a fixed-end cantilever
equivalent
thickness,
tower of uniform diameter and
cycle)
by
complete
one
per
beam, T is given (in seconds

cross vibrations have been recorded.


is

natural period of vibration

a very small possibility of a sustained

limit will exist. This value also

2. If V\

first

and V2 can be limited to


wind velocity beyond this
any known wind velocity at which

velocities

The

on the stack or tower caused

temperature)

1'2

In practice,

tall

or/
process vessels have either a stepped-down shell thickness

with unevenly disand sections of different diameters, representing a system


is used to demethod
Rayleigh's
tributed mass and flexibility. In such systems,
only to
applies
method
Rayleigh's
termine the first natural period T, Although
accuracy
sufficient
with
a
period
T
undamped systems, it yields the fundamental

most engineering problems [137]


harmonic, the sum of
the vibration of a column is assumed to be undamped
remains constant.
K.E.
energy
kinetic
the
and
P.E.
energy
the elastic potential

for

than the wind design velocity)

of the operating (corroded) weight

W0

If

or

through the
kinetic energy K.E. occurs, when the system passes
The maximum
equilibrium position and the elastic potential energy is zero.

Maximum

\pV 2 HdlW0 < 0.067.

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

122

elastic

energy P.E. occurs, when system

is

at

maximum

displacement, with zero

Both maximum energies must be equal:

kinetic energy K.E.

Maximum

K.E. =

Maximum

P.E.

123

compute the maximum deflections of the centers of gravity of


the lumped masses the most probable vibration curve of the system for the first
period has to be assumed. The closer the assumed curve to the actual curve,
the more accurate the resulting T. However, even if the selected curve differs
from the actual to a considerable degree, the computed Tis still close enough.
2. In order to

Generally, the deflection bending curve of a vessel subjected to its own weight
W) is assumed, and deflections of the centers of gravity
(initial acting force

For a simple, one-mass, vibrating system,

F=

WV 2 /2g = Fyj2

y a >yb>yc>

W(tj n y) 2 l2g = Fyl2

Using the above weights and calculated deflections, the natural, undamped,
angular frequency o> n of the system in Fig. 4.18 may be found from the follow-

>y n are

computed.

3.

ing equations:

and

= \g(W,y a +
and from

co

W2 y b

WH y n )l(W

y\ +

T = 2*[i:Wy2 /gXWy]
amplitude, the

V- maximum

maximum

velocity of the mass, equal to yco n for a simple harmonic

- angular natural undamped frequency of the system,


F = initial acting force
W - weight of the mass

oj

ft/sec

2
,

WH y*)]

l'

1l

2
.

deflection of the center of gravity of the mass

Thus calculated

T will

rad/sec

weights.

gravitational acceleration.

used. However,

In order to apply the above equations to a cantilever

be slightly (a few percent) lower than the actual T, since

vibrational curve. The


the static, bending deflection curve is not actual, dynamic
positive.
as
taken
be
always
must
deflections
the
signs of
Wn used in the computations are the operating
The weights W x W2
method can be
To find the deflections^,^,
n any analytical

motion

g = 32.2

Wt yt

= 2tt/7:

where

y=

beam, the following

simpli-

method

is

if

the computations are

done by hand the following numerical

most convenient and simple to apply.

the

fying assumptions have to be made.

Computation of the Transverse y Deflections


1

distributed weights of the

The

trated or

"lumped"

at centers

stiffness along the length

beam

sections

a're

assumed to be concen-

of gravity of the beam sections with unchanged

of the

beam

(see Fig. 4.18). This

siderably simplifies the computations for the deflections


gravity.

The

greater

the

number of

assumption conof the centers of

sections, the higher the final accuracy

achieved.

Basically, this

is

The

hthth^

moments of inertia of individual


Fig. 4.18.

sections

applied to a cantilever beam, (a)

beam

is

equal to the shear at

design procedure

is

outlined below and in Figs. 4.19 and 4.20.

W W W

computed and assumed


the vessel sections
3 are
2 ,
x
Fig.
4.19). For the sake of
in
and
c
a,
b
(points
gravity
of
centers
the
t
to act at
modulus of
simplicity it is assumed here that the moment of inertia / and
1

y a ,y b> y c - deflections of centers of gravity a, b,c of individual sections


W lt W 2 ,W 3 = operating weights of individual sections

beam method

fictitious
the corresponding point of the conjugate beam (the corresponding
beam with the same length as the real beam but adjusted supports) which has
deflection*^ of the
the M/EI area of the real beam as its (elastic) load, (b) The
equal to the bendis
position
real beam at any point with respect to its original
which has the
beam
conjugate
the
of
ing moment at the corresponding point
load.
(elastic)
M/EI area of the real beam as its

A step-by-step

the conjugate

slope of the elastic bending curve of the real

The weights of

elasticity

are constant through the entire

separated and used in the final formula.

beam

length, so that they can be

124

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS


Sketch the moment diagram to

Md = dd

Compute

with

a suitable scale,

125

M b = bb Mc = ccx
i ,

and

the areas

A =(dd +cc

)(dc)/2

A2

){cb)l2

=(cc,

+bb

A, =(bb i )(ba)/2

end
(b)

Load diagram

(a)

Moment diagram
2.

Real cantilever beam.

Fig. 4.19.

The

beam becomes the fictitious loading diagram of


beam in Fig. 4.20(a). The first numerical integra-

7W- diagram of the real

the corresponding conjugate

tion (using the trapezoidal approximation) gives the shear diagram of the con-

Compute

the bending

moments

to the concentrated loads

W W2
t

M =0
Mb = W (L +L )/2
M = W, [(L /2) + L
Md = W [(LJ2) + L

at points a, b,

and

W3

and c and

at the fixed

end due

jugate

beam

diagram

is

cc 2

3.

+(L 3 /2)] + [W 2 (L 2 + L 3 )/2]

+I 3

+W2 [(L 2 I2) + L

3 ]

+ (W 3 L 3 /2).

equivalent to the slope diagram of the real

drawn using the following

-A

The second numerical

gate beam, which

4.20(c).
areas

bb 2

x ,

The

-A

+A2

aa 2

and

integration yields the

in Fig.

-A

moment

+ A 2 + yl 3

20(b).

The

beam

falls

diagram of the conju-

equal to the deflection diagram of the real

is

deflection curve of the real

B lt B 2t and 3

beam

values:

beam in Fig.
Compute

inside the polygon.

Bx =(cc 2 /2)(dc)

B2

= (cc 2

+bb 2 )(cb)/2

B 3 -(bb 2 + aa 2 )(ba)/2.
Sketch the Mdx
cc 3 =
4.

The

diagram using the following values:

B lt

bbi

deflections can

-B +2
x

and

now be found from

aa 3 =,

+5 2

#3

the equations, for instance,.

Example 4.4. As an example, the first period of vibration Tis computed


process column used in Example 1.2 in Section 1.6, and shown here

for the
in Fig.

4.21 without the reboiler.

The
is

vessel is divided into six sections

assumed to be

points of forces equal to the weights


(c)

Fig. 4.20.

Moment

diagram

Conjugate cantilever beam.

values are

and the center of gravity of each section


a to f) and to be the loading

at its geometrical centers (points

computed

moment of inertia

at

W of the

respective sections.

each loading point as well as

at

The moment

each point where the

/ of the vessel shell changes. In Fig. 4.22 the

M/I diagram

is

8' i-d

5'

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

126

[kips/ ft) kips

1.25

20

1.25

20

0.525

10

0.525

10

0.75

15

1.0

10

i.d

Fig. 4.21.

sketched and applied as


Since the
there in

moment of
the moment

fictitious loading

inertia /

diagram to the conjugate beam.

of the shell changes at point

,3

a step will appear

diagram. The subsequent numerical integrations yield the

values for computation of the deflections^.

The

values of

ZWy

and XfVv

are calculated in Table 4.4, and

T is

calculated

as follows:

'

9483 X 106

/2

= 2,(0.1761

sec/cycle

L386X 663920J

say

T-

1.1 5 sec/ cycle.

Table 4.4.

POINT

Win.)

W (lb)

Wy (\b-in.)
302,000
230,000
75,800
38,700
16,650
770

15.1

20,000

11.5

7.58

20,000
10,000

3.87

10,000

1.11

0.077

15,000
10,000

TWy lWy 2
t

663,920

Wy*
.

0b-in. )

4.56 X 10

2.645 X 10

0.575 X 10

6
6

0.1498 X 10
6
0.0185 x 10

7.9483 X 10*

Fig. 4.22.

See page 128 for explanation of figure.

127

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

128

/,

=rX 4,0313 3

fX

2.521

X^~ =

4.8.

12.85

ft

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE

Detailed mechanical computations are to be prepared for the process column

X^j=2.09ft 4

129

with the design data given below.


M:

Mb =20X 16 =320 kips-ft


M = 320 + 40 X 8 = 640
M =640 + 40X 9.5 = 1,020
Md = 1,020 + 50 X 19 = 1,970
Me ,910 + 60 X 19.5 =3,140
Mf = 3,140 + 15 15=4,265

Design Data

1.

3
c

>=

Shell inside diameter: 5

X.

M, =4,265 +85 X

Shell overall length:

- 25 kips/ft

in.

=4,690

Support

Mb il

M/I:

ft

160ft

skirt height:

10

ft

Operating hydrostatic head: 10

ft

above the bottom

t.l.

Mi/I, =49.7

M /I
Mc//
3

Operating pressure: 180 psig

= 306
= 488

Design pressure: 220 psig

M<slh = 942
M,/I 3 * 1502
= 2040
f/I3
= 2244

Operating temperature: top half, -45F

2,244

Mdx/J:

bottom, -10F
Design temperature: -50F

2|040

= 10,710

Corrosion allowance:
kips/ft

Material: shell,
skirt,
37,275
1

,502 +
-

942

PWHT:

X 19.5 = 23,880
61,155
942 + 488
1

X-ray:

19 = 13.S8S

Weld

SA

3,760

78,500

X 8 =

300

efficiency:

Minimum

78,800

yX

psi

100 percent

number 90, weir height 4

in.

in.

hydrostatic test pressure: 330 psig

Location: Houston, Texas.

200

16 =

S a = 13,700

yes

Cold insulation thickness: 5


Flange rating: 150 lb min.

49.7 + 25

psi, use

V-notch impact tested)

full

Trays: C. S. perforated,
X 9.5 =

S a =55,000/4 = 13,750

SA 516 gr. 55 (Charpy


bottom SA 285 gr. C
top

74,740

488 + 306

in.

5 16 gr. 55

79,000

The design and


Mdx

/I:

'-^^X5

26,775 kips/ft

10,710 + 37,275

X
37,275 + 61,155

19.5 =

y" g

959,700
1

61,155 + 74,740
2

74,740+ 78,500,
X

,346,365

5.256 X 1Q 6 X 1Q 3

2,637 X ]Q

2,637,365

X 10

29 X 10 6 X 144
9.5 =

365,265

X 16 = 1,262,400

Shell Thickness Required for Internal Pressure

Shell thickness:
= 0.631

y* =

.44

= 0.0926

0.0268
= 0.0064

5,256,865
2 .9

.44

- 132) = 0.536 + C.A.

in.

03223

0.3867

t=PRil(SE- 0.6?) = (220 X 33.06)/(13,700


= 0.536 + 0.063 =0.599

=
2.9 X 1.44

2 .9

78,800 + 79,000

2.

= 0.956

1.3461

yd

629,200
3,994,465

ft

727,900
3

X 8 =

= 1.258

29 X 10 s X 144

29 X 10* X 144

78,500 + 78,800
2

Pressure Vessel

3,994 X 10* X 10 3

_ 1,291,000

ASME

3S9.890
386,665

1977 Edition, up to

Deflections:

15 =

comply with the requirements of the applicCode Section VIII, Division 1,


and including 1977 Winter Addenda.

fabrication shall

able subsections of the

Use f -in.-thick

plate.

P = (13,700 X 0.5625)/(33.06 + 0.6 X 0.5625) = 230


88
(13,700 X 0.625)/(33.0 + 0.6 X 0.625) = 256 psi
June

psi

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

130

head thickness, (min.)

ellipsoidal

- 0.2?) = (220

=PDil(2SE

th

66.125)/(2 X 13,700

= 0.532 + C.A. = 0.532 + 0.063 = 0.59


Use f -in.-thick

f^^Mp

- 44)

-|

= 5,000
5'-6"

Computation of Wind Loads and Moments


Ib-ft

i.d.

Wind

in.

70'

= (224 X 66.125)/(2 X 13,700 - 44) = 0.542 + 0.063 = 0.605

For bottom head use the same thickness


thick, as computed from the wind loads.
Shell Thickness Based

3.

Effective shell diameter

De

Basic

pressure

as the

bottom

shell section:

on Combined Wind, Weight and Pressure Loads

De

p = 35

732,650

50'

32,940

2,075,900

36,720

2,772,500

39,420

3,533,900

40,770

3,934,650

12,150

psf. (See

20'

remarks at end of example.)

WIND
HEIGHT ZONE
0'to30'

25
35

50' to 100'

45
55

100' to 170'

w
w
w
w

At section

2:

(0.106

At section

3:

(0.106

At section 4:

(0.106

At' section 5:

(0.106
(0.106

\2)!(itD

2,700

1,350

Moment

= 3,934,850 Ib-ft

at base

Fig. 4.23.

X 9 X 25 = 135
= 0.6 X 9 X 35 = 189
= 0.6

= 0.6

X 9 X 45 = 243

= 0.6 X 9 X 55 = 297

Wind loads

w =(4A/X

3,780

30'

B X De X pz
(lb/ft OF HEIGHT)

(psf)

30' to 50'

20,790
160'

PRESSURE

At

(Ib-ft)

= 5000

297 X 70 =
20,790

in.

10' if-

section 6:

Mp

in.

- (o.d. column + 10 in. ins.) + (o.d. 6 -in. pipe + ins.) + platform + ladder
= (67.25 + 10) + (6.625 + 6) + 6 + 12 = 107.9 in. = 9 ft.
wind

Moment

(lb)

plate.

Bottom:
th

Shear

load (lb)

I"

=0.\06M/D 2

X 144)

At section 2

ld

At section

ld

At section
At section

6:

=94,850/(12 X ttX 5.5)


= 164,900/(12 X 7T X 5.5)

d = 246,850/(12 X

tt

5.5)

d =278,750/(12 X n X 5.5)

=
=

457
795
1

lb/in.

,190

= 1,342.

lb/in.

Shell thickness computations

X
X
X
X
X

732,650)/5.5

2,075,900)/5.5

2,772 ,500)/5.5
3,533,900)/5.5
3 ,934,850)/5.5

= 2,5701b/in.
2
2

7,274

At section
(a)

2:

Windward

side:

= 9,715

= 12,383

= 13,790.

~ Id

+W2 = 2,570 - 457 + (220 X 33.325)/2 = 5,785

lb/in.

required shell thickness:

Weight loads

d =

Wln-nD

lb/in.

= 5,785/13,700 + C.A. = 0.422 + 0.0625 = 0.489

in.

131

132

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

Hoop

pressure thickness governs, use

Leeward

(b)

f -in.

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

thick plate,

Support Skirt Design

4.

side:

(a) Skirt thickness at section 5


l

Code allowable

w +ld =2,570 + 457 = 3,027

stress

= 13,700

psi in

133

based on the attachment weld:

lb/in.

fa = Qw + hdlES* = 13,573/(0.8 X 13,700) =

compression (buckling). Actual

.24 in.

stress

Use l|-in.-thick

plate.

in compression:

Anchor bolts:
At skirt base 6 flare the

(b)

S c =3,027/0.5625 = 5,381
At section

skirt to

to

1 1 ft

side:

ld

lw-ld =(3,934,850 X

+ (PR/2) = 7,274 - 795 + 3,670 = 10,149

Use J -in .-thick


(b) Leeward

in.

number.

/4

plate.

Code allowable

4)/(rrX 11.5

12)] - [278,750/(?r

w + ld = 7,274 + 795 = 8,069

= 13,700

psi.

Actual

Use 20 2 \ -in. bolts with the

lb/in.

stress area

spacing = 12

stress:

S c =8,069/0.8125 =9,950

11.5

Maximum

psi.

stress in bolt

= 15,450

4.00

1 1 .5

in.

psi

<

18,000

psi

A285

gr.

1.5

in.

tt/20

under empty condition

S = (3,158- 134,800/ttX

= 21 .8

in.

(We = 134,800
12)

it

lb.):

BJNXA b

side:
(c)

lw - *d + tfK/2) = 12,383 -

Base details:

Base ring thickness: material

,190 + 3,670 = 14,863 lb/in.

C,

S a = 16,700

psi

no wind, 22,200

with wind.

required? = 14,863/13,700 + 0.0625 = 1.085 +0.0625 = 1.147

in.

Wind + operating weight:


Use

(b)

-in. -thick plate.

Leeward

side:

Code allowable

12)]

=(7rXB.C.X2,515)/(AfXSa )

ft

= (ttX 11.5 X 12X 2,515)/(20X 15,000) = 3.62

stress

Windward

Required bolt area:

side:

(a)

bolt

= 3,158- 643 = 2,515 lb/in.

lb/in.

required/= 10,149/13,700 + 0.0625 =0.740+0.0625 =0.803

At section

accommodate anchor

Tension:

3:

Windward

(a)

psi.

w + ld =

stress,

B=

12,383 +

13,700

psi.

,190 = 13,573 lb/in.

Actual

11.5

/U 2 )

+ (643 X

1 1

.5/1 1)

= 4,122

P = Qw + W/* = 4,122/9.5 =0.435 kips


t/2
2
=1.48
=(0.15 X 0.435 X 6.125 X 20/22.2)

tb

psi

lb/in.

Bearing pressure:

stress:

S c = 13,573/1.125 = 12,064

w +/d =(3,158 X

Use

j-in.-thick plate.

in.

psi

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

134

135

Weight only:

=(0.15 X 0.071 X 6.125

tb

X 20/16.7)

1'

=0.67

in.

Skirt -to-base weld:

leg size

Use

-in. fillet

Top

(/

w +/ d )//w = 4,122/(2 X

weld

all

around on both

1.33

X 13,700 X 0.55) =0.21

in.

sides.

ring thickness:

- [(4.13 X 15,000 X 4 X

tr

Use

in.

.25)/(4

X 20,000 X

3.5)]

'2

.05 in.

thick plate.

All other dimensions taken

from Table A3.1

at the

back of

this

book.

(d) Stresses at sharp cone-cylinder intersection of skirt support


stress formulas and their derivation see Section 8.6):

shown

in

4.24 (for

At the cone-cylinder intersection:

D = 69.75

in.

a = 15 degrees
n =

Windward

side, tension:

= lw

Pe =
Leeward

side,

= 12,383

- ld

1,190= 11,193

lb/in.

Otm

=Pe Y(filty/2

778 X 0.088 (34.87/1 .375)^ = - 8743

(41/D) = 642 psi

and

8,743 - (25,254/2) = - 21 ,370 psi

psi

< 1.33S

< 2Sa

compression:
Stresses in conical shell
l

=-13,573

Pe =-778

lb/in.

psi
S l n cos *

o L = CPe*/0 K

= (-778 X (34.87/1 .375)

Stresses in cylindrical shell:

= -25,629
o L =(/V?/0(0-5
= (-778

[(0.5/1

-5,155

and

X 0.964)

0.155 V34.87/1 .375

psi

Xy/Rft)

X 34.87/1.375)

= -25,254 psi

psi

and

(0.5

0.155

+ 5,524 psi

V34 .87/1.375)

o p =- 8743 psi<1.335
,

fl

and

8,743 - 25,629/2 =

21,560 psi<25

fl

136

5.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK


Due

Deflection

to

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

Wind Corroded Condition

Wind

load

Wind

Wind shear

Maximum

ot inertia

/(ft

(Ib-ft)

deflection at the top:

7=12.5

Remarks

12.5/1.70 = 7.35

= 29 X 10 6 psi
= 4.176 X 10 9 psf

ttr^t

0.733 X 10

per 100

6.

12,150

ft

40--1

thk

SO' -} thk

6.48

6,480
6
3.53 X 10

39,420

1,350

40,770

3.935 X 10

= 30.6

Fig. 4.25.

70

4.176 X 10

[2.079 X 10

X 3.19

X 10*

4.176 X 10* X 4.63

73 =

X 70

[2.079 X 10
[
3
3
L

f3.29X 10

X 50

~iH

= 0.0678
4

1.215 X 10

X 50

7.33

tMm

J=0-'21

6
2.076 X 10

6.48X 10 3 X 40

X 40

X 10 5 1

i
8

ft

0.0892

X 6.98

10

3.9

70 X 50
9

X 4.63
40

4.176 X 10

X 10 3 1

X 10 4 X 10

\2S.079

160 X 10

X 10

3.29

["

1.215 X
+

X 50

X 10 4 X 10

_ [3-94 X
L

10

X 50

3 .53 X 10
+ j

0.0015

+ 7.33X 10 s

0.2451

6
6.48

X 10 3 X 40

4.176 X 10 9 X 30 .6

X 6.48

X 10 3 X 10

1.35

4.176 X 10 9 X 30.6

4.176 X 10

X I0 2

4.176 X 10

10
2

X 10

1.35

=0,
=0.4926

+ 2.076 X 10 6
]

X 10 3 X 10

+ 3.53 X 10

=0.0467
1.045

client).

Fundamental Period of Vibration Uncorroded Condition

10*-lf thk

2.076 X 10

in.

of height in corroded condition (approved by

4.63

32,940

in.

= 5,000

20,790

20,790

4.25)

Moment

moment

Qdb]

{lb)

(Fig.

ft

Fig. 4.26.

70'

{Fig.

-| thk

4.26)

137

OESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

138

Wind moment

Deflections.

12.765

y
ya

X 10 6 X 10 3
z

29 X 10 6 X 144
4.236 X 10

yb ~

X 10

0.4769 X 10
29 X 10

X 10
X 144

Stress range
1

29 X 10 6 X 144

w
(kips)

36.68

12.17

95
70

S.F.

of cycles to failure:

=20;

1.37

0.03

.125

further stress check

is

required.

= AMf%
0.030

8.

2
X 752,175/5.5 =2,635

= 4,685

2.0.
9
4,685)* = 4.06 X 10 cycles.

A720 = 2.03 X 10
X 10 8 X
.

.8/3,600)

X (1/24 X 356)

82
30

3,485

127,815

852
112

10,368

stress at

any point

in the vessel should

not exceed 0.8 5^ during the

allowable:

Yield strength:

S a = 13,700

psi

Sy = 30,000

psi

154

Maximum

0.9

allowable ratio of hydrotest stress/design stress:

138,337

4,449.9

0.8

X 30,000
13,700

Period:

Pressures in the vertical

T=

column during hydrotest

1/2
- 1.783 sec/cycle
2^(138,337/386 X 4,449)

h
Say

7.

T-

1.85 sec/cycle.

Investigation of Possible Wind-caused Vibrations

First

wind

critical velocity:

V
Second

=3.40c?/T = 3.40

6.38/1.85 = 12.0 mph.

critical velocity:

V2 =62SV =6.25 X
l

12 = 75

mph > 60 mph.

Equivalent load at top:

F = 0.00086X
Moment

at

35 X 6.38 X 170 X 12

=4,685

lb.

bottom T.L.:

FX

160 = 752,175

lb-ft.

= 12 years.

Field Hydrotest in Corroded Condition

Wy 3

Wy

lb/in.

psi.

N = (780,000/2 X

Safe vibration time: (2.03

Maximum

no

hydrotest.

y
(in.)

X 2,635/1

Stress concentration factor 0

Maximum
POINT

Sr =

1020 X 10 3

yy *

higher,

it

Number

is

Longitudinal cyclic stress at BTL: 0.106

29 X 10 6 X 144
6

computed

Estimated cyclic lifetime:

'

= 3.056

as

139

Fig. 4.27.

(see Fig. 4.27):

140

DESIGN OF TALL CYLINDRICAL SELF-SUPPORTING PROCESS COLUMNS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

Minimum

test pressure at top:

1 .5

Liquid static head to section 2: 71

X 220 =
.4

330

X 0.434 =

Test pressure at 2

Liquid static head from 2 to 3: 50

X 0.434 =
Test

Liquid static head from 3 to 4:

pressure at

40 X 0.434
Test pressure at 4

Liquid

static

head from 4 to bottom:

.4

Maximum

_31
361

Clips for platforms and ladder (estimated)

_22
383

Platforms 3, 3

J8

Ladder 20

401

Operating liquid on trays,

X 0.434 =

Test at bottom

Insulation, cold, 5 in. thick,

425

psig

90

X 35

ft

lb/ft

lb/ft

X 70

(6,300)

ft

(2,650)

lb/ft

(5,000)

X 70

,482 lb/ft

X 45 X

> 402 psig.

660

thick,

in.

Tray support

X 50

lb/ft

25

rings,

800

Manholes, 2, 20-in.,

(27,000)
(14,000)

WQ
Shell,

(4 + 1)/12

X 45

Trays, 310 lb/tray

,400)

(1

ft

402

allowable test pressure for 150-lb

flanges at bottom:

X 25

Piping (estimated)

1
-

500
500

Nozzles (estimated)

psig

at section

94,8501b
33,000

ft

900

35 lb/ring
lb

X 2

,600

500
500

Nozzles (estimated)

Pressure stress ratios for shell:

Clips (estimated)

P(R, + Q.6t)lt

PH (Rt

Sa E

+ 0.6t)

Insulation, 50-ft

<

?5

Platforms, 2

S a Et

X 90
2

25

ft

(4,500)

lb/ft

X 35

lb/ft

(1 ,750)

(3 ,000)

Piping (estimated)

At section

T>

SeCti n 3:

At section

361 (33.063 + 0.6

n
RT
2

2:

13J00 X
=

.0

X 0.5625)
= 137
"

X 0.5625

^L^1
401 (33.063 + 0.6

RT

4:

Operating liquid,

AC

^^
<

A 52

,482 lb/ft

<

W0
900

1.75

ISEt

90

Insulation,

1.0

Platforms, 2

1.125)

1.125

"

0^7 <

.75

lb/ft

X 25

X 40

ft

X 20

Trays, 3 10 lb/tray

Approximate Weights for Design

Shell,

Top

in.

,700

(3,600)

ft

35 lb/ft

(1,750)
(3,000)
(1 ,000)

lb/ft
lb/ft

X [() X 20 +

(27,000)

10]

X 20

(6,200)

WQ
Base

(Fig. 4.23)
in. thick,

thick,

700
1

at section 5

246,8501b

Support

To section 2
Top head, |

36,000

ft

Piping (estimated)
ft

164,9001b

500
500

Operating liquid, 1,482

W0

X 40

Tray supports, 35 lb/ring X 20


Manholes, 2, 20-in., 850 lb X 2

Ladder, 50

(1) Operating weight

lb/ft

at section

Clips (estimated)

9.

(7,800)

nc
"

ne

(15,500)

X 25

Shell, 1^- in. thick,

=
0.876

X () X 25

Nozzles (estimated)

402 (66.125 +0.6X


^=
X
X 13,700 X

At bottom:

1.125)

(1,000)

ft

P(Pt + 02t)

RT

For head:

X 50

Trays, 310 lb/tray

383 (33.063 + 0.6X 0.8125)

13,700X 1.0X 0.8125

.
ne
<lM

Ladder, 20 lb/ft

141

472

lb/ft

ellipsoidal

X 70

ft

200

demister with support

Tray supports, 2 in.

Manholes, 2, 20-in., 750

in. thick,

lb

,200 lb

33,000

35 lb/ring X 45

1,600
1

,500

skirt, flared

ring,

top

to 11

ft, I

in.

15 ,000

thick

3,000

ring, stiffeners

Fireproofing, 4

in.

(10,000)

thick

Operating liquid in bottom head

Bottom head, 2

ellipsoidal,

(1 ,500)

^ in. thick
WQ

2,400
at base

278,7501b

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

142

(2) Erection weight:

Shop

(3)

We

= 134,8001b,

no

We

* 162,800

with trays.

lb,

trays

test weight:

WT

= 134,800 + 162

,482 lb/ft = 375,000 lb.

ft

14,400

lb

+ 122 X 1,482

(4) Field test weight:


H/ r

= 278,750 lb-

ins.

lb/ft

=445,150

lb

Remarks

10.

1. When computations for shell thickness were first computerized, the tenin. to save on material as much as
dency was to step up the shell wall by
possible. The result was too many shell sections with different thicknesses. This
did not prove to be most economical and practical for fabrication and deflection

computations. Usually, to divide

proved to be

a. tall

column

into three to five sections has

satisfactory.

ASA A58. 1-1955 was used in computing the


The
unit
load w can be computed by the standard
unit wind load in Fig. 4.23.
the computation procedure of the shell
effect
on
1-1972
without
any
ASA A58.
2.

For simplicity the standard

thickness.
3.

These computations cover the general features of the design.

It is

expected

that careful attention will be given to the preparation of the weld and other
details, as well as to materials quality control, fabrication, inspection,

4.

As

and

tests.

previously mentioned under the skirt design, for support skirts lapped to

the cylindrical shell above the tangent line, the localized bending stresses in the
shell

duelo

acceptable.

the forces normal to the shell surface are small and are considered

The Code formulas can be

used.

For the support

skirts

butted to ellipsoidal, torispherical, or toriconical heads

below the tangent

lines,

the longitudinal

membrane

spherical shells, is readily calculated (pressure stress

and

membrane and bending stress


component normal to the head surface. The com-

tangential stress will consist of

axial loads.)

The

components

due to the force

putations

stress, as in cylindrical

+ longitudinal stress due to

become complex. However, for 2

and toriconical heads with

similar large

ellipsoidal

knuckle

heads (also torispherical

radii) the tangential

membrane

minimized and the Code formulas can be used if the connecting weld is
or near the head tangent line and if the centerlines of the supporting skirt and

stress is

at

the shell coincide.


5.

The Code

basic allowable stress

Sa

in

compression and in tension for loads

combination with wind loads has been increased (1983) by 20 percent. However, the maximum allowable vessel deflection due to wind load will govern in

in

most

cases.

5
Supports for Short Vertical Vessels

5.1.

SUPPORT LEGS

General Considerations
located on the ground and United
Small and medium-sized vertical vessels,
on uniformly spaced
5.1 are usually supported
the dimensions given in Table
above
located
short vessel is
o umns called support legs. If a
by piping to a reciprocating machine
connected
if
or
construction
tural steel
vrb rat on
supported on a skirt to avoid any
(piston compressor), it is usually
vends
larger-diameter
for
even
vessel,
the
problems. To allow good access under
wind, unless
held to four, braced against the
fhe number of the support legs is
be avoided.
a larger number of legs cannot
I-shapes.
support legs are equal leg angles and
for
The structural shapes used
shown
are
shell
angle supports to the vessel
The two different ways to weld the
the
resisting
in
offers a greater moment of inertia
in Fie 5 1 The position in (a)
the
to
adjusted
be
to
the angle leg has
external loads on the vessel. However,
for
used
are
I-shapes
larger and heavier vessels,
shell curvature for welding. For
to

*^<^

support

weld them to shell as shown


Again there are two possible ways to
the shell, but support lep
The I-shapes in (b) are easier to weld to

legs.

in Fig

5 2

welded

as in (a)

can carry

much

Their required
heavier eccentric external loads.

Table 5.1.

PRESSURE
VESSELS
Maximum/)
Maximum H\D

STORAGE
TANKS
'"

l2

6'0"

as rccl uifed

Maxi mum/.//)

Number of legs:
tf = 3for_)<3'6"

N-4
N=6

for

D>

or 8

Maximum

if

3'6"

required

operating temperature = 650

143

144

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK


X

line

of the vessel

shell.

145

This eliminates the eccentricity e in the column and

base-plate computations.

The immediate task of the designer

is

to determine

by

a stress analysis the re-

quired dimensions of the following parts:

1.

support-leg columns,

2. base plate,

weld

size,

4. leg-to-base plate

weld

3. leg-to-shell

size,

5. stresses in the vessel shell at supports,


6. size

of anchor bolts.

Support-Leg Columns

The loads imposed on support legs are vertical and horizontal, due to weight and
wind or seismic forces. The wind force P w is computed by multiplying the
vertical projected exposed area of the vessel by the wind pressure for the location times the shape factor. The minimum wind pressure is usually taken as
20 psf, which corresponds approximately to a wind velocity of 100 mph. If the

Fig. 5.2.

vessel is located in

acting
adjusting of the flange to the shell contour can be minimized

with narrow flanges. Occasionally

shown

in

Fig. 5.3.

Round

pipe

steel pipes are

is

particularly suitable for a

possesses a high radius of gyration in


resistance.

The

inside of a

column pipe

all
is

by using shapes

used for large storage tanks, as

directions

column, since

and has good

it

torsional

usually left unpainted, since the seal

welds on both ends will be adequate for protection against atmospheric dampness and corrosion. Centroidal axes of pipes used as legs coincide with the center-

on the

region subjected to earthquakes, the seismic force

vessel will

Pe

be equal to the weight of the vessel times the earth-

quake coefficient c described in Chapter

The computed wind load

is

horizontal and

is

assumed to be acting

centroid of the projected exposed surface. The earthquake load

Pe

in the

also acts

horizontally on the center of gravity of the vessel (see Fig. 5.4).

no additional moments from piping or other equipment


The tops of the support legs are assumed to be welded to a
rigid vessel wall that is actually flexible. The anchor bolts are initially pretightened> and as long as some compression between the base plates and the
Generally, there are

to be considered.

foundation exists due to weight and the

initial

bolt load, the vessel will have a

tendency to overturn about the axis A-A (Fig. 5.4) as a neutral axis and the

columns due to the overturning moment b will be proportional


from the axis ^4-^4
The vertical reactions C in compression and T in tension at the support base
consist of (a) vessel weight, assumed to be equal to W/N and (b) reaction to the

reactions in the

to the distance

overturning

moment Mb

Using Table 5.2, the following results can be derived. The


leeward side (compression) is

maximum

axial load at the

C0
1

Fig. 5.3.

= (W0 /N) + (4Mb /ND b )

CT = WjjN

operating conditions
test conditions.

total

146

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK


The maximum

axial load

T0

on the windward

"(W

side (uplift)

(4Mb INDb )

W0

direction
or

and P2

The eccentric loads

P.. or

WT
H

at

column top

are

{WJN) + (4MJND)

operating conditions

?! =

WT/N

test conditions

P2 -

HMJND) - (W0 IN)

operating conditions

or quake
T.L.

P2 =4(MJND)- (We /N)


Section a-a

empty.

^i =

of wind

is

operating conditions

Te = - (We IN) + (4Mb /NDb )


P =

147

empty.

For computing the lateral load F per column from the force ?, the deflections
of all columns under load P are assumed approximately equal to

at the base

'-

'I

F = jP//2/

f,
column

column cross section about the axis


perpendicular to the direction of the wind or earthquake and 2/ is the summaabout the axes
tion of the moments of inertia of all column cross sections

where /

Elevation

Moment
Moment

at base:

at T.L.

Mb
Ma

= ^(W +
= PH

L)

is

the

moment of

inertia of the

perpendicular to the direction of the wind or quake.


Fig. 5.4.

To determine

the

maximum

stress in

column

the

column

size has

to be

first

selected. Because of number of variables a direct choice of the size is not feasible
and successive trials must be made to select the most economical and safe

Table 5.2.

Maximum

Vertical Reaction

Overturning
3 columns

Moment

R on Support Column Due to

section.

M about Axis A-A.


8 columns

6 columns

4 columns

Combined Column
(a)

Stress in Compression.

Operating conditions:

= W/06

R = 2M/3A,

M
The above

results can be expressed

by the general formula

RDb +

2(Ft/2){Db /2)

R = 4MINDb

R = M/2Db

where

is

the cross-section area of the shape.

fb = [/V/(/] +

Bending:

where Ix jc
length

fa - CjA,

Axial compression:

is

the section

f L was

the leg base.

modulus

resisting

bending of the selected shape. The

arbitrarily selected to reflect the partial restraining influence at

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

148

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS

(b) Test conditions:

is

prevented by diagonal bracing, both ends are partially rotationally restrained

and
Axial compression:

fa =

WTINA.

Bending:

fb =

WT e/N(Ix lc).

Maximum

Fa

Since the allowable unit stress


to the allowable unit stress

Fb

in

the concrete foundation so that the concrete

The loads used


for axial loads only

bending in the absence of an

is

not equal

axial load, the

value should the total

the smaller allowable value usually being the axial allowable stress

However, a more widely used procedure


used in AISC

Handbook

without determining

[34]

is

They

are

Fa

the straight-line interaction

in

dimensions for base plates are usually selected. I-shape columns are used for

and the stress distribution between the column and the base plate
and between the base plate and the concrete pedestal cannot be accurately
determined analytically. However, under an axial column load alone the bearing

larger loads,

pressure between the base plate and the concrete base

formly distributed. The

method

method of determining the limit stress,


is based on the assumption that if a
member
has been used for axial comof a

The anchor

maximum

bolts

is

total

NFj

downward

in the

is

assumed to be uni-

load on the foundation

is

the

anchor bolts and the column loads. The

usually not too large, and the effect of

is

sum of
size

neglected.

compressive unit pressure between the base plate and concrete

may be

of

The

is

used for bending:


This equation can only be used

KfJFa) + ifblFb )]

<

fJFa < 0.15

for

{(falFa )^[Cm fb l(\'fJF'e )Fb }}<\


For good design the expressions on the

left

for

if

Clab>P

practical cases, but the difference

fJFa >QA5.

where the anchor bolts

should be close to one. The value of

can be taken as 0.6Fyy the yield strength; the reduction factor Cm conservatively equals one. The allowable stress Fa as well as F'e can be obtained

Fig. 5.5
first

and

ref.

are

is

not required to

selected to suit the

column shape.

computed on the basis of wind or seismic loads in combination with dead loads.
The end conditions of the support legs, which specify the effective length factor
k, have to be evaluated by the designer and are subject to differences of opinion.
The bottom end of the leg is flat-ended and bearing against the foundation. The

moment
it

resistant. Theoretically,

such a

kicks out and bears only on one

edge instead of on the whole surface. In practice, a fla>ended column

>

is less

end than required for full fixity. The support leg can therefore
be approximated by a column with end conditions between one end guided,
the other at the base fixed (k = 1) and one end guided, the other end hinged
(k = 2). The value of k = 1.5 is recommended here. If the translation of the top

resist

is

true in

most

make possible a base plate


the moment Pj (cf/2), (see

108). Dimensions a and b in Fig. 5.5 for the base plate are

from the AISC Manual; they depend on the slenderness ratio kL/r
Fy The allowable unit stresses Fa> Fbi
kL/r
and
b and the yield strength
and F'e can be increased by one-third if the calculated stresses fa and fb are

equivalent to a fixed end, unless

(dl7)j(a bi6) since a tensile stress

small enough to

directly

anchor bolts are rarely designed to be

cannot develop between the base plate and the concrete. This

Fb

is

legs.

the principal stresses,

pression load, the remaining percentage

end

not overstressed and to accommo-

connection with angle support legs are too low and practical

the initial tensile load

This

certain percentage of the strength

flat

is

shop welded to the support

combined compressive stress


require that f should be no larger than the smaller
in
of the allowable values of Fa or Fb would certainly be conservative and easy to
apply. Specifications of some engineering companies do make this requirement,

now arises to what


column / be limited. To

question

k could be assumed.

Base plates are primarily used to distribute large, concentrated vertical loads into
date the anchor bolts.

column

in

a smaller value for

Base Plates

Compressive Stress in the Column:

f = fa+fb

149

restrained at the

section

Fig. 5.5.

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

150

The load

moment Pj(d/2)

and the

moment

base reacting

assumed to be counteracted by. the

K dimension

crete pedestal. Base plates

the uplift condition.

Ce=P>(d/2)
The required

are

Ce:

e=P

or

d/2C.

computed

Minimum

Leg-to-Shell Connecting

Weld

Under onerating conditions

in Fig. 5.5 is

in this

manner

base plate thickness

is

151

are usually satisfactory for

not

less

than 0.5

in.

Size

in Fig. 5.4, the shear in the

weld

is

J>3[(*/2)-]
The bending

and from

stress is

/-[(ca/2) + (ra/4)]/z Wf

K=C/(pbl2)
the bearing pressure

where Z w
combined

is

Pmax

=2CIKb<Fb

= 0.25

is

the linear section modulus of the weld (see Table 10.3).

stress in the

weld

Fb

is

the

Manual Section

Base-Plate

method

is

maximum
.5.5.

allowable bearing pressure on concrete, per

To determine

usually used

the

base

plate

[34]. First, the dimensions

thickness

and n

the

size

of the weld leg

Second, the projected portions

column base

plate thickness

is

0.80/1).

or n, depending

computed

as

uniformly loaded

on the position of the

as follows:

2
S b =MlZ = (pmV2)Ktll6) = (3pm )ltl
tb

=m (or )X(3p/5 6 )

1/2

is

Base-Plate

and n are considered

in Fig. 5.5 are

= \{a- 0.95d)

cantilever beams. Using the dimension

is

w=///w
where fw

n = \(b-

I-shape, the

The

AISC

computed:

l/2

A1SC

Otherwise the dimensions a and b have to be increased.

Thickness.

total

/=(/W 6)
where

The

is

the allowable unit force for

fillet

welds.

Attachment Weld

The column base plate and the column with milled end are in contact when
welded and the vertical force and moment are directly transferred from the
column into the base plate. If the column end is not milled the connecting
weld must transfer the entire column load into the base plate.
The uplift forces T0 and Te and the shear force Fare usually not large enough
to govern the weld size and the minimum size of \ in. continuous or intermittent weld

is

satisfactory.

in.

Stresses in the Shell

where S b is allowable bending stress for the plate material (for carbon structural
steel S b = 0.6 times the yield strength), and

p = C(2K
is

short vertical drums are usually welded to the shell in the region reinforced by
the end closure. In addition to the general longitudinal stress in the shell, high

m)ibK 2

the average bearing pressure acting across the projected length of m.

The computation assumes

that the base plate

is

Unfortunately, an exact, workable, analytical solution of the local stresses at


the leg-to-shell junction is not available at present time. The support legs for

in full contact

with the con-

localized stresses are

of the average

imposed on the

maximum

shell

stress in the shell

through the welded joint.


can be made

as follows.

An

estimate

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

152

Anchor Bolts

Size of

leg-to-shell

153

Anchor

bolts are designed to resist the uplift forces and to secure the legs in

position.

The shear load

Ab

tension area

per leg

is

is

small and

given

is

resisted

by

friction.

The required bolt

by

A b =(MNSa )[(4Mb !D b )-W]

in.

where

W = either operating weight W0


Sa =

or

empty weight We lb,


empty conditions
,

allowable tensile stress under operating or

N = number of leg supports.


If W> 4Mb /D b no uplift exists and

the

minimum

for bolt,

practical bolt size, usually

f -1 in., can be selected.


The approximate maximum

(a)

a-a in Fig. 5.6.

general longitudinal stress in shell at section

is

5.2.

2
Sl = (4MJirD tE) + (PDjAtE)

where

E is

the shell weld joint efficiency and


2

S L = (4MJnD
The maximum

(b)

section b-b

1)

P is

+ (WltnD)

Support Lugs without Stiffening Rings

in tension,

Support lugs

operating pressure, or

medium
in

5-2).

compression.

localized stress to cause buckling above the leg top at

is

They

are usually
is

ft)

and moderate height-to-diameter ratio (H/d-

supported on structural

steel or

columns.

If the operating

high, thermal expansion of the shell cannot be absorbed

by

tips

of the gusset

for axially loaded cylindrical shells

compression

where
l/a
L 2 = ft + 2(Rf)

is

the effective resisting length.


(c)

shell

The moment [(FL/4) + (Cd/2)] can be used for determining the


by method discussed in Chapter 7 or in ref. 105.

If the resulting stresses in the shell are

is

stresses in

too high, a reinforcement by rings or

forcing pads must be provided. Increased thickness of the

often sufficient to decrease the stresses.

bottom

the

supporting structure, and high stresses would consequently be induced in the


shell, special sliding bearing plates are provided to reduce friction (see Fig. A 4.1
Appendix A4). On small drums the top bar in Fig. 5.7 can be omitted. On larger,

heavy vessels high localized stresses would develop at the

=PjL 2 t

< maximum Code allowable stress

(Fig. 5.7) are limited to vertical pressure vessels with small to

diameters (1-10

temperature

Sc

in

(W/tirDE)

SUPPORT LUGS

reinSection a-a

shell section
Fig. 5.7.

Detail of support lug.

F=

load per lug

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

154

plates.

The base

plate has to

accommodate one

or several anchor bolts. It could

uniformly loaded rectangular plate with one edge free and


other three supported. The gusset plates can be assumed to be eccentrically
loaded plates. Combined stress in one gusset due to the load F/2 consists of

be

checked

stress

bending

stress

as a

and direct compressive

d = Rd sin a

(F/2)

and the

maximum

stress.

compressive stress

From

and

Fig. 5.7,

= F/2

sin

is

S c = {RjL ^^(eRelL^g).
The

gusset thickness tg

is

then given by

= F(3d- b)lSa b 2

sin

where 5a is the allowable stress in compression.


The top bar can be assumed to be a simple supported beam with uniformly
distributed load Fdjh. The bar thickness ta is then given by

S = 6Mlt a c2 =

Fig. 5.8.

effective

(6lta c )(Fdal8h)

drum diameter

for

wind loads:

wind pressure per foot of vessel height:

De = 12.5 ft
w = 40 X 0.6 X
= 300

or

4
ta

tugs required.

= QJ5(Fda)IS b c 2 h
1.

Wind

loads.

where
'

c=2

Sb =

in.

DESCRIPTION

min. and 8r max.

the allowable stress in bending for the bar material.

The weld attaching the lug to the

vessel carries the vertical shear load

Wind on vessel
300 lb X 10 ft
Wind on frame
40 X 8 ft X 3 ft
k
Trolley 2 X 7ft

F and

moment Fd,
Example

12.5

lb/ft

5.1. Design the support lugs for the vertical

drum shown

in Fig. 5.8,

SHEAR

ARM

(kips)

(ft)

(kips-ft)

3.0

15.0

1.0

15.5

15.5

Pipe thrust

5.0

15.0

75.0

Total at lug

9.0

14.0

with the following design data:

design pressure:

P - 420

design temperature:

psig

150F

shell plate allowable stress:

Sa = 15,000

structural steel allowable stress:

pressure:

40

psf,

Maximum F force on one lug.

psi

Sa = 20,000

weights: operating, W0 = \22 kips


empty,
We =47 kips

wind design

119.5

psi

> WT

shape coefficient 0.6

F=(4MlNdb ) + (W0 IN)


= (4X

19.5/4

= 41 kips.

12.3)

+ (122/4) = 9.7 + 30.5

155

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

156

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS


where allowable compressive

157

stress is

18,000

Sa =

Tj~\2

=9

'

885 P si

'

18,000 \r
(d) Size of the lug-to-shell weld:

/,

bending:

f2 = (41,000 X 15)/[15X 19 +

combined:

/=(/? +/1) ,/2 =

weld

w=

leg:

Use \

Fig. 5.9.

= F/L w = 41 ,000/(2 X 18 + 2 X 15) = 621

shear:

in. fillet

,640/0.55

weld both

lb/in.

2
(19 /3)] = 1,520 lb/in.

1,640 lb/in.

X (20,000 X

sides for

0.6) = 0.249.

top bar and base plate, \

in.

50 percent

intermittent for gusset plates.


4. Stresses in Shell (see

By

inspection, uplift

< 0.

minimum

Use

bolt size per lug =

in.

per lug.
3.
(a)

c = ^(1 5

Support lug

7).

X 20) I/2 =8.8,

0 = c/r = 8.8/57.7 = 0.1

5,

{Fig. 5,9).

y=

Base plate: Bearing pressure,

p = 41,000/12 X

Maximum

Chapter

diameter, one

15

=228

Maximum

r/t

bending

= 57.7/1. 625 = 35.5

stress:

psi.

a b -r
" Lt

stress in base plate [46]

o=Ppb 2/t 2 = 0.72 X 228 X


= 18,700 psi< 22,000

12 /1.125

Ml
~thf

= 0.355(41,000 X 15)/1.625 2 X 57.7 X 0.15

= 9,550

psi.

Combined

psi.

stress:

For 15/12 = 1.25.0 = 0.72.


(b)

Top

bar plate thickness:

ta

o = 9,550 + (420

=0.75 X 41,000 X 15 X 15/20,000 X 4 2 X 19


= 1.14

57. 8)/ 1 .625 = 24,490 psi

Supporting Lugs with Full Reinforcing Rings

in.

If stresses in the shell at the supporting lugs are too high

cannot
Use l -in .-thick plate 4
(c)

< 2Sa

in.

wide

satisfactorily

tionable (as

Gusset plate thickness:

on

be used, or

and a reinforcing pad

even a small deflection of the

shell

is

objec-

internally insulated piping), full circular reinforcing rings are

used.

As an additional safety
= 41,000(3 X 15

if

17)/9,885

X 17 2 X

sin

54=0.61in.

factor the stiffening effect of the adjacent shell zone

neglected and the required force and stress analysis

is

is

simplified. There are

SUPPORTS FOR SHORT VERTICAL VESSELS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

158

several disadvantages to reinforcing rings as

compared with reinforcing pads

much

increased shell wall thickness. Since rings are

introduce discontinuity stresses

shell

shell

is

shell,

or

they

pressurized. At high operating

fins

either low-carbon structural weldable steel or of the

The

than the

and have to be properly insulated. They protrude


and can interfere with piping or other equipment. Material used is

temperatures they act as

from the

when the

stiffer

159

same quality

as the shell.

following example will describe the design procedure for sizing the ring

stiffeners.

Example
is

5.2.

vertical, 72-in.-o.d., internally insulated pipe section (Fig. 5.10)

to be supported

on two

lugs

with

maximum

W~

load

10,000

lb.

Determine

the size of the stiffener rings.

Description of the Procedure.

The

vertical force

W/2 perlugcan be assumed

by the shear in the welds connecting the gusset plates to the pipe.
The moment Wdj2 is carried into the rings as the force P equal to Wd/2(h + t r )

to be resisted

No

acting in the plane of the ring curvature.


to the plane of the ring

is

assumed. (The ring design can be used

mum

is

subjected to equally spaced forces

momenta,

is

at the points

is

7\

Pin

its

T stresses
P forces act
x

The

resulting

combined

is

is

induced

a)!2 =

K 2 P.

forces act outward or in compression

if

=(TJa) + (MJZ x )<S a

the cross-section area of the ring stiffener and

modulus about the axis x-x in Fig. 5.11.


between the loads

the centroidal radius of the ring.

in the ring at the load points:

stress at the load point is

ax

where a

={Pco\

the ring bar in tension if

plane, the maxi-

equal to 2a. In addition to the bending

inward.

of loads given by

My = \PR[{M<x)- cota] = K PR
where

is

as a circular

perpendicular to the plane of the ring curvature.) The force P acts radially
outward on the lower ring and inward radially on the top ring, as shown in

bending

a tangent (axial) thrust

angle between the loads

loading in the plane perpendicular

girder for large-diameter storage tanks where they are designed to carry loads

Fig. 5.11. If a ring

The

moment M

is

the ring section


at

midpoints

is

M
the axial thrust

Zx

The bending moment

=(PR/2)[l/sino- (1/a)]

=K PR
3

is

T2 =(/ /2)(l/sina)=/T 4 /
and the combined

maximum

stress is

=(T2 la) + (M2 IZx )<Sa

o2

The
shear
point of support

coefficients

stresses

is

and K A are evaluated in Table 5.3. The direct


not algebraically additive to the bending and tension

K 2 K 3i

at the load point

and

is

usually small

enough to be disregarded. The computed

stress in

neglected; however,

Fig. 5.10.

Pipe section of Example 5.2.

between the base

plates.

Top

ring

is

continuous, bottom ring

is

continuous

the ring will be smaller than actual, since the shell effect is
additional
the forces P are transferred into the rings eccentrically, causing

160

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK


Values of

Table 5.3.

K lt K2 ,K z

and

KA

NUMBER OK

stresses.

SUl'l'OKTS

*>

0.318

0.0000

0.182

0.500

0.189

0.289

0.577

0.137

0.500

0.100
0.070

0.089

0.866

0.045

1.000

0.066

1.207

0.034

1.306

Substituting the numerical values h = 12

into the above equations:

the required

Zx

M,

in.

0.707

and d - 6

= 29,900/20,000 =

1.5 in.

3
.

in. at

load point

X 6/12) X 37.5 = 29,900 Ib-in. and


Use 3-in.-wide X -in. -thick ring.

= 0.318(5,000

6
Design of Saddle Supports for Large
Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure
Vessels

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

6.1.

Ideally, the saddle supports for long horizontal vessels should be located to cause

minimum

the

The

stresses in shell

and without required additional reinforcement.


is usually determined by the piping

actual location of the saddle supports

large horizontal cylindrical vessels are sup-

and platform layout. Most of the

ported by two saddles, preferably with 120 degree contact angle, usually on
concrete columns; sometimes the vessel can rest directly on two concrete piers.

Any

settlement of the supporting structure does not change the distribution of

the load per saddle. (If multiple supports are used the reactions at saddles are

computed from

the theory of continuous

as a safety factor for settling

The

cylindrical shell thickness

design pressure. Since the

maximum

the

beams and

increased

by 20-50 percent

of the supports.)
is

determined by the tangential stress due to the


longitudinal stress (PR/2t) is only half of

maximum

tangential stress, one-half the shell thickness

is

available for the

longitudinal bending stress due to weight or other loadings at the midspan or


in the plane of the saddles, assuming the vessel to behave as its own carrying

beam. The load must be transferred from the shell to the saddle. The saddle
reactions are highly concentrated and induce high localized stresses in the shell.
Their intensity changes with the distance of the saddles from the vessel end
closures

that

round. The

reinforce the shell with their

own

stiffness,

keeping the

shell

exact analytical solution of the localized stresses in the shell above

not at present available. The most fretheoretical conclusions supported by


with
quently used approximate analysis,
published
in ref. 53 and is substantiated in
measurements,
was
gauge
strain
the saddles

ref.

6.2.

102.

would be

The

difficult

discussion

and

it is

which follows

is

summary of this method.

MAXIMUM LONGITUDINAL BENDING STRESS

IN

THE SHELL

horizontal vessel resting on two supports can be analyzed as a

the uniform load of the weight of the vessel and

its

beam

resisting

contents by bending.
1C1

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

162

the expression in braces, depends on

assumed ineffective

The value of

portion of unstiffened

being the variable. All lengths are in feet

shell

2
modulus is taken as Z, =itr t
midspan is given by

in in.

^tUMjZi

3
;

and load

A\L with

in

163

the distance

pounds. The section

the resulting bending stress S,

at the

=\2QLKj4itr2 t

or
neutral

axis

B = angle of contact, degrees

H = depth of head,

ft.

b = width of saddle, in.


2A = effective portion of shell above

r
r
t

If

Schematic moment diagram

the total weight

is

2Q

ft.

- radius of shell, in.


= shell thickness, in.

= head thickness,
shell length,
r sin

in.

The maximum

stress

at

A/A

QL
4

+2[(R

{QLI4)

Maximum
and the equivalent length of the

midspan

maximum

compressive

vessel

is

taken as

6.1.

Longitudinal Bending Stress $[

-H

)IL

in

the Shell in the

Plane of the Saddle

The bending moment

in the plane

2Q

The maximum bend-

of the saddle

\2H

A2

^1

R2

equals:

H2]

+ [4///3Z,]

is

3
2

+ (4///3L)

lb-ft.

should not exceed the Code

It

(Courtesy of Welding Journal .)

8
2

(shell

lb.

."(HiG-')-T--^K-r)
L

bottom) or compression

either in tension (shell

is

stress for cylindrical shells.

If the shell section

L + 4tf/3

top).

Midspan
Longitudinal Bending Stress S! in the Shell at the

atmospheric pressure.

ft.

= load per one saddle,

The load and the moment diagrams are shown in Fig.


midspan.
ing moments occur over supports and at the

The bending moment

t psi.

dinal pressure stress

of the beam is w = 2QI[L +


L + (4/Z/3) in Fig. 6.1, then the weight per linear foot
only shear at the head-cylinder
(4/Z/3)]. The liquid in the heads can cause
force couple acting on the head.
a
adding
by
for
corrected
be
junction; this can

Maximum

lTir

Allowable Stress Limits.

= radius of shell,

L =
xQ =

Fig. 6.1.

The tensile stress +5j combined with the longituPR/2t should not exceed the allowable tensile stress of the
compressive
shell material times the efficiency of the girth joints. The maximum
under
stress -Sj occurs when the vessel is filled with the operating liquid and

saddle, rad.

(b)

=3QLK

Section a-a

Loads and reactions

(a)

2
)

4
A
4^4

above the saddle

is

unstiffened and forced to deflect, the

high local tangential bending

saddle render this sec-

tion ineffective in

arc of the unstiffened

shell in

bending

is

moments at the horn of the


bending to some degree. The effective

assumed to be

and the

effective section

modulus

Z2

can be determined from Fig. 6.1

164

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

Z2

165

The value of K[ the expression in the braces, varies mainly with the ratios ,4/Z,
and tf/Z, and the angle A. Both K and K[ can be plotted as constants for cerfor A"J and /?/L = 0.09
tain set of conditions. Assuming H = 0 for K and H =
as a maximum value, the values of K and A"J are plotted in Fig. 6.2.
If the shell is stiffened by a ring stiffener in the plane of the saddle or by
rings adjacent to the saddle, or if the saddle is close enough to the end closure

-lie,

A+

sin

A cos A

- (2 sin 2

A/ A)

r[(sin

A/ A) - cos A]

2
7rr

A+

sin

'[

A cos A

7r[(sin

- (2 sin 2

A/A)

A/A)- cos A]

(A
for the tension side.

The

stress

S[

is

<R/2)

tion

then

the effective angle 2 A extends over the entire cross section, the sec-

modulus

is

S[=\2M 2 /Z 2
3QL {4^4

"ir**fU
7r

A+

~H

)I2Al

l+(4/f/3L)

[
(sin

["

2
\-(AlL) + (R

sin

A/ A) - cos

A cos A -(2

= +3QLKllirrl t

sin

and the

maximum

stress

is

S[

11

psi.

A/A)jj
The

Allowable Stress Limits.


psi.

=\2M2 lnr2 t
tensile stress

S[ combined with the pressure

should not exceed the allowable tensile stress for the shell material
multiplied by the joint efficiency of the girth seam. Maximum compressive stress
S[ should be less than the Code allowable stress in compression.
stress

PR fit

6.3.

MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESSES

The

IN

THE PLANE OF THE SADDLE

distribution and the magnitude of the shear stresses in the shell produced

how

the vessel weight in the plane of the saddle will depend a great deal on

by
the

shell is reinforced.

Shell Stiffened

the

Head {A

If the shell

by a Ring

>

R/2)

is

made

effectively resist

The load
in

in

The shear

rigid

Plane of the Saddle

enough with a

Away from

stiffener the

whole

cross section will

the load-induced shear stresses.

section a-a and

V -Q

in the

Fig. 6.3.
is

the total vertical load

is

on the

left side

of the ring

equal to

{2Qj[L + (4Z//3)]} {A + H) - Q(L

2A

H)I(L + H).

force across the section per unit length of arc (shear flow)

directly with the central angle

0 and

is

given by

q 0 = Ksin

<plnr lb/in.

q0

varies

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

166

167

^max. q 0 = Vhr

Fig. 6.4.

Assumed

saddle.
distribution of shear stresses in an unstiffened shell above the

(Courtesy of Welding Journal.)

Fig. 6.3.

Shear diagram lor shell stiffened with a ring in the plane of the saddle. (Courtesy
effective

of Welding Journal)

cross

2(tt- a) in

The

section

is

2A = (2*/ 180) [(0/2) +

assumed to be

Fig. 6.4. The shear diagram

is

the

same

(0/20)]

or

as for the stiffened shell,

the saddle equal to


with the summation of the vertical shear on both sides of
total vertical load

is

the load Q:

The shear

stress at

S2

any point adjacent to the

stiffener will

The maximum value

A" 2

With load

V on

one

side

2A

__j slM= ^l^___

(sin 0)/tt

2 sin 0,

occurs at 0 = 90 degrees and

K2

- l/n =

0.3192^-2^-^1

Q sin 02

and the shear

>

R/2)

or Shell Reinforced

L-2A-H
L+H

2A

H)I(L + H)]

psi

by Two Ring

Stiffeners Adjacent to the Saddle

Again the effective cross section of the shell resisting the shear stresses

maximum

is

stress is

S 2 = (K'2 Qlrt)[(L
Not Stiffened by the Head {A

j,
0 2 dfa =>.

of the saddle, the shear force

r(n - a + sin a cos a)

to be reduced, with the

rsin

Ksin 0 2
r(ir- a + sin a cos a)

0.319, hence

Shell

be

=Qolt= Vsm^/nrt
L

is

taken

shear at the tip of the saddle. The arc of the

where K'2 = sin 0 2 /(tt - a + sin a cos a). The maximum value of K 2 occurs
= 120 degrees, K 2 =1.171 and for B = 150 degrees, K\ =0.799.
0 2 = a, for 0

The angles

in

formulas with trigonometric functions are in radians.

at

Shell Stiffened

the saddle

If

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

168

head.

is

<

by Heads {A

in the shell plate

R/2)

end closure the

close to the

large part of the load

shell

is

169

and

stiffened on the side of the

inducing the tangential shears

will

rt h

be carried

across the saddle to head and back to the head side of the saddle, with an

assumed distribution

shown

as

head

in the

in Fig. 6.5.

forces q 3 due to the saddle reaction


shell slightly larger than the contact angle 0/2

The shear

arc resisted

by an arc

tt

plate,

where

of the saddle and arc acting

/sin

4*2

upward.
forces in the reinforced section q

components of both shear

tants of the vertical

arc acting

downward. The

sin

a+

/ \rr -

The shear

a-

\(

or

sin

a.

a cos

ctl

cos

resul-

forces must be equal:

The value of K\' is maximum when 0 2 = <*. For 6 = 120


K\ =0.880; for 0= 150 degrees, maximum X"'2 =0.485.

degrees,

maximum

'

(Q---^-^

(S j n

0j )rd(p

=
]

Q{a

- sin

or

cos a)lu

Allowable Stress Limits,

J"

The tangential shear

should not exceed 0.8

stress

times the allowable stress in tension.


^

2.

The shear

a-

lQ$$i\(

sin

o cos a

\
(sin

nr

\n

a+

stress in the shell arc

sin

a cos a/

from a

to

rdfa = Q(a

2 )

sin

a cos

or)/*.

CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS AT THE HORN OF THE SADDLE

6.4.

is

i\

<J>

given

The saddle reaction

by

causes tangential shear forces in the shell cross section in

the plane of the saddle, as evaluated in the previous section. These forces origi-

Iq

^ _
2

sin
7r/7

<fi

\ /
/

7r

sin

a+

ot

cos

nate tangential bending

a
j

sin

a cos a7

maximum
moments

bending

moments and bending

in

maximum

an approximate solution can be derived for

and

shell

Af0 =

moment^

|cos0
Qr

at

any angle

an unstiffened

6(sin0/0)

(sin 0/0) cos

The moment

M$

is

maximum

at

j3

0=

--(cos0-

is

cos/3

sin

/A

+ 2 cos 2 g
-

11
2

'

(sin 0/0) J J

0:

M& =Kt Qr
The shear

the

by

given

<p is

3 sin/3

0
-sm0-.

4-

shell,

stresses in

by its end closure (see Fig. 6.6).


portion of uniform cross section fixed at the saddle horns,

In the ring

K6

with the

a shell reinforced

circumferential

where

stresses in the shell,

of the saddle. Using the solution for bending


a ring with symmetrically applied tangential forces (q = Q sin <p/-nr)
stress at the tips

the expression in braces divided

lb-in.

by

it,

with 0 substituted for

<p.

forces in an unstiffened shell are not distributed as in a stiffened

but are more concentrated at the

tip

shear stresses but smaller bending stresses.

of the saddle, giving bigger tangential

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

170

To

in the shell in

fictitious resisting

width of

M$

shell plate

is

taken as equal to 4r or 1/2, whichever

Fig. 6.7.

0.7

0.6

0.5

and to bring the resulting


agreement with the actual measured stresses, a

be able to utilize the derived equation for

bending stresses

is

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

0.8

Plot of circumferential bending

1.0

0.9

moment

1.1

coefficient AT 3 for

1.3

171

maximum

stress at

saddle horn. (Courtesy of Welding Journal.)

smaller.

Further, to include the reinforcing effect of the head, the coefficient

equation forMp was adjusted to

K3

K6

in the

of the saddle, since the reaction

liberal value

The

is

located at the tip of the saddle. (A more

of QJ&\frt each side of the saddle instead of St can be used [125]

resulting direct stress

sc -

where

K = K6
K 3 =KJ4
2

>

for

A/R

for

A/R< 0.5

The

resulting

bending

plot of

Q
'

4/(* +

10f)

sum of the two stresses is maximum when compressive, pressure


do not add to the above stresses. The resulting combined maximum
the saddle horn is given in psi by

Since the
stresses
stress at

gradually increasing between the two values.

.)

is

is

shown

in Fig. 6.7

S* m

stresses in psi are

~
A
+ 10?)
4t(b

Allowable Stress Limits.


exceed

^
2f

forL>8*

The computed maximum

.25 times the allowable stress for materials

stress

with equal

53

should not

tensile

and com-

pressive yield strength.

The compressive stress due to the direct reaction P has to be added and was
assumed to be equal to QjA for shells without stiffeners. However, the resisting
width of the shell wall was taken only as the saddle width plus St on each side

Note

l.

5 3 may be reduced by using a wear plate between the saddle flange and the
The combined thickness of the wear plate and the shell can be used in the above

Stress

vessel shell.

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

172

The maximum

stress

width of
the wear plate extends O.lOr in. above the saddle tips and the minimum
should not exceed the
the wear plate is (b + 1 Or) in. The thickness of the added wear plate

sure stress in the head should not be larger than

shell thickness

able stress in tension for the

formulas

Note

if

2.

Due

t.

to the high concentrated local stresses at the saddle horns, weld

shell

should be located away from them.

6.5.

ADDITIONAL STRESSES

seams

Allowable Stress Limits.

flat

RING COMPRESSION

To compute

replaced by a

become varying

disk, the stresses

tension stresses

across the entire vertical cross section, permitting an approximate solution applicable to practical design purposes.

IN

in Fig.

6i

(cos0,)/"d0,

stress in the shell

band.

The maximum compression

be at the bottom at

will

\ffr

= (2/2) [sin 2

The

total force

is

be equal to H/2rt h

a/(7r -

resisted
.

^7

Lrr - Of

a+

sin

sin

cos a

<p 2

Assuming

7r.

The saddle reacO and do not

above that point

of the saddle

(<p

summation of

,4 at

an angle 0

The summation of the

- a).

in the shell

tangential shear forces

on the

shear forces at both

is

<t>

+ cos

a)/(7T -

a+

sin

cos a)]

)rd<i>:

cos a)]

by the area 2rt h and the average tension

maximum

the

<p

are perpendicular to the shell passing through the center

contribute to the shell compressive stress.


The total ring compressive shear force at any point

sides

(cos

with the

between the

and the saddle flange is assumed.


The sum of the tangential forces acting at both edges of the saddle on the shell
band directly over the saddle, as shown in Fig. 6.8, cause a ring compression

Tq = Q[(-cos

Sm

in contact

reactions a frictionless contact

shell

shell arc

^-sin^

band

the compression stresses in the shell

over the saddle will be equal to the

H=

allow-

THE SHELL OVER THE SADDLE

saddle and corresponding saddle

tions

The summation of the horizontal components across the section y-y


is equal to the resultant force H:

the pres-

maximum

head material.

A HEAD USED AS A STIFFENER

IN

The shear forces q and <? 3 in Fig. 6.5 have variable horizontal components
whjch cause additional secondary stress additive to the pressure stress. The induced stress in disheo heads would be a combination of direct membrane and
bending stresses and therefore difficult to evaluate analytically. However, if the
is

.25 times the

in the

6.6.

head

S 4 combined with

173

stress to

be

stress will

times the above

average stress, then

S4 =

(1 .5/2rr)(G/2)[sin

a+

sin

cos a)]

or

SA

=K 4 Qlrt h

where

Kt

(sin

a)/(;r -

a+

sin

a cos

a).

For 6 = 120 degrees,/^ =0.401, and for d = 150 degrees,

A" 4

=0.297.

Fig. 6.8.

Compressive load in

shell

and saddle reactions. (Courtesy of Welding Journal.)

174

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

with the

maximum

value at 0 -

T-

or

ir:

= Q(l + cos

a+

ct)l(ir -

sin

F = KS Q

cos a) lb.

where for d = 120 degrees,


If the effective resisting shell

compression

width

is

taken

maximum

b + lOf, the

as

stress in

is

Q
s

t(b +

175

+ cos a

100 L ff

a + cos a

"

=0.204, and

for 6 =

150 degrees,

K8

=0.260.

The effective resisting cross-sectional area of the steel saddle or of the reinforcing steel in a concrete support should be within r/3 distance from the shell.
Allowable Stress Limits. The average tension stress due to the force F should
not exceed two-thirds of the allowable tension stress of the saddle material, since
the tangential bending stresses which have been neglected tend to increase the

sin

Ks

total splitting force.

or

Ss

where for 6 = 120 degrees,

/C s

=K

Qlt(b + \Qt)

psi

6.7.

= 0.760 and for 6 = 150 degrees,

= 0.673.

DESIGN OF RING STIFFENERS

If the

stresses

due to the saddle reactions become excessive and wear plate

dimensions too large, a ring stiffener in the saddle plane (preferred) or two

The maximum

Allowable Stress Limits.

exceed one-half the yield strength and

is

compressive

stress

S s should not

not additive to the pressure

used the combined thickness with the shell thickness can be used
for computing stress S s provided the wear plate extends r/10 in. beyond the
horn and its minimum width is (b + 10/) in.
From the tangential shear forces 7^ the radial saddle reactions R^ can be

wear plate

ring stiffeners adjacent to the saddle are used.

stress. If

is

Stiffener in the Plane of the Saddle

derived:

R<t>

(CM [(-cos 0

+ cos

= (G/'HO + cos /(

The horizontal component of


saddle with the

maximum

Fr =

r
Jp

[*
L

'

Fat

'cos
Q
x+
~ T
r{n- p + sin
<p

+ cos

(sin

sin

distribution of the tangential shears transmitting the weight

known and shown

in Fig. 6.9.

by shear

induced

in

moment

occurs at 0 = 0:

the ring

forces

is

M^K

cos 0)]

For 0 =

The equation

7r

the reac-

where for 6 = 120 degrees,

K6

for the

given in Section 6.4.

Q into

the ring

moment M0
The maximum

bending

Qr

=0.0528, and

for 6 =

150 degrees,

K6

=0.0316.

will

cause tension across the

the vertical centerline:

cos
(3

(3

is

0 + sin 0 cos 0)]

the reaction

splitting force

(3

for the angle a.

where the angle 0 was substituted


becomes maximum:

in lb/in.,

tion

(3)/( ff -

The

j3

^ (sm 0)r
.

Ja
cty

cos 0J

g)/2 I

7r~|3 + sin0cos/3

Fig. 6.9.

Forces acting on stiffening ring in plane of saddle. (Courtesy of Welding Journal.)

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

176

The

direct tangential force

Pp

Q
*
ir

where A/,

is

Ps

at the

point of

sin/3

/3

the bending

moment

at

<f>

is

given

max. R

by

min. 10r+6

cos0

ii - cos 0 +
c
- cos (J)
r(l
J
L 2(1
f

Ma

,__

- cos/3)

(M*p

M...

t)

= 0 or

i_
where for 0 = 120 degrees,

177

= 0.340, and for 0 = 150 degrees,

tf 7

=0.303.

2
Assuming the size of the reinforcing ring of a cross-sectional area a(in. ) and
3
combined
stress
in
the
ring,
of .the section modulus Z =//c in. of the ring, the
=
maximum at
j3, is

Fig. 6.10.

line

and

is

Two

stiffeners adjacent to the saddle.

given by

<l>

Mp =K' Qrln
6

S 6 ='(Ps Ia)[MQ l(I/c)]

where for d = 120 degrees, K'6 =0.0577, for 6 = 150 degrees,^ =0.0353, and
n is the number of rings used. The maximum tangential thrust Pp is given by

or

5 6 =-(tf 7 e/fl) lK 6 Qrl(!lc)]


The added

ring, usually

Pp =K'1 Q/im

psi.

of uniform cross-sectional area,

is

attached by welding

to the outside of the shell, so as not to obstruct the flow or prevent cleaning,

where for B = 120 degrees, K'n =0.265, for 6 = 150 degrees, K'n =0.228, andn
is

the

number of rings

The maximum combined

used.

and to the saddle horns.


S'6

Allowable Stress Limit.

The

stress

S6

in

stress in the ring

is

^-(Pp lna)[Mp ln(Jlc)]

compression should not exceed one-

half the yield strength in compression; the stress

S6

in tension,

with added pres-

or

sure tensile stress, should not exceed the allowable stress in tension.

S'^-iK'yQln^tlK'tQrMUc)}
The allowable

Stiffeners Adjacent to the Saddle

stress limit

is

the same as for the ring in plane of the saddle. -The

K coefficients for the above formulas are summarized in


The arrangement of two

Table 6.1

reinforcing rings adjacent to the saddle, for instance

for a thin-wall cylindrical vessel

supported directly on concrete

piers,

is

seldom
6.8.

used.
If the stiffeners are placed close to the saddle (see Fig. 6.10) the rings will

reinforce

psi.

the shell section between.

The

DESIGN OF SADDLES

Design Remarks

tangential shear stresses will be dis-

tributed in rings as in Fig. 6.3, in section a-a,

on the

However, the shear distribution on the saddle

side

side

away from

the saddle.

shown in Fig. 6.4 for unstiffened shells.


The maximum bending moment in the rings occurs near

The design loads

for the saddle supports are the operating weight,

combined

be

with wind or earthquake loads, the friction force between saddles and founda-

the horizontal center-

sion or contraction of the vessel shell if the operating temperature varies from

above the saddle

will

tion,

similar to that

and the

test

weight (see Fig. 6.11). The friction force

is

caused by expan-

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

Z co W
OJ
-Oq

179

<
y
H<

to

Earthquake P or

wind load

P_

C2C

>
H to fi
w
^w*
a: 0
5 - -

p.

2G

'o<2

weight

<

friction

force

z o-*
s
u.

z
uj
23

Elevation

*>

Fig. 6 1
.

to

Side view

^
1

Design loads for horizontal vessel support saddles.

atmospheric temperature. For small, temperature-induced, shell-length changes,


saddles with the supporting structure can be made strong and flexible enough

ow

to resist the thermal forces. However,

if a larger temperature movement of the


expected, a special self-lubricating bearing plate with a low friction
coefficient f0 must be provided to reduce the expansion forces. A typical
ar-

is

vessel

is

<z

rangement

I*to
Q

Usually, unless the location specially requires it, the wind load can be disregarded in computations. If the stresses due to wind or earthquake loads
are

<

is

shown

in Fig.

added to the other load

A4.2 Appendix A4.

stresses

the allowable stresses can be increased

by

one-third.
ft

d5
aL co

Material.

A
<

Steel plate materials

283 grade

or C, or for

able design stresses per

tension:

Z<

C 3

3 C C

bending:

t
^ r .pb

a5w*

stiffeners,

maximum

Saddle support components: the top flange, the web, the


and the base plate with connecting welds are investigated for the

stresses.

The wear plate between the top flange and the


Wh

-J UJ

O
QO

<Z

to

5
=5

=
1
to O

local concentrated stresses in the shell wall,


vessel.

<
ft r* ~i

5"

If
I*

*^

Li.

vi

516. Allow-

Stress analysis.

.is?

z"
O

a;

S b =0.66S v

II

<

construction of saddles are

Ss = OASyt

shear:

3 " E

2 to* O

in

Specifications:

S a =Q.6Sy

V*
.

AISC

commonly used

low design temperature (below 32F)

is

vessel, if

added to reduce the

considered to be a part of the

'

Top flange. The design width of the top flange varies from 8 to 18 in. For
computation of the thickness tfi the flange can be considered as one-inch cantilever strip of length b/2 or more accurately c. However, with
stiffeners and web

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

180

are as follows:

The design data


design pressure:

181

= 200 psig

design temperature:

300F

X-ray: full

saddle width: b = 12 in.

corrosion allowance: | in.


material: shell,

saddle,
vessel weight:

welded to the flange,


sides fixed

thickness

and one

tf, see ref.

The web

The

free.

latter

approach

carries the compressive load

Stiffeners reinforce the flange, the

weight and bending

is

more

from the weight

as well as

any bending

is

lb

A/L = 5/60 = 0.0833


Rfl. =6.05/60 = 0.10
Fig. 6.13.

(a) Stresses in shell.

web, and the base

plate.

moment

diameter and \

s =
'

due to the thermal expansion force at the saddle

in.

minimum

(1)

Maximum

longitudinal stress due to bending

at

the

Together with the

to be short columns, carrying the vertical load due to

for vessels

2ML .
nr

2
t

+ 3(0.65)(300,000)(60)
2
'
7T(72.625) (1)

6.12),
vessels

taken from Fig. 6.2. Longitudinal stress

in shell

due to pressure:

with diameter larger than

ft.

Base Plate.

lb

midspan:

The approximate number of stiffeners is /V = (m/24) + 1 (see Fig.


including the out-stiffeners. The stiffener thickness is \ in. minimum for
ft in

empty = 130,000
liquid =470,000

refined and gives a smaller

base.

52 and 109.

web they can be taken

to

60

gr.

can also be assumed as consisting of plates with three

it

due to thermal expansion force or earthquake.

up

gr.

total weight = 600,000 lb


load per saddle: Q = 300,000 lb
saddle angle of contact: 6 - 120 degrees

Typical detail of saddle support for large horizontal vessels.

Fig. 6.12.

SA 516
SA 283

SE =

Compressive bearing pressure between the base plate and concrete

assumed to be uniform and limited by the allowable bearing pressure on the


t b is computed the same way as the thick-

concrete foundation. The thickness

Total

(P/2t)(r + 0.6/) = (200/2

combined

1)(72.1 25 + 0.6) = 7,273 psi.

stress:

ness for the flanges.

Anchor

bolts.

Since the wind

moment

is

minimum

quake

7,213 + 2,120 = 9,333

not large enough to cause an uplift,

of the anchor bolts f -1 in. can be used to locate the saddles.


However, they must be designed to overcome any thermal expansion or earththe

psi

<

5,000

psi.

size

(2) Tangential shear stress in plane of saddle,^

>R/2,K'2

.171

forces.
'

Generally, the flange-to-shell weld

Welds,

is

continuous

all

around. Welds

connecting web to flange, web to base plate can be intermittent. Welds connecting stiffeners to the flange and to the base plates are continuous. Usually, the

minimum weld
Example
plate

6.1.

sizes

Determine

in.)

(a) the

maximum

stresses in shell,

and (b) the required


drum shown in

S *~

based on plate thicknesses are satisfactory.

thicknesses for the support saddle for the horizontal

Fig. 6.13.

'

(3) Circumferential

K'7Q\L-2A~h ]
rt

= 3,220

psi

bending

at

(1.171)(300,000)

L+H

< 0.8 X

15,000 = 12,000

(72.625)(1)

60 + 6

psi.

horn of saddle AjR = f = 0.833,


L = 60 > 8/? = 48,

reduce the stress use \-in. thick wear plate.

60-10-6

A" 3

= 0.041

To

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

182

S* ~
=

3K 3 Q

Q
"

4/(6+100
2,450

1 1

2t

,808 =

"

"

14,258

'

2(1

(4)(1 .25)(24.5)

< - 2SS a
1

(b) Saddle design.

3 (0.041) (300,000 )

300,000

.25

(-

25f

5,000) =

Q
-

18,750

"

[ir -

psi.

Ring compression

in shell over the saddle,

flange thickness

cos g

B + cos

300,000/
(4)

Top

(6)

(3

0.5 \

[it -

73.5

sin (3J

K$ = 0.760:

tf.

300,000

183

tt

+ (0.8 66) (-0.5)

101 .

Bending moment:

Mb = (PJb)(bl2)(bl4)=Pv bl& = (3,318)(12)/8 = 4,980


(5) Stresses in shell

lb-in.

due to temperature expansion (Fig. 6.14):


Flange thickness:

Expansion:

A/ = a/A7

= 7.10 X 10" 6

X 50 X

12 X (300- 70) = 0.98 in.


t

Provide lubrite plates at one saddle as shown

in Fig.

= (6MISa y 12 = [(6)(4,980)/(0.66)(30,000)]

1'

= 1.228

in.

A2, Appendix A4.


Use 1.25-in.-thick plate.

fQ ~

Friction coefficient:

Shear force

at the saddle base:

fQ

a=\X

r sin 60/ rad

60 = 60

friction force

/0 Q,

in addition

to the weight Q,

is

in.

minimum.

min. radius of gyration k = 0.289 t w

in

Bending moment f0 Q(%4 - x 0 ) = 30,000 X 24 = 720,000 lb-in. is counteracted


by the weight of the vessel, Qbjl. Use 8 1 \ -in .-diameter anchor bolts.
At the sliding saddle the nuts on bolts are hand tight and secured by tack
welding, while the nuts and bolts at the fixed-end saddle are fully pretightened.

The

thickness. Use i-in.-thick plate

maximum

Calculate the

allowable height A of a l-in.-wide strip column -in. thick under P. Area

XQ = 30,000 lb.
x0 ~

Web

(7)

0.10.

From

18,000

We

1+

l8 ,000 \kl

get

h = r w [(l,500//) 7r )(18 000/ w

transmitted into the

supporting structure.

Pn ))

!' 2

= 0.5[(1,500/3,318)(18,000X 0.5

= 25

in.

> 8.25

3,318)]

1/2

in.

centroid of

(8) Base plate thickness.

Maximum

S=M/Z =

stress:

(Ql2m)(bl2)l(tU6)

or
tb

Use

Fig. 6.14.

= [(Q^)/26,400m]

-in .-thick plate.

/2

= [(300,000)(12)/(26,400)(1 15)]

l'2

Bearing pressure:

300,000/(1 2)(1 15) = 220

psi

< 750

psi allowable.

in

184

(9)

DESIGN OF SADDLE SUPPORTS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

Maximum horizontal

185

splitting force:
O.R. vessel

F = K&Q = (0.204)(300,000) = 61 ,200 lb.


Area required of bottom cross section:

F/(0.66X 18,000) =

5.5 in.

2
.

Area available (Fig. 6.15):

(a)

Flexible construction

Fig. 6.16.

12

Support Saddles of Nonrigid Construction.

Fig. 6.15.

In reference 153 a rigorous analysis of local stresses at saddle supports, welded

(12)(1) = 12

in.

to vessel shell or loose, has been developed

4.12

(0.5)(8.25)=

(12)(1.25) = 15.00

31.12

in.

On

this basis several conclusions

1.

= (73.5)(2)(tt/3) + (2)(12) = 178'in.

shear in weld = 30,000/178 = 170 lb/in.

if

and 128)

give

nonrigid saddles are used. In case of very rigid saddles, (Fig.

6.1

6b) the predicted stresses at the saddle horns underestimate the actual stresses.

2.

High circumferential and longitudinal bending stresses occuring near the saddle

horns can be significantly reduced by designing the saddle cantilever sections as


flexible (Fig. 6.16a). Clearly, the cantilever saddle sections

all

compared

can be made:

currently used analyses of stresses at saddles (references 53

The

reasonable results

Use -in. weld

results

(10) Welds connecting flange with wear plate.

total length

and the computed

with the experimental values.

around.

must be structurally

adequate and designed to take the load. They could be made flexible enough not
to rigidly restrain the vessel shell and so introduce a better distribution of strains

(11) Stiffeners.

N = m/24 +1=6

and

stresses

around the saddle horns.

An

additional advantage of this type of

would be a need for smaller sized steel or concrete supports. The latter
reason led some engineering companies to utilize this construction.
3. The vessels subject to steady operating pressure have enough built-in strength
saddles

including the end stiffeners. Spacing: about 23

=0.5

in.

to carry high peak horn stressed in excess of the estimated stresses to be consid-

in.

ered safe. However, the high peak horn stresses may


Notes to saddle design computations. (I) A more accurate estimate of plate thicknesses
and some resulting savings could be obtained by using more refined analytical procedures
instead of simplifications made in the above; however, it is questionable whether additional
work is justified in view of all assumptions that have to be made. (2) Structural steel is a
comparatively cheap material. If the utmost use is made of the material, any later changes
in the

design arc

bound

to

be very costly or the safety factor

will

have to be reduced.

become important

for vessels

subject to cyclic operating pressures. Generally, the use of very rigid saddles,

which

result in very high

horn stresses, as shown

4. Circumferential stresses

in Fig. 6.1 6b,

under the saddle flange are low.

should be avoided.

LOCAL STRESSES

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

187

v-1

7
Local Stresses

in

Shells

Due

to

Loads on Attachments

nozzle wall, or by using


locally

INTRODUCTION

In addition to the stress concentrations at the shell openings induced


internal

shell thickness required for

opening:

by

the

operating pressure, the localized stress effects of external loadings

A =dX

structural attachments such as supporting lugs are of

on nozzles and

acting

heavier plate for the entire shell section or inserted

wind, weight, or earthquake loads in addition


pressure cannot be used for reinforcement
needed
for
to the shell thickness
other sort of reinforcement.
for
any
conditions,
or
operating
under
Standard practice in vessel design is to replace all removed metal area by an

Any

7.T.

around the opening.

primary importance.

where

High, concentrated stresses at such attachments due to combined internal


pressure and local external loadings such as piping reactions on nozzles, can be a

source of

proper reinforcement

failures if

is

not supplied. These stresses must,

therefore, be evaluated. Because of the lack of geometrical


theoretical analysis of such localized stresses

design work.

is

symmetry

complete

too complicated for practical

fully satisfactory analytical solution has

not yet been accom-

plished at the present time.

= the

total cross-sectional area of reinforcement required

d = the diameter of the


t

= the nominal

finished opening (corroded)

shell thickness, less corrosion allowance.

provided that the Code allowable stress for nozzle

Code allowable

stress for the vessel wall

Sv

If

Sn

is

Sn is equal or larger than the


smaller than S v then the area

of reinforcement required becomes:

limits present theoretical analyses provide the designer

However, within certain


with adequate design

criteria.

The methods described

A =dxtr XF + 2tn t r (l

and

in sections 7.3, 7.4,

SJSV )

7.6 can be used whenever external loads are transmitted into the shell, under
internal pressure or

no

pressure,

by

a nozzle or a clip.

The procedures

are not

applicable to shells with external design pressure, where shell buckling

occur.

7.2.

where

may
tr

= the required

tn

= the nominal nozzle

REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS FOR OPERATING PRESSURE

Openings

have to be reinforced for operating pressure (external or

in vessel shells

= (Nozzle

F = the

Code rules, which specify within certain limits the


amount of removed metal by the opening to be replaced. It must be adequate

internal) in compliance with

tall

column

is

the reinforcement of

to be hydrotested in a vertical position in the field,

all

openings must be sufficient for the

location. Essentially, the

weakened area

by a separate, welded reinforcing pad, by


an increased amount of weld metal, by excess thickness in the shell and the
is

usually provided

o.d. - d)/2

correction factor from Fig. UG-37,

when an

integral reinforcement

is

used.
in

mind

for design of efficient

reinforcing pads.

test pressure at the

reinforcement provides sufficient strength for the

to prevent excessive stress intensification around the opening.

Reinforcement

thickness, less corrosion allowance

There are three important points to keep

for the design temperature and the design pressure.


If a

shell thickness

1.

Do

not over-reinforce. Adding more material than required creates a too


vessel, and large secondary stresses due to shell restraint can

"hard" spot on the

be produced in consequence.

LOCAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

188

Place the reinforcing material adjacent to the opening for effectiveness.

2.

Code section

1.7.

recommends placing two-thirds of the recfuired reinforcement

within a distance d/4 on each side of the opening.

Use generous

3.

transition radii (r 1

and

r 2 in Fig. 7.1)

the nozzle to minimize stress concentrations resulting

between the

from

shell

and

most

In

instances, the

moment M
From Section

stress

r 2 has a large influence

on the

resulting

main governing

the biaxial principal stresses at the o.d. of the nozzle, o t

3.1

>

peak

stresses.

The

Oi-ox -Kn

x ~ coordinate

y=

bending moment Af,

3.

torque

Nx

K^

6MX
p

in longitudinal direction of shell.

coordinate in tangential (circumferential) direction of shell.

Ny = tangential stress resultant, lb/in.

Ib-in./in.

Nx

= longitudinal stress resultant, lb/in.


x = longitudinal moment, lb -in ./in.
K b = stress concentration factors depending on the material and geometry
of the junction. For static loads, K n and K b may be taken as equal

4. shear force V.

The shear

My = tangential (circumferential) moment,

(+ outward, - inward),

2.

6My

where

the following main external loads (see Fig. 7.2):


radial load

-oy -Kn

ot

concentration factors at nozzles on a spherical shell subjected to internal

SPHERICAL SHELLS OR HEADS WITH ATTACHMENTS

with the bending

a grossly discon-

nozzle (or any other attachment) on a hemispherical head can be subjected to

stresses are associated

189

and o L can be expressed by the following general equations:

pressure are plotted in ref. 57.

7.3.

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

(including Va) and the radial force P.

tinuous junction under internal pressure. The results of tests show that even a

minor outside radius

IN

stress in the shell at the

nozzle o.d. due to the torque

7 is

to one, since the peak stresses exceeding the yield point are redist = (T/r 0 )/2nr 0 t

and the

maximum

= Tl2irr 20 t

shear stress in shell due to the force

tributed in ductile materials as used in vessel construction.

Nx

The stress resultants Ny and


computed using thin-shell theory

V is

retical results are

r = V/nr 0 t.

and the bending moments


To be of practical

in ref. 54.

My

and

Mx

are

use, these theo-

expressed as a dimensionless general shell parameter plotted

The graphs are updated in ref. 56, which is


computing the stresses around attachments in
However, the designer is chiefly interested in

against the attachment parameter.

These are usually small enough to be disregarded.

spherical

mean

radius of the corroded spherical head

r0 = outside nozzle radius

n = nozzle neck corroded thickness


t = head corroded thickness
tp = reinforcing pad thickness; if used,
additive to head thickness t in
computations

to simplify

maximum

designers for

and cylindrical

maximum

the

by

currently used

shells.

adequate reinforcement. In order


computation the following steps can be taken to determine the
stresses in order to provide an

stresses adjacent to the

attachment.

I
it

is

will

Maximum

Stress

Due

Load P. The maximum

to Radial

be the longitudinal (meridional)

stress

aL

in tension, given

stress in the shell

by

stress

max. Oi = a x
where

for +?,

Nx

is

tensile

-Nx /t + 6A/x /r2

and for -P,

Nx

is

compressive. This equation can be

restated as follows:

ol = o x Fig. 7.2.

Hemispherical head with a centrally located nozzle under principal loads.

where the values of

Nx t/P

and

(P/l

)[(Nx t/P) + (6MX /P)]

MJP

based on rigid-insert theory are given in

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

190

ref.

56.

The

initial

LOCAL STRESSES

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

equation can also be rewritten as

The values of Cp = (Nx t/P) + (6MX /P) are plotted in Fig. 7 .3


For +P the maximum o L determined by the above formula can be added
directly to the membrane tensile stress due to internal pressure. However, for

-P

Nx

the stress resultant

mum

oL

is

negative, causing compressive stress, and the maxi-

is

o'l

= ox =

(NJt) + (6Mx /t* ) =

(P/t )[-

(Nx t/P) + (6Mx /t>

)]

or

=C'p (P/t 2 ).

o'L

2
The values of C p = -(Nx t/P) + (6Mx /t ) are also plotted in Fig. 7.3. The bendmore to the resultant stress
ing moment component
x contributes considerably
stress
tensile
o'L is directly additive
than does the Nx component. The resulting

to the pressure stress.

The

stress factor

compressive

stress

C p =- (Nx t/P) - (6Mx /t 2 )


-o L

which

is

~Cp would

determine

not additive to the pressure

maximum

stress,

but can

govern under no-pressure conditions.


2.

Maximum

Stress

Due

to

Moment M,

again be the longitudinal stress o L


stress

is

given

The maximum

Based on the

stress

rigid-insert

due to

M will

assumption,

this

by

max. o L

2
= (NJt) + (6Mx /t

=ox

= (M/t 2 y/Ri) [(N x t/M) %/Ri + (6M X /M)s/Ri\


or

oL =

The

values of

Cm

7.2

is

y/Ri)

(in tension).

(6Mx /M)(Rt)^ 2 ] are plotted in Fig. 7.3.


oL produced by M at point B outside shell in

= {(N x t/M)(Rty 12 +

Here the bending tensile


Fig.

Cm (M/t 2

stress

algebraically additive to

the

membrane

stress

due to the internal

pressure.
Shell parameter,

The

shell

ments. The

is for round attachin Fig. 7.3) U = r Q l(Rty


parameter for square attachments can be approximated by U =
to one-half the attachment side. For a
where c
is equal

parameter (abscissa
shell

C!/0.875(^O

1/2
>

/2

Fig. 7.3.

Stress factors

Cp

U=

r0 /{Rt)

dp and Cm for spherical

shells.

191

LOCAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

192

maximum

rectangular attachment with

approximated by

The above

!/2

Ci =(fl)

side ratio a/b

<

1.5, c A

can be roughly

/2.

used as the

is

= C' PI(t + tp ) 2 = 0.29 X 20,000/1


p

hemi-

spherical heads can be used in determining local stresses at attachments in crown


sections of standard ellipsoidal or torispherical heads. The crown (dished)

mean

radius

R.

Stress

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

193

due to P:
o'l

procedure for finding the local stresses in spherical shells or

radius at the attachment

Stress

IN

.25

= +3,712

psi.

due toJf:

ol=Cm M/Q + tp ) 2 [R(t + tp y\ ^

All attachments should

be placed away from the knuckle region, an area of concentrated pressure

1.21

X 20,000 X 12/K25 2 X 9.04 = +20,560

psi.

stresses.

Stress

Example 7.1. Determine


in

a standard

2:1

due to

ellipsoidal

head (Fig. 7.4)

o L =pL/2(t + tp ) = + 6,540

satisfactory for the following

is

Total

design data:

maximum

r = 450F

Checking the

(b)

M and P are thermal expansion loads


Open end nozzle (See note 8 under "7.5. Design Considerations")
Material: SA5 16-60, S a = 15,000 psi
Reinforcing pad thickness: 0.625

Stress

Dished radius: L =

0.9/),-

= 65.4

Stress

/^~\
nozzle size

10

in.
t

o'l

in.

= 0.625

- 20,000

-P
r

stresses at reinforcing-pad outside diameter.

ll2

= 10/(65.4 X 0.625) 1 ' 2 =1.56.

= C'pP/t 2 = 0.07 X 20,000/0.625 2 = +3,584

r0

psi.

due to M:

'

= 18,260

psi,

Stress

due to

internal pressure p:

= 0.625

oL =pL/2t = 250 X 65.4/2 X 0.625 = 13,000

psi.

lb

Sl

.25(15,000 + 15,000) = 37,500

2
o'L=CpM/t (Ltyt 2
= 0.19 X 20,000 X 12/0.625 2 X (65.4 X 0.625)

Ib-ft

= 20,000

due to P.

