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# 12/16/2016

Ch31HW

Ch31HW
Due:11:59pmonThursday,December15,2016

VoltageandCurrentinACCircuits
LearningGoal:
TounderstandtherelationshipbetweenACvoltageandcurrentinresistors,inductors,andcapacitors,especiallythephaseshiftbetweenthevoltageandthe
current.
Inthisproblem,weconsiderthebehaviorofresistors,inductors,andcapacitorsdrivenindividuallybyasinusoidallyalternatingvoltagesource,forwhichthe
voltageisgivenasafunctionoftimebyV (t) = V0 cos(t).Themainchallengeistoapplyyourknowledgeofthebasicpropertiesofresistors,inductors,
andcapacitorstothese"singleelement"ACcircuitstofindthecurrentI (t)througheach.Thekeyistounderstandthephasedifference,alsoknownasthe
phaseangle,betweenthevoltageandthecurrent.Itisimportanttotakeintoaccountthesignofthecurrent,whichwillbecalledpositivewhenitflows
clockwisefromthebterminal(whichhaspositivevoltagerelativetotheaterminal)totheaterminal(seefigure).Thesigniscriticalintheanalysisofcircuits
containingcombinationsofresistors,capacitors,andinductors.

PartA
First,letusconsideraresistorwithresistanceRconnectedtoanACsource(diagram1).IftheACsourceprovidesavoltageVR (t)
isthecurrentIR (t)throughtheresistorasafunctionoftime?

= V0 cos(t)

,what

Hint1.Ohm'slaw
Ohm'slawI

V
R

isstilltrueatanymomentintime.

IR (t)

V0

cos(t)
R

Correct
Notethatthevoltageandthecurrentareinphasethatis,intheexpressionsforVR (t)andIR (t),theargumentsofthecosinefunctionsarethe
sameatanymomentoftime.Thiswillnotbethecaseforthecapacitorandinductor.

PartB
NowconsideraninductorwithinductanceLinanACcircuit(diagram2).AssumingthatthecurrentintheinductorvariesasIL (t)
voltageVL (t)thatmustbedrivingtheinductor.

= I0 cos(t)

,findthe

Hint1.Kirchhoff'slooprule
ApplyKirchhoff'sloopruletothiscircuit,goingclockwisearoundthecircuit(thesamedirectionasthecurrentarrow).Writedownthesumofthe
voltagedropsacrosseachofthecircuitelements.
UseV (t)forthevoltagefromthesource,anddescribethevoltagedropacrosstheinductorintermsofLanddI (t)/dt .
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## UseVL (t)forthevoltagefromthesource,anddescribethevoltagedropacrosstheinductorintermsofLanddIL (t)/dt .

Vi

LdI L (t)

VL (t)

dt

Hint2.Thederivativeofcos(t)
Whatisthederivativeofcos(t),withrespecttotime?
d cos(t)
dt

sin(t)

Hint3.Thephaserelationshipbetweensineandcosine
Notethatsin(x) = cos(x +

VL (t)

cos(t+

I0 L

Correct

## GraphsofVL (t)andI (t)areshownbelow.Asyoucansee,foraninductor,thevoltageleads(i.e.,reachesitsmaximumbefore)thecurrentby

2

inotherwords,thecurrentlagsthevoltageby .Thiscanbeconceptuallyunderstoodbythinkingofinductanceasgivingthecurrentinertia:The
2

voltage"tries"topushcurrentthroughtheinductor,butsomesortofinertiaresiststhechangeincurrent.ThisisanothermanifestationofLenz'slaw.

Thedifference iscalledthephaseangle.
2

PartC
AgainconsideraninductorwithinductanceLconnectedtoanACsource.IftheACsourceprovidesavoltageVL (t)
IL (t)throughtheinductorasafunctionoftime?

= V0 cos(t)

,whatisthecurrent

Hint1.UsingPartB
YoucanobtaintheansweralmostimmediatelyifyouconsidertheresultsofPartB:Theamplitudeofthevoltage(V0 )isI0 L thefrequencyis

2

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IL (t)

V0
L

cos(t

Correct
Fortheamplitudes(magnitudes)ofvoltageandcurrent,onecanwriteV0 = I0 R(fortheresistor)andV0 = I0 L(fortheinductor).Ifone
comparestheseexpressions,itshouldnotcomeasasurprisethatthequantityL,measuredinohms,iscalledinductivereactanceitisdenoted
byXL (sometimesL ).Itiscalledreactanceratherthanresistancetoemphasizethatthereisnodissipationofenergy.Usingthisnotation,wecan
writeV0 = I0 R(foraresistor)andV0 = I0 XL (foraninductor).Also,noticethatthecurrentisinphasewithvoltagewhenaresistorisconnected

toanACsourceinthecaseofaninductor,thecurrentlagsthevoltageby .Whatwillhappenifwereplacetheinductorwithacapacitor?Wewill
2

soonsee.

PartD
Considerthepotentialsofpointsaandbontheinductorindiagram2.Ifthepotentialatpointbisgreaterthanthatatpointa,whichofthefollowing
statementsistrue?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Trydrawinggraphsofthecurrentthroughtheinductorandvoltageacrosstheinductorasfunctionsoftime.
ThecurrentI (t)mustbepositive(clockwise).
ThecurrentI (t)mustbedirectedcounterclockwise.
Thederivativeofthecurrent dI (t) mustbenegative.
dt

## Thederivativeofthecurrent dI (t) mustbepositive.

dt

Correct
Itmayhelptothinkofthecurrentashavinginertiaandthevoltageasexertingaforcethatovercomesthisinertia.Thisviewpointalsoexplainsthe
lagofthecurrentrelativetothevoltage.

PartE
Assumethatattimetm ,thecurrentintheinductorisatamaximumatthattime,thecurrentflowsfrompointbtopointa.Attimetm ,whichofthe
followingstatementsistrue?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Trydrawinggraphsofthecurrentthroughtheinductorandvoltageacrosstheinductorasfunctionsoftime.
Thevoltageacrosstheinductormustbezeroandincreasing.
Thevoltageacrosstheinductormustbezeroanddecreasing.
Thevoltageacrosstheinductormustbepositiveandmomentarilyconstant.
Thevoltageacrosstheinductormustbenegativeandmomentarilyconstant.

