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Ansys explicit tutorial

Ansys explicit tutorial

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- P-752_Unit2
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You are on page 1of 48

Release 17.0

Module 06 Topics

1. Explicit Dynamics Analysis

Settings

2. Parameters and What-if Studies

3. Workshop 06.1: Can Crush with

Mass Scaling

4. Workshop 06.2: Drop Test of a

Bottle

5. Workshop 06.3: Prestressed

Beam

6. Workshop 06.4: Cylinder Impact

What-if Study

Note: If any Analysis Setting values are changed, then Type

will be set to Custom.

Note: The Body Self Contact and Element Self Contact settings in the Body Interactions object Details panel should be set

to Program Controlled in order for the Analysis Settings Preference Type to have an effect on the Body Interactions

objects. If the Program Controlled setting is used, the values of the Body Interactions settings will be as shown here.

Step Controls

Solve Initiation

Specifies the cycle (time step) from which to start the Solve.

Default (cycle 0) is to start at the beginning (time zero).

When resuming a simulation, changes to analysis settings will be respected where

possible.

For example, you often wish to resume with an extended End Time.

Changes to any other features in the model (geometry suppression, connections, loads, etc.) will not be respected.

List of cycles from which to resume will only be populated if a previous solve has been executed and restart files

generated.

Solve Termination

Specifies the maximum number of cycles (time increments) allowed for the simulation.

The simulation will stop once the specified value is reached.

Enter a large number (default) to ensure simulation runs to the End Time.

Enter a reasonable estimate for this parameter since it controls the length of time the simulation will take to run.

Used in other pre-processing objects (such as tabular loads) and also to define the scale for Chart output of results

objects.

Step Controls

Maximum Energy Error

Solution stops if the energy error exceeds the Maximum Energy Error (expressed as a

fraction):

where

Reference Energy = Internal Energy + Kinetic Energy + Hourglass Energy

Current Energy = Internal Energy + Kinetic Energy + Hourglass Energy

Work Done = Work done by constraints

+ Work done by loads

+ Work done by body forces

+ Energy removed from system by element erosion

+ Work done by contact penalty forces

Defines the cycle at which the solver calculates the reference energy

Usually the start cycle (default)

Step Controls

Example energy conservation graph for model with symmetry plane and erosion

Step Controls

Time Step Controls

Initial Time Step

If left on Program Controlled (recommended), the initial time

step will be automatically set to of the smallest initial

element stability time step.

Minimum Time Step

If the time drops below this value, the simulation will stop .

If left on Program Controlled (recommended), the value will be set to 1/10 of the Initial

Time Step.

Maximum Time Step

Solver will use the minimum of this value or the computed stability time step

Program Controlled is recommended

Time Step Safety Factor

Safety factor is applied to the computed stability time step

Default (0.9) should work for most simulations.

10

Step Controls

Automatic Mass Scaling

Masses in smaller elements are scaled up to increase the time step used

in the simulation

Additional input is required for this option:

Minimum CFL Time Step

Minimum CFL time step to be obtain with mass scaling

Should be larger that the observed CFL time step

Limits the ratio of scaled mass / physical mass that can be applied to each element in

the model.

If this ratio is exceeded, the simulation will stop with an error message.

Limits the ratio of scaled mass / physical mass that can be applied to an individual body.

If this ratio is exceeded, the simulation will stop with an error message.

Update Frequency

A value of zero (default) means mass scaling is only done once, at the start of the

simulation

Caution! Mass scaling introduces additional mass into the system to increase the

CFL time step. Introducing too much mass can lead to unphysical results.

11

Step Controls

Automatic Mass Scaling Example

5X INCREASE IN DT,

0.02% INCREASE IN MASS

12

Step Controls

Virtual Topology and Mass Scaling

Using Virtual Topology for meshing can often improve mass scaling efficiency:

WITH VT

WITHOUT VT

Timestep

Mass

Scaling

13

~ 5.0E-8 (No

Mass

Scaling)

2.0E-7

3.0E-7

4.0E-7

5.0E-7

6.0E-7

Without VT

0%

2.87%

7.84%

14.48%

21.54%

31.01%

With VT

0%

0.22%

0.90%

2.59%

5.51%

22.4%

Step Controls

Virtual Topology and Mass Scaling

Solve Time Without VT and MS: 20 mins

Solve Time With VT and MS: 4 mins

14

Solver Controls

Precision

Double Precision only

Solve Units

The units the solver will use for the simulation

Different units can be used to set up problems and view

results.