= 1.25

<

U = rp l(Lt)

in.

psi.

stress:

a = 30,812 psi

Design pressure: p = 250 psig

Design temperature:

internal pressure p:

the reinforcement of the centrally located nozzle

if

r^X\

5.375

Total

psi.

maximum stress:

T.L.

D, =

o = 34,844

72

psi

<

1.25

X (15,000 + 15,000) = 37,500

psi.

Fig. 7.4.

7.4.

Minimum head

thickness

required for piessure

is

CYLINDRICAL SHELL WITH ATTACHMENTS

nozzle (or any other attachment) on

the following external loadings, as


t

= pDil(2SE

- 0.2p)

= (250 X 72)/(2 X

5 ,000

- 0.2

X 250) =

0.6

U = r 0 HL(t

1 2
+ tp)]*! 2 = 5.375/(65 .4X 1.25) ' =0.6

a cylindrical shell

in Fig. 7.5:

in.
1

Use | -in .-thick plate,


(a) Checking stresses at nozzle outside diameter.

shown

radial load

P (+ outward, - inward),
moment ML in plane xy,

2. longitudinal

3. tangential (circumferential)

moment

4.

torque Tin plane parallel to yz,

5.

shear K(tangential

in

Vu longitudinal VL ).

plane xz,

can be subjected to

LOCAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

194

rQ

195

edge of the attachment on the circum-

ferential centerline.

= reinforcing pad thickness

= mean

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

erally in the tangential direction at the

n - nozzle neck thickness


t = shell thickness

IN

As

in the case of spherical shells, here the tangential stress

can be expressed

shell radius

by

- outside nozzle radius

a general equation:

(KbWjt2 )

o t = a0 = (Kn N+ft)
where $
taking

is

the cylindrical coordinate in circumferential direction of shell, and

Kn K b equal to unity,
,

=(^0/O(6A//f2 )

a f = a0
or
Cylindrical shell with a radial nozzle under principal types of loads.

Fig. 7.5.

The shear

a,

The values of N^j{PjR) and M$jP

due to the twisting moment Tis

stress in shell

(in tension) for

maximum

and the

shear in shell due to

T'

V /nr0 t
t

VL

or

stresses in

most

VL a

(including

and

with the moments

practical cases are associated

a),

and the radial load P. As

loads, the value of

N$

Cp = [-N0 l(PlR)y] + (6M4IF)


is

The main

-P

in the case

given

is

Cp (P/t 2 ).

negative (in compression) and the stress factor

is
is

plotted in Fig. 7.7.

The maximum tensile

stress

by

L
of spherical

equations for aL and o t at the attachments were originally published


55 and are updated in ref. 56. The charts plotted in Figures 7.6, 7.7, 7.8,

Cp

in tension

ot =

r and r are usually small enough to be disregarded.

The maximum o t

t is

For

The value
is positive
= [AV(/Y/?)t] + (6M0 /P) is
then given by

are given in ref. 56.

loads and the stress factor

VL /nr0 t.

or

+P

plotted in Fig. 7.6.

= (T/r0 )l2itr0 t = T/2nr 02 t

= a 0 = (P/t 2 ){[N<t,l(P/R)ry} + (6M+/F)}.

ot

=cp (p/n

shells, the

in ref.

and 7.10 allow direct determination of

7.9,

maximum

stresses

due to?,

ML)

and 3/ r important for design purposes. Since these charts were developed on the
,

assumption that the attachment

rigid,

is

the nozzle neck thickness has to be

properly reinforced.

The parameters

The o t obtained by the above equations can be

2. Stress

lent square loaded area.

For small side ratios (a/b

(ab)^ 2 /2 can be used; for larger

Due

to Tangential

Moment

The maximum stress in the shell


on the circumferential centerline of

the attachment and can be written as

cylindrical attachment: 0 = 0.S15ro /R


rectangular attachment: 0, rectangular area has to be converted into equiva-

Stresses

added to the

for cylindrical shells are as follows:

o t = a0 =

parameter: y = R/t or Rj(t + tp ) if reinforcing pad is used


square attachment: 0 = c/R where c is the half-length of the loaded square area

Due

occurs generally in the tangential direction

shell

algebraically

pressure stress.

to Radial

Load

<

The

/Rt

2
($)

= (M t/t 2 Rp){[Ntl(M t /R 2 0)y] + [6Af*/(Af,/*/3)]


or

1.5) the equivalent c =

ratios consult ref. 56.

P.

2
INtKMJ&fi] (Mt/R 0t) + [MtKMJRfi]

largest stress in the shell occurs gen-

ot =

Ct (M /t2 RP)
t

in tension in outside shell fibersat points.

The values ofC r = [NJ(M t IR 2 (3)y] +

196

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

LOCAL STRESSES

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

197

LOCAL STRESSES

[SM^KMflR j3)]

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

IN

are plotted in Fig. 7.8

from data

in ref. 56. Stress o t

is

199

additive

to pressure stress.

due

3. Stresses

makes

shell

The longitudinal
the

design

to Longitudinal

Moment

ML

The curvature of

a cylindrical

the longitudinal stiffness greater than the circumferential stiffness.


stress

can become larger than the tangential

stress

o t and govern

condition of no internal pressure. However, the total combined

tangential stress due to

ML

combined longitudinal

stress.

and pressure

stress will generally

The maximum combined

be larger than the


occurs on the

stress

longitudinal centerline at the attachment-shell joint.

As before, the equation for the


ot

maximum

tangential stress o t can be written as

=CLt(MJt 2 R$)
2
The values of CLt - [N^KMi/R &)y] +
7.9 using the data from the ref. 56.
Oi is given by

in tension in outside shell fibers at point C.

[6A^/(ML //?0)]

are plotted in Fig.

The maximum longitudinal

stress

oL

The

CUi

values of

[1VX

=CLL (MJt 2 R($)

/(MJR 2 &)y] + [6MX I(MJRP)]

are

plotted in Fig.

7.10.

Example

7.2.

structural clip

is

welded to the cylindrical

subjected to external static loads, as

shown

in Fig. 7.1

stresses in shell.

S a = 15,000

psi.

Shell parameter:

7 =R/t = 60.25/0.5 = 120.5

Attachment parameters:
c =

(14X

10)

,/2

/2 = 5.92

0 = 5.92/60.25 =0.10

Stress

from + P:
o't

=Cp P/t 2
= 0.60 X 1,000/0 .5 2 = 2,400

shell

all

around and

Estimate the

psi

maximum

200

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

li'y.:

iz:

.11 Z,

_rr-;

:.

:r

..rr"

:.'
,'

'.

- -+4-U- -4 4-1-.
jriii ilji

zuvz

'.

:tr:.

",

Site

Tr.z.
-

_"

H-

~tU

;:r:r.
-;

"L

;+*

;-

--UT.

4-J4-

::-

;!

..,

Kill.

41"?

In

"fiii

\
....

r
si i

-4-i

~r

-*

"

t-

.-

......

.......

..4.1

..-|

tin

.:.

15-71

......

i.

11 "ii" 7.7

'fF i;r

i j.i v
:

:.

'

J.

!Tr-r
;;if

lit

Ha.
*

'

'

4.

i
i

|4
;

:
'

"

Hit

ffi

*,

tT,n

-Ij

Ui-

hip.:

H-r-j-H'150 = 7
200 = 7

i'lil

lii
:

'.

'

':;t

ill
V. tt

tf'.ti-

'

0.03

Fig. 7.9.

Stress

from

0.2

0.1

ML

Stress factor

0.3

CLt for cylindrical

shells.

Ot=CLt (MJt 2 R$)


= 0.3X 50,000/0.5 2 X 60.25 X
Stress

0.1

= 9,960

psi

from pressure:

o t =pR/t
= 100 X 6025/0.5 = 12,050

psi

0.03

0.2

0.1

Fig. 7.10.

Stress factor

Q,^

for cylindrical shells.

0.3

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

202

LOCAL STRESSES

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

clip
support
>pon cup

2.

/+P

= 1000
1000

lb

14

ML

= 50,000

63

in. sq.

by

thick
olate
11
^iut

in

<

^^^^^

Ib-in.

11

f o.d.

203

by f thick

pipe

R,

1.30

=60-

Section a-3

28
Shell

Pipe

pressure-^p = 100psig
internal

ASME S-55 70,000 UTS


ASME S-1 8 62,000
'00 UTS

Stress relieve 2 hrs at

after welding

is

1150 F

completed

rad,

TT^ZX^
^<M-^tX^
Detail of junction

Fig. 7.11.

between

shell plates

Detail of junction

of shell and pipe

(a)

Combined maximum

o = 2,400 + 9,960 + 12,050 = 24,410

No

Arrangement and Detail of Test Model.

stress:

increase in clip dimensions

is

psi

< 2Sa

required.

Example 7.3. In reference 1 27 the results of strain-gage measurements performed


on 54-in. diameter cylindrical shell with two welded 12-in. diameter pipes are
reported and well documented. The arrangement of the test model with all necessary design data and the locations of the strain gages are shown in Fig. 7.1 2 (a)
and

(b).

diameter pipes simulating vessel nozzles with connected piping are


subject in sequence to a direct mechanical load P, mechanical moments achieved

The 12

in.

Distances from center of pipe measured

by weights, longitudinal L and circumferential t


The maximum measured stresses are compared with the computed maximum
stresses using the graphs

of

this

overall dimensions of the test

book. Here,

it is

important to point out that the

model and the thicknesses of the

Design data and measured stresses from reference 127. In Fig. 7.12 (a) and

(b) the test assembly with necessary details

is

shown. Measured

stresses

on

the

outside and inside of the shell and pipe simulating nozzle under various loadings

summarized

in Tables 7.1

(b)

Location of Strain Gages.

Fig. 7.12.

in industrial practice.

are

inside surface of shell in inches,


Strain gages are located inside and outside of the shell.

shell as well as

the pipe sizes and pipe thickness are in the range of generally used actual vessels

1.

on

7.2.

and 7.3.

Design data for Example 7.3.

LOCAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

204

Measured StreiMt

Table 72.

Mwred Stream in Shdl Put to Axial Load P in pai.

Tabic 7.1.

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

IN

in Shell

Due to Traniver*e-beniing Moment

Mc

205

in psi.

Type of Load
Tiantvenc-bcndini Momeni

Mr

"

410.000

tn.-lbi

LOCATION Ol MEASURED STRESSES.

LOCATION OF MEASURED STRESSES.


C1RCUMFEREN. CENTERLINE

AND

SHELL.

CAGE

LONGITUDINAL

C1RCUMFER.
OUTS.

NO.

OUTS.

INS.

INS.

LONGITUDINAL

C1RCUMFER.
INS.
OUTS.

OUTS.

OUTS.

INS.

OUTS.

4360

760

1040

2840

-3280

2170

5260

-210

1790

4050

-5540

2800

24

-4560

5190

-3540

410

-3380

IS

-6950

8980

-2170

2420

-2140

INS.

SHELL AND

260

24

-2550

3930

-200

800

18

-2470

3690

-5640

9400

-1880

2840

-960

4650

-700

-3000

5100

-6560

3000

1370

-860

7460

1500

1660

3920

4510

910

-3920

7330

-7040

4080

1660

10

ft

3
\n

2310

2690

-4330

1140

640

-5030

2060

260

15

1340

1870

3080

280

12

4780

-970

4700

-770

4360

-7440

2340

150

120

490

J20

120

10

9480

-3930

7980

-3890

8830

-9530

3430

-80

-200

-280

320
1620

130

7260

-5270

4190

-2660

8820

-6690

5700

-8200

8500

-1125

10780

-6180

9340

-2710

14880

-8630

11960

-6570

11650

-13280

6500

-1935

-200

-610

-200

9780

11400

-3540

11760

-5990

12080

-7900

20300

-15000

13790

-9240

12760

-15160

7690

-3640

-490

-450

-320

11060

-4680

10300

-4020

7x

-20400

19860

10950

-10020

-15550

16200

-8910

4280

-770

-610

-650

-370

990

2010

7110

8160

10140

2720

11470

6810

4900

3160

7300

7580

2110

240

2150

1700

-1670

3480

-740

400

-530

930

-320

530

525

1450

490

120

1540

200

-10300

14090

-920

16390

-13860

10970

11630

9240

3160

9780

9080

10130

-220

-1560

3190

100

-540

1210

2610

-1370

1470
1980

-2610
-3120

1020
730

.s

DC

-510

-240

24

220

570

16

970

-360

890

850

1740

-1100

2085

-1510

120

1830

-2360

-1060

1280

410

890

S50

280

-640

-1310

2170

-4080

830

570

IS

1700

610

2880

2200

700

-2200

3760

-4270

1430

320

12

4010

-810

4620

-2150

4530

-3240

535

1740

-40

1420

890

1520

1940

-4680

1180

-100

10

4750

-970

4180

-1910

4350

-4450

1540

930

1050

650

240

730

5030

-3530

5070

-3410

5170

-8280

2910

-370

-40

-360

280

1560

-80

-1180

410

-120

2800

2340

-1170

-490

2690

890

-1050

-100

1B80

-570

-60

-700

3190

-12400

17400

-4940

-2420

2100

-380

-380

14060

-8950

M
ML

thick

1660

1310

2420

-830

3750

-2620

1640

6280

-4080

3250

-890

5990

-4620

3540

-1400

in

oc

-490

730

-290

-1820

10

570

-120

40

5770

-1790

.5

-1180

-730

30

11160

-2490

12

120

-570

-2350

3820

6820

IS

-690

1050

-2420

19890

J=

1420

1580

INS.

4210

DC

18

INS.

650

OUTS.

12050

7x

24

JD1N.

1220

INS.

INS.

LONCIT
OUTS.

OUTS.

OUTS.

INS.

480

17850

INS.

CIRCUMFER

MINOR

5120

.a
thick

OUTS.

OUTS.

LONCIT. CENTERLINE

CENTERLINE

4S*

MAJOR

LONGITUDINAL

CIRCUMFER.

CAGE NO.

INS.

-3950
SheU

MINOR

MAJOR

CIRCUMFEREN. CENTERLINE

LONCIT. CENTERLINE

CENTERLINE

4S*

3470

-320

4810

-1980

-3190

7560

-4940

3220

-1910

-4680

5000

-3000

6090

-3930

6200

-3810

5100

6310

7010

-2840

5260

-1820

6440

3540

-1280

7x

-5070

5600

6000

-11000

8750

610

80

570

1100

--3250

-5290

1820

6310

9240

-4710

-3600

-4780

5510

-3730

7x

7580

7940

5310

4420

5310

7260

-730

-1870

4020

-240

r\

DC

2.

Computed maximum

7.6, 7.8, 7.9,

(a)

4400

3250

6820

5830

2930

2O40

7840

6500

2040

2930

stresses in the cylindrical shell using the

5830

6820

graphs in Fig.

in shell

due to the direct axial load + P= 88600

1.3-in. thick shell: pipe

shell

parameter

parameter y =

From

.03

maximum measured

ter are equal to 17850 psi and 19890


o.d. of the pipe and a t = 34500 psi is

j3

lbs.

= (0.875 X 5.87)/28 = 0.184

R/t=

Fig. 7.6

max. o t = 0.7 X 88600/1


In Table 7.1 the

DC

Here

6450

4700

-6350

can be pointed out that the high

it

stresses,

computed on the

basis of the

exist in
elastic theory and exceeding the yield point of the material cannot really
locations
critical
out
the
point
stresses
the shell. However, these high calculated

and 7.10.

Maximum stress

value.

2.08

28/1

.3

= 21

where the

failures in the shell

2.08

stresses

ot

from

psi (in tension)

7 in. away from the pipe cen7.13 a t was interpolated at the

at

psi. In Fig.

thk. shell: shell parameter

7 = 28/2.08 =

13.5

.5

^Cp = 0.7
= 36700

in.

may initiate.

satisfactorily close to the

above calculated

Fig.

7.6.-Cp =0.8

2
max. o t = 0.8 X 88600/2.08 = 16400

psi (in tension)

two maximum stresses o t at 7 in. are equal to 7560 psi and


9240 psi. Interpolated stress at the o.d. of the pipe from Fig. 7.13 is a t = 15000
psi which is close enough to the above computed value.
In Table 7.1. the

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

206

Table 7.3.

LOCAL STRESSES

Meajurtd Strettes in Shall Due to Axial-bending

Moment M L

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

IN

207

in psi.

Type of Load
Axial-bending (Longit.)

ML

410,000

Moment

in. -lbs

LOCATION Ot MEASURED STRESSES.

CIRCUMTERENTIAL
CENTERLINE
SHELL AND

GAGE

LONGITUDINAL

OUTS.

OUTS.

24

380

-510

250

IS

-320

410

-540

410

15

-160

-60

-480

12

-190

-250

-640

10

190

-450

30

-220

she

k
thic

MAJOR
OUTS.

INS.

-730

NO.

CENTERLINE

*S

CIRCUMFER.

INS.

LONGIT. CENTERLINE

MINOR

INS.

OUTS.

1360

-980

510

1370

-2580

700

290

1370

-3760

-380

-990

-3920

-830

-3190

-3920

610

-1660

-5600

CIRCUMFER.
OUTS.

INS.

INS,

LONG1TUDIN.
OUTS.
INS.

360

-990

1500

-890

160

-480

-1500

2330

-160

-480

540

-990

-2520

2740

-610

-1080

-250

-4300

2580

-1310

-1120

-2040

-1260

-6280

2490

-3470

4510

-5420

-2230

-10580

5000

-8700

4560

-410

-990

1050

-2770

-9280

7970

-6870

-510

-12050

5510

-12620

8190

7x"

-700

-830

100

-1270

9120

-8380

63B0

-730

105 20

-5160

9400

-6050

DC

-860

70

-410

480

-6120

-3890

-7360

-5670

-7330

-3950

-8440

-8280

60

540

160

320

1820

-640

260

20

890

-190

570

360

IS

220

410

220

860

20

1620

60

640

1370

-410

700

1050

IS

-130

220

130

220

480

1720

100

100

1820

-1180

700

960

12

160

480

640

570

990

2200

380

-290

2580

-1340

1370

920

24

=i
she

Fig. 7.13.

Again, the calculated stress o t appears to be in the range of the

maximum mea-

sured stresses.

thic

10

-250

-190

7x

-410
380

-450

-130

1980

2330

1050

-670

2800

-1370

1560

920

-380

800

3530

-2990

2070

710

5420

-1080

3510

4170

190

-640

1080

4800

-4110

2870

380

6370

-3350

5260

-2900

760

-860

1530

-5540

3980

2900

-510

-6080

3730

-3860

2290

540

250

320

4710

2870

5030

4210

72O0

4400

7100

5960

130

DC

(c) Stresses

due to the longitudinal

1.3 thick shell:

moment ML = 410000

maximum ot = CLt(ML /t 2 R0) from

2
o t = 0.35 (410000/1 .3 X 28 X 0.184) = 16500

(b) Stress

due to the tangential (circumferential) moment

.3-in.

thick shell:

ot =

maximum a t

in tension at point

C (Mt /t 2 Rp) where Ct = 0.57


t

2
a, = 0.57 (410000/1.3

from

= 410000

B in Fig.

in.-lb.

ol =
7.5.

X 28 X 0.184) = 26840

psi at o.d. pipe

2.08

in.

CLL {ML jt

R$) from

equal to a, = 20300 psi at

.125 in. distance

away from the

2.08

in.

thick shell:

from

Ct

CLt =

0.35

psi in tension at point

CLL = 0.42
psi

CL/ (7l/ // 2 /? = 0.39(410000/2.08 X 28X 0.184)


2

= 7135

psi

o.d. pipe.

ol
Fig. 7.9. ->

Fig. 7.10

thick shell: max. a t =

This stress compares quite well with the measured stresses from Table 7.2 which
is

Fig. 7.9. -*

in Fig. 7.5.

= 0.42 (410000/1 .3 2 X 28 X 0.14) = 19700

Fig. 7.8.

in.-lb.

=CLL (ML /t 2 Rp) = 0.47(41 0000/2.08 2

X 28 X 0.184)

= 0.61
= 8105

psi

MBX.o t = Ct (Mt lt R$)


2
a f = 0.61 (410000/2.08 X 28 X 0.184) = 11200

psi

3.

Design Remarks. Even

if

some of the computed maximum

stresses

seem

to

LOCAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

208

be on conservative

the case of the direct load

side, particularly in

would

it

seem

reasonable to utilize the theoretical calculated stress in the design. In prac-

tice,

the majority of the loads on nozzles are nearly always due to thermal ex-

pansion forces and the

maximum

sible stress ranges (see

Table 2.1). If stresses are due to the sustained mechanical

calculated stress are

compared with the permis-

loads the designer should be automatically conservative.

small fissure due to

the local overstress in the process vessel shell can lead to extensive damage, difficult

and very expensive to

repair in the field,

and even to a

loss

of life. However,

the analytical stress estimate neglects the stress reducing influence of the nozzleto-shell fillet

weld that makes the actual

stresses

lower than the peak computed

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

Size of reinforcing pad around attachment. If the maximum stress at the


attachment is too high, the shell must be reinforced by a reinforcing pad or the
3.

thickness of the reinforcing pad required for internal pressure must be increased.

The width of the reinforcing pad is usually calculated so that the stresses at its
edge will be below the allowable stress. This is done by assuming the reinforcing
pad to be the attachment, as was done in Example 7.1. The width of the reinforcing pad, unless intermediate welds are used, should not exceed \6tp or
16(f - C.A.), otherwise the pad or shell carrying heavy bending stresses can fail
in buckling.

To

avoid stress concentrations at corners of square or rectangular

pads or structural

clips

under high loads (Fig. 7.11.) the corners are slightly

rounded. The construction of reinforcing pad for large nozzles (>24

stresses.

The values of measured

stresses in

different angles (longitudinal, 45

Tables 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3. on centerlines at

provide the designer with clues regarding at

loads (P y

maximum compound

for the

and

ML

ferent nozzle loads

it

stress

what

on

ratios the stresses should

different centerlines

act simultaneoulsy. Also see reference

compound

bine stresses. In the case of


is

heavy loadings in

Fig.

in.)

under

7.14 has been successfully used.

and circumferential centerline) indicate how

the stresses in the shell are distributed around the nozzle under different loadings.

They
be combined

209

stresses

for

how

if

maximum

the

to com-

due to internal pressure and

conservative to add the calculated

algebraically assuming that they act at the

56

dif-

stresses

4. Generally, the loads are given as

in Figs. 7.2

on

and

7.5.

However,

if

a hillside nozzle, then

they must be decomposed vectorially into main vessel planes (meridional,


tangential,

and perpendicular to the meridional plane) before the

stresses are

computed Each type of load has to be treated separately and the final stresses
added. In most cases, the combined stress at the nozzle-shell junction will be
.

maximum. According

the

same point.

shown

the loads are given in arbitrary planes, for instance

to

measurements,

stress

attenuates rapidly with

distance from the junction.


5

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

7.5

The following
1

are

some design considerations pertaining to

Rigid-insert theory does not provide a

the shell if the nozzle


is

body

resultants

Nq,

Nx

The maximum combined calculated

becomes much

sections 7.3 and 7.4.

6.
shell

good approximation of

shown

in

The minimum distance of the attachment from the edge of


(open or closed)

in the

above analysis

is

cannot exceed

Table 2.1
the cylindrical

Rj2. For smaller distances from the

cylinder end the stresses decrease substantially, and can be adjusted

by

using

stresses in

plotted curves presented in ref. 55.

becomes smaller and


The actual
The maximum membrane stress

larger.

become much higher than those

for a rigid insert. In addition,

the peak stresses can occur across the base of the nozzle instead of in the shell.
To prevent this, the section of the nozzle welded to the shell and under heavy
external loads should be

stress in the vessel wall

consists of a thin-wall, flexible pipe, even if the pipe

satisfactory for pressure and load stresses.

the tangential stress a t

the allowable stress for the design condition, as

made

thick

enough so

If

required

that the distribution of forces

into the shell will approach the distribution assumed in rigid-insert theory,

assumes a continuous shell under the attachment. This

is

which

particularly important

for larger-size nozzles.


2.

The computed

stresses are

nominal and do not include the stress concenPeak stresses can become important for

Grind the weld flush with the top of plate


before installing the next plate.

trations at the nozzle-shell junction.

fatigue

analysis.

The

stress

spherical shells under pressure

concentration factors for cylindrical nozzles on

Fig. 7.14.

and various types of loads can be found

signed to

in ref. 57.

Composite reinforcing pad for


comply with Code section 1.7.

large nozzles

under heavy loadings.

It

can be de-

LOCAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

210

In the evaluation of stress adjacent to vessel openings and connections,

7.

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

211

it is

often necessary to consider the effect of stresses due to external loadings or ther-

mal

stresses. In

such cases, the total

superposition. In the case of


zle loading, the

maximum

stress at a given point

combined

may

be determined by

due to internal pressure and noz-

stresses

stresses for a given location

should be considered

acting at the same point and added algebraically unless positive evidence

as

is avail-

able to the contrary (ref. 2).

8. In only a few cases can pipes attached to pressure vessels be treated as open
end cylinders, where the longitudinal pressure stress is absent. This is true only
for straight pipes between the vessels or where low friction expansion joints or

other provisions incapable of transmitting the full longitudinal pressure stress are

provided; for instance, a water pipe with concrete anchors and a sleeve type

coupling in between. Therefore, nozzles on pressure vessels are generally treated


as closed.

The end

pressure reaction (P = + 0.785

d 2 p, where d

is

the inside

di-

ameter of the nozzle and p is the design internal pressure) has to be considered
in the design and is usually added to the piping reactions, if any.

from the point


ion of the

and perpendicular to

maximum

its

longitudinal axis indicating the loca-

stress.

actual analytical solution of the load transmitted into the shell

The
clip is

not

known

at present time.

A major

by

a plate

portion of the load will be transmitted

through the connecting weld. In fillet-welded tee joints, some of the load will be

LINE LOADS

7.6.

transmitted into the shell

by the

direct contact pressure

between the

shell wall. Generally, the load will be transferred into the shell

Structural plate clips welded to the shell transfer loads into the shell basically

along meridional lines or parallel circle

as line loads, usually

lines.

The

preceding sections deals with localized, uniformly distributed loadings

in the

over a finite, square area; the results of such an analysis cannot readily be applied to line loads.
in

The

analytical

methods

for solution of line-load stresses, as

59, are quite involved and prohibitively time consuming for practical

ref.

design.

The Code

G10

section

Division

does recommend as a guide the references 128 and 129

to be used in

computing the

maximum

in

stresses at structural support

Most analytical analyses of line loads applied to cylindrical shells through


assume load distribution and shell wall response as shown in
Fig. 7.15 (the maximum deflections are greatly exaggerated). The maximum
stresses will be then at point A, and it is assumed to be equal to the maximum

clips.

plate structural clips

induced
shell

stress

under

under a similarly loaded structural

rigid plate clips will

assumed theoretical
shell

line load since the clip

cannot deflect freely. The

loadings will be
stress will
stress,

be at point

more

likely as

shell

shown

However, the

stresses in

rigidly

connected to

shell

and the

in Fig. 7. 16

and 7. 17, Clearly, the maximum

B and will consist of longitudinal bending

membrane and bending stresses. If the shell plate under a


by buckling or a fissure, this usually occurs slightly removed

circumferential
clip fails

is

clip.

considerably smaller than under

displacements caused by clips under various

be in the vicinity of the point

overloaded

clip

a very

and the
narrow

by a clip with an irregular cross-secfrom the theoretical assumed stress distribution. Under such circumstances it would seem that the use of analytical formulas adjusted to concur with the results of experimental stress measurements

area.

analysis

by

The

actual stress distribution, induced

tion, will differ to a significant degree

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

212

LOCAL STRESSES
uniform

line load

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

213

Longitudinal bending stress:

9^

l/2
2
2
/f
a L - Zq/20t - t 1.17?(/?f)

Tangential

otm "

<>

membrane

<W2r -

stress:

l> 0.64?{flf)

l/2

/f

Total tangential stress:

at -

()

where

q$RI2t 3qv/20t

0-

1.285/(/?f)

I/2

Formulas for stresses in cylindrical shell under uniform radial line load q
q as shown is causing membrane tangential compressive stress in shelL

Fig. 7.19.
in,),

(lb/lin.

equations:

=MJZL
h =M /Z

fx
Longitudinal

(a)

Fig. 7.17.

(b)

clip.

Circumferential

clip.

Longitudinal and circumferential structural clips subject to moments.

ZL

Zt

moduli

in the longitudinal

and tangential

be justified by practical reasons. The use of such formulas


is entirely legitimate within the limits for which they were established and for
which there are adequate experimental data (for instance, the fillet weld design

where

procedure or the fatigue curve in Fig. 2.3 based on fatigue

because of the smaller rigidity of cylindrical shells in the tangential direction

on actual

vessels will

analytical approach). Unfortunately, there are not

test

data rather than

enough published

results of

full-scale vessel tests with structural clips under combination of loadings to

make

stress at

approach suggested

such

in ref. 7.

clips

and L

and uneven load distribution under the load P, the

under

and

maximum

be 1.5-2 times larger than the

will

stress

moment

under the

stress

maximum

induced

stress

computed by

the

stress:

2
1/2
51 = 1.17(tff)
/iA

clips in Fig. 7.18.

MLl and tangential moment

5 2 = 1.75(tfO ,/2 /2 A 2

compared with the maximum stress under uniform circumferential line


load, as shown in Fig. 7.19. The unit load /(lb/lin. in.) to be used for loads
P,
L and t in the equations in Fig. 7.19 are determined from the following

the length of the clip (see Table 10.3).

Substituting for q in the equation for oL in Fig. 7.13 and assuming that,

is

ti

is

under loads can be estimated by a simplified

The maximum

subjected to a radial load P, longitudinal

are line section

formula, the following equations can be written for

this possible.

However, the

and

directions, respectively,

5 3 = 1.75(/?0 ,/2 /3 A 2

The

stresses

added

due to

algebraically.

ML

superimposed on these
While

and

Membrane

this simplified

stresses

can- be
from
t and P,
due to internal pressure have to be

as well as the stresses

stresses.

procedure provides the designer with only comparative


measured under actual

resulting stresses, they are within the range of stresses as

conditions. Furthermore, this simplified

method

affords the designer a quick

check of problems that otherwise might remain unchecked and provides a safe
design, as proven by experience. At minimum, the results can be used for a preliminary estimate.

Example
Fig. 7.18.

shell

7.4.

structural clip

is

with a design pressure 120

welded to a 10-ft-diameter cylindrical vessel


psig. The clip is subjected to the following

214-

LOCAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

IN

SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS

215

procedure based on the method of superposition can be used. The contact area
subdivided into rectangular sub-areas and the loading
\\

= 60

ft,

to act

on the

imum compound

method

is

proportionately divided

sub-areas. Using the "equivalent rectangular procedure" based

Bijlaard's analysis the stresses


t

is

on

can be found and superimposed to obtain the max-

computer programs use

stress at the critical points. Several

this

compute the stresses at support clips. In reference 129 a U-shaped


clip fully welded to the pipe and subject to the moment
L (see Fig. 7.21) is
analysed by the method of superposition for stresses in the pipe wall. The stresses
at critical points are summarized in Table 7.4. However, as pointed out in the
reference, the method needs more experimental verification before the above
example can be taken as a bench-mark problem. The method also requires the
clip plates to be attached to the pipe or vessel wall by full penetration groove
weld, a requirement in accord with Code Division 2.
to

L =

3
ZX

/6 = 42.6 in.

Fig. 7.20.

For a comparison the simplified approximate approach

maximum

stresses at points

is

used to estimate the

A B and C.
,

mechanical loadings:

L =2,000

Maximum Z x =

(2

minimum Z'x =

5.5

= +1,500

lb.

/j

Estimate the

maximum

Code allowable

Maximum

Stress

S a - 5,000
1

from

/,

=P/L = 1,500/16 = 94

+ 5.5)/(3 X 10.0) = 14.62

in.

5.5

(9

*MJZX =ML /14.62

AtpointC: aL = S =
t

= 2,000

in.

ML /26.58 =

.17(3.72)0.0376

= 0.0068

0.0316ML

2
At points: aL =S, = 1.17(3.72)0.068 A/L /1.218

psi,

line loads (see Fig. 7.20):

MJZX

+ 5.5 2 )/3 = 26.58

4.5

f[=ML IZx

stress in shell at clip.

shell stress:

ft -lb.

ML

j\

= 0.1995 ML

.210

0.1

max.

ML

12/42.6 = 565 lb/in.


lb/in.

The maximum stress is higher than the stress as computed by the previous
method, as could be expected since the simplified method does not take advantage of loads being distributed over small area. However, the locations of the

P and ML
ol

=[\M(Rtyt 2 /t2 ](f +1.5f3 )


l

= [(1.17)(60.3 X 0.5)^ 2 /0.5 2 ](710)

= 18,245
Stress

psi.

Pipe;

from pressure

24-in. Sched.

Mean

o L -(120 X 60.3)/(2

Combined maximum

80

radius - 11. 391

in.

Nominal thickness - 1.218

0.5) = 7,240 psi

Stl.

area of pipe = 87.2

Section modulus = 473


7 - rltm 9.352

stress:

in.

in.

in.

V'TF =3.72in.

o = 25 ,485

Example

7.5.

To

estimate the

psi<25

maximum

stress

fl

under a composite support clip a

Fig. 7.21.

Support

clip

with U-shaped cross-section subject to a longitudinal

moment Mi.

216

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK


Table 7.4

ML

inside

Mr

outside

= + 0.0571
- - 0.0680

ML

inside

Mi

outside

=-

cL = - 0.0343

ML
ML
ML

= + 0.0818

Mjr

Point C: a/ = -0.1060
= + 0.1220

ML

outside (max.)

A/L

inside

Point

a t = + 0.04001
= -0.0814
ax,

Point B: a t

0.0815
= + 0.0944

ar = - 0.0553
= + 0.1098

inside

outside
inside

outside
inside

ML

outside

procedure is more conservative,


computed by the superposition method. The
structural clips on pressure vessels are generally much larger than as shown in
Fig. 7.21 and here, in the writer's experience, the simplified method would offer

maximum
but

still

a quick

stresses differ. Clearly, the simplified

in the range of stresses as

and reasonable estimate.

8
Discontinuity Stresses

INTRODUCTION

8,1.

As discussed
cal

in

Chapter

3, industrial pressure vessels consist of axially

symmetri-

elements of different geometries, different shell thicknesses, or different ma-

terials. If

the individual shell components are allowed to expand freely as separate

sections under internal pressure, each such shell element


radial

displacement

would

differ

AR

would have an edge

and an edge rotation 0 of the meridian tangent that

from the edge

radial

displacement and the edge rotation of the

adjacent shell component. Since the shell elements form a continuous structure

and must deflect and rotate together,

at

junctions these differences in radial

displacements and rotations result in local shell deformations and stresses


quired to preserve the physical continuity of the shell. Stresses induced
interaction of

two

geometry of the

shell

components

at

their junction (an

re-

by such

abrupt change in

vessel shell or a structural discontinuity) are called discon-

tinuity stresses.

by a general analytical method which is


background and available time of the average designer. In practice,
an engineering method that makes it possible to solve such complicated shell
problems in a relatively short time is preferred. Since such method uses edge
Discontinuity stresses can be analyzed

beyond

the

forces and edge moments as unknown quantities, it is called the force method.
The force method offers a solution of local bending and shear stresses in boundary zones of junctions, where membrane theory is ineffective since it does not
include any bending across the shell thickness or any perpendicular shear in its
basic differential equations.

Discontinuity stresses themselves are usually not serious under static loads

such as internal pressure with ductile materials

if

they are kept low by the design,

but they become important under cyclic loads. Under a steady load they are
considered to be of self-limiting nature, and higher allowable stress
for the

combined

membrane

stresses

caused by

all

permitted

other loadings, such as internal pressure, vessel

weight, wind or earthquake loads, and thermal stresses.

ward higher allowable

is

Discontinuity stresses have to be superimposed on the

stress.

stress values, larger vessels,

The general trend

and thinner

shelts

to-

of high-

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

218

strength materials

makes

it

more important

to evaluate

all

local stresses, including

membrane

stresses

and

radial

219

deformation are computed:

discontinuity stresses.

The

method can

principles of the force

problem.

blocks, as

shown

large-diameter

pipe

is

anchored at intervals

rigidly

in Fig. 8.1. If subjected to internal pressure

pipe will expand and the radial displacement will be


will

be equal to zero since the pipe growth

is

divides such cases into

In the

membrane

AR. At

concrete

in

of intensity P, the
section O-O,

prevented by the

anchor and discontinuity stresses will be induced

method

o t = PR/t,

best be explained using the following

concrete

rigid

in the pipe wall.

AR

The

force

two separate problems.

(as

in

solution [Fig. 8.1(b)] the built-in restraint at section

any

O-O

(lb-in./in.)

of

stress at section

0-0

0O

shell

forms the formulas for the edge deformations w 0 and


Q Q andM0 have been derived using bending theory and

are available to the designer. It

method

is

this availability

of existing solutions that makes

particularly attractive for a practicing engineer.

The influence coefficient

the deformation

is

due to the unit values of the edge loads (Q 0 =

(M 0 =

or discontinuity stresses.

common

due to the edge loads

this

Q 0 andM0

membrane

the result of superposition of

is

pressure stresses plus the stresses due to

For most
o

RoJE = R 2 P/tE.

uniformly distributed along the pipe circumference at


to bring the pipe edge in agreement with actual conditions. The
unknowns to be computed here are the redundant force Q 0 and moment 0
Once they are known the stresses in the pipe shell can easily be determined. The

moment Af0
section 0-0

is

problem) and principal pressure

statically indeterminate

In the force-method solution [Fig. 8.1(c)] the released edge of the pressurized
0 (lb/in.) and the edge
shell at section 0-0 is subjected to the shear edge load

final state

released

AR

o L =0,

w0
1

or 0 O at the shell section edge

lb/in.) or unit

bending

mome

.t

1 lb-in./in.).

stress (membrane plus bending) sometimes occurs


component where the total stress curve has a nonzero value slope. However, when solving for the maximum stress, in addition to
the loaded edge stress the designer must always check the nearest location to the

The maximum discontinuity

at the

loaded edge of the

shell

edge where the combined stress curve has a zero slope. Because of bending
l

(a)

(Rt)

t2

= length of

both the inner and outer surfaces must be checked for maximum and
minimum stresses. The location where the various combined stresses are maxi-

stresses

zone where discontinuity

stresses are significant.

mum

away from

the loaded edge can be obtained

by minimum-maximum

theorem. The principal stresses developed in the shell at any location away from
the loaded edge are expressed in terms of deformation w(x) and bending mo-

ment M(x), which

in

turn are expressed in terms of

computed

Q Q andM0

forces

and the variable x, representing the distance from the loaded edge of the shell
in the direction of decreasing stress. The location of the maximum stress can be
obtained by equating the

first stress

ever, analysis of this type

derivative with respect to

beyond the scope of

is

this

to zero.

book. For

all

How-

practical

purposes the combined stress at the junction of a discontinuity can be taken as

maximum

the

be compared with the allowable stress.


component at a structural discontinuity can have

stress to

In general, a shell

the follow-

ing boundary conditions:


(b)

Membrane

AR

solution

(c)

= radial displacement due to pressure P


6 = end rotation of shell due to pressure

is

zero.

Wq

= radial

Force-method solution
displacement due to the end

and the end moment 0


6 0 = end rotation due to Q 0 and
Q

Fig. 8.1.

force

Q0

free edge,

Q0

= 0 and

w0

=0
= 0 and 6 0 = 0, (see Fig. 8.1)

2.

fixed or built-in edge,

3.

elastically built-in (elastically restricted) as at junctions

ponents (see Fig. 8.4).

of two shell com-

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

220

smaller than longitudinal and tangential stresses and a biaxial stress state

should be pointed out that an important part of discontinuity stress analysis


the correct handling of signs. The usual sign convention is as follows:

It
is

(a) Radial shearing

edge force

Q0

is

when outward and

positive

tends to

221

is

assumed.

in-

CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

8.3.

crease radius/?.

moment

(b) Longitudinal edge bending

on the inside surface of

the shell wall

cause either plus or minus rotation 0 O

Radial deflection

(c)

AR

is

positive

is

and tends

positive

when

to increase

it

may

when

it

increases

tion d 0 in the plane

0-0

and the edge moment

most

In

R.

8.2.

problems calculator accuracy

0 (lb-in./in.),

The procedure

for analyzing the discontinuity stresses

by

composite vessel

shell

under investigation

divided into simple shell

is

rota-

(lb/in.)

uniformly distributed on the circumference.

practical cases, the length of the cylinder exceeds the attenuation (de-

as described

Q0

mdMQ at one end of the cylinder do not influ-

below:
of the midsurface of a closed-end cylindrical shell

Radial displacement

1.

Q0

be replaced by an equivalent cylinder and an estimate of deformations as well as


discontinuity stresses can be made on the basis of simple cylindrical formulas,

method can

be summarized in the following steps:

1.

and end

For thin-wall vessels the bending effects of the edge loadings, replacing the
actual boundary or joint conditions, are confined to a narrow zone. In most
rotationally symmetrical, geometrically complicated vessels this narrow zone can

PROCEDURE FOR COMPUTING DISCONTINUITY STRESSES


BY THE FORCE METHOD
the force

w0

radial shear line load

ence the effects of the loading conditions at the other end of the cylinder.

required.

is

under the

in Fig. 8.2

cay) length so the effects of


In solving the discontinuity

end deflections

gives the formulas for

The following discussion

causing tension

R. However,

due to the internal pressure

P is

given

by

elements, each with a single (or gradually changing) principal radius of curvature
2.

and thickness and made of

The edge

radial

to internal pressure are


3.

Any

wp

PR R

A*=w = -^-[l-0'/2)]

and Q p of the elements due

in.

computed.

possible deformations due to other external mechanical or thermal

loads are added:


4.

a single material.

displacement and rotations

There
f

and 0 f

Edge shear force

QQ

is

no end rotation due

2.

and edge moment Af 0

are applied. Directions are as-

sumed at this point. Equilibrium of forces at the junction requires that shear
Q 0 and moment 0 at the edge of one component be equal and of opposite
direction to those at the matching edge of the other component.
5. Using existing, tabulated formulas, the edge displacements w 0 and rotation
6 Q of each shell element at junctions due to Q Q and
0i respectively, are com-

ing

Radial displacement

moment M0

w0

to the internal pressure: 0


at section

0-0 due

0.

to the edge load

Q0

and bend-

Qo

puted
6.

in

terms of

growth

of one edge
7.

is

The two

w2

at the

Q0 andM0
w = wp + w

forces

Total radial growth at one edge

radial

unknown edge

w0

is

equated to the

equated to total rotation of the second edge 6 2


resulting linear equations are solved for the

Q Q orM0

is

total

second matching edge. Similarly, total edge rotation Q x

negative sign in the resulting values of

tion of

Q0

or

would

sign convention:

unknowns

Q 0 andM 0

indicate that the direc-

opposite to the direction originally assumed.

8.

Discontinuity stresses caused by

9.

To

Q0

and

Force
0 are

computed.

obtain the total stress at the junction, discontinuity stresses must be

superimposed on pressure

stresses,

thermal

stress, etc.

Shear stresses perpendic-

ular to the middle surface of the shell are neglected, since they are usually

Q 0 and moment M Q

positive as

much

Fig. 8.2.

shown.

are

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

222

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

where

M{x) =

3(1-p *)|"
0 -

for v

-^y^

e0

+ [e*(coi

<fc

sin fix)]M 0

Q(x) = [e"^(cos

,2

jSx - sin

0x)]

G0

- [2fie^

sin (Sx] A/ 0

x
&x
cos fix) and (e~& sin fix). From
shows the plots of the functions (e'
the plots and their superpositions it can be seen that the flexibility influence
functions (terms associated with Q 0 and
0 in the above equations) decay very
rapidly from the origin 0. At a distance x - n/fi (or fix - tt) from the origin, the

= 3/10, (3= 1.285/(/2f) 1/2 and

Fig. 8.3.

D = Et
End

223

j\2{\

- y 2 ).

rotation 0 O due to ?o and A/ 0 at section

0-0 clockwise

is

given by

effect

of the edge loadings

Q0

and

M0

would diminish

significantly.

Using

=
fi

becomesL c =x = 2AS(Rt) 1/2 If then the dis2


tance between two load points equals 2L C = 4.9(/?/) ' the loads will have only a
1/2
or x = 1.285, although the
negligible effect upon each other. At x = (/?f)
1.285/(Kf)

i/a

the critical distance

,ad

-'-2F5 5d

'

functions diminish they


3.

The

Q 0 andM 0

principal stresses due to edge loadings

Ol = Wilt)
ot =

W)

(t>M L lt

(6M

/t

2
)

6M0 It 2

at section

w0

which causes

pending on the
caused by the
effect are
4.

sign

w 0 jR

in

radius/? equal

per unit length of

o t can be either tensile or compressive, de.

moment M 0

produced

Further, since the sides of the unit element

stresses equal to

6vMQ /t 2

resulting

from the Poisson

in the tangential direction.

Combined stresses due


0-0 are:

to internal pressure

up the

designer to decide

between are small enough to stay below the allowable stresses. Code
2
for a minimum distance between two structural
Division 2 prescribes 4{Rt)^

assumed to be restrained and unable to accommodate the rotation

are here

It is

discontinuities.

a tangential strain in shell equal to

Ew Q /R.
of deflection w 0

have a sizable values.

stresses in

= (EwolR) {6vM 0 lt 2 ).

circumference and a stress

still

x 2
whether he can use the minimum distance 2{Rt) ^ between the loads or discontinuities (see Table 8.3.) and whether the maximum calculated combined

are

(bending only,WL = 0)

o t consists of the tangential membrane stress due to a change


to

0-0

and edge loadings

Q0

and

The slope, deflection, moment and shear become negligibly small at fix = 5.15.
2
The corresponding shell length x = L B = 4(RfV for v = 0.3 is sometimes called
the bending boundary zone. It can be shown that L B can be generalized to any
1/2
shell of revolution under axially symmetric edge load by defining Lq = 4(/?r)
where

Example

is

the circumferential radius of curvature at the edge.

8.1.

The top

half of a

0.313-in.-thick stainless steel plate

non-Code vertical drum is constructed from


A240 Type 304L and the bottom half from

at section

o L =(PR/2t)(6M0 lt2 )
o, = (PR/t) +

(Ew 0 lR) qSvMo/i2 )

a r - ~P\2 (average).
5

Once edge loadings

loadings

Q(x ) and M(x)

Q0

at

and

e |_ cos
3
2fi

0 are

known, deformations w(x) and 6(x) and

any distance x from the edge are given by

fix

Qo +

e~ g *(cos fix - sin fix)

2pD
1.0

e~ *(cos

fix

Wd

sin fix)

e'^

cos

Go+
fid

fix

2.0

3.0

4.0

Fig. 8.3.

Solutions for circular cylindrical shell influence functions.

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

224

225

A285

0.625-in.-thick (including corrosion allowance) carbon steej plate

The following design data

gr.

C.

are given:

Deformations due to the

2.

Radial growth:

Drumi.d.: 120

A285C

Sa = 13,750

at

650F = 21,800

Sy

psi

maximum

at

at

= 02 = 0

X 10" 6

in.

in.

rad.

all

deformations of the carbon

deformations of the stainless

0,

Displacements:

psi

the stainless-to-carbon

at

all

=0.209,

steel

Qo
~
20\D

Rotations:

Qo

steel shell

steel shell to

end

= 0.568 X 10 6

=0.071 X 10 6

^
M

M0
-

D2

0 2 =0.296,

650F = 15,200

stresses

summation of

304L:

junction in Fig. 8.4.