Correct

PartF
NowconsideracapacitorwithcapacitanceC connectedtoanACsource(diagram3).IftheACsourceprovidesavoltageVC (t)
thecurrentIC (t)throughthecapacitorasafunctionoftime?
V

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= V0 cos(t)

,whatis

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Hint1.Therelationshipbetweenchargeandvoltageforacapacitor
Recallthatbydefinitionofcapacitance,therelationshipq(t) = CV (t) amongcharge,capacitance,andvoltageistrueatalltimes.The
conventionhereisthatthevoltageisthepotentialontheplatewithcharge+qrelativetotheotherplate(chargeq)whichhasapotentialofzero.

Hint2.Therelationshipbetweenchargeandcurrent
potentialonterminalb(appropriateforKirchhoff'slawinthiscircuit),thenifthecurrentflowispositive(clockwisehereasusual),thechargewill
increase.HenceI (t) =

dq(t)
dt

,whereq(t)isthechargeonthecapacitorplateb.

Hint3.Mathematicaldetails
Toobtainthecurrent,obtainq(t)fromthevoltageandthenobtainthecurrentfromthetimederivativeofq(t).Finally,rewritetheexpressionyou

IC (t)

C V0 cos(t +

Correct
Fortheamplitudevaluesofvoltageandcurrent,onecanwriteV0
shouldcomeasnosurprisethatthequantity

1
C

I0
C

.Ifonecomparesthisexpressionwithasimilaronefortheresistor,it

## ,measuredinohms,iscalledcapacitivereactanceitisdenotedbyXC (sometimesC ).Itis

calledreactanceratherthanresistancetoemphasizethatthereisnodissipationofenergy.Usingthisnotation,wecanwriteV0 = I0 XC ,and
voltagelagscurrentby/2radians(or90degrees).ThenotationisanalogoustoV0 = I0 Rforaresistor,wherevoltageandcurrentareinphase,

## currentby ,whileinthecaseofaninductor,thecurrentlagsthevoltagebythesamequantity .Inacapacitor,wherevoltagelagsthecurrent,

2

youmaythinkofthecurrentasdrivingthechangeinthevoltage.

PartG
Considerthecapacitorindiagram3.Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueatthemomentthealternatingvoltageacrossthecapacitoriszero?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Trydrawinggraphsofthe(displacement)currentthroughthecapacitorandvoltageacrossthecapacitorasfunctionsoftime.

## Hint2.GraphsofVC (t)andI (t)

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Thecurrentmustbedirectedclockwise.
Thecurrentmustbedirectedcounterclockwise.
Themagnitudeofthecurrentmustbeamaximum.
Thecurrentmustbezero.

Correct

PartH
Considerthecapacitorindiagram3.Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueatthemomentthechargeofthecapacitorisatamaximum?

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Sincethevoltageisdirectlyproportionaltothecharge,whenthechargeismaximum,soisthevoltage.Trydrawinggraphsofthe(displacement)
currentthroughthecapacitorandvoltageacrossthecapacitorasfunctionsoftime.Findthecurrentwhenthevoltagedropismaximum.

## Hint2.GraphsofVC (t)andI (t)

Thecurrentmustbedirectedclockwise.
Thecurrentmustbedirectedcounterclockwise.
Themagnitudeofthecurrentmustbeamaximum.
Thecurrentmustbezero.

Correct

PartI
Considerthecapacitorindiagram3.Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueifthepotentialatpointbisgreaterthanthepotentialatpointa?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Trydrawinggraphsofthe(displacement)currentthroughthecapacitorandvoltageacrossthecapacitorasfunctionsoftime.

## Hint2.GraphsofVC (t)andI (t)

LookattheregionwhereVC (t)ispositive.Isthecurrentpositiveornegativeorboth?

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Thecurrentmustbedirectedclockwise.
Thecurrentmustbedirectedcounterclockwise.
Thecurrentmaybedirectedeitherclockwiseorcounterclockwise.

Correct

PartJ
ofthecurrentthroughthevoltagesourceistrue?

Hint1.DrivenACparallelcircuits
withoutconsiderationofthephaseanglebetweenthecurrents.
Itisalwayslargerthanthesumofthemagnitudesofthecurrentsinthecapacitorandinductor.
Itisalwayslessthanthesumofthemagnitudesofthecurrentsinthecapacitorandinductor.
Atveryhighfrequenciesitwillbecomesmall.
Atverylowfrequenciesitwillbecomesmall.

Correct
Thissurprisingresultoccursbecausethecurrentsininductorandcapacitorareexactlyoutofphasewitheachother(i.e.,onelagsandtheother
frequenciesneartheresonancefrequencytopasseasily,butwilltendtoshortthoseatotherfreqeunciestoground.Thisisthebasicmechanismfor

Phasors:AnalyzingaParallelACCircuit
LearningGoal:
TounderstandtheuseofphasorsinanalyzingaparallelACcircuit.
Phasordiagrams,orsimplyphasors,provideaconvenientgraphicalwayofrepresentingthequantitiesthatchangewithtimealongwithcos(t + ).This
makesthemusefulforanalyzingACcircuitswiththeirinherentphaseshiftsbetweenvoltageandcurrent.IfaquantityI (t)changeswithtimeas
I (t) = I0 cos(t),aphasorisavectorwhoselengthrepresentstheamplitude I0 (seethediagram).Thisvectorisassumedtorotatecounterclockwisewith
angularspeedthatway,thehorizontalcomponentofthevectorrepresentstheactualvalueI (t)atanygivenmoment.

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questionsofthisproblem,keepthefollowinginmind:
Foraresistor,thecurrentandthevoltagearealwaysinphase.

