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MECHANICS OF MATERIAL LAB

Experiment #01
Objective:
To determine the deflection at a point of
application of force on cantilever beam.
Apparatus:
Straight beam deflection apparatus.

Description of apparatus:
Straight beam deflection apparatus:
It consists of a light, stable frame
made of aluminium. The various supports are fastened to the lower
girder with clamping levers. The dial gauges are fastened to the upper
girder with holders.

Straight beam deflection apparatus.


Following are the complete description of bar bending device:

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The load weights are attached to the bar via movable riders . The riders can be
locked in position. The load can be adjusted in incre-ments of 25 N using weight
blocks.
The articulated supports are fitted with dynamometers . The height of the support
can be adjusted using a threaded spindle . The support can be locked in position by
the screw . This compensates deformation of the bar by its own weight or deflection
of the support caused by spring excursion of the dynamometer.
In statically undetermined systems, it is possible to demonstrate the influence of
support deflection on load distribution.

Dynamometer

Bar with movable riders

The scales on the dynamometers rotate to enable taring.


The bar is fixed in the support with clamp by means of a clamping plate .
The height of the dial gauges can be adjusted on their holders.

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Support with clamp

Dial gauge

Scale on dynamometer

Theory of an experiment:

Classification of beam based on supports:

1. Simply supported beam: A beam supported on the ends which are


free to rotate & have no moment resistance.

Simply supported beam

2. Fixed beam : A beam supported at both end and restrained from


rotation.

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Fixed beam

3. Over hang: A simple beam extending beyond its support on one end.

Over hang

4. Double overhang beam: A simple beam exyending beyond its both


support.

Double over hang beam

5. Continuous beam: A beam extending over more than two supports.

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Continuous beam

6. Cantilever beam: A projection beam fixed only at one end.

Cantilever beam

7. Trussed : A beam is strengthened by adding cable or rod to form a


truss.

Trussed

Based on geometry:
A. Straight beam: Beam with straight profile.

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Straight beam

B. Curved beam: Beam with curved profile.

Curved beam

C. Tapered beam: beam with tapered cross section.

Tapered beam

Based on the shape of cross section:


I.
II.
III.

I-beam: beam with I cross section


T-beam: beam with T cross section
C-beam: beam with c cross section

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C-beam

T-beam

I-beam

Based on equilibrium conditions:

i.

Statically determinate beam:


.
It is analysed just by the use of basic
equilibrium equations. By this analysis, the unknown reactions are found
for the further determination of stresses.

Determinate beam

ii.

Statically indeterminate beam:

when the static equilibrium equations


are insufficient for determining the internal forces and reactions on that
structure.

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Indeterminate beam

Based on materials:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Timber beam
Steel beam
Concrete beam
Aluminium beam
Cupper beam
Brass beam

Deflection :
It is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a
load .
It may refer :

Distance
Angular

Deflection measuring equipment :

Electronic gauges :
Electronic devices of various types have been
employed more frequently in recent years. These devices
can be expensive .they have many advantages in that data
can be obtained without having to get near the bridge &
projection can be showed on computer.

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Electronic gauge

Dial gauges:
Dial gauges are fairly common, however extensive
experience indicates that these devices are extremely slow .

Dial gauge

Finely graduated measuring stick:

Stick gauge

Tape measure:

Tape gauge

Factors effecting beam strength:


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Bending strength may be limited by :


Material strength
Lateral-torsional buckling
Local buckling
Bending :
It is the stress induced in the beam because of the application of
loads perpendicular to its principal axis.
Buckling
When member is subjected to axial compression know as
buckling. when it is occur majority of the chances is that the structure will
collapse.
Difference between bending &buckling:
The major the difference is that in
bending beam undergoes internal stresses but then recover back after the
load is removed while buckiling is a permanent failure of the structure it is
normally occur in colums due to its self-weight.
Beam strength depends on its:
Maximum moment
Shear capacity
And these both depend upon :
Relevant allowable stresses
Beam fail in three ways :
Strength failure of beam : plastic hinge form when bending
stress reaches the material yield strength .
Lateral torsional failure of beam : it is due to compression
developed in part of the beam cross section due to bending.
Local buckling of beams: it produce at any pont of the beam it
may be web buckling or flange buckling.
The aim of this experiment is to check the mathe-matically determined deflection of
the cantilever bardetermined manner.
The equation for the deflection of the bar at the point of application of force is:
3

fFL

3 E Iy

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Deflection is proportional to the load F and inver-sely proportional to the modulus of


elasticity E and planar moment of intertia (PMI) Iy. The length of the bar is cubed.
Where,
Iy = b h3 /12

Procedure of an experiment:
The experiment is set up as shown in the diagram.

The following equipment is required:


1. Steel bar 6 x 20 x 1000 mm
2. Rider for weight
3. Suspender for weights
4. 3 weights 5N
5. Dial gauge with holder
6. Support pillar with clamp
7. Fasten the support pillar to the frame
8. Clamp the bar in the support pillar
9. Place the rider on the bar and lock in the required position
10. Fasten the dial gauge to the frame with the holder in such a way that the
tracer pin is touching the flattened part of the rider bolt
11. Set the dial gauge to zero with the bar unloa-ded. To do so, adjust the
holder
and rotate the scale for precise adjustment
12. Suspend the load weight, read the deflection on the dial gauge and record

Observation & calculation:

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The following table compares the results of the experiment with the results of the
mathematical calculation.
Table:

Lenght L
(mm)

Deflection
(mm)

Calculated
deflection
(mm)

Sample calculation:
Formula:
F = Applied load (N) =
L= length of the bar (mm) =
E= Modulus of elasticity (N/mm2) =
b = width (mm) =
h=height (mm) =

Moment of inertia =Iy= bh3/12 =


3

fFL

3 E Iy

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Conclusion :

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Experiment #02
Objective:
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To calculate the supporting forces on a bar


having two supports
Apparatus:
Straight beam deflection apparatus.

Theory of an experiment:
Bar on two supports:
It act as simply supported beam having two
supports at their ends .

Bar on two supports

This experiment determines the supporting forces for a bar depending on the point
of application of the load x. The supporting forces A and B can be determined via
balances of moments.

Balance of moments around support B:


MB 0 F L x A L

Supporting force A

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A F 1 L

Balance of moments around support A


MA 0 B L F x

Supporting force B

BF L .

Procedure of an experiment:
The experiment is set up as shown in the
diagram.
The following equipment is required:
Steel bar 6 x 20 x 1000 mm
Rider for weight
Suspender for weights
3 weights 5N, 1 weight 2.5 N
2 articulated supports with dynamometer

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Bar on two supports

1. Fasten the articulated supports at a distance of 1000 mm


2. Push the rider for the weight suspender onto the bar and place the bar on
the supports.
3. Loosen the locking screw on the support . Adjust the height of the support
using the rotary knob until the bar is horizontal.
4. Re-secure the support using the locking screw
5. Set the scale on the dynamometer to zero by twisting
6. Suspend the weight and load the bar
Read the supporting forces on the dynamomters and record reading.

Observation & calculation:


The measured supporting forces are very consistent with the calculated values:

Table :

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Distance x from
support A
(mm)

Force on support
A
(N)

Force on support
B
(N)

Sample calculation :
Formula :
A= support at A point
F= load (N) =
L= length(mm) =
X= distance x from point A (mm) =

A = F(1 - LX) =

B = FLX =

Conclusion :

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Experiment #03
Objective:
To draw the elastic line of a cantilever beam.
Apparatus:
Straight beam deflection apparatus

Theory of an experiment:
Elastic line for cantilever:

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This experiment measures the elastic


line of a cantilever bar and compares it with the result of the mathematical
calculation.
The equation for the elastic line of a cantilever bar loaded with a single force is as
follows for the loaded section II with 0 x2 a

In the unloaded section I between the point of application of the force and the free
end, the de-flection is a linear function of the length and the inclination in the point
of application of force. This is not bending, but slanting

Procedure of an experiment:
The experiment is set up as
shown in the diagram.
The following equipment is required:

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Steel bar 6 x 20 x 1000 mm


Rider for weight
Suspender for weights
3 weights 5N, 1 weight 2.5 N
1 articulated supports with dynamometer

1 dial gauges with holder

Straight beam deflection apparatus.


The load remains constant and is applied in the centre at a= 500 mm

1. The deflection of the bar is measured with the dial gauge at intervals of 100
mm.
2. Dial gauges measure the deflection due to the dynamometer .
3. Relieve the bar
4. Apply the dial gauge at the required position and set to zero
5. Load the bar
6. Read the deflection value and record
7. Relieve the bar and move the dial gauge to the next position

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8. The dynamometers experience spring excursion under load. In order to


prevent measurement errors as a result of this additional deflection f, the
supports should be returned to their original position.
9.

read the deflection value from the dial gauge and record

Relieve the bar, move the dial gauge to the next position, and repeat the
measurement.