Shell deformations

Equating the summation of

3.

the

Sa = 13,700 psi
5 atm = 15,600 psi
Sy = 25,000 psi

psi

Determine the combined


shell

= +344,335 X

Rotations:

Stainless steel type

Satm = 13,750 psi


Sy = 30,000 psi

Sy

10" 6

650F

6
6
, = 25.1 X 10 and "c = 25.3 X 10 psi
6
as = 9.87 X 10" and a c = 7.33 X 10" 6 in./in./F

steel

A7 = (650-70) = 580F:

in.

operating pressure: 70 psig

Periodic peak operating temperature:

Carbon

temperature

AT = +256,415

= axR x

52

Maximum

rise in

Go

w2

Qq
_
=
77:
2$\D 2

M
_

52 -

P2 D2

junction due to the pressure P:

and
Radial deflection:

w,

w2

(v/2)]/Ec h = +13,617
t
= +27,330 X 10" 6 in.

*PR R[\

Rotations:

X 10" 6

in.

effect of the

moment

NL

due to the eccentricity

two

shell plates.

will

lb/in.
tb-in./in.

=360

= B 2 - 0 rad.
4. Total

The

Qo = 335

M
the force

Q0

and the

stress raising

of the force

(a)

combined

Carbon

and a t

stresses

steel shell:

be reduced by the taper (min. 3:1) between the


o L = (PR j2t ) (6Af 0 /tf ) = 3,378 5,530
x

= +8,910
= -2,150
a , = (/>* /r

psi (inside)
psi (outside)

+ {Ec w 0 //?

(6

/'? )

where
Assumed

Q0
fl

"00 =

positive directions of

and Af 0

as

shown. Eccen-

T^T
yP D
x

+
2ft

6
- +39,560 X 10~

in.

tricity e disregarded.

Hence
Shell 2,
stainless steel

Fig. 8.4.

o t = 6,756 + 16,600 1,660 = + 25,020 psi (inside)

= + 21,700

psi (outside).

^
M

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

226

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES
where

(b) Stainless steel shell:

o L = 6,726 + 22,050 = +28,780


= -15,324

psi (inside)

Summary.

'=-^ ^r+

The calculated o L

failure in the actual vessel

weld seam

ferential

weld

residual

rotation d Q due to

= 13,450- 25,715 6,615 = - 18,900 psi (outside)


= -5,650 psi (inside)

at

61

616X,0

"

6in

the stainless steel shell

occurred as

a fissure parallel

is

3.

The

Q0

and

v )l(Rt)

WO

ot =

yi A R.

MQ (4\*IREt).
Q0

(6MJt 2 ) = (BWo/K)

and

M0

at

section

(toMoft 2

0-0

are

4.

Combined stresses due


0-0 are

to internal pressure

P and

the edge loads

Q0

and

at section

here a distinct

is

OL=(XL lt)(6MJt 2 ) = 6M0 it 2

and close to the circum-

corrosion fatigue failure

[3(1

principal stresses due to edge loadings

too high. The

far

inspection would not prevent final breakthrough, since the fissure would origi-

nate on the inside of the vessel shell.

0*=

2
0o = Qo{2\ lEt) +

point where probably o L in combination with the


exceeded the ultimate fatigue strength. An occasional

stress first

in

X=

psi (outside)

End
0t

227

o t = (PRjlt) +

possibility.

(Ew 0 /R)

(6vM 0 /t 2 )

oL =(PRl2t)(6M 0 It*)
o r = -PI 2 (average).

8.4.

HEMISPHERICAL HEADS
The discontinuity

The following discussion

gives the formulas for the solution of effects of the uni-

formly distributed

edge shear

line

spherical head (Fig. 8.5).

The

Q0

and the edge moment

sign convention used

outward (increase in radius of curvature); d 0


1

is

is

on a hemi-

w0

as follows:

is

positive

positive outward.

hemispherical head as an end closure for a large-diameter pressure vessel subject


to high operating temperatures in addition to internal pressure.

Example

Radial displacement of the midsurface due to the internal pressure P:

8.2.

spherical head

= (PR 2 /Et)$(\

6=0

stresses at the hemispherical head-cylindrical shell junction

are less significant than at the semiellipsoidal, torispherical, or


conical headcylindrical shell junctions. This could be an important factor in selecting
a

Determine the discontinuity stresses at junction of a top hemiand cylindrical shell of a large-diameter vertical vessel (Fig.

8.6)

with the following design data:

v) in.

rad.

Design pressure: 150psig,


2.

Radial displacement

at

section

0-0 due

to the loadings

Q0

and

in

Hydrotestpressure: 225 psig,


X-ray:

Fig. 8.4:

wQ

Q 0 (2R\lEt) + M 0 (2-K

full,

Design temperature: 700F,


lEt)

Inside radius:

Material:^ 515
Sy- 23000 psi.
1.

= 120
gr.

in.,

60,

Sa = 14,300

Shell thickness due to pressure

Edge loads

E = 24.8 X

10

psi,

is

SE-Q.6P~

14,300- 0.6 X 150

==L27ln

Q0

are positive as

and Af0
shown.

PRi
t

Fig. 8.5.

v = 0.3,

150X 120

PRi
ts

psi,

2SE-Q2P

150X120

2X

14,300- 0.2 X 150

"

228

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

229

Total shell edge deflection = total head deflection:

58,600

96Q 0

IOM0 = 48,637 +

272<2o +

4QM0

Total shell edge rotation = total head edge rotation:

2M0 =40Q 0

lOfio "

12M0

Hence

(in the

=-12

opposite from that assumed), and

Qo = 33
3.

lb-in./in.

Combined

stresses at section

lb/in.

O-O:

Fig. 8.6.

Shell:

2.

2
oL =(PRI2ts ) + (6Mit ) = (150 X 120.63)/(2 X 1.27) + (6 X 72/1. 27
= 7,146 + 260 = + 6,880 psi (inside)

Edge displacements:

= + 7,460

Shell-pressure:
a,

w = (PRiRIEt)[\-(vl2)]
_ 0.85 X 150 X 120.63
24.8

= 58,600 X

10

10" 6

= + 13,570

in.

oL = (PRl2t h )

Shell-edge loads:

do =

HQol2P D)

+
-

psi (outside)

10" 6

in.

Head:

0=0 rad.

w 0 =-(Qo/20 3 D)

psi (inside)

w 0 =- 3900 X

1.27

psi (outside)

= (PRlts ) + (Ew 0 IR) (SvMitj)


= 14,293 - 800 + 80 = + 13,415

X 120

(6M0 lt h2 ) =

14,323 + 1,090 = + 13,235 psi (inside)


= + 1 5 ,4 1 5 psi (outside)

2
a t = (PR/20,) + (EwJR) (6vMlt h )
= 1 4,323 + 1 ,263 + 330 = + 1 5 ,256 psi (inside)
= 15,920 psi (outside)

(M o l2p 2 D) = -96X 10~ 6 G 0 + 10X iO" 6 A/0


6
(MolQD) = 10 X lO" Co " 2 X IO^Mq.

w0

= + 6,130 X 10" 6

Head-pressure:

w=

-6
2
|(1 - v){PR jEt) = 48,637 X 10

9=0
Head-edge
vv 0

60

Check

total deflection:

in.

rad.

Shell:

58,600

3900 = 54,700 X 10" 6

in.

Head:

6
48,637 + 6130 = 54,767 X 10"

in.

loads:

+Q 0 (2R\IEth ) + MQ (2\ 2 /Eth ) = 273 X


= +Q o (2\ 2 IEt h ) + M o (4\ IREt H ) = 40X
=

:i

lO"
10" 6

6
Co + 40 X \0'

C0

+ 12

Note: Any discontinuity stress will be further minimized by the plate taper at joint, as
required by the Code welding detail in Fig. UW-13.1.
The interested reader will find a practical discontinuity example in the ref. 2.

M0

10" 6 A/

8.5.

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

230

SEMI ELLIPSOIDAL

number of exact solutions for the cone-shell edge


displacements and forces under internal pressure and other loadings have been
presented during the last decade, some in tabular form, they are suited rather to
cylindrical shells. While a

AND TORISPHERICAL HEADS

Semiellipsoidal Heads

work

special jobs than to standard

both principal

In semiellipsoidal heads

location (see Fig. 3.12.)


loadings

becomes

radii

of curvature are functions of the

The solution of edge deformations

difficult,

in

terms of edge

and bending theory does not provide ready-to-use,

closed-form formulas for the deformations, as

is

the case with cylindrical shells

and hemispherical heads. Approximation methods have to be used, which con-

sume more time than

available to a vessel designer.

is

is

satisfactorily designed using the

ellipsoidal

Code formula with low acceptable

dis-

continuity stresses.
If for

some reason an

ellipsoidal

head with

a higher

Rfh

ratio

is

used and

dis-

continuity analysis has to be performed, the following references will be of help


to the designer: 59, 61, 63, 64, 101

The following discussion

in

everyday pressure vessel and piping design.

an analysis of the localized stresses

at the conecylinder junction, replacing the cone with an equivalent cylinder at the junction
is

point under investigation. The resulting stress equations, based on


cylindrical edge force formulas, are presented in

much

simpler

forms readily applicable

in

standard design.

The

However, the most commonly used and commercially available 2:


head

231

overall

stresses

computed according

agreement with the

to these formulas are in good, workable,

stresses calculated

by more exact

analytical

methods.

Also, design stress limits are suggested here to help the designer in evaluating a
design for safety.

The whole analysis presented here is based on the


ofn = cone thickness/cylinder thickness.

ref.

60, carried out for dif-

ferent ratios

103, 107, 20, and 22.


Influence Coefficients

Torisphericat Heads

Discontinuity stresses are due to sharp changes in the radius of curvature

at

points a and 2 (Fig. 3.14). Since these points are in practice close together,
the edge loadings affect each other to a large degree ancl again the analysis be-

comes

in

standard 2

torispherical head

semiellipsoidal heads under the

is less

The references given


as

an assistance

in

same pressure loading, the

lent cylinder (Fig 8.7).

Cylinder.

The

shear unit force

radial deflection

Q0

lb/in.

is

w(=AR) and

rotation 0 of the edge due to

given by

of semiellipsoidal heads can also be used

w=

1/2Z)0

estimating discontinuity stresses in torispherical heads.

pressure vessel and piping design.

section under internal pressure

The thickness of

stress

The question now

is

in

< 30

degrees

is

com-

formulas and the Code rules requir-

reinforcement of the cone-cylinder junctions.

discontinuity stresses

a conical head or a conical

with a half apex angle

puted by the simple Code membrane


a

both cylinder and cone, replaced here by an equivaThese values are known as influence coefficients.

suitable for high-pressure jobs.

in the discussion

Conical heads and conical reducers without knuckles are frequently utilized

ing

lb/in.)

lb-in./in.) are calculated for

CONICAL HEADS AND CONICAL REDUCERS


WITHOUT KNUCKLES

8.6.

AR and the edge rotaand a unit edge moment (A/ 0 = 1

radial displacement
1

prohibitively involved for routine vessel design work.

Since the total combined stresses in the knuckle region are several times higher

than

For the sake of convenience, the edge


tion d due to a unit edge load (Q 0 =

No

special

analysis of

normally required.

arises,

how

to check a cone-cylinder junction with

smaller

than 30 degrees subject to external loads in addition to the internal pressure P,


or with an angle

larger than

30

degrees. In such cases a

of discontinuity stresses at the cone-cylinder junction

is

more

detailed analysis

in order.

The equations for the edge forces and moments for conical shells, being
dependent on the cone apex angle (2 a), are much more complicated than for

at

Fig. 8.7.

point

Unit edge load diagram at cone-cylinder junction.

232

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

where

0=

v )jR 2 t2

[3(1

6 =

J/

For v = 0.3, 0 = 1.285/(tfr) 1/2

XI2D&

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

= w0,

= f 3/12(l

Z>

Computation of Edge Forces

- i^).

deflection

AR

AR

and rotation 6 due to unit moment

= l/20 2 =

Cone (replaced by equivalent

AR

AR

wc

cos

a=

[(1

The

cylinder at point A).

and rotation 0 of the edge due to

a unit shear force

cos a)l(2D c $

3
)]

cos

by planes

Juncture L.

From

the equilibrium condition in the vertical direction:

/+F=(PRtana)/2=Z.

ct/n

2
2
l
1 2
[3(1 - p )l(Rlcosa) (nt?] t* = 0(cos a/*) '

Using the formulas from Table 8.1, the total radial deflection of the cylindrical
is equated to the total radial deflection of the
shell due to force / and moment

k3 )

a//i)

The
Q

AR

radial displacement

= w(/3cosa//i 3 ^).

2
)

and rotation 6 of the edge due to a unit moment

= (1/2Z) c j3 2 ) cos a = w(& cos

^ =

(l/>cW =

vv(2/3 /fc

a//i

Mw& =

3
[(Fw cos 2 a)/n 3 k

[(Mwp cos a)/n 3 k 2

(2)

2
Similarly, the total rotation of the cylinder edge is
where cosoc/n 3 k 2 = \/n
equated to the total rotation of the cone edge. The end rotation of the conical
shell due to pressure is neglected. This assumption is a source of discrepancy
between approximate and more accurate analytical methods.

*2 )

-fwP +

= [(Fwp cos a)ln 3 k 2

Mw2$ 2

(Mw2& 2 ln 3 k).

(3)

3
).

After simplifying, the result

These

!b-in./in. are

AR

and the

=0
fw

/3

moment M. The radial displacements of both


due to pressure are assumed approximately equal and cancel out.

,/2

X cosa)/(2i5 c

0 = (1

shells

=* 3 Z>

* = (cos

(1)

by

where

> C

M are applied as indicated.

cone due to the force

0c=

separated from the adjacent cylin-

is

and "S", and the acting end forces f F-

at junctures

displacement

lb/in. is given

h>(cos

lb-in./in. are

and end moment

Moment M

radial

QQ

a=

2w0 2

6 = 1/0/) =

and

w/3

F, and Edge

closed-end conical reducer (Fig. 8.8)

drical shells,

The end

f,

233

is

a set

of three

linear

simultaneous equations:

results are tabulated in Table 8.1.

f+F = Z
f-M$ = (Fkjn)-

Table 8.1.

UNIT LOAD

UNIT

(l lb/in.)

PERPENDICULAR TO
AXIS ON END OF

Unit shear
Unit

CYLINDER

w0

perpen-

dicular to axis

Rotation of

20

w
0 cos a

Circumferential

+ w deflection
3+0 rotation

cos a

6 (rad.)

membrane

CONE
Sign convention used:

meridian

'\ cos 2

kn 3

stress

Rs

(psi)

For y = 0.3,

= (1/2D0

) -

X cos a

Radial displacement
(in.)

= (F/n

(1 Ib-in./in.)

moment

AR

2A//3

(Mfln )
(M2&/kn 3 )

ON END OF

CONE

CYLINDER

-/+

MOMENT

(2.57/Ff 3 )(f) 3/l

~ mean radius of the larger cylinder


= mean radius of the smaller cylinder

Conical reducer separated into elements with applied edge forcesand

Fig. 8.8.

positive as

shown.

endmoments

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

234

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

which can be solved for the three unknowns f F, and M:

will

reduce the bending stress

235

the tangential direction only the stress o tm

in

is

used in stress analysis.

f = ZV,

The formulas

F = Z-f=Z(\- V

M = Z(2I(5) V

and o 1m can be further simplified by rewriting the

oL

o L = (PR/0(0.5 + Xy/Rft)>

where

+n

k[\
1

(\

+2n

+ k

The
2

forces,

/ and

in

4(kn* +

membrane

producing bending stresses

in

stress in the shell.

compression

in the

shown

Moment

in Fig. 8.8
is

and

also positive,

coefficients

The end force TS = (PR 5 tan a)/2 has the opposite direction
L shown in Fig. 8.8, and so do forces fSi Fst and moment

Stresses in
in the

cone

60.

ref.

Cone

Stresses in Cylinder at Juncture L.

design pressure

P and

discontinuity

at Junctures L

The combined

moment

is

juncture/,

oc)

is

PR

(0.5 +

4.669

+ (6A// 2 1 2

tangential

and S

/v5?/f]

where

longitudinal stress o L due to

= (4.669/ 2

)72 tana

and

moment M,

is

stress a,

in

cone

shell at

in par.

(PR/*if

coso)-Z(l

)w(E/R)(k/n) + Z(2/$)V 2 w(($fn 2 )(ElR)

= (PR/t)

ZV

w(E/R) + Z(2/0) wP(E/R) V2


t

)] -

(2K2 / 2 )}.

L285VR/7(K,

0.91/1.285 )(R 3
-

)(Fi

stress

1.25

1.5

1.75

1.25

1.5

1.75

0.155

0.159

0.151

0.142

0.325

0.335

0.330

0.317

0.300

0.087
0.155

0.068

0.1573
0.0647
0.070

0.058

0.054

0.179

0.152

0.135

0.122

0.113

0.049

0.0356

0.325

0.214

0.147

0.104

0.074

stress

0.104

a = 45
n

a r the bending

some movement of the

(+6vM/t 2 ) has

differential shell

element

a = 30

A"

2K2 )tana

2K2 )tana].

combined

to be added. However, since

'V />
a

15

2V2 )

-(PR/0- (PR/2)(E/R)(6X

In order to obtain the total

{[(*/)(! - K,

membrane stress o tm (the Code


UA5e) due to the pressure P, force
=

fw(ElR) + Mw$(E/R)

is:

Table 8.2.

= (PR/0[1

juncture

(circumferential)

hoop stress
given by

= (PRI0- Zw(ElR)(V

o fm = (PR/nf cos a) - Fw(E/R)(cos 2 a/n 3 k 3 ) + Mw(0fn 3 k 2 )(E/R) cos a

Qtm = (PR/t)

= ^/ 2

given by

y/Rft tan a).

average discontinuity
/,

longitudinal stress o L

= (PR/2nt cos a) + 6Z(2/0) K2 /w 2 f 2

(PR/nf casa)- (l.285PR/0>/3?7? tan a


The combined

combined

= (PR/20 + (PR/2)(6lt 2 )(2VRi/] .285)K2 tan a

V2

total

given by

= {PR lint cos a) + (6/n t )(PR/2) tan a(2/1.285)v^K


2
= (PR/0 [(0.5//I cos a) =F (4.669/ 2 ) K2 y/Wft tan a]

The membrane tangential


o L = (PRjlt) (6M/t 2

The

Shell at Juncture L.

shell at

= (PR/0[(0.5/ii cos a) +
and Cone

-2K2 )tana.

where K=].285(K,

to

Stresses in Cylinder

outside of the shell.

that at juncture

Combined

tan

and Y, covering the majority of practical cases, are tabulated


may plot them for different half apex angles a, as

o L = (PR/2tn cos

Juncture S.

X = 4.669 V2

Table 8.2 or the designer

suggested in

1)

F, ars positive, acting in directions

causing compressive

where

a tm =(PR/t)(\- Y\fRft)>

+ 2kn)]

~ kn* + 2k 2 n* + 2kn 2

-* "[
v
Both

for

equations for o L and a tm as follows:

Of

= 60

1.25

1.5

1.75

1.25

1.5

1.75

0.533

0.545

0.524

0.496

0.837

0.871

0.218

0.197

0.180

0.461

0.383

0.863
0.334

0.833
0.300

0.789

0.293

0.552
0.255

0.533

0.352

0.242

0.172

0.125

0.837

0.557

0.387

0.272

0.197

0.271

By

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

236

V2

a simple substitution for


"

{[(*/)(!

it

^i)]

and

can be shown that


"

(2K 2 //i 2 )} = (K,

finally

2V2 )'

237

a tm = PR it[(] In cos a)

Ys/Rh].

so that

a tm = (Ptf/f){(l//icosa>- [1.285(K,

- 2

K2 )

Table 8.2.

To

(+6kM/hV)

juncture

maximum

mum

The upper

sign

means

tangential compressive

specifies the stress

the small end under internal design

on

marized

in

all

the above stress formulas are sum-

Table 8.3.

8.3. In ref. 19, page 498, is an example of a rigorous analtyical solution of discontinuity stresses at a cylinder-conical head junction with design

Example

p + (4//Z)), equivalent pressure for longitudinal stress.


2
i (AMjnD ) - (W}ttD), unit longitudinal load, lb/in.

1.

shown

in Fig. 8.9

Computed

stresses

with the following

from

results.

(a) In the cylinder:

ref. 19.

Total longitudinal stress:

Juncture L
stress in cylinder,

membrane

tangential:

-30,880

psi

+42,260

psi

Membrane

tm

= -5,712
\ cos a

psi.

Total tangential:

membrane

tangential:

tm

852

\n cos a

psi

5,712 + 9,140

"
3. 428 psi

1+
S
stress in cylinder,
Material:

steel

6
E = 30 X 10

= 0.25

longitudinal:

membrane

Combined

inside

a tm = 11,380- 25.2(1,490) + 8.373(2,443)


stress in cone,
t

Combined

tangential:

longitudinal:

Juncture

outside

a L = 5,690 + 36,560 =

longitudinal:

Combined

In conical reducers the

Obtained.

stress occurs at the large end, while the maxi-

tangential tension stress occurs at

data as

Combined

S Can Be

For the convenience of the designer

tension.

the outside surface.

has to be added.

pressure.

= corroded shell thickness

Positive (plus) sign

for the majority of practical cases are tabulated in

Similarly, the Stresses at Juncture

M= external moment at juncture


W = weight at juncture
D = 2/? or 2/? s

f,

and Y

obtain the total tangential calculated stress o,, the bending stress

Stresses at Cone-to-Cylinder Junctures.

Table 8.3.

pe

The coefficients

tan a] VE/i"

tangential:

V?)

_
ex is

stress in cone,

longitudinal:
ts

membrane

_pr J
tangential:

tm ~
t

\n cos a
i

[ncosa

^pe
P

8 I

fl\

R = 24

S\

/A

y
= 45

Fig. 8.9.

Design data for Example 8.3.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

238

DISCONTINUITY STRESSES

(b) In the cone:

Membrane

239

tangential:

Total longitudinal:
"
ff

=
L = 4,764 + 25,715

a tm =(PRlt)[(\ln cos a)
20,951

psi

+30,480

psi

Yy/Rft)

= (300 X 24.3/0.633)[(l/1.192
= 13,666- 18,267 = -4,601

Membrane

0.707) - 0.256V24.3/0.633

psi.

tangential:

Total tangential:

a tm =-5,898

12,881 psi

psi.

a t = -4,601 +0.3 X 27,614


+ 3,683

psi.

Total tangential:

The

11,891 psi

87

computed by

stresses as

this

approximate analysis are

able workable agreement with stresses calculated

o t = -5,989 + 5,902

= 24.3

stresses differ they are on the conservative side. A better agreement


would be reached by using v - 0.25 and R = 24 in.; however, since a Code designer would use v = 0.30 and midsurface radius in computations, the same

Wherever the

psi.

2. Using the equivalent-cylinder approximation.


= 0.3. (a) In the cylinder:

in good and reasonby the more exact method.

in.;

n=

1.192;

values were used here for comparison.

Total longitudinal

Suggested Allowable Stresses and Stress Ranges at Cone- Cylinder Junctions

a L = (PR/t)(0.S + Xy/RIt) = (300 X 24.3/0.633)(0.5 + 0.55V24.3/0.633)

-33,487

psi outside

+45,003

psi inside.

5,758 + 39,245 =

Membrane
o tm

The calculated total longitudinal stress o L with predominant bending


component can be very high and exceed the yield stress. As pointed out

60, the longitudinal stress cannot exist in the vessel wall in calculated intensities

exceeding the yield point of the material.

A
tangential:

=Wf)(l
= 11,516

"

hydrostatic test can be assumed as the final fabrication operation here;

produces a local yielding


= (30OX 24.3/0.633)(l

>V7O

18,267 = -6,750

0.256V2O70633)

psi.

the shell due to the hydrotest are objectionable, since they tend to increase the

large residual stresses.)

When

f- 18,524 psi

= -6,750 + 0.3(39,245) =

psi.

cone

Using

o L = (PRIt)[(0.5/n cos a) +

tV^]

(300X 24.3/0.633)[(0.5/1.192 X 0.707)

= 6:832 + 27,614 =

is

subsequently pressurized at the design pressure the induced

stress [74]

Total longitudinal:

the shell

o L should remain below the yield point. However, the relaxation of the longitudinal stress o L by yielding will increase the tangential component membrane
stress by an amount equal to roughly one-half of the reduction in longitudinal

+ 5,024
In the

and welds and initiate new cracks in the less


zone adjacent to the weld as well as introduce undesirable

existing flaws in the base material

Total tangential:

(b)

it

in the vessel wall in the longitudinal direction, pro-

vided no local buckling occurs. (Of course, any visible localized deformations in
-

ductile heat-affected

o t = o tm + (6uM/t 2

stress

in ref.

'-20,782

psi

.+34,446

psi.

+ 0.387V24.3/0.633

this

reasoning, the

par.

UA53, 4Sa E

ing)

and \.5Sa E

allowable stresses per Code Division

in

the tangential direction

rather as the

maximum

(membrane + discontinuity bend(membrane hoop + discontinuity

hoop), as compared with the computed localized

The following

maximum

in the longitudinal direction

stress

o L and o tm

are

assumed

allowable stress ranges.

are the

maximum

allowable design stress limits for o tm and oL

based on experience and using Code Divisions

and 2 as

a guide.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

240

Tangential Membrane Stress o tm in Cone and Cylinder.


Design pressure plus any operating external mechanical load

Maximum Allowable
1.

<

o tm
2.

.33S a and o Jm + (oL /2)

< 2Sa < Sy

Hydrotest pressure:

o tm

< 2S atm

and o tm + (aL /2)

< 3S atm < Su

where S a
is

the

is the Code allowable stress at the design metal temperature and 5


atm
Code allowable stress at room temperature.

Design Remarks.
1.

When computing

the discontinuity stresses at juncture

L and S

in Fig. 8.8

the effect of the edge radial displacement of cylindrical and conical shells and
the rotation of the meridional tangent of the cone shell edge produced
pressure alone were neglected.

of the stresses

is

This

is

by

the

the same as assuming that the largest part

due to the unbalanced inward (juncture L) or outward (juncture

S) forces due to the end pressure.


2.

The minimum length L of

2(Rhtl cos a)

the allowable

'2

for cases

maximum, and

below the allowable


(see Fig. 8.3).

when

limits.

the conical reducer in Table 8.3

is

given as

the stresses at junctures stay significantly below

the

compound

stresses

between two junctures stay

Otherwise a larger reducer length

should be used

9
Thermal Stresses

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

9.1

Whenever there

is

a considerable difference

between the

vessel operating

tem-

perature and atmospheric (assembly) temperature, thermal expansion problems


occur. Generally, the effects of externally applied mechanical loads and the ef-

of thermal expansion are separated and independently analyzed and only


to
the final effects of total combined stresses are considered when comparing
fects

maximum

allowable stresses.

Thermal (or temperature) stresses in a structural member are caused by temperature changes and accompanying dimensional changes. In addition to being
subject to a change in temperature, to develop thermal stresses the structural
member must be restrained in some manner. The constraints of the member in

the usual thermal stress problems that occur in the vessel design may be divided
into external and internal constraints. This division is convenient, since the
analytical

procedures for solving the two types of problem differ. Internal

constraints are usually the

more

difficult to solve..

In thermal analysis the first task


part due to these constraints.

It is

then to compute the elastic stresses in the


assumed that the thermal stresses are within
is

on the stress-strain curve of the construction material.


high enough the creep may become significant and have

the elastic range

temperature

is

considered. Induced
material.

thermal stresses

However, thermal

BASIC

stresses are self limiting; this

means

visualized as

ture. If the temperature

that a small

Chapter 2.

THERMAL STRESS EQUATIONS

A body can be
of the cube

to be

can easily exceed the yield strength of the

local plastic relaxation will reduce the acting force, as described in

9.2.

If the

is

composed of unit cubes of uniform average tempera-

of a unit cube

is

changed from Tto

and the growth

restrained, there are three cases to consider.

Restraint in the x-direction.

A stress

ax

ox = -aE(T x

is

induced:

T)
241

in

THERMAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

242

compression for 7\

>

T,

where a

the coefficient of thermal expansion

is

stress

is

then

(in./in./F).
2.

Thermal

243

o = Ea(T x -

Restraint in x- and ^-directions.

ratm )

compression

in

where
oy
3.

Restraint in

all

=ox =-o(T -T)l(\-v).


l

a = the cross-sectional metal area of the pipe


a = the coefficient of thermal expansion of the pipe material.

three directions (x,y, z).

Example 9.1. Determine the local stresses in the carbon-steel vessel shell at
point B and stresses in the stainless-steel (Type 304) welded-in pan tray at point
A as shown in Fig. 9.1. At start-up the pan temperature will be the same as the
y

These equations are the basic equations for direct thermal stresses under external or internal constraints, and represent the maximum thermal stress for the

They can

particular constraint.

refer to

an entire body under external constraints

or to an element of a body.

The equation
The

stress

in 3 defines the stress for a fully restrained

the

is

maximum

body or an element.

thermal stress that can be produced by a change

in

temperature under external or internal constraints [16]

The equation in 2 represents


body or an element restrained
stress

produced

steels, this

at the surface

would be about 200

maximum

the

rise in

temperature) +

can be produced

in a

point ),

body under sudden heating

or cooling. For

the shell due to the line load q at point

rise in

temperature)

(AR due

temperature displacements of

to find the

by outside

forces and
stresses

mE

c t)

<*s(Tp -

moments

body

or a system of

members

method of

restraints the usual

required to bring the

stress

Tc =

70F, and

line

body

load q:

are fully or

computation

q=KH(R 2 pl2Ec t)HU 3 /Estl)}

to the restrained state

and the

where 0 =

.285/(tf f)

l/2

for v

= 3/10.

forces.

Thus thermal problems of


tional

type are converted into problems of conven-

this

strength of materials. Solution depends on the availability of suitable

strength

formulas applicable

through the body

is

the

to

in

a steel

a/,

<T

the

temperature distribution

pipe between two fixed walls.

temperature of Ihe operating liquid

stallation) temperature will induce a

If Tallin

problem. The

generally uniform.

The simplest example would be


change

growth A/,

10)Ri

(qL 13EJ)

2
+ (4L>/Es tl)] = as (T - 70)*, - (PR /Ec t)[l - (u/2)]
p

dimensions of the freely expanded body and then to compute the

produced by those

B) = (AR

to the linear force q at

i.e.,

EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS

partially prevented
is

while the shell temperature will be only

psi/F.

for
If the

2
(R/Ec )(o t -vo L ) + ac (Tc - 10)R+(qR mEct) =

q[(R 2
9.3.

(AR of

of the pan due to the

stress that

Tp

above atmospheric temperature.


The stainless steel pan will expand to a greater degree than the carbon steel
shell. The equation for the summation of all radial growths AR is as follows:
(AR of the shell due to the internal pressure P) + (AR of the shell due to the
slightly

two directions. An example would be the

in

of

temperature of the operating liquid,

will

change

tt /.(r,

/,

will

aaF(T

Any

relation to atmospheric (in-

in the length

of the pipe:

r m ).

be positive and the total force

restrain the pipe to the original length

in

required to

be

TMm ).

Fig. 9.1.

=K

THERMAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

244

1 ;

Total stress in shell at point

tangential

o t = (qR (3/2f) +

2. Total stress in

in tension:

is:

pan

T[h/2)

[\Mq(Rt) 112 It 2 ] + (PR/2t)

aL =

longitudinal:

245

at

points

(3 qvj2&t )

+ (PR/t).

is:

2
o b = (6qL/t ) + (liquid and pan weight l2-nt p R A

< Sa

of pan plate.
Fig. 9.2.

INTERNAL CONSTRAINTS

9.4.

The shape of

body with nonuniform temperature

distribution throughout

that it does not permit free expansion of the individual body eleaccordance with their local temperatures, so that stresses are produced
in the body in the absence of any external constraints. This can be visualized
better if a body is assumed to consist of unit elements such as cubes or fibers,

may be such
ments

in

each with a uniform average temperature differing from the temperature of the
adjacent elements.

For example, a thick cylindrical shell can be assumed to consist of thin,


mutually connected, concentric cylindrical shells. If the temperature is raised
uniformly the individual shells will grow at the same rate. However, if a tempera-

defined in terms of the variable y. The stresses resulting from the uneven
temperature distribution can be determined by the equivalent thermal load

is

method.

To determine

we assume first that the bar is


same temperature along their lengths,
the jc-dircclion. There are no shear stresses

the thermal stresses in ihe bar

cut into longitudinal unit fibers of the

which are allowed to expand freely in


between the fibers to consider. Second, the fibers
shapes by outside assumed forces.
The internal compressive stress produced is
ax =

ture gradient develops, for instance with heat transfer, the cylindrical elements
will

be

at different

individual

average temperatures and expand

cylindrical

elements

will

be

be introduced in the shell

upon return

constrained

by each

other,

some

thermal

At

become

no compressive stress a x> equilibrium


force F, distributed across bar width h

point, residual stresses will

to the original temperature.

caused by such internal constraints

However, most

vessel

is

methods for solving thermal


beyond the scope of this book.

problems can be reduced to two-dimensional

this point the fibers are rejoined. Since at the

end, force

detailed description of the general analytical

stresses

a/sTO').

at different rates. Since the

stresses will develop in the otherwise unrestrained shell. If the stresses

larger than the yield strength of the material at

arc brought into their original

will

is

ends of the actual bar Ihcrc

is

by application of end tensile


the ends. At a distance away from the

restored

at

distributed across the cross-sectional bar

become uniformly

area:

stresses. In

F=

simpler cases, exact analytical solutions are possible and result in closed formulas,

which are sometimes cumbersome. For a practicing vessel engineer the rule is
to use available closed-form results, and when necessary to simplify the problem
to obtain only the most important stresses. However, the lack of derived formulas
sometimes necessitates the use of approximate methods.

dFdy^

aET(y)tdy

+ * /2
1

o'x

=F/ht =

T
h J

ah:T{y)dy.

-h/2

In the following discussion, thermal stress problems will be described briefly,

and only

as they

occur in standard pressure vessel design practice.

Since

is

distributed non-uniformly

bar cross section, a bending

moment

at
is

the ends with respect to the axis z of the

introduced:

Thin Plate Bar with Transverse Temperature Gradient


Figure 9.2 shows a thin, unrestrained plate bar, simply supported and subject
to an uneven, one-dimensional thermal gradient across height h. Temperature

A/2
z

(dF)y=

+H/2

aET(y)tydy

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

246

THERMAL STRESSES

causing the bending stress

247

In practice, the temperature distribution will resemble that

generating high thermal stresses in the bar.

shown in Fig. 9.2(b),


The use of gusset plates or rib stiffeners

cannot be recommended on hot vessels subject to thermal gradients of the sort


which affect the bar in this example. If they are used, they must be well insulated.
The interested reader will find a thorough description of the equivalent thermal
load

The total stress in bar away from the end in


summation of the above stresses: o x ~ ox + o'x

the direction of the jt-axis

is

the

method

more general thermal problems

as used to solve

in refs.

66 67 68

and 122.

o x or
,

Bar with Axial Temperature Variation

o x = -cT(y) +

+h/1

12v

aET(y) dy-f

H J-H/2

hn

<xET{y)y dy.

It

can be shown by the above method that:

J -h/1

1.

Example

Assuming

9.2.

temperature distribution

a linear

Fig. 9.2, with temperature

T0

at point 0,

determine the

in the plate

bar of

An

unrestrainted bar with axial temperature variation

total strain

is

stress free.

The

is

stress distribution in

the bar.

r(y)-r0 [i+Gy/A)].
2.

My

restrained bar with axial gradual temperature variation T(x) and average

temperature

= +hl2,

Ta

generates stress in the bar equal to

o x =-EotTa>

<2r'
*

HI I

Br) * */.

"'

Br) *]

with

all

sections in compression.

Thick Plate with Transverse Temperature Gradient

The temperatuie
full restraint in

and the

stress in the unrestrained bar at point

distribution

aET0

is

accordance with the basic principle that a uniform or linearly

in

varying temperature

body

in the

by

itself

it

linear

does not generate thermal stresses

in

bar

is

=-oET(y)l(\-p).

a solid

in the

f*

h/2

UyE

+h/2

bar will cause a deforma-

For a

If the

=oz

a constant curvature:

(l//?)

clamped

Assuming

the previously derived stress formula for a bar the following equation

2aET(y)

temperature distribution

stress biaxial.

can be written:

absence of constraints.

However, the
tion giving

rise

produced

= 0.

Then from
This result

uniaxial, the

is

ox
o x = ~2<xET0 + ctET0 +

is

the x- and z-directions,

= (2ar0 )/[*(* +a7-0 )l

= 0 and ox =
ax ~ -oETq.

restrained in compression only o'x

at ends,

o x = 0 and again the stress

is

=(2aT0 )lh.

linear

temperature distribution T(y) -

T0

[1

+ (2y/h)] in a plane (Fig.

9.3) with edges clamped (an approximation to a thick vessel wall) at point
(the inside of a shell with a high operating temperature), the stresses are

ctETQ

tf the

bar

is

ox = o z =

[2oT0 /(l

- )]

+ [<xETol(l -

v)]

-oT0 /(l

- u).

248

THERMAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

249

Thick Cylindrical Shell with Radial Temperature Distribution


For the case of

a thick -wall cylindrical shell

with free ends, the stresses due to

radial distribution of temperature through the wall are given by

During a thermal shock (sudden application of hot or cold fluid of temperature


Tf to the surface of the plate) the magnitude of the stress at the surface of the
thick plate with an average temperature Ta and surface Ts after the contact with
the fluid

is

given

by
a =

Ea(Ta

- r,)/(J - v)

= Ea{Ta

where

- 7/(l - u).

a = inside radius (see Fig. 9.5)

Uniform Hot Circular Spot


If a circular

in a Large,

Thick Plate

hot spot of temperature

b = outside radius

with radius a develops

instance due to a crack in the inside shell refractory, in an otherwise cold plate

of temperature

r (Fig. 9.4),

the

maximum
o>

inside the hot spot:

outside the hot spot at distance

stress is given

= o t = -aE(T x

by:
T)/2;

radius of the point under consideration


=
gradient temperature of the point under consideration as
T(r)
r. In practice determined by a heat-transfer computation.
AT= Ta - Tb) where Ta > Tb
r

in a shell, for

Stresses

o r and a L are algebraically additive to the pressure

function of

stresses.

r:

2
2
o r =-CLE(T x - T)a /2r

ot =

These

stresses are

maximum

aE{T

T)a l2r

stresses since

any

rise in

the cold plate tempera-

ture will relieve them.

Fig. 9.5.

Assuming that the thermal gradient


T(r) =

The maximum

is

linear, the gradient

(b-r)ATKb-a).

stresses are:

aEAT \
Fig. 9.4.

temperature

2b

+a

is

at r

ot - oL - +

b:

For thin

at

THERMAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

250

with a = b the

shells

maximum

= a:

ot

aEAT

or fixed.

b + 2a 1

3(b+a)\

but

does cause expansional

it

aEAT

down

joint
in

compression

The

is

one-half the

maximum

3. In addition to the

--^ in tension

is

welded to the

shell.

skirt end.

stresses

of thermal origin, the design vessel pres-

which

will cause stresses in

skirt.

thermal stress for two-dimensional constraints.

from

all

temperature distributions. For medium- and thin-wall cylinders the

assumption of a linear temperature gradient is satisfactory. The solution of thermal stresses in cylinders with radial thermal gradients may be simplified by using
a

above

sure will produce a radial deformation in the shell,

linear temperature gradient generates the smallest thermal stresses

possible

end

along the skirt any temperature gradient will cause an angular rotawhich is restrained by the welded joint equivalent to the

unpressurized

which

does not produce any stresses

deformation.)

tion of the skirt end,

clamped boundary condition of the


o t = oL - +

itself

shell

At the skirt-shell weld junction the skirt and shell temperatures will be nearly
the same so that no radial difference in expansion occurs. However, from the

qlE AT.

ztr = b:

by

2. Discontinuity stresses will arise because the skirt

stresses are:

~oL --

linear axial thermal gradient

(A

in the cylinder,

'

251

system of nondimensional curves

[1

59]

Support

skirts

should be designed (a) with a thermal gradient moderated by

insulation (internal and external), so that the combination of thermal


stresses will

be within the acceptable

stress ranges at

the welded

and other

joint,

and (b)

long enough to reduce the temperature difference between the bolted-down base
of the skirt and the concrete base, in order to prevent any possible distortion of
the skirt.

Spherical Shells with Radial Temperature Gradient

Temperature Gradient.
In a spherical shell the principal stresses o t
tion are given

and o r

at the point

under considera-

by

known. The

2Ea_

To perform thermal

stress analysis

of the cylindrical

support skirt of a vessel, or at least to inspect quantitatively the magnitude and


effects of thermal stresses, the temperature profile of the support skirt must be

the

skirt height is usually given

minimum

skirt

height of a support skirt

by process requirements, and


is

rarely

below 6

ft.

At

this

in practice

length the

support can be assumed to be a semi-infinite cylinder insulated inside and

outside, as

shown

in Fig. 9.6.

2Ea_

v[2(b

practice most process vessels operating at high temperatures are thermally

In

insulated, in

which case (he temperature of the

shell wall will

be uniform and

equal to the temperature of the operating liquid. However, heavy tubes in heat

exchangers

will

be subject to temperature gradients.

Thin Cylindrical Support Skirts of Hot Vessels with Axial Thermal Gradient
2

In addition to the stresses

moments

produced by the

vessel

weight and wind or seismic

there are thermal stresses in the cylindrical skirt supports of hot vessels

generated by the temperature gradient from the skirt-shell joint

down

in axial

direction.

The
I

additional stresses

in skirt

Temperature gradient

supports

stresses will

will consist

Ts =

of the following:

be produced by the temperature distribu-

tion alone in the cylindrical shell, regardless of

whether the end

is

free,

h u h 0 - film coefficients, Btu/ft -hr-F


k it k 0 = transverse conductivity of insulation, Btu/ft -hr-F, thickness in in.
C - metal conductivity, Btu/ft 2 -hr-F, thickness in in.
R t ~ thermal metal resistance of plate to axial heat flow, hr-F/Btu
= 144/Cf

clamped,

(Ta - Ts) T(x) =

temperature of cylinder at x -
total temperature d>p
shell temperature at distance x under given ambient conditions.

Fig. 9.6.

Semi-infinite cylindrical shell insulated outside

and

inside.

THERMAL STRESSES

253

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

252

of unit width on such a cylindrical shell, insulated on both


temperatures Tt and T0
sides, with temperature Ta at its end and with constant
given as a function of
is
adjacent to the insulation, the temperature distribution

Examining a

the distance

strip

x from

the end

by

T(x) = (Ta

-T )e- mx
5

Ts

where

Ts

T0 G 0 )l(Gi

~ (Tfit +

Gt-ltolkd +

C0

m
At

jc

iUhdY

-[fro/*o) +
= [R t

G0 )

(l/M]"

(G^G 0 )] " a

Fig. 9.7.

self-limiting thermal bending


the yield point, but since they consist primarily of
stress range than the
stresses they are compared rather with the allowable

= 0 the gradient becomes maximum:

dT(x)ldx=-m(Ta

Schematic illustration of temperature profiles under various types of insulation.

allowable stresses [69, 8)

r3 )F/ft

Support

more

general

method

for

supports of hot or cold vessels

computation of the temperature gradients in skirt


can be found in ref. 1 57. These equations can also

The maximum
be used for estimating the skirt metal temperature at the base.
gradient of up to 25F/in. is considered acceptable.
Tne analytical determination of thermal stresses due to a thermal gradient in
equation for
semi-infinite cylinder depends on the solution of the differential
a

the temperature radial growth


distribution T(x)

from the end

of the free cylinder due to the temperature

skirts

for

hot vessels are successfully designed

gradient at the skirt-sheil weld


tion extending 2-3
left

open,

as

shown

This design

is

radial expansion.

ft

joint in Fig. 9.7

below the

skirt-shell

is

if

the temperature

minimized by the

shell insula-

weld and with the crochet space

in Fig. 9.8.

satisfactory even for large-diameter vessels with considerable

However, some

difficulties

such as weld cracking have been

encountered on large-diameter vessels in cyclic thermal service accompanied

sometimes by thermal shock. For such

vessels a

support

skirt

lapped to the

in the axial direction:

d*w/dx* +

4^w =

(Eta/DR)T(x)

where
oc

= coefficient of thermal expansion


- c 2 )flexural rigidity of the cylinder

3
>=/Y/ /12(l

/3=[3(1-

)/KV]

and the longitudinal

!'

moment M L and

ML =

The

the transverse shear

Dd2 w/dx 2

Q at

- -Dd 3 w/dx*

any location:

solution and application of the results of these equations to various boundinterested reader will find
is beyond the scope of this book. The

0 100

ary conditions

Fig. 9.8.

further information in refs. 18, 70, and 73.

Generally,

it

can be said that computed thermal stresses in

many

cases exceed

with

300

500 600

Schematic illustration of temperature profile for insulated and fireproofed

air pocket.

skirt

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

254

bottom

cylindrical shell portion

even and better heat transfer.

THERMAL STRESSES

would seem to be

A more

involved analysis

more. suitable design

becomes necessary

temperature of the system

If the

for

here.

AL =

cylinder increases by

(ct 2

Short, longitudinal slots located below the weld joint have not proven com-

and

a portion of the load carried

weaken

The

stress in the cylinder will

pletely successful in practice for relieving thermal stresses, since they

the shell and behave as discontiuities [74, 75]

crease in temperature

B. The produced strain


in the system

The
Application of

may

result

under certain conditions

thermal and mechanical stresses and


in

in cycling

may

is

of the

of the bar,

be transferred to the bar.

on the

curve, and if the in-

o y will be induced in the bar

where the cylinder takes over

restored.

in the cylinder

is

given by

rigid slab

phenomenon

is

The strains in the cylinder and the bar produced by weight


amount AolAT, or

W differ only by the

given in the following descriptive

M of weight W (Fig. 9.9)

with cross-sectional area a and bar

ao x = Oj(a + b)- oy b.

called thermal

lead to large distortions of the system and ultimately to

basic explanation of this

is

of combined

failure.

The

will

stress

given by the point B^

tensile stress at point

a progressive increase in the plastic strain

the entire system. This action of cyclic progressive yielding

example.

by the cylinder

drop to the point

free length

steady mechanical load to a system subjecl to a cyclic operat-

ing temperature

ratcheting and

is

the free length

T) over the

part of the load to prevent further yielding of the bar and the force equilibrium

THERMAL STRESS RATCHET UNDER STEADY


MECHANICAL LOAD

9.5.

raised to T\

enough, yield

large

is

is

- ot\)L (7^ -

255

is

e(B l ) = e(A l )+ AaA7\

supported by metal cylinder

with cross-sectional area b.

that both materials behave in an elastic-perfectly plastic

It is

assumed

manner.

Since the system forms a continuous structure the total increase in the

common

length must be the same for the cylinder and the bar. However, the part of the
First Half of the

The

initial stress

perature T,

bar elongation e(B Y

Thermal Cycle
a,-

induced

in the cylinder

is

given by points

now permanent.

and the bar, both of uniform tem-

Second Half of the Thermal Cycle

is

at

and

) is

=B

= W/(a + b)

on the stress-strain curve

in Fig. 9.10.

The system is cooled to initial temperature T and the situation is now reversed.
The free length of the bar has been increased by the permanent plastic elongation and the bar unloads a portion of its load along the line Bi = B 2 The
cylinder takes over this part of the load. Assuming area a is such that yield stress
.

induced, the cylinder deforms partially plastically to point

is

plastic

A2

However, no

deformation occurs in the bar.

Since the final lengths of the bar and the cylinder must be the same, point

A%

lies

point

on the same
is given by

vertical line as point

B2

The

tensile stress

o 2 in the bar

at

B2

bo 2 = ofa + b) - ay a.
At the end of the next thermal cycle the
point

B4

in the bar

and to point

A4

final state

of stress-strain will

in the cylinder, as indicated

shift to

by dashed

lines

in Fig. 9.10.

The

lengths of the bar and the cylinder are permanently increased in each

cycle and the permanent elongation e

stress-strain diagram,

at the

end of the cycle

will be,

from the

THERMAL STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

256

ep

=^aAT^e(A )-e(Y)l

[e(p t )- e(B2 )\

AaAT- [c{Y)-e(4i)]~

AoAJ-

[(o y -

a 1 )IE]

[e(Pi)- e(B t )]

- [(o

Substituting for o x and o 2 in the above equation,

AaAr+

If

o y - Oi

is

[0i(a

(Oy/E) +

[a,(fl

257

we

o2 )ffl

get

- (a b/aE) - (o /E)
y
y

+ b)lbE] - (oy a/bE)

AaA7-

l(o y - Oi)IE] [2

(b/a) + (a/*)]

very small and can be disregarded, e p

is

maximum and

equal to

AaA7\
It

important to note that the above system acts as a continuous structure.

is

Therefore ratcheting can not develop in joints like the flange-bolt joint. A
practical example of thermal ratcheting would be the cyclic growth of a thick

uniform material subject to internal pressure and fluctuating


operating temperature which develops a radial thermal gradient through the
wall. The design rules of Code Division 2 should then be applied.

cylindrical shell of

causing the buckling that would occur

3.

9.6.

In the design of pressure vessels the designer tries to eliminate or at least ministresses as

much

the pan were welded directly to the

Sometimes

change

in design

is

desirable to solve a thermal problem. For

instance, in the case of a large U*tube heat exchanger too large a difference

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

mize thermal

if

shell.

as possible. Several

methods

in use are discussed

between the in and out temperatures on the tube side caused the tube sheet to
warp and a leakage occurred. The suggested remedy was to replace U-tube design

with once-through flow construction.

here.
4.
1.

One of

the simplest and effective

ways

to avoid external constraints

is

by

using floating construction, which eliminates external constraints. An example


of floating construction is shown in Fig. 9.11, where a heat exchanger is at-

tached to a process column by two brackets. The top bracket carries the entire
weight of the heat exchanger, while the bottom bracket with slotted holes

supports the heat exchanger horizontally and provides for the vertical differential thermal expansion. The nuts on bolts in the bottom bracket are hand tight

and secured by tack welding. Another example

drums on

2. If

is

the horizontal and vertical

sliding support plates.

external

constraints

cannot be entirely eliminated, local flexibility


is provided in the form of expansion joints

capable of absorbing the expansion


or a flexible structural

shown

in

Fig. 9.1,

member. An example would be the pan-to-shell joint


radial growth of the pan without

which can absorb the

Shapes of weldments or castings that might cause

gradient under operating conditions can be avoided

a steep

temperature

by proper contouring of

the part. Sources of stress concentration, holes, abrupt changes in cross-sections,

or mass accumulation should be niinimized.

Thermal expansion can be better


handled by dividing large parts. A favorable contour should be used, i.e., surface
of revolution in preference to a flat surface.
5. Selection

thermal

shown

stress.

of proper material

or combination of materials can minimize

Consider the bolted, flanged joint

in Fig. 9.12.

in

high-temperature service

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

258

The thermal expansion

should be approximately the same.

tively,
at

a h and a ( of the

coefficient

high operating temperatures and

occurs

when

the joint

returns to

if

If

ot h

>

the bolt

bolt and flange, respec-

a,, leakage
is

at

the joint occurs

permanent

set

af >a h the

bolt

high temperatures.

On

normal temperatures.

becomes overstressed and permanently stretched

"of

tightened
If

return to lower temperatures the joint leaks.

6.

as -was

temperature gradient can be moderated by selective use of insulation,


done by insulating the top of the support skirts for hot vessels in

Fig. 9.8.

Steep thermal gradients indicating large temperature drops are associated

with large thermal

7.

stresses.

Thermal expansion

is

a finite strain load

whose predominant produced

stress

component is usually in bending. In vessels, the steady state thermal stresses will
when
be reduced in time to lower levels by relaxation. In cyclic operations,
and
the
(several
thousands)
low
life
is
number of cycles during the vessel service

maximum computed

principle stress

is

within the allowable stress range, the frac-

treated
ture does not occur. However, at higher cycle numbers, this load has to be
since
there
is
a posstress
allowable
reduced
substantially
as a fatigue load with
sibility

of a fracture due to the thermal cyclic fatigue.

10
Weld Design

INTRODUCTION

10.1.

Today, welding

is

most commonly used method of fabrication of pressure

the

vessel shells. Structural,

lifting lugs,

nonpressure parts such as stiffening rings,

and other equipment

support clips for piping, internal trays,

are usually at-

tached to vessel wall by welding as well. Welded joints, instead of bolted joints,
are sometimes used for piping-to-vessel connections to obtain optimum leak-

proof design where desirable,

A structure

weld

is

as

with lethal fluids or

whose component

parts are joined

defined as a localized union of metal achieved

Basically, there are three welding

Forge welding

1.

2.

is

is

called a

in plastic

weldment.

and molten
filler

metal.

methods:

the oldest method, applicable to low-carbon steel.

is

The

not particularly strong.

Fusion welding

weld.

high-temperature service.

with or without the application of pressure and additional

states,

joint

in

by welding

The seam

is

does not require any pressure to form the


heated, usually by burning gas or an electric arc

a process that

to be welded

is

to fusion temperature, and additional metal,

if

required,

is

supplied by melting

a filler rod of suitable composition.


3.

Pressure welding

lizes the

the

two

is

used in processes such as resistance welding, which

uti-

heat created by an electric current passing against high resistance through


pieces at the contact interface.

The most widely used

industrial

welding method

is

arc welding,

of several fusion welding processes wherein the heat of fusion

is

which

is

any

generated by

an electric arc.
Residual stresses in a weld and in the region adjacent to a weld are unavoidable

and complex, but they are not considered dangerous when static loads are applied. If the weld residual stress is superposed on the stress caused by an external
load and exceeds the yield point of the material, a small
yielding will redistribute the stress. This

is

amount of local

plastic

particularly true for ductile materials,

and one important requirement for a good weld

is

high ductility. In order to

prevent loss of ductility in the heat-affected zones, only low-carbon, nonharden-

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

260

WELD DESIGN
Types of Groove Welds.

Table 10.1.

DOUBLE

SINGLE

h>

fE^ZE^

Square
Oouble V-groove

(a)

(b)

butt joint

Single V-groove

(c)

angle joint

Double bevel groove,

Double fillet-welded

(d)

tee joint

tee joint

Bevel groove

Double

(e)

fillet-welded,

(f)

V groove

lap joint

^n3>

Single fillet-welded

(h)

Two

groove
corner joint with
backing fillet weld

(k) Single bevel

fillet

lap joint with

weld corner

plug welds

joint

(g)

0. 1

material.

nese

Carbon

content

Edge

Some forms of welded joints

able steels with less than


is

up

plates are usually

joint

.J~72

0 .35 percent carbon content

are

used

>

construction

as

it

does not cause any difficulties when

to 0.30 percent. In addition, the residual stresses in heavier

removed by post-weld heat treatment. Cooling

change; these changes

may

result in occasional cracking in the

affected zones. Fortunately, the steel lattice expands as

after welding

it

weld or the heat-

becomes

ferritic at

lower temperature, but contracts because of the reduction in temperature.

methods and different design stresses: groove, fillet, and plug


Welded joints are described by the position of pieces to be joined, and are

different design

usually divided into five basic types: butt, tee, lap, corner,

and

edge.

sively, particularly

than

fillet

GROOVE WELDS
as

shown

or double-bevel groove welds are used exten-

where cyclic loads are expected. They are

welds, but harder to fabricate.

on the plate thickness and


weld bevel dimensions

may

is

The edge preparation

usually specified

differ for

approval of the welding engineer.

shop and

Some welding

processes

in

Table 10.1. All types of grooves shown can be used in butt, tee, or corner weld

(e.g.,

easier to design

required depends

by the applicable code. Detailed


field

careful fit-up

is

welds and are subject to the


required for butt joints, but

mismatch may be permissible. In the absence of


can serve as a guide. Edge beveling or grooving primarily

specifications, ref.

82

aids weld penetration.

automatic submerged arc welding)

are capable of

very deep penetration, while others (e.g., manual arc welding) are not.

The strength of

The types of joints should never be confused with the types of welds. In Fig.
10.1 the basic types of welded joint in combination with different types of
welds are shown. For a designer, the immediate task is to select the joint design
and the type of attachment weld, and to compute its size.

Groove welds can be subdivided according to the edge conditions,

Butt or tee joints with

joints.

a slight

For design purposes, welds can be divided into three basic types, calling for

10.2.

groove

combination with different weld types.

causes dimensional changes in the weld due to temperature reduction and phase

welds.

as &e

groove

U
in

1X3

an effective steel hardener; however, with the usual manga-

of 0.30-0.80 percent

present in steel

>

3-

Fig.

z3~l3

r
2-

261

to shear, tension, or

which

is

the

groove weld

is

based on the cross-sectional area subject

compression and the allowable

same or nearly the same

stress for the

weld metal,

as the allowable stress for the base metal.

computed from standard formulas for stresses in


combined in the standard manner. The complete
penetration groove is the most reliable of all weld types. There is no significant
stress concentration due to weld shape, since the force lines are smooth and
continuous. Joint efficiency depends on the type of weld examination, the

Stresses in groove welds are

tension, bending, or shear and

welding procedure, and type of load.


ranges between 0.80 and

.00.

It is

usually given in applicable codes and

WELD DESIGN

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

262

263

force-flow lines

Sa

Sas = allowable

shear stress of the base metal

~ joint efficiency for the groove welds

T=
/,

width of the groove weld equal to the thickness of welded plate


welded joint

of the

at joint

- length of the

Fig. 10.2.

is

fillet

equal to

welds here

the width

Determining Groove Weld Size


10.2 a typical butt joint

T times L.

is

shown (both welded


It

parts are in the

same

can be seen that point

reinforcement, by grinding flush, increases the fatigue strength of the weld and
therefore required by some codes.

is

10.3 a butt joint with incomplete-penetration groove welds

weld metal

the other side, or

if

in

order to determine the

is

illus-

not removed by gouging on the root before welding


the depth of penetration is not full, the welded joint beis

maximum

stresses in a groove

a section modulus Z, and polar modulus /). The


y

at the same location are combined


computed
the
maximum shear and principal stresses
and
Mohr
circle,
or
by
the
analytically
are evaluated. They are compared with the allowable weld stresses based on the
stress

components

allowable stresses of the base metal times the weld joint efficiency.

of the weld connecting the lifting lug to


the vessel wall in Fig. 10.5 is adequate. Use the impact factor 2 for sudden loads.
Assume the maximum allowable stress for the groove weld to be equal to the

Example

10.1.

Check whether the

size

strength of the lifting lug material.

comes an incomplete-penetration weld with

a lower joint efficiency. Because of


poor strength under cyclic operating conditions this weld type is used mainly
for connecting nonpressure parts to the vessel shell under static loads where Fillet

F = 60,000

its

welds would be too large. The resisting weld area equals to (h + h )L.
2
In Fig. 10.4 a tee joint with a full-penetration double-bevel groove weld plus
fillet weld on each side is shown. The throats of the fillet welds
may be included

lb

10

1i

"j

,18

in.

Sch. XStr. pipe

in

computation of the

critical stress-resisting area.

i.d.

Butt welded joint with incomplete penetration double V-groove weld.

= 0.50

Zx =

However, the main purpose


o=

Fig. 10.3.

weld of

the standard stress formulas are used with properties of the weld

different

where the weld reinforcement reenters the base metal is a source of some stress
concentration and potential failure under repetitive load. Removal of the weld

In Fig.

to reduce the stress concentration, so the resisting area

critical section (resisting area

plane) with full-penetration double V-groove weld.

trated. If the

is

Full-penetration double V-groove butt joint.

To summarize,

In Fig.

Tee joint with double-bevel groove weld.

Fig. 10.4.

= allowable tensile or compressive stress of the base metal

in

117

= 27.47

Material:

x/

<SMAW

Fig. 10.5.

Lifting lug.

in

in

SA106 gr. B
S v = 35,000

psi

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

264

Bending

S b = MjZ x =

stress:

=
Shear

2X

Combined maximum

Combined maximum
S = (S b /2) +

X 60,000/27.5 = 4,370

psi.

psi.

= [(10,260/2) 2 + 4,370"]

1/2

= 6,740

psi.

tension:

[(S b /2)

+S s2

l/2
]

=(10,260/2) + 6,740= 11,870

psi.
(a)

Double

fillet-weld tee joint

*'

ne*

Double

(b)

fillet-weld tee joint

with partial-penetration
bevel-groove welds

Safety factors:
S.F. = 0.6

in shear:

T=
w=

X 35,000/6,740 = 3.12

Both safety factors

welded part thickness


weld leg

- weld throat, the shortest distance from root to face of the


weld, / = 0.707 w.

S.F. = 35,000/1 1,870 = 2.95

in tension:

Fig. 10.6.

are acceptable.

Both maximum stresses in shear and tension must be smaller than the allowable deweld stresses in tension and shear for weld. Also the stresses in the shell have to be

Note.
sign

265

shear:

S's= [(Sbtt?

60,000 X (10/117)= 10,260

S s = 2F/a =

stress:

IFe/irr

WELD DESIGN

stress formulas.

For practical reasons

stress analysis to

compute

adequate strength for

checked.

Definitions relating to

all

it

the proper

is

fillet

fillet

weld. For a 45-degree

welds.

important to have a simple method of

amount of

the

fillet

weld and to provide

types of connections for static or fluctuating loads.

However, excessive welding may be a major factor contributing to an increase


10.3,

welding cost, residual

in

FILLET WELDS

In

fillet

weld

two surfaces

is

at

weld with an approximately triangular cross section, joining


right angles. The size of a fillet weld is specified by the leg length
a

(see Fig. 10.6) of

Europe, by its throat


weld with equal legs is the most economical
and therefore generally used. Since no edge preparation is required the cost is
thickness

low, but so

its

largest inscribed right triangle (in

The 45-degree

r).

is

fillet

stresses,

and distortions.

order to determine the nominal (average) stresses and the size the

fillet

welds from standard tension, bending, and torsion stress formulas, weld section
properties such as area, section modulus, and polar modulus must be computed.

These properties of the


section of the weld in

critical sections

two ways:

can be computed by treating the

critical

as an area or as a line.

the allowable stress. Stress concentrations at the root or at the toe

can cause failure under variable loads.

The main weld

definitions are

shown

in

computations no credit can be taken for the weld reinforcement. A one-sided fillet weld in tee or lap joints should be avoided because of its
very low static and fatigue strengths. The face of the fillet weld may vary from
Fig.

10.6. In stress

convex to concave.
Stresses induced in fillet-welded joint are complex because of the eccentricity
of the applied load, the weld shape, and notch effects. They consist of shear,
tension, and compression stresses. Distribution of stresses

the throat and leg of a


Fig.

fillet

is not uniform across


weld and varies along the weld length as well. In

10.7 an approximate stress distribution in a transverse weld

large stress concentration

conditions

it

is

apparent at the root of the

fillet

is

shown.

weld. Under such

becomes nearly impossible to obtain correct maximum

analytical

Fig. 10.7.

Schematic distribution of main

stresses in transverse fillet

weld of a tee joint.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

266

Simplified Stress Analysis of Double Fillet Welds.

Table 10.2.

Determining the Size of a

Fillet

Weld by Treating the

Critical Section as an

two directions of applied loads on the

Basically, there are

fillet

Area

welds: parallel to

T-JOINT WITH PARALLEL


FILL FT WELDS

DOUBLE

T-JOINT WITH

TRANSVERSE DOUBLI-

FILLET WELDS

the weld length and transverse to the weld length.

The average shear and normal


ferent

maximum

have been computed for both cases using

stresses

simplified freebody diagrams (Table

10.2).

when both weld types

difficulties arise

The

simplified approach gives dif-

(average) stress values for transverse and parallel welds. Further


are used in combination.

tions in practice consist of a group of welds subjected to

A number

loadings simultaneously.

to arrive at practical, unified design

The

critical resisting area for

made

of simplifying assumptions have to be

formulas applicable to both types of welds

and giving safe welded connections when compared with the

1.

Welded connec-

one or more types of

test results.

both types of welds or their combinations

is

sin

minimum

the

cross-sectional

area

throat thickness times the effective weld length.

disregards the possibility that

It

another section can actually be subject to higher combined

Code

is

Division

where the

1,

leg size

tions of the critical area of a

fillet

compensates for the increased area


2.

The nominal

weld area (area

stress.

used instead of the throat

is

Average shear

The exception
computa-

in

"

Maximum

in this case.

computed by substituting the properties of this


modulus Z, or polar section modulus/) into the stan-

the

maximum stresses,
maximum

determining the combined


groove welds. However,

Table 10.2 that the


are hard to define

of

fillet

maximum

and use

must be combined

in

other, the resultant stress

is

<t>

is

stress.

in fillet

Therefore,

welds)

1.414F

tl

wl

weld

is

tl

combined must occur

at the

sum of all

in

agreement with

tests

and

is

it

totally arbi-

gives conservative

frequently used for simplicity.

weld

It is left

up

The maximum resulting

stresses are limited

sin 0) (cos

0+

max. S*s =

shear stress occurs

1.2F

with

wl

Sn =

"

fillet

welds.

transversely stressed

fillet

at

wl

max. combined

a-

1.22F

+5

wl

Maximum average normal


0 = 22.5 degrees:

occurs

stress

by the allowable

stress

1.2F

with

wl

Average normal and shear


0 = 45 degrees:

wl

stresses at

of the

wl

wl
F_

max. combinedSj, = 1.618

wL

weld can sustain higher loads


max. combined

S*3

a 1.12

at

0.5F

Ss =

base metal, assuming the weld metal to be stronger, times the joint efficiency
for the

sin 0)

wl.

sizes

to the

designer which approach he prefers to use.


4.

(F

any angle 0:

at

three stresses:

same location. This

trary approach lacks analytical justification, but

sin 0)

wl,

Average shear stress S s

max. S n

All stresses to be

<$>

then subject to com-

(shear or tensile) acting at right angles to each

considered as a vector

cos

any angle 0:

at

_ (F cos 0) (cos 0 +

Maximum average
0 = 67.5 degrees:

= weld leg
= 0.707w weld throat at 45-degrec plane

Fn = F

1/2

in the case

to treat any stress on the weld throat,


fillet

F cos 0

F sin 0
F

applied force per weld

Ff = f sin

Average normal stress S

wl

effective weld length

in

cutting plane:

average, shear stress at 45-dcgree

L =

formulas for combined

F(sin

F=

induced stresses (normal or shear

52 S 3

be used, as was done for the

regardless of direction, as a shear stress. If a


,

+ cos 0)

the conventional analytical formula for


stress can

welds an alternative procedure

bination of stresses S,

stress at angle

where

at

can be seen even from the simplified diagrams

it

e disregarded

<p

the same location

If several stresses in different planes

to determine

cos

plane:

dard stress formulas for tension, bending, or torsion.


3.

tl

weld. However, the lower joint efficiency

stresses are

a, section

<p

the throat plane and equal to the weld

at

wl

WELD DESIGN

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

268

than one stressed longitudinally (parallel).

Some

used

in

parallel welds, the

combination with

specifications allow the use of

However,

a higher allowable stress for transverse welds.

if transverse

welds are

When

transverse fillet welds are used together

it is

is uniformly distributed between the welds. Distribution of the shear


uniform throughout the weld sections. Bending stress is linearly distributed according to beam theory. (If two or more types of welds-groove, fillet, or
plug are combined in a single joint, the allowable capacity of each is computed

(b) Stresses

= 0.707w/, 2 /3.

Zx

assumed that

the load
stress

a = 2tL = 1.414w/>.

Area:

Section modulus:

and

parallel

weld cross-section properties.

(a) Critical

lower allowable stress for parallel

welds must be used.


5.

269

from force/*.

is

with reference to the group to determine the capacity of the entire group of

Bending:

S,

=MjZ x

= Pe/Z x

S 2 = PjltL = Pj\ A)4wL.

Direct shear:

welds,)

The moment of inertia about the longitudinal

6.
is

maximum S =

weld cross section

axis of the

(S] + S

'

.)

<ES a

disregarded.
7.

computed by

Stresses

The

only.

stress

formulas are nominal, due to external loads

effects of stress concentrations, residual stresses,

and shape of weld

(c) Stresses

from force F.

< ESa

S 3 = F/2tL ~ F/l A\4wL

Shear:

are neglected for static loads.

The

8.

effect

stresses in the

deflections of the parts connected

of possible

weld

is

The

neglected.

by welding on the

(d)

Maximum combined

stress

maximum 5=
These assumptions result

in conservative

variations in weld quality, however, they

weld

seem

A. considerable disadvantage of this method

weld has to be
is

first

assumed for

stress

sizes.

Example
and

as

is

to be justified.
is

computations.

10.2.

structural clip with double

in Fig. 10.8.

combined. Joint efficiency

fillet

If later the

of the

maximum

fillet

stress

weld

possible bearing

<ESa

,/2

the shear

S2

Example
is

is transmitted through the fillet welds only and no credit is taken for
between the lower part of the clip and the vessel wall. The assumption that

is

carried uniformly in welds

is

generally accepted.

subjected to forces

10.3.

force F, as

ciency

thin support clip of a length

shown

E is based

in Fig. 10.9.

on the weld

Determine the

with

fillet

based on the weld throat width

t.

Bending

stress:

leg w.

S = qjwL
{

q - Fej(w + T).

where

S 2 = F/2wL.

stress:

1
Combined maximum

Fig. 10.8.

stress:

S-

(S

+5 2.)

7
Fig. 10.9.

'

welds

is

subjected to

stresses in the welds. Joint effi-

Consider the effects of both forces separately and


is

this

Shear

Av

+ S 3 ) 2 +5|]

[(S,

Note. The whole load

that the throat size

very suitable for checking existing welds.

shown

F and P.

Considering the possible

too far from allowable stress the computations must be revised. However,

procedure

due to forces

parts are assumed to be rigid.

<ESa

270

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

WELD DESIGN

271

-T

mm

centroid of
the total

weld group

-b
Structural clip subjected to an eccentric twisting load P.

Fig. 10.10.

Fig. 10.11.

Example
shown in

10.4.

Determine the

maximum

stress in the fillet

weld around the

Fig. 10.12.

clip

Fig. 10.10.

(b)
(a) Critical

The maximum

torsional stress

S^Pie + b-

n) r max

is

at point

A:

weld cross-section properties.


a = 2bt + dt.

Throat area:

where

= [(b

r max

nf

+ (d/2) 2

>

2
.

This stress can be resolved into a vertical component

The procedure

for determining the polar

area of a weld joint

is

straight section of the

as follows. (1)

moment

The polar moment of

weld area with reference to

centroid of the entire weld

is

J of

of inertia

its

own

the total weld

inertia

JQ of each

Sy = Si

cos

S H - Si

sin a.

centroid and to the

computed

and a horizontal component


3

Jo =(Z,r /12) + (L r/12) + (Lr) r\


3

and disregardingZ,r /12

(c)

The

direct shear stress

is

J0 =Lt[(L /\2) + rl]


where rc

is

S 2 =P/(2bt +

from the origin O to the centroid of the weld section


The formula is valid for both positions. (2) The polar moment

the distance

(see Fig. 10. 11).

of inertia J of the entire weld

the

is

section areas. In Fig. 10.12 the total

/ = 2bt [(b 2 l

summation of d\\J^s of

moment

2) + r\

S2

is

(d)

vertical

and additive to S v

The maximum shear

S*
]

stress at

point

A combined

is

the individual weld

/is

+ dt [(d 2 l 12) + n 2

dt).

[(S 2

+S V ) 2 +S 2H

l>

<ESa

Treating the Fillet Weld Critical Section as a Line

where
This

method

is

simpler and

more

the weld size directly. Actually,

using linear

n = (2bt)(b/2)l(2bt + dt) = b 2 l(2b + d).

moments of

direct than the previous one. It permits finding


it

originated from the "weld area

inertia, polar

the standard design stress formulas.

It

method" by

and rectangular, of the weld outlines

in

can be shown that the properties/ and/

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

272

of thin areas are equal to the properties

by

a line, multiplied

its

J w and I w of

uniform thickness

t,

a weld section treated as

Table 10.3.

with negligible error; for instance

Linear

Z w r.

Instead of unit stress

/=S X

force

in psi the result in standard design

in lb/lin. in.

is

unit

OUTLINE OF THE

WELDED JOINT

of weld length. If several forces/in different planes

same point they

are acting at the

formulas

are

combined

vectorially. This gives a clearer

and mentally more acceptable picture than does the previous method. The linear
moments J w and I w and the linear section modulus Z w of a weld outline can

..

For convenience the J w and

1.

(in.

0(in.

3
)

JW
w-

12

A1

rf
U

z w =--

7w

+ Jul/
VM 2
6

Draw

freebody diagram of the attachment to be connected with a

fillet

3
-

moments.
2. Draw the proposed weld outline and select orthogonal reference axesx.jy,
z, usually axes of symmetry with the reference point 0 in the centroid of the
weld outline. Compute the linear properties of the total weld outline (length L,
acting forces and

all

J Wi and Z w
3.

x-x

POLAR MODULUS i w
ABOUT CENTROID

,2

0
C-

The required weld leg w is then determined by dividing the resultant computed
/ by the allowable unit force fw The entire design procedure to compute the resultant /can be summarized as follows:

weld and

SECTION MODULUS
Z w ABOUT AXIS

KrHi

are given in Table 10.3.

unit force

and J w of Compound Weld Sections.

be computed by using the parallel-axis theorem or by direct integration.


Z w values of some commonly used weld outlines

easily

Zw

,-ift-x

moments with

forces and

all

Zw

= bd +

Zw

= bd +

_2bd + d2

bd

KHfa

,o

as required).

Determine

Zw

<r

{b

Jw

df

reference to the weld outline. If

required, they are resolved into components.


4. Using conventional stress formulas with linear properties, the

unit forces /*,

fyt fz due

to

all

added

The maximum allowable

w equal

to one inch

the same

in the resultant force/:

/=(/+/WD
weld

maximum

if at

5.

location, they are vectorially

5.

computed and,

external loads are

is

unit force

fw

^x

Sa

is

the

maximum

efficiency of the

in lb/lin. in.

on an equal-leg

fillet

3(/>

is

is

then
1

The disadvantages of the above method


combinations of

fillet

(in.).

is

{2b + d)

that

it

+ 2d) z
12

2
d {b+d)
(fc + 2d).

+ d)

2M + d 2
w

w=///w

b (b + d)

the joint

based on the weld leg

is

12

(b

Jw

allowable stress of the base metal and

leg

weld, based on throat area. If

fw = ESa
The required minimum weld

area, then
6.

fillet

1/2

fw = 0.707 ES a
where

{2b + d)

Jw

by

given

d
--

3
2

_</ (2fc+d)
11

~b+id

mW

+ 2d) 3
12

{b

(6

+ d) 2

+ 2d)

3(6

cannot readily be applied to

welds with different throat thicknesses, and possible error

273

WELD DESIGN

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

274

{Continued)

Table 10.3.

OUTLINE OF THE

WELDED JOINT

POLAR MODULUS J w
ABOUT CENTROID

SECTION MODULUS
Z w ABOUT AXIS
x x

(in.

0(in. 3 )

r=H-

=6

2
Abd + d

275

(2),

J ui

_4bd 2 +d*
w

d*(Ab+d) ^ b*
6(b + d)

66 + 3d
Fig. 10.13.

zw

= bd + -

_ b

'

+lbd 2 +d

-6

/,

Shear:

f2 = V/L =

mw

= ... + - -

2M

<->,

26

+6W 2- +d 3

"
1

-<|>-

/=

^.

Leg

computation of f w for welds of high ratios of f to the depth of the weld


outline. However, it shortens design time, is of acceptable accuracy, and its use

Example
in. Fig.

(a)

Weld

10.5.

10.13,

here.

Determine the

Sa = 12,000

size

of the

fillet

weld for the plate support

E- 0.55

psi for base metal,

Weld properties;

length:

Linear section modulus:

2,550/12 = 215

lb/in.

lb/in.

'H/L = 2,550/12 = 215

lb/in.

size

[(/i

based on the weld

due to combined forces Fand//:

+ h) 2 + /ll

size:

1/2

2
= [(215 + 1.275) 2 + 215

'2

= ///w = 1,505/(0.55 X 12,000) = 0.228

Use -in. fillet weld all around. Corrosion allowance


not painted or exposed to a corrosive environment.

Distance between vertical welds negligible.


Distance between vertical (horizontal) parallel welds negligible.

recommended

Weld

6/12 = 1,275

in the

is

Shear:

(d)

nd

Unit force due to H.

(c)

Z. w

= Ve\Z x = 2,550

Bending:

Primary and Secondary

Fillet

is

= 1,505

in.

added only

if

the vessel

is

Welds

According to the importance and the magnitude of the load transmitted, fijlet
welds can be subdivided into primary and secondary.
Primary welds carry the entire load in some way, and if they fail the structure

clip
fails.

The welds must be

leg.

example

is

as strong as the other

members of

the structure.

An

the weld connecting a support skirt to a vertical vessel subject to

external loads. All such welds are generally designed as continuous.


Secondary welds, on the other hand, are welds subject to comparatively light

L = 2d = 6 X 2 =

Zx

= 2^ /6 = 12

in.

2 in.
2

only holding the structural parts together. A good


example are the vertical welds on built-up saddles for horizontal drums. Obloads or no loads at

all,

viously, they need not be continuous or excessively large. However,


(b) Unit forces due to V.

lb/in.

cations [79]

recommend

minimum

fillet

weld

size

AWS Specifi-

based on the thicker plate,

WELD DESIGN

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

276

Recommended Minimum Weld

Table 10.4.

Thick Plates (AWS).

THICKNESS T OF THICKER
PLATE WELDED (in.)

5-in. centers

MINIMUM LEG SIZE OF


FILLET WELD w (in.)

2-in.

x = (3/5) 100 = 60

percent. Use

-in.

weld, 3

in.

long on

gap between the welds.

made

a circular weld

is

either

by

arc or gas welding through

of a lap or tee joint. Plug-weld holes in thin plates are completely

in heavier plates

16
3
8

\\<T<l\

plug weld

member

with

is

PLUG WELDS

10.4.

3
16

\<T<\\

wc

continuous weld

Sizes for

277

(|

in.

thick and over) they are only partially

one

filled;

filled.

Plug welds in vessel construction are used most often to fix the corrosion
resistant lining to the base metal.

They

are

sometimes used

welds

as strength

2
5

6<T

in single lap joints,

and then only

as given in

reinforcing pads, or nonpressure structural attachments,

Table 10.4. With a

minimum

size given the cost

of welding can be

in addition to

Determining Plug Weld Size

reduced by using intermittent welds. The size of the intermittent weld can be
computed from the condition that the strength or the areas of both (continuous

Code

and intermittent) must be equal:

shear or in tension can be

wc L
in

percent of length

= Wi(xL)

recommended

is

wc

if

allows only 30 percent of the total load to be carried by plug

they are used (UW-17). The allowable working load on

computed by

wc

P=

js

the leg of the

the leg of the required intermittent weld.

are given in Table 10.5. All

fillet

re-

The

lengths and spacings of the intermittent welds of leg size

expressed as a percentage of

Division

welds

x = (w c /w,) 1 00

and

of the continuous weld, where

quired continuous weld and

other types of welds.

welds for

the

plug weld in

Code formula:

0.63(6?- \)

Sa

where

Sa -

the allowable stress in tension of the base metal

d=

the

T=

the plate thickness being welded.

the weld hole, limited to

bottom diameter of

T + %<d<2T+

structural nonpressure attachments, inside and also outside, welded to the pres-

sure parts,

where an occasional inspection for corrosion

continuous or with intermittent strength welds and

minimum
ness,

length of an intermittent

whichever

is

larger.

fillet

The minimum

used for strength welds, and

Example 10.6. Ifw c =

in.

in. for seal

weld

1^

is

practical size

is

seal
in.

difficult,

should be

welds between. The

or 4 times plate thick-

of the weld leg

is

in.

welds.

w,- in

is

in.,

cannot be considered as plug or

fillet

weld

10.7.

LENGTH-SPACING FOR
INTERMITTENT WELDS
3-5

60
50

40
30
25

4-8
2-5 4-10
3-10
2-8 3-12

2-4

slot welds.

shown

in Fig. 10.14.

percent of the length of the

Intermittent Welds.

PERCENT OF LENGTH OF
CONTINUOUS WELDS

4d.

Determine the combined load capacity of the plug weld and

in the single lap joint

Plate materials:

Table 10.5.

larger than

Similar to plug welds, but not too often used in pressure vessel design, are slot
welds for transmitting larger loads than plug welds. Fillet welds in slots or holes

Example

and the required minimum weld leg size

the required length of the intermittent weld

The weld spacing should be equal or

SA515

grade 60,

fillet

5,000

P=

Allowable force on plug weld:


Allowable force on

Sa =

weld:

F=4X

psi,

0.63(d

E = 0.50

based on weld

2
) 15,000 = 5,320

leg.

lb.

0.4375 X 0.50 X 15,000 = 13,130

P+

Total allowable load per spacing:

F=

18,450

lb.

3-6

(5,320/18,450) X 100 = 29 percent


Efficiency of the joint:

(18,450/4 X

<

30 percent.

15,000)

X 100 = 62

percent.

lb.

WELD DESIGN

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

278

defined as the design stress intensity value of the welded material (weld metal
weaker) times the nominal weld area and multiplied by a Code reduction

dia

if

*j

Nominal weld area

factor.
t

not

and

Code Appendix

AISC Specifications
4

welds

fillet

is

the

minimum

throat area, with

5.

[34] are often used for the design of structural parts conlifting lugs, supports, etc. The permissible design stress

nected to a vessel, such as


i

for groove welds with full penetration can be taken the

material

if

prescribed electrodes are used.

throat area
weld

for

than \ in. Welds subjected to fluctuating stresses must be designed


evaluated according to design values based on fatigue analysis, as
less

described in

i_.

279

leg for

w=

computation:

\-h

in

is

The allowable

same

as for the parent

stress for the fillet

weld

given in terms of the specified strength of the weld metal, depend-

ing on the electrode used. Here the nominal composition of the electrode

must

'

be considered by the designer when selecting the joint efficiency for the weld.

Fig. 10.14.

Allowable joint efficiencies for welds are usually given in the

Summary.

applicable codes and specifications. In the absence of definite rules the designer

DESIGN ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR WELDEO JOINTS

10.5.

has to estimate the efficiency E.


select (in

An important

responsibility of the designer

is

good engineering

practice

would be

to

terms of decimal fractions):

to select a proper allowable work-

ing stress or safety factor for the pressure or structural attachment welds used in

Weld metal properties should equal or be very close to those of


the -base metal. However, usually too much attention is given to the higher
strength of the weld deposit metal and too little to the heat-affected critical

for groove welds:

E = 0.80-1 .00

for fillet welds:

E - 0.60-0.80 (based

the vessel design.

E = 0.45-0.55

areas of the adjacent metal.

advantageous for the designer to be able to express the strength of the


weld material in terms of the strength of the base metal modified by some

for plug welds:

E = 0.60-0.80

for forged welds:

E = 0.80.

on throat area)

(based on leg area)

It is

efficiency factor

to compensate for possible variations in the weld quality and

approximations in the

stress

The upper

computations.

magnetic

Code Division

mum

specifies in Table

UW-12 and paragraph UW-12

the maxi-

allowable joint efficiencies for welded joints of main pressure vessel seams,

with certain limitations. The joint efficiencies depend on the type of weld and
the degree of radiographic examination. Paragraph UW-15 gives the allowable
stress values in terms of percentages of the plate material for groove and fillet

welds of nozzle and other connections. Paragraph


load on

UW-18

specifies the allowable

welds connecting nonpressure parts to vessel pressure parts as equal


to the product of the weld area based on the minimum leg dimension w, the
fillet

allowable stress in tension of the material being welded

S a and
,

the joint

efficiency values

would be used

for welds

examined by radiographic,

particle, or liquid penetrant examinations.

The term

joint efficiency

is

considered by some as a holdover from riveted

construction with a definite ultimate strength and

is

replaced by terms such as

reduction or reliability factor.

The allowable

stresses for

welds under fluctuating loads

lower than the allowable stresses for welds subject to

will

be substantially

static loads only.

They

be based on the endurance strength S N of the base metal and related to the
number of working cycles TV. For instance, the endurance limit of butt-welded
joints could be taken as S'N = 0.855^ In addition, concentration factors have to
will

be used in computing the

maximum

stress in the structural part.

effi-

ciency of 55 percent.

Code Division 2 requires for all pressure shell welds a full radiographic examination. The strength of welds so inspected is considered to be the same as the
strength of the base metal (AD- 140). All welds, groove or fillet, joining nonpressure parts to pressure parts (AD-920) must be continuous, with strength

10.6.

STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS FOR WELDS

Stress concentrations in welds are

due to geometry of welded

joints, defects

and imperfections in the welds, and also the different metallurgical structures
of the weld metal, the metal in the heat-affected zone, and the base metal.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

280

Table 10.6.

WELD DESIGN

Stress Concentration Factors.

Reinforced full-penetration groove-weld butt joint

Toe of transverse fillet weld


End of parallel fillet weld
Groove-weld

jT-joint

be used on nonmagnetic materials such as austenitic stainless

alloys. Again, at least the root

0 = 1.2
fi

The most important nondestructive

0 = 2.0

effects of these factors

on

stresses

induced by steady loads

weld material can be disregarded. However,

if

the weld

under shock, or fluctuating loads, the influence of

comes

significant.

The

is

in a ductile

hard and

brittle, or

stress concentrations be-

stress concentration factors in

Table 10.6 are used to

test

method

Any

the form of radiographic films.

tions, will

be detected on radiographic film

examination

is

is

radiography (RT).

It

auto-

change in density of the weld metal


as a

dark spot.

A good radiographic

hard to achieve on tee joints, and therefore radiography

mainly on butt joints.

is

used

However, radiographs cannot be interpreted to ascertain

(UT)

Ultrasonic examination

is

many

angle shots are taken.

frequently used today to detect subsurface

flaws such as laminations or slag inclusions in thick plates, welds, castings, etc.

DEFECTS AND NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS OF WELDS

The most common weld defects can be summarized

aluminum

being examined, such as gas pockets, slag inclusions, and incomplete penetra-

the absence of cracks at an angle unless

ensure safer welded connections.

10.7.

steels or

of more important welds

matically provides a permanent record of the internal quality of the weld material in

The

finish passes

must be inspected.

1.5

& = 2.7

with sharp corners

and the

281

These nondestructive examinations are not mutually exclusive, but rather

complementary.

as follows:

poor weld shape due to misalignment of the parts being welded,


10.8.

cracks in welds or heat-affected zones of the base metal,

pinholes on the weld surface,


It

form of voids,
incomplete fusion between weld beads or weld and base metal,
lack or insufficient penetration of the weld metal in joints,
slag inclusions or porosity in the

A, good weld design

starts

fit-up

with the designer. However, the

many

vessel designer to have a general

knowledge of

in fabrication of pressure vessels.

Both the type

of welding process used and the welding conditions greatly affect the quality
of welds and the estimated weld efficiencies in strength computations of nonleft

by weld metal.

connection depends on

would seem appropriate for a


main welding processes used

the

undercutting, an intermittent or continuous groove adjacent to the weld


unfilled

WELDING PROCESSES

final

well-welded

factors. Well-prescribed welding procedure,

good

Code welds. Selection of proper welding electrodes is usually done by welding


engineers. The following discussion presents brief descriptions of the welding
processes most commonly used in the fabrication of pressure vessels (UW-27
Welding Processes).

of parts being welded, supervision, and weld examination are required to

ensure good quality welds in addition to good design. The designer usually
specifies

the type of examination called for

quired for important strength welds.

methods of inspection follows.


Thorough visual inspection (VT)

by

the applicable code or as

brief review of the five

most important

basic

all

(SMAW)

This form of welding

widely used. The heat for welding

is

resistance of the arc air gap to the flow


is

usually satisfactory for minor structural

examined are first thoroughly


visually inspected. The liquid penetrant examination (PT) is used to examine
more important welds or welds where other methods would be hard to apply.
Both of these methods are suitable for detecting cracks or any surface defects
welds. Also,

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

re-

surfaces of welds to be further

or subsurface defects with surface openings. If liquid penetrant inspection

is

of

is

produced by the

electric current. Also called stick

SMAW

is almost always done manually. As the electrode


which conducts the current to the arc melts and provides
the welded joint. The coating of the electrode breaks down to

electrode welding,

heats, the core wire


filler

metal for

form

a gaseous shield for the arc

slag,

which protects the weld

quality of weld, since

it

as

and weld puddle


it

as well as a small

cools. Shielding

is

amount of

very important for the

prevents absorbtion of gases from the

air

into the

used on multilayer welds, each bead should be so examined to inspect the weld

molten metal and also prevents the

properly. In practice at least the root and the finish passes are routinely inspected.

of molten metal through the arc. The process

In vessel construction a liquid penetrant test

of very good quality. However, the rate of weld deposition (the weight of weld

is

required after a hydrotest.

The magnetic particle test (MT) is suitable for detecting cracks, porosities,
and lack of fusion at or near the surface in ferromagnetic materials. Since this
method depends on the magnetic properties of the material tested, it can not

loss

metal deposited in a unit welding time)

of alloying elements during the transfer

is

is

very versatile and provides welds

only moderate, so the use of

SMAW is

confined to production of small pieces such as nozzles, structural attachments,


etc.,

or to repair work.

WELD DESIGN

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

282

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)


fully automatic,

This process, almost always

used

in

Fillet

V-groove

Bevel

the fabrication of main

welds at low cost. However,

vessel seams. It gives excellent

horizontal positions only.

is

continuous consumable wire

it

can be used for


Fig. 10.15.

coil

is

283

Weld symbols.

used as elec-

trode. Weld puddle and arc are protected by liquid slag, formed from granular
mineral flux deposited ahead of the arc. The rate of weld deposition is high.
In practice, automatic welder moves on average at a rate up to 60 inches per

chemical process. Oxygen

orifice in the cutting torch;

forces the oxidized

minute.

is

fed to the heated metal area through a central


it

oxidizes the heated metal, and the gas pressure

and melted metal out of the

or automated, can achieve high accuracy.

manual

cut.

Flame

cutting, either

When low-carbon

steel

is

flame cut, no detrimental effect in the heat affected zone can be assumed.

(GMAW)

Gas Metal Arc Welding

consumable continuous wire is used as an electrode which melts and supplies


filler metal for the welded joint. A protective shield of inert gases (helium,
argon, C0 2 or a mixture of gases) is used. The process produces excellent welds

the

Resistance Welding

The heat of

fusion

at

than the

less cost

GTAW

process (see below) with higher weld deposition

electric current.

is

No

generated by the resistance


shielding

is

metal joining. Usually the process

rate.

ment

is

(RSEW)

at

the interface to the flow of

must be applied

required. Pressure
is

for

good

confined to certain jobs and special equip-

provided. Resistance spot welding

(RSW)

or resistance

are used to fix corrosion-resistant linings to the wall

seam weldv j

of a vessel

shell.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)


This process

metals

which

is

is

used

required.

when

An

arc

the highest-quality welding with difficult to weld


is

formed by

nonconsumable tungsten electrode,

carries the electric current; the filler metal, if required,

is

added separately

from a rod or a continuous wire. Inert gas flows around the arc and the weld
puddle to protect the hot metal. Weld deposition rate is comparatively low.

Gas Welding

10.9.

WELD SYMBOLS

The standard welding symbols established by the American Welding Society


information in
are commonly used by vessel designers to convey the welding
referred
to refs.
is
reader
The
drawings.
a concise form on shop or engineering
symbols.
of
these
80 and 81 for a listing
The weld symbols are used to indicate the desired weld type (see Fig. 10.1 5).
They are always shown as part of the welding symbols. Welding symbol is an array of elements specifying

Heat of fusion

is

generated by burning

flame of gas with oxygen. Different

gases are used, as described below.

The oxyhydrogen process (OHW) uses hydrogen


temperature obtainable

is

about 4,000F.

OHW

is

for combustion.

The highest

suitable for metals with

low

melting points, such as aluminum.

The oxyacetylene process (OA W) uses acetylene gas. The maximum obtainable
temperature is about 6,300F, suitable for welding most commercial metals. No
flux is used when carbon steel is welded. Almost always used manually for small
shop or maintenance welding, and suitable for all positions, OAW requires
manual skill. Welds are of good quality, but weld deposition rate is relatively
low.

The oxyacetylene flame

is

also used for

flame cutting or flame machining, which


Flame cutting is basically a

are important processes in the fabrication of steel.

formed.

An example

how

the welding of the entire joint should be per-

of an assembled welding symbol

is

used in Fig. 10.5.

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

285

5-10 years: Carbon-steel piping, heat-exchanger tube bundles, and various pro-

11

cess

column

The

selected material

internals.

must be suitable

for services of different levels of severity

from the standpoint of pressure, temperature, corrosive environments, cyclic


steady operations, etc. Obviously, a

Selection of Construction Materials

number of

since the choice of material for a vessel

depends primarily on the

with corrosion rates negligible or very low and definitely

maximum

more extensive treatment of the selection of materials for industrial pressure vessels is beyond the scope of this book, see refs. 83 to 100.
The selection of construction materials for Code pressure vessels has to be
made from Code approved materia! specifications. A metallurgical engineer
most economical materials of low

first

cost and/or low

future maintenance cost that will be satisfactory under operating conditions and

that,

many

factors supported

must be considered

in. total;

otherwise an alternative

used); or corrosive, requiring special

NONCORROSIVE SERVICE

11.2.

fundamental material selection

In addition to corrosion resistance, the

(from -425F to

In the range of cryogenic temperatures

low alloy

steels are brittle

aluminum

criteria

and design pressure.

are design temperature

and austenitic

do not exhibit

.alloys that

50F) carbon and

stainless steels or nonferrous metals like

loss of the

temperatures must be employed, (see Table

.1).

impact strength

(For

at

very low

cyrogenic engineer the

low temperatures is usually -240F,


permanent gases remain in the gaseous

dividing line between the cryogenic and

meet other requirements.

There are

of
is

who

must be familiar with commonly used construction materials to be able to specify


them correctly on engineering drawings or in material specifications for a par-

will

service environ-

materials other than carbon steels or low-alloy steels.

This chapter should serve as a brief information guide for a vessel engineer

usually specifies the

or

However,

service: noncorrosive,

material with a better corrosion resistance

ticular job.

possible.

practical to classify construction materials according to

it

established (for carbon steel, a

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

is

would seem

ment,

11.1.

divisions

by experience and laboratory

in selecting the

most

suitable materials.

below which temperature only

so-called

test results

They include

state.

This distinction

is

not of practical significance here.)

The temperature range

the following;

brittle

is

the

called

which

at

transition

a material

changes gradually from ductile to

temperature and

is

from

readily determined

conducted over a range of temperatures. The designer of


Code low-temperature equipment must base his computations on the Coae approved properties of the material at room temperature. However, for some Code

Charpy impact

corrosion resistance in the service corrosive environment,


strength requirements for design temperature and pressure,
cost,

tests

(ULT 23) the higher yield and tensile strengths of alloys at very low
temperatures can be used to reduce weight and cost where possible. Because of
materials

ready market availability,


fabricability,

the low reactivity of most chemicals at very low temperatures, corrosion prob-

quality of future maintenance.

lems are few.


Generally, process equipment

is

designed for a certain

minimum

under specific operating conditions. Based on a corrosion rate


per year

(MPY)

a total

corrosion allowance

is

in mils

established which

is

service life

(0.001

in.)

added to the

calculated required thickness. Typical design lives are given below for several

At low temperature Cfrom

150F to +32F; the Code upper

limit

is

20F),

low-alloy and fine-grain carbon steels tested for notch toughness are found to

perform

satisfactorily.

In the range of intermediate temperatures (from

carbon

types of petrochemical equipment:

steels are sufficient.