Foraninductor,thecurrentlagsthevoltageby .
2

2

PartA
Considerthisphasordiagram:Thediagramdescribesacircuitthatcontainstwoelements
connectedinparalleltoanACsource.ThevectorlabeledV0 correspondstothevoltageacross
bothelementsofthecircuit.Basedonthediagram,whatelementscanthecircuitcontain?

tworesistors
twoinductors
twocapacitors
acapacitorandaresistor
aninductorandaresistor
acapacitorandaninductor

Correct

PartB
aretherespectiveamplitudesofthecurrentsinthecapacitorandtheresistorinthediagramfor
PartA?

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I1 I2
I2 I1

Correct

PartC
FindtheamplitudeofthecurrentI0 throughthevoltagesource.

Hint1.Theparallelconnection
Inaparallelcircuit,thecurrentthroughthevoltagesourceisthesumoftheindividualcurrents.Thatrule,learnedfirstforDCcircuits,holdstruefor
ACcircuits,too:Thelawofconservationofchargeisstillvalid!Therefore,atanyinstant,thecurrentthroughthevoltagesourceisthesumofthe

Hint2.Thecurrentthroughthevoltagesourceasavectorsum
ThecurrentthroughthevoltagesourcemayalsoberepresentedbythecomponentofarotatingvectorwhoselengthrepresentsitsamplitudeI0 :
YoushouldfindthevalueofI0 asthemagnitudeofthevectorsumoftheindividual

currents.NotethatthephaseanglebetweenI1 andI2 is .
2

I0

I1 2 + I2 2

Correct

PartD
Whatisthetangentofthephaseanglebetweenthevoltageandthecurrentthroughthevoltagesource?
Expresstan()intermsofI1 andI2 .

Hint1.Thecurrentthroughthevoltagesourceasavectorsum
ThecurrentthroughthevoltagesourcemayalsoberepresentedbythecomponentofarotatingvectorwhoselengthrepresentsitsamplitudeI0 :

## YoushouldfindthevalueofI0 asthemagnitudeofthevectorsumoftheindividualcurrents.NotethatthephaseanglebetweenI1 andI2 is .

2

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tan()

I2
I1

Correct

AResistorandaCapacitorinaSeriesACCircuit
AresistorwithresistanceRandacapacitorwithcapacitanceC areconnectedinseriestoanACvoltagesource.Thetimedependentvoltageacrossthe
capacitorisgivenbyVC (t) = VC sin t.
0

PartA
WhatistheamplitudeI0 ofthetotalcurrentI (t)inthecircuit?
0

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Forasingleloopcircuit,thecurrentflowingthroughthecapacitorisequaltothatflowingthroughtheresistor,andisequaltothetotalcurrentinthe
circuit.HenceyoucanworkoutthecurrentinthecircuitbyusingOhm'slawtofindthecurrentthroughthecapacitor.

Hint2.ApplyingOhm'slawtoacapacitor
ToapplyOhm'slawtoacapacitor,youmustusethecapacitor'sreactanceinplaceofresistance.Ohm'slawforacapacitorisV =
istheamplitudeofthecurrentthroughthecapacitor,V istheamplitudeofthevoltage,andXC isthereactanceofthecapacitor.

I XC

,whereI

Hint3.Thereactanceofacapacitor
ThereactanceofacapacitorisgivenbyXC

1
C

,whereistheangularfrequencyofthevoltageacrossthecapacitor.Substitutingthis

expressionforXC intoOhm'slawforthecapacitorwillenableyoutocalculatetheamplitudeofthecurrentinthecapacitor.
I0

VC C
0

Correct

PartB
WhatistheamplitudeVR ofthevoltageacrosstheresistor?
0

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Hint1.RelatingI0 toV0
applyOhm'slawtoworkouttheamplitudeofthevoltageacrosstheresistor.

= VC C
0

.Hence,youcan

VC R
0

VR

1
2

(C )

Correct

PartC
IfR

= 3 k

,C

= 100 pF VC

,and

= 100 mV

= 10

,whatisVR ?

VR

= 3mV

Correct

LearningGoal:
TounderstandwhyaseriesLCcircuitactslikeashortcircuitatresonance.
AnACsourcedrivesasinusoidalcurrentofamplitudeI0 andfrequencyintoaninductorhavinginductanceLandacapacitorhavingcapacitanceC that
areconnectedinseries.ThecurrentasafunctionoftimeisgivenbyI (t) = I0 sin(t) .

PartA
RecallthatthevoltagesVL (t)andVC (t)acrosstheinductorandcapacitorarenotinphasewiththerespectivecurrentsIL (t)andIC (t).Inparticular,
whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueforasinusoidalcurrentdriver?

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VL (t)andVC (t)bothlagtheirrespectivecurrents.
VL (t)lagsIL (t)andVC (t)leadsIC (t).
VL (t)leadsIL (t)andVC (t)lagsIC (t).

Correct

2

## powerisdissipatedineithertheinductororthecapacitor,sincethetimeaverageofcurrenttimesvoltage,I (t)V (t),iszero.

PartB
WhatisV (t),thevoltagedeliveredbythecurrentsource?
ExpressV (t)intermsofsomeorallofthevariablesI0 ,XL =

andXC =

1
C

,orC andL,,and,ofcourse,timet.

Hint1.Currentinaseriescircuit
Notethatthecurrentthroughthecurrentsource,thecapacitor,andtheinductorareallequalatalltimes.

Hint2.Findthevoltageacrossthecapacitor
WhatisVC (t),thevoltageacrossthecapacitorasafunctionoftime?

Hint1.Findthechargeonthecapacitor
Whatisthechargeq(t)onthecapacitor?
q(t)

C VC (t)

Hint2.Whatisthecurrentintermsofthechargeonthecapacitor?
Withtheconventionsinthecircuitdiagram,whatisthecurrentIC (t)onthecapacitorintermsofitsvoltage?
ExpressyouranswerintermsofthecapacitanceC andthevoltageVC (t)acrossitand/oritsderivativedVC (t)/dt.

