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mathematical analysis of Permanent magnet synchronous machine with different stages.

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mathematical analysis of Permanent magnet synchronous machine with different stages.

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MOTOR

2.1 Introduction

There are two major classifications of ac motors. The first one is induction

motors that are electrically connected to power source through electromagnetic

coupling, the rotor and the stator fields interact, creating rotation without any other

power source. The second is synchronous motors that have fixed stator windings that are

electrically connected to the ac supply with a separate source of excitation connected to

field windings when the motor is operating at synchronous speed.

Among the synchronous motor types the permanent magnet synchronous motor

(PMSM) is one possible design of three phase synchronous machines. The stator of a

PMSM has conventional three phase windings. In the rotor, PM materials have the same

function of the field winding in a conventional synchronous machine. Their development

was possible by the introduction of new magnetic materials, like the rare earth materials.

The use of a PM to generate substantial air gap magnetic flux makes it possible to

design highly efficient PM motors.

A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is a synchronous motor that

uses permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic field rather than using

electromagnets [1]. It has a multiphase stator and the stator electrical frequency is directly

proportional to the rotor speed in the steady state. However, it differs from a traditional

synchronous machine, in that it has permanent magnets in place of the field winding and

otherwise has no rotor conductors. The use of permanent magnets in the rotor enhances

efficiency, eliminates the need for slip rings, and eliminates the electrical rotor dynamics

that complicates the control (particularly vector control). The combination of an inner

permanent magnet rotor and outer windings offers the advantages of low rotor inertia,

efficient heat dissipation, and reduction of the motor size.

6

as the rotor speed is varied, so that the stator field always moves at the same

speed as the rotor. The rotating magnetic fields of the stator (armature) and the

rotor (excitation) system are then always in synchronous motion producing a

steady torque at all operating speeds. This is analogous to the D.C motor in which the

armature and excitation fields are synchronous but stationary for all operating speeds.

PMSM requires the very accurate measurement of rotor speed and position and the

very precise adjustment of the stator frequency. Rotor position sensing is done by

an encoder, resolver etc which forms part of a control loop of an adjustable

frequency inverter feeding the stator winding. The cross sectional view of PMSM has

shown in below Fig 2.1.

Materials to retain magnetism were introduced in electrical machine

research in the 1950s. There has been a rapid progress in these kinds of materials since

then.

magnet

material

affect

directly

the

performance of the motor and proper knowledge is required for the selection of

the materials and for understanding PM motors. The materials such as alnico-5,

ferrites (ceramics), samarium -cobalt, and neodymium boron iron are available as PMs

for use in machines. The particular choice of magnets and other design factors is

important, but does not directly influence the basic principles of power converter

control.

2.4.1 Based on Magnetization of PMs

PMs are magnetized with certain orientation or direction such as radial, parallel,

or any other direction. The magnetization orientation strongly influences the quality of

the air gap flux. density distribution and indirectly affects the power density in a

given arrangement of the machine with PMs. Radial and parallel magnetization

orientation are prevalent in practice whereas other forms of magnetization are yet to

make their presence felt even when they have been known to possess unique advantages

in some cases.PM motors can be classified by the magnetization orientation of PMs as

radial magnetization and parallel magnetization. The radial magnetization is along the

radius of rotor while the parallel magnetization is parallel to the edges of rotor.

The PMSM can be broadly classified on the basis of the direction of field flux as

follows:

1. Radial field: The flux direction is along the radius of the machine.

2. Axial field: The flux direction is parallel to the rotor shaft.

The radial field PM machines are common whereas the axial field machines are

coming into prominence in a small number of applications due to their higher power

density and have become a topic of interest for study. The field flux is along the radius of

the motor in radial magnetization and is perpendicular to the radius of the motor in

parallel magnetization.

PM motors are classified on the basis of the flux density distribution and the

shape of current excitation. They are PMSM and PM brushless motors (BLDC) [1]. The

PMSM has a sinusoidal shaped back EMF (it is an induced voltage in the stator by

the motion of the rotor) and is designed to develop sinusoidal back EMF waveforms.

Generally the PMSM has a:

8

Sinusoidal current waveforms, and

Sinusoidal distribution of stator conductors.

BLDC has a trapezoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop trapezoidal back

EMF waveforms. It has:

Rectangular current waveform, and

Concentrated stator windings.

In PMSMs, the magnets can be placed in different ways on the rotor. Depending

on the placement they are called either as Surface Permanent Magnet Motor or Interior

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor.

Surface mounted PM motors (SMPMSM) have a surface mounted permanent

magnet rotor. Each of the PM is mounted on the surface of the outer periphery of rotor

laminations. This arrangement provides the highest air gap flux density as it

directly faces the air gap without the interruption of any other medium such as

part of rotor laminations. Drawbacks of such an arrangement are lower structural

integrity and mechanical robustness as they are not tightly fitted into the rotor

laminations to their entire thickness.

applications because of the limitation that the magnets will fly apart during high-speed

operations. These motors are considered to have small saliency, thus having practically

equal inductances in both quadrature and direct axes. For a surface permanent magnet

motor,

Ld =

Each permanent magnet is mounted inside the rotor. The interior PM rotor construction is

mechanically robust and therefore suited for high-speed applications. The manufacturing

of this arrangement is more complex than the surface mount. It is not as common as the

surface mounted PM type. By designing a rotor magnetic circuit such that the inductance

varies as a function of rotor angle, the reluctance torque can be produced in addition

9

to the mutual reaction torque of synchronous motors. These motors are considered

to have saliency with q axis inductance ( Lq ) greater than the d axis inductance (

Ld ) ( L q

> Ld

and lamination has been chosen. The Fig 2.3 shows the Interior PM synchronous

machine.

machine

machine

The significant advantages of PMSM attracting researchers and industries make it

highly competitor to other motors like Induction Motors & DC Motors.

PMSMs have many advantages. To mention some;

They have high torque to inertia (lower weight). That is better dynamic

High power density.

High efficiency (That is no current in the rotor means no copper loss) and

reliability.

Avoidance of brushes and slip rings makes the machine less audible noise, longer

life, Sparkles (no fire hazard) and is used for high speed applications.

Efficient heat dissipation.

10

Even though PM machines have aforementioned merits, they have the following

demerits:

There is a possibility of demagnetization of the rotor magnet.

If demagnetization occurs, there will be a reduction of torque production.

There is a problem of maintenance of rotor magnet.

2.6 Applications

Among many applications of PM synchronous motor, here some of the following:

Robotics and factory automation (servo drives)

pick and place robots (Motion control

positioning tablets

automatic guided vehicle

Computer and office equipment

copier and microfilm machines

printers/plotters

tape drivers

Appliances

Washers

Blowers

Compressors

Heating

Ventilation and air conditioning, etc.

Vector control reconstructs orthogonal components of the stator current in

AC machine as torque producing current and magnetic flux producing current. In

order to create the perpendicular components of the stator current of PMSM which is

in the form of a vector, concept of coordinate transformation is required. Assume that

the three phase supply voltage is balanced. The Clarke and Parke transformation is a

transformation of coordinates from the three phase stationary coordinate system to the dq rotating coordinate system.

The transformations are usually based on following assumptions:

11

Rotor flux is assumed to be concentrated across d-axis and zero flux along q-axis.

Slot harmonics and deep bar effects are not considered.

Rotor flux is assumed to be fixed at a given operating point.

Machine core losses are negligible.

Saturation is neglected.

Rotor temperature alters the flux, but the variation with time is assumed to be

negligible

Permanent magnets behave linearly.

Neutral point is isolated.

There are no field current dynamics

the stator voltages & currents, induced emfs, and torque. The d-q coordinate system

rotates at the same speed of rotor; there is zero speed difference between rotor speed and

revolving stator field. The stator d-q axis has a fixed phase relationship with rotor

magnetic axis which is d-axis in modeling.

( a , b , c ) ( , ) : The Clarke Transformation which outputs a two coordinates

time variant system.

Clarke Transformation

b

c

12

1

2

3

2

1

i

2

=

3

i

0

[]

][ ]

1 i

a

2

ib

3

ic

2

(2.1)

( , ) (d,q,0): The Park transformation which outputs a two time

invariant Coordinates. For Vector Motor Control Theory, the normalized Park

transformation [( , ) (d, q)] is considered.

Parks Transformation

[][

][ ]

id

i

= cos sin

sin

cos

iq

i

(2.2)

Recent research has indicated that that the permanent magnet motor drives could

become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMSM

has a sinusoidal back emf and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant

torque. The PMSM is very similar to the wound rotor synchronous machine expect that

the PMSM that is used for servo applications tends not to have any damper windings and

excitation is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a field winding. Hence d,q

model of the PMSM can be derived from the well-known model of the synchronous

13

machine with the equations of the damper windings and field dynamics removed. This

chapter deals with the detailed modeling of a permanent magnet synchronous motor [3].

The model of PMSM without damper winding has been developed on rotor

reference frame using the following assumptions [3]:

1) Saturation is neglected.

2) The induced EMF is sinusoidal.

3) Core losses are negligible.

4) There are no field current dynamics.

It is also be assumed that rotor flux is constant at a given operating point and

concentrated along the d axis while there is zero flux along the q axis, an assumption

similarly made in the derivation of indirect vector controlled induction motor drives.

The rotor reference frame is chosen because the position of the rotor magnets

determine independently of the stator voltages and currents, the instantaneous induced

emf and subsequently the stator currents and torque of the machine. When rotor

references frame are considered, it means the equivalent q and d axis stator windings are

transformed to the reference frames that are revolving at rotor speed. The consequences is

that there is zero speed difference between the rotor and stator magnetic fields and the

stator q and d axis windings have a fixed phase relationship with the rotor magnet axis

which is the d axis in the modeling. The stator equations of the induction machine in the

rotor reference frames using flux linkages are taken to derive the model of the PMSM as

shown in Fig 2.7.

14

The state space modeling of the PMSM can be obtained by considering the

voltage equations of the motor in rotor reference frame.

v ds=R s ids + dsr qs

(2.3)

v qs =R s iqs + qs+ r ds

(2.4)

Where,

qs =L q i qs

(2.5)

ds =Ld ids + af

(2.6)

af

i ds=

( v dsR s ids +r Lq i qs )

(2.7)

Ld

15

iqs =

(2.8)

Lq

By substituting the equations 2.5 and 2.6 in equations 2.3 and 2.4 we get the state space

modeling of the PMSM

( )(

)( ) ( )

v qs = Rs + Lqs r Ld s i qs + r af

r Lqs R s + L ds i ds

v ds

af

(2.9)

With the help of equations and the laid-down assumptions, d-axis and q-axis equivalent

circuits of PMSM can be developed which are shown in Figs 2.8 and 2.9.

T e=

3P

( i i )

2 2 ds qs qs ds

(2.10)

Then T e becomes

T e=

3P

( L L ) i + i

2 2 [ d q ds af qs ]

(2.11)

16

T e=T l + B r +J

d r

dt

(2.12)

The transfer function modeling of PMSM can be obtained from the block diagram

Closed loop transfer function Can be written as

K

1

(

Js+ B )

L

s+1

(R )

K

1

1+

(

Js + B )

L

s

+1

(R )

m

(2.13)

Where K =P af

m

K

=

m

L

s+1 ( Js +B )+ K

R

17

(2.14)

m

K

=

m L 2 L

J s + B+J s+ B+ K

R

R

(2.15)

Open loop transfer function is given by

G OL ( s )=

( RL S+1) ( JS +B )

(2.16)

Where K =P af

GOL ( s )=

K

L 2 L

J s + B+J s+ B

R

R

(2.17)

The d-axis model of PMSM given by equation 2.7 can be implemented in

MATLAB as shown in Fig.2.11

1

Vd

1/Ld

Rd

1/Ld

Rd

3

Iq

Product

2

Wr

Lq

Lq

18

1

s

Integrator

1

Id

The q-axis model of PMSM given by equation 2.8 can be implemented in MATLAB as

shown in Fig.2.12

1

Vq

1/Lq

Rq

Rq

LmIfr

1/Lq

1

s

In tegrator

Iq

Lm Ifr

3

Id

Product

2

Ld

Wr

Ld

From the above two models we could implement an electrical circuit model of

PMSM i.e shown in Fig 2.13.

