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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

Bachelor of Chemical Engineering (Hons)


LAB REPORT
EKB 2081 - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LAB - I

EXPERIMENT TITLE

Pitot Tube

NAME OF CANDIDATE
WITH REG No.

Lee Wen Qian


1106152003

SESSION DATE

26th May 2016, Thursday

DATE OF SUBMISSION

2nd June 2016, Thursday

NAMES OF GROUP MEMBERS


No.
1
2
3
4
5

REG No.
1103152011
1103152006
1103152010
1103152005
1103152021

NAME
JagatishRerdy A/L Ulaganathan
Jezzebel Ann Sivanathan
Kogilan A/L Kumaran
Kumuthini A/P Ramani
Lochana A/P Sivakumaran

SIGNATURES

MARKING
DETAILS

TOTAL

Participation
and Attitude

20

Lab Report

40
60

MARKS
AWARDED

TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Mr. ROHIT N SHENOY)
Page 1

(Mr. BAN ZHEN HONG)

EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

PAGE NO.
Abstract

SECTION I: Introduction

46

SECTION II: Materials and Methods

79

SECTION III: Results and Discussions

10 11

SECTION IV: Conclusions

12

References

13

Appendix I: Sample Calculations

14

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

ABSTRACT
This report presents the experiment of a pitot tube to determine the coefficient of
discharge (Cd) of a pitot tube and achieve great understanding of Bernuollis equation.
The flow rate of the water is set by Rotameter at different rate which include 14 lpm,18
lpm,22 lpm, 26 lpm, 28 lpm and 30 lpm to allow different velocity of fluid flow steadily
through the pipe. The magnitude of the pressure can be related to the volumetric flow
rate. The actual discharge (Qa) is calculated after taking down the time when the volume
of water 0.009 m3 is collected. Meanwhile, the manometer reading at the both left and
right side is being taken down to get the difference between them in metre to calculate
the theoretical discharge (Qt). The coefficient of discharge of pitot tube is then can be
calculated.

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

SECTION I
INTRODUCTION
In this experiment, the most important apparatus that used is flow meters test rig which
having a pitot tube. Pitot tube is another type of differential pressure flowmeters. It is
named after Henri Pitot who came with this invention in the year 1732. Pitot tube is a
device that used to measure a local or point velocity, or flow rate of fluid flowing in the
pipe by measuring the difference between the impact pressure and static pressure. As the
fluid flows through the pipe, the device measures the pressure of the fluid in the middle
of the pipeline. It's a slender tube that has two holes on it. The front hole is placed in the
airstream to measure what's called the stagnation pressure. The side hole measures the
static pressure. By measuring the difference (indicates H in figure 1) between these
pressures, you get the dynamic pressure, which can be used to calculate airspeed. The
figure below helps to explain its structure in a clearer way.

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

Figure 1 Pitot Static Tube


Pitot tube has a round shape measuring element which inserted into the pipeline
perpendicular to the flow direction and the outer wall is drilled by several holes to
separate two conductive holes to differential pressure sensors. It is two pressure
chambers separated by diaphragm. The tiny pressure difference of the flowing fluid can
be precisely measured. The individual pressure taps are distributed along entire the pipe
cross-section to ensure a representative measurement.
In the operation of a pitot tube, both the pressure sensors are connected to a U-tube
manometer which shows in Figure 1. The design of pitot tube varies with venturi meter
and orifice meter which have different area in the tube. Pitot tube measures the local
velocity at a point only but the venturi meter and the orifice meter measure average
velocity of the entire fluid stream.
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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

A pitot tube has a tube into which fluid enters and is quickly decelerated to zero velocity
at the entrance of the tube because the tube is not open on both ends. The rest part of
flow of fluid impinges on it and reduce the velocity to zero. When the velocity of flow at
stagnation point is zero, the pressure at that point increases due to the conversion of
kinetic energy to pressure energy. Thus, by measure the difference in both the pressure,
the velocity of the fluid may be determined.
For calculations, the difference of the both manometer readings is then used to
determine the theoretical discharge by applying a Bernoullis equation.
Q T =A 1 2 gH

where

QT = Theoretical discharge of orifice meter(m3/s)


A1 = Area of the pipe (m2)
g = Gravitational acceleration (m/s2)
H = Difference in height of manometric fluid (m)

After getting the theoretical discharge, the actual discharge should be calculated , thus
the coefficient of discharge can be found in different rate flow of fluid. The actual
discharge is calculated by the formula below :
Q a=

V
t

where

Qa = Actual discharge of pitot tube (m3/s)


V = Volume of the fluid collected (m3)
t = Time taken to collect the fluid (s)

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

Finally, the coefficient of discharge of the pitot tube is calculated by :


C d=

QA
QT

where

Cd = Coefficient of discharge of pitot tube


QA = Actual discharge of pitot tube (m3/s)
QT = Theoretical discharge of pitot tube (m3/s)

A pitot tube is mainly used for making temporary measurements of flow, although it is
also used in some instances for permanent flow monitoring. For example,the pitot tube
is normally mounted on the leading edge of a wing. The pitot tube on an aircraft used
only for flight under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) may not be heated to prevent icing. It is
used to be a speedometer of an aircraft. The major advantages of using pitot tube is it is
a low-cost effective measurement and it has a low pressure drop which is simple to use.

SECTION II
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The materials used in this experiment are as follows:

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

Hydraulic Bench used for storage and supply of water. It consists of upper and
lower volumetric tank with capacity of 46 litres which stores water from coming
channel which is a passage for water from experiment to flow. A dump valve is
located at the bottom for emptying the water in the volumetric tank by opening it.
There is a stilling baffle in the volumetric tank to reduce the turbulence of water
coming from the channel. The scale and tappings is there to show us the volume
of volumetric tank has stored. Other than that, parts of it included centrifugal
pump and sump tank. Centrifugal pump is helping to draw water from sump tank
to supply for experiment. Sump tank is located at the below of hydraulic bench to
store water for hydraulic bench with a capacity of 160 litres.

Pitot tube used to measure the velocity of a fluid moving through a pipe by
taking advantage of the fact that the velocity at the height of the bend in the tube
(stagnation point) is zero.
Stopwatch used for measuring the time taken in seconds for collecting a certain
volume of water

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

Figure 2 The flow meter test rig with pitot tube


The method of conducting the experiment is simplified and explained in the below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Switch on the power supply and the starter to start up the hydraulic bench.
Adjust the control valve to regulate the flow rate of water to flow into pitot tube.
Record the left and right limbs of the manometer in unit of centimetre (cm).
Shut the dump valve to store the water in upper volumetric tank.
Take down the time taken for collecting certain volume of water which will be

indicated in the upper scale of scale and tapping.


6. Open dump valve to drain the water.
7. The experiment is repeated several times from steps 2 to 6 with different flow rate
of water.
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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

After Experiment
8. Turn off the control valve to stop the flow of water into pitot tube.
9. Drain all the water in the volumetric tank by opening the dump valve.
10. Switch off the starter and the power supply.

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

SECTION III
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Sl No

Rotamete
r Reading
(lpm)

1
2
3
4
5
6

14
18
22
26
28
30

Table 1: Data Sheet for a Pitot tube


Actual Discharge
Manometer Reading
Theoretica
(water)
l Discharge
Collected Time
Qa =
Left Right Difference
Qt
Volume V taken
V/t
(cm) (cm)
H (m)
(m3)
x10-4
x10-4
t
(m3/s)
(m3/s)
(sec)
0.009
36.8 2.4455 6.5
2.8
0.037
2.4157
0.009
29.3 3.0717 10.3
3.9
0.064
3.1772
0.009
23.1 3.8961 16.0
5.9
0.101
3.9913
0.009
20.7 4.3478 21.4
7.3
0.141
4.7158
0.009
17.9 5.0279 23.5
8.2
0.153
4.9124
0.009
17.6 5.1136 27.0
8.5
0.185
5.4017
Average Cd = _0.98

Cd

1.01
0.97
0.98
0.92
1.02
0.95

The table 1 above is the results that obtained throughout the whole experiment.
Rotameter reading is manipulated in the experiment and the volume of water collected
has been set to constant at 0.009 m3 . The actual discharge, theoretical discharge and
coefficient of discharge has been calculated and tabulated in the table above too. In the
table above, it can clearly shows that the lower rate flow of water, the lower actual and
theoretical discharge of the pitot tube. As an example, in water flow rate of 18 lpm, the
value of actual discharge and the theoretical discharge are 3.0717 x10-4 m3/s to 3.1772 x
10-4 m3/s correspondingly. However, in water flow rate of 30 lpm, the value of actual
discharge and the theoretical discharge is is 5.1136 x10-4 m3/s and 5.4017 x10-4 m3/s.
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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