Up

to

+33F

to about

+800F) low-

about 800F they behave essentially

in

an

manner; that is, the structure returns to its original dimensions when applied forces are removed and maximum stress is below the yield point. The

elastic

20 years: Fractionating towers, reactors, high-pressure heat-exchanger


and other maior equipment which is hard to replace.

shells,

design allowable stress

is

based on the yield strength or the ultimate strength,


tests, supplemented by fatigue or impact tests,

obtained from short time rupture

10-15 years: Carbon-steel drums, removable reactor parts, and alloy or carbontower internals.

steel

where fluctuating or shock

stresses are involved.

CO

u
<
X

o 2
-

(_

parts

(
co

D
z

CQ

3.

co

tfl

H
-J
0
n

a<;
-

a
<

co

v E
6 -S

I S g .5

en co

|s

S3

2
3
%

sure

TS

Si

kH

CO

o o

>*0

00
CQ

O
co

si 5,

g
CQ

So

CO

3'S
CQ

(A

CQ

t?

CO

r->

gr gr

00
CQ oo
gr,

93 94

&2

SAl

'5

cn

o C c o

if

gr.

94

SAl

4)

SAl

&

=>

>

41

CO

3S

304

F12

00

< m

co U.

to

<N

kH

ob

*o

O
5
<
CO CO
t

3^
CO o

grades

|. E '3JS 2

316H,321H,347H

SA182gr.

SA182gr.

82

a 73

<

SAl

316H,
types

CO

o co

<
CO

< s <
f">

SA335

347H

Pll
P12

P22

SA335

SA335

304H,

<
< <
CO CO CO

>-.

SA335

321H,

*
**

,E

"

S
Z

41

tesi

)act

-a

Iiui

<
CO

r*J

ft!

.3
co

co

SA5:

rs

Zi

V->

"T

2 S 6
o a
o a
**"
o>
3
n D i
fl

is

J=.

e V
E

d J9>>T3

_e
sO

*J

J-

**

la

T>

i-

fi

gr.

gr.

stainless

21
types

16

-a

i*

(9

22CL1
12C1.1

11

B,
o

thick

thiol

t-i

(see

O.l
BorC

:
all

X
all

gra<

304,316,

grades,

Iiui

t?

S
ft B

...

>act

all

4)

led

over

ft

w
2 ^ o

5 E

SA312

m
ted

0 u

c g

W M W
k- c
o d

PI

=2

(0

CO

ro

i*

4>

CN
O0

<
CO

t-H

IS

E c

=
=

ftO

s
>>

cm

i-<"

bO
<N
OO

00

U.

.2

3
" >
a a sO

rs

(N J"
00 Tf fN
< O ^
en <!
<
to b to

Fll

5- _ &
o a a!3!

H,

s
b
rt

<=

SA193

ex

11.5)

.2

preferred

gr.

gr.

310
SA516all
thicknesses

thicknesses

321,347

io
<
co S 3

<

CO

2
t

< "!
CO

SA387gr.

SA387gr.
section

347
SA204

SA204

SA387

Incoloy

Type

SA240

*n
roo

^>

c S

-o

+1500

OOTI+-0O0I+

+876-+1000

CC td

a.

U
H

+1100-+1500

\C
p
r-

ajBipauiiaiui

above

ssjniBjadiuai pa jb a 3(3

Is

infill

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

288

At elevated temperatures (above 800F) marked changes


erties

occur

in

mechanical prop-

They begin to exhibit a drop in ultimate and yield strengths


be elastic, becoming partly plastic. Under a constant load, there is

in steels.

and cease to

continuous increase in permanent deformation, called creep. The creep rate is


measured in percent of a unit length per unit time. Actually, some creep begins
at temperatures over 650F, but it does not become an important factor for
a

carbon
stress

steels until

is

temperatures over 800F are reached. The design allowable

Ferritic

{straight

chromium)

stainless

criteria: (a) the deformation due to creep during the


must remain within permissible limits, and (b) a rupture must

not occur. The allowable stresses are obtained from long-term creep tests and
stress rupture tests at elevated

on high-temperature endurance

temperatures.

Few

data,

4.

Austenitic stainless

stresses in the

Code

problem and not so straightforward

The choice has


changes in the

These are the only

steels.

to be based

steel

if

5.

Special high-temperature-resisting alloys.

A large number
carbon

is

generally a

for temperatures

and Incoloy.

as material selection for

may

Description of Plate Materials.

SPECIFICATION

ASTM

No. 5) is preferred in
and impact strengths and

corrosion resistance. However, at high temperatures, where the main

requirement

is

a superior creep-rupture strength, a coarsed-grained material

A(SA)285

gr.

Carbon

iiuckiicss

A(SA)515

These vary

i.

in,u.io purt-cni

iiidA.

(ASTM No. up

Carbon

Coarse austenitic grain

Carbon

Fine austenitic grain

A(SA)283 gr.CorD

Carbon

Structural, supports, clips

A(SA)36

Carbon

Structural steel, various shapes; 0.26 percent

gr.

A(SA)516
gr.

size

size

(ASTM No. above

5)

55, 60, 65, 70

C max.
in

strength at temperatures below

cause of small differences in carbon content, but they

creep range. Where their use

is

all

650F

be-

have similar properties

most economical material for intermediate as


well as for elevated temperatures at low pressures. Not only are they relatively
cheap per pound, they are also comparatively easy to fabricate. Each additional
alloying element increases the cost of the steel,

and often the

difficulty

gr.

A, B,

A(SA)302

gr.

l^Mn-^Mo

A(SA)387

gr.

^Cr-tMo

gr.

12

gr.ll

rication

and hydrogen attack is required. These steels have better creep-rupture


properties and high-temperature strength than carbon steels, and there is an
economy in using them for pressure vessels subjected to high pressure at tem-

Steam

boilers

Max. 1000F Elevated-temperature

lCr-tMo

1200F

Each grade

l|-Cr-| Mo-Si

1200F

classes, Cl.l

is

and

2,

depending on

2^-Cr-lMo

1200F

tensile strength,

21

3Cr-lMo

1200F

the heat treatment, CI. 2 has a

5Cr-^Mo

or

60

Carbon

200 F

course austenitic grain size

Fine grain practice (FGP) quality preferred for

low-temperature service

2^-Ni

A(SA)203 gr.CorD

3f Ni

A(SA)353

9Ni

A(SA)410

CrCuNiAl

gr.

or

Min. operating temperature

-90F

itization

peratures over 650F. Furthermore, these steels

hydrogen attack.

may be

required to

resist

oxida-

two

of different

22

A(SA)442gr. 55

A(SA)203

service.

available in

gr.

gr.5

be

Elevated-temperature service

gr.

of fab-

and welding as well. The final overall cost of a carbon steel vessel may
much less than the cost of an alloy steel vessel.
2. Carbon-molybdenum steels, low chromium-molybdenum alloy steels (up
to 3Cr-lMo) and intermediate chromium-molybdenum alloy steels (up to
9Cr-lMo). Some of these can be used up to 1200F, where resistance to graph-

C-^Mo

A(SA)204

not limited by sulfur corrosion or hydrogen

attack, they usually represent the

tion, sulfidation, or

to 5)

55, 60, 65, 70

into five general types:


steels.

General pressure vessel material;max. available

may

Steels used in vessel construction for elevated temperatures can be classified

Carbon

REMARKS

number of

occur which affect mechanical properties

because of the resulting higher tensile, fatigue,

B, with an internal refractory lining thick

gr.

TYPE OF
STEEL

ASTM(ASME)

lower temperatures.

on several factors. At high temperatures,

microstructure

SA 204

complex

be preferred.

in the

These are used


steels

of high-temperature vessels are fabricated of cheaper, low-alloy

steels, for instance

Table 11.2.

temperatures, fine-grained microstructure (above

1.

steels assigned allowable

any, are available

The mechanical properties of alloys are affected both by chemcomposition and by grain size. Usually, at low and intermediate operating

steels

some

1200F, up to 1500F. A deusefulness above this temperature.

above 1500F. They include type 310 stainless

to a high degree.

better

in

for temperatures higher than

crease in oxidation resistance limits their

limits.

Selection of steels for elevated-temperature service

ical

These are used

steels.

applications.

then based on two

service lifetime

from

3.

289

-150F
-320F
Max. 0.12 percent C, min. operating
temperature -125F

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

290

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

enough to keep the wall metal temperature at a level where the full strength of
the metal can be used in computing the shell thickness. Internal insulation is not
practical,

however,

in

heat exchangers or small-diameter piping, where stainless

are more often used. Where an internal refractory is used, differential


thermal expansion of internals must be considered, as well as heat transfer
through internals welded to the shell, which cause shell hot spots.

steels

Table 11.1 summarized the steels most

commonly used

in the vessel design at

various temperatures. Table 11.2 provides a guide for quick identification of


steels

by type.

Glass, rubber, enamel, lead,

materials.

The

and teflon are successfully used

is

it

fabrication.

common and commercially readily available corrosion-resistant

most economical to use

carbon or low-alloy
In general, three

as protective lining

methods of

materials for petrochemical plants are stainless steels. For


shells

steel shells

backing

solid stainless steel

up

to

f -in.-thick vessel
plate; above this thickness

with applied corrosion-resistant layers are used.

methods of attaching the protective layer

recommended. Diffusion of carbon from

steels into austenitic stainless

ferritic

cladding occurs at high bonding tempera-

ture, but the carburized zone is very narrow and


does not affect the overall
strength or the corrosion resistance of the clad plate. Carbon
diffusion can be
minimized by nickel plating of the backing plate.

Where mild corrosion resistance is required, most cladding


materials are made of
chromium steels, types 405 or 410S. Both have lower thermal expansion
than carbon steel. For more severe corrosive service 18-8
stainless steels are
used. The grades with low carbon content or the
stabilized grades have to be
straight

if

PWHT

use of such linings calls for specialized

However, the most

suitable for the intended operating corrosive conditions.


Also, frequent service

inspections of the cladding are

used

CORROSIVE SERVICE

11.3.

291

welding

is

used in fabrication or a post weld heat treatment is required.


may be in the carbide precipitation range for unstabilized

temperatures

austenitic stainless steel and/or in the range of sigma-phase


formation; proper
attention has to be given to this in the selection of the stainless
steel

cladding

material, otherwise heat treatment

may

result in inferior

mechanical and cor-

rosion properties of the cladding material.

Table 11.3 lists some frequently used cladding materials; the backing
material
can be any carbon or low-alloy steel.

to the carbon steel

plate are usually applied; integral cladding, strip or sheet lining,

and weld over-

Strip or Sheet Lining

lay cladding.

An
Integrally Applied Cladding

is

fabricated in a steel mill

by hot

tures the pressure creates a solid-phase

strength required

minimum 20,000

psi in shear

by the Code. The thickness of the liner can be specified in


more often in fractions of an inch. For

percent of backing-plate thickness, or

most applications a thickness of

~-~

in. is

advantages.

It

Any

The

liner material

are

wide

weld metal should be of the same chemical composition as


the liner. A soap-suds air test is conducted after
completion of the weld to reveal
possible cracks and leaks in the liner or backing plate.
4

"T

in

is considered
of an integrally applied liner

FiI ler

Sheet-Type Lining.
fitted,

many

^-f

to the vessel shell.

in. thick.

Strip-Type Lining. Strips 3-5 ft long by 3-6 in. wide,


depending on service
temperature (narrower strips for higher temperatures), are attached
to the vessel
wall by a continuous weld around the edges. The
welds between the strips

in.

Integrally clad plate has

by welding

usually

quite sufficient and

a corrosion allowance. Rarely does the thickness

exceed |

is

used for integrally clad plates can be used for sheet or strip
lining.

weld between the backing and cladding

strength usually exceeds the

vessels with a corrosion-resistant layer

rolling of as-

semblies of carbon or low alloy steel plates (backing) and corrosion resistant
sheet (linear) which have been welded at the edges. In rolling at high tempera-

The bond

method to provide pressure

thickness of the alloy sheet or strip

Integrally clad or rollclad plate

metals.

alternative

a strip-type or sheet-type lining attached

is

can be hot or cold formed; lightly

loaded internal support clips can be directly attached to the cladding; and the
continuous bond eliminates the possibility of any corrosive substance getting
between the cladding and the backing metal. It would seem that differences in

and attached

The

sheets are several feet in width and length, tightly

to the vessel wall

by resistance spot welds on l| in. X 1} in.


square spacing for temperatures up to 800F and 1
in X 1 in. spacing for temperatures above 800F. Sometimes -in. plug welds
or

are used.

The purpose of spot welds

ment welds

is

in

seam

resistance welds

addition to the circumferential attach-

threefold:

thermal expansion might introduce peak stresses leading to cracks in the cladding,
particularly in the region of welds, but based
tegral

cladding perfor

However,

ms

special tests

on

practical experience, the in-

quite well at the elevated temperature or cyclic service.

may

be prescribed to prove that integrally clad plate

is

The spot welds provide

a tight attachment against the vessel wall.


Usually the protective sheet lining material has a different
thermal expansion rate than the carbon steel backing and the alloy
liner would buckle
t

2.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

292

Table 11.3.

ASTM(SA) STANDARD
SPECIFICATIONS FOR

INTEGRALLY
CLAD PLATE

ALLOY CLADDING
METAL
ASTM (SA)

SERVICE

08
U.Uo

K A 1740 Tvnr

-i v
IltdX.

7fr Al

1
1

15Cr
17Cr
1041

0 03

316L
J

347

zuu
700
ntn A
zuu nnoic
h

construction

is

vessel

expensive than

a vessel

where complete tightness

is

constructed from integrally

required integrally clad plate

preferred.

Weld Overlay Cladding

is less

notes 3, 5

Weld overlay cladding is another frequently used method to produce a continuous bonded layer of corrosion- or wear-resistant alloy on a base metal. In

notes 3, 5

C max
1

310S

C
L

way

clad plate; however,

...

REMARKS
1

L-iiromium-niLKi-i
A /C 41 ">A/t
-tnolc /\(,i3njiO*t
siceis,

fabricated in this

TEMPERATURE
.6

fl

429
430

293

grinding) to provide a suitable surface for application of the liner.

MAXIMUM

A(,oAj iypc*tiuo

Chromium steels,
A \ T
T
AA /C
J.O
OA)

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

ill

800
ouu

the construction of pressure vessels this

J1UIC u

ment

method

to the previous methods; for instance,

is

particularly used as a supple-

where the

liner has

been stripped

25Cr-20Ni
0.03 C max.

note 6

jldUtll'ivU

note 6

replaced by a weld deposit of the same chemical composition. With

note 6

lay irregular shapes can be covered without difficulty.

Cb

to allow a support bracket to be

800

stabilized

welded

directly to the base metal,


a

it

must be

weld over-

There are several potential disadvantages to weld overlay cladding:


Nickel and mcKcl-base
alloys,

/CD"!

A(SA)265

400
*t Uu
Inconcl 600
Incoloy 800

77

soo

Mrnrl
IVHjNL.I

168

409
424

1200
1200

1.

2.

Copper and copper-base


alloys,

Bl 52

Cu

P-dcoxidized

alloy

No. 102

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

mum

90Cu-10Ni
70Cu-30Ni

No. 715

and introduce

may

metallurgical reaction

large residual interna! stresses

take place, such as carbon diffusion from the

base to the austenitic weld, with resulting pollution of the alloy layer.

in.

is

usually 1^-4- in. thick to provide a mini-

of chemically pure cladding.

3. Differences in

Internal parts (trays, pans, baffles, etc.) are of the same class of alloy as the shell lining.
Maximim service temperature of the lining can be controlled by the maximum service
temperature allowed for the backing material.
The Code does not recommend the use of the Cr-stainless steels with a content of Cr over
14 percent for service metal temperature over 800E.
Operating temperatures should be outside the temperature range from 750K to *>S0F,
where the material is subject to embrittlement.
Not suitable for welding,
Because of the different thermal expansions of austenitic steels and carbon steels and
graphitization of carbon steels the operating temperature is also quite often limited to

800

distort

The thickness of the weld overlay

oxygcn-frcc,

B402 No. 706

ferritic

copper,

No. 122

B432

The procedure may

into the clad object.

Incoloy 825

coefficients of thermal expansion

become important

for

high-temperature service (over 800F). Each time the austenitic weld overlay on

carbon

steel is

heated and subsequently cooled, shear stresses of yield magnitude

arise at the fusion line.

Nozzles of small size

(<4

in.) are

usually

made of solid

alloy steel

up

to

800F

design temperature; larger nozzles are lined with weld-overlayed flanges.

The weld overlay method

is

the most expensive of the three methods described.

E.

under high operating temperature. The spot welds keep the


and force the

liner sections to

compress

elastically; in

liner

time

from buckling

this

11.4.

BOLTING MATERIALS

changes into
Bolts for Pressure Connections

partly plastic deformation.


3.

The spacing of the spot welds should be close enough to protect the
permanent buckling in case of seepage of the test liquid behind the

against

and

sudden release of the pressure of the liquid

in

Bolting material for pressure connections must conform to the specifications


listed in the

the vessel during a hydrotest.

Usually, sheets and strips are welded to the vessel wall after the vessel
tirely

liner

liner

is

en-

welded and otherwise completed. However, sheets can be attached to the

base plate before rolling or forming. Carbon-steel surfaces are prepared (by

Code. Bolts are designed not only for strength but also for tightness

at the joints. In

order to prevent leakage of a bolted joint, the total force exerted

by the bolts must exceed the sum of the force due to the operating fluid pressure and the force necessary to keep the joint tight. The latter depends on the
gasket material and the design of the joint.
Bolts have to be tightened to

some

initial elastic strain

and corresponding

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

294

elastic stress. In

high-temperature service, or over a long period of time, creep

occurs in the bolts and


strain,

with

the elastic strain

is

When

cannot keep the joint

ASTM(SA)
SPECIFICATION

ALLOWABLE SERVICE
METAL
TEMPERATURE (F)

TYPE OF STEEL

REMARKS

the joint leaks. Therefore, a high resistance to

AISAH93

B7

lCr-^Mo

-20-1000

B16

lCr-f Mo

-20-1100

see

in the design are

B5

5Cr-f Mo

-20-1200

ferritic steels

and coefficient of

B6

important. Since the relaxation can occur also in the flange and

is

Bolts for Pressure Joints.

is

relaxation occurs to the extent that the total force


tight,

Table 11.4.

transformed into a plastic

corresponding reduction in stress and tightening force. This

called relaxation.

relaxation

some of

er

gasket their properties should be checked as well.

Other important properties of bolting materials to consider


yield strength, notch toughness, notch sensitivity, ductility,

note

-20- 900

13Cr (type 410)

thermal expansion.

Allowable bolt stresses permitted by the Code include high safety factors and

A(SA)193

gr.

during the pretightening

retightening will be

may become

A maximum

required.

severe

design temperature of
its

450F was

B8C
gr.

carbon

A(SA)320

gr.

L7
B8

Cr-Mo

B8C
B8F

temperatures. Generally, they are used on pressure joints for low temperatures

on high-temperature

bolting should be controlled. For other temperatures, handwrenching

series)
It

is

it

common

is

problem with

practice to use slightly different alloys for bolts

under pressure than are

SA193

In practice,

303) nuts and


galling

when

gr.

B8 (type 304)

1 1

.4

and

.5

Type G-n

as operating

or additional stress in bolts, gasket,

and nuts.

in sliding

con-

SA194

gr. 8F (type
To minimize
made up with a

temperature

and flange

A453 with

is

rises either

set

(300

series).

up when materials with


and flanges.

are used for bolting

four grades (660, 651, 662, 6"65) covers a bolting

This material, a steel with high Ni and Cr content, requires

B8T

\
treat

"

Table

1 1 .5.

SPECIFICATION
(SEE

NOTE

2)

TYPE OF STEEL

A(SA)194

or 2

gr.

gr.

2H

carbon,

QT

gr.

QT
C-Mo, QT

gr.

12Cr (410),

gr.3

gr. 7

5Cr,

QT

ICr-^Mo
Type 303,

For instance,

316, S.Tr.

used by some valve manufacturers for bolting for nuclear austenitic stainless

gr.

8T
8C

321, S.Tr.

is

valves. Specification

A437 with two

grades

max, service

min.

temperature
+100

min.
min.
min.

ALLOWABLE SERVICE
METAL
TEMPERATURE (F)
-20- 900

carbon

8M

not intended for general-purpose applications, but

where the additional safety factor

min.

Nuts for Pressure Joints.

8F

is

min.

Notes:
1,
For use at temperatures from -20 F to -50 F, this material must be quenched and
tempered.
2. The identification Cl.l describes solution-treated material. When increased mechanical
properties are desired, austenitic bolting can be both solution treated and strain hardened (CI. 2).

justified.

gr.

steel

gr.

processing, and

for important joints


is

303
3I6
321

-150
-425
-425
-325
-325
-325

gr.

special

it

QT

leakage occurs

material with thermal expansion coefficient comparable to austenitic stainless


steels

note 2

-20- 450

ASTM(ASME)

Paste.

different coefficients of thermal expansion

Specification

300

describe most often used bolt and nut materials.

As previously mentioned,

see

galling.

the nuts are tightened, stainless steel fasteners are

thread lubricant such as Molykote

Tables

bolts are used with

austenitic steels;

-20-1500

Type 304
347

B8M

usually

like metals.

compositions are close enough to cause

their

is

stainless steels (particularly

should be remembered that unlike metals are more satisfactory

tact

C1.1

A(SA)307

Austenitic stainless steels have low yield strength and tend to gall at higher

satisfactory. Since galling

316
321
347

low resistance

to relaxation.

or for corrosive service. For best results, the preload stress

Type 304

CU
B8T CU

and also that an additional

specified for ordinary carbon steel bolting material because of

Cl.l

B8M

take into account the fact that additional torsion and bending stresses induced
in bolts

B8

(B4B and B4C),

a high-alloy

gr.8

S.Tr.

347, S.Tr.

304, S.Tr.

-50-1100
-20-1100
-150-1100
-20- 800
-20-1000
-325- 800
-325-1500
-325-1500
-425-1500
-425-1500

bolting materia] with 12 percent Cr could be used for special high-temperature,

high-pressure service with intermediate chrome-steel constructions of the same


heat expansion properties.

Notes
Impact test is required for Type 303 in low-temperature service if the carbon content
1.
above 0. 10 percent.
2. These are the product specifications; no design stresses are required.

is

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

296

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Bolts for Structural Connections

the corrosion resistance of such steels approaches the relatively poor corrosion

Bolting for structural nonpressure parts


tightness of the joint

is

resistance of ordinary steel.


is

designed for strength only, since the

not important. Consequently,

SA307

corrosive service, carbon-steel bolting

or high-temperature service bolting material

gr.

A 193

or
gr.

The

expensive materials

less

can be selected with properties suitable for the design environment. For non-

SA325, for corrosive


B5, B6, B8C, B8T, B8 are

nickel and

Internal bolting for lined vessels

The allowable tensile


than Code allowable

is

of the same material as the lining and the

usually also of the

is

same material

stresses.

good guide

it

No

410 or 405 are less coramount of alloying elements, such

as well. Stainless steel grades

grades 304 or 3 1 6.
protective coatings such as paints are applied to the surface of stainless

steel parts, since

for allowable bolting stresses for

they would only prevent oxygen penetration for formation of

the passive layer. All grades of stainless steel are affected in

mechanical properties. Welding metal deposits are of cast structure.


in ref. 9.

Stainless steels are

produced mostly by the

electric furnace process.

Based on the principal alloying constituents the stainless

known

chromium content of

1 1

percent or more, but

than 30 percent,

less

1.

classified as heat-resisting

2.

The most important

3.

the straight

chromium group (400

Stainless steels are basically alloys of

additional alloying element

is

carbon, manganese,

and

sulfur,

all

of which

nickel.

chromium and

iron.

Other alloying elements

may be

added,

molybdenum, columbium, titanium, selenium,

many

other applications.

Some of the

reasons for this use are:

to provide the necessary resistance to a corrosive environment, thus increasing

the service

life

series)

with Cr and Ni varying

in

with chromium content up to

percentage; and
re-

placing a portion of the nickel.

Based on their metallurgical microstructure, these stainless

result in properties required for special service.

Stainless steels are frequently used for construction of petrochemical processing


in

used for pres-

the chromium-nickel-manganese group (200 series), with manganese

sified as

equipment and

steel

the chromium-nickel group (300 series), quite often referred to as 18-8


stainless steels,

alloys.

silicon,

cost

30 percent;

as stainless steels because of their excellent resistance to corrosion.

With over 30 percent chromium content they are

including

The

the grades are

sure vessel and piping construction can be divided into three main groups:

General Considerations

are

all

readily available in every form.

STAINLESS STEELS

Steels with a

some manner by

welding heat, which modifies their resistance to corrosion and changes their

of stainless steels varies with type, form, and quantity, and not
11.5.

amount

can be greatly improved by the addition of

rosion resistant than those having a higher

as the internals.

or shear stresses used in stress computations are higher

nonpressure parts can be found

molybdenum

steel;

or

used.

bolting for internals (trays)

variation in corrosion resistance appears to be dependent on the

of the chromium in the

as the

commonly

297

austenitic, ferritic, or martensitic.

hardening stainless

of pressure

steels, for instance

steels

can be

clas-

(The fourth group, precipitation-

17-4 PH, are not used in the construction

vessels.)

of the equipment and the safety of the working personnel; to

provide strength and oxidizing resistance at elevated temperatures and impact


strength at low temperatures; to facilitate the cleaning of the equipment.
Stainless steels

become corrosion

resistant (passive) because

Austenitic Stainless Steels

Because of their large percentage of nickel, 300 series stainless

of the formation

austenitic structure after cooling, with Cr, Ni,

and C

steels retain their

in solid solution

with iron.

of an unreactive film which adheres tightly to the surface of the metal. This can
be chromium oxide or an adsorbed oxygen film that acts as a barrier protecting

Under a microscope only

the metal against further attack in certain types of environment. This protective

even at temperatures up to 1500F, and hardenable only by cold working, and

film,"

which

is

not

visible, is

formed within minutes or months, depending on

The formation of the film may be hastened or


produced artificially by a strong oxidizing agent such as solution of
the type of alloy.

it

may

be

nitric acid

in water. This artificial formation of protective film, or passivation, serves a

double purpose, since

it

also helps to

remove any foreign metals or other sub-

stances that might contaminate the stainless-steel surface.


If the

chromium content

is less

than

1 1

percent the film

chromtum-nickel-iron alloys. They are nonmagnetic, highly corrosion resistant


they possess high impact strength at low temperatures. The typical and most com-

monly used grades of

discontinuous, and

stainless steel are grades

304 and 316. Higher-chromium-

content austenitic stainless steels (grades 309 and 310) are resistant to oxidation

and sulfur attack up to 2000F.

The primary problem with austenitic


Most austenitic stainless steels

zation.
is

austenitic crystals can be distinguished. These are high

stainless steels

are furnished

is

grain-boundary

by producers

sensiti-

in solution-

annealed condition. Solution annealing of type 300 stainless steels consists of

raising the metal

solvent.

in the austenitic

corrosion resistance together with the

299

weld

temperature above 1850F, where austenite acts as a powerful

With Cr, Ni, and C dissolved

maximum
To

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

298

matrix, these steels offer

maximum ductility and strength.

retain this microstructure at lower temperatures, these stainless steels have to

be cooled rapidly to below 800F. However, at any subsequent


perature (for instance at welding) to the range of
diffuse

to the grain boundaries and

chromium carbide (Cr 4 C) at


tion of chromium content
carbide formed

is

precipitate

out of the solid solution as

the boundaries (see Fig.


in

the tem-

rise in

800-1600F carbon molecules


1

1.1).

The

effect

is

deple-

the thin envelope surrounding each grain.

not as corrosion resistant as the metal from which

and the corrosion resistance of the envelope depleted of chromium

it

is

The

develops,

reduced. The stainless steel becomes susceptible to intergranular corrosion and


said to be sensitized. If the thin
falls

out and

chromium
corrosion

is
is

is

envelope corrodes, the grain rich in chromium

anodic with respect to the

rest

of the grain, and galvanic

all

the material

may be caused by slow

cooling from annealing

or stress-relieving temperatures. For instance, stainless steel parts welded to a

carbon-steel vessel shell can be sensitized


will

by

result in sensitization

stress relief given to the carbon-steel

of a band of material

in. wide
weld on each side (Fig. 11.2). These
two areas are the heat-affcctcd zones where the steel has been held in the sensi-

slightly

removed from and

parallel to the

tizing range longer than elsewhere

including the weld metal,

is

and cooled slowly. The material

not sensitized, since

above 1600F and subsequent cooling


Sensitization

Heat-affected zones, susceptible to intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless

steels.

may

tinuous exposure to liquids

is

when

not involved and

operating temperature

does not exceed 120F.

possible.

Welding

Fig. 11.2.

metal begins to disintegrate. The boundary envelope poor in


also

Sensitization of

shell.

heat-affected zones

drastically

not be har mful

in

is

its

temperature

is

in

between,

raised well

comparatively rapid.

certain environments, for instance if con-

The corrosion properties of sensitized steel can be restored by desensitization


is, heating above 1600F to dissolve carbides and subsequent rapid cooling
(see Fig. 11.3). The effect of sensitization on mechanical properties is far less
that

important, being almost negligible at intermediate temperatures, and causing

some

low temperature.

ductility loss at

According to the degree of possible sensitization of the grain boundaries, the


austenitic stainless steels can be divided into three groups:

Group L

These

are

the

normal-composition,

nickel steels, such as typical grades 304, 316, 309,

to sensitization,

which means that

cutting of openings.
to give the
scattered intergranular

weldment

applications.
relieving

low chromium
(depleted) areas

To

is

regain full resistance to corrosion,

is

it

welded or

may be

for

necessary

a final full solution annealing. However, the required quick


stresses

which are too harmful

for certain

avoid impairing corrosion resistance, low-temperature stress

(below 800F), holding

procedure

environments

reduced by welding or by flame

at that

temperature for a relatively long time,

and then allowing the weldment to cool slowly,


this

chromium-

are susceptible

for preparation of edges that are to be

quenching may introduce residual

carbide deposits

grain boundaries

To

18-8,

their corrosion resistance in

usually encountered in petrochemical plants


cutting, whether used

so-called

and 310. They

not very effective, since the

is

sometimes used. Obviously,

maximum

locked-in stresses after

a stress relief are equal to the depressed yield strength at the stress-relieving

temperature. In comparison with carbon steels, the stainless steels require a

much
continuous intergranular
carbide deposits
Fig. 11.1.

steeL

Schematic representation of the grain structure in Type 300 sensitized stainless

higher stress-relieving temperature and a longer holding time, since they

retain their strength at elevated temperatures.

To summarize,

the standard 18-8 stainless steels in the solution-annealed state

are suitable for parts in corrosive environments,


are required

when no welding

and the operating temperatures stay below 800F.

or stress relief

300

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


Group

These are the stabilized

II.

boundary

sensitization

columbium which

is

301

Types 321 or 347. Grain-

stainless steels,

eliminated by using alloying elements like titanium or

by preempting the carbon: because

stabilize the stainless steel

of their stronger affinity to carbon, they form carbides in preference to the

chromium, which
A. Austcnitc grain structure in fully annealed Type 304 (prior
to welding). Outlines of crystal grains as made visible under the
microscope by etching prepared specimens with a suitable reagent. This microphotograph shows absence of intergranular
carbides

The carbides formed do not

stays in solid solution in iron.

tend to precipitate at the grain boundaries, but rather remain dispersed through

The creep strength of stabilized stainless steels is superior to that of


Cb is stronger stabilizing agent than Ti, making Type 347
superior to Type 321.
the metal.

unstabilized steels.

To summarize, stabilized grades of stainless steel in the annealed condition are


immune to intergranular corrosion. They can be welded and stress relieved and
cooled slowly in

They can be annealed

air.

without sensitization of the

locally

adjacent areas. However, under certain special heat treating conditions they can

known

be sensitized and become susceptible to a corrosion

They present some problems when welded, being


Same

A above, except for heavy black lines surrounding


These are the locations of carbide deposits along the
grain boundaries. Their intensity varies from light, scattered
precipitates (dots under the microscope) to heaw lines, as
shown, completely surrounding the individual grains. Whether
they are scattered or non-continuous or whether they are continuous depends on the carbon content, the ratio of combined
chromium and nickel to carbon percent, and the length of time
the metal is held within the carbide precipitation range (as exB.

as

the crystals.

plained in the text). The condition shown may be regarded as


an extremely severe sensitized condition in Type 304.

cost

is

as knifeline attack.

susceptible to cracking. Their

quite high, and therefore they are used only for special jobs, such as for

operating temperatures above 800F.

when

to intergranular corrosion

They

also tend to lose their

their surfaces are carburized

by

immunity

the process

environment.

Group

ill.

These are extra-low-carbon grades

304L

like

or 316L. Grain-

minimized by using low-carbon stainless steels


with 0.03 percent C maximum, at the expense of lowered strength. The rate

boundary

sensitization can be

of chromium carbide precipitation


the

is

so retarded that they can be held within

800-1 500F range for up to several hours without damage to

their cor-

rosion resistance.

To summarize,

extra-low-carbon stainless steels can be stress relieved, welded,

and slowly cooled without significantly increasing


granular attack.
as
C. Same as B above, after the same area has been subjected to a
subsequent anneal for the re-dissolving of precipitated carbides
and the restoration of corrosion resistance properties. This treatment results in putting the metal back in the condition shown in A.

solid

They

plate or for

internal

normal-composition stainless
ing the carbon.

their susceptibility to inter-

are very often used in pressure vessel construction, either


lining

steels

However, they

subject to sensitization

if

material.

They

are

more expensive than

because of the difficulty and cost of remov-

are not equivalent to

group

the operating temperature remains

TI,

since they are

in the

800-1 500F

range for a prolonged period of time. Consequently, the extra-low-carbon grades

can be used for applications

at

shows some time-temperature sensitization curves for

Fig. 11.3.

Grain structure of Type 304 stainless steel [88]

(Courtesy of Allegheny Ludlum

up to 800 F. Fig. 11.4


Type 304 stainless steels.

operating temperatures

Ferritic Stainless Steels

Steel Corporation.)

Ferritic stainless steels usually include straight

chromium

stainless steels

16-30 percent chromium. They are nonhardenable by heat treatment.


stainless steel

of

this

group

resistant cladding or lining

is
is

with

typical

type 430. The grade quite often used for corrosion-

type 405, which contains only 12 percent chromium;

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

302

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

1800

303

weld

heat affected zone

800

1min.

10sec.

1Qmin.

1hr.

10hrs.

Heat-affected zone in a straight chromium


Fig. 11.5.
zone extends across the weld deposit.

1000

lOOhrs.

ferritic stainless steel.

The

sensitized

hrs.

Time
Effect of carbon content on carbide precipitation (depicted schematically) in

Fig. 11.4.

shows several time-temperature sensitization curves for Type


304 stainless steel with various carbon contents ranging from 0.019 to 0.080 percent.
Carbide precipitation forms in the areas to the right of the various carbon content curves.

The

stainless steels.

figure

(Source: ref. 130.)

it

from austenite to martensite and

become

brittle

it

ware (trays) for

no

is

does not harden

general transforma-

However,

in air.

it

corrosive environments, since they are not as expensive as

weld

susceptible to intergranular corrosion. Ferritic stainless steels are sensitized by

ment, that

is,

are cooled

temperature of 1700F and then

air

/.ones,

cooled

at

and they are

normal

rates. If

they

slowly (in a furnace) their resistance to intergranular corrosion

preserved. Annealing of a sensitized ferritic stainless steel at

chromium

is

1450F allows

ferritic

weld deposit and the im-

stainless steels sensitizes the

mediately adjacent narrow bands of base material on both sides of the weld, as
shown in Fig. 11.5. The composition of electrodes used for welding ferritic
stainless steels

is

often such as to produce austenitic or air-nonhardening high-

alloy weld metal.

austenitic stainless steel.

is

much

The methods used

less

corrosion resistant then sensitized

to suppress sensitization in austenitic

stainless steels are not effective with ferritic stainless steels.


less steels are

heated into the 750-900F range for

notch toughness

temperature

is

reduced. This has been termed

been ascribed to the precipitation of a chromium

low temperature range.

ferritic stain-

prolonged period of time,

885F embrit dement and

rich

has

a-prime phase.

Ferritic stainless steels also exhibit lower ductility at


limits their use in the

When

it

is

chromium steels, usually with


They are hardenable by heat

and hardness can be increased

at

has ferritic structure.

When

of the austenite changes into martensite,


is

low temperatures, which

In general, ferritic stainless steels

room

heated from 1500F to 1850F


is

hard and

to

treat-

the expense of

typical of this group. In the annealed condition at

microstructure changes to austenitic. If the steel

its

then cooled suddenly, for


air,

part

brittle material. If the cooling

very rapid from 1850F, the final martensitic content will be at a

maximum.

Post-weld heat treatment with controlled cooling will reduce residual stresses

and

will allow the austenite to

transform to ductile

the hardenability of straight

content,

Sensitized ferritic stainless steel

their strength

Type 410

ductility.

as alloying element.

instance as in deposited weld metal with adjacent base metal zones in

to diffuse into depleted parts to restore the corrosion resistance.

Welding of

magnetic and finished parts can be checked

Martensitic stainless steels include straight

chromium

hea-ting to a

are

Martensitic Stainless Steels

16 percent

sensitive in heat-affected

They

magnet.

may

heat-affected zones because of rapid grain growth. Ferritic

in

may become notch

less

austenitic stainless steels.

also

steels

except for corrosion resistant lining or

and nonhardenable. When

ferritic

type 405 cools from high welding temperatures there


tion

in vessel construction,

cladding (grades 405 or 430S), heat-exchanger tubing, and vessel internal hard-

by

however, addition of aluminum renders

seldom used

are

chromium

ferrite.

With normal carbon

stainless steels

is

markedly

reduced with above 14 percent chromium. With increased carbon content, they
remain hardenable above 14 percent up to 18 percent chromium. With 18 per-

chromium content they become non-hardening and their microstructure


remains ferritic at all temperatures. The division line between hardenable (mar-

cent

tensitic)

and nonhardenable

stainless steels are

parts.

They

welding

is

(ferritic) steels is

not always distinct. Martensitic

only rarely used as construction material for pressure vessel

are the least corrosion resistant of the stainless steel grades, and if

used

in fabrication

heat treatment

is

required.

They are most corrosion

304

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

when

resistant

checked by

in

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

hardened and polished condition. They are magnetic and

condition.

Table

1 1

.6 lists

as well their

the nominal composition of individual stainless steel grades

approximate price

ratios,

Table 11.6.

easily

magnet. Martensitic stainless steels are generallyfree from sensitized

failures

40S

2Cr-Al (0 08

C max and

0.85

0 10-0 30 All

429
430
446

15Cr (0.12
17Cr (0.12
27Cr (0.20

C max.)
C max.)

0.90

C max.)

of stainless steels can be traced to the wrong selection of material,


Martensitic

410S
409
410

Selection of the right grade, with possible heat treatment for a particular seris

FACTOR

NOMINAL COMPOSITION

Ferritic

based on the price of plate.

to poor design, or to improper fabrication and handling.

vice,

RELATIVE COST

STAINLESS STEEL
ASTM TYPE

Alloy Selection, Design, and Fabrication

Most

305

usually done

by

13Cr (0.03 C max.)


llCr-Ti (0.12 C max.)
13Cr (0.15 C max.)

0.90

0.85

0.80

a metallurgical engineer or a process engineer with the

assistance of an experienced metallurgical consultant.

The most common

Austenitic

causes

201

17Cr-4Ni-6Mn

302

18Cr-8Ni (0.15

granular corrosion, stress corrosion, pitting, and crevice corrosion. Localized cor-

303

rosion attack also occurs quite often at areas contaminated because of improper

of corrosive failure in stainless steels are localized attacks, in the form of

inter-

0.95

304

18Cr-8Ni (0.15
18Cr-8Nt (0.08

C max.)
C max.)
C max.)

304L

18Cr-8Ni (0.03

1.10

316

16Cr-l 2Ni-2Mo (0.08

C max.)

1.40

316L

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo (0.03 C max.)


18Cr-13Ni-3Mo (0.08 C max.)
18Cr-13Ni-3Mo (0.03 C max.)

2.01

18Cr-10Ni-Ti

1.32

1.04
1.00

handling (see below).

Design procedures for austenitic stainless


steel vessels,

steels will

be the same as for carbon-

modified by the technical properties of austenitic stainless

steels.

317

Since austenitic stainless steels are used mainly for highly severe environmental
service conditions, they are

are carbon steels.

317L

subject to stress-corrosion cracking than

Under such conditions they

tions, particularly at higher

tures

more often

321
347

are sensitive to stress concentra-

under cyclic conditions. Surface conditions have

a great effect

on

fatigue

strength and on corrosion resistance.


fluid

are often

minimum

stress

Weld surfaces in contact with the operating


ground smooth. Welded connections should be designed with
concentrations. Abrupt changes, e.g., fillet welds, should be

avoided, and butt welds should preferably be used and fully radiographed.

The

edge of the weld deposits should merge smoothly into the base metal without
undercuts or abrupt transitions. Sound, uncontaminated welds are important.
The welds should be located away from any structural discontinuities. Weld

more slowly than carbon steel, and expand


the same temperature change. Thermal dif-

and contract to

a greater degree for

ferentials, larger than for carbon steels, should be minimized by construction


which permits free movement. These steels tend to warp and crack due to thermal stresses. All stainless steel parts should be designed to facilitate cleaning and

self-draining without

any

crevices or spots,

where

dirt

could accumulate and

obstruct the access of oxygen to form the protective layer.

2.20

(stabilized)

1.70
1.56
1.70

2.05

2.22

to Table 12.6. The straight chromium steels (Type 400) suffer from pitting corrosion,
while austenitic steels (Type 300) are susceptible to stress corrosion. Therefore, for extra
corrosive environments, new high alloy stainless steels with both higher resistance to pitting
corrosion and stress corrosion are sometimes used (151). They are austenitic alloys with the
following designations:

Note

ASTM

deposition sequences should be used that will minimize the residual stresses.
Austenitic stainless steels conduct heat

1.55

18Cr-10Ni-Cb (stabilized)
23Cr-12Ni (0.20 C max.)
23Cr-12Ni (0.08 C max.)
25Cr-20Ni (0.25 C max.)
25Cr-20Ni (0.08 C max.)

309
309S
310
310S

temperatures (above 650F) or at normal tempera-

max.)

They

and sheet) (0.02C max., 20 Cr, 25 Ni, 4.5 Mo,

B 62S

(plate

B 677
B 709

(seamless pipe and tube)


(plate

and sheet) (0.020C max., 27 Cr, 31 Ni,

are classified as nonferous alloys since the total


rest is iron.

50 percent and the

3.5

1.5

Mo,

Cu)

1.0

Cu)

amount of alloying components

is

over

306'

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

Fabrication and Handling.


tance to corrosion only

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Since stainless steels exhibit the

when thoroughly

maximum

resis-

and cracking, can attack

blistering

steel, particularly plain

carbon

307

steel, in the

clean, preventive measures to protect

following manner. At elevated temperatures atomic hydrogen can be formed by

cleaned surfaces should be taken and maintained during fabrication, storage, and

The iron carbide (Fe 3 C) in pearlite lends to


decompose, with carbon atoms precipitating toward the grain boundaries. At
the microscopic boundary voids, these carbon atoms combine with permeated
atomic hydrogen to form methane gas(CH 4 ), which again cannot diffuse out of

made

shipping. Special efforts should be

at

all

times to keep stainless steel sur-

from coming into contact with other metals. For cleaning, only clean
wool and brushes should be used. If flame cutting is used, additional metal should be removed by mechanical means to provide clean, weldable
edges. All grinding of stainless steels should be performed with aluminum oxide
faces

stainless steel

dissociation of molecular hydrogen.

the steel. After the pressure has been built

which

up high enough, intergranular

crack-

or silicon carbide grinding wheels

under the microscope. The material becomes spongy


and embrittled, and the damage is permanent, since it cannot be reversed by any

viously used

heat

bonded with resin or rubber, and not preon other metal. Proper identification and correct marking of the

ing results,

Under the

machined are sandblasted to clean white metal, and the component


exposed to weather. After several weeks, surfaces are visually examined for
evidence of rust or contamination.

consequences.

is

that are not

visible

treatment. Notch toughness and fatigue strength are markedly reduced.

important. The stainless steel components (Fig. 12.1)


exposed to the weather are often subject to the exposure testing. The surfaces
types of the material

is

stresses,

stresses

imposed by operating conditions combined with any

Hydrogen embrittlement,

is

condition of low ductility in steel resulting from

the absorption of atomic hydrogen in

the metal lattice

phenomenon. After the atomic hydrogen


is

11.6.

Since

residual

microcracks can propagate into a delayed fracture, with disastrous

is

only

temporary

diffuses out of the metal, ductility

restored.

SELECTION OF STEELS FOR HYDROGEN SERVICE


many

high-temperature petroleum refining processes are carried out under

Damage by

Preventing Hydrogen

the Selection of Suitable Materials

high partial pressures of hydrogen, the material selected for vessel construction

Plain carbon

for such

operating temperatures and high pressures or low pressures and high tempera-

hydrogen attack, which can cause


deterioration of the material and subsequent failure.
service should safely withstand

The mechanism of hydrogen damage in steels is based on the fact, that the
monatomic hydrogen diffuses readily through metal, whereas molecular hydrogen does not. Diffusion of atomic hydrogen through steels depends on a number
of factors such as temperature, partial hydrogen pressure, time and composition

of the material.
is

created by a chemical reaction at intermediate

temperatures at the steel surface, for instance by hydrogen sulfide attack, it


diffuses readily into the metal before it can form molecular hydrogen. If the

hydrogen atoms enter the voids in the steel and then combine
hydrogen, they can no longer diffuse out.

The voids can be microscopic


the diffusion of atomic

is

surface, cause blistering. Dirty steels

attack

it

is

To

steels.

and hard

steels

with yield strength close to

form of hydrogen attack. In the case


is

sufficient ductility to

the hydrogen source

is

ferritic steels

may

considerable.

(over 600F) the atomic hydrogen,

molybdenum

addition to

chromium

or

or both.

In selecting steels for petrochemical service the Nelson curves [87, 119],
which show the operating limits for steels in hydrogen service, are strictly
followed and extensively used. According to these curves carbon or low-alloy

for the type

mum

of

steel.

if

the operating temperature and

on or below or to the

left

of the curve applicable

safety factor need not be applied to these curves. Maxi-

operating partial hydrogen pressure and temperature inside the vessel are

used in selection of the material. In most material applications

in

the petro-

chemical Industry, hydrogen sulfide corrosion will probably require a higher


grade alloy steel than will hydrogen service alone. The Nelson curves are revised

from time
in

Sound,

provide adequate protection against hydrogen

often necessary to use low-alloy steels containing

not attacked by atomic hydrogen

the voids are under the

steel.

low

reaction of hydrogen with the carbides in steels can be decreased or prevented


by adding carbide-stabilizing elements such as chromium or molybdenum.
Non-carbide forming elements such as nickel and silicon do not prevent internal

partial pressure fall

if

service at

high-temperature hydrogen service. The

steels are

withstand these internal local stress concentrations, although

At higher temperatures

form molecular

in

hydrogen

with comparatively low yield strength there

if

to

hydrogen

be influenced by the cleanliness of the

welds are desirable

laminations, or slag inclusions. If

the ultimate strength are susceptible to this

suffer blistering

will

steels are satisfactory for

sustained for a period of time, high pressure

in size, gross

hydrogen

can'build up, which can either crack the shell plate or,

steel

The damage

inclusion-free

hydrogen damage to

When atomic hydrogen

of a

tures.

and low-alloy

tice.

to time

Some of the

and obviously, only the

curves are

shown

in Fig.

latest revision

1 1 .6.

should be used in prac-

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

308

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


2-3

in-long

<fe.