IC (t)

CdVC (t)
dt

=

VC (t)

I 0
C

cos(t)

Hint3.Whatisthevoltageacrosstheinductor?
WhatisVL (t),thevoltageacrosstheinductorasafunctionoftime?
ExpressVL (t)intermsofI0 ,,andL.

Hint1.Voltageandcurrentforaninductor

dI

(t)

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Recallthatinaninductor,VL (t) = L
generatedbytheinductor:E = L

dI L (t)
dt

dI L (t)
dt

.NotethatthevoltagedropacrosstheinductorhastheoppositesigntothatoftheEMF

=

VL (t)

I0 Lcos(t)

Hint4.Totalvoltage
YoushouldhavedefinedthevoltagesacrossthecapacitorandinductorinsuchawaythatthetotalvoltageVtotal (t)isequaltoVC (t) + VL (t),
V (t)

I0 cos(t)(XL XC )

Correct

PartC
WithVL andVC theamplitudesofthevoltagesacrosstheinductorandcapacitor,whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
AtveryhighfrequenciesVC
AtveryhighfrequenciesVL

andatverylowfrequenciesVC

VL

VC andatverylowfrequencies VL

VC

VL

VC

VL

forallfrequencies.

VL

VC

forallfrequencies.

Correct

PartD
ThebehavioroftheLCcircuitprovidesoneexampleofthephenomenonofresonance.Theresonantfrequencyis0

.Atthisfrequency,what

LC

istheamplitudeV0 ofthevoltagesuppliedbythecurrentsource?
V0

= 0

Correct

PartE
Whichofthefollowingstatementsbestexplainsthisfactthatattheresonantfrequency,thereiszerovoltageacrossthecapacitorandinductor?

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ThevoltageV (t)iszeroatalltimesbecauseVL (t)

= VC (t)

## ThevoltagesV (t)VL (t)andVC (t)arezeroatalltimes.

ThevoltageV (t)iszeroonlywhenthecurrentiszero.
ThevoltageV (t)iszeroonlyattimeswhenthecurrentisstationary(atamaxormin).

Correct
Attheresonantfrequencyofthecircuit,thecurrentsourcecaneasilypushthecurrentthroughtheseriesLCcircuit,becausethecircuithasno
voltagedropacrossitatall!Ofcourse,thereisalwaysavoltageacrosstheinductor,andthereisalwaysavoltageacrossthecapacitor,sincethey
dohaveacurrentpassingthroughthematalltimeshowever,atresonance,thesevoltagesareexactlyoutofphase,sothattheneteffectisa
currentpassingthroughthecapacitorandtheinductorwithoutanyvoltagedropatall.TheLCseriescircuitactsasashortcircuitforACcurrents
exactlyattheresonantfrequency.Forthisreason,aseriesLCcircuitisusedasatraptoconductsignalsattheresonantfrequencytoground.

AHighPassFilter
AseriesLRCcircuitconsistingofavoltagesource,acapacitorofcapacitanceC ,aninductorofinductanceL,andaresistorofresistanceRisdrivenwith
anACvoltageofamplitudeVin andfrequency.DefineVout tobetheamplitudeofthevoltageacrosstheresistorandtheinductor.

PartA
Findtheratio

Vout
Vin

,andXC =

1
C

Hint1.FindVin
AssumethattheamplitudeofthecurrentinthecircuitisI .WritedownanequationforVin ,theamplitudeoftheinputvoltageofthecircuit.
ExpressyouranswerintermsofI ,R,thereactanceXC ofthecapacitor,andthereactanceXL oftheinductor.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
UsethegeneralizedformofOhm'slawVin =
amplitudeofthecurrentthroughthecircuit.

IZ

,whereZisthecombinedimpedanceoftheresistor,capacitor,andinductor,andI isthe

Hint2.Combinedimpedance

Thecombinedimpedanceofaresistor,capacitor,andinductorinseriesisZ

= R

+ (XL XC )

,whereXL isthereactanceofthe

inductor,andXC isthereactanceofthecapacitor.

Vin

I R

+ (XL XC )

V
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Hint2.FindVout
AssumingthattheamplitudeofthecurrentinthecircuitisI ,writedownanequationfortheoutputvoltageVout ofthecircuit.
ExpressyouranswerintermsofI ,R,thereactanceofthecapacitorXC ,andthereactanceoftheinductorXL .

Vout

I XL

+R

Vout
Vin

+R
2

(X

XC ) +R

Correct
Forthefollowingquestionsitwillbeusefultowritethevoltageratiointhefollowingform:

Vout
Vin

1+(L/R)

1+(L/R1/(RC))

PartB
Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueinthelimitoflarge(

1
RC

1
LC

R
L

)?

Hint1.Implicationsoflarge
Inthelargelimit,L/R

1/(RC)

,soyoucanapproximateL/R 1/(RC)

L/R

V

out

isproportionalto 1 .

Vin

Vout

isproportionalto

out

Vin

out

Vin

isproportionalto.
iscloseto1.

Vin

Correct

PartC
Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueinthelimitofsmall(

1
RC

1
LC

R
L

)?

Hint1.Implicationsofsmall
Inthesmalllimit,L/R
1/(RC) 1.

1/(RC)

,soyoucanapproximateL/R 1/(RC)

1/(RC)

,and

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V

out

isproportionalto 1 .

Vin

Vout

isproportionalto

out

Vin

out

Vin

isproportionalto.
iscloseto1.

Vin

Correct
Whenislarge,

Vout
Vin

1,andwhen issmall,

Vout
Vin

.Therefore,thiscircuithasthepropertythatonlytheamplitudeofthelowfrequency

inputswillbeattenuated(reducedinvalue)attheoutput,whiletheamplitudeofthehighfrequencyinputswillpassthroughrelativelyunchanged.
Thisiswhysuchacircuitiscalledahighpassfilter.

ConstructingaLowPassFilter
AseriesLRCcircuitisdrivenwithACvoltageofamplitudeVin andfrequency.DefineVout tobetheamplitudeofthevoltageacrossthecapacitor.The
resistanceoftheresistorisR,thecapacitanceofthecapacitorisC ,andtheinductanceoftheinductorisL.

