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CHAPTER 2

MODELLING OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS


MOTOR
2.1 Introduction
There are two major classifications of ac motors. The first one is induction
motors that are electrically connected to power source through electromagnetic
coupling, the rotor and the stator fields interact, creating rotation without any other
power source. The second is synchronous motors that have fixed stator windings that are
electrically connected to the ac supply with a separate source of excitation connected to
field windings when the motor is operating at synchronous speed.
Among the synchronous motor types the permanent magnet synchronous motor
(PMSM) is one possible design of three phase synchronous machines. The stator of a
PMSM has conventional three phase windings. In the rotor, PM materials have the same
function of the field winding in a conventional synchronous machine. Their development
was possible by the introduction of new magnetic materials, like the rare earth materials.
The use of a PM to generate substantial air gap magnetic flux makes it possible to
design highly efficient PM motors.

2.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)


A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is a synchronous motor that
uses permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic field rather than using
electromagnets [1]. It has a multiphase stator and the stator electrical frequency is directly
proportional to the rotor speed in the steady state. However, it differs from a traditional
synchronous machine, in that it has permanent magnets in place of the field winding and
otherwise has no rotor conductors. The use of permanent magnets in the rotor enhances
efficiency, eliminates the need for slip rings, and eliminates the electrical rotor dynamics
that complicates the control (particularly vector control). The combination of an inner
permanent magnet rotor and outer windings offers the advantages of low rotor inertia,
efficient heat dissipation, and reduction of the motor size.
6

The PMSMs involve adjustment of the stator supply frequency, proportionally


as the rotor speed is varied, so that the stator field always moves at the same
speed as the rotor. The rotating magnetic fields of the stator (armature) and the
rotor (excitation) system are then always in synchronous motion producing a
steady torque at all operating speeds. This is analogous to the D.C motor in which the
armature and excitation fields are synchronous but stationary for all operating speeds.
PMSM requires the very accurate measurement of rotor speed and position and the
very precise adjustment of the stator frequency. Rotor position sensing is done by
an encoder, resolver etc which forms part of a control loop of an adjustable
frequency inverter feeding the stator winding. The cross sectional view of PMSM has
shown in below Fig 2.1.

Fig 2.1 Cross Sectional view of PMSM

2.3 Permanent Magnet Materials


Materials to retain magnetism were introduced in electrical machine
research in the 1950s. There has been a rapid progress in these kinds of materials since
then.

The properties of the permanent

magnet

material

affect

directly

the

performance of the motor and proper knowledge is required for the selection of
the materials and for understanding PM motors. The materials such as alnico-5,
ferrites (ceramics), samarium -cobalt, and neodymium boron iron are available as PMs
for use in machines. The particular choice of magnets and other design factors is

important, but does not directly influence the basic principles of power converter
control.

2.4 Classification of Permanent Magnet Motors


2.4.1 Based on Magnetization of PMs
PMs are magnetized with certain orientation or direction such as radial, parallel,
or any other direction. The magnetization orientation strongly influences the quality of
the air gap flux. density distribution and indirectly affects the power density in a
given arrangement of the machine with PMs. Radial and parallel magnetization
orientation are prevalent in practice whereas other forms of magnetization are yet to
make their presence felt even when they have been known to possess unique advantages
in some cases.PM motors can be classified by the magnetization orientation of PMs as
radial magnetization and parallel magnetization. The radial magnetization is along the
radius of rotor while the parallel magnetization is parallel to the edges of rotor.
The PMSM can be broadly classified on the basis of the direction of field flux as
follows:
1. Radial field: The flux direction is along the radius of the machine.
2. Axial field: The flux direction is parallel to the rotor shaft.
The radial field PM machines are common whereas the axial field machines are
coming into prominence in a small number of applications due to their higher power
density and have become a topic of interest for study. The field flux is along the radius of
the motor in radial magnetization and is perpendicular to the radius of the motor in
parallel magnetization.

2.4.2 Based on Flux Density Distribution


PM motors are classified on the basis of the flux density distribution and the
shape of current excitation. They are PMSM and PM brushless motors (BLDC) [1]. The
PMSM has a sinusoidal shaped back EMF (it is an induced voltage in the stator by
the motion of the rotor) and is designed to develop sinusoidal back EMF waveforms.
Generally the PMSM has a:
8

Sinusoidal distribution of magnet flux in the air gap.


Sinusoidal current waveforms, and
Sinusoidal distribution of stator conductors.

BLDC has a trapezoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop trapezoidal back
EMF waveforms. It has:

Rectangular distribution of magnet flux in the air gap.


Rectangular current waveform, and
Concentrated stator windings.

2.4.3 Based on Positioning of Magnets


In PMSMs, the magnets can be placed in different ways on the rotor. Depending
on the placement they are called either as Surface Permanent Magnet Motor or Interior
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor.
Surface mounted PM motors (SMPMSM) have a surface mounted permanent
magnet rotor. Each of the PM is mounted on the surface of the outer periphery of rotor
laminations. This arrangement provides the highest air gap flux density as it
directly faces the air gap without the interruption of any other medium such as
part of rotor laminations. Drawbacks of such an arrangement are lower structural
integrity and mechanical robustness as they are not tightly fitted into the rotor
laminations to their entire thickness.

This configuration is used for low speed

applications because of the limitation that the magnets will fly apart during high-speed
operations. These motors are considered to have small saliency, thus having practically
equal inductances in both quadrature and direct axes. For a surface permanent magnet
motor,

Ld =

Lq .The Fig 2.2 shows the surface mounted PMSM

Interior PM Motors (IPMSM) have interior mounted permanent magnet rotor.


Each permanent magnet is mounted inside the rotor. The interior PM rotor construction is
mechanically robust and therefore suited for high-speed applications. The manufacturing
of this arrangement is more complex than the surface mount. It is not as common as the
surface mounted PM type. By designing a rotor magnetic circuit such that the inductance
varies as a function of rotor angle, the reluctance torque can be produced in addition
9

to the mutual reaction torque of synchronous motors. These motors are considered
to have saliency with q axis inductance ( Lq ) greater than the d axis inductance (
Ld ) ( L q

> Ld

). In this thesis SPM radial flux machine with classical winding

and lamination has been chosen. The Fig 2.3 shows the Interior PM synchronous
machine.

Fig 2.2 Surface PM synchronous


machine

Fig 2.3 Interior PM synchronous


machine

2.5 Why do we go for PMSM?


The significant advantages of PMSM attracting researchers and industries make it
highly competitor to other motors like Induction Motors & DC Motors.
PMSMs have many advantages. To mention some;

They have high torque to inertia (lower weight). That is better dynamic

performance than conventional one.


High power density.
High efficiency (That is no current in the rotor means no copper loss) and

reliability.
Avoidance of brushes and slip rings makes the machine less audible noise, longer

life, Sparkles (no fire hazard) and is used for high speed applications.
Efficient heat dissipation.

10

Even though PM machines have aforementioned merits, they have the following
demerits:

They have complex control.


There is a possibility of demagnetization of the rotor magnet.
If demagnetization occurs, there will be a reduction of torque production.
There is a problem of maintenance of rotor magnet.

2.6 Applications
Among many applications of PM synchronous motor, here some of the following:
Robotics and factory automation (servo drives)
pick and place robots (Motion control
positioning tablets
automatic guided vehicle
Computer and office equipment
copier and microfilm machines
printers/plotters
tape drivers
Appliances
Washers
Blowers
Compressors
Heating
Ventilation and air conditioning, etc.

2.7 Clarks and Parks Transformations


Vector control reconstructs orthogonal components of the stator current in
AC machine as torque producing current and magnetic flux producing current. In
order to create the perpendicular components of the stator current of PMSM which is
in the form of a vector, concept of coordinate transformation is required. Assume that
the three phase supply voltage is balanced. The Clarke and Parke transformation is a
transformation of coordinates from the three phase stationary coordinate system to the dq rotating coordinate system.
The transformations are usually based on following assumptions:

11

Space harmonics of the flux linkage distribution are neglected.