Bending (default, most accurate)

Truss

Beam Time Step Safety Factor

Hex Integration Type

Exact (default, most accurate)

1pt Gauss (faster)

Shell Sublayers

Used to compute Stress Resultants and Bending Moments

Default (3) usually provides sufficient accuracy

15

Solver Controls

Shell Shear Correction Factor

Shell BWC Warp Correction

Shell Thickness Update

Nodal

Elemental

Tet Pressure Integration

Average Nodal Pressure (ANP)

Constant Pressure (SCP)

Nodal Strain (NBS)

Shell Inertia Update

Recompute (default, most accurate)

Rotate (faster)

Density Update

Program Controlled (default, recommended)

Incremental (for large deformations)

Total (for small deformations)

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Solver Controls

Minimum Velocity

Computed nodal velocities below the Minimum

Velocity will be set zero

Eliminates small velocities caused by noise

Maximum Velocity

Computed nodal velocities above the Maximum

Velocity will be set equal to the Maximum Velocity

Can increase time step by eliminating high

velocities that are not influencing the required

solution

Radius Cutoff

Nodes with the Radius Cutoff of a symmetry plane

will be snapped onto the symmetry plane

The minimum strain rate you want to allow in the analysis.

The default is recommended for most analyses. For low speed or

quasi-static analyses, it may be necessary to decrease this value.

17

Damping

Three types of damping can be applied for Explicit Dynamic Analyses:

Artificial Viscosity

Introduced to prohibit instabilities developing from shock formation / propagation

Hourglass Damping

Introduced to prohibit hourglass deformation modes developing in solid hex elements

and quad shell elements

Static Damping

Applied to allow a static equilibrium solution to be obtained from an Explicit Dynamic

analysis

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Shock discontinuities are generally not stable.

Usually, the diffusion inherent in numerical solutions is sufficient to keep

them stable, but solutions can be noisy.

Artificial Viscosity is used to

Ensure stability by smearing shock discontinuities into rapidly varying,

but continuous, transition regions

Reduce noise

Two terms are used to apply Artificial Viscosity:

Quadratic (stabilizes the solution)

V

V

V

C c for

C d

0

V

V

Linear (reduces noise)

V

for

V

0

V

Linear Artificial Viscosity coefficient

Both terms impose further restrictions on the time step

Not usually very significant

Default Values are recommended

Use carefully to avoid over-diffusion of the real solution

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QUADRATIC VISCOSITY ENSURES STABILITY

20

Hourglass Control (Damping) for Hexahedral Solid and Quad Shell Elements

For the hexahedral and quad element formulations, the expressions for strain rates and forces involve only

If an element distorts such that these differences remain unchanged, there is no strain increase in the element and

therefore no resistance to this distortion.

On the left, the two diagonals remain the same length even though the element distorts. If such distortions occur in a

region of several elements, a pattern such as that shown on the right occurs and the reason for the name hourglass

instability is easily understood:

2D

In order to avoid such hourglass instabilities, a set of corrective forces are added to the solution.

Two formulations are available for hexahedral solid elements:

AD standard (default)

Most efficient option in terms of memory and speed

Flanagan-Belytschko

Invariant under rotation. Improved results for large rigid body rotations

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3D

Two formulations are available for the corrective forces used to resist

hourglass deformation modes of hexahedral elements.

AUTODYN Standard (default, most efficient)

Generates hourglass forces proportional to nodal velocity differences.

Often referred to as a viscous formulation.

FH C H cV

* f KF X

CH is the Viscous Coefficient, is the material density, c is the material

sound speed, V is the material volume and fKF() is a vector function of element

nodal velocities aligned with the hourglass shape vector.

Flanagan Belytschko

Invariant under rigid body rotation (i.e., hourglass forces sum to zero)

Recommended for simulations in which large rotations of hexahedral elements

2

are expected.

F C cV 3 * f X

H

FB

field and rigid body field.

Viscous Coefficient usually varies between 0.05 and 0.15. The default value is 0.1.

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The sum of the hourglass forces applied to an element is normally zero.

Momentum of the system is unaffected by hourglass forces.

stored locally in the specific internal energy of the element

recorded globally over the entire model

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Damping: Static

Explicit Dynamics is primarily designed for solving transient dynamic events.