Observation & calculation:


Table :
SR #

X
(mm)

Deflection in
w(x)
(mm)

Calculated
deflection
w(x) (mm)

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Sample calculation:

Graph :

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Conclusion :

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Experiment #04
Objective:
To draw the elastic line for center loading of
a bar on two support
Apparatus:
Straight beam deflection apparatus

Theory of an experiment:
Elastic line for centre loading:
This experiment measures the
elastic line of a bar on two supports and compares it with the mathe-matically
calculated result.The equation for the elastic line of a bar loaded in the
centre with a single force is as follows:
3

f=

FL

48 E Iy

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Procedure of an experiment:
The experiment is set up as
shown in the diagram.
The following equipment is required:
Steel bar 6 x 20 x 1000 mm
Rider for weight
Suspender for weights
3 weights 5N, 1 weight 2.5 N
2 articulated supports with dynamometer

3 dial gauges with holder


The load remains constant and is applied in the centre at x= 500 mm

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Straight beam deflection apparatus.


10. The deflection of the bar is measured with the dial gauge at intervals of 100
mm.
11. Two dial gauges on the support measure the deflection due to the
dynamometer .
12. Relieve the bar
13. Loosen the locking screw on the support.
14. Adjust the height of the support using the rotary knob until the dial gauges read
zero.
15. Fasten the supports using the locking screw

16. Place the dial gauge in the required position and set to zero
17. Load the bar
18. The dynamometers experience spring excursion under load. In order to
prevent measurement errors as a result of this additional deflection f, the
supports should be returned to their original position.
19. Loosen the locking screw on the support.
20. Raise the support using the rotary knob until the dial gauges read zero.
21. Fasten the support using the locking screw

22. read the deflection value from the dial gauge


and record
Relieve the bar, move the dial gauge to the next position, and repeat the
measurement.

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Observation & calculation:


Table :
SR #

X
(mm)

Deflection in
w(x)
(mm)

Calculated
deflection
w(x) (mm)

Sample calculation:

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Graph :

Conclusion :

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Experiment #05
Objective:
To determine the Maxwell-Bettis influence
coefficient on a bar having two supports
Apparatus:
Straight beam deflection apparatus.

Theory of an experiment:
Maxwell-Bettis influence coefficients and law:
Influence coefficients link the deflection at a certain point in the bar to the loading of
forces Fj as follows:
This experiment is only intended to examine the effect of a force on points x 1 and x2
on the deflecti-on at points x1 and x2

w1 a11 F1

w1 a12 F2

w2 a21 F1

w2 a22 F2

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According to the Maxwell-Betti transposition law, deflection at point x 1 as a result of


the force on point x2 is just as large as the deflection at point x 2 caused by an
identical force on point x1. This correlation is described by the following formula:

w1 a12 F2 w2 a21 F1

a a
21

12

In general, according to Maxwell-Betti, the follo-wing applies

a a
ij

ji

The two influence coefficients a11 and a22 indi-cate the deflection at the point of
force.

Procedure of an experiment:
The experiment is set up as shown in the diagram.
The following equipment is required:
Steel bar 6 x 20 x 1000 mm
Rider for weight
Suspender for weights
3 weights 5N, 1 weight 2.5 N
2 articulated supports with dynamometer
3 dial gauges with holder

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Straight beam deflection apparatus.


1. The distance between the supports is 1000 mm.The load of 20 N remains
constant and is applied at x1= 300 mm and x2 = 600 mm
2. The deflection of the bar at points x1 and x2 is measured with the dial gauge.
3. Two dial gauges on the supports measure the deflection caused by the
dynamometers and serve to compensate it. The procedure is the same as
described in the previous experiment.
4. Load the bar at point x1 and measure the deflection at x1 and x2.
5. Load the bar at x2 and measure the deflection at x1 and x2.

Observation & calculation :


Table:

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Sr #

Deflectio
n at poin
(mm)

Force at
point
(N)

Deflectio
n w (mm)

Influence
coefficien
t
(mm/N)

Sample calculation:

Conclusion :

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Experiment #06
Objective:
To investigate the Superposition principle using
statically undetermined system.

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Apparatus:
Straight beam deflection apparatus.

Theory of an experiment:
Statically Undetermined System:

A statically undetermined system exists when the valency of


the support is greater than the number of degrees of freedom of the system.A
system in the plane, such as the bar, has 3 degrees of freedom:

Horizontal displacement.
Vertical displacement.
Rotation in the plane.