PartA
Whatistheratio

Vout
Vin

,andXC =

1
C

Hint1.FindVin
AssumethattheamplitudeofthecurrentinthecircuitisI .WritedownanexpressionfortheinputvoltageamplitudeVin .
XL .

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
UsethegeneralizedformofOhm'slaw,Vin
amplitudeofthecurrentthroughthecircuit.

= IZ

,whereZisthecombinedimpedanceoftheresistor,capacitor,andinductor,andI isthe

Hint2.Combinedimpedance

Thecombinedimpedanceofaresistor,capacitor,andinductorinseriesisgivenbyZ

= R

+ (XL XC )

,whereXL isthe

reactanceoftheinductor,andXC isthereactanceofthecapacitor.

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Vin

I R

+ (XL XC )

Hint2.FindVout
AssumethattheamplitudeofthecurrentinthecircuitisI .WritedownanequationfortheamplitudeoftheoutputvoltageVout .
XL .
Vout

I XC

1

Vout
Vin

(L

) +R

Correct
Forthefollowingquestionsitwillbeusefultowritethevoltageratiointhefollowingform:
Vout
Vin

=
2

(RC )

.
2

+(2 LC1)

PartB
Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueinthelargelimit(thatis,for

1
RC

LC

R
L

)?

Hint1.Implicationsoflarge
Inthelargelimit,2 LC

,and2 LC

RC

,so2 LC becomestheonlysignificantterminthedenominator.

V

out

isproportionalto 1 .

Vin

out

isproportionalto

out

Vin

out

Vin

isproportionalto.
iscloseto1.

Vin

Correct

PartC
Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueinthesmalllimit(thatis,for

1
RC

1
LC

R
L

)?

Hint1.Implicationsofsmall
Inthesmalllimit,2 LC

and2 LC

RC

,soalltermsinthedenominatorinvolvingcanbeneglected.

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V

out

isproportionalto 1 .

Vin

Vout

isproportionalto

out

Vin

out

Vin

isproportionalto.
iscloseto1.

Vin

Correct
Whenomegaislarge,

Vout
Vin

1
2

andwhenomegaissmall,

Vout
Vin

1.Therefore,thecircuitofthisproblemhasthepropertythatonlythehigh

frequencyinputswillbeattenuated(reducedinvalue)attheoutput,whilelowfrequencyinputswillpassthroughrelativelyunchanged.Thatiswhy
suchacircuitiscalledalowpassfilter.

Sixtransformershavethermsprimaryvoltages(Vp ),numberofprimaryturns(Np ),andnumberofsecondaryturns(Ns )listedbelow.

PartA
Whichofthetransformersarestepuptransformers?Whichofthetransformersarestepdowntransformers?
Placetheappropriatetransformersintothetwocategorieslistedbelow.

Hint1.Stepupandstepdowntransformers
Atransformerisreferredtoasstepupifthesecondaryvoltageislargerthantheprimaryvoltage.Similarly,atransformerisreferredtoasstep
downifthesecondaryvoltageissmallerthantheprimaryvoltage.

Hint2.Turnsratio
Theturnsratio,Ns /Np ,isthefactorthatdeterminesthecharacteristicsofatransformer.Iftheratioisgreaterthanone,thetransformer"steps
up"thevoltagebythisfactor.Ifitislessthanone,it"stepsdown"thevoltage.

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PartB
Rankthetransformersonthebasisoftheirrmssecondaryvoltage.
Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Voltageandnumberofturns
Theproportionalityconstantbetweenvoltageandnumberofturnsisthesameonbothsidesofthetransformer.

Hint2.Secondaryvoltage
Sincetheproportionalityconstantbetweenvoltageandnumberofturnsisthesameonbothsidesofthetransformer,wecansettheratiosV /N
onbothsidesequaltoeachother:
Vp
Np

Vs
Ns

or
Vs = (

Ns
Np

)Vp .

Therefore,thesecondaryvoltageisjusttheproductoftheprimaryvoltageandtheturnsratio.

Reset

Help

largest

smallest
Vp = 120 V

Vp = 480 V

Np = 500 turns

Np = 2000 turns

Ns = 2000 turns

Ns = 1000 turns

Vp = 240 V
Np = 1000 turns

Vp = 240 V

Vp = 480 V

Np = 1000 turns

Np = 4000 turns

Ns = 2000 turns

Ns = 2000 turns

Ns = 500 turns

Thecorrectrankingcannotbedetermined.

Correct

PartC
100Aofrmscurrentisincidentontheprimarysideofeachtransformer.Rankthetransformersonthebasisoftheirrmssecondarycurrent.
Rankfromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Energyconservation
Sinceenergyflow(power)inacircuitisgivenby
P = IV

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energyconservationrequiresthatanyincreaseinvoltagebeaccompaniedbyacorrespondingdecreaseincurrent,andviceversa.Thus,astepup
transformerwillstepdowncurrent.

Hint2.Steppingdowncurrentinastepuptransformer
Sincevoltageissteppedupbytheturnsratio,
Vs = (

Ns
Np

)Vp ,

conservationofenergyensuresthatcurrentissteppeddownbythesameratio.Thiscanbewrittenas
Is = (

Np
Ns

)Ip .

Reset

Help

largest

smallest
Vp = 240 V
Np = 1000 turns
Ns = 500 turns
Vp = 480 V

Vp = 240 V

Vp = 120 V

Np = 2000 turns

Np = 1000 turns

Np = 500 turns

Ns = 1000 turns

Ns = 2000 turns

Ns = 2000 turns

Vp = 480 V
Np = 4000 turns
Ns = 2000 turns

Thecorrectrankingcannotbedetermined.

