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TME

IMMATUR
.

F.

CHU

How To Know

THE IMMATURE
INSECTS
An

illustrated

families of
CO

key

many

suggestions
them.

for identifying the

of the

orders

and

immature insects with

for collecting, rearing

and studying

=o

a
a

o
m
o

H. F.

CHU.

Ph.D.

Zoologist Institute of Zoology,


National Academy of Peiping.
Peiping, China

1946-47 Visiting Professor

Iowa Wesleyan College

M.

C.

COMPANY PUBLISHERS
BROWN Dubuque,
Iowa

'^Uttimd'KtH
Copyright
H. E.

^"^^^ilAtunc Sctiu

949 by

Jaques

Library of Congress Catalog Card

Number A50-2933

ISBN 0-697-04807-1 (cloth)


ISBN 0-697-04806-3 (paper)

THE PICTURED-KEY NATURE SERIES

How

To

Know The

AQUATIC PLANTS,

Prescott,

1969

BEETLES, Jaques, 1951

BUTTERFLIES, Ehrlich, 1961

CACTI, Dawson, 1963

EASTERN LAND SNAILS,

ECONOMIC PLANTS,

Burch,

Jaques,

1962

1948,

1958

FALL FLOWERS, Cuthbert, 1948

FRESHWATER ALGAE,
FRESHWATER FISHES,

Prescott,

1954, 1970

Eddy, 1957, 1969

1968
1963
IMMATURE INSECTS, Chu, 1949
INSECTS, Jaques, 1947
LAND BIRDS, Jaques, 1947
LICHENS, Hale, 1969

GRASSES,

Pohl, 1953,

GRASSHOPPERS,

Heifer,

LIVING THINGS, Jaques, 1946


Booth, 1949, 1970

MAMMALS,

MARINE ISOPOD CRUSTACEANS, Schultz, 1969


MOSSES AND LIVERWORTS, Conard, 1944, 1956
PLANT FAMILIES, Jaques, 1948
POLLEN

AND

SPORES, Kapp, 1969

PROTOZOA, Jahn, 1949


ROCKS AND MINERALS,

Heifer,

1970

SEAWEEDS, Dawson, 1956


SPIDERS, Kaston, 1952

SPRING FLOWERS, Cuthbert, 1943, 1949

TAPEWORMS,

Schmidt,

TREMATODES,

Schell,

1970
1970

TREES, Jaques, 1946

WATER

BIRDS, Jaques-Ollivier,

1960

WEEDS, Jaques, 1959

WESTERN

TREES, Baerg, 1955

Printed in United States of America

INTRODUCTION
NSECTS

constitute the largest

group

of the

animal kingdom.

There are over seven hundred thousand species which

have been named and described and still a large number


of new species is being added to our knowledge every
Because

year.

of the great diversity of their

behavior and

From

habits, their study is filled with interest.

the econo-

mic point of view, some insects are considered beneficial

and others

know

injurious

human

to

beings.

The

better

we

our insect enemies and insect friends, the better are our chances

of anticipating protections or of

preparing and conducting our defenses

against them.
Insects are highly different in their

young and

their adult stages.

For example, the butterflies fly in air and feed on nectar of flowers

while their caterpillars live on plants and

chew

these coarse tissues;

mosquitoes suck blood while their larvae dwell in water;

do not feed

do great damage

at all but their larvae

are thousands of differences in their

body
to

structures

know

between

the adult insects

ture insects.

From

and

either the

we know

aspect the more

ways

insect parents
it

and

to

of living

and also

of the

We

their children.

also necessary to

is

many moths

our crops. There

know

the

need
imma-

economic standpoint or the evolutionary

of the

immature stages the better we un-

derstand the adult insects.


Unfortunately our knowledge of the immature insects

is

still

far

away from complete. Much work must still be done in this interesting
and very important field. This book is compiled from the available
literature and designed to make it as easy as possible to acquire a
ready knowledge
illustrated

keys

of the

immature

insects.

It

contains a

for identification of these insects to orders

principal families.

number of
and their

For advanced study, important references are giv-

book the author feels like an explorer entering


an uncharted region. At best there will be ommissions and mistakes.
I shall be grateful for any corrections or constructive suggestions to

en.

In attempting this

put into later printings of the book.

The excellent

W. P. Hayes, Professor of Entomolon the immature insects during the time

instruction of Dr.

v)ogy. University of

Illinois

HOW
when

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


was a

the author

made the book


Iowa Wesleyan College,

student in his classes has

possible. Dr. H. E. Jaques, Professor of Biology,

has given encouragement and invaluable suggestions. My wife, Y. S.


and in many other ways. The author

Liu has helped with drawings

wishes

thank them most sincerely

to

January

1,

1949

4^
We
much

kind help.

China

Peiping,

have found

and an

for all their

Dr.

Chu

-^^

/^

":>

a thoroughly trained Entomologist


a most faithful friend. He has given
the preparation of this manual in a com-

not only

excellent teacher but also

time and thought to

parative

new and

sects will find

it

difficult field.

highly helpful.

We

feel certain that students of in-

CONTENTS
Page

What Are Immature


The Importance
What Immature

Where

How
How

Immature Insects

Insects

to Collect

to Collect
to

of

Insects

Look Like

Immature Insects

Immature Insects

Rear Immature Insects

3
6

19

21

26

Pictured-Keys to Orders of Immature Insects

28

Pictured-Keys to FamiHes

54

Order Protura

54

Order Thysanura

55

Order Collembola

58

Order Plecoptera

59

Order Ephemeroptera

62

Order Odonata

67

Order Orthoptera

69

Order Coleoptera

72

Order Hemiptera

129

Order Homoptera

135

Order Neuroptera

140

Order Trichoptera

146

Order Lepidoptera

149

Order Diptera

189

Order Hymenoptera

Some

Important References

Index and Pictured Glossary

210

217
224

WHAT ARE IMMATURE


DEVELOPMENT OF INSECTS.
to

form one

cell fertilization results

within the eggshell.

This

is

INSECTS

When an egg

and a sperm unite


embryo begins to develop
embryonic development and all

and

called

the

that takes place after hatching or birth is

postembryonic development.
completed when the insect is fully grown and capable
of producing young.

The

life

cycle

is

METAMORPHOSIS.

The term metamorphosis is derived from


Greek words, nieta, change, and morphe, form, designating a
change of form. The plural is metamorphoses. It is defined as the series of changes through which an insect passes in its growth from the
egg through the larva and pupa to the adult, or from the egg through
the

the

nymph
a)

to the adult.

Gradual or simple metamorphosis.

In many insect

species the
similar to
the adult externally, except for the
complete absence of wings. But
after a period of growth the wing
may appear, attached to the outside of the body as small wing
pads.
The more developed the
young insect becomes, the more
it resembles
its parents.
Such a
development is called a gradual

young are very much

or
simple metamorphosis. The
young of such insects are called
nymphs. They commonly have
Fig. 1. The life stages of chinch bug,
Blissus leucopterus (Say)
a-e, 1st
the same habits as their parents
to 5th instar nymphs;
adult; g,
eggs. (U.S.D.A.)
and the nymphs and adults frequently feed together. An example is the aphids where both adult and
young are habitually found associated on the same plant. Grasshopper nymphs and adults both eat grasses and clovers and may be found
hopping about together in the pastures. The insects of gradual or
:

f,

simple metamorphosis include the orders Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera,


Odonata, Embioptera, Orthoptera, Isoptera, Dermaptera, Thysanoptera,
Corrodentia, Mallophaga, Anoplura, Hemiptera and Homoptera. All
these insects are collectively known as the Heterometabola.
b)

Complete or complex metamorphosis.


In this type of metamorphosis, the young are very different from their adults. There
are no external traces of wings. The young are known as larvae
and the adult is preceded by a pupal stage. The insects having
this type of metamorphosis are collectively called the HoiometaJboia and include the orders Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Mecoptera, Diptera, Siphonaptera, Strepsiptera

and Hymenoptera.
1

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Fig. 2. The life stages of Anomala konsano Hayes Cr McColloch: a, egg; b-d, 1st to 3rd instar larvae; e, pupa; f,

adult.

c)

(Redrawn from Hayes)

No metamorphosis

The insect of this type of


metamorphosis have no distinct external
changes in development, except in size.
When the young hatches from the egg it
resembles its parents and scarcely shows
any changes in appearance during the

or Ametabola.

course of development. This is especially


true of a small number of wingless insects
belonging to the orders Protura, Thysanura and Collembola.

These insects shed their outer coat (molt)


from time to time to permit more comfortable growth, but all of these successive
stages appear very much the same except
in size.
Some would call these immature
stages "nymphs" but "young" seems to be
a more accurate and preferred term.
Fig.

3.

a,

Protura; b, Thysanura.

HOW TO KNOW

Me tamo rpho sis

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

IMMATURE STAGES OCCUPY A LARGER PART OF THE


CYCLE.

LIFE

The egg stage usually lasts but a few days, sometimes


even shorter, or the egg may hatch before it is laid, as is the case in

Many

the aphids.

insects hi-

bernate in the egg stage in


which event the egg period
may last several months.
The growing stage is usually much longer than other

The nymph

stages.

of

the

Magicicada septendecim (L.) Lives

periodical

cicada,

underground from

13 to 17

years as compared with the


30 or 40 days of
life

and

egg

stage.

flies

live

6.

Life

cycle of the Japanese beetle,

adult's

as adults for only

a few hours,
Fig.

its

weeks of its
While some May-

6 to 7

their

nymphal

believed to occupy

stage

is

three

years.

Many

insects

spend their winter time in


the pupal stage. In general, insects spend considerably more time in
their immature stages than they do as adults.
Popillia

japonica

Newman.

LARVA AND NYMPH ARE HEAVIER FEEDERS.

When a survey
made, the nymphs are usually found
to take the same kind of food as their adults. Larvae on the other
hand, usually feed differently and consume much more than their
adults. Take the order Lepidoptera as a good example; the caterpillars
eat a large quantity of food while a good number of moths do not feed
of the feeding habits of insects is

at all.

The zoological position


ANIMAL EVOLUTION AND ADAPTION.
some animals that are of degenerate form in the adult stages has
been established only by study of their embryonic and larval stages.
The larvae of barnacles show that these animals belong among the
crustaceans, and the peculiar parasitic barnacle, Sacculina can be
of

recognized as a crustancean only during its larval existance. Likewise,


the tunicates were found to be Chordates only by a study of their larval
characteristics. The adults of the Coniopterygidae look like aphids but
are regarded as Neuropteia because of the structures of their larvae.
The degenerate form of the aduhs gives no clue to their real position
among animals. Among insects there are many highly interesting

and adaptation. A knowledge of the


a much clearer understanding in both of

points to study in their evolution

immature stages makes


these fields.

for

HOW TO KNOW
INSECT CONTROL.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

The injurious insects give us a clear idea


immature insects. It is the larvae of the Codling
moth, Carpocapsa pomonella Linne, for example which feed on our
apples, not the adult moths. The maggots of the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedeman), do serious damages to fruits, but
the adult flies except for laying eggs are quite inoffensive. Note also
of the

importance

of

Gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L.), the Browntail' moth, Nygmia


phaeorrhoea (Donovan), and many Wire worms (Elateridae), White
grubs (Scarabaeidae), Cut worms (Noctuidae); their larvae cost us
millions of dollars every year. We need to know the morphological
structures, life histories and habits of the immature insects in order to
successfully conduct measures for their control.
the

WHAT IMMATURE

INSECTS LOOK LIKE

EGGS
Insects develop from eggs
different species.

As a

which

rule, insects

differ greatly in size

and shape

in

tend to lay eggs proportionate to


eggs are those of the CoUembola.

their own size. The smallest known


The eggs of one of the small headed flies measure 0.15 by 0.18 millimeter. The eggs of the clover seed midge and of the Tingidae are
also minute. The other extreme is found in the eggs of the giant silk
moth, those of the polyphemus moth being 3 millimeters in diameter.
The shapes of insect eggs are described in the following:

(a) Flat

and

scalelike (Fig.

Take for example


moth and the orien-

7).

the eggs of the codling

moth.

tal fruit
Fig. 7. Eggs of the codmoth, Corpocopso
ling

pomonella

(b)

L.

Spherical (Fig. 8). The eggs of many species, such as the swallow-tail butterfly, the
green June beetle and many other ScaraV
1.
-J
1
baeidae
are spherical.

Fig.

(c)

Conical

(Fig.

9.)

cabbage worm,
_

_.

foil

t,

..

Eggs of the
army//orm,

Fig. 9.

Lophygma
do

frugiper

(Smith
Abbott).

Cr

violet tip,
i

conical

m
.

The
Pieris

8.

Eggs of a

butterfly.

eggs of the imported


rapae (L.) and the

Poiygonia interrogationis Fab., are


-j
v
j
f
j
shape and deeply
ridged.
,

HOW

TO KNOW

(d)

THE>

Elongate

IMMATURE INSECTS

(Fig. 10).

Many eggs are elongate,

as for example, the eggs of leafhoppers,

hoppers and tree

Eggs

row

of this

tree-

crickets.

type are often inserted in nar-

cavities such as hollow grass stems or in

burrows made with the ovipositor or lend


Fig.

,^r10. Eggs:

a,

themselves readily
j

sugar-

cane leafhopper, Perkinsaccharicida Kirkcidy; b, Mexican bean


beetle, Epilachna vorivestis Mulsant; c, housefly,

sielia

Musca domestica
(e)

to

being
laid in compact
-a
r-

arOUPS
^
^

L.

With appendages (Fig. 11). The eggs of a


water scorpion have eight or more filaments \ y,
radiating from the upper rim. Pentatomid ^%i^;v7ii
eggs are usually beset with a circle of spinej ^
around the upper edge. Reduviid eggs have
a definite cap at one end. The poultry louse
has a striking egg, white and covered with
11. Eggs: a, PodiFig.
glass-like spines. The free end of this egg is sus maculiventris Say; b.
Tricorythodes alMayfly,
with
lid
which
furnished
a
bears at its apex lectus (Needham).
a long lashlike appendage.
.

'

'

m'

HOW

TO

KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

NUMBER OF EGGS.
The sheep-tick and the true female of many
aphids, for instance, produce but a few eggs (as few as 4). On the
other hand, the egg mass of the dobsonfly may contain 3,000 eggs,
and a parasitic fly, Pterodontia Uavipes (Cyrtidae) has been reported
as laying 3,977 eggs. The social insects lead the list. A termite queen
may lay 1,000,000 eggs during her Hfe. Queen ants and queen honey
bees likewise are highly prolific.

WHERE THE EGGS ARE LAID

Fig.

14.

The whole story

of

where

insects

Eggs: a, Boll-weevil parasite, CerGmbycobius cyaniceps;


b
Bollweevil parasite, Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashrri.; c. Range
caterpillard. Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.);
e, egg moss of Culex
pungens Wiedemann; f, egg mass of the gypsy moth, Pofhetrio
dis
par (L.); g, Rosy apple aphid; h, apple leaf roller; i,
grasshoppersheep louse; k, Hypoderma lineata (De Villiers); I, katydidJ,
m/
/
Snow tree cricket; n, Oeconthus niveus (De Geer)
/

HOW TO KNOW
lay their eggs

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

a complicated one, but very

is

Insect eggs

interesting.

may

are generally laid in situations where the young, upon hatching,

Species that feed upon foliage usually lay their

readily find food.

eggs upon leaves

The

of the correct plant.

the right species of food plant for

ability of adult to recognize

seems remarkable.

offspring often

its

Aquatic insects lay their eggs in or near the water. Parasites generally lay their

eggs

eggs upon or within

and Anoplura lay


There are also

their

many

foliage or in the

Some

their host.

flower

flies

lay their

aphids or other soft-bodied insects. The Mallophaga

in clusters of

eggs upon the hair or feather

Some

special cases.

of their hosts.

upon

insects lay their eggs

ground and the young are compelled

to

seek

their

The twisted-winged insects (Stylopids) often lay their young


upon plants where they must wait until certain solitary bees visit these
plants. The young then grasp the legs of the bees and are carried to
nests where they find theii hosts. The eggs of walkingsticks lie dorhosts.

upon the ground. With the ap-

mant beneath leaves

or other debris

proach

eggs hatch and the nymphs must find the leaves

of Spring, the

of their host plants.

Insects such as leafhoppers

and aphids, many

of

which feed upon herbaceous annual plants during the summer, seek

woody

Many

plants on which to lay their eggs

leaf-mining insects of

the

orders

when

winter approaches.

Lepidoptera,

Hymenoptera,

fruits and
young when they

Coleoptera and Diptera insert their eggs into wood, leaves,


seeds, thus offering ready access to food for the
hatch.

The

Fruit Flies

ly into the fruit in

and many Snout Beetles

which

insert their

their larvae will develop.

treehoppers and leafhoppers lay their eggs within


protection

of

The

eggs

direct-

tree crickets,

woody

plants for

eggs.

the

Some

Chalcids oviposit in seeds.


sect

eggs are sometimes

In-

car-

by

the adult for better pro-

tection.

The Hydrophilid beetles

ried

of the

subfamily Sphaeridiinae

carry the eggs attached to their

hind

may

legs.
Certain Mayflies
carry two eggs adhering

to the posterior
-

until

end

opportunity

of the

is

body

found

to

them into the water.


Reaches often carry an egg

drop
Fig.

15.

Oothecoe
mantid

of

Mantid;
ootheca

a,

b, cross-section
phosmid; d,

c,

German cockroach.

^^gg (ootheca) at the tip of the


abdomen. The females of the

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

water bugs, Belastoma, Serphes and


Abedus deposit their eggs on the back of
males where they remain until hatched. Some

giant

most interesting cases are those insects which


impose upon other species. The water boatman, Ramphoconxa acuminata, attaches its
eggs to the body of a crayfish. The human
bot fly, DermafoJbia hominis, uses the mosquito to transport its eggs to man. The botfly visits marshy places where mosquitoes
are emerging. It seizes a mosquito and deposits 10 to 12 eggs on the abdomen and legs
of the mosquito, after which it releases its
hold. When the mosquito visits man, the
warmth of his body causes the botfly eggs
to hatch and the young maggots dig into the
flesh of the victim. The females of the Euro-

pean

beetle, Clythra quadrimaculata, deposit

eggs on the foliage of birch or other


trees. These are covered with excrement and
resemble small bracts of the plant. The ants
pick these up apparently mistaking them for
bits of vegetable refuse, and take them into
their nests. When the eggs hatch the larvae
their

16. Eggs on the back


of male insects: o, Phyl-

Fig.

b.
laciniata;
lomorpha
Western water bug, Abe-

dus

sp.

live in

the ant's nest

as

guests

(called inquilines).

The ravenous larvae known as


aphid lions hatch from eggs held
erect

on slender threads

and are

(fig.

17)

thus supposedly prevented

from eating the unhatched eggs.

Fig.

17.

Eggs of the ophid

lion.

NYMPHS
The term nymph

is

obtained from the Greek word meaning bride

or maiden. In mythology, a nymph was one of the inferior deities of


Nature, represented by a beautiful maiden, who inhabitated the
mountains, forests and water. In entomology, a nymph is one of the
immature instars of insects with a gradual metamorphosis. The immature stages of Orthoptera, Isoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Thysanoptera, Anoplura, Dermaptera, Mallophaga and Corrodentia are known
as nymphs. Nymphs have certain characters in common. The wings
develop on the exterior of the body (some in the later instars). Compound eyes are usually present, and the species are mostly terrestrial.

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

They have no resting stage (pupae) before the aduU is reached. The
body form and structures as well as the feeding habits are generally
similar to those of the adult.

Fig.

18.

Nymphs:
ter;
et,

a,

g,

even

instar.

in species that

Fig.

pear psylla, Psylla pyricola Fors-

aphid.

In the Thysanoptera, there

second or third

b,

Anoplura;

f,

grasshopper;

(Redrawn from Conn. Agr. Expt. Stc. c, Western crickAnabrus simplex Haldeman; d, plant bug; e, AAallophaga;

19.

is

wing pads until the


lack wing pads
Thysanoptera and the male

no indication

In Corrodentia,

develop wings.

In

the

of

nymphs

Bean thrips, Hercothrips fasciatus (Pergonde): a,


egg; b, newly hatched nymph; c, mature nymph;
d, prepupa; e, pupa. (U.S.D.A.)

what appears to be a pupa. In


formed. The nymphs of Notonectidae, Corixidae, Belostomidae, Nepidae and some other smaller
families of Hemiptera are semi-aquatic. They descend beneath the
Aleyrodidae and Coccidae, there
the

is

male Coccidae, even a cocoon

waters and remain there

for

is

a considerable period

are air breathers.


10

of

time, out they

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

NAIADS
In mythology,

and give

life

a naiad was one

and perpetuation

nymphs believed to live in,


and fountains.
applied to the nymph with aquatic
of the

to lakes, rivers, springs

In entomology, the term naiad is

There are altogether only three orders of insects which


habits.

possess
immature
stages that are termed
naiads. These are the
Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera and Odonata. The

naiads have some char-

common.

All

naiads are aquatic

(ex-

acters in

cept a few exotic species); they have closed

breathe

spiracles,

means
Fig.

20.

Naiads: damsel
(Plecoptera);

of
to

c,

of

gills,

by
and

have mouth parts of


the chewing type. Most
Ephemeroptera are believed

(Odonata); b, stonefly
Mayfly (Ephemeroptera).

fly

them are predacious, but the naiads


be herbaceous.

of

Naiads are generally quite uniform in appearance. The legs are


body is flattened and campodeiform and they are very active in water. The naiads of Plecoptera and the Ephemeroptera have
conspicuous caudal filaments, varying from two to three
in number. In the damselflies (Zygoptera), the caudal
appendages are modified into leaf-like form and known
as tracheal gills. Tracheal gills are located on various
long, the

parts of the body. In Plecoptera, they are usually located on the underside of the thorax, although some
species have gills on the head or on the abdomen. In

Ephemeroptera, the

are located on the abdomen.


is modified to form a traIn the damselflies, there are three

gills

In the dragonflies, the rectum

cheal

gill

chamber.

plate-like gills at the posterior

end

di the

abdomen.
Fig.

21.

Rectal
of

tracheae

dragonfly.

LARVAE
The term larva

derived from the Latin word for mask, having


reference to the ancient belief that the adult form was masked or obscured in the larva. In entomology, the larva applies to the immature
stage between the egg and the pupal stages of the insects with complete metamorphosis. There are several characters in common. A larva has no trace of wings and compound eyes are never present. The
is

11

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

shape and the appendages ordinarily are very different from those of
the aduh; while the body is often soft, thin skinned, or weakly sclerotized.

TYPES OF LARVAE

1.

Campodeiform
acteristics

of

(Fig.

22),

The

char-

a campodeiform larva

are flattened body and long legs with


cerci or
sent.

caudal filaments usually pre-

The larvae

of

most

roptera, the Trichoptera,

of the

many

Neu-

of the

Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Carbidae, Staphylinidae,


optera,

and

the naiads of Plec-

Ephemeroptera and Odonata

are campodeiform.

Fig. 22.

Larvae: o, ground beetle,


Dobsonfly,
b,
sp.;

Pterostichus

Corydalus cornutus

(L.)

This

form

of

a modified
the campodeiform in which the

body

is

flattened but the legs are short-

Carabiform

er.

(Fig. 23).

is

Generally there are no caudal

fila-

The majority of the Chry somebeetles and many other Coleoptera

ments.
lid

(Lampyridae, Carabidae, Melyridae) exhibit this type.

Fig.

a, Caraboid instar of
larva;
saw-toothed
b,
beetle, Oryzaephilus suri-

23.

meloid
groin

namensis

12

(L.)

HOW TO KNOW
3.

Eruciform
legs

24).

(Fig.

This

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

type of larva

and prolegs are present and

the

cylindrical, the thoracic

is

head

is well formed.

illustrated in the Lepidoptera, Tenthredinidae

Fig.

4.

24.

Scarabaeiform

It

is

well

and Mecoptera.

Larvae: a, alfalfa caterpillar,


Eurymus eurytheme
(Boisduval); b, tomato hornworm, Protoparce sexta
(Johnssen); c, tussock moth, Hemerocampo vetusta
Boisduval; d, tomato fruitworm or corn earworm,
Heiiothis obsoleta Fabricius. (U.S.D.A.)

(Fig. 25).

The acarabaeiform larva

is

cylindrical

and

curved in U-shape with a well

head

developed

and usually

with thoracic legs but without


prolegs.

There are a pair of

spiracles

on the prothorax and


abdominal spir-

eight pairs of

This type

acles.

typical
It

^^

Fig. 25.

Larvae: a, Anomalo konsana Hayes


McColloch; b, clover leaf weevil,
Hypero punctata (Fab.)
.

&

Elateriform (Fig. 26).

These

also

of

larva

is

Scarabaeidae.

represented

by

the

Bruchidae, Ptinidae, Anobiidae,

Q^d Other Coleoptera.


^

larvae are cylindrical in

shape with a thick tough body wall.

much

is

the

of

The setae are

reduced, the legs are usually present but short.

They resemble both


larvae.

This type

is

the

vermiform and carabiform

well represented

by

the Elateri-

dae, Tenebrionidae, AUeculidae, Ptilodactylidae

and

Eurypogonidae.
Fig.
26.
False
wireworm, Eleodes letcheri von-

dykei Blaidell.

13

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Platyform
type

(Fig.

short,

is

extremely

flat.

27). This

broad and

The legs

are short, inconspicuous or

They are found in


and
Xanthogrammci of syrphid
larvae, the larvae of some
slug caterpillars and those
absent.

the genera Microdon

water pennies, Pse-

of the

,< Redrawn
eBoving and Craighead) b, Sadd

Fig. 27. a,

Molamba

from
badk slug
Clemens.

7.

lonota

caterpillar,

l-ec.

Sobine

pheus, hister beetles,

etc.

stimulea

Vermiform (Fig. 28).The larvae of this


type are more or less wormlike. This
designation is indefinite but is usually
considered to include larvae that are
cylindrical in shape, elongate and withMost of
out locomotive appendages.
the larvae of Diptera are like that. This
,,..^
is also true of the larvae of woodboring l^i"''
beetles, some sawflies and the flea
Fig. 28. Larvae: a, cabbage
beetles of the genera Systena and Epiroot mag'got, Hylemyio bros(Bouche); b, buffalosicae
trix. The larvae of fleas and many paraSimuiium
pecuarum
gnat,
Riley; c, common cattle grub,
sitic Hymenoptera also belong to this
,.

'

Hypoderma

type.

lineatum
under host

Villiers)

(De
skin.

(U.S.D.A.)

8.

This is a kind of complex meta(Fig. 29).


types of larvae, including: a
several
are
which
there
morphosis
robust and sluggish second
less
more
or
minute active first instar, a

Hypermetctmorphosis
in

instar,

and a similar but legless

Neuroptera

(Mantispidae),

third instar.

Coleoptera

It is

represented in the

(Meloidae,

Carabidae,

Sta-

phylinidae, Rhipiphoridae), Strepsiptera, parasitic Diptera (Acroceratidae,

Bombyliidae, Nemestrinidae, Tachinidae), and Hymenoptera

(Ichneumonidae, Pteromalidae, Perilampidae).

The larvae

of

this

instar of Meloidae, Strep-

The
and Mantispidae are called tiiungulins. They receive this
name because the legs have three claws. The fifth instar of Meloidae
type often have special names.

first

siptera

14

HOW TO KNOW
is

called

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

a coaictate larva or a pseudopupa. The first instar of


a pcorasite of the Hessian Fly, resembles a crustacean

Platygaster,

Fig. 29.

and

is

called

a naupWiioxm

secondary parasite

mg a

Life srages of Epicauta vittoto Fabricius.

of the fall

The
webworm,

larva.

first

is

instar of Perilampus,

called

a planidium, mean-

diminutive wanderer.

COMMON NAMES OF LARVAE


common names has been emphasized by many
We wish we could have common names
or all the more important insects. Only a few orders now have comnon names. The larvae of Lepidoptera are known as cateTpillars. The
The importance

of

Entomologists in recent years.

erm gzubs

Maggots indicate
and Caddiswoims the larvae of
|Trichoptera. A number of common names have been applied to the
larvae of certain families: the Geometridae are called inchworms or
jpeasuring worms; the LimacodMae are known as siug caterpillars; the
Psychidae are called bagworms; the Chrysopidae are named aphidfions; the Myrmeleonidae are known as an/-iions. The Elateridae are
called wireworms and the Sphingidae are known as hornworms.

me

is

applied to the larvae of Cpleoptera.

larvae of Diptera, Cyclorrhapha

Some common names

are derived from the larval habits, such as

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

cu

30. Larvae: a,

Fig.

sp.;

part

leaf rollers,
leaf

leaf

skeletonizers,

d,

Anopheles

sawfly larvae;
U.S.D.A.)

sp.; b, ground
e, aphid lion;

c, Protyphylox
Stenophylax sp. (In

beetle;
f,

frorr.

miners,

casebearers,

webworms,

tent

cutworms, armyworms, borers, leaf


leaf folders, gall
of the hosts

caterpillars,

tiers,

makers,

etc.

loopers,

Names

are usually used in

in-

dicating the insects of that particular


host, for

example, corn borer, tobac-

co hornworm,

etc.

The part

host which the insects attack

used

in

the

common names

of
is

of

the
also
the

larvae, such as the elder shoot borer,

pink bollworm, tomato fruitworm,


Fig.

bag

31. The formation of the


in early stages of Thyrido-

pteryx
worth.

ephemeraeformis

Hay-

Common

etc.

names, unless standardized,

are often confusing.

(U.S.D.A.)

The common names of insects with economic importance have been


standarized by the American Association of Economic Entomologists
which include a number of names for the specific larvae.
t>UPAE
The term pupa, derived from the Latin word meaning baby or
child, was proposed by Linnaeus on account of its resemblance to a
papoose or baby bound in garments. The term was first used in connection with the chiysalis of Lepidoptera. The pupa is defined as the
resting stage or inactive period of all insects with complete metamor16

HOW TO KNOW

between the larva and the

phosis, the intermediate stage

prepupa

er term

refers to the last larval instar of

retain the larval form


exists in

many

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

and mobility but cease

some

adult.

Anoth-

insects

which

This condition

to feed.

orders of insects, notably the Diptera, Hymenoptera

and

Coleoptera.

TYPES OF PUPAE.

The pupae

of insects

can be classified with

reference to the degrees of freedom of the

appendages.

1.

Obtect

(Fig. 32).

appressed
pupa.
in

to the

This

many

is

If

the

body,

it

appendages are closely


said to be an obtect

is

a common type in the Lepidoptera,


and in more primitive

of the Coleoptera,

Diptera.

Pupae of this type are covered with a tight-fitting, more r less transparent skin which holds all
the parts except the end of the abdomen practically
immovable.

pupae

of

Chrysalis

is

a term often appHed

the Lepidoptera,

especially

of

'^

cl

to the

Fig. 32.

the butter-

ilS^ tos

fhes, and by some would be restricted to those


pupae bearing markings of silver or gold.

pupae:
o'^'e

a,

e a'n*o

bSS:o'^^/ornworm'

q^emaVu\l*a**Ha
worth.

2.

Exarate

When

(Fig.

33).

appendages

the

are not closely appres-

body but are


an
exarate pupa. The Neused

to the

free,

it

is

said to be

roptera, Tricho

most

of the

and a few
doptera

pte

r a,

Coleoptera
of the Lepi-

(Tischeriidae)

have exarate pupae.


Fig.

33.

Pupae:

Colorado potato bee


Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Soy);
Hesperophylax Ep.
a,

17

HOW TO KNOW
3.

The appendages are not visible


(Fig. 34).
and are obscured by the larval skin before the

Coarctate
at all
last

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

moult, in the coarctate pupa.

This type

found

is

in

more specialized Diptera (Cyclorrhapha) and


certain Coccidae and Stylopidae.

its

pupal state

in

the

The length

of time in
is

which an

remains

insect

Much goes on

highly variable.

in

within

that the insect

is ready to emerge but


moves so rapidly with some species
remains as a pupa for only a few days.

Many

pass the winter or other unfavorable

the pupal case before the adult

the whole process

insects

time in the pupa stage.


pleted

many

tering the species


loss of

When

their

growth

com- ^^9-^ ^agSt^^Hy-

is

larvae travel for a day or two thus

a brood.

and lessening

scat-'^^y'^^g^'*'**'*'***

the chances for total

These larvae usually select some pro-

tected spot before settling

PROTECTION OF PUPAE.

down.

Most pupae are concealed in one way


or

another

from

from

such

also

as excess

ed

of

variations

their

moisture,
of

and

enemies,

adverse

influences

sudden markshock

temperature,

and other mechanical disturbance.


vision against such influences
ly

made by

Many

the larva in

is

Pro-

usual-

its last instar.

and coleopterous
larvae burrow beneath the ground and
there construct earthen cells in which
to pupate. The larger number of insects,
lepidopterous

however, construct cocoons which are


special envelopes formed either of silk
or of extraneous material
er er

by means

stance.
braconid
a,
Rig. 35. Cocoons:
cocoon; b, empty braconid cocoon; c, cocoon of the cloverleaf weevil; d, cocoon of the
aphid lion. (U.S.D.A.)

utilize

of

ground

Many

Arctiid larvae

18

togeth-

that

sub-

Thus many wood-boring larvae


chips. Larvae which transform

in the

hairs

bound

threads of

select particles of earth.

use

their

body-

and Trichoptera use pebbels, veg-

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

etable fragments, etc., these larval cases


functioning as cocoons. In these instances
the substances are held together by means
of

a warp

cocoons.

of silk

large

including

some

choptera,

many

and worked up
number of other

to

form

insects,

of the Neuroptera and TriLepidoptera and Hymenoptera and the Siphonaptera, utilize silk
alone in making their cocoons. Among
the Tenthredinidae, cocoons of a parchment-like or shell-like consistency are fre-

Fig.
36. Cases of the
bagworm, Thyridopteryx
ephemeraefor mis H a -

some cases the outer cocoon enan inner one of more delicate texture which may be called a double cocoon. The naked pupae of butterflies are suspended by silk on the cremaster at the caudal end of
In the Diptera (Cyclorrhapha), inthe abdomen.
stead of spinning a silken cocoon or constructing
quent: in
closes

worth.

a case of extraneous material, the larva practices an interesting economy by retaining about
one

itself

of

its

own

cast,

case called a puparium.


val skin
but

is

pupal

is

dry skins

to

form a

This next-to-the-last

lar-

not discarded at the time of pupation

retained until the adult breaks out of the


skin.

Fig.

37.

butterfly pupa.

WHERE TO COLLECT IMMATURE INSECTS


Insects are so highly diversified in their food and ways of living
that one may find at least a few insects almost any where he looks.
When we consider their habits the insects fall into groups which may
be rather definitely located.

A.

CHARACTERIZED HABITATS:

Aquatic

Those insects that

dwell in water or are more or


be aquatic. About five per
cent of all the insects are aquatic and still another three per cent are
closely related with water. In a strict sense,* the truly aquatic insects
are those which employ gills to separate the oxygen from the water in
which they live. Other insects "obtain their oxygen from the air but
because they are closely related with water are said to be semiaquatic
insects. If we take a count of the insect orders, almost half of them
have aquatic or semiaquatic species. The Ephemeroptera, Odonata,
Plecoptera and Trichoptera, with rare exceptions, are strictly aquatic.
1.

Insects.

less closely related with

water are said

19

to

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

The Neuroptera, Hemiptera, Diptera,


Hymenoptera are only partly aquatic.

Lepidoptera.

and
on the

Coleoptera

Some Collembola

live

surface of water.

Most insects feed on plants. We can find


Phytophagous Insects.
them on or in the plants. Others in like manner feed in dead woods
or decaying plant materials. All these are said to be phytophagous.
2.

Those insects that secure their food by living


3. Parasitic Insects.
within other animals are known as endoparasites. Ectoparasites live
and feed on other animals from the outside as with lice. Many insects
live within dead or decaying animal and plant materials and are said
to

be sapiophagous.

These insects exi.st beneath the surface of


Most of the orders contain some species with subterranean
habits. Remarkable examples are ants, termites, social wasps and
bees which live together of their own. Numerous insects lay their eggs
4.

Subterranean Insects.

the

soil.

in the soil, such as the grasshoppers, earwigs, beetles, flies, etc. Among
the Coleoptera, the Cicindelidae, Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Meloidae
and Elateridae are outstanding examples. With the Diptera, the Tipu-

Bibionidae. DoUchopodidae, Rhagionidae, Empididae, Asilidae,


Bombyliidae and Anthomyiidae commonly hide the eggs within the
ground. Lepidopterous larvae and pupae frequently hibernated in the
soil. Comparatively few nymphs dwell in the soil except certain rootfeeding Aphididae and Coccidae and the immature mole crickets. The
cicada nymphs on the other hand spend a long time underground.

lidae,

B.

SOME CHARACTERISTIC MARKINGS:

Damaged

Defoliated plants, skeletonized or partial eaten


Plants.
leaves, holes bored in plant stems or in fruits, etc., are good indications for locating the insects which did this damage.
1.

When a collector sees busily working ants,


2. Associated Animals.
he can find aphid colonies near by. From the noise of bees or flies,
we can often find their nests or their larval breeding places. On the
host animals, we can usually find predators and parasites.

A number of insect families, such as the Chir3. Sweet Secretions.


midae, Aphididae and Coccidae give off a molasses-like sweet secretion known as "Honey dew". This is easily observed and helps to
locate the insects producing it.
4.

Insect

feces.

Many

quantities of coarse foods

caterpillars

for

instance

eat

such

and discharge such large amounts

of

large

waste

material from the digestive tract as to give a clue to their presence.


Furthermore, from the characteristic shape of the feces, certain species

can be

identified.

Not only the abnormal growth of plants


Abnormality of Plants.
but also the malnutrition of plants can lead us to find the insects re5.

20

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

sponsible for these stunted conditions. The gall-insects and leaf miners are readily located within the galls and the mined leaves. Manyother insects can be found on malnutritive plants even though the insect pests are feeding underground.

Fig.

Q, Wool sower gall, Andricus seminator Harr.; b, Spring rose


gall, Rhodites bicolor Harr.; c, goldenrod ball gall, Eurosto
solidaginis Fitch; d, Dryophanta galls, Dryophanta lanata Gill;
e mine of Phyllocnistis populiiella Cham.

38.

HOW TO COLLECT IMMATURE


1.

Sweeping.

INSECTS

There are usually numerous nymphs and larvae that


weeds, shrubs and trees. Sweep the net back

live or hide in grass,

and forth on those plants in order to get those insects into the net.
This method of collecting can usually give large returns. The contents of the net should be examined often and the specimens removed before they are damaged by this vigorous treatment.
2.

Trapping.

Many

insects are attracted to food, certain chemicals,

We

or places of shelter.

can use cans or bottles sunk

and baited with molasses,

larvae can be trapped in this

into the

ground

Not only the nymphs or


way, but the eggs may also be laid by

fruits

or meat.

the adults.
3.

Digging.

Many

in the earth.

square foot of
4.

Hand

a matter

You
soil

Picking.
of fact,

subterranean insects can be collected by digging


be surprised at the large numbers of insects a

will

may

we

contain.

This

use

simply pick them up

it

is

the simplest

frequently.

method

When we

to collect insects.

see the insects

As

we can

our hands. However, some insects have


mouth parts which may hurt the hands, thereuse a pair of tweezers or forceps on some species.
in

nettled hairs or strong


fore,

it

is

advisable

to

5. Netting in Water.
For the aquatic insects, a water net can be
used for scraping the bottom or passing through vegetation in water.
Occasionally the aerial net is used in water, but it is quite poor
economy.

21

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Rinse the aquatic plants or bottom mud in a sifter. Many


can be collected on the screens of the sifter (See Fig. 41). Subterranean insects may be easily secured by running the ground litter
or soil through a sifter.
6.

Sifting.

insects

Separating.
Field soils, debris and animal nests or discharges can
in a separator with a light on the top for heating. Some separators employ a stream of water to remove the insects from the debris.
A good number of unusual insects may be collected in the receptacle.
Those insects are usually small and active, or they feign death when
disturbed, and can not be collected readily by ordinary methods. If
heat is being used as in the Berlese trap, great care should be taken
that the material does not catch fire. Your specimens may not only
he damaged in this way but you could also have no place to work
the next morning.
7.

be put

COLLECTING APPARATUS

The sweeping net needs to be strong enough to


Sweeping Net.
stand rough beating and sweeping. For the bag, 6-ounce drill, heavy
1.

HOW TO KNOW
Many

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


a few strokes

prefer a shorter handle;

of

a saw

will take core

of that.

2.

Water

Net.

The triangular dredge has some advantages over


other types because
no matter which side
rests on the bottom
one of the blades
will

cut

into

the

ground when the


Fig.

40.

strument

is

in-

dragged.

triangular dredge.

This dredge has a net of fairly close mesh, sturdy fabric. It may be
drawn behind a boat or the net may be rolled into a compact body and
thrown out to some distance from the shore then drawn back by its

long cord. In the absence of a dredge net, a garden rake can be used
to good advantage.
The debris at the bottom of the water course is

dragged out on the bank and examined for the insects that are hiding
within it. As the water runs out of the debris the insects try to get
back to the body of water also.

3.

Sifter.

Any

mesh bottom
size of the

upon
al

container with

will serve this purpose.

meshes

in the screen

wire-

The

depends

the size of the insects, but for gener-

purposes eight meshes

be found

useful.

ing box which

to the inch will

Figure 41 shows a

good

is

sift-

for collecting soil

insects.

Several sieves with different sized meshes


will help separate the insect

catch.

The

process should not be rushed, but the water


turned on gently or
will

be damaged.

Fig. 41. Sifter: A, water; B,


screen;
C,
funnel;
D-F,
screens, from coarse to fine;
G, water exit.

23

many

of the

specimens

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Separator.

4.

lese funnel.

It

known as

the Ber-

consists of a funnel over

which a
a recep-

This

is

also

The funnel leads

placed.

sieve

is

tacle

which contains liquid preservative.

the top of the funnel

which the heat and


they

until

fall

the

water or steam

often

is

is

is

Over

placed by

the receptacle.

Where a

funnel.

bulb

light drive the insects

into

special container

light

into

employed

constant

surrounded by a water jacket or

support

to

source

available the funnel

of

fire

hot

may be

coils of

tubing which greatly reduces the

down

rack or

hollow

hazard.

Separator:
42.
Fig.
A, container; B, light;
C, funnel; D, screen;
E,

5.

preservative.

Aspirator.

This

is

also

known as a

Fig.

43.

lent to collect small insects either

stones, bark, etc.

6.

Its

construction

suction bottle.

It

is

conven-

Aspirator.

from the sweeping net or from under


is illustrated

in the figure 43.

Different sizes of bottles and vials are needed


Other Apparatus.
specimens. Tweezers, forceps, pocket knife, small

for storing insect

shovel or spade, note book, labels, etc., are all important in collecting
insects. It is preferable to have a collecting bag to store those tools
for fieldwork.

HOW TO

PRESERVE SPECIMENS

For facihtating permanent study and handling, the insects must be


killed and carefully preserved to make good specimens. It is impor24

HOW TO KNOW
tant that the

insect

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

specimens be kept

body should

retain

its

in

as good condition as possible. The


shape and the colors should like-

correct

wise be kept as true to life as possible.


isfactory to cover all these aspects.

No one method

is

entirely sat-

Immature

insects are not ordinarily mounted on pins, but 70% to


alchohol or other special liquid preservatives are used. Occasionally the small-bodied specimens need to be mounted on slides for microscopic study. Before the insect is placed in the preservative it should

80%

killed by putting it into boiling water for one to five minutes. The
length of time in boiUng water depends entirely upon the size of the
specimen. It will be sufficient when the specimen become swollen up.
This method of fixing is found even better than by injecting the preservative into the insect body.
For exhibition purposes, the larvae are often inflated and kept in
dry condition. However, that is not desirable for scientific study, for

be

during the process of

inflation,

many

appendages could be damaged and the body color is sometimes


cuticular

I
j

(h^^^^r~''i~^~y'Tfr^^^^^
^^""^"-^-'^-uKAz^^x^-^-'^'^^

changed.
Inflating
larvae is rather
simple; place the larva on a clean blotter or a piece of paper and press the

body contents out by gently rolling a


round pencil from just back of the head
to the end of the abdomen. Insert the
drawn end of the glass tubing into the
anal opening of the larva and secure
it in place with the clips.
Blow gently
Fig.

44.

An

infigted

mounted

and

larva.

into the glass tubing so that the larva


.

IS

,.

distended to

its

normal

size but not

and warm it gently in an oven until dry. A lamp can be


used for heating and a chimney or a tin can can be used as an oven.
For blowing air into the body, it is better to use a hand bellows. An
expansion bulb js desirable to give an even flow of air. When the
specimen is thoroughly dry, remove it from the glass tubing and mount
it on a kitchen match by inserting the match stem into the anal opening and then mount the match stem on a pin (see Fig. 44). If the specitoo loose on the match stem, glue may be added.
men
Specimens must always be accompanied by labels in which briel
information of date, locality and collector are recorded. For the liquid
distorted,

i.*?

preserved specimens, the label should be written with India ink or


black pencil and the label put in the preservative with the specimen.
For the pinned specimens, the label should be pinned below the speci

man.
1.

Peterson recommends the following preservatives:


X.A. mixture:

Xylene

95% ethyl alcohol


Good for caterpillars,

part.

part.

coleopterous larvae and Tenthredinid larvae.

25

HOW TO KNOW
2.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

X.A.A.D. mixture:

Xylene
Commercial refined isopropyl alcohol

6 parts.

Glacial acetic acid

5 parts.

4 parts.

Dioxan

Good
3.

4 parts.

for lepidopterous larvae

and coleopterous

larvae.

K.A.A.D. mixture:

Kerosene

part.

95%

ethyl alcohol or
refined commercial isopryl alcohol

7-9 parts.

Glacial acetic acid

part.

Dioxan

part.

Good for maggots, lepidopterous larvae, hymenopterous larvae and


pupae, coleopterous larvae and neuropterous larvae. But it does not
produce satisfactory specimens where larvae possess a thick exo
skeleton, namely wireworms and similar species or among some aquatic insects especially immature stages of Zygoptera and Ephemeroptera.
field are dropped into the killing solution
they are completely distended. If narrow
vials are used for large larvae they should be places in a horizontal
position until the larvae straighten out and become firmly set. This
may take from one to several hours depending upon the species. At
the end of this period the larvae should be transferred to ethyl alcohol.
Larvae possessing a firm exoskeleton may be preserved in 75 7o ethyl
alcohol, while soft bodied forms killed in K.A.A.D. mixture should be
preserved in 95% ethyl alcohol to prevent any collapse.

Larvae collected in the

and kept submerged

HOW TO

until

REAR IMMATURE INSECTS

For studying the life history or identifying the adult stage, the immature insects are often reared in the laboratory. Rearing insects is
quite a technical job. The natural conditions under which the immature insects were found should be simulated as closely as possible.
The following is just a brief account of the more important aspects.

Screen cages of different sizes are desirable for rearing


The food plant can be cultured in soil or in water
and put in the cage. For rearing a large number of isolated individual
insects it is usually difficult to provide a large number of cages and
bottles or vials are used instead.
1. Cage.
immature

insects.

The kind of food material the insect feeds on must be deFood.


termined at the start. Ordinarily the rearing container is not large
enough for putting the entire food material inside, so fresh food should
be suppLed every day. For example, leaves or the other parts of
plants should be provided for the phytophagous insects and they always should be kept fresh. Insects that infest seeds and those that
2.

26

HOW TO KNOW
cause plant galls
tight container.

left in

be reared by enclosing the seeds or galls in a


wasps may be reared from their hosts by

Parasitic

keeping the host

be

may

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

until the adult parasites

the original food material

emerge. Boring insects can


in a cage until they

and kept

emerge.

Humidity plays an important part

3.

Humidity.

If

the condition inside of the container is too dry the food material

becomes unsuitable

for the insects.

On

in rearing insects.

the other hand,

if

the humidity

be deposited on the sides of the container


and frequently the death of the insect will result. To adjust the humidity of a vial or a bottle, changing of the materials of the stopper is
sometimes found practicable. A cork stopper can keep the humidity
is

too high, moisture will

much

higher than a stopper of cotton. Insects that feed on decaying


animal matter should have the cage provided with slightly moist soil
or sand.

4.

Insects that are being reared often die during the pupal

Pupation.

This requires a careful study of the pupation habits.

stage.
sects

make

silk or soil

out forming

cocoons and some

any covering.

Soil

just

pupate in the

must be added

to the

Some

in-

soil with-

cage

to

meet

a successful fearing will not be obbe removed artificially from its enclos-

the needs of the insect, otherwise


tained.

The cocoon should not

ed pupa

for

it

is

necessary

pupae should be kept


too high temperatures

5.

in

may

condition.

and

Cold can

cause the pupae

Preserve the different stages.

different stages

The over-wintering
the pupae and
emerge too early.

to protect the insect.

good

For

life

to

kill

history study, no\ only the

need

to be preserved, but also


and cocoons which are very imThese should all be carefully labeled.

different instars

the cast larval skins, pupal cases

portant in scientific study.

6.

Recording.

Every change

of the insect, both

morphological and

The student may devise


his own form of records but should keep them uniform and with all
the necessary details. Careless observations and records are worse
than none at all; the latter can not be misinterpreted.
physiological, should be recorded at once.

27

HOW TO KNOW
The following form

is

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

recommendated

for recording the life history:

HOW TO KNOW
lb.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

If mouth parts of chewing, rasping, or piercing and sucking types,


they are not retracted within head; if retracted the mouth parts
are usually hook-like (legless maggots) or of usual sucking type
(Anoplura, etc.); legs ordinarily present, tarsi composed of 1 to 5
segments, when one-segmented, possessing only one claw; wing

SriE^NVM
Fig. 47.

a. Head of Harpalus vagans LeConte with chewing


mouth ports; b, Head of a thrips with piercing and
/osping mouth parts; c, Lateral aspect of the thorax of a damselfly; d, Piercing and sucking mouth
parts; e, Head of a maggot and mouth hooks.

pads present in some orders, when present the sides of the thoracic segments and sterna are usually divided into smaller scler*
ites; all appendages absent among some larvae and puparia.
Fig. 47

2a.

Antennae absent.

Fig. 48

Order

The members
er,

of this order are

whitish, wingless

parts,

insects

no eyes but with a pair

head, nine-segmented

segmented abdomen

abdomen
in adult.

species have been described.

Fig. 48..

Microen-

tomon perposHlom.

29

PROTURA page

54

very minute, slend-

with

retracted

mouth

of pseudoculi, pointed

in

young and twelve-

Less than a hundred

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

2b.

Antennae present

3a.

Antennae consisting of 10 or more segments; cerci usually multiarticulate, long and filiform, or specialized into forceplike structures;
abdomen usually 11-segmented, without a furcula or collophore;

mesothorax never overlapping and concealing the prothorax.


Order THYSANURA page 55
Fig. 49

They

known

as

silverfish

and

are

bristletails,

About 400 spehave been described.


They are found in the
soil, in rotting wood, un-

slickers.

cies

der stones, or in leaf-deposits

of

forest

floors,

and also live in the nests


of ants and termites.

Fig.

49. a,

pismo

3b.

sp.;

Compodeo
c,

frogilis

Meinert; b, L-

Jopyx minemus.

Antennae consisting

of not

more than

segments; cerci never pre-

sent nor specialized into forcep-like structures;


ed,

if

segments are

collophore

may be

visible; generally

abdomen

6-segment-

possesses a furcula and a

present; mesothorax

may overlap and conceal


COLLEMBOLA page 58

Order

the small prothorax. Fig. 50

Springtails are small insects rarely exceeding 5

mm.

in length,

and

occur in almost all situations. They


are found in the soil, in decaying
vegetable matter, among herbage,

under bark

of trees, etc.

cies live in the nests of ants

few speand ter-

on the surface of
and several are littoral

mites, other occur

fresh water
Fig.

50.

Entomobryo comporafa.

or marine.

phagous

In habits they are saproor

1,500 species

30

phytophagous.
About
have been described.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

4a. Tarsi usually consisting of 2, 3, or 4

segments, rarely of
of

5,

and very

rarely

single segment. Legs very rarely

wanting.

Thorax with

exposed

and

form; pleural
ually distinct

segments

all

generally

different

and sternal
and never

in

sclerites us-

concealed;

wing pads usually present; epicranial


suture does not extend to the clypeus;

may be

evident in

NYMPHS

external genitalia
later instars.
Fig.

Fig. 51

51. a, Adelphocoris ra-

pidus

(Say);

dif f erentiolis

Melanoplus

b,
(

Thomas

4b. Tarsi usually consisting of

a single

segment, or legs wanting, or segmentation of tarsi difficult to determine; more rarely tarsi of 2. 3, or 4
segments; thorax with all three segments similar in form and wing
pads wanting; or, wing pads pre-

and ventrally, the


thoracic segments not exposed; the
pleural and sternal sclerites never
sent, laterally

either

distinct^

not

differentiated

from notum or concealed by legs


and wing pads; epicranial suture
usually extends to clypeus; external genitalia not evident..

52. a. Pupa: Vespa macutota Kirby; b, Larva: Pteronidea


ribesii (Scopoli).
Fig.

Fig. 52.

.LARVAE and PUPAE.

17

NYMPHS

5a.

Mouth

parts adapted

for piercing

and suck-

ing,

or

and

rasping.

Fig.

53.

for

piercing

c^rpfos

.14

Fig.

53.

Mouth
piercing

31

parts: a, piercing

and sucking.

and rasping;

b,

HOW

5b.

Mouth parts
chewing.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

adapted

Fig. 54

for

Fig.

54.

Chewing mouth
larva;

6a.

b,

parts:

a,

carabid

grasshopper.

Labium when extended, usually 4 or more times as long as broad,


and when folded serves as a mask that
covers the other mouth parts; plate-like gills may occur at caudal
end of abdomen; aquatic life. Fig. 55. Order ODONATA page 67
scoop-like in structure

The damselflies
and dragonflies are
the members of this
order which includes

about 5,000 describ-

ed

species. The
are exten-

naiads

sively aquatic, living in various sitfresh


i n
uations
Many live
water.

hidden

mud,

in
etc.

sand or
Without

exception all the


naiads are predacious, feeding upon
Fig. 55. a, Agrion sp.; b, labium of Libellula Igctuosa
forms o f
various
Burmeister; c, Libellulo luctuosa Burmeister.
aquatic life. The
principal external changes involved during metamorphosis include an
increase in the size of the compound eyes, and during the last few
instars, ocelli become evident; the antennal segments increase in number, and the wing-rudiments undergo certain changes with the result
that the developing hind
gills

6b.

change

Labium

wings overlap the anterior

pair; the

caudal

in the Zygoptera.

of

normal type, not modified into a scoop nor hinged. ... 7


32

HOW TO KNOW

7a. Tracheal gills


like)

in

(plate,

feather,

usually occur on

some small

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

or

tassel

abdomen

Plecoptera); 2

or

Abdomen
without

or thorax without

segmented

long

caudal end; short cerci

The presence

of gills

easily determined

or preservative.
insect as to not

tracheal

abdo-

of

and

gills

filaments

tail-like

may

many

long,

3,

segmented tails present at caudal end


men; aquatic life. Fig. 56
7b.

finger-

or thorax (none

exist

at

as well as their type

is

more

55

pjg.

/^

Mayfly
*^^

the specimen is floated in water Tracheaf |ms.^


They are often so fine and may lie so close to the
if

be readily apparent

of the gills, of course, is to extract

in dry specimens.
The function
oxygen from the water. The gills

are extensions of the tracheal tubes.

8a. Tracheal gills (plate, feather, or tail-like) located

gins of abdominal tergites only; 3 tails

(in

on

lateral

mar-

some family only

2),

fringed with rather long setae, occur at caudal end; tarsi possess
1

Order

claw. Fig. 57

About

62

1,500 species of Mayflies ore

described.

and long

EPHEMEROPTERA page

Their
lived, in

naiads

some

are

aquatic

cases, this per-

iod is believed to occupy three years.


Between the naiad and the imago, there
is a subimago stage which differs from
the mature imago in its duller appearance and its somewhat translucent
wings which are usually margined by

prominent fringes of hairs.


essentially herbivorous,

fragments of the plant


Fig.

Heptogenia sp.
Hexagenia bilineata Say
57.

a,

They are
upon

feeding
tissues.

forms, however, are believed to


nivorous.

33

Certain

be

car-

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

bunches or single, often located


on the ventral aspect of the thoracic segments; in some cases they
occur on the jaw, on the proximal and the last segments of the
abdomen; (may be absent in Nemouridae and Capniidae); 2 dis-

8b. Tracheal gills, usually iinger-like

tinct

tails

the caudal
Fig. 58

(cerci),

end

usually without long fringes of setae, occur at


abdomen; tarsi possesses 2 claws.
Order PLECOPTERA page 59

of the

The

stoneflies constitute

a small order, about


The naiads are

1,500 species being described.

aquatic, they live under debris in eddies or un-

der stones in clear fresh water and feed largely

upon the larvae of Mayflies and midges, but


some are thought to feed upon vegetable debris. The time occupied in development appears
to range from about a year to four years.

58.

Fig.

Topoperia

media (Walker).

9a.

Antennae not more than 5-segmented; body strongly depressed;


head larger and broader than prothorax; ectoparasitic life.
Fig.

MALLOPHAGA

Order

59

The

biting lice or bird lice are

ectoparasites of birds

mals.

About

2,800

been described.
sists

dead

of

and mamhave

species

Their food con-

dry and nearly or quite

cuticular

substances.

Eggs

are glued separately to the feathers or hair.

resemble
size.
59. a, Variable hen louse, Lipeurus
caponis (L.) (Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta.); b.
Large chicken louse, Goniocotes gigas
(Taschenberg) (Ohio Expt. Sta.).

Fig.

9b.

The

The nymphs closely

their

adults

except

in

distribution of the biting

lice is quite limited to their definite

Antennae more than 5-segmented.

10a. Prothorax usually

hosts.

10

subequal to mesothorax or larger; if prothorax


smaller than mesothorax then cerci are present, tarsi are
5-segmented and the legs are greatly elongated
11

is

much

34

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

10b. Prothorax shorter than and smaller than mesothorax or metathorax; cerci wanting; tarsi 2 or 3-segmented; labial palp 1 -seg-

mented; resemble aphids in shape.

Fig. 60.

The psocids, booklice,

Order

CORRODENTIA

or dustlice are the

mem-

bers of this order which includes about 1,000 de-

They feed upon the paste of book


and decaying vegand cereal products. They are found

scribed species.

bindings, fragments of animal

etable matter,

on tree trunks, under bark, in bird's


Eggs are laid in small groups on bark
or leaves and are protected by a meshwork of
silken threads. After hatching, the changes of development are slight. Six instars are recorded in

in houses,
nests, etc.

Fig. 60. Peripsocus


phocopterus.

11a.

certain species.

head and mouth parts usually vertical; in one famthe mouth parts project caudal and in another
family (Phasmidae) ceptalo-ventrad; among the Phasmidae the
Long axis

of

ily (Blattidae)

is much smaller than the mesathorax or metathorox


the legs are greatly elongated; the mouth parts of all the
species are of a generalized chewing type; antennae with many
segments. Fig. 61
Order ORTHOPTERA page 69

prothorax

and

The number

of

recorded

species

is

about 22,000. They possess greatly de-

and

veloped powers of running

leap-

The eggs are mostly cylindrical


and some are deposited in oothecae.
In many Mantidae and Locustidae the

ing.

nymphs shed a membranous covering


shortly after hatching.

The wing pads


second

or

There are commonly 6

in-

are usually present in the


third instar.

stars

passed

German cocka,
61.
germanica
Blattella
roach,
(L.); b, Melanoiflus differFig.

entialis

(Thomas).

35

in the

nymphal

stage.

HOW TO KNOW
lib.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

head and mouth parts project cephalad or cepholoantennae usually located on the head capsule near
12
the mandibles; compound eyes may be absent
Long axis

oi

ventral; the

12a.

Head longer than broad; legs of moderate length and tarsi 4-segmented (frequently inconspicuous); color usually dirty white; exoskeleton frequently soft; ant-like in shape; live within sapwood
Order ISOPTERA
or dead wood. Fig. 62

The members of
known as termites
There are about

The

species.

this

order are

or white ants.

1,900

described

social life of the ter-

mites includes different types of


castes:

reproductive

the

castes

which have functional wings, the

winged forms and the wingThe sterile castes are


divisible into workers and solshort

less forms.

diers.
Fig.

62. Termites: a,
b,

12b.

Head

young queen;

young worker.

broader than long,

distinctly

tarsi 2 or

3-segmented.

13

13a. Proximal tarsal

segments of pro thoracic leg^ as long or longer


than the tibia and strongly dilated (bearing openings to silk
glands on ventral surface); proximal tarsal segments of other
legs or normal size and shgpe. Fig. 63
Order EMBIOPTERA

About 150 species have been described.


insects

generally

stones or under bark, etc.

ways

constructed.

These

avoid daylight, living beneath

When

treats they are able to

with equal agility.

Silken tunnels are al-

disturbed in

these

re-

run backwards or forwards

Eggs are

elongate-cylindrical

with a conspicuous operculum at one pole and are


laid in small groups.

The newly hatched yoimg

of

both sexes do not differ in any important characters

Fig.

63.

from the female parent.

Embia major
Imms.

36

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

segments of pro thoracic legs not dilated nor do


they differ greatly from the same segments of the other legs;
forcep-like structures occur at caudal end of abdomen.
Order DERMAPTERA
Fig. 64

13b. Proximal tarsal

About 1,000 species of earwigs are known.


They are probably omnivorous but seem to prefer animal food. When alarmed or molested,
the extremity of the

abdomen

is

often upraised

a threating
The eggs are deposited in the soil in
a group and the female rests over them. The
and

the forceps widely

opened

in

manner.

nymphs resemble

their parents

ceps are simple and

They pass

more

or

except the
less

for-

styliform.

4 to 6 molts before reaching the adult

stage.
Fig.

64.

Forficula sp.

14a.

Mouth parts external, visible and in form of a trough-like tube or


15
a cone; wing rudiments usually visible. Fig. 65

14b.

parts intemaL short piercing


withdrawn into head parallel
with meson, with no external labium;
wing rudiments absent; tarsi scon-

Mouth

stylets

sorial type.
Fig. 66

Order

ANOPLURA
Fig.

SECTIOH TU8
NIOUTH OPEWiA/*

neSTOMAL
TetTH

65.

Head

of thrips.

The sucking lice ore bloodof


ectoparasites
sucking
mammals and around 500
species have
ed.
fest

Of

been describtwo species inand about a dozen

these,

man

occur on domestic animals.


The louse lays up to 300
eggs, which are usually attached to a hair or fibre.
The egg period is about a
week. Three moults occur
during the life and the young
Fi^. 66. Hog louse, Hoematopinus odvanticius Neum. (U.S.D.A.); b, its mouth

37

resemble the adult in external features.

HOW TO KNOW
15a.

Mouth
margin

parts in form of
of the

that only

a cone located between the ventro-caudal

head and

and inconspicuous

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

the prothorax showing maxillary palpi

mouth parts are asymmetrical

labial palpi;

one functional mandible

exists

short distance from tip of mouth-cone;

may

which

tarsi

in

project

smalL

apparently

1-segmented, clawless and possess- single, protrusible pads; body


cylindrical, usually less than V& inch long

and pointed

Order

end. Fig. 67

Approximately 3,100 species


described.

They have

in

kinds

all

wood and

apex of
They are generally four

stars before the adult stage is reached.

is of

of

fungi.

the habit of curving the

abdomen upwards.
genesis

caudal

have been

of thrips

They are found among

growing vegetation, as well as

at

THYSANOPTERA

the

frequent occurrence.

favorite feeding

ground

for thrips is within the

heavy damand nymphs may be readily


shaken from flowers out upon a white cloth or paper
and picked up by a small brush moistened in the
preservative in which the specimens are being
placed. A separate vial should be kept for each
species of plant and the species of plant recorded
on a paper slip with lead pencil and put in the vial.
flowers of plants where they often do
age.

Fig. 67. Green house


thrips,
Heliothr i p s

haemorrhoidolis
(Bouche).

15b.

and

Mandibles
within

Both

adults

maxillae

trough-like

usually

tubular

enclosed

labium

which

usually projectSL caudad between the thoracic


legs;

labium

may be

absent,

if

labiiun is cone-

--U.Aai'-'M

shaped, maxillary palpi and labial palpi are


absent.

in-

Partheno-

Fig.

Fig. 68

16

parts.

38

68.

Piercing

and sucking mouth

HOW TO KNOW
IGa.

The mouth

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


a

parts, consisting of

segmented labium enclosing

needle-like mandibles and maxillae/ arise from the cephalic poi^


tion of the ventral aspect oi the head capsule; in some aquatic
species the mouth parts appear to rise from the caudal portion
of the head capsule; among these the legs usually show some
kind of adaptation for aquatic locomotion and the prothoracic
legs may be modified for grasping.

Order HEMIPTERA page 129

Fig. 69

Together with the order Homoptera there


are approximately 52,000 species recorded.
The Hemiptera are true
bugs. The great majority of
the species
are phytophagous and
feed upon the juices of
living plants, causing
great losses to agricultural

crops, but

some are predacious


and also attack birds
and mammals, including man. Most of them
are terrestrial and othFig.

69.

a,

Triphleps

i^b.

The mouth

&

(Redrawn
Green stink bug,

(White)

trietieolor

from U.S.D.A.); b
Acrosternum hilore

c,

ers

aquatic

or

semi-

aquatic.

(Say).

a labium (may be absent) and


and maxillae, arise distinctly from the
head capsule or from the meson between

parts, consisting of

needle-like mandibles
caudal portion of the

the thoracic legs; no aquatic species.

Order

Fig. 70

Fig.

70

Aphid;
(L. );

a
d,

&

&

b, Idiocerus

Aleyrodes
g,

Two

provancheri

sp.,

e,

HOMOPTERA

Von

Magicicada

D.;

c.

septendecim

different instors of Stietocephala sp.

(U.S.D.A,

33

page 135

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

There are about 52,000 species when counting the Homoptera and
Practically all the members of Homoptera are

Hemiptera together.

phytophagous and mostly injurious to agriculture. Except for the cicadas, the Homoptera are mostly small insects. The aphids or plant
lice, the scale-insects, the spittle bugs or froghoppers, the treehoppers,
the leaf hoppers, the whiteflies, the jumping plant lice and the planthoppers are
17a.

all destructive insects.

Never any trace of wings


wing pads; compound
or
eyes never present; wormlike; a feeding and active
stage. Fig. 71..

The members

.LARVAE.

.18

of this active feed-

ing stage of the insects developing

by complete metamorphosis vary


widely in structure, size, habits,
color, etc. They are usually heavy
feeders and often represent the
most destructive stage of the speThey may be short or long
cies.
lived which has much to do with

Fig.

the length of the Ufe cycle.

17b.

71.

a,

Hydropsyche

sp.;

b,

Plum

curcuho,
Conotrachelus
n e n u p h a r
(Herbst.); c, Pterostichus sp., d, Cerura vinulo L.

Legs and wing


pads encased in
a n extra membrane, not used
for
locomotion,
usually incapable
of being moved;

compound

eyes

visible imless adults

are

eyeless;

a nonfeeding and
resting stage.
Fig. 72.

PUPAE. 45

Puparium of frit fly, Oscineila frit (L.);


Hesperophyiox sp.; c. Pupa of Leptinotorsa decimlineato (Say); d. Pupa of Vespo mocutoto Kirby; e. Pupa of Corydoius cornutus (L.).
Fig. 72. a,
b. Pupa of

40

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

LARVAE
legs absent or represented
by paired fleshy swellings on mesothorax and metathorax or on all thoracic segments
19

18a. Thoracic

18b.

Segmented thoracic legs always present on 2 or all thoracic segments. .34

by unsegmented, fleshy, paired protuberances


(called pedal lobes) on 2 or 3 thorac-

19a. Thoracic legs represented

ic legs.

Fig. 73

19b. Thoracic legs

never present

20a. Adfrontal areas, spinneret,

Dendroetonus fron-

73.

Fig.

Zimm.

foils

20
22

and one

or

more pairs

of simple

eyes

usually present; prolegs with crochets on 3rd to last abdominal

segments (except Nepticulidae without crochets on prolegs of 2abdominal segments). Fig. 74. .Order LEFldDOPTERA page 149

7th

The order is a large


numbering about
Eggs
110,000 species.

one

are highly variable in


size,

shape,

ing, color

ment.

sculptur-

and arrange-

Larvae

are

known as

caterpillars,

and have
segmented

thoracic

pairs

of

The abdominal
segments bear prolegs

legs.

which ore armed with


crochets.
Fig.

74. A, Cephalic aspect of the head of Ceramlea picta (Horr.); B, Caudal aspect of
the labium of Cirphis unipuncta (Haw.);
C, The maple case-bearer, Paraclemensia
acerifoliella
(Fitch)
a,
larva;
b,
case.

The

head

bears adfrontal areas.

20b. Not so.

.21

41

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Body straight and of more or less uniiorm diameter throughout;


usually 2 spiracles on thorax (pro- and meso-).
Order HYMENOPTERA page 210
Fig. 75

21a.

Fig.

At the present time, at least 120,000 described


species are known. The ants, bees and social
wasps live in colonies. The larvae vary in form
ranging from caterpillar-like sawfly larvae to the
legless larvae of bees and ants. They live in nests
constituting a colony or are solitary. Most are
phytophagous but many are parasitic. Hypermetamorphosis occurs among many parasitic forms.
Gall-makers and leaf-miners are also found among
the members of this order.

Clover

75.

secd-cholcid,

Bruchophofus
funebris

How-

ard (U.S.D.A.)

21b.

Body U-shaped with mid-abdominal segments of greater diameter


than those near the caudal and cephalic ends; usually with 1
spiracle on mesothorax. Fig. 76. ... Order COLEOPTERA page 72
the largest order of insects and comprises
all the known members of the
class Insecta and no less than 264,000 described
species. The habits of the larvae vary greatly,

This

is

about 40 percent of

7 ;

"

k^^y^

'^-

76. Large Chest-

Fig.

Curcuiie
Fab.

nut weevil,
probotcidcus

insects.

(U.S.D.A.)

22a.

With partial (caudal portion non-sclerotized or absent) or com23


pleted head capsule

22b. Without
23a.

most are terrestrial and phytophagous; some ore


predacious, or carnivorous, or saprophagous; some
are aquotic or semiaquatic. Many species are also
in the nests and communifies of other
inquilines
^

With

distinct sclerotized

partial sclerotiied

24b.

Mouth

29
24

head capsule

23b. With complete sclerotized


24a.

head capsule

head capsule

parts of normal chewