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In Part 1, at 100% transmittance, are the

distances of the two sources from the
photometer equal? Is this the expected
result? Explain. (5 points)
In the principle, the distance between
the photometer must be equal to get a full
potential of the transmittance. But in a
certain condition wherein the atmosphere
and environment of the place where
experiment taken greatly affected the
result and also the calibration of the
instrument used due to time played some
effect on the result. Due to these condition
the result had some discrepancies.


What does the neutral density filter do?

What does a single polarizer do? Whats
the difference between a neutral density
filter and a polarizer? (5 points)
Neutral density filter from the word
itself it filters wavelength equally and it
also reduces the intensity of light as it
passes to it. Changing in shade of colors
are evitable this time. Polarizers block sort
of light waves defends on its degree. In
wavelength that passes while polarizer
block sort of light wavelengths.


Give one main cause of the relatively large

percent error in Part 1 (inverse square law)
and Part 2 (polarization). What can be
done (for each part) to minimize or
eliminate this error? (10 points)
In part 1, experiment must be done in
place were the environment is ideal and
lights and other factors must equally
distributed to the place. Using camera can
detect accuracy or light difference as it
traps the medium light from passing to the
hole in the photometer. In part 2, it is
advisable to find proper place for the
experiment. Using gadgets can minimize
errors. For the whole experiment, the
instrument must be calibrated due to
changes as time goes by and chose a
person who has a best eyesight for clearer


Photographers use filters and polarizers to

vary the lighting for their shots. For
photography purposes, which is better to
use, a filter or a polarizer? Explain.
It depends on the scenery or the
photographer wanted to project. Neutral
density filter has its best when capturing
landscape and nature as it deflect some light
for equal intensity distribution. Polarizers is

best for capturing low light and back light

mode as it helps to reduce glare and
minimize the scattering of light specially as it
strikes water surface.

What is the relationship (if any) between the

neutral density filter transmittance and the
angle between the two polarizers? Defend
your answer
In the experiment, we can conclude the
angle between polarizer is indirect proportion
to the density filter transmittance. An
increase in transmittance, the decrease in
angle in between. The angle in between must
be 0 -90 . 0 as the lowest and 90 as
the highest.


Explain briefly why light can be polarized.

Light that passes is a light wave or simply
it considered a wave, transverse wave that
vibrates on its direction. Component of light
is a wavelength. Wavelength is the factor
wherein polarizers takes place.


Aside from intensity and distance, give two

quantities that have an inverse-square
An example for this is Newtons law of
universal gravitation. Newton's law of

universal gravitation states that every

particle in the universe attracts every
other particle with a certain force that is
directly proportional to the product of their
masses and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them.