Using the static damping option, a static equilibrium solution can also be

obtained.

Introduces a damping force proportional to the nodal velocities, aimed to critically damp the

lowest mode of oscillation of the static system.

Solution is computed dynamically until it converges to an equilibrium state.

Need to judge when the equilibrium state is achieved.

Value of Static Damping (Rd) for critical damping of the lowest mode of vibration is:

Rd

2 t T

1 2 t T

where T is the period of the lowest mode of vibration of the system (or close approximation).

Expect solution to converge to static equilibrium in roughly 3T if critical damping is applied.

If T is not known accurately, over-estimate it rather than underestimate it.

Approximate values of t and T can be obtained by first performing a dynamic analysis

without static damping.

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Used to correct the behavior of shells after long elapsed simulation time

Explicit Dynamics System: Analysis Settings > Damping Controls

Autodyn GUI: Controls > Damping

Fixed support, uniform pressure loading example:

R15

25

R16

Erosion Controls

Erosion is a numerical mechanism for the automatic removal (deletion) of

elements during a simulation.

Ensures time step remains reasonably large.

Ensures solutions can continue to the End Time.

Can be used to allow simulation of material fracture, cutting, and penetration.

On Geometric Strain

An element erodes when its Effective (geometric) strain exceeds the Geometric

Strain Limit.

Typical values range from 0.5 to 2.0. The default value of 1.5 can be used in most cases.

eff

2

2

2

2

12 22 32 1 2 2 3 3 1 3 12

23

31

3

26

12

DEFAULTS

Erosion Controls

Three Options (Continued)

On Material Failure

An element erodes immediately upon material failure.

Elements using damage models will erode if the damage value reaches 1.0.

An element erodes when its local element time step, multiplied by the time

step safety factor falls below the Minimum Element Time Step.

Custom result TIMESTEP can be used to review local element time steps.

Retain Inertia of Eroded Material

If this option is selected, and all elements connected to a node in the mesh erode,

27

the inertia of the resulting free node is retained. i.e. the free node continues to

transfer momentum in subsequent impacts.

If not selected, all free nodes are removed from the simulation.

DEFAULTS

Erosion Controls

Erosion Examples

DAMAGE PLOTS FOR GLASS TARGETS

NEVER USE ONLY THE ERODED REGIONS SHOWN IN MATERIAL PLOTS TO

DETERMINE THE EXTENT OF DAMAGE.

DAMAGE (PARTICULARLY WHEN COMPARING RESULTS WITH EXPERIMENTS).

BIRD STRIKE

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Output Controls

DEFAULTS

Results files

Results files contain data used for the main post-processing

operations in Explicit Dynamics (Contour Results, Probe Results, ).

Save Results on

Equally Spaced Time Points (specify Number of points)

Cycles (specify Cycles frequency)

Time (specify Time frequency)

By default, 20 results files are generated for a Solve which

terminates at the specified End Time.

Restart files

Restart files contain all information required by the solver to run (or restart) the simulation.

Save Restart Files on

Cycles (specify Cycles frequency)

Time (specify Time frequency)

By default, 5 restart files are generated for a Solve which terminates at the specified End Time.

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Output Controls

Result Tracker data

Result Tracker files contains time history data for probes

Save Result Tracker Data on

Time (specify Time frequency)

By default result tracker data is recorded every cycle.

Frequency may need to be reduced for long running simulations.

Output contact forces for ACT to calculate contact related

properties such as contact pressure

Output Contact Forces on

Cycles (specify Cycles frequency)

Time (specify Time frequency)

Equally Spaced Points (specify Number of points)

Off (do not output contact forces)

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DEFAULTS

To improve speed

Turn off element self interaction (probably not required)

Turn off Part self interaction (if possible)

Turn on 1 point Gauss Hex

Use mass scaling (for overly small elements)

Use the SCP Tet (much faster, but less accurate)

To improve accuracy

Change/Increase Hourglass Damping

Use Friction Force

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To Run HPC in Explicit Dynamics system, make sure

Double Precision is used

Body Interaction is scoped to all bodies

Body Self Contact and Element Self Contact are set to Program Controlled

Check the box Distribute Solution

Set the Max number of utilized processors to the number of slave tasks you want to use

You can also use Add Local to create local solve process settings for HPC runs

32

In additional to the set up on the previous slide, a command line argument

needs to be added to the settings, such as

-machines hostid1:n1:hostid2:n2:hostidnn:nn

The hostid could be machine name or its IP address

n1, n2, , nn are the number of slave tasks on each machine

The total number of slave tasks on all machines should be equal to the number

in the Max number of utilized processors.