Vq

Vq

Wr

Iq

Id

qaxi s m odel

3

Vd

1

Iq

2

Id

Vd

Wr

We

Id

Iq

daxi s m odel

e =

( T e B rT l )

J

(2.18)

From the equation 2.12 the mechanical model of PMSM is implemented as shown in

Fig.2.14.

19

3

We

2

Te

1

s

1/J

1/J

Integrator

P/2

Gain1

1

s

1

T heta

Integrator1

TL

Wm

e = e

(2.19)

From the eqn. 2.11 of torque equation the MATLAB model is implemented as shown in

Fig.2.15

1

Iq

-KProduct

Ld

-K-

2

Id

Gai n3

-K-

1

Te

Lq

-KLmIfr

There are different techniques for control of permanent magnet synchronous

motors. Some of the techniques are shown in the Fig.2.16. The speed control may be

scalar based or vector based. The vector control based also can be direct torque

20

control or field oriented control. In this project work Field oriented control technique

along rotor flux oriented has been implemented shown in shaded path of Fig 2.16.

Scalar

Based

Speed

PMSM

Control

Volts/Hertz

Vector

Based

Rotor

Flux

Oriented

Stator

Flux

Oriented

The principle of vector control or field oriented control (FOC) of electrical drives

is based on the control of both the magnitude and the phase of stator current and voltage.

This control is based on projections which transform a three phase time and speed

dependent system into a two coordinate (d and q) time invariant system. These

projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC machine control. In order for the

PMSM to behave like DC motor, the control needs knowledge of the position of the

instantaneous rotor flux or rotor position [5]. The idea of Field Oriented Control method

is to control the current of the machine in space quadrature with the magnetic flux created

by the permanent magnets as in the case of DC motors.

A DC Motor consists of a field structure utilizing a stationary dc excited

winding or permanent magnets and a rotating armature winding supplied through a

commutator and brushes. The action of the commutator is to reverse the direction

21

of the armature winding currents as the coils pass the brush position that the armature

current distribution is fixed in space no matter what rotor speed exists. The field flux and

armature mmf are maintained in a mutually perpendicular orientation independent of

rotor speed. The result of this orthogonality is that the field flux is unaffected by the

armature current. i.e the field flux and the armature mmf are decoupled.

Like separately excited DC motor Field Oriented Control seeks to recreate these

orthogonal components in AC machines in order to control the torque producing current

separately from the magnetic flux producing current so as to achieve the responsiveness

of a DC motor.

Field oriented control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities. This

makes the control accurate in every working operation (steady state & transient) and

independent of the limited bandwidth mathematical model. Field oriented controlled

machines need two constants as input references: the torque component (aligned with the

q-coordinate) and the flux component (aligned with d- coordinate). The FOC thus solves

the classic scheme problems, in the following ways

component of the stator current)

22

The ease of applying direct electromagnetic torque, Tem control in the (d,

q) reference frame.

3

T em= P m i q

2

(2.20)

By maintaining the amplitude of the rotor flux (m) at a fixed value we have a

linear relationship between torque and torque component (iq). We can then control

the torque by controlling the torque component of stator current vector.

2.11 Inverter

It is a static power electronic device which converts D.C supply into A.C supply

with variable voltage and variable frequency. As the output voltage and frequency of the

inverter are controllable they play an important role in the adjustable speed drive system

employing any rotating electrical machine.

The inverter circuits can be classified into many groups on the basis of different

criteria as given below:

1

(a)

Single Phase

(b)

Three Phase

(a)

(b)

Line Commutated

Force Commutated

i) Auxiliary Commutated Inverters

ii) Complementary Commutated Inverters

(c)

3

Load Commutated

(a)

Series Inverters

(b)

Parallel Inverters

(c)

i)

Half Bridge

23

ii)

4

Full Bridge

(a)

(b)

Depending on the type of d.c. source supplying the inverter, they can be classified

as voltage source inverters (VSI) or current source inverters (CSI). In practice, the d.c.

source is usually a rectifier, typically of the three phase bridge configuration, with d.c.

link connected between the rectifier and the inverter.

The output voltage from an inverter can also be adjusted by exercising a control

within the inverter itself. The most efficient method of doing this is by pulse-width

modulation control used within an inverter. Pulse width modulation is an internal

controlling technique for controlling the output voltage and frequency of the inverter by

adjusting the ON and OFF periods of the inverter componetnts.

In this method, a fixed dc input voltage is given to the inverter and a controlled ac

output voltage is obtained by adjusting the on and off periods of the inverter components.

The main aim of any modulation technique is to obtain variable output having a

maximum fundamental component with minimum harmonics.

The advantages possessed by PWM techniques are as under:

The output voltage control with this method can be obtained without any

additional components.

With this method, lower order harmonics can be eliminated or minimized along

with its output voltage control. As higher order harmonics can be filtered easily,

the filtering requirements are minimized.

PWM inverters are quite popular in industrial applications. PWM techniques are

characterized by constant amplitude pulses. The width of these pulses is however

modulated to obtain inverter output voltage control and to reduce its harmonic content.

24

PWM techniques are classified on the basis of voltage or current control, feed

forward or feedback methods, carrier or non-carrier based control etc.

The Classification of the PWM techniques given as follows:

In this thesis

Selected harmonic elimination (SHEPWM)

Minimum ripple current PWM.

Space Vector PWM(SVPWM)

Random PWM

Hysteresis band current control PWM

Sinusoidal PWM with instantaneous current control.

Delta modulation

Sigma delta modulation

space vector pulse width modulation technique is used to generate the

The space vector PWM method is an advanced PWM method and is possibly the

best among all the PWM techniques for variable drive applications. Space Vector

Modulation (SVM) was originally developed as vector approach to Pulse Width

Modulation (PWM) for three phase inverters. It is a more sophisticated technique for

generating sine wave that provides a higher voltage to the motor with lower total

harmonic distortion. Space vector modulation for three leg VSI is based on the

representation of the three phase quantities as vectors in two ( , dimensional plane.

Before going into details of this technique, it would be useful to explore the

concept of voltage space-vector, in analogy with the concept of flux space-vector as used

in three-phase ac machine. The stator windings of a three-phase ac machine (with

cylindrical rotor), when fed with a three-phase balanced current produce a resultant flux

space-vector that rotates at synchronous speed in the space [9]. The flux vector due to an

individual phase winding is oriented along the axis of that particular winding and its

magnitude alternates as the current through it is alternating. The magnitude of the

25

resultant flux due to all three windings is, however, fixed at 1.5 times the peak magnitude

due to individual phase windings. The resultant flux is commonly known as the

synchronously rotating flux vector.

Now, in analogy with the fluxes, if a three-phase sinusoidal and balanced voltages given

by the equations 2.21,2.22 & 2.23.

V a=V m cos t

(2.21)

2

3

(2.22)

2

3

(2.23)

V b=V m cos t

V c =V m cos t +

is applied to the windings of a three-phase machine, a rotating voltage space vector may

be takes place. The resultant voltage space-vector will be rotating uniformly at the

synchronous speed and will have a magnitude equal to 1.5 times the peak magnitude of

the phase voltage.

Let these voltages be applied to the windings of a three-phase ac machine. Now,

during each time period of the phase voltages six discrete time instants can be identified.

For 180 mode of operation, there exist six switching states and additionally two

more states (V0 and V7), which make all three switches of either upper arms or lower

arms ON. To code these eight states in binary (one-zero representation), it is required to

have three bits (23 = 8). And also, as always upper and lower switches are commutated in

complementary fashion, it is enough to represent the status of either upper or lower arm

switches. There are eight possible output voltage states. Two of the output states are null

vectors (V0 and V7) whereas the other six output vectors are spatially spaced 60 apart as

shown in the Fig 2.18. Both V0 (000) and V7 (111) are called the zero voltage space

vector, and the other six vectors are called the effective vectors.

26

If we express the on state of the upper arm with 1 and the off state with 0, the on-off

state of three phase have eight combinations, correspondingly forming eight voltage

space vectors, as shown in Table 2.1. T refers to the operation times of two adjacent nonzero voltage space vectors in the same zone.

27

SVPWM aims to generate a voltage vector that is close to the reference circle

through the various switching modes of inverter. Fig 2.20 is a typical diagram of a three

phase voltage source inverter model. For the on-off state of the three phase inverter

circuit, every phase can be considered as a switch S. Here Sa(t), Sb(t), Sc(t) are used as

the switching functions for the three phases respectively.

28

Table 2.1: Eight on-off states of the inverter

Voltage

vectors

Switching vectors

Sa(t)

Sb(t)

Sc(t)

Van

Vbn

Vcn

V0

V1

2/3

-1/3

-1/3

V2

1/3

1/3

-2/3

V3

-1/3

2/3

-1/3

V4

-2/3

1/3

1/3

V5

-1/3

1/3

2/3

V6

1/3

-2/3

1/3

V7

The voltage space vector is synthesized by time weighted averaging of the two

adjacent basic non-zero voltage vectors that form the sector in which the reference

voltage space vector to be synthesized lies. Thus if the reference voltage space vector lies

in the first sector, voltage space vector V1 is active for duration T1 and voltage space

vector V2 is active for duration T2 within the switching period Ts as shown in Fig 2.21.

29

The desired three phase voltages at the output of the inverter could be represented by an

equivalent vector V(t) rotating in the counter clockwise direction.

V2 (010)

V(t)

V1 (001)

O

And the reference vector v (t) can be described as equation

V ( t )=

T1

T

T

T

V 1+ 2 V 2+ 0 V 0+ 7 V 7

TS

TS

TS

TS

(2.24)

Based on the principle of SVPWM , the simulation model for generating SVPWM

wave forms mainly include the sector judgment model, calculation of operation time of

fundamental vectors, calculation of switching time (duty cycle) and generation model of

SVPWM waveforms.

The output phase voltages and line voltages of the inverter are shown in Fig 2.22.

The gating signals for the thyristors of three phase bridge inverter are provided from the

space vector pulse width modulation technique. The output Phase voltages of the

inverter shown by Fig 2.22(a),Fig 2.22(b) and Fig 2.22(c) are displaced by 120 degrees

each other.

30

Phase A voltage(volts)

200

Voltage(volts)

100

0

-100

-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.2

0.25

0.2

0.25

Phase B voltage

200

V

o

lta

g

e

(v

o

lts

)

100

0

-100

-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

Phase C voltage

200

V

o

lta

g

e

(vo

lts)

100

0

-100

-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

31

Voltage(volts)

200

0

-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

0.2

0.25

The speed response of the motor without controller is shown in the Fig 2.23.

Without controller the speed response is having many oscillations and it settled at 0.15

sec time which is very large settling time. At the time of starting the speed of the motor is

very high. For proper control of the speed PI control technique and Fuzzy Logic control

have implemented and discussed in preceding chapters.

Speed of PMSM without controller

1500

1000

S

p

e

e

d

(ra

d

/se

c)

500

0

-500

-1000

-1500

0.05

0.1

0.15

Time(sec)

0.2

0.25

0.3

2.15 SUMMARY

In this chapter the operation of PMSM, its advantages and applications are

discussed. The state space and transfer function modeling of the PMSM are derived.

32

Different types of control strategies of PMSM are listed and mainly focused on the vector

control technique. The advantages of the PWM techniques are listed and explained space

vector pulse width modulation technique in detail. Finally the simulation results for the

output voltage of the inverter are shown.

33

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