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1. Discuss decibel meter with neat labeled diagram.

2. Derive a scheme for lead/lag indication when a phase signal is generated using the logic RP.
3. Discuss frequency difference expansion method for the measurement of frequency.
4. Write a short note on measurement of quality factor of a ringing circuit
5. Write a short note on capacitance measurement.
6. Discuss why there is a need of digitization in measurement industry. Also mention clearly
their advantages & disadvantages
7. Discuss vernier technique for small time interval measurements with proper
8. Realize a circuit & sketch voltage transfer characteristic of measuring time interval between
two events represented by two voltage levels.
9. If the main & vernier oscillators have time periods of 10.006 & 10.001 sec respectively & the
time interval to be measured is 1410.05 sec, what would be the readings of the main & the
vernier counters. Find the total measurement. 10. Determine the maximum percentage error in
measuring a time interval of 2.2 sec with a clock frequency of 1MHz. What would be the
error if the leading edge of the clock pulse is synchronized with the initiating event?
10. Explain measurement of time period with suitable waveforms.
11. Mention requirements to have ideal phase meter.
12. Discuss automatic accumulation method for phase measurement.
13. What are different errors which affect accuracy in measuring phase?
14. How can you measure low time constant accurately?
15. What do you understand by resolution & accuracy of system?
16. What are advantages & disadvantages of a digital display compared to analog one?
17. What is the resolution of a time measuring system if the maximum value of the time interval
to be measured is 10ns, oscillator frequencies are 75MHz+0.5KHZ, threshold voltage of the
comparator used is 2mV & the amplitude of both the oscillator outputs is 350mV?
18. Show schmitt trigger realization using 555.

19. What are the major sources of error which influences resolution of a meter?

1. With suitable circuit diagram show how you can measure ratio of two
2. Show the measurement of product of two frequencies.
3. Write a short note on peak frequency measurement.
4. Write short note on Up counting for the measurement of low-frequencies in
narrow band.
5. Show with suitable waveforms how you can measure fast deviated frequency
6. Briefly explain the down counting for low frequency measurement.
7. Explain frequency difference expansion method for frequency measurement.
8. Mention the advantages & application of frequency measurement.
9. With suitable circuit diagram show measurement of low varying frequency.
10. With proper waveforms explain frequency to voltage conversion.
11. Write a note on time reciprocating circuit.
12. Neatly draw the block diagram of maximum & minimum value indicator.
13. Draw the waveforms of frequency multiplier circuit.
14. Explain why conventional method of frequency measurement is not suitable
for low frequency measurement.
15. Draw the voltage transfer function of a phase shifter used in Q5.
16. Theoretically there is no limit of the low frequency that can be measured with
the time reciprocating instrument. However, in practice it does have a lower
limit. Explain?
17. What is multiphase sequence indicator?
18. What is quality factor? Explain.
19. According to corresponding ranges of the occurrences of the first event in a
clock period find the error in measurement.

1. Discuss group switching & single mode switching in relation to programmable resistors.
2. Discuss the realization of PGAs with suitable example.
3. Mention the design steps of non-inverting PGA & also design it for the gains 1, 10, 100, 1000.
4. Show how you can vary the polarity of a PGA by a single switch.
5. Write a brief introduction of the following programmable Biquad1 with neat circuit diagram.
6. Draw neat circuit diagram of switched capacitor biquad2.
7. Discuss the time multiplexing arrangements of switching capacitor circuit realizations of
8. Explain dual input twin-T notch filter and its advantages in brief.
9. Discuss dual polarity programmable gain amplifiers with a neat labeled circuit diagram. Also
explain the circuit with reduced number of switches.
10. State & prove the theorem for minimal realizations of digitally programmable resistors.
11. State & prove the theorem of minimal realizations of a digitally programmable resistor.
12. Derive the design relations for single mode switched consistors.
13. State & prove minimal realization theorem for PGAs.
14. Give the design relations of single mode switched inverting PGAs.
15. Derive the design relations of G-ladder PGA in single switched mode with total G fixed.
16. Derive the design relations of S-ladder PGA in single switched mode with total G fixed.
17. Design an inverting PGA for gains 0,-1,-2,-3,-7.
18. Mention the design steps of programmable buffered attenuator & also design for gains 1, 1/2,
1/3, 2/3.
19. Design a switched circuit of a general programmable gain amplifier & show how we can
measure positive & negative gains.
20. Design a non-inverting type Schmitt trigger programmed for the hysteresis widths of 5, 10,
15V. assume the OA saturation voltages are 10V.
21. Show an programmable amplifier circuit with dual polarity outputs.
22. Write a short note on data acquisition system.
23. What are the two conditions which are to be satisfied by a notch network?
24. Calculate null frequency of notch filter.
25. Compare the switched capacitor piqued circuits.

26. What are the types of DAS? Mention their applications also.

1. Explain the input output relationship of digital to analog converters.
2. Justify the relation Rk=R2k for weighted resistor DAC.
3. Discuss binary weighted charge type DACs.
4. Find the minimum spread & minimum total resistance required for two stage DAC.
5. Realize all possible two stage 8 bit WR DACs. Determine the maximum reduction in spread
and in the total resistance from the single stage DAC.
6. With proper circuit diagram explain the operations of an integrable weighted current,
differential current output D/A converter.
7. What is the maximum possible number of 4 bit ladder DACs? Realize {1*4} DACs for the
values of = , 2, 1, . Determine the resistance spread in each case.
8. Realize 15 bit and 16 bit DACs with the minimum spread and the minimum total resistance.
9. A two stage DAC always has the total resistance less than that of the single stage DAC. Prove.
10. Show how total resistance is reduced in multistage DAC.
11. Show then realization of {3, 2, 3} ladder DAC.
12. Discuss the difficulty in using BJTs as switches & how it can it be rectified.
13. Derive an expression for the total number of n-bit multistage DACs.
14. Compare the current driven & voltage driven DACs.
15. Compare weighted reference voltage DAC & weighted resistor DACs.
16. Show how the different ranges of PGA are obtained by DACs.
17. Draw block diagram of multi stage DACs find its total resistance.

1. With the help of block diagram explain the input circuitry of DVM.
2. Which type of digital converter do common millimeters use? Briefly explain the working of
such A/D converter with a block diagram.
3. Briefly discuss Sample & hold circuit

4. What do you understand by Quantization?

5. Define digit, a bit and a byte. What is the difference the 3-digit and 3 digit DVM?
6. Write short notes on sampling theorem.
7. Show the circuit diagram of voltage to time converter using multivibrator.
8. With proper waveforms explain voltage to frequency converter.
9. Derive output frequency term for charge balancing type voltage to frequency converter.
10. Explain TDM technique.
11. With proper circuit explain tracking type of ADC.
12. In a 6 bit successive approximation converter, if the full scale value represents 1V & the
unknown voltage Vx = 55/64 V, find the various v.
13. Explain auto ranging in multimeters.
14. Explain the protection circuit used in DVM.
15. Design a 3 digit DVM based on dual slope principle.
16. What do you understand by Q-factor of a coil?
17. Write a note on R-2R ladder type DAC.
18. Briefly explain indirect type ADC.
19. Explain logarithmic A/D converter circuit.
20. Explain the following terms related to S/H circuit: finite aperture time, single feed through,
21. Explain the working of digital multimeter & its use.