Correct

ASeriesLRCCircuit:ThePhasorApproach
LearningGoal:
TounderstandtheuseofphasordiagramsincalculatingtheimpedanceandresonanceconditionsinaseriesLRCcircuit.
Inthisproblem,youwillconsideraseriesLRCcircuit,containingaresistorofresistanceR,aninductorofinductanceL,andacapacitorofcapacitanceC ,
allconnectedinseriestoanACsourceprovidinganalternatingvoltageV (t) = V0 cos(t).
circuitcontainingmultipleresistors.Findingtheoverallresistanceofacircuitisoftenofpractical
interest.Inthisproblem,wewillstartouranalysisofthisLRCcircuitbyfindingitseffectiveoverall
resistance,orimpedance.TheimpedanceZisdefinedbyZ =

V0
I0

## ,whereV0 andI0 arethe

amplitudesofthevoltageacrosstheentirecircuitandthecurrent,respectively.

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PartA
FindtheimpedanceZofthecircuitusingthephasordiagramshown.Noticethatinthisseriescircuit,thecurrentissameforallelementsofthecircuit:
Inaseriescircuit,theoverallvoltageisthesumoftheindividualvoltages.
InanACcircuit,thevoltageacrossacapacitorlagsbehindthecurrent,whereasthe
Thereactance(effectiveresistance)ofaninductorinanACcircuitisgivenby
XL = L.
Thereactance(effectiveresistance)ofthecapacitorinanACcircuitisgivenby
XC =

1
C

Hint1.Findingindividualvoltages
Foreachelementofthecircuit,"voltageamplitude"="currentamplitude"times"effectiveresistance."Thevalueofthecurrentamplitude,I0 ,is,
aswementioned,thesameforallthreecircuitelements.

Hint2.Findingtheoverallvoltage
Aphasorvectorisdefinedinsuchawaythatits"horizontal"componentrepresentstheinstantaneousvaluesofthecorrespondingquantities.
Sincethesumofthevectorcomponentsisequaltothecomponentofthesumofthevectors,thesumoftheindividualvoltagevectorsrepresents
thephasorcorrespondingtothe"total"voltage,thatis,theterminalvoltageofthesource.

Hint3.Combiningthevectors
usefulhere.
vectorshaveoppositedirections,themagnitudeoftheirsumequalsthedifferenceofthe
V

.WhatisthemagnitudeV0 ofthisresultantvector?

+ (L

1
C

Correct

PartB
Nowfindthetangentofthephaseanglebetweenthecurrentandtheoverallvoltageinthiscircuit.
Expresstan()intermsofR,L,C ,and.

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tan()

1
C

Correct
NotethatifXL > XC ,theoverallvoltagewillleadthecurrentifXL

< XC

,theoverallvoltagewilllagthecurrent.Inthephasordiagramforthis

Wemaybeinterestedinfindingtheresonanceconditionsforthecircuit,inotherwords,theconditionscorrespondingtothemaximumcurrentamplitude
essentially,changingtheparametersofthecircuitrysothatthesignalofthedesiredfrequencyhasthemaximumpossibleamplitude.

PartC
ImaginethattheparametersR,L,C ,andtheamplitudeofthevoltageV0 arefixed,butthefrequencyofthevoltagesourceischangeable.Ifthe
frequencyofthesourceischangedfromaverylowonetoaveryhighone,thecurrentamplitudeI0 willalsochange.ThefrequencyatwhichI0 isata
maximumiscalledresonance.Findthefrequency0 atwhichthecircuitreachesresonance.

Hint1.Analyzingtheimpedance
ThemaximumcurrentamplitudecorrespondstotheminimumimpedancevalueZ.WhatistheminimumvalueofZ?Atwhatvalueofisit
reached?

1
LC

Correct
Atresonance,XL = XC .Thevoltageacrossthecapacitorexactlycancelsthatacrosstheinductor,sincethetwoareoutofphaseandhavethe
sameamplitude.Thus,theinductorandcapacitoreffectivelycanceloutintheformulafortheimpedanceofthecircuit.Itshouldnotcomeasa
surprisethattheresonantfrequencyequalsthenaturalfrequencyoftheoscillationsinasourcefreeLCcircuit.

PartD
Whatisthephaseanglebetweenthevoltageandthecurrentwhenresonanceisreached?

Hint1.Usingphasorsagain
LookbackattheoriginalphasordiagraminPartA.Howwoulditchangewhentheimpedanceisataminimum?Rememberthatwhenresonanceis
reached,XL = XC .
= 0

Correct

PartE
NowimaginethattheparametersR,L,,andtheamplitudeofthevoltageV0 arefixedbutthatthevalueofC canbechanged.Thisisoneofthe
changedjustbymovingthecapacitorplatescloserorfartherapart.FindthecapacitanceC0 atresonance.

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C0

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AveragePowerinanLRCCircuit
Acircuitconsistsofaresistor(resistanceR),inductor(inductanceL),andcapacitor(capacitanceC )connectedinserieswithanACsourcesupplying
sinusoidalvoltageV0 cos(t).Assumethatallcircuitelementsareideal,sothattheonlyresistanceinthecircuitisduetotheresistor.Alsoassumethat
istheresonantfrequencyofthecircuit.

PartA
WhatistheaveragepowerPavg suppliedbythevoltagesource?

Hint1.Findtheinstantaneouspower
WhatistheinstantaneouspowerP (t)dissipatedinthecircuit?Note:Youwillneedtousethefactthatthecircuitisbeingdrivenatitsresonant

Hint1.Ausefulformulaforpower
ThepowerdissipatedinthecircuitisequaltothevoltagesuppliedbytheACsourcetimesthecurrentinthecircuit:P

= VI

TheLRCcircuitdescribedintheproblemintroductionobeysthedifferentialequation
L

dt

q
2

+R

dq
dt

q
C

= V0 cos(t),

whereqisthechargeononeofthecapacitorplates.Aftersolvingthisequationforqasafunctionoftime,youcantakethederivativeto
findthecurrentinthecircuit:I

dq
dt

.TheresultisI

= I0 cos(t + )

,whereI0

V0
(L

,andtan =
2

) +R

1
RC

L
R

Hint3.Determinetheresonantfrequency
Theproblemintroductionstatesthatthecircuitisbeingdrivenatitsresonantfrequency.Whatisthevalueofintermsofothergiven
quantities?