A movable support (articulated support) is mono-valent, as it


only prevents vertical motion. A clamp (support pillar) is tri-valent, since in addition to
vertical motion, it also prevents horizontal motion and rotation.
If a bar is clamped on one side and supported by a movable support on the other
side, the sum of all support valencies is 4, in other words, larger than the number of
degrees of freedom (3). The bar is statically undetermined, or more precisely, it is
statically overdetermined.

In such cases, the unknown support reactions, whose number


corresponds to the sum of the support valencies, cannot be calculated solely by
means of the equilibrium relations of the forces and moments. In such a case, there
are only as many equations which are independent of one another as there are
degrees of freedom. In order to be able to calculate the numerous unknown support
reactions, equations with the deformation proper-ties of the bar must be used.
By applying the superposition principle, the ex-perimental
approach is similar to the calculatory approach.

Superposition Principle:

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The superposition principle states that the sum of all


deformations caused by individual loads corre-sponds to the deformation caused by
a combined load from the individual loads.

Therefore, the system is loaded with the individual loads, one after the other, and
from the calculatory summation of these individual results, it is possible to determine
the overall deformation of a combined load occurring simultaneously.

In order to determine the unknown supporting force, the total


deformation at the front end of the bar must be zero. Consequently, the deformation
induced by supporting force A must be just as large as but opposite to the one
induced by the load F.

The deformation at the end of the bar caused by the load F is :

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Procedure of an experiment:
The experiment is set up as shown in the
diagram.

The following equipment is required:


Steel bar 6 x 20 x 1000 mm
Rider for weight
Suspender for weights
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2 weights 5N, 1 weight 2.5 N


Articulated support with dynamometer
Support pillar with clamp
Dial gauge with holder

Statically un -ditermined System

1. With a load of F= 15 N, a length L= 800 mm and a distance a= 500 mm, this


produces the following for the unknown supporting force A:

2. The articulated support has a distance of 800 mm from the clamp, and the
load 500 mm from the clamp. The dial gauge is positioned above the
articulated support.
3. Twist the articulated support downwards. The distance between the unloaded
end and the support should be at least 25 mm.
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4. Whilst unloaded, set the dial gauge at the end of the bar to zero.
5. Load the bar with 15 N. The bar will deflect downwards at the end by f F= 16.2
mm.
6. Twist the support upwards to compensate the deflection by load. The dial
gauge should re-turn to zero. The dynamometer will now display the
supporting force.

Conclusion :

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Experiment #07
Objective:
To show the linearity of strain gauges on thick
cylinder.
Apparatus:
Thick cylinder apparatus.

Description of apparatus:
Thick cylinder apparatus:
The cylinder is thick-walled aluminium
alloy cylinder. The cylinder sits inside the surdy frame, on the top of a
steel box. The steel box contains electrical equipment that works the
electronic strain gauges didplay and circuits that can link to VDAS.
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Thick Cylinder Apparatus.

The cylinder is made of two halves,cemented together. Before the two


halves ara put together straion gauges are fitted to the face of one half and in its
bore. These gauges measure the hoop, radial and circumferential strains. The two
halves are then cemented together and more strain gauges are fixed to the surface
of cylinder. These gauges measyre the outer circumferential and longitudinal strains.

Different Parts Of Apparatus:


The THICK CYLINDER APPARATUS comprises of a thick wall cylinder,
pressure gauge, relief valve, ON/OFF switch, digital strain meter, strain reading
selector switch, hydraulic pump, and an oil refill port as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2
below:

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Theory of an experiment:

Strain Gauges:
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object. The most
common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which
supports a metallic foil pattern. Strain gauges used in thick cylinder at different
positions are :

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THICK CYLINDER CROSS-SECTION TO SHOW STRAIN GAUGES

Useful Equations :
Stress :
Stress is "force per unit area" ,the ratio of applied force F to cross section
area - defined as "force per area".
= Fn / A
where
= normal stress ((Pa) N/m2, psi)
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Fn = normal component force (N, lbf (alt. kips))


A = area (m2, in2)

Tensile stress - stress that tends to stretch or lengthen the material - acts
normal to the stressed area.

Compressive stress - stress that tends to compress or shorten the material acts normal to the stressed area.

Shearing stress - stress that tends to shear the material - acts in plane to the
stressed area at right-angles to compressive or tensile stress.

