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.. , ..

, 2010

: 621.391.037

.., ..
. / .-.,
2010.-29.



.
.

. 5, . 20 .

: .., ,
_________2010 .
_____


......................................................................................................................4
.............................................................................................................................5
1

.....................................................6
1.1 ...........................................................6
1.2 .......................................7
1.3 ................................................................10


(OFDM).........................................................................12
2.1
....................................................................................12
2.2 OFDM ...................................15


..........................................................................................17
3.1 ...........................................17
3.2 .........................................19
3.3 . .......................................................................20
3.4 . ..........................................................21
3.5 ..................................................21
3.6 ..................................................................................................22


..............................................................................23
4.1 (SISO)
(MIMO)...........................................................................................23
4.2 ..............................................................................................................25

......................................................................................................................26
...............................................................................27
.......................................................................................................28

BER

Bit Error Rate -

ITU

International Telecommunication Union -

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing -



Single-Input-Single-Output -

OFDM
SISO
MIMO

Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output -

ML

Maximum Likelihood -

MMSE

Minimum Mean-Square Error -


QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation -

WLAN

Wireless Local Access Network -



. ,
(WLAN)
.

, GPRS GSM , 3G [2].

, .
OFDM - [10] -
,
.
.

OFDM .
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
- ,

(MIMO) [6].
, IEEE 802.16 LTE [11-13,
15, 16].

1
1.1
,

.

,


.
[3]. . 1.1.
.

. 1.1.
.
6

1.2

[14]:
,

. ,
,
.
.
-
.

.
, ,

. ,

.
.
OFDM,
.

, , ,
..,
.
,
.

.


. ,
,
3 5.

, (
)
. ,
,
,
.

h ( , t )
H ( f, t ) , h ( , t ) .
- t , t .
,
..
.

,
Q1

h ( , t ) =

aq e

j ( 2f D, q t + q ) ( q )

q=0

1, = q
( q ) =
0, q

- - , a q, f D, q, q q -

, , q - .
:
Q1

H ( f, t ) =

aq e

j ( 2 ( f D, q t f q ) + q )

(1.1)

q=0


vf cos ( )

c
q
- , v . f D, q = ---------------------------

, c - , f c - , q
- q - .

.
,
. ,

,
, , , ,
.
,
, .

.
,

(InterSymbol Interference, ISI).



. - ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
, -
.


[14-15].
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
, .
1.3


. ,

10

(ITU) [17], Channel


model A, B C. . 1
Channel A. 6
.
,
.

1
2
3
4
5
6

0
310
710
1090
1730
2510

0.0
-1.0
-9.0
-10.0
-15.0
-20.0

. 1 Channel A.

11

2
(OFDM)
2.1

,
,

.
,
.

,
.
,
, ,
,
- .
, ,
,
,
,
. , ,
.
( , , ) .
,
,

12

, ,
.

(OFDM).


,
.
- ,
. ,
,
. OFDM

.
. 2.1.
.

, .

(),
OFDM M . OFDM
,
L .
OFDM
.
, ,
. , OFDM

13

( M + L )T0 , T0 - .

S/P

P/S
S/P

P/S

-
-
S/P - -
P/S - -

. 2.1.
.
,
(),
OFDM.
,
, .
,

14

OFDM.

OFDM ,
.

.
2.2 OFDM
s ( t )
OFDM, :
M1

s(t) =

A m x m exp { j m t } ,

(2.1)

m=0

M - ; m - m - ; Am , m - ;
x m - , m -

. , y ( t )
OFDM :
Q

y(t) =

q s ( t q ) + ( t ) ,

(2.2)

q=1

- ;

- ,

q - ; q - , q -

15

; ( t ) - ,

.
(2.1) (2.2), :

M1

y(t) =

gm x e
m

j m t

+ (t) ,

(2.3)

m=0

g m = A m

q e

j m q

q=1

g m
OFDM.
(2.3) :
M1

yn =

gm x e

j m nT 0

+ n ; n = 1 ;N ,

(2.4)

m=0

y n = y ( nT 0 ) - ;
n = ( nT 0 )

2 ; T 0 ; N - .

[8]. N = M .
(2.4)
OFDM
.

16

3

3.1

,
OFDM - .
.

(MIMO)

OFDM

.