LC

P (t)

V0

(cos(

LC

t))

Hint2.Averagevalueofaperiodicfunction
Tofindtheaveragevalueofaperiodicfunctionf (t),integratethefunctionoveroneperiodtperiod andthendividebytheperiod:
favg =

1
t period

t period

## f (t)dt.Youwillfindthattheaveragevalueofthefunction sin (x)or cos (x)is

2

1
2

.Thisisausefulresulttoremember!

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=

V0

2R

Correct

Exercise31.10
voltagewithanamplitudeof12.0Visappliedacrosstheinductor.

PartA
Whatfrequencyisrequired?
f

= 1.85105 Hz

Correct

Exercise31.24
AnLRCseriescircuitisconnectedtoa120Hzacsourcethathasv rms =77.0V.Thecircuithasaresistanceof70.0andanimpedanceatthis
frequencyof113.

PartA
Whataveragepowerisdeliveredtothecircuitbythesource?
P

= 32.5 W

Correct

Exercise31.27
Youhavea204 resistor,a0.406 Hinductor,a5.01
fourelementstogethertoformaseriescircuit.

capacitor,andavariablefrequencyacsourcewithanamplitudeof3.10V.Youconnectall

PartA
Atwhatfrequencywillthecurrentinthecircuitbegreatest?

Correct

PartB
Whatwillbethecurrentamplitudeatthisfrequency?
I

= 1.52102 A

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PartC
I

3.610

IncorrectTryAgain26attemptsremaining

PartD
thesourcevoltagelagsthecurrent

Correct

Problem31.63
InanLRCseriescircuit,thesourcehasavoltageamplitudeof118V,R=85.0,andthereactanceofthecapacitoris474.Thevoltageamplitude
acrossthecapacitoris368V.

PartA
Whatisthecurrentamplitudeinthecircuit?
I

= 0.776 A

Correct

PartB
Whatistheimpedance?
Z

= 152

Correct

PartC
Whattwovaluescanthereactanceoftheinductorhave?
XL

600 600

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PartD
Forwhichofthetwovaluesfoundinpart(c)istheangularfrequencylessthantheresonanceangularfrequency?
thelessvalueofXL
thelargervalueofXL

Correct

PhasorsExplained
LearningGoal:
TounderstandtheconceptofphasordiagramsandbeabletousethemtoanalyzeACcircuits(thosewithsinusoidallyvaryingcurrentandvoltage).
Phasordiagramsprovideaconvenientgraphicalwayofrepresentingthequantitiesthatchangewithtimealongwithcos(t + ),whichmakessuch
diagramsusefulforanalyzingACcircuitswiththeirinherentphaseshiftsbetweenvoltageandcurrent.Youhavestudiedthebehaviorofanisolatedresistor,
inductor,andcapacitorconnectedtoanACsource.However,whenacircuitcontainsmorethanoneelement(forinstance,aresistorandacapacitorora
resistorandaninductororallthreeelements),phasorsbecomeausefultoolthatallowsustocalculatecurrentsandvoltagesrathereasilyandalsoto
visualizesomeimportantprocessestakingplaceintheACcircuit,suchasresonance.
LetusassumethatacertainquantityI (t)changesovertimeasI (t) = I0 cos(t).AphasorisavectorwhoselengthrepresentstheamplitudeI0 (seethe
diagram).Thisvectorisassumedtorotatecounterclockwisewithangularfrequencythatway,the
horizontalcomponentofthevectorrepresentstheactualvalueI (t)atanygivenmoment.
analysisofvariousACcircuits.

thesameangularfrequency.

PartA
Atthemomenttdepictedinthediagram,whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?

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I2 leadsI1 by .
2

I1 leadsI2 by .
2

Correct

PartB
Atthemomentshowninthediagram,whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
I2 lagsI3 by.
I3 lagsI2 by2.
I2 lagsI3 by .
2

I3 lagsI2 by .
2

Correct

PartC
Atthemomentshowninthediagram,whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
I2 lagsI4 by2.
I2 leadsI4 by .
2

I2 lagsI4 by .
2

Correct
LetusnowconsidersomebasicapplicationsofphasorstoACcircuits.
Foraresistor,thecurrentandthevoltagearealwaysinphase.

Foraninductor,thecurrentlagsthevoltageby .
2

2

PartD
Considerthisdiagram.Letusassumethatitdescribesaseriescircuitcontainingaresistor,acapacitor,andaninductor.Thecurrentinthecircuithas
amplitudeI ,asindicatedinthefigure.
Whichofthefollowingchoicesgivesthecorrectrespectivelabelsofthevoltagesacrosstheresistor,thecapacitor,andtheinductor?

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V1 ; V2 ; V3
V1 ; V2 ; V4
V1 ; V4 ; V2
V3 ; V2 ; V4
V3 ; V4 ; V2

Correct

PartE
elementsofthecircuitisthesameonthediagram,itisrepresentedbythevectorlabeledV0 .
Thecurrentsintheresistor,thecapacitor,andtheinductorarerepresentedrespectivelyby
whichvectors?

I1 ; I2 ; I3
I1 ; I3 ; I4
I1 ; I4 ; I2
I1 ; I2 ; I4
I1 ; I3 ; I2

Correct

Exercise31.1
Youhaveaspeciallightbulbwithaverydelicatewirefilament.Thewirewillbreakifthecurrentiniteverexceeds2.00A,evenforaninstant.

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PartA
Whatisthelargestrootmeansquarecurrentyoucanrunthroughthisbulb?
Irms

= 1.41 A

Correct

Exercise31.6
AcapacitanceC andaninductanceLareoperatedatthesameangularfrequency.

PartA
Atwhatangularfrequencywilltheyhavethesamereactance?

1
LC

Correct

PartB
IfL=5.50mHandC =4.00F ,whatisthenumericalvalueoftheangularfrequencyinpartA?