309

rwzle

fissure

6.0 Cr 0.5

reinrorcmg paa

Mo (SA357)

>L

MoTsA387E)

3.0 Cr 0.5

2.0 Cr 0.5

<

Mo (SA387D)
/

fissure

heat-exchanger
channel shell

Carbon

large original

(SA516)

steel

lamination

Welded or hot bent

in

plate

A204

Material:

gr.

B
7FinF

Design temperature:

J_J

300

0 100 200

XR

S.R., Full

500

2000

1500

1000

2500

3000
^ig. 11.7-

Hydrogen
Fig. 11.6.

partial pressure, psia

Suggested operating pressure-tempeiatuie limits for some carbon steels and low

of an ultrabeen prevented by eliminating plate lamination defects by mea'


sonic test (not required by the Code), making the distance between the flange
1

alloy steels in hydrogen service.

The upper dotted

lines represent the limits

above which the

surface decarburization due to the hydrogen attack occurs. (Source: ref. 119.)

and the reinforcing-pad welds


blending the reinforcing pad
All of the austenitic stainless steels resist

hydrogen

still

is

shell.

Also, a nozzle

with an integral reinforcement should have been considered.

selected as hydrogen attack resistant for hydrogen service,

without taking any benefit for possible protection by the stainless

Hydrogen embrittlement can become


important

Code required minimum, and by

weld smoothly into the

diffuses through them. Therefore, the backing material for stainless-

steel

steel-clad

hydrogen damage. However, atomic

larger than the

fillet

in ferritic

steel layer.

important in martensitic steels;

and virtually unknown

it

is

less

in austenitic stainless steels.

11.7.

ALUMINUM ALLOYS
aluminum

In petrochemical plants

materials

for

pressure

vessels.

alloys are not often used as construction

In spite of

many

outstanding qualities (light

weight, good corrosion resistance) they cannot match the steel alloys in price,
strength above

Design for Hydrogen Service

room temperature,

atmospheres. Also,

combined with

Special design

closely supervised fabrication techniques

necessary for process equipment exposed to

hydrogen atmosphere

may
at

be

high

pressures and temperatures. For hydrogen service as encountered in petroleum


refineries a

well

designed vessel performs quite successfully. In practice, the

designer should carefully avoid any stress concentrations, include in specifications additional tests for
in the

any laminar discontinuities

welds, particularly in thicker plates (over 2

material with a

Figure

1 1 .7

minimum of

shows

and service

life in

heavily polluted

If

aluminum

alloys are

storage tanks, alloy 3003,

and workability,

is

employed
which

is

for low-temperature

equipment such. as

the least expensive and of good weldability

generally specified. If higher strength

is

required at tempera-

tures below 150F, the easily worked alloys 5083 or 5086 are used; at tem-

5454
aluminum

peratures above 150F, alloys

or 6061 should be considered.

resid-

become more competitive with stainmore often used. There are no Code requirements for impact
testing of wrought aluminum alloys down to -425F, or for cast aluminum
alloys down to -325F. The alloys 5050-O, 5083-O (preferred), 5086-O, and
5454-0 are most frequently used. On average the coefficient of thermal expansion
6
a for aluminum alloys is about twice as large as that for steel (a = 12.9 X 10"

zone between the welds. The cracking could have

in./in./F for alloy 3003), an important factor in the design of piping for cryo-

a fracture in a heat-exchanger

thermal expansion between the

ill

between them acting

ual stresses in the heat-affected

reliability,

welding shops are not equipped to handle the fabrica-

tion of all-aluminum-alloy pressure vessels.

as a

For cryogenic

less steels

in

shell (the air

and impurities

and use normalised

residual stresses.

bined effect of built-up hydrogen pressure


differential

in the plates

in. thick),

many

channel shell due to the com-

the original plate lamination,


fitted reinforcing

pad and the

thermal barrier), and the probable

and

vessels

alloys

are

SELECTION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

310

genie temperatures.

The modulus of

third of that for carbon steel

elasticity

(E - 10

10

at

of aluminum alloys

is

only one

room temperature). Under

same loading conditions, an aluminum structure has three times the

the

elastic

The second

digit indicates specific alloy

the second digit


the specific

is

zero,

aluminum

it

alloy in the group.

from the alloy designation number by

the weight.

alloy:

Aluminum

surfaces

which

will

be

in

alloys with other metals

strength of

aluminum

alloys can be increased

The
series.

annealing range.

group includes the alloys

2000, 6000, and 7000


Their strength can be increased by thermal treatment. High-temperature

heat- treatable alloy

treatment

is

in the

but unstable: After an aging period of several days at room temperature, pre-

from the supersaturated solution begins and the

become considerably stronger.


heating for some time. This is

alloys

called artificial aging or precipitation hardening.


in

and near the weld zone

in

aluminum alloys, reduces the weld strength, and impairs corrosion resistance.
The Code recognizes this by allowing the vessel designer to use the allowable
stress values of -0 o; -7 type alloys as welded material for welded constructions,
which include practically

recommended

all

vessels.

Fusion welding of the "strong" alloys

unless subsequent heat treatment

is

is

not

possible.

Alloy Designation [97]

Wrought aluminum alloys are designated by a four-digit number, for instance


3003. The first digit indicates the alloy group, according to the major alloying
elements, as follows:

1.

99+ percent pure aluminum,

2.

copper,

3.

manganese,

4.

silicon,

5.

magnesium,

6.

magnesium and

7.

zinc,

8.

other elements.

silicon,

letter,

two

If

digits identify

following and separated

dash, designates the temper of the

no

special controls are applied (properties of

F temper

are

not specified or guaranteed),

-H: cold worked, strain hardened (always followed by two or more


-T: heat treated (followed by one or

more

digits),

digits).

Additional numbers following the letter, indicate degree of cold working or a


specific heat treatment:

-HI:

strain

hardened only,

-H2:

strain

hardened, then partially annealed,

-H3:

strain

hardened, then stabilized by applying low-temperature thermal

treatment,

-T4: solution heat treated and naturally aged to a stable condition,


-T6: solution heat treated and then

artificially aged.

by

further increase in strength can be attained

Fusion welding always produces partial annealing

Aluminum

as fabricated,

followed by quenching in water. The alloys become very workable

cipitation of constituents

The

last

-O: annealed and rcctystallized,

by adding alloying elements,

by heat treatment, or by cold working. Accordingly, aluminum alloys can be


divided into two classes: heat-treatable and non-heat treatable alloys. The nonheat treatable alloy group includes high-purity aluminum and alloys in the 1000,
3000, 4000, and 5000 series. Their strength depends on the amount of cold
working. The strength attained through cold work can be removed by heating
in the

-F:

must be prevented by insertion of nonmetallic

separators for protection against electrolytic corrosion.

The

The

contact with concrete or mortar after

erection must be well protected by a protective coating, and contact of alumi-

num

modification of the original alloy.

indicates the original alloy.

deflection of a geometrically identical steel structure, and also about one-third

311

The second
digit

is

digit after the letter indicates the final

quarter-hard, 4

For instance, -H18 alloy

is

half-hard,

is

strain

is

degree of strain hardening:

three-quarter hard, and 8

hardened,

full

is

full

hard.

hard. Extra-hard tempers are

designated by the digit 9. The third digit indicates a variation of the two-digit

temper. The -HI 12 temper

is

generally considered a controlled F-temper with

guaranteed mechanical properties.

NUMERICAL METHODS

313

Sleeve-type

Pressure take-off

12
Numerical Methods for Stress Analysis
of Axisymmetric Shells

Large Universal Venturi Tube flow meter. Accurate dimensional stability


quired for over a long period of time under high operating pressure.

Fig. 12.1.

INTRODUCTION

12.1.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a designer who has no experience in


numerical methods with the minimum background on the numerical methods
necessary for understanding a computer input and output of fairly complicated
axisymmetric pressure vessels under axisymmetrical loadings.

internal pressure will develop


d.

By

inspection, the

some compressive force on the end edges

maximum

develop at the point b.

stress will

By

is re-

at point

analytical

ingly encounter pressure vessels of physical shapes

method, the calculations become lengthy and can be considered more as rough
technique
stress estimates than as a satisfactory solution, and some experimental

most impossible to

for stress

Although most

there

is

solve

and loadings difficult or alby analytical methods with acceptable accuracy. Usually,

not a closed-form analytical stress solution available for the actual physi-

cal shape,

and the problem requires

lytical solution

desired

vessels consist of simple geometrical shapes, designers increas-

is

unknown

large

and excessive simplifications. (An ana-

a derived mathematical expression that gives values of the

desired, the applied analytical

Much

better results can be ob-

axisymmetric

Finite element analysis-displacement

2. Finite
3.

4.

shells [20]

method (FEA).

element analysis-force method.

Method of stepwise integration.


Method of finite differences.

those methods possess distinctive advantages over the others. Howthe others.
ever, for certain types of problems, one method may be preferred to
Usually, the results by one method are checked by another to ascertain the de-

None of

becomes impossible.
In the past, the approximate analytical stress solutions of such difficult vessel
parts

have to be applied.

by using a numerical method.


There are four important practical numerical methods for solution of such

1.

methods for pressure


vessels often require advanced engineering mathematics and knowledge of differential equations beyond the background and available time of an average practicing engineer. For the case of an arbitrary shell shape, an analytical solution often
is

will

tained

quantity such as strain or stress at any point in a body.) If a

more accurate solution

measurements

were usually accompanied with the experimental

stress

measurements such

gree of accuracy of the computations in addition to the verification

as:

by

stress

measurements.
1

method (two-dimensional, three-dimensional or just photoelastic


method is quite expensive since it includes the fabrication of a

Photoelastic

coating). This

model, and therefore in practice


2. Strain

is

not used too often.

gage measurements, usually during the hydrotest.

3. Brittle coatings,

not expensive and good for check of stress

Hydrostatic tests of

full-size or

scaled-down models to destruction, expensive

and time consuming.

and conical

parts. It is

Venturi flow meter, consist-

open-ended, although the considerable

finite number of tiny sections, elements. This procedure


amount of engineering judgment and some experience for the

any continuum) into a


requires a certain

Fig. 12.1 represents a piping pressure part, a large

ing of cylindrical

background are understood, they can be applied by rote in the


same manner as the ordinary equations of the strength of materials.
As the first basic step in the analysis, all numerical methods divide the shell (or

their theoretical
raisers, limited

to surfaces only.
4.

Numerical methods provide numerical approximations rather than exact soluacceptable accutions. They yield results valid for a particular problem with an
and
racy, but not a general closed-form solution. Once the numerical techniques

best results.

314

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

NUMERICAL METHODS

315

The division of a complex system or a body into distinct separate parts (elements) in order to analyze the behavior of the entire system is a routine procedure often used in the engineering practice. If the system can be solved by applicamethods leading to differential equations (and an infinite
number of elements) the system is called continuous. If on the other hand the
system is divided into a finite number of elements the system is called discrete.
As a general rule, the regions over which the bending effects are significant
and/or compound stress gradient is steep (stress raisers) should be divided into
tion of analytical

smaller intervals than the sections over


profile changes are small. If
curs, the

which the bending or compound stress


any discontinuity in load, material or geometry oc-

elements should be arranged so that the discontinuity coincides with

the end of the element.

its

The most important numerical method is the finite element analysis-displacement method. One of the reasons the FEA has been gaining predominance is
that the method can be formalized in a standard procedure that does not require
any engineering decisions to be made during the computation process and is
eminently suitable for computer programming. The method is also readily applicable to other fields (fluid mechanics, electricity, heat transfer etc.)

nodal points.) The individual elements are assumed to be interconnected at

corners (nodal points, nodes) pinned with specified degrees of freedom. The

nodal points are the points where the forces are being transmitted. This makes
the stress analysis of the element possible.

By comparing Figures 12.3(a) and (b) it can be seen that as the plate of the
beam is divided into more elements, the more closely the discretized beam in (b)
resembles the solid cantilever beam under the load F in (a); for instance, the

All numerical methods depend on solution of large number of simultaneous


equations and require therefore the use of high-speed digital computers. For a

shape of the bending curves will be more alike.

practicing engineer, only written, worked-out

the elements. However, the elements are not just cut out

tions of

more complex

computer programs

for stress solu-

vessel shells are of practical importance.

To develop

procedure, or a computerized program, for a complex vessel problem


the time available to a designer and requires a special mathematical

is

beyond

skill.

The nodal
ture,

but represent special types of

ELEMENT ANALYSIS (FEA) DISPLACEMENT METHOD

FINITE

elastic

from the

original struc-

elements constrained to deform in

specific patterns such that the overall continuity of the entire assemblage of

elements tends to be maintained under the strains induced by the loads. This can

be achieved
12.2.

forces replace the continuous interaction between the borders of

if

the compatibility of displacements (deflection and rotation)

satisfied along the hypothetical inter -element boundaries.

is

For each element, using

the element elastic properties and reasonable approximation of its deformation,

General Description of the Method

a relationship in a

In the cantilever framed beam, Fig. 12.2, the distribution of forces and stresses
in all structural

Every member

members under

is

the load

form of a matrix equation can be derived which gives the forces

at the corners (nodes)

of the elements in terms of the dispalcements of the nodes

F can be computed without difficulties.


y

subjected to different strains and stresses and expands or com-

on sides independently of other members. The continuity of the


preserved only at joints which can be pinned, fixed or elastically

presses freely

structure

is

beam consists of short rectangular deep plate as in


becomes more involved. To simplify the problem we
cannot divide the plate into sections resembling the structural members. The
predicted stress distribution through the plate would be grossly distorted compared to the actual. A different approach is required here.
The plate, or any continuous structure, is broken artificially into an assembly

restrained. If the cantilever


Fig. 12.3, the stress analysis

of

many

the plate

small finite elements of various suitable shapes as in Fig. 12.3(b) where

beam

is

divided into a

number of rectangular elements. (An element is


is described by the coordinates of

a well-defined region of a system. Its location

(a)

Actual plate cantilever beam.


Fig. 12.3.

Deep

(b)

Finite element idealization

cantilever plate

beam.

316

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

NUMERICAL METHODS

317

of the elements. To achieve a reasonable approximation of the element deformation a displacement

(trial,

shape) function has to be selected fa function assumed

to give (approximate) displacements at

any point within the element in terms of


nodal displacements and at the same time assumed to preserve the displacement
continuity between the elements along the hypothetical dividing lines. The displacements of the nodes become the basic unknown quantities of the problem in
the same manner as the unknown joint displacements in the matrix analysis of
the framed structures. The

number of unknown displacements to be computed


number of chosen degrees of kinematic indeterminancy
(degrees of freedom). The proper choice of the displacement function for an
per joint equals the

element

is

crucial. It

actual element

is

should be chosen so that the true displacement field of the


represented as possible, since the degree of the result

as closely

accuracy depends on

it. (Here lies the main difference between the finite element
analysis-displacement method and the matrix analysis of framed structures,
where the joint displacements are relatively few and readily evaluated.) Once the

nodal displacements are

known

the stresses at any point in the element can be

computed. The system of external applied loads acting on the actual structure
has to be replaced by an equivalent system of forces concentrated at the element
nodes since

all

forces are

assumed to be acting and transmitted by the nodal joints.

In the case of concentrated loads, a node

selected at the point of application

is

of the load. For distributed loads, equivalent point loads are established (by
inspection or computation) and applied at nodes. Simultaneous forces acting at
the same point are added.

FEA-displacement method is sometines considered by some technical writers


as an extension of general matrix analysis of framed structures, and it certainly
resembles

it

to

some degree

in

more simpleappUcations.lt would seem, therefore,

logical to use stiffness analysis

rules of

relationship

between the given external load F (Fig. 12.4.) and the reactions
and displacements of joints can be derived describing the

at points of supports

behavior of the whole system under the load F. First, the stiffness influence coefficients

of the individual members have to be evaluated. (The stiffness influecne

coefficient of the bar

member is defined as the force required to produce a unit


members can be stressed only in tension or compression.

displacement.) Both bar

From

of a simple framed structure to clarify the basic


to point out the differences between

the strength of materials, the stiffness coefficients are:

~AEjL

for

member

1:

kx

for

member

2:

k 2 = AE cos a/Li = k x cos a

lb/in.

FEA-displacement method and

two methods.
FEA-Displacement Method Applied to
Fig. 12.4 represents a simple

(The example

where
a

Framed Structure.

Illustrative

example

two-member wall bracket of pinned construction.

taken as simple as possible, so the computations do not obscure


the basic principles being discussed and are easy to follow and remember.)
is

The way to subdivide this system into discrete elements is immediately obvious.
The system consists of two line (one-dimensional) structural elements and three
where the external forces are transmitted and the displacements
is assumed that every member has two pinned ends
and two degrees of freedom [Fig. 12.12(a)] Displacement u in the direction of
the x-axis and a displacement v in the direction of the y-axis are joint displacements under the load. The members can only resist axial forces and no bending

ing

on

are to be computed. It

posssible.

lb/in.

the cross-sectional area of both members.

is

and 3 (F lx

Flyt

,F$ X

F3y )

or they can be

computed

The

forces at joints 1, 2

are the external forces or their

the structure at the joints.

They

components* act-

are either given as part of the design data,

as reactions to the given loads required for the overall

equilibrium.

The external

forces

F lx

etc. in Fig.

joint displacements:

joints, points

is

Pin-connected wall bracket. (Line representation.)

Fig. 12.4.

Load

Member

F lx

= kl ul

k x u2

Fi y = 0

Flx

kiUt +

k^ 2

12.4 can be expressed as functions of the

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

318

and

NUMERICAL METHODS

matrix form the force-displacement equation

in

or in matrix form:

-*1

-*i

*1

u2

v2

fJ

is:

o"

"I

n,

<

F*y\

319

cos

- sin

sin

cos

2x

-sin

3x

cos

3,

cos a

cos

sin

or in short
or in short:

Mi

]k]

where

{5>!

{6}j

is

the nodal deflection vector for

member

{F'} 2 = [T] {F} 2

in global cordinates.

Member

2: in local coordinates x'y

"*2

3*1

'J

&2

*2

and similarly

/ 'N
u2
v2

cos

sin

=
1

"3

I-

-sin

cos

sin

a
ct

-sin

oc

cos

or in short
or in short:

{F'h'\k'] 2 {S'h

(1)
{5'} 2

where {5'} 2

is

the nodal deflection vector for

member 2

= IT]

{8} 2

consisting of nodal

displacements in local coordinates. (The words node and joint are used here

Substituting the above into the

main equation

(1):

interchangeably.)

Before both matrix equations can be combined into one master stiffness matrix
for the entire structure, the stiffness matrix [k']

2 and the displacements of the


expressed in local coordinates x'y' must be transferred into the global
coordinates xy (+y' project into +y).

member 2

In global coordinates

computed from loads


F'tx

Fk y

(all

assumed to be

positive, the actual forces

its

is

called the transformation matrix

T
transpose [T]

Utilizing this relationship

and

we

-1
its

inverse [T]

is

equal to

get:

{F}=[T] T [k') 1 [T}{&} 2


Fix

F2y

sin

~ F2x

sin

a+

F2y

cos

forces are

be positive or negative):

cos

F'sx* Fs x cos a
F'i y

xy

will

where [T]

F3x

sin

a+

The above product of three matrices represents the


ten in global coordinates:

F3y

sin

F3y

cos

[kh =

[T]

[k'h[T]

stiffness

element matrix writ-

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

320

If the multiplication is carried

zos*

out

sin

-cos

sin

a cos a

sin

For

get:

a cos a

-sin

a cos a

sin

we

cos

sin

a cos a

-sin

cos

-sin

sin

a cos a

-sin

- sin

a cos

this particular simple case

Flx =-

ot

we can

321

write without evaluating [K]

*12

Fix =

a cos a

F2y - -

a cos a

The force-displacement matrix equations of both elements can be now combined into one master matrix equation in global coordinates by the principle

(*2 cos

a + kx ) u2

(k 2 sin

Fix =

" (^2

F$ y =

(fc 2

cos

(k 2 sin

cos a) v 2

(2)

a) v 2

(3)

ae

cos a) u 2 + (k 2 sin

a) u 2 + (k 2 sin a cos a) v 2

a cos a) u 2

sin

(k 2 sin

a) u 2

of superposition:
Substituting the design data into the above equations (2) and (3)

t \x

~*1

Fly

-*i

0
r

Fix

ki + k 2 cos

~k%

a cos a !-*2 cos

sin

u\

u2
k2

a cos a

sin

u2
v2

<)!

F&

>!

oj

-k 2

sin

a cos a
2

-k 2 cos a
ft 2

sin

k2

sin

&2

sin

a
a cos a

a cos a

-fc 2 sin

^2

^a

&2 cos

-&2

sin

F2x = 0 and

c s

a
a cos a

-&2

sin

- 2

sin

*2

sin

=-2309 X

1000

10" 6

=-10155 X

we

get, for

lb.:

in.

10" 6

in.

v2

a cos a
2

F2y =

V\

Fiy

"3

The above displacements can easily be checked from the Williot diagram and by
using the force method. From the known u 2 and v 2 we are able to compute the
displacements in the local coordinates (equal to ALi and AL 2 ) and the axial
forces

or in short:
It

is

and

stresses in the

obvious that the

members.

FEA-

displacement method even in the simplest prob-

lems requires a considerable amount of matrix algebra. However, once the master

The

required at node
is

k i}

stiffness coefficient
i

in the master

system

stiffness

matrix [K]

is

the force

to cause a unit deflection at node/. Also note that the matrix

symmetric kif A:,,-. All diagonal terms are positive.


The unknown displacements can now be computed from the equation:
-

is,

programmed,

all possibilities

"

Example

12.1.

is

is

1.

Node

in Fig. 12.5.

released,

nodes 2 and 3 fixed:

F% -

Mi

Pi -

^3-0

Mi

the displacements are

Step

2.

Node

2 released, nodes

^i =
2

k1

=AE/L=QJ5X

in.

Ui - Vi

- w3 =

L = 40in

v3

10

=0

=30 X

10

psi

k 2 =0.65 X 10 6

F=

"

ka u 2

F2

and 3

fixed:

= ka u 2 + k b u 2

F3 ~-

10001b

a = 30,

(boundary conditions required to-define the problem)

established and

required then

is

to substitute

Determine the force-displacement matrix equation for the spring

system as shown

is usually a major task done by a computer. Once


known, the forces, strains and stresses in the members can
be determined using the boundary conditions that make the problem determinate.
The following design data can be substituted into the above equation:

find the inverse matrix [K]

are covered. All that

the given data and the boundary conditions.

Step

To

the final force-deflection matrix) equation

matrix (that

Step

3.

Node

3 released, nodes

Fi

=0

and 2 fixed:

F2 -fcjMj

F3

=/c 6 3

kb u 2

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

322

The minimum stationary potential energy


respect to u and equal to zero

*.

Spring

*-s

Spring

all possibilities)

from

Fig. 12.5, the total

potential energy of the system:

U/2-Mi

n() =

(lb. /in.

= stiffness coefficient of spring

(Ib./in.)

Fig. 12.5.

kw FoiF-ku where k = spring stiffness constant (lb/in.)

For a system of two springs (including

stiffness coefficient of spring

kt

found by differentiation of U with

dli/du =

is

323

/2-^i

+ (ka + k b ) u|/2

System of two colineai

+ k b ul/2

springs.

ka u x u 2 l2

k b u 2 u z ll

F3 u

k b u 2 u 3 /2

F2 u 2

and
or combined in the matrix form:

"

~K

'Fx

F2

.Ft.

-*.
(ka + k b )

-K
_o

an/3w!

=ka u t -ka u 2 -Fx =0

blildu 2

='ka u

0
-*

"2
8

-k

n/3 3 =

orF =ka u
t

+(ka + k b )u 2 -k b u 3

M2 " F

-F2 =0

=0

orF2 =- ka u x
or

F3 = -

ka u 2
+(fc a

+k b )u 2

- kbu 2

kb u 2 + k b u 3

."3
in matrix form:

This matrix equation becomes determinate

if

the boundary conditions in addi-

"

"K

tion to the external forces are given, for instance, u x = 0.

would seem important to point out that if the external load for
instance F2 ~ 0 then the summation of all internal forces around the joint 2 is 0
since the ioint is in equilibrium. With u = 0:
At

this point

it

F*

Fy

-K
(ka

-K
_o

+k b )
-k b

-k

M
lu 2

k_ l"3

or in short

The above force-displacement matrix equation can


principle of

minimum

also be derived using the

potential energy.

The principle of minimum potential energy states that if the potential energy
of an elastic loaded structure (linear or nonlinear) is expressed as a function of
the unknown joint displacements, then the structure will be in stable equilibrium

when

[F] = [K] [6].

the displacements have such values as to

make the

assume the minimum value. The potential energy

n for

total potential energy

the entire system

is

given

by the sum of the potential energies of the individual elements. In engineering


practice, most systems are in stable equilibrium.
The potential energy of a simple cylindrical spring is the strain energy U of the
spring minus the potential energy of the external load Fon the compressed spring

FEA-Displacement Method Applied to Continuous Structures


Using previous examples as analogues and pointing out the main differences, the
FEA-displacement method as applied to a continuous structure (or any continuous system) can be divided into the following steps:
system by
1. Discretization (modeling) of the system, that is, dividing the
nodal
defined
with
elements
hypothetical lines or planes into suitably selected
points located
discretization
(a)

node

n=

U+Wp =ku

l2- Fu.

on

is

common

proper

selected element and the degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) per


determine the degree of accuracy of stress computations, computer

The type of

will

global coordinate grid of the entire system.

important for the following reasons.

running time and the price.

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

324

325

(b) The location of the points where the stresses will be evaluated determine the accuracy of the results. If the body is inadequately discretized, then
the resulting computer analysis can lead to erroneous results and misleading pre-

maximum

dictions of areas of

strains.

For symmetrical bodies symmetrically

loaded, only a section (repeating) needs to be discretized.

symmetry must be constrained


loading would destroy the symmetry.
planes of

The points along the


any side

against lateral displacements as

2. Derivation of the element stiffness matrix fkj relating the nodal displacements to nodal forces on the basis of the geometric, material properties and
chosen degrees of freedom. The elements of the element matrix are the influence

basic

from

all

ematical

other numerical methods.


skill.

It is a

All elements have to

major task requiring considerable math-

work

together.

They do not behave

as indi-

vidual elements just cut out of the system. Therefore, the computation of the
stifness coefficients

must include selection (assumption) of the displacement

function giving displacements at every point within the element in terms of nodal

displacements selected as close to the actual shape of the deformed element

under the load

as possible.

polynomial function of power

series

of the type

y=

a 1 + azx + a 3 x +
is usually selected to represent the displacement function since they can easily be mathematically manipulated by limiting the number

of terms, the desired degree of approximation (and accuracy) can be achieved.

The above

FEA

procedure

is

essentially equivalent to the Ritz

method [137,

Plate under an eccentric load F.

Fig. 12.6.

Computation of the element stiffness matrix [k] is the


computation of the method, making the FEA fundamentally different

stiffness coefficients.

Discretization

1.

of the

Plate.

only two triangular elements

So
and

as

not to obscure the procedure discussed,


are used. (In practice this

would

result in

computed stress distribution. To obtain usable results many


more elements would have to be used.) The loaded plate is a plain stress problem,
that is all strains and stresses are in the two dimensional xy plane. The external
force acting at the node 2 and the support reactions R 3 and R 4 act at points 3
and 4 respectively. The effects of the force F can be be distributed between the
nodes 3 and 4 as follows:
grossly distorted

= Fjh 6Fy'jh 2

and for/ =

/i/2

167] applied to each element.

Combining the element stiffness matrices of individual elements into one


system (master) matrix which enables computation of the nodal displacements.
The basis for an assembly method is that the nodal interconnections require the
displacements at a node to be the same for elements connected to that node.
Forming the load vector matrix {F} and setting the matrix equation relating the
3.

external loads with nodal displacements

{6} gives

{F} = [K] {6} where [K]

is

the system stiffness matrix.


4. Solution for the

unknown nodal displacements

using the boundary condi-

15}=[K]5.

and

{F}.

stresses in the

Illustrative

displacements {6} and boundary conditions the strains

elements (usually

at the centroids or at

(2/ 4

+/ 3 )

*a=(*/6)

(2/ 3

+/ 4 )

For

F acting at node 2 at h/2

tion for

the

axis:

R4

F and # 3

0.

The system force-displacement matrix equation can be written for the plate in
same manner as for the bracket in Fig. 12.4, if we assume ele-

Fig. 12.7 in the

where

B elastic:

(F)

is

[K]

is

Example

shown in Fig. 12.6 will be anaFEA-displacement method. The system torce-displacement equadetermining stress and displacements has to be formulated.

by

from the

the load matrix consisting of

known

loads.

nodal points) are

stress distribution plotted.

thin rectangular steel plate subject to a load as

lyzed

andA 4 =(*/6)

{F}=[K]{S}

From known nodal

computed and

ments A and

tions:

- 4F/h

7F/h

/3

the stiffness matrix to be determined. It consists of combined


element stiffness matrices [k] which are determined from given
data.

{S}

is

the nodal deflection vector, consisting of

unknown nodal

displace-

ments to be computed.
In the previous examples the stiffness matrix [K] consisting of stiffness coef-

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

326

m (xy)

and

2U 2

4(0,^1

y7

is

any point

in the triangular

327

element with displacements u

v.

p-F
Element B

is

force vector,

summation of all forces

(their

components) acting

at

nodes 1, 2 and 3 in the direction of x- and >>-axis, respectively, in

3(0,01

short {/}.

Element

^^^^^

1U V

\
Two

0)

lines are

shown hereto emphasize

the separation of the elements A


and B. Usually only one line is used

is

to indicate the hypothetical element

dividing

was

ficients

easily

lines.

There are

Finite element idealization.

Fig. 12.7.

nodal displacement vector, summary of

all

nodal displacements,

in short {5}.
six

nodal displacements (2 per one node) possible, there-

fore a plane triangular element has six degrees of freedom. These are

the quantities to be computed.

computed using the procedure from the strength of materials.

Here, however, the computation of the stiffness matrix of the system represents
a

major

matrix of the individual elements has to be

task. First, the stiffness

evaluated.

Derivation of Triangular Plane Element Stiffness Matrix [k]

2.

The procedure

(b) Selection

(a) Selecting

a suitable coordinate system (see Fig.

2.8),

where

(xy) are rectangular coordinate axes (global coordinates =


1, 2,

)t

(u, v)

of any point

x and y. This function, called the displacement function,


approximates the actual distorted shape of the element strained under the nodal
forces. It should satisfy the geometric boundary condition of the element. Clearly
the point coordinates,

local coordinates).

and 3 are the vertices of the triangle and the nodes with defined coordi-

nates (x l y l

of displacement function. The displacements

within the element under the nodal forces can be written as some function of

can be divided into the following steps:

the choice of the displacement function as closely representing the actual strained

(x 2 y 2 ), (xsys), respectively.

element shape

as possible

siderable mathematical

is

skill.

desirable for a

the strained elements at least to

The

good end

result.

This requires a con-

preservation of the physical continuity between

some degree

essential (see Fig. 12.9).

is

simplest representation in form of the displacement function

u
r

"HI
0

^
2(x 2 y2

"i

^ fu

Element thickness

(a)

Elements

and B unstrained.

(b)

Elements

and B strained.

Side 23 remain adjacent with


compatible displacements.
Fig. 12.8.

the

first

Nodal displacements and nodal forces of plane triangular element. Historically

FEA

Fig. 12.9.

element.
|

is

given

by

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

328

two

linear polynomials:

329

or in short

u - a x + a 2 x + a 3y

v~a 4

+ a 5 x + a 6y

known. The unknown polynomial

All terms in the matrix [A] are


{a}

can

now be expressed

in terms

of unknown element nodal

coefficients

displacements {5}:

or

{a}=[AV

{5}.

The inverse of the matrix [A], [A]'


and is equal to:
x 2 y$ -x 3y 2

is

also called the transformation matrix

xiy 2 -x 2 yi

x x y 3 +X3.V1

y% -y*

y$-yi

x 3 -x 2

xi

y\ -y%

x2

as

\a6 J

-i _

2A

minimum of six
a 6 ) are required. The coefficients are also called
displacement amplitudes, since their magnitudes govern the magnitude of the
displacement amplitude, while the number of terms retained in the polynomial
Since a triangular plane element has six degrees of freedom, a

coefficients (a x

a 2i a 3

= (x 2 y 3

two common nodes will remain linear even in a strained state. This insures physical continuity between the elements; however, the resulting condition differs
from the actual strain and stress distribution. Unless this is minimized by using
triangular elements or using

Unknown

the nodal
v.

The

known
result

is

six

y 2 -ys

x 3 -x 2

~x 3 y 2 )-

x\y 2 ~x 2 yi

y 3 -yi

y\ -y2

*i-*3

*2 -Xl

-xiyz +

x^i

ol

w3

v3

We

unknown

-xty^ + ix^ ~x 2 y^

(x x y 3

coefficients (a lt a 2i

ment can be expressed

in

a 6 ) of the polynomials

become

linear

combina-

terms of the element nodal displacements:

(to be

substitute the values of

x 2 x 3 y lt y 2t y 3 ) into the equations for u


equations with six unknown coefficients and six unknown

coordinates (x i7

nodal displacements.

0
u

tions of the displacements of the nodal points. The inversion of the matrix [A]
is usually performed by a computer.
(d) Using the above relationship, displacements of any point m within the ele-

suitable elements, the resulting stresses

coefficients a x to a 6 are expressed in terms of

computed) nodal displacements u x


and

more

The

be distorted and useless.

(c)

x 2 y 3 -x 3 y 2

where 2 A = 2 X area of triangular element

No gaps occur between the sides of adjacent deformed elements because the
displacements are assumed to be linear. The adjoining sides of two elements with

will

*l

determines the shape of the element displacements.

many

-x 3

"

/a l u +
1

ot 2

u2 + a3u 3 \

2A

V= {

+ fc"2 + fe 3\

2A

2A

where

/M

72

~*i

*3

y%

73

= X2

Xi

x 3y2

ft

=y 2

ol 2

=x 3 y

x xy3

ft

=y 3 ~y

~ *2JVi

ft

-^1

2A

~ a + a +oc 3 where
2
x

The above equations enable


compute displacements u and

"

y3

A is the area of the


us,

v at

= *3 "*i

-x 2 y 3

a3 = x l y 2

X +
)
7i

ot x

/ 7i^i + 7z"2 + 7 3 " 3 \

2A
-

X +

2E~^r

2A

y
)

triangle element.

once the nodal displacements are known, to


any ^oint within the element (see Fig. 12.8).

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

330

(e)

From

the theory

of

elasticity

using two dimensional strain-displacement

relations (the strains are the derivatives

aw

bv

y*> =

3nd

NUMERICAL METHODS

of the displacements)

dv

we

or in matrix form:

have:

-v

bu

te*Ty

is all

that the FEA-displacement

Substituting into the above equations for u and v

ticity.

Jd

Oy

Rearranging the above equation

we get:

Ox

= b(a A + a s x + a 6 y)/by = a 6 and


yxy = a 3 + a s

the theory of elas-

+ a 2 x + a z y)/bx = a 2

ex =
e

method borrows from

-v

Ifxy,

This

331

1-

1
l-v 2

or
or

"o

- [D]

The matrix [D]

a2 I

{e}.

is

called the elasticity matrix

strains. Substituting for vector

I-

and

relates the stresses to internal

get:

"i

= [C]

we

0$

or simply {e}

matrix {e}

{a}.

3
Substituting for {a}

we

= ID]

[D)[B]
get:

[B] {8}.

'xy

"3

where [5] =

[C]^]"

The

x3

x3

x2

-x 2

y 2 -y z x

Xj - x 3

x3 y 3

x2

x 2 -x x y

y 2_

The displacement-strain matrix [B] is one of the most important terms in


the
FEA. It is important to notice that [B] was assembled for a triangle with vertices
123.

It

is

the expression relating the element strains to the element nodal

displacements.
(f)

The

last equation relates internal stresses (ox o Txy ) to the nodal element disy
displacements {6}.
Clearly, once the nodal displacements under given external loadings are known,

Both matrices [D] and [B] consist of known


terms and are constant. Therefore, the strains and stresses are constant throughthe stresses can easily be computed.

out the element. The element

state

of stress in a plane problem (homogeneous isotropic) at any point


by three stress components: aX) oyi and Txy The stress-strain
.

relations for plane stress (a


2

ex

= ox /E

ey

=- vox/E + o /E
y

= 0)

POy/E

yxy =Txy/G =

2(\

+v)Txy /E

are then as follows:

we used

known

is

as Constant Strain Triangle

(CSTG).

The value of nodal displacements depends on external forces. The next step
between the assumed state of stress of the element and the
nodal statically equivalent forces (fXx ,fiy
/3y ) that would cause this type
of stress. In a simple triangular element, they can be derived by the direct equivalent force approach which is also the most illustrative. The total force acting at
the node 1 in the x direction in Fig. 12.10 is:
(g)

is

can be expressed

to find the relation

fix

= l-o t(y*
x
-yi) + ox t{y 2 -yi)]/2+

'frx<>2

-yz)+Txy (x z -x 2 )]/2

and

[rxy t(x 3

~x

)~ r xy t(x 2 -x,)]/2

similarly for fi
y

J2x ,f2y Jz x ,h y

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

332

/s

O ^

X H
1

^^

>\

-f*

>

7^7
+

?
w 2 "

\#

/"->

x x
t

^w ^

m
X

<**

*t3

5
.

"

^ O.
w ^
" r

H
i

|i

J-

^^

X
!*

*
O
m

^1

cX

/~

X
1

-J?

^ ^

/-^

M
X

X H

&

X*

'

?s

rn

c*

Ps
1

- S "

<n

z +

/-~>
(*

<N

H
M

rt

*
1

-<

Ou ^

s
w
+

Fig. 12.10.

V5

w +

^ O- ^
1

">

&

^>
.

^>

V57
Si
-15
N r +
V

13

or in matrix form:

7,;

">2

*3

*2~

(N

rJ-.

X
"1

fiy

hx

J>3

"*2

-y%

yi "^3

"*3

iS-

jT

tn

UPI

^
1

^
1

^ ^

^H

-h - &
0^>T3 ^
n +

"

X 2 -*1

y\ ">

X
y-S

2
1

above equation equals to At [B] T where [B] T


the transpose of the matrix [B] and we can write:

By inspection the matrix

AtlB]

/
fl

*1

{f} =

f*

in the

is

O
+

X*

16

w+

i
1

OK S
i

m s
jT
w r +

K
I

t3

O.

O ^

x x
1

^>

to

N O,

<s

called the element stiffness matrix:

<n

=At[B] T [D][B]

A is

the area of the triangular element and

page 333.

[B]

is

:T

w c
1

t is its

thickness. If the product

form for

'fit]

is

as

shown on

aT

S
+ w
.

t3

~*

X*
1

H
t

S m

si

carried out the full unabbreviated

x,

ff-

At[B] T [D]

X
1

where

OK

**3

[k]

2 -

is

to

{D][B]{6}.

The product At[B) T [D] [B] provides the force-nodal displacement relationship
and

/-s

y* -^1

*1

fix
<f*y>

13

<
fry

'

^ ow ^
i

n
13

334

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

where the terms d Ui d 22 ,d 33 ,d 21

d l2

in case

of the plane

stress

However,

(o2 = 0) are

computer programming the matrix

in

[k]

is

335

usually written as:

as follows:

rfll-<*M-/0-l' a )

rfia-rfai-^/O-f 2 )
tf 33

=72(1 +

k\2

ki3

ki4

*15

ku

k2 \

k% 2

k23

k2 A

k 2S

k26

*M

k%2

^33

^34

k 3s

^36

&41

k*2

&43

^44

k4 $

^46

*SI

ks2

ks3

&S4

k ss

k 56

*61

k 62

k 63

&64

k6s

[*]-

0)

If the individual terms in the

kixm s

ku

^[dn(y 2

matrix

[fc]

are

named by

letters

fc,

for instance,

-y*) +^33(^3 ~x 2 f]
subscripts correspond just to the

The
then the matrix equation for a triangular element can be written in a closed form:
kixvi

kixui

k\ XV 2

klxu3.

klyu2

klyv2

kly U 3

klyv3

rows and columns

in the matrix.

The

above simplification in subscript notation means that only one symbol is used to
denote joint displacement components and only one symbol is used to designate
joint force components, e.g., f3x -k $l u t + k S2 v x + k$^u 2 + k S4 v 2 + * S5 u 3 +

k S6 v 3
3. System
.

fix

k\yv3

k 2x u2

k 2xv2

kzxui

k2xv3

hy

k 2yui

k 2yu2

k 2 y v2

k2yu3

k2yv3

fix

%3xul

^3xu2

k$xv2

k^xus

k$xv3

Jly,

^3yvl

^3yu2

k$yv2

klyu3

For element

kA

kA

k IXV3
*

kA

k Ayvl

A
k
* \yu2

kA
lyv2

kA

* Xyu3

kA
K

fax

kA

kA

kA

^2xu2

kA
K

kA
*'2xu3

kA
*
2xv3

fay

kA

kA

*-2yvl

kA

kA

*"2yV2

"2yu3

kA

kA
*2yv3

**

kA
3XU\

kA

kA
K
3xu2

kA

kA
K
3xu3

kA
*
3XV 3

kA

kA

kA
K

kA
K

kA

kA
K

<

<

yV l

v2

lyul

3yu2

2XV2

3yv2

ft-

3yu3

\yv3

<

"3

3yv3

For computation of the matrix [B] the proper coordinates of nodes have to be
used, (xj = L x y x = 0 etc.) along with the area of the triangle Lh/2.

"3

coefficients

ft.

ft-

* 1XU2

fax

The

kA

hy

&3yv3

From the above derivation of the stiffness


we can write the following solution at once:

[K]

K lXUl

(f
Jlx \

v
K

Stiffness Matrix

matrix for a triangular element,

k associated with the displacement terms

to as the stiffness influence coefficients (or stiffnesses)

(w,

are referred

and usually denoted by

For element B:
lr B

'fax

fSr

the letter k with subscripts.

The two subscripts used here with k, for instance, k lxu3 denote the force
(component of flx ) which must be applied at node 1 in the* direction to sustain
a unit displacement in the x direction at node 3 (u = 1) with all other nodal
3
displacements controlled to be equal to zero. For an element with six d.o.f., the
[k] matrix is of the sixth order (6 X 6) and symmetrical, k
2yul = k lxv2 due to

2xu2

kB
K
2xx/2

B
k
*2XU$

k 2XV3
*
k
*2yv3

kB

"

kB

*>2xv4

"2

kB

kB
K
2yv4

v2

fay

*-2yu2

kB

kB

kB
K
2yu3

fax

kB
K
3XU2

kB

k 3XU3
K

k
^3xv3

"3xu4

kB

kB
K
3XV4

fay

kB

kB

kB

kB

3yv3

kB
K

kB

fax

kB
K

kB

kB

kB

kB
K

kB

kB
K
4yv2

B
k
K 4yu3

kB
K
4yv3

k 4yu4

*-2xu4

"3
4

ft-

Zyul

4xu2

reciprocity.

fay
t

3yu3

3yu4

4XU4

ft.

3yv4

kB
K

4xv4

kB
4yV 4

ft.

U3

"4

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

336

Again to evaluate the matrix [B] the proper node coordinates have to be used
along with the area of the triangle Lh/2.

The combined

resulting stiffness matrix [K]

for the entire plate (system)

is

an (8 X 8) matrix. Using the principle of superposition we get:


K lxul

K lxvl

kA

A
k
*

A
K

2xul

!r

2xvl

K lxu2

kA

kA

kA
K
IXV3

kA
K
iyu2

kA
K

kA
K
\yu3

kA
K
ly V 3

A
K

A
K

k 2xu3

K 2xv3

Ir

2XU2

\yv2

lr

2xv2

kA

K 2yv\

kA
K
2yu2

+k 2yU 2
lr

kA

K 3XU2

kA

*2yv2

+k 2yV 2
]c

kA

kA
K
2yv3

"1

"2

kB

*2xv4

^2

Q
+ k 2 yu3 + *2yt;3
i^

0
'

B
+k B
2xv3 k

+lc 2xv2

kA
K
2yul

K 2yu4

= 0) the matrix equation can


conditions in the above example ( 3 = u 3 = 4 = v 4
nodal displacement, other
definite
if
a
However,
degree.
be simplified to a great
would be given at nodes 3 and 4, then a modified procedure will be
than zero,

displacement vector is
required for solving the system matrix equation, since the
unknowns.
the
of
entirely
consist
to
assumed
vector
The applied external nodal loads in overall equilibrium form the load
the nodal force vec{F} for the entire structure. {F} is not to be confused with
equivalent to the internal
tor for the individual elements {/}, which is statically
load (term in the
applied
externally
stresses in the element. At any node the
forces (terms in
nodal
the
of
sum
the
{F} vector) must be in equilibrium with
external load is
no
When
node.
that
at
the {/} vector) of all elements meeting
node are in
the
forces
at
nodal
element
acting at a particular node, than the

*2yv4

equilibrium.

<

5.

A
k
K 3XV3

"3X143

337

Stresses. Stress

computations are accomplished by the equation:

"3
j

+ kfxu2
o

lr

0
0

kA

0
0

+ kfxv2

kA

kA
*3yv2

k yu3

+k B

+ k$yv2

+ kfyu3

kB

kB
K
3xv4

kB

kB

k 3yv3
K

+kz yv 3

^3

kB
K

4xu2

kB
K

kB

kB

kB

kB
K
4XV4

K Ayu2

kB

kB

kB

kB

kB

4xv2

K 4yv2

K 4yv3

*4yu4 * 4yv4

"4
*>4

or in short:

where the matrices [D] and [B] nave been already evaluated
The maximum and minimum stresses in the elements are then:

{F}=[K]{8}.
4.

Solution for Nodal Displacements,

From

the equation

2
- rl ]
0,2 - (Px ~ o y )l2 [(ax - oy ) /4
y

=[*]{}
/e

can

now compute

with tan
the nodal displacements:

They

2<t>

for

1/2

it xy l (ox - ay ).

are usually given at the centroids of the elements

and plotted to show how

oy rxy ) in the
the applied loads are carried through the body. The stresses (ax
above triangular elements are constant within the elements.
,

{6}

To

evaluate the inverse [K]

each element.

-1

a digital

computer

is

required. Using the

boundary
Description of

Notes to the above matrix equation:


The stiffness coefficients to be added together have the same subscripts, for instance k 2xu2 +
k 2xu2- The external load vector {f} and the stiffness matrix [K] aie known, the displacement vector consists of unknown displacements (uj
etc.) to be determined using the
boundary conditions. The displacements u x v x and u 4 u 4 have no direct influence on the
force at the node 4 and 1 respectively, since they have to be transferred and distributed
through nodes 2 and 3.

Some Elements Used

in

the FEA-Displacement Method

FEA-displacement method the unknown quantities are the joint disthe points
placements of the structure. The joints of a structure are defined as
the free ends
and
support,
points
the
intersect,
of
elements
more
where two or
are equivalent to
of any projecting elements. The unknown joint displacements
of kinematic
degree
kinematic unknowns and their number is called either the
number of
The
(d.o.f.).
mdetermiriacy or the number of degrees of freedom

In the

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

338

d.a.f.

equals the

number of independent

NUMERICAL METHODS

quantities defining the position of the

system. Generally, the more d.o.f. an element has the more" powerful
instance, the plane stress triangle in Fig. 12.13 with

two

Node

for

node versus

d.o.f. per

Node

wt

Node

Node 2

it is;

u7

339

"J"

the triangle used for solving bending stresses in plates with three d.o.f. per node.

However, the more complicated the displacement functions become, the more
expensive the equations become to run through the computer.
The concept of the kinematic indeterminancy can be made, understandable if
we Consider the cantilever beam in Fig. 12.11. Although the cantilever beam is
statically fully determinate,

gree because there are

it is

1.

is

Line element, 2 d.o.f.

(bj

Beam element, 4
axial

kinematically indeterminate to the second de-

two unknown

d.o.f.,

deformation neglected.