, IEEE 802.16, IEEE 802.11n
LTE [11]-[13]. MIMO OFDM


.
,

.
,
.

. ,
,
( open loop systems)
OFDM MIMO.
17

: , - (pilot
assisted

channel

estimation)

(,
)
(blind algorithms).
( , semi-blind algorithms) [14],[18],[19],[20].

, -, ,
- .

, ,
,
( ),
.
,
.
, ,
, .
.
, ,
.
,

-.
-

18

,
. ,
-,
,

- .
,

-
.
(LS)
(MMSE) [8],[9]. .
3.2 .
(2.4) :
y = XFg + ,

(3.1)

X - , -
, g - , . , F , :
00

F =

WM

( M 1 )0

WM

0(M 1)

WM

(M 1 )( M 1)

WM

mk
WM

1
= --------- e
M

mk
j2 -------M

OFDM,
M :
y k = h k x k + k , k = 0, 1, , M 1 ,

19

(3.2)

h = Fg , = F .
g
,
:
1
g MMSE = R gy R yy y ,

R gy = E { gy' } = R gg F'X'

-
2

R yy = E { yy' } = XFR gg F'X' + 2 I M

y,

y.

R gg - g . 2 -
. .
h [9]:
h MMSE = Fg MMSE = FQ MMSE F'X'y ,
1

(3.3)

Q MMSE = R gg [ ( F'X'XF ) 2 + R gg ] ( F'X'XF ) .


3.3 .

(2.4),

( y XFg )' ( y XFg ) [9]. h :


h LS = FQ LS F'X'y ,

(3.4)

Q LS = ( F'X'XF ) .
(3.4)
1
h LS = X y

(3.5)

20

,
[8],[9].
3.4 .

[1], [4], [5].
h ML = arg max(f ( h y, X )) ,

f ( ) -

-, X y .

.

,
- .
3.5 .

, ,
-, .

-, .
,


,
21

.


. ,
,
.
- ,

[7].
3.6 .
,
,

-,

,
.
,

, [14]
[18],[19],[20].

22

4

4.1 (SISO)
(MIMO)

.
,
. 2.1.

SISO, 16QAM

10


1e-2

-1

BER

10

-2

10

-3

10

10

12

14

16
,

18

20

22

24

. 4.1. SISO
.

23

MIMO, Tx=2, Rx=2, 16QAM

10


1e-2

-1

BER

10

-2

10

-3

10

10

12

14

16
,

18

20

22

24

. 4.2. MIMO (2
2 ) .
- ,
,
, -.


.
, .
: SISO (
) MIMO (
).
MIMO: 2 4.
24

16QAM, .

MIMO, Tx=4, Rx=4, 16QAM

10

1e-2

-1

BER

10

-2

10

-3

10

10

12

14

16
,

18

20

22

24

. 4.3. MIMO (4
4 ) .
4.2
. 4.1. - . 4.3. ,
, BER 3 10

2.5 .

SISO,
MIMO.

25



OFDM MIMO, ,

.
.

,
SISO MIMO.
,
. ,
, MIMO
, SISO.


.
,

-,

[14],[18],[19],[20].

26


1.
.
2.
?
3.
.
4. .

OFDM?
5.
.
6.
-?

27


[1] .., ..
, .: , 1991, 608 .
[2] . . . . / ...- .:
, 2000, 797 .
[3] . .
, 2- .: . . - .:
, 2003, 1104 .
[4] .., ..
, .: . , 1975, 704 .

[5] ..
. // ,
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Univ. Press, 2007, 323 p.
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p.
[8] K. Bagadi, S. Das, MIMO-OFDM Channel Estimation Using Pilot Carries.
International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 2 No.3, May
2010. p. 81-88.
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Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands. October 2005.
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Access Systems. February 2006.

28

[14] K. Fazel, S.Kaiser, Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons, 2003, 281 p.
[15] .. IEEE 802.16
11 . / : , ,
1, 2005, .8-14.
[16] .., .., ..
LTE: . .: -, 2010, 284 .
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[18] .., ..
OFDM, - //
, , 2, 2003, . 17-20.
[19] .., ..
OFDM, . // , 10, , 2005, . 37-40.
[20] .., ..


(OFDM). . 2, 2009. . 12-16.

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