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P.O Box 11711 Kampala

Global Pace Limited

P.O Box 11711 Kampala

Project Title: Proposed Development of 20 MW Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Power
Phase 1: (Scoping Report)
Location: Arua, Uganda
Estimated Budget (Scoping report-2months)

US$ 20,000

Program Director
Wolfgang Enderle
Tel: +256 703 024 410
E-mail: wolfgang@worldactionfund.org

Executive Director
World Action Fund
Tel: +256 776 167 923
E-mail: odama@worldactionfund.org

1.0 Introduction
The overall Government Policy Vision for the role of renewable energy in the Ugandan
economy is to make modern renewable energy a substantial part of the national energy
consumption. In pursuit of that vision, the goal of Ugandas Renewable Energy Policy is
to increase the use of modern renewable energy from the current 4% to 61% of the total
energy consumption by the year 2017.
The Government of Uganda, the Energy Regulatory Authority (ERA) and World Action
Fund (WAF) are promoting the introduction of a Solar/PV power for industrialization and
creation of employment for the communities.
20 MW Photovoltaic Power Plant in Arua, Uganda
Scoping Report

The project proposal includes stringent environmental and social requirements, to

ensure that the projects are in line in International Best Practice.
We will engage Environmental and Management Consulting, an environmental
consultancy firm specialized in internationally funded power projects, and BIMCO
Consult, an experienced National Environmental Management Authority-NEMAregistered consultancy with a strong team of local environmental and social specialists,
for the environmental and social assessment of the project
In terms of environmental and social impacts no significant differences are expected,
and the cumulative impact of the concurrent development of both plants will be
considered as a worst case scenario.
The primary objective of the Scoping Report is to ensure that the key environmental
elements and sensitive receptors associated with the Projects construction,
commissioning, operation, (and decommissioning) phases are identified at an early
stage to determine the studies and assessment methodologies
2.0 Project Justification
The energy sector is one of the key sectors in Ugandas economy. The country has a
total energy consumption of approximately 11 million TOE (tonnes of oil equivalent),
2010. This consumption is partially met by a number of energy resources including solar
power, biomass and fossil fuels. Biomass is the most important source of energy for
97% of the population, providing for 90% of the total primary energy consumption, in
form of firewood, charcoal or crop residues. This dependence on biomass is one of
Africas highest. Electricity contributes only 1.1% to the national energy balance
(121,000 TOE), while oil products (mainly used for vehicles and thermal power plants)
account for 8.9%.
Concerning electricity generation, Uganda has an installed capacity of 835 MW, mostly
consisting of hydropower. The electrification rate in Uganda is very low with 12% at
national level (1991: 5.6%; 2006: 9%; 2010: 10%) but only 5% - 6% in rural areas.
Uganda currently has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumption (70kWh/year)
in the world (Africas average: 578 kWh per capita, World average: 2,572 kWh per
capita, Germany: 7,111 kWh per capita). About 72% of total electricity supplied by the
main grid is consumed by 12% of the domestic population concentrated in the Kampala
metropolitan area and nearby towns of Entebbe and Jinja. Approximately 1% of rural
households use off-grid electrification technologies (usually diesel generators or solar
photovoltaic systems).
Existing solar data shows that the solar energy resource in Uganda is high throughout
the year. With mean solar radiation of 5.1 kWh/m2 per day on a horizontal surface, the
country has a potential of 11.98 x 108 MWh gross energy resources. At an estimated
conversion efficiency of 10%, the country has available power of 11.98 x 107 MWh. For
this reason, the Government of Uganda, the Energy Regulatory Authority (ERA)
20 MW Photovoltaic Power Plant in Arua, Uganda
Scoping Report

encourage key players into rural electrification and industrialization, as power tariffs in
industries still remain high

3.0 Project Location

The proposed PV Plant will be located in Arua District, which is located in West Nile sub
region Uganda. The proposed plant will be located in Terego county, Arua district close
to national grid.
The project site will have coordinates recorded by the specialists for better zones.
The proposed site will partly cultivated, with some sections covered with grassland
trees, and used for grazing, with no human settlements.
4.0 Project Description
The proposed 20MW PV Plants will consist of numerous PV cells within modules
arranged in arrays upon mounting structures in a specific arrangement across the
proposed site. The arrays will be designed to ensure the most efficient alignment to
capture solar rays.
The electricity generation process using photovoltaic technology and the main
components required for this process are briefly described below:
4.1 PV Cell: A single photovoltaic cell comprises a specially treated semi-conductor
material (typically silicon) with separate front and back electrical contacts (positive and
negative) that are connected to form a circuit. Upon exposure to light, electrons are
knocked from the semi-conductor material under the photoelectric effect and are
transported around the electrical contacts to form a direct current.
4.2 PV Module: A module is the assembly of multiple PV cells mounted into a module.
Modules are designed to supply electricity at a certain voltage. PV modules typically are
covered with an anti-reflective glass or coating to protect the solar cells and to limit the
amount of reflected sunlight
4.3 PV Array: Multiple modules wired together form an array, or panel that are then
arranged to form the solar plant. The arrays will be mounted onto a structure to provide
the optimum solar alignment.
In addition to the PV arrays and mounting structures, a number of ancillary facilities will
also be included to the plant layout for electrical conversion and distribution, including
mainly cables and inverters.
Solar panels produce direct current (DC) electricity, so solar parks need conversion
equipment to convert this to alternating current (AC), which is the form transmitted by
the electricity grid. This conversion is undertaken by inverters that typically provide
power output at voltages of the order of 480 VAC. Electricity grids operate at much
20 MW Photovoltaic Power Plant in Arua, Uganda
Scoping Report

higher voltages of the order of tens or hundreds of thousands of volts, so transformers

are incorporated to deliver the required output to the grid

5.0 The wastes

The wastes generated onsite during the operational phase include oil from transformers
maintenance tasks and will be collected in a tank and removed at regular periods,
sanitary wastewater and wastewater from cleaning the panels.
6.0 Construction Phases and Workforce Requirements
The construction stage of the 20MW Plants will require significantly more staff than the
operational phase. The estimated workforce requirements during the construction phase
are outlined in the table below. For the construction phase less staff will be required as
the functioning of the plant will be automated and only maintenance, security and
module cleaning are likely to be required. For the decommissioning phase more
personnel will be required, but the exact numbers cannot be estimated at this stage
Required staff during the construction phase

20 MW Photovoltaic Power Plant in Arua, Uganda
Scoping Report

7.0 Construction techniques, schedule and equipment

The construction of the proposed project will require limited earthworks to level the site
for the positioning of the different modules, the installation of the mounting structures
and the PV arrays, the construction of the internal roads and paths, the installation of
the required electrical equipment (cables, inverter), fencing, security equipment.
7.1.0 Project Schedule
The project construction will take 8 weeks
7.1.1 Sourcing of the PV panels
Electricity generation using photovoltaic technology has comparatively few impacts (e.g.
air emissions, water requirements, wastewater discharges, noise or the consumption of
non-renewable resources) during the operational phase when compared to other
electricity generation technologies.
However, the Life Cycle Assessment Analysis of photovoltaic technology has shown
that the production of the cells and modules and their disposal/recycling are key aspects
that need to be considered to fully assess the impact of photovoltaic power production.
The decommissioning phase for the proposed power plant is analysed in relation to the
different environmental and social aspects.

20 MW Photovoltaic Power Plant in Arua, Uganda
Scoping Report

8.0 Project Alternatives

The consideration of alternatives based on environmental and socioeconomic
considerations allows for the most sustainable alternatives to be identified and for the
most environmentally and socially harmful alternatives to be rejected.
9.0 National Requirements
9.1.0The Ugandan Constitution
The Uganda Constitution of 1995 states in articles 39 and 41 that everyone has a duty
to maintain a sound environment. Every person in Uganda has a right to a healthy and
clean environment and as such can bring legal action for any pollution or disposal of
wastes. It also stipulates that Parliament shall by law provide measures intended to
protect and preserve the environment from abuse, pollution and degradation.
9.1.1 Ugandas Vision 2040
In Vision 2040 Uganda Government set goals to achieve by the year 2040 ranging
from political, economic, social, energy related and environmental. With respect to
environmental goals, the Government aspires to have sustainable social-economic
development that ensures environmental quality and preservation of the ecosystems in
the country. Vision 2040 recognizes energy as a key driver of the economic
development and notes that for Uganda to shift from a peasantry to an industrialized
and urban society, it must be propelled by electricity as a form of modern energy. It
estimates that Uganda will require 41,738 MW of electricity by year 2040.

10.0 Energy Policy

According to the 2002 National Energy Policy the goal of the energy sector is to meet
the energy needs of the Ugandan population for social and economic development in an
environmentally sustainable manner
11.0 Economic Impact
The project will create employment opportunities among the societies and hence social
12.0 Monitoring, Internal Reporting, and Evaluation
The effectiveness of the grievance mechanism and the efficient use of resources will be monitored and
reported upon. In this way, trends and recurring problems can be identified and resolved before they
become points of contention. Monitoring helps identify common or recurrent claims that may require
structural solutions or a policy change, and it enables the company to capture any lessons learned in
addressing grievances. Monitoring and reporting also create a base level of information that can be used
by the company to report back to communities
Preliminary Budget
1. Site assessment and meeting stakeholders..US$ 20,000
This budget will cater for assessment, visit by investment partners, site visits and
meeting stakeholders and consultants
20 MW Photovoltaic Power Plant in Arua, Uganda
Scoping Report