This is because the velocity of the fluid enters the pitot tube affects the pressure in the
pitot tube. When the velocity of fluid is higher which meant to say the flow rate is higher
when entering the tube, the pressure in the tube is lower, then make a bigger difference
in the both manometer readings, thus the theoretical discharge is higher in water flow
rate of 30 lpm. The actual discharge of the pitot tube is calculated by the formula of
volume of water collected over the time taken. Thus, the volume of water collected is set
to 0.009m3 and the time taken for collecting the water is gradually faster with the
increase of water flow rate. For instance, at 18 lpm, the time taken for collecting the
water is 29.3s and at 30 lpm, the time is shorter which is 17.6s. In practical, the
coefficient of discharge of the pitot tube is at the range of 0.9 1.0 due to the turbulence
loss and friction with the tube wall in the tube. In the table above, there are 2 readings
that run out from the range value and they are exceeding 1.0 which is not practical in the
experiment. This error happens due to an apparatus error which is because of the air in
the manometer has escaped from the manometer and cause the manometer readings do
not accurate. Although the manometer reading is not accurate as it should be, the
average of discharge coefficient is still at the range of 0.98.
A graph (Figure 3) of the theoretical discharge, Qt versus actual discharge, Qa has been
plotted based on the result in Table 1. In the graph, a linear line was obtained by using
the calculated values. Based on the graph below (Figure 3), the actual discharge, Q a is
increasing with the theoretical discharge, Qt. This is because the higher the flow rate of
water results in the higher velocity of water increases the both actual and theoretical
discharge. The first, fourth and fifth plot are slightly run out from the line and has not
been intersected. These three points may have occurred due to some errors. It can be
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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

neglected due to some errors such as parallax error since this experiment was carried in
a group. The parallax error may be due to the difference in the height of the readings and
time take to collect the water which may cause difference in the calculated value. It
could be also due to some failures in the device operations method and also may cause
by the errors that mentioned above.

SECTION IV
CONCLUSIONS
This experiment is to find out the reading of actual discharge and theoretical discharge
to calculate the coefficient of discharge of pitot tube with the given formula and this
experiment has successfully found out the readings of actual discharge and theoretical
discharge in this experiment. From the results, it clearly shows that the actual discharge
always differs from the theoretical discharge due to frictional loss and turbulence loss
happened in the pitot tube. As mentioned above, the discharge coefficient of the pitot
tube should be range from 0.9 to 1.0. From the calculations that tabulated in the table 1,
the average coefficient of discharge of this pitot tube is 0.98 which still in the range of it.
From the figure 3, the slope of the gradient represents the coefficient of discharge which
gives the value of 0.92. It has a slightly difference in the both value but they are still in
the range of the pitot tubes discharge coefficient.

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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

To avoid the fluctuation of water, start the stopwatch when the volumetric tank is at
0.009m3 and stop it at 0.018m3. Furthermore, when taking the reading of the manometer,
ensure that to look at the bottom line of the convex meniscus readings to get the accurate
and precise reading. Last but not least, ensure to drain the water in volumetric tank to
avoid overflow of the water and damage the experimental setup.

REFERENCES
1. McCabe and Smith, Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, 5 th ed., McGrawHill, NY, 1993.
2. Morris, A.S. (2001) Measurement and instrumentation principles. Available
at:https://books.google.com.my/books?id=qPiSSchB6MC&pg=PA326&lpg=PA326&dq=pitot+is+normally+used+for&source=
bl&ots=hCz_J13qav&sig=sFNz9n1RiKaa2bGzm06_oHyEz1M&hl=en&sa=X&re
dir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=pitot%20is%20normally%20used%20for&f=false

3. Liptak, B.G. (2003) Instrument engineers handbook, fourth edition, volume One:
Process.. Available at: https://books.google.com/books?
id=a05NAvaqfcUC&pg=PA282&dq=pitot+tube&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj
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H2ryt0IfNAhVFPY8KHS2KDfoQ6AEIKjAB
4. Borrell, B. (2016) What is a pitot tube? Available at:
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-a-pitot-tube/
5. Zoebelein, M. (2013) How Pitot tube Flowmeters work. Available at:
http://www.flowcontrolnetwork.com/how-pitot-tube-flowmeters-work/

APPENDIX I
SAMPLE CALCULATIONS (READING NO. _3__)
2
1. Area of the Pipe A 1= 4 D1 m2

2
0.019
4

= _2.85x10-4 m2
2. Actual Discharge:
Rotameter Reading = _22 lpm
Actual Discharge Qa

= _3.8961 x 10-4 m3/s

3. Theoretical discharge:
Difference in height of manometric fluid, H = __101_ mm = _0.101 m
Theoretical discharge Qt =A 1 2 gH

m3/ s

2.8353 104 2(9.81)(0.101)


= 3.9913 104 m3/ s
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EKB 2081 Chemical Engineering Lab - I

Where g = acceleration due to gravity


H = Head over the orifice in m
A1 = area of the pipe in m2
4. Coefficient of discharge of the meter:
Coefficient of discharge of the meter Cd =

Q
Actual discharge
= a
Theoretical discharge Qt

3.8961 x 104
3.9913 104

= 0.98

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