Fig. 12.12.

joint displacements (two d.o.f.)at the free

end of the beam, namely, the translation


6. Joint

(a)

in the vertical direction^

and rotation

fixed and cannot undergo any type of displacement.

Line element and beam element. Both are one-dimensional elements, the
The elements used in

simplest ones used mainly in the frame matrix analysis.

FEA are minimum two-

or three-dimensional, a chief characteristic of

FEA. They

are described in Fig. 12.12.


2.

Constant plane strain triangle or plain

two-dimensional elements used where


displacements.

They have

all

of freedom (two per node), that

six degree

is,

six dis-

placements (see Fig. 12.13). The triangular element has the advantage of simplicity

and

ability to

irregular boundaries.

fit

Fig. 12.13.

(CSTGj. These are


forces are in plane and produce plane
stress triangle

However, in practice

this

element

should be avoided. For accuracy, a very large number of the elements has to be
used.
3.

Constant plane

stress rectangle

nates. It has eight d.o.f.

(two

more accurate than the plane

(PSR) with sides parallel to global coordinode). The rectangular plane element is

d.o.f. per

stress triangular

element without adding

signifi-

The strain distribution over the element is


assumed to be linear and therefore more suitable to represent body regions with
steep stress gradients. Fewer elements can be used; however, there is a difficulty
of approximation if the body boundaries are irregular. It is suitable for axisym-

Fig. 12.14.

cantly to the computer running time.

metric

stress, and
whenever possible

4.

it is

general shell problems.


Fig. 12.15) the

preferred to triangular elements in case of the plane stress

(see Fig. 12.14).

Triangle for bending. This type of element

is

used in solving plate and

and the force vector

flz

{/J
Fig. 12.11.

m lx
m

It

posseses nine d.o.f. (three per node). At node one (see

displacement vector

is

is

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

340

341

Fig. 12.15.

Rectangle for bending.

5.

NUMERICAL METHODS

It is

used for plate and shell bending problems.

It

has 12 d.o.f. (three per node) (see Fig. 12.16).


Triangular element for tridimensional plate

6.

and

shell stress. It has five

per node and 15 d.o.f. total (See Fig. 12.17).

d.o.f.

One-dimesnional ring torus.

7.

origin

is

arbitrary. This

element

is

It

possess six d.o.f. total (three per node),

used for solving thin-shell problems (See Fig.

12.18).
8.

shell

Two-dimensional ring torus used in solving solid bodies or irregular thick


it has six d.o.f. (two per node), origin 0 is also arbitrary. See Fig.

problems,

12.19. Ring torus elements cannot be coupled with other types of elements.
9.

Tetrahedral element in Fig. 12.20

with 12
10.

d.o.f. total (three d.o.f. per

is

the simplest tridimensional element

node).

Tridimensional stress element in Fig. 12.21, also called brick element with
Fig. 12.19.

W3

24

d.o.f. total. It

has a limited application, since

it

does not

fit

into irregular

It is used to model bodies where forces and deflections act in all


three directions or when the structure has a complex geometry that does not

boundaries.

allow two dimensional analysis.


1 1

Fig. 12.17.

The shape of the

structure can

make

it

necessary to develop special ele-

ments, using curvilenear coordinates, higher order

finite elements.

342

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

V"7

3
Fig. 12.24.

12. Fig. 12.22

two

d.o.f. per

are quadratic.

shows

Plane Stress Hybrid Quadrilateral element (PSHQ)with

node. Here the boundary stress

tion and in practice

PSHQ

element gives

13. In Fig. 12.23(a), Shallow Shell


five d.o.f.

is

linear

but the internal stresses

Hybrid elements posses better characteristics

per node

is

shown, and

ment (16 nodes) with 3

d.o.f. per

for stress determina-

reliable results.

Curved Rectangle element (SSCR) with

in Fig. 12.23(b) Isoparametric

node

is

shown. Both are used

Quadratic
in

ele-

modeling of

343

Flat

tie

rod with two holes and notches subject to steady pull.

under arbitrary (symmetrical


pressure vessel shells, thin and thick respectively,
they are much more versatile,
or nonsymmetrical) loads and supports. Obviously,
elements in Fig. 12.1 8 and
but also more expensive to use than the axisymmetric
Fig. 12.19.

JU

achieved by:
More accurate results with smaller number of elements are
12.17.
Fig.
in
as
node,
each
at
freedom
(a) allowing more degrees of
as in Fig. 12.23(b).
(b) using additional side or internal nodes,
results. If all the nodes which are
complexity
However, a greater mathematical
used to define the undeformed
also
are
geometry
deformed
used to determine the
for instance, the conisoparametric;
called
is
element
the
shape of the element,
isoparametric. If only corner nodes of the
stant strain triangular global element is
as side nodes) are used
element define the undeformed shape and all nodes (such
element is called subparametric.
to determine the deformation pattern, the
benefits from knowing how the
In conclusion it can be said that the designer
to individual problems. Typvarious elements are accurate before applying them
of the FEA-displacement
stress problems to be solved by application
ical

plane

and Fig. 12.25. In most large computer programs,


shown in Fig. 12.25.
the elements of different types can be mixed as

method

are

shown

in Fig. 12.24

Pin

Fig. 12.25.
(b)

(a)

filling

Fig. 12.23.

by means of a pin closely


symmetry and only one half needs to be

Stresses created in a plate eye-bar with a load applied

the opening.

The

modeled and analyzed.

eye-bar has one plane of

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

344

FE A Displacement Method Applied to

Axially

The most important problems

a vessel designer

to

which

Symmetric

345

Shells

can apply

finite

element

analysis occur in axisymmetric shells with loads, supports, material properties,

and

shell thicknesses

symmetric about the axis of rotation but varying along the


components in Fig. 3.2P$ equal to zero

rotational axis. In such cases the load

and

<J>et

M N N
0<ttt

e<tti

tt,

and

Q e -vanish. Consequently, the displacement

tangential direction to parallel circle will be zero.

Axisymmetric

shells

in the

of prac-

importance can be devided into two categories:

tical

A. Thin shells with a large ratio R/t.


B. Heavy wall vessels or solid bodies. Generally, any
compared to its mean diameter.

shell

with a heavy wall

In subsequent discussions, only the element stiffness matrix will be derived in


detail for cases

A and

B.

A. Thin Axisymmetric Shells


z-axis

The whole procedure of analyzing

a thin

axisymmetric shell by

FEA

can be

di-

vided into the following steps:

of suitable element. The shell is broken into an assembly of finite


They can be short, conical, frustrum-shaped elements as in Fig. 12.26

or a section of tori, forming an "equivalent shell."

and

six degrees

They have two

ring-end nodes

are subjected to

both bending and membrane

The displacement of
is uniquely determined by two
components u and w' in tangential and normal directions. At each node, the
axial and radial movements and a rotation is prescribed. All three components
are required as the shell is assumed to be able to carry bending moments. The
coordinates for identyfying points on the meridian of the midsurface of the shell
a point

As

in previous cases, equilibrium equations of forces are developed at

nodal
set

circle in

terms of

unknown nodal

in Fig.

stresses.

12.26 on the middle surface

2.

displacements.

each

solution of this

Derivation of the stiffness matrix for a conical element.

(a) Selection

of a suitable coordiante system and number of nodes. Cylindrical


node 1
r, z are chosen for global coordiante system. Then at

polar coordinates

the displacement vector

s, measured along the meridian, or the angle 0 between the normal of the midsurface and the axis of symmetry. The type of shell
usually determines which of the two coordiantes should be used. For conical

segments the length

is:

s is used, while for toroidal sections the angle coordinate 0 is


expedient to perform an analysis of the individual elements within
a local displacement system which has directions different from those in the

.a.
and the force element vector

it is

global system.

circle

of equations presents a solution to the system.

can be either the arc length

used. Here

of one conical

of freedom per element. Owing to the axial symmetry, the three-

dimensional problem becomes effectively a two-dimensional plane problem; and


the elements (cross-sections) become one-dimensional line, the simplest type.

They

circles

element, positive as shown.

Selection

elements.

Applied loadings, displacements and rotations at nodal

Fig. 12.26.

The element

and loads must then be transformed into a


global coordinate system when the master matrix [K] is formed. The applied

'/./

stiffnesses

loads at nodal rings are axially symmetrical in and out of the plane of the shell.

fir

'

is:

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

346

The matrix equation

for

one

entire element will then be:

(c)

nodal displacements.
coefficients (a's) are expressed in terms of

The

displacements u and

( f \

At node

are thus defined as functions

At node

-0

2: s

=L

=a x +a 2 L

u'2

w 2 =03
=

[*]

dw'/ds =

fu

W2

fir

fl

dw'/ds

[fc]

is

the stiffness matrix for the element of order

6X6

and has to be

evaluated from the element geometric and material properties.

known from the given design data. The nodal displacements


be computed. From computed nodal displacements the stresses in the

The load vector

is

elements can be determined.

of any point

(u' t s)

ment and therefore the


s

=a 3 + a 4

w'
f$

state

+ as

(/*,

of

u and

z).They define the state of strain within the

ele-

stress:

To
trix

+a 6
s

obtain the coefficients

must

be inverted.

a 2 =(u'2 - u\)jL

+ 3a 6

2
s

L3

2L

3L

(a's) in

terms of nodal displacements the (6

6) ma-

However, here the equations can be solved by elimination:

The displacement

a s --(2/LXdw'/*)i "
a6

Since the element has six d.o.f., there are six


the above equations.

[dw'/ds

a 4 = dw'/ds

= dw'/ds = a 4 + 2a s

vv'

+ 2a 5 L + 3a 6 L

within the element in terms of the local element coordinates

or global coordinates

u = a 1 + a2

=a 4

(b) Selection of the displacement function that defines displacements

2
3
L +a s L +a 6 L

In matrix form:

m2

are to

+fl4

/3i

where

The

of nodal displacements.

fir

347

(minimum)

vector in matrix form

coefficients (a's) in

=(UL 2 )(dyv'lds) 2

(MLXdW/ds)2 + (3/L)(w 2

(HL

)(dw' /ds\

(VL

w\)

)(w'2 -

w[)

In matrix form:

is:

"
1

-HL

<

w\
(dw'/ds),
<

2s

3s

The above matrix equation specifies the relationship between point


ments and unknown coefficients (a's) to be determined.

V
m displace-

-3/L

2/L

-2/L

HL

0
31

-2/L

-UL
l/L

^dw'/ds).

representSubstituting the above values for a coefficients into the equations


within
point
any
at
ing the assumed element shape under load, the displacements

the element are

now

expressed in terms of nodal displacements.

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

348

349

However, here the displacements are in local coordinates which means that
they are not algebraically additive with the adjacent conical element displacements. Therefore, they have to be transferred into the global coordinates i and r.

From
u\

Fig. 12.27

w\ and

get equations for transformation

cos

a+

of the local coordinates

0i

u\
w'j

we

=u

Wj sin a +

(dWlds), =-

sin

cos

N \

0i

"six

ft

or in matrix form for one node:

sin

0"

cos

I -A

-1

.A.

mm

For one

Pi

single element:

cos

sin

or

o"

-sin

cos

-1

> =

u2

cos

w'2

-sin

02

sin

(1

u2

- p) COS a
2

(l-3p +3p
X

sin

(1

3
)

-1_

0 0

0*

-l/l

III

-3/L

-2/f.

3/Z,

2/1*

HL 2

-2/Z,

III

i
u2

-III
3

where p = s/l
IT]

x <

or in short:

w2

sin

[A] {6}

p COS a

+ 2p

X cos a

where the (6 X 6) matrix

is the transformation matrix [T] for the entire single


element. Substituting the above values for the coefficients (as) into the
equations, for u and'w, displacements of any point within the element,
we get:

- p)

a-3p

w2

cos a

stress resultants in a conical element.

After carrying out the matrix multiplication:

01

Unit

Fig. 12.27.

3
)

-L(p -2p

+p

3
)

-(3p

sin

-2p
a

3
)

Op'

- 2p

X cos a

J
)

X(-p +p

3
)

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

350

A/*

where [^4] is the (2 X 6) matrix specifying the relationship between displacements within the element and the nodal displacements in global coordinates.

(d) Introduction of strains at any point

above equation. From

Fig. 12.28, based

on

351

within the ring element into the


ref.

18,

we can

write the matrix

equation:

d/ds

cos

sin otjr

^9

Xs

Xe

ot/r

lds

(sin otfr)(d/ds)

meridional strain

where d/ds = (l/L)(d/dp).


In the axisymmetric problems there

any

radial displacement

is

no tangential displacement; however,

(w) automatically induces a strain

direction (e#). Substituting for u and

into the above matrix equation

we

cL

Adsfd<t>

RL

sin ot/r

cos ajr

d 2 /ds 2

-(sin a/rXd/ds)

If

Xs

- Ar/r -

ee

d/ds

- (du/ds)

{Rl + w)IRi_ -

(1

expansion):

shell

(dufd<t>) d<t> (1

+ w/R L = du/ds for wIR


)

+ wIRtf
1

get:
tangential strain e f

(from ab to ab' after the

[ds + idu/d$) d<p - ds)

Ads -

in the cicumferential

e/.

(u sin

a+

w cos a)/r -

(u sin a)/r

assumed here constant the element

is

change

[A] <

in

is

+ (w cos

a>/f.

conical.

expansion
curvature X J> n 9 u,ar variation between the points a, b and after shell
R^d^): rotation of meridional tangent from a to a', ^ x and from 6 to

to a, b' divided by
b',

Xe
/

4>

since the strain-displacement laws involve differentiation, the strains

and there-

iu/Ri_)

+ dw/Rt_d&

in

radians

= iu/Ri_) + dw/R^dQ + [diu/R/_ + dw/Ri_d4>)/d0]

Xs" ^2

^O/RL^'^^ds

ioru/R^

d<t>

fore the stresses will not be determined as accurately as the displacements. After
differentiating the matrix [A]

change

in

xe (between the element

Xe m - [iu/RO + dw/R L d<t>] cos Qddfrdd = -

Fig. 12.28.

(sin air)

W> 2

ab and cd

(see Fig. 3.1 for the Bntire

(cos

4>/r)

idw/ds)

{dwlds).

Derivation of expressions for the shell strains and changes in curvatures in terms

of the shell middle surface displacements.

Xs

faces

element):

= 01

curvature

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

352

Substituting for the strain vector from the step (d)

or in short

where [B]

is

(-cos

ip

the strain nodal displacement (4

.l

-p)(cos a
-(1 -

sin a)/r|(l -

+ 2p

3
)

a)jr

3p
1

-L(p-2p

*2p i

+ p

3
)

sin

a)/r

-(1

x (sin 2a)/2r

-4p + 3p 2 )
(sin a)jr

(sin

sin

M3p 2

X (COS

-2p J )

x (cos a)lr

tt)/f

Up)

(l/ )(6 - 12p)

(l/i)(6p

2a)/2r

(sin

sin

2p

-(l/I)(-4 + 6p) -d/L 2 )(6 x

2
-(l/L)(-6p + 6p )

p=s/L:

a)/L

(sin

a cos a

-(3p

x cos a

6) matrix-and with

(cos a)/

X (CQSa)/r

(l/)(-6p + 6p 2 )
(sin

j(l/L )(-6 + 12p)

a
J

p) sin

x (cos

+(1

-(l/I )(-6 + 12p)


sin

(-sin a)(L

2a)/2r

(sin

get:

= [B] {8}

{e}

(1

we

353

~(l/)(-2 + 6p)

x cos a

-6p 2 )

-a/L)(6p-6p 2 )

a)//-

(sin

2a)/ 2r

-(-2p + 3p J )
X

(sin a)/r

Here the product of matrices [D] [B] relates the internal

stress resultants to

nodal displacements. If only a membrane solution is required, x s Xe>MSi


can be omitted and the computation procedure is greately simplified.
>

(e) Internal resisting forces, stress resultants

strains (es

Xa) and

e e>

way

in this

(Ns

Ne M M B
,

Si

are related to

stress usually governs, the transverse shear stress

neglected.)

(f)

due to

Q0

can be

The

internal resisting forces (stress resultants

within the element and

and stress resultant couples)


above equation are the un-

nodal displacemetns in the

knowns. To determine the nodal displacements, the external forces, acting at


nodes of the element and in equilibrium with the internal element stresses, are

Et

Ns=

to nodal displacements. Using the theory

of elasticity the stress resultants can be expressed in terms of strains.


(Since the

bending

lbs/in.

substituted for the internal resisting forces. In doing so the principle of virtual
to advantage. During a virtual (hypothetical, imaginary)
element
of a deformable body in overall equilibrium will be
each
deformation
in shape. The forces acting on the element (both
deformed
and
also
displaced

work can be used here


Et

lb-in./in.

^ (Xs + Xe)

and external nodal loads) will perform a virtual work [1 37, 1 39]
work, performed by external loads {/}, in our case acting at nodes
of the elements, is equal to: W ext = 2 {/}S, where 5 is the nodal displacements
in the direction of the loads. This work is equal to the virtual deformation work
= / oed (vol.), ^here
done by the stresses alone (absorbed by the element):

internal stresses

Et
Ms= YT7Jj(^
+ ^)

lb-in./in.

The

7
1 "

y2

[Z>] is

is

the virtual strains.

external forces (loads) acting at their full values


applied,

0
0

where

the internal stresses and e

The equation S{/}5 = foed (vol.) represents the principle of virtual work: "If
a deformable body in equilibrium under the action of a system of loads is given a
very small virtual (hypothetical) deformation, then the virtual work done by the

or in matrix form;

N$

is

virtual

0
0

vt

is

equal to the virtual

stress resultant couples,

the virtual displacement."[137]


If

we

when

the virtual displacement

is

the internal stress resultants and

which depend on the deformation of the element, during

/12

the stress-strain matrix.

work done by

designate the virtual nodal displacements 6 (arbitrarily imposed) for one

element to distinguish

it

from the

real displacements as:

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

354

NUMERICAL METHODS

355

Pi

{5}*= <

The

{hi

performed

total

virtual

forces (stress resultants)

then

AW^d (area) =

work

across one unit element due to the internal

is:

InA
{es e Xj x*}*

Vd (area)

<

/i,

Uj
Substituting for the strains and stress resultants, stress resultant couples,

ht

kz

As previously pointed out, {/}

[B]

the nodal force vector,

composed of nodal
within the element

and not to be confused with the load vector {F} for the overall structure.
The virtual nodal displacements {6}* will cause virtual strains within the

ment and the

virtual strain vector

{5}*

[D][B] {6}

d (area).

-J

statically equivalent to the itnernal stresses

is

get:

/area

m 2>>
element forces

we

According to the principle of the virtual work

wext

ele-

we can write:

wint (the principle of conservation of energy)

is:

{}*

{/} = (jf

IB]

{/} =

W T W[B]2itrLd)j{8}.

{8}*

[D] [B]

(area)^ {8} or

w
Pi

Xs

(l

In short

Xd

where
or in short

All
it

to* =[*]{}'

is

its

M MQ are caused by actual forces at nodes.

JJ [B]

therefore known.

The

variable coordinate r in [B] has to be expressed in

and the matrix multiplication carried out before the integration, term
by term, can be performed with respect to p - s/L between the limits 0 to 1
terms of

The actual stress resultants Ns Ndi


They will perform a virtual work per

[D] [B] 2-nrL dp is the element (6 X 6) stiffness matrix.


terms are given by geometric configuration and material properties and

[k]

Si

unit area of the element:

3.

After the stiffness matrices of individual elements [k] have been combined

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

356

NUMERICAL METHODS
into

357

one master system matrix [K] the nodal displacements can be computed:
,

Nodal circle

The load vector {F} becomes here again an assembly of external


nodal

Once the nodal displacements

4.

forces acting at

circles.

(Wj

w lt 0 ls etc.) are known, the

stress resul-

and stress resultant couples at nodes or any point within the element can
be computed by adjusting the element matrices [B] using the appropriate radius
tants

r, a,

p and L.

Fig. 12.29.

toroidal ring element with triangular cross-section with z


and

as coordinate

axes.

Net
t

ft

V>hWi<
becomes:

Usually, the stress resultants and couples are used to

compute the compound

Jlr

k\ru\

k lru2

k\rv2

^lruS

k\rv3

fiz

k\zu\

kizui

k\zv2

*l2u3

k\zv3

hr

stress:

%2rvl

*2ri2

^2ru3

<

oL

=Ns/t6Ms/t

ot

=N9 /t6M0 /t2

fu

^2zul

hr
.

The above approach is used

in several large

computer programs.

^3ZUl

*J

&2ZU2

&2ZV2

^2zu3

^2zu3

v2

k$ru2

%3rv2

^3ru3

&3rv3

"3

ktzui

k$zv2

kszus

^3zi>3

y3

or in short

B.

{/}-[*]{*}

Heavy Wall Vessels

The

where
steps in derivation of the element stiffness matrix are as follows:
2.

1.

Selection

ments

(rings

of suitable element. The

structure

is

replaced by a system of ele-

[k]

is

the element (6

6) stiffness matrix.

Derivation of stiffness matrix for a toroidal ring element


with triangular

cross-section.

of triangular, rectangular or quadrilateral cross-sections) intercon-

nected along circumferential joints called nodal circles (see Fig.


12.29). The
radial and axial displacements u and v at the nodal circles are unknown.
There is

(a)

given

The simplest representation of the displacements under


by two linear polynomials:

no tangential displacement due to the symmetry of the shell and load. However,
the tangential stress has to be included in the elasticity equations when
forming

u = ai +a 2 r + a 3 z

the stiffness matrix.

The equilibrium matrix equation of nodal forces {/} in terms of nodal displacements for one element to be combined into the system matrix equation

= a4

the nodal loads

is

+a s r + a 6 z

where a x to a 6 are unknown


equations are:

coefficients.

Combined

in matrix

form the above

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

358

359

2\
a2

{J~[o

This linear displacement field assures continuity between the elements since lines

which
(b)

are initially straight remain straight in their displaced position.

The

state of displacement

throughout the element described by displace-

ments of any point within the element (u, v) is expressed in terms of unknown
nodal displacements (u t v 1 ,u 2 ,v 2 ,u z and u 3 ). This is accomplished by substituting nodal coordinate values (given by geometrical configuration of the body)

Fig. 12.30.

into the above equation and solving for the coefficients (a's):

'l

r%

22

0
<

{5}

r2

23

{a}=[AV

'0

0~|

v)

[0

zJ

From

(c)

23

the theory of elasticity the element of an axisymmetric

ez

= bvjbz =a 6

= u/r = ai/r + a 2 + za z /r

7rt

~ 9w/92 + bv/br = a 3 + a 5

The

{5}.

tangential strain e e

shell is

>2*3 -r*Z2

is

components

done by computer:

becomes

infinite for a zero value

assigned to r for the node located on the axis.


The above equations written in matrix form are:

in.) is

-riz 3

+r 3 z 1

r x z2

-r 2 Zi

22

-Z 3

z3

-*i

2\

-*2

t*

-r 2

T\

~r%

r2

-r x

-r 2 z

=d/2 A)
0

r2 Z3 - r-$z 2

-^1^3 + r 3 z

r x z2

where

-Z 3

Z2

T%-T 2

A is the area of the

of r. Therefore,

triangle 123.

'22

Z$

-Zy

*1

T\ - r 3

r2 -ri

if

the

closed at the z axis (sphere, conical head) generally a small value (0.001

[A)~

body can be

(see Fig. 12.30):

er = bu/br = a 2

(a's):

The inversion of the matrix [A ]

be expressed in terms of

and z are the coordinates of any point within the element.

as

{a}

and the coefficients

fl

where

= [A]

u\

subject to four strain


'3

now

nodal displacements:

a2

>=

or in short

Displacements of any point within the element can

Irz

l/r

z/r

10 10

l
=[C]{a}=[C][A)- {6}=[B){i>}

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

360

Element

strain matrix [B]

= [C] [A]

NUMERICAL METHODS

relates strains

anywhere

in the

element

361

or

to nodal displacements. After matrix multiplication:

{o}=[D][B}{5}
0

..ii::}.A
n
o

'3

-^2

-r 3 z 2

r2 z 3

rt

-^i^+^zx

-r 3

= (1/2a)
+(*2

-r 3 )

0
rx z2

"*2

*1

where matrix [D]

i
J

z*-z x

-r 2 z x

ra - r x

(f )

-z 2 )

is

the elasticity matrix for this particular case, relating the

element to

stresses.

strains within the

0
|

The

principle of the virtual

work can be here used to determine the

set

of

elemental nodal forces {/} statically equivalent to the internal stresses. If there
are no nodal forces due to initial strains (asumed here to be equal to zero) then:

+(r 3 -r2 )\

-r 3 )|

+ -('2 -ri)!
r

'

r3

~r2

22

"*3

r2

\B] T lD][B]d(vo\) j{6}.

-z 2

Matrix [5] is a (4 X 6) matrixand includes two point coordinates rand z, independent variables. Thus the strains are not constant as they were in case
of a

The

integral has to be taken over the

drdz, and the element

stiffness

volume of the

matrix [k]

entire element

(vol)

= 2 ti r

is:

plane strain triangle.

(d)

The

stresses in the axially

are related to strains,

symmetric

ez
ee

= ar /-

-vor /E-

oJE -

Inrdrdz.

Since the matrix [B] contains two independent variables, coordinates r and z,

The d

voq/E

(vol)

is

assumed to be 27rrA, where

(r x

r2

z 3 )/3 are the centroidal coordinates of the element

ment. The element stiffness matrix [k]

voJE+o0 /E

7rz=rrz /G
where

[D] [B]

to avoid the lengthy process of integration, a simple approximation

voJE- voe lE

= -vor /E +

=JJ

materials and ignoring the possible initial strains, for instance, due to
temperature
er

[B]

[k]

element a r oZi o e and shear rrz


using the theory of elasticity and Hooke's law for isotropic
vessel

is

and

r 3 )/3

is

and

usually used.

A is the area

(z x

+ z2 +

of the

ele-

assumed to be:

[k]=2x?A[B] T [D][B].

E - modulus of elasticity

The substitution of

G = modulus of rigidity = E/2(\

+ v)

v = Poisson's ratio
3.
(e) Solving the

and z and

makes the matrix

[B] constant for the entire

element.

above equations for ars az ,adi rrz

The element equilibrium matrix equations are superimposed to form the

global system matrix equation:


:

{F}=IK}{5}

/
l

*(!

u)

vk\-v)

vKi-

v)

vK\-v)

v/a-v)

from which we can compute the nodal displacements:


<

u/a-p) via-*)

(1

0
- 2v)

{6}=[K)-

0
2(1 - v)

{F}.

Trz 1

4.

The four

stress

components (art o z o e and


,

T rz ) are

computed from the

362

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

equation:

If

the load

is

concentrated at a point, then a node

the load application. If the load

is

is

363

selected at that point of

distributed, equivalent nodal loads

must be

computed. This can be done in simpler cases by inspection and direct formulation
assuming the nodal forces to be statically equivalent to the actual loads. The
loads at nodes are then called lumped. If a strain energy method has to be used,

vi

"3

work, the nodal equivalent forces are called


from the energy point of view. If more forces than
one are acting simultaneously at one node, the forces are added. In addition to
the external loads, sometimes body forces have to be added; for instance, the

V y3

weight or forces due to acceleration or centrifugal action. Both the direct lumped
load method and the variational approach offer procedures to determine the

for instance, the principle of virtual

[DUBU
Vz/

If centroidal

consistent, that

components

are
(a)

satisfactory accuracy.

Lumped loads,

direct formulation

method. In the direct method of formula-

tion of the element load vector, the usual approach

Rectangularly and quadrilaterally shaped ring elements were used to analyze

shown

much

simpler to assemble.

determined at the centroid of the element. This procedure yields the results of

the Venturi tube as

consistent

nodal equivalent forces for an element. However, lumped load vectors are

coordinates f and z are substituted into matrix [B] for variable co-

ordinates r and z, then [B] becomes constant, and the stress

is,

is

to consider the distributed

loads on an element to be proportionately divided among the near nodes of the


element. The load at a node is then taken as the static equivalent of that portion

in Fig. 12.31

of the distributed loading corresponding to the tributory region around the


node. A simple example of lumping the loads is shown in Fig. 12.32. The nodal

External Loads

The external loads acting on the

forces associated with the weight of the element are assumed to be equally dis-

actual structure have to be replaced by an equiv-

alent system of forces acting at the elements nodes to

make

tributed at the nodes. In the axisymmetrically loaded shells of revolution, the

the solution feasible.

external nodal forces are the actual loads axisymmetrically distributed around

the shell.
2.25

in.

more complex elements, the consistent joint loads


some uniform or varying surface or edge loadings can be significantly different than the loads one could get by using tributory area distribution
as in the lumped load method.
(b) Consistent loadings. For

equivalent to

Example

12.2.

As an example of both techniques of expressing the element load

vector the following problem from ref. 21

is

used:

Lumped

loads

hq/2

-+-hq

-A
q
Fig. 12.31.

Quadrilateral element

mesh

for analysis of the Venturi tube joint b.

thin triangular element, a

hr

hq/2

k(ib/in.)

external actual load

Fig. 12.32.

Thin plate subject to

pull-load.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HAND800K

364

NUMERICAL METHODS

365

and

to
Boundary

l-2

(!-')

-J

line

of the plate

or

W=[D]{e}

Fig. 12.33.

Using the principle of virtual work


part of a thin plate,

10~ 6

in./in.

pressure

F and

P = 2000

psi

E=

30 X 10 6 v = 0.3, a = 6.6 X
thickness t = 0.2 in. is subject on its boundary side 23 to
and a uniform temperature rise of 100F. Determine the

shown

with

in Fig. 12.33

element load vector.

[B]

{Q}=f
Loads on nodes due to external pressure. Using the lumped load method,
on nodes 2 and 3 are (see Fig. 12.33):

(a)

the loads

F2 =F3 =(tXPX

we can

write (see section

A) nodal

force

vector

[B]

{Q}=f

[D][B] {8} d

vol

[D] {e}dvo\

4.47)/2 = 894 lbs.


or in the written out form;

Fsy " ^2y =

("

894 X 4)/4.47 =

800

lbs.

= Fix =

(-

894 X 2)/4.47 =

400

lbs.

Qix

Loads on nodes due to the element temperature rise.


The strain due to the 100F temperature rise is ex = 0.00066
The strains in a freely expanding body in plane:

x 3 -x 2 y 2 -y*

Qly

Q2X

y z -y x

(b)

ex

=(ox

vay )/E +

aAT

= (o
y

vo x )/E +

aAT

in./in.

is

and the

unaffected
stress

by temperature change.

can be described

e y = bv/by

and from previous computions:

{e}=[B]{5}

yi

-y 2

-x 3 y 3 -y x

1-V
(1 - i0

x 2 -xi

x 2 -x x yi -y 2

in

A = (l/2X2X4) = 4in. 2

terms of displacement functions:


v

ex = bu/bx

X!

where

the shearing strain


strain

2a

Q*x

7xy * rxy /G

The

> =

Q2y

"1

X!-x 3

yxy - bu/by + bv/bx

ex

vol

x iy y t

= 0.3

= ey = a(AT) = 6 X 10" 6 X 100 = 0.00066


=4

in.

X0.2

in.

= 0.8

in.

are the nodal coordinates.

yxy = 0

vol

366

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

NUMERICAL METHODS

Substituting these values into the above equation

30 X 10

we get:

0.3

0.3

>0.8

0.91

0.35

Fig. 12.34.

Q lx

= -5143

2,,

= -10285

5143

1b
lb

Q2y

The nodal force vector

1b

23 x

01b

=0

'-Zy

10285

for the element 123, after

lb

combining the forces

due to the pressure load and the thermal expansion,

is

at

nodes

as follows;

-5143
-

10285

4743
>

{Q}

lbs.

800

-400

I 9485
See Fig. 12.34 for the physical interpretation of the resultant force vector for
the element.

Any

additional forces acting at nodes have to be added to the above

forces, for instance, the pressure forces acting

forces as

shown

are transferred through the

on the adjacent elements. The

nodes into the adjacent elements.

In practice, the conversion of the loads acting

on an element (body,

surface

and boundary forces) into equivalent nodal forces is usually included in the computer program. The analyst only defines the type of the load, for instance, internal design pressure of the pressure vessel. However, for some cases the equations
to be used to convert certain load types into node forces are given in the user's
manual.

Example

12.3.

deep cantilever plate beam as shown in Fig. 12.35

to illustrate the set of computer input

commands and output

is

used here

results as well the

367

368

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

interpretation of the results.

The

NUMERICAL METHODS

entire procedure can be divided into:

+12.0

+6.0

0.0

25

+48.0

-6.0

0.0

26

+48.0

0.0

0.0

27

+48.0

+6.0

0.0

modeling of the structure, that is replacing the realbeam by a suitable assembly


of elements,
preparation of the computer input,

checking and evaluating the computer output.

FEA

Modeling. Fig. 12.35(b) shows the selected

numbered
nodes

is

so that the

maximum

model. The nodes should be


numerical difference between two adjacent

as small as possible. This results in a

more compact computational

cedure run through the computer. The end load on the

between three nodes (25, 26 and 27). This

beam? has

pro-

to be divided

ELEMENT INCIDENCES

They

usually done

by assuming the end


load P acts as a transverse parabolical load at the end of the beam
[21 ] The two
support nodes 1 and 3 are vertically released, although the real beam is fixed.
Both adjustments give better final results, since the FEA model lacks the elasticity
is

identify the range of the

elements.

of the real continuous beam. All boundary joints are

any problem being solved by the

stiffness

ELEMENT
1

initially

assumed fixed, as

in

method. The forces which correspond


boundary conditions such as at

to displacements necessary to yield expected

support joints have to be released. The analyst should

list all assumptions made


modeling and how and to what degree they affect the results.
Computer input has to be set in a certain form. The following represents a
simple computer input as punched on the keyboard into the computer:

in

STRUDLE, 'CAPT' CANTILEVER BEAM

TYPE PLANE STRESS

> identifies

identifies

program

the type of the structure

15

22

25

26

23

UNITS KIPS INCHES

16

23

26

27

24

JOINT COORDINATES

JOINT RELEASES

NODE

1,3

FORCE Y

0.0

-6.0

0.0

SUPPORT

ELEMENT PROPERTIES

0.0

0.0

0.0

SUPPORT

TYPE PSHQ THICKNESS

0.0

+6.0

0.0

SUPPORT

CONSTANTS

+6.0

-6.0

0.0

E 30000 ALL

+6.0

0.0

0.0

POISSON 0.25 ALL

+6.0

+6.0

0.0

LOADING THREE

+12.0

-6.0

0.0

JOINTS LOADS

+12.0

0.0

0.0

JOINT 25 FORCE

7
8

1 .0

ALL
Introduce material properties

Y-

2.0

369

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

370

JOINT 26 FORCE

JOINT 27 FORCE

Y-

NUMERICAL METHODS

16.0

-0.30093E 02

-0.39878E 01

-0.07457E 02

2.0

-0.30075E 02

-0.40878E 01

0.41619E 01

STIFFNESS ANALYSIS

0.09 146E

PRINT DATA

LIST DISPLACEMENTS

AT JOINTS

LIST STRESSES
LIST

AT NODES
1

01

0.41244E 01

0.09396E 01

0.37538E 01

-0.07495E 02

-0.09396E 01

-0.37586E 01

-0.07495E 02

-0.09146E 01

-0.36586E 01

0.41244E 01

25, 26, 27

TO 9

SUPPORT REACTIONS

LIST JOINT FORCES 4

0.3007 IE

02

0.40878E 01

0.41619E 01

0.30046E 02

0.39878E 01

-0.07457E 02

TO 9

PLOT DEFORMED CONTOUR OF STRUCTURE

RESULTANT JOINT LOADS SUPPORTS

FINISH

as printed.

Only the most important sample data

GLOBAL

79.5

GLOBAL

GLOBAL

-79.5

FREE END JOINT DISPLACEMENTS

Y DISPLACEMENT ZDISPLACEMEN

GLOBAL

-0.02867

-0.15983

0.00000

26

GLOBAL

0.00000

-0.16007

0.00000

27

GLOBAL

0.02867

-0.15983

0.00000

20

SYY

FY

FZ

0.07000E 03

0.05751E 02

0.06000E 03

-0.43898E 01

0.33763E 02

-0.05610E

02

0.23763E 02

0.42488E

01

0.23763E 02

0.42488E

01

ELEMENT STRESSES

SXY
4

-0.34373E 02

-0.19503E 01

-0.35205E 02

-0.05277E 02

0.09346E 01

0.37586E 01

0.17715E

01

0.07085E 02

-0.17715E 01

-0.07085E 02

-0.09067E

02

-0.09396E 01

-0.37586E 01

0.44866E

01

0.35205E 02

0.05277E

0.34373E 02

0.19503E

-0.07819E

02
01

02
8

0.33763E 02

-0.05610E 02

0.06000E 03

-0.43898E 01

0.05734E 02
0.44866E

01
6

FX

ELEMENT JOINT

25

sxx

Z X MOMENT Y MOMENT Z MOMENT

NODAL FORCES

JOINT COORDINATE X DISPLACEMENT

ELEMENT NODE

are given

below for review and interpretation.

JOINT COORDINATES

Computer output

'

0.36585E

01

371

0.07000E 03

0.05 75 IE

02

-0.09067E 02

0.05734E 02
-0.07819E

02

Output checks. The analyst should examine


show that the results are reasonable.

End

as

many

locations as practical to

displacement:

2
3
6
y = -PL*/3EI=- (20000 X 48 /3 X 30 X 10 X 12 X

ys =

(6VL/5AG) =

- (6

X 20000 X 48/5 X 12 X

12

1)

X 10

0.1
6
)

70

in.

= 0.008

in.

NUMERICAL METHODS

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

372

0.178/0.16 = 1.1125

The actual beam

is

anlysis

more

is

accurately

known,

is

373

often used as a simple bench-mark problem to test

the efficiency of different elements under different types of concentrated and

flexible.

distributed loads.

Support reactions: 20000 X 48/12 = 80 kips


Element equilibrium check: from Fig. 12.36 the balance of the forces and moments acting on element 4 is:

At

least

two

one refined for the second computer


to use only one mesh because of price. Effect of mesh

The

stress

(35205

at section

check: The stress

It

psi) differs

a :Ma = 70 X 12 = 20 X 42 = 840

SXX

from the

psi) to a considerable degree

Maximum

stress

SXX (ax ) in

SXX=M/Z = (20000 X

as

stress

and

computed

SXX

tors

kips-in.

for the element 2 at the

node 6

of the element 4 at the node 6 (30046


need for a better refined mesh.

this indicates a

the beam:

6 X 48)/12

40000/35205 = 1.13 the maximum

stress

is

would seem important

= 40000
is

off

psi

tool;

stresses a

more refined mesh would have to be used.

5.75

its

its

theoretical

different results.

element type, load and boundary idealization

etc.

when

it is

building a

important for

him to become aquainted with the main characterises of various elements before
applying them to an important technical problem.
Large stress differences between the stresses at the same node of two joining
elements is often an indication that the mesh is not refined enough. However, at
a shell section

where two different

shell thicknesses

in stresses should appear.

can be predicted beforehand that the


computed quantities such as displacements will be greater or smaller than exact
it is

not the usual case that

it

any given joint.

of utmost importance for a new user to


secure a user's manual written in clear understandable English with established
terminology and where input/output are explained line-by-line in cookbook
Finally, in the writer's experience,

has to be kept in

it is

any slight deviation from the prescribed incomputer rejection or an erroneous output, and

mind

that

in results

and considers the com-

8
5.6
,

FEA-Displacement Method, Advantages and Limitations

5.6

-51?

CSTG)

puter only as a necessary tool and not an object of study.

4.25

4.25

size,

(10%)

time-consuming editing of the input.


The practicing engineer is mainly interested

70

versus

out that the linear elastic FEA method is a


degree of correctness is dependent on very many fac-

put procedure results in either

4.4

on accuracy of the

PSHQ

Since an analyst has to rely mostly on his own


discretization of a structure to represent the real structure,

style. It

is

size

(for instance

experience

solutions at

5.75,

Some elements

to point

some points (for instance at


are combined) the difference

by 13 percent

General Considerations. The cantilever beam problem, because

however,

such as mesh

In practice

For better results of SXY

considerable.

using comparable meshes, give slightly

powerful

moment

Total

after evaluating,

provide better approximations than the others even with less total number of
elements. Since FEA is a numerical method, different computer programs, even

X = 60 + 33.76 23.76 70 = 0
r = + 4.25 5.6 + 5.75 4.4 = 0
2> * 6 X (70 60) 6(5.6 + 4.4) = 0
-

used-one coarse and,

run. However, in practice the analyst tries

stress results

grids (meshes) should be

The following

is

a brief evaluation of the

FEA-displacement method.

Advantages
'

4.4

is a matrix method. All equations


and derivations and calculations are performed
with the aid of matrices. The use of matrices makes all computations systematic,
compact and suited ideally for computer programming. Matrix formulation pro-

1.

The

FEA method

as normally presented

are presented in matrix forms,

Fig. 12.36.

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HAND800K

374

vides a

NUMERICAL METHODS

means of systemizing generalized procedures

computer solution

for thd

375

on the boundaries of the body, condition values of the dependent

tern; while

of structural problems, particularly of complex highly redundant system. An


important feature of the FEA matrix standardized procedure is that it does not
require any engineering decisions during the calculation process.

variables or their derivatives are given. These values are usually mathematical

The modeling (process of breaking the stucture into elements), locating


become essentially straightforward. The FEA model of a general arbitrary structure can be made to resemble
the actual structure very closely. No great simplifications and adjustments need
be' made as is often required in an analytical analysis. It preserves the complexity

computer programs.

2.

descriptions of experimental observations.) However, the general systematic applicability

of the

FEA method makes it

suitable for constructing general purpose

applied loads, and specifying the boundary conditions

of the actual physical problem.


arbitrary supports.

FEA

It accommodates an arbitrary load system and


can be applied to determine stresses within complex

structures of revolution subjected to axisymmetrical loads as well

thermal, and mechanical loads.

rical,

in analysis

When

classical analytical

of continuous structures (plates,

tered

when

tions.

FEA

nonsymmetmethods are used

shells), great difficulties are

investigating irregularities in structural

encoungeometry or loading condi-

can also successfully approximate structures composed of different

nonhomogeneous problems are handled with comby assigning different properties to different elements. A high degree

materials. Difficult analytical

parative ease

of accuracy can even be obtained here. If large amount of elements are used,
the

computed
The

3.

are

stresses closely

elastic

much

approach the actual

equations used in

FEA

Limitations
1

Only

specific numerical results are obtained for specific problems.

closed form solution


2.

(borrowed from the theory of

simpler than the governing differential equations.

The

elasticity)

resulting equais

deal of them. With the aid of a worked-out

complex

The used elements can be of

computer prgram,

FEA of a

a great

reduced to a simple procedure that may be conducted without a detailed


knowledge of the method or computer programming. The formulation of the

problem also becomes a straightforward procedure. One must provide the computer with some basic types of input data: nodal coordinate values, element type
information, material properties, and loads. Handling of the computer output is

made

easier if the results are plotted automatically

way

The method does not


boundary conditions.
4.

5.

Boundary conditions

by means of

the graphs of the principal stresses

require

trial

solutions or

may

a graph

any assumptions of ficticious

are prescribed to the final system matrix equation

if

the

and

The final matrix


boundary conditions change. The introduc-

tion of the boundary conditions into the final equation

is

comparatively a

straightforward process.
6.

(In a

FEA

and

sizes

depending on the

plicated, then the

become comcomputer input and output become too elaborate and too

difficult to prepare

and

3.

Some

if

the elements

interpret.

analytical stress experience

is

required for the best modeling.

Although the use of the computer program is comparatively simple, the


new program requires considerable mathematical skill and time. Only
available worked-out computer programs are of practical use to a practicing
4.

writing of a

FEA, although conceptually simple, requires much computation and is praconly when a high-speed computer is available. Consequently, the FEA
method is not necessarily the most advantageous and cheapest method for solving
5.

tical

a particular continuous problem.


7.

The

must be reviewed and interpreted with common sense engineercomputer input data may cause erroneous results. At
rough check by analytical method would be recommandable.

results

ing judgment. Imprecise

some points

Summary

be formed.

are not applied against the equations of individual elements.

equation need not be changed

different shapes

geometry of the investigated structure. However,

vessel is

plotter. Usually, in this

A general

not produced (as in any numerical method).

engineer.

stress.

tions to be solved are simple algebraic simultaneous equations, but there

also

is

is applicable to a wide range of boundary value engineering problems.


boundary value problem a solution is sought in the region of the body sys-

FEA-displacement method seems to be gaining upon other methods due to its


versatility and applicability to other fields of engineering. Its basic foundation is
well established and major breakthroughs cannot be expected. The method is
now in the process of being more refined (better elements) and new computer
programs are being worked out. The main disadvantage, the necessity of solving
large amount of simultaneous algebraic equations, is being overcome by new
high-speed computers with a decrease in price.

With the advent of the refined personal computers (microcomputers) and the
increasing number of the worked-out computer programs using the FEA-stiffness
method, it would seem important for a designer to know the basis of the numerical procedure for a better understanding and thus for a better interpretation of

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

376

NUMERICAL METHODS

377

the results. Although computer programs will be subjected to changes and development, the theoretical basis will remain the same.
Refs. 146 and 165 are here

12.3.

FINITE

for further study.

ELEMENT ANALYSIS-FORCE METHOD

Description of the

An

recommended

Method

actual pressure vessel

\,

component

by short elements whose

to be analyzed (Fig. 12.37) is approximated

is known. This means that the solutions of differential equations describing the elastic behavior of the shell of revolution with a bending resistance to applied loadings can be obtained. The short

structural behavior

elements selected to

fit

tums. The problem

this

is

the analyzed shell component are usually conical frus-

way reduced

to analysis of an assembly of short conical

ring sections [Fig. 12.37(b)] connected with each other at nodal rings, representing elastic junctures. Each element is so selected to have constant material properties {E, T, etc.).

Thus an

arbitrary shell with changing thickness

changing elastic properties can be investigated by selecting the length

Fig. 12.38.

Edge discontinuity forces

at

junctures

1, 2, 3,

and 4 of conical frustums.

and/or

L of

the

element.

so chosen that the junctures coincide with the load application points,

and the

load becomes an edge load.

The surface

forces, loads, can be applied over the surface of the ring section

(internal pressure) or at junctures as line loads.

The

lengths of the elements are

In the

FEA-force method, the unknown quantities

are the discontinuity forces

F2 andM2 m 2 To achieve
2
Thus the
oe narrow, L < (Rt)

(redundant shell reactions) such as in Fig. 12.38

f2

must
edge forces will influence displacements at both ends of the segments and the
computational procedure becomes more complicated. The accuracy of the
method will also depend on the number of segments into which the shell has
been divided and how well they fit into the actual structure. Short toroidal seca certain degree of accuracy the elements

Rotational axis z

Heavy end ring flange


Conical element

'

tions can be used for better approximation.

To

calculate the stresses at junctures

of the conical frustums the procedure


the

First,

sum of

is

as follows.

the internal forces at each juncture

1, 2,

and so on

in Fig.

12.38 must be in equilibrium with any forces resulting from the external Toads

such as internal pressure

For instance,

(EX = 0, 2y = 0,

1M - 0).

at juncture 2, Fig. 12.38,

we

have the following equilibrium

equations of forces in the direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation causing


the edge bending with the edge deflection

and edge rotation 8

Heavy flange
Fixed end

f2

F2 -Z e2

m 2 +M2 =Me2
(a)

Vessel

component of an

arbitrary shape.

Fig. 12.37.

(b)

Vessel

component segmented.

where f2t F2t m 2i 2 are the internal shell forces and couples
For internal pressure P:Z e2 -PR 2 (tanaj - tana 2 )/2.
Second, to preserve the physical continuity of the

at the

node 2

shell {the compatibility

378

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN HANDBOOK

NUMERICAL METHODS

condition of the displac