33

Many performance tests have been conducted

3 examples shown here highlighting the range of latest parallel capabilities

Note speedup is dependent on a number of model factors including model size, solver and

coupling, result edits, and PC and/or CPU configuration

812,468 Elements (ANP Tetrhedra,

Hexahedra and Shells)

Bonds & TC (no Erosion)

Number of Cores/CPUs

Solver Time (minutes)

Speedup

Efficiency (%)

1

42.37

1

2

21.06

2.01

100.6%

4

12.21

3.47

86.8%

8

6.62

6.4

80.0%

8

6

4

2

0

1

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Example 2: Pull Test Failure

NBS Tetrahedral elements

Limited Erosion and TC

6

5

4

3

Number of Cores/CPUs

Run Time (minutes)

Speedup

Efficiency (%)

1

291.30

1

2

174.68

1.67

83.5%

4

91.36

3.19

79.7%

8

52.77

5.52

69.0%

2

1

0

1

680,000 Elements (mostly Hexahedra,

Significant Erosion and TC

6

5

4

3

Number of Cores/CPUs

Solver Time (minutes)

Speedup

Efficiency (%)

35

1

176.40

1

2

125.60

1.4

70.2%

4

77.60

2.27

56.8%

8

42.60

4.14

51.8%

12

35.80

4.93

41.1%

2

1

0

1

12

Platform MPI: Supported since R12.0

Intel MPI

Better performance on Intel architecture-based clusters

Microsoft MPI

Better performance on Windows operating systems

Able to run Autodyn on a Windows cluster with MS MPI or Job Scheduler

HPC runs between different MPIs.

AutodynWrapper.exe

AutodynWrapper.exe

AutodynWrapper.exe

36

mpi pcmpi

mpi intel

mpi msmpi

[Platform MPI]

[Intel MPI]

[Microsoft MPI]

Intel Xeon Dual-Core CPU @ 2.90 GHz, 256 GB RAM, Windows Server 2008 R2

Enterprise

37

What-if Studies

Parameters and Design Points allow you set up and run

what-if studies:

INPUT PARAMETER

OUPUT PARAMETER

ALL PARAMETERS WINDOW

38

What-if Studies

39

What-if Studies

Parameters can be set in multiple applications:

ENGINEERING DATA

DESIGNMODELER

RADIUS

40

MECHANICAL

What-if Studies

Progress can be monitored during solution:

41

What-if Studies

Results can be charted:

42

What-if Studies

Design Point can be Exported to automatically create and save a full analysis

project for the Solve associated with that Design Point:

43

Goal:

Add mass scaling to the previous

aluminum soda can crushing simulation

Procedure:

Duplicate the existing Explicit Dynamics

Review the results from the prior run

without mass scaling

Identify elements that are reducing the

time increment size

Turn on mass scaling and re-solve the

simulation

Compare the settings and results from the

two simulations

Walkthrough

44

Goal:

Use ANSYS Mechanical to simulate the

drop test of a variable-thickness bottle

Procedure:

Use an External Data Component System

to import variable thickness for the bottle

Link to Explicit Dynamics to set up and

solve the analysis, using mass scaling to

increase efficiency

Quick Instructions

45

Goal:

Pre-stress a cantilever beam using Explicit

Dynamics

Procedure:

Import the beam geometry

Start Mechanical

Mesh the geometry

Apply appropriate initial conditions

Apply appropriate static damping

Solve the problem

View the results

Quick Instructions

46

VZ = -100 M/SEC

Goal:

Conduct what-if study on previously solved

cylinder impact model by tracking maximum

equivalent plastic strain as a function of initial

rod velocity

VZ = -300 M/SEC

Procedure:

Duplicate the existing Explicit Dynamics

Assign a parameter to the initial velocity

condition of the rod

Assign a parameter to the maximum equivalent

plastic strain

Run the parameterized system from the Project

Schematic

Review the results (equivalent plastic strain

plots are shown here)

VZ = -500 M/SEC

Walkthrough

47

END

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