Strain :
Strain is defined as "deformation of a solid due to stress" and can be expressed as
= dl / lo
where
dl = change of length (m, in)
lo = initial length (m, in)
= strain - unitless

Youngs Modulus :
Most metals deforms proportional to imposed load over a range of loads. Stress is
proportional to load and strain is proportional to deformation as expressed with
Hooke's law
E = stress / strain
=/
= (Fn / A) / (dl / lo)
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where
E = Young's modulus (N/m2) (lb/in2, psi)

Poisson Ratio:
Poisson's ratio is the signed ratio of transverse strain to axial strain. In
other words, is the amount of transversal expansion divided by the amount of axial
compression, for small values of these changes.

Theoretical Strains:
The cylinder deforms equally about its axis, the principle strains
are given by :

Theoretical Stress:
Now using Elementary Lame Equations :

Where
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A and B are constants. To determine these coefficients we consider the


boundary conditions.

Procedure of an experiment :

1. The main power supply was switched ON and current was allowed to
pass through the gauges about five to eight minutes in order to ensure
all the strain gauges at steady state temperature condition.
2. The relief valve was relieved to ensure the pressure reading is zero.
3. Unscrew the pump Hand wheel untilthe pressure gauge shows zero
pressure.
4. Use press and hold to zero boutton to zero the strain gauge display
reading.all strain gauge readings should now read 0.
5. The initial readings for strain gauges 1,7,13 with zero pressure in the
system were recorded from the strain meter .
6. Screw in (Turn Clockwise) the pump hand wheel untilthe pressure is
approximately 1 MN.m^-2.
7. Wait for few second and note the reading for same gagues.
8. Carefully increase the pressure up to 7MN.m^-2 , and note the readings
for same gauges.

Observation & calculation:


Table :

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Pressure
(MN.m^-2)
Gauge 1

Strain (*
10^-6)
Gauge 7

Gauge 13

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sample calculation:

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Graph :

Conclusion :

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Experiment #08
Objective:

To find the hoop and radial strains in the cylinder


and compare them with theoretical values.

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Apparatus:
Thick cylinder apparatus.

Procedure of an experiment :

1. The main power supply was switched ON and current was allowed to
pass through the gauges about five to eight minutes in order to ensure
all the strain gauges at steady state temperature condition.
2. The relief valve was relieved to ensure the pressure reading is zero.
3. Unscrew the pump Hand wheel untilthe pressure gauge shows zero
pressure.
4. Record the thick cylinder inside and outside diameters.
5. Use press and hold to zero boutton to zero the strain gauge display
reading.all strain gauge readings should now read 0.
6. The initial readings for all strain gauges with zero pressure in the
system were recorded from the strain meter .
7. Screw in (Turn Clockwise) the pump hand wheel untilthe pressure is
approximately 1 MN.m^-2.
8. Wait for few second and note the reading for all gagues.
9.

Carefully increase the pressure up to 7MN.m^-2 , and note the


readings.

10. Undo (turn anti-clockwise) the pump hand wheel to reduce the
indicated pressure back to 0.

Observation & calculation:


Table :

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Gauge
No

Radius at
Gauge

Type of
Strain

Measured
Strain

Calculated
Strain

Error
Difference

1
2

28

3
4

36

5
6

45

7
8

56

9
10

63

11
12
13

75

Sample Calculations :

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Graph :

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Conclusion :

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Experiment #09
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Objective:
Determination of the strain of thin cylinder by
open end condition testing
Apparatus:
Thin wall cylinder apparatus

Description of apparatus:
This is designed for students to
study the behavior of thin cylinder wall under internal pressure .
This is a bench topn unit .the main component of the unit is thin cylinder it
is mounted on the sturdy metal base frame. Pressure is applied on the cylinder by
hydraulic pump. A bourdon gauge is provided for the measurement of the pressure .

Thin Cylinder Apparatus

When the force is applied on the cylinder circumferential and the radial
stresses would occur . Six strain gauges are mounted on the cylinder at different
angles which measure the surface strain at various angle .the measuring sensor
tapes are mounted around the parameter at an angles of 0 , 30 ,45 ,60 , 90 degrees
to measure the alongation. This result shown on digital display meter.