Correct

PartC
Whatisthereactanceofeachelement?
XL = XC =

82

IncorrectTryAgain28attemptsremaining

Exercise31.11
A0.200Hinductorisconnectedinserieswitha92.0resistorandanacsource.Thevoltageacrosstheinductorisv L

PartA
Deriveanexpressionforthevoltagev R acrosstheresistor.

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vR

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VL Rcos(t)
L

Correct

PartB
Whatisv R at1.89ms?
vR

10.51 V

IncorrectTryAgain22attemptsremaining

Exercise31.14
Youhavea210resistoranda0.400Hinductor.Supposeyoutaketheresistorandinductorandmakeaseriescircuitwithavoltagesourcethathasa

PartA
Whatistheimpedanceofthecircuit?
Z

= 234

Correct

PartB
Whatisthecurrentamplitude?
I

= 0.111 A

Correct

PartC
Whatisthevoltageamplitudeacrosstheresistor?
VR

= 23.3 V

Correct

PartD
Whatisthevoltageamplitudesacrosstheinductor?

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VL

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=

PartE
Whatisthephaseangleofthesourcevoltagewithrespecttothecurrent?
= 26.3

Correct

PartF
thevoltagelagsthecurrent

Correct

PartG
Constructthephasordiagram.

Exercise31.24
AnLRCseriescircuitisconnectedtoa120Hzacsourcethathasv rms =72.0V.Thecircuithasaresistanceof71.0andanimpedanceatthis
frequencyof110.

PartA
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Whataveragepowerisdeliveredtothecircuitbythesource?
P

= 30.4 W

Correct

Exercise31.31
AnLRCseriescircuit,R=160,L=0.770H,andC =1.80102F .Thesourcehasavoltageamplitudeof150Vandafrequencyequaltothe
resonancefrequencyofthecircuit.

PartA
Whatisthepowerfactor?

PartB
Whatistheaveragepowerdeliveredbythesource?
P

PartC
ThecapacitorisreplacedbyonewithacapacitanceofC
istheaveragepowerdeliveredbythesource?

P

Exercise31.34
1700Wat120V.

PartA
Whatcouldyoudotooperateyourblowerviathe240VlineinEurope?
Useastep_uptransformerwithN2 /N1 =2.
Useastep_downtransformerwithN2 /N1 =1/2.

Correct

PartB
V

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Whatcurrentwillbedrawnfromthe240Vlinewhenthedryerisconnectedtothe120Vsideofthetransformer?
I

13

IncorrectTryAgain29attemptsremaining

PartC
Whatresistanceconnecteddirectlytothe240VlinewoulddrawthesamepowerasthedryerinpartB?
Ref f

Problem31.43
Aseriescircuithasanimpedanceof58.0andapowerfactorof0.715atafrequencyof55.0Hz.Thesourcevoltagelagsthecurrent.

PartA
Whatcircuitelement,aninductororacapacitor,shouldbeplacedinserieswiththecircuittoraiseitspowerfactor?
inductor
capacitor

Correct

PartB
Whatsizeelementwillraisethepowerfactortounity?
L

0.231

IncorrectTryAgain28attemptsremaining

Problem31.46
Atafrequency1 thereactanceofacertaincapacitorequalsthatofacertaininductor.

PartA
Ifthefrequencyischangedto2

61 ,whatistheratioofthereactanceoftheinductortothatofthecapacitor?

XL
XC

= 36.0

Correct
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PartB
Ifthefrequencyischangedto3

5,whatistheratioofthereactanceoftheinductortothatofthecapacitor?

= 1 /

XL
XC

1
30

IncorrectTryAgain24attemptsremaining

PartC
IfthecapacitorandinductorareplacedinserieswitharesistorofresistanceRtoformaseriesLRCcircuit,whatwillbetheresonanceangular
frequencyofthecircuit?
1
2
3

Correct

Problem31.58
AnLRCseriescircuithasR=50.0 ,L=0.700

,andC =4.00104

.Theacsourcehasvoltageamplitude70.0

andangularfrequency110

PartA
Whatisthemaximumenergystoredintheinductor?
UL

0.94 J

IncorrectTryAgain22attemptsremaining

PartB
Whentheenergystoredintheinductorisamaximum,howmuchenergyisstoredinthecapacitor?
UC

= 0J

Correct

PartC
Whatisthemaximumenergystoredinthecapacitor?

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UC

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=

310

IncorrectTryAgain29attemptsremaining

Problem31.70
Anindividualcellsuchasaneggcell(anovum,producedintheovaries)iscommonlyorganizedspatially,asmanifestedinpartbyasymmetriesinthecell
membrane.Theseasymmetriesincludenonuniformdistributionsofiontransportmechanisms,whichresultinanetelectriccurrententeringoneregionofthe
scientistsareinterestedinmeasuringthem.Thesecellularcurrentsmoveinloopsthroughextracellularfluid.Ohm'slawrequiresthattherebevoltage
differencesbetweenanytwopointsinthiscurrentcarryingfluidsurroundingcells.Althoughthecurrentsmaybesignificant,theextracellularvoltage
differencesaretinyontheorderofnanovolts.Ifwecanmapthevoltagedifferencesinthefluidoutsideacell,wecancalculatethecurrentdensitybyusing
Ohm'slaw,assumingthattheresistivityofthefluidisknown.Wecannotmeasurethesevoltagedifferencesbyspacingtwoelectrodes10or20mapart,
becausethedcimpedance(theresistance)ofsuchelectrodesishighandtheinherentnoiseinsignalsdetectedattheelectrodesfarexceedsthecellular
potentialdifferencebetweenthetwoextremes(thetwopointsinthefluid)isthenconvertedtoasinewaveacpotentialdifference.Theplatinumelectrode
of20mandacapacitanceof10nFtheresistivityofmanybiologicalfluidsis100 cm.

PartA
Iftheelectrodeoscillatesbetweentwopoints20mapartatafrequencyof(5000/)

Hz

,whatistheelectrodes impedance?

2 10 4

infinite
2 10 6

Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis79.9%.

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