Rotor flux is assumed to be concentrated across d-axis and zero flux along q-axis.
Slot harmonics and deep bar effects are not considered.
Rotor flux is assumed to be fixed at a given operating point.
Machine core losses are negligible.
Saturation is neglected.
Rotor temperature alters the flux, but the variation with time is assumed to be

negligible
Permanent magnets behave linearly.
Neutral point is isolated.
There are no field current dynamics

Rotor reference frame is chosen because rotor position determines independently


the stator voltages & currents, induced emfs, and torque. The d-q coordinate system
rotates at the same speed of rotor; there is zero speed difference between rotor speed and
revolving stator field. The stator d-q axis has a fixed phase relationship with rotor
magnetic axis which is d-axis in modeling.

Fig 2.4 Three-phase and two phase stator windings.

2.7.1 Clarke Transformation


( a , b , c ) ( , ) : The Clarke Transformation which outputs a two coordinates
time variant system.

Clarke Transformation

b
c
12

Fig 2.5 Block Diagram of Clarke Transformation

1
2
3
2

1
i
2
=
3
i
0

[]

][ ]

1 i
a
2
ib
3
ic
2

(2.1)

2.7.2 Parks Transformation


( , ) (d,q,0): The Park transformation which outputs a two time
invariant Coordinates. For Vector Motor Control Theory, the normalized Park
transformation [( , ) (d, q)] is considered.
Parks Transformation

Fig 2.6 Block Diagram of Parks Transformation

[][

][ ]

id
i
= cos sin
sin

cos

iq
i

(2.2)

2.8 Modeling of PMSM


Recent research has indicated that that the permanent magnet motor drives could
become serious competitors to the induction motor for servo applications. The PMSM
has a sinusoidal back emf and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant
torque. The PMSM is very similar to the wound rotor synchronous machine expect that
the PMSM that is used for servo applications tends not to have any damper windings and
excitation is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a field winding. Hence d,q
model of the PMSM can be derived from the well-known model of the synchronous
13

machine with the equations of the damper windings and field dynamics removed. This
chapter deals with the detailed modeling of a permanent magnet synchronous motor [3].
The model of PMSM without damper winding has been developed on rotor
reference frame using the following assumptions [3]:
1) Saturation is neglected.
2) The induced EMF is sinusoidal.
3) Core losses are negligible.
4) There are no field current dynamics.
It is also be assumed that rotor flux is constant at a given operating point and
concentrated along the d axis while there is zero flux along the q axis, an assumption
similarly made in the derivation of indirect vector controlled induction motor drives.
The rotor reference frame is chosen because the position of the rotor magnets
determine independently of the stator voltages and currents, the instantaneous induced
emf and subsequently the stator currents and torque of the machine. When rotor
references frame are considered, it means the equivalent q and d axis stator windings are
transformed to the reference frames that are revolving at rotor speed. The consequences is
that there is zero speed difference between the rotor and stator magnetic fields and the
stator q and d axis windings have a fixed phase relationship with the rotor magnet axis
which is the d axis in the modeling. The stator equations of the induction machine in the
rotor reference frames using flux linkages are taken to derive the model of the PMSM as
shown in Fig 2.7.

14

Fig 2.7 Permanent Magnet synchronously rotating d-q reference frame

2.8.1 State space modeling


The state space modeling of the PMSM can be obtained by considering the
voltage equations of the motor in rotor reference frame.
v ds=R s ids + dsr qs

(2.3)

v qs =R s iqs + qs+ r ds

(2.4)

Where,
qs =L q i qs
(2.5)
ds =Ld ids + af
(2.6)
af

Is the magnet mutual flux linkage

The equations 2.3 and 2.4 can be written as follows

i ds=

( v dsR s ids +r Lq i qs )

(2.7)

Ld
15

iqs =

( v qsR s+ r Lds idsr af )

(2.8)

Lq

By substituting the equations 2.5 and 2.6 in equations 2.3 and 2.4 we get the state space
modeling of the PMSM

( )(

)( ) ( )

v qs = Rs + Lqs r Ld s i qs + r af
r Lqs R s + L ds i ds
v ds
af

(2.9)

With the help of equations and the laid-down assumptions, d-axis and q-axis equivalent
circuits of PMSM can be developed which are shown in Figs 2.8 and 2.9.

Fig 2.8 D-axis equivalent circuit of the PMSM

Fig 2.9 Q-axis equivalent circuit of the PMSM

T e=

3P
( i i )
2 2 ds qs qs ds
(2.10)

Then T e becomes
T e=

3P
( L L ) i + i
2 2 [ d q ds af qs ]
(2.11)
16

Mechanical equation of the motor given by


T e=T l + B r +J

d r
dt
(2.12)

2.8.2 Transfer function model of PMSM


The transfer function modeling of PMSM can be obtained from the block diagram

Fig 2.10 Block diagram of PMSM


Closed loop transfer function Can be written as
K

1
(
Js+ B )
L
s+1
(R )

K
1
1+
(
Js + B )
L
s
+1
(R )
m

(2.13)

Where K =P af
m
K
=
m
L

s+1 ( Js +B )+ K
R

Then finally the speed controller transfer function can be written as


17

(2.14)

m
K
=
m L 2 L
J s + B+J s+ B+ K
R
R

(2.15)
Open loop transfer function is given by
G OL ( s )=

( RL S+1) ( JS +B )

(2.16)

Where K =P af

Then GOL ( s ) becomes


GOL ( s )=

K
L 2 L
J s + B+J s+ B
R
R

(2.17)

2.9 Modeling Analysis of PMSM


The d-axis model of PMSM given by equation 2.7 can be implemented in
MATLAB as shown in Fig.2.11
1
Vd

1/Ld
Rd

1/Ld

Rd

3
Iq
Product
2
Wr

Lq
Lq

Fig 2.11 d-axis model in MATLAB

18

1
s
Integrator

1
Id

The q-axis model of PMSM given by equation 2.8 can be implemented in MATLAB as
shown in Fig.2.12

1
Vq

1/Lq

Rq
Rq

LmIfr

1/Lq

1
s

In tegrator

Iq

Lm Ifr

3
Id
Product
2

Ld

Wr

Ld

Fig 2.12 q-axis model in MATLAB

From the above two models we could implement an electrical circuit model of
PMSM i.e shown in Fig 2.13.

Vq

Vq

Wr

Iq

Id

qaxi s m odel

3
Vd

1
Iq
2
Id

Vd

Wr

We

Id

Iq

daxi s m odel

Fig 2.13 MATLAB electrical circuit model


e =

( T e B rT l )
J
(2.18)

From the equation 2.12 the mechanical model of PMSM is implemented as shown in
Fig.2.14.
19

3
We
2
Te

1
s

1/J
1/J

Integrator

P/2
Gain1

1
s

1
T heta

Integrator1

TL

Wm

Fig 2.14 MATLAB mechanical model


e = e
(2.19)

From the eqn. 2.11 of torque equation the MATLAB model is implemented as shown in
Fig.2.15

1
Iq
-KProduct

Ld

-K-

2
Id

Gai n3

-K-

1
Te

Lq

-KLmIfr

Fig 2.15 Torque equation implementation in MATLAB

2.10 Control strategies of PMSM


There are different techniques for control of permanent magnet synchronous
motors. Some of the techniques are shown in the Fig.2.16. The speed control may be
scalar based or vector based. The vector control based also can be direct torque

20

control or field oriented control. In this project work Field oriented control technique
along rotor flux oriented has been implemented shown in shaded path of Fig 2.16.

Scalar
Based
Speed
PMSM
Control

Volts/Hertz

Direct Torque Control


Vector
Based

Rotor
Flux
Oriented

Field Oriented Control


Stator
Flux
Oriented

Fig 2.16 Different techniques of PMSM speed control

2.10.1 Vector control of PMSM


The principle of vector control or field oriented control (FOC) of electrical drives
is based on the control of both the magnitude and the phase of stator current and voltage.
This control is based on projections which transform a three phase time and speed
dependent system into a two coordinate (d and q) time invariant system. These
projections lead to a structure similar to that of a DC machine control. In order for the
PMSM to behave like DC motor, the control needs knowledge of the position of the
instantaneous rotor flux or rotor position [5]. The idea of Field Oriented Control method
is to control the current of the machine in space quadrature with the magnetic flux created
by the permanent magnets as in the case of DC motors.
A DC Motor consists of a field structure utilizing a stationary dc excited
winding or permanent magnets and a rotating armature winding supplied through a
commutator and brushes. The action of the commutator is to reverse the direction
21

of the armature winding currents as the coils pass the brush position that the armature
current distribution is fixed in space no matter what rotor speed exists. The field flux and
armature mmf are maintained in a mutually perpendicular orientation independent of
rotor speed. The result of this orthogonality is that the field flux is unaffected by the
armature current. i.e the field flux and the armature mmf are decoupled.

Fig 2.17 Separately excited DC Motor


Like separately excited DC motor Field Oriented Control seeks to recreate these
orthogonal components in AC machines in order to control the torque producing current
separately from the magnetic flux producing current so as to achieve the responsiveness
of a DC motor.
Field oriented control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities. This
makes the control accurate in every working operation (steady state & transient) and
independent of the limited bandwidth mathematical model. Field oriented controlled
machines need two constants as input references: the torque component (aligned with the
q-coordinate) and the flux component (aligned with d- coordinate). The FOC thus solves
the classic scheme problems, in the following ways

The ease of reaching constant reference (torque component and flux


component of the stator current)

22

The ease of applying direct electromagnetic torque, Tem control in the (d,
q) reference frame.
3
T em= P m i q
2

(2.20)

By maintaining the amplitude of the rotor flux (m) at a fixed value we have a
linear relationship between torque and torque component (iq). We can then control
the torque by controlling the torque component of stator current vector.

2.11 Inverter
It is a static power electronic device which converts D.C supply into A.C supply
with variable voltage and variable frequency. As the output voltage and frequency of the
inverter are controllable they play an important role in the adjustable speed drive system
employing any rotating electrical machine.

2.11.1 Classification of the Inverters


The inverter circuits can be classified into many groups on the basis of different
criteria as given below:
1

Based on number of output Phases


(a)
Single Phase
(b)
Three Phase

Based on the methods of Commutation


(a)
(b)

Line Commutated
Force Commutated
i) Auxiliary Commutated Inverters
ii) Complementary Commutated Inverters

(c)
3

Load Commutated

Based on the connection of thyristors


(a)

Series Inverters

(b)

Parallel Inverters

(c)

Bridge Type Inverters:


i)

Half Bridge

23

ii)
4

Full Bridge

Based on the nature of DC sources feeding the Inverters


(a)

Voltage Source Inverters (VSI)

(b)

Current Source Inverters (CSI)

Depending on the type of d.c. source supplying the inverter, they can be classified
as voltage source inverters (VSI) or current source inverters (CSI). In practice, the d.c.
source is usually a rectifier, typically of the three phase bridge configuration, with d.c.
link connected between the rectifier and the inverter.

2.12 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Technique


The output voltage from an inverter can also be adjusted by exercising a control
within the inverter itself. The most efficient method of doing this is by pulse-width
modulation control used within an inverter. Pulse width modulation is an internal
controlling technique for controlling the output voltage and frequency of the inverter by
adjusting the ON and OFF periods of the inverter componetnts.
In this method, a fixed dc input voltage is given to the inverter and a controlled ac
output voltage is obtained by adjusting the on and off periods of the inverter components.
The main aim of any modulation technique is to obtain variable output having a
maximum fundamental component with minimum harmonics.
The advantages possessed by PWM techniques are as under:

The output voltage control with this method can be obtained without any

additional components.
With this method, lower order harmonics can be eliminated or minimized along
with its output voltage control. As higher order harmonics can be filtered easily,
the filtering requirements are minimized.

PWM inverters are quite popular in industrial applications. PWM techniques are
characterized by constant amplitude pulses. The width of these pulses is however
modulated to obtain inverter output voltage control and to reduce its harmonic content.

2.12.1 Types of Pulse Width Modulation Techniques


24

PWM techniques are classified on the basis of voltage or current control, feed
forward or feedback methods, carrier or non-carrier based control etc.
The Classification of the PWM techniques given as follows:

In this thesis

Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM)


Selected harmonic elimination (SHEPWM)
Minimum ripple current PWM.
Space Vector PWM(SVPWM)
Random PWM
Hysteresis band current control PWM
Sinusoidal PWM with instantaneous current control.
Delta modulation
Sigma delta modulation
space vector pulse width modulation technique is used to generate the

switching pulses to three phase bridge inverter.

2.13 Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation


The space vector PWM method is an advanced PWM method and is possibly the
best among all the PWM techniques for variable drive applications. Space Vector
Modulation (SVM) was originally developed as vector approach to Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) for three phase inverters. It is a more sophisticated technique for
generating sine wave that provides a higher voltage to the motor with lower total
harmonic distortion. Space vector modulation for three leg VSI is based on the
representation of the three phase quantities as vectors in two ( , dimensional plane.
Before going into details of this technique, it would be useful to explore the
concept of voltage space-vector, in analogy with the concept of flux space-vector as used
in three-phase ac machine. The stator windings of a three-phase ac machine (with
cylindrical rotor), when fed with a three-phase balanced current produce a resultant flux
space-vector that rotates at synchronous speed in the space [9]. The flux vector due to an
individual phase winding is oriented along the axis of that particular winding and its
magnitude alternates as the current through it is alternating. The magnitude of the
25

resultant flux due to all three windings is, however, fixed at 1.5 times the peak magnitude
due to individual phase windings. The resultant flux is commonly known as the
synchronously rotating flux vector.
Now, in analogy with the fluxes, if a three-phase sinusoidal and balanced voltages given
by the equations 2.21,2.22 & 2.23.
V a=V m cos t

(2.21)

2
3

(2.22)

2
3

(2.23)

V b=V m cos t

V c =V m cos t +

is applied to the windings of a three-phase machine, a rotating voltage space vector may
be takes place. The resultant voltage space-vector will be rotating uniformly at the
synchronous speed and will have a magnitude equal to 1.5 times the peak magnitude of
the phase voltage.
Let these voltages be applied to the windings of a three-phase ac machine. Now,
during each time period of the phase voltages six discrete time instants can be identified.

2.13.1 Switching States


For 180 mode of operation, there exist six switching states and additionally two
more states (V0 and V7), which make all three switches of either upper arms or lower
arms ON. To code these eight states in binary (one-zero representation), it is required to
have three bits (23 = 8). And also, as always upper and lower switches are commutated in
complementary fashion, it is enough to represent the status of either upper or lower arm
switches. There are eight possible output voltage states. Two of the output states are null
vectors (V0 and V7) whereas the other six output vectors are spatially spaced 60 apart as
shown in the Fig 2.18. Both V0 (000) and V7 (111) are called the zero voltage space
vector, and the other six vectors are called the effective vectors.

26

Fig 2.18 The voltage space-vectors output by a 3-phase Inverter


If we express the on state of the upper arm with 1 and the off state with 0, the on-off
state of three phase have eight combinations, correspondingly forming eight voltage
space vectors, as shown in Table 2.1. T refers to the operation times of two adjacent nonzero voltage space vectors in the same zone.

27

Fig 2.19 Eight switching state topologies of a voltage source inverter


SVPWM aims to generate a voltage vector that is close to the reference circle
through the various switching modes of inverter. Fig 2.20 is a typical diagram of a three
phase voltage source inverter model. For the on-off state of the three phase inverter
circuit, every phase can be considered as a switch S. Here Sa(t), Sb(t), Sc(t) are used as
the switching functions for the three phases respectively.

28

Fig 2.20 Typical diagram of a Three-phase voltage source inverter


Table 2.1: Eight on-off states of the inverter
Voltage
vectors

Switching vectors

Line to neutral voltage

Sa(t)

Sb(t)

Sc(t)

Van

Vbn

Vcn

V0

V1

2/3

-1/3

-1/3

V2

1/3

1/3

-2/3

V3

-1/3

2/3

-1/3

V4

-2/3

1/3

1/3

V5

-1/3

1/3

2/3

V6

1/3

-2/3

1/3

V7

The voltage space vector is synthesized by time weighted averaging of the two
adjacent basic non-zero voltage vectors that form the sector in which the reference
voltage space vector to be synthesized lies. Thus if the reference voltage space vector lies
in the first sector, voltage space vector V1 is active for duration T1 and voltage space
vector V2 is active for duration T2 within the switching period Ts as shown in Fig 2.21.

29

The desired three phase voltages at the output of the inverter could be represented by an
equivalent vector V(t) rotating in the counter clockwise direction.
V2 (010)

V(t)

V1 (001)
O

Fig 2.21 Synthesized reference voltage space vector in sector-I


And the reference vector v (t) can be described as equation
V ( t )=

T1
T
T
T
V 1+ 2 V 2+ 0 V 0+ 7 V 7
TS
TS
TS
TS

(2.24)

Based on the principle of SVPWM , the simulation model for generating SVPWM
wave forms mainly include the sector judgment model, calculation of operation time of
fundamental vectors, calculation of switching time (duty cycle) and generation model of
SVPWM waveforms.

2.14 Simulation Results


The output phase voltages and line voltages of the inverter are shown in Fig 2.22.
The gating signals for the thyristors of three phase bridge inverter are provided from the
space vector pulse width modulation technique. The output Phase voltages of the
inverter shown by Fig 2.22(a),Fig 2.22(b) and Fig 2.22(c) are displaced by 120 degrees
each other.

30

Phase A voltage(volts)

200

Voltage(volts)

100
0
-100
-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.2

0.25

0.2

0.25

Fig 2.22 a) Phase A output voltage of the inverter

Phase B voltage

200

V
o
lta
g
e
(v
o
lts
)

100
0
-100
-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

Fig 2.22b) Phase B output voltage of the inverter


Phase C voltage

200

V
o
lta
g
e
(vo
lts)

100
0
-100
-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

Fig 2.22c) Phase C output voltage of the inverter


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Line to Line voltage

Voltage(volts)

200
0

-200

0.05

0.1

Time(sec)

0.15

0.2

0.25

Fig 2.22d) Line to Line output voltage of the inverter

The speed response of the motor without controller is shown in the Fig 2.23.
Without controller the speed response is having many oscillations and it settled at 0.15
sec time which is very large settling time. At the time of starting the speed of the motor is
very high. For proper control of the speed PI control technique and Fuzzy Logic control
have implemented and discussed in preceding chapters.
Speed of PMSM without controller

1500
1000

S
p
e
e
d
(ra
d
/se
c)

500
0
-500
-1000
-1500

0.05

0.1

0.15
Time(sec)

0.2

0.25

0.3

Fig 2.23 Speed response of PMSM without controller

2.15 SUMMARY
In this chapter the operation of PMSM, its advantages and applications are
discussed. The state space and transfer function modeling of the PMSM are derived.
32

Different types of control strategies of PMSM are listed and mainly focused on the vector
control technique. The advantages of the PWM techniques are listed and explained space
vector pulse width modulation technique in detail. Finally the simulation results for the
output voltage of the inverter are shown.

33