Technical data:
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Thin wall cylinder apparatus

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Cylinder material

Aluminum alloy

Cylinder diameter

86mm

Cylinder length

318mm

Wall thickness

3.0 mm

Number of strain points

pressure measurement

gauges range

position angle

Maximum pressure

8 bar

loading device

hydraulic pump

6
bourdon gauge
0-10 bar
0,30,45,60,90 degrees

Component list :
Coated steel base frame
Thin wall cylinder
Hydraulic hand pump:

Hydraulic hand pump

Bourdon pressure gauge :


It uses the principle that a flattened tube tends to
straighten or regain its circular form in cross-section when pressurized.

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Bourdon pressure gauge

Strain gauges :
It is a sensor whose resistance varies with respect to force applied
it convert force, pressure, tension, weight into electrical resistance which can then be
measured.

Theory of an experiment:

Difference between thick & thin wall cylinder:


If the thickness of the cylinder is
less than 0.1 of its radius , then it is thin cylinder and if the thickness of the cylinder is
more than 0.1 times its radius then it is thick cylinder.
The mean difference between thick & thin cylinders is :
The ratio of diameter /thickness
For thin cylinder, it is more than 20
For thick cylinder, it is less than 20

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Procedure of an experiment:
1. Place the apparatus on level tube .adjust it if necessary .
2. Plug the apparatus on 3 pin plug to laboratory power supply. Switch on the
power.
3. Run the apparatus to about 15 minutes to ensure strain gauges and other
component to warmed up.
4. Check all the strain gauges by adjusting the selector switch (F) either all
gauges give reading or not.
5. Release the relief valve (c)
6. Set the apparatus on open end condition .
7. Tighten the relief valve.
8. Recording the initial value of strain .
9. Apply the desired amount of pressure on the strain gauges.
10. Read the strain gauges reading on digital meter with apply different pressure

Observation & calculation:

Table :
Strain reading ()
Pressure
(bar)

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Conclusion :

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MECHANICS OF MATERIAL LAB

Experiment #10
Objective:
Determination of the strain of thin cylinder by
closed end condition testing.
Apparatus:
Thin wall cylinder apparatus

Description of apparatus:
This is designed for students to
study the behavior of thin cylinder wall under internal pressure .
This is a bench topn unit .the main component of the unit is thin cylinder it
is mounted on the sturdy metal base frame. Pressure is applied on the cylinder by
hydraulic pump. A bourdon gauge is provided for the measurement of the pressure .

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Thin Cylinder Apparatus

When the force is applied on the cylinder circumferential and the radial
stresses would occur . Six strain gauges are mounted on the cylinder at different
angles which measure the surface strain at various angle .the measuring sensor
tapes are mounted around the parameter at an angles of 0 , 30 ,45 ,60 , 90 degrees
to measure the alongation. This result shown on digital display meter.

Technical data:
Cylinder material

Cylinder diameter

86mm

318mm

Wall thickness

3.0 mm

Number of strain points

pressure measurement

gauges range

position angle

Maximum pressure

8 bar

loading device

hydraulic pump

Cylinder length

Aluminum alloy

Thin wall cylinder apparatus

6
bourdon gauge
0-10 bar
0,30,45,60,90 degrees

Theory of an experiment:
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MECHANICS OF MATERIAL LAB

Difference between open & close end cylinders :

Cylinders are classed as being


either :

Open - in which there is no axial component of wall stress.

Closed - in which an axial stress must exist to equilibrate the fluid pressure.

Open cylinders are typified by interference-fitted bushes figures (a) and (b) below,
in which there are no longitudinal pressures and so no axial stresses. A fluid
container sealed by a piston is open (c) - in this case there is no need for axial wall
stresses to equilibrate the fluid pressure.

A fluid container sealed by a piston is open (d), since no ends are evident
and the fluid pressure is self-equilibrating across the free body. However each
connected vessel acts as a pipe closure, so the pipe is in fact closed and axial
stresses must occur.

Procedure of an experiment:
1. Place the apparatus on level tube .adjust it if necessary .
2. Plug the apparatus on 3 pin plug to laboratory power supply. Switch on the
power.
3. Run the apparatus to about 15 minutes to ensure strain gauges and other
component to warmed up.
4. Check all the strain gauges by adjusting the selector switch (F) either all
gauges give reading or not.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIAL LAB

5. Release the relief valve (c)


6. Set the apparatus on close end condition .
7. Tighten the relief valve.
8. Recording the initial value of strain .
9. Apply the desired amount of pressure on the strain gauges.
10. Read the strain gauges reading on digital meter with apply different pressure.

Observation & calculation:

Table :
Strain reading ()
Pressure
(bar)

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MECHANICS OF MATERIAL LAB

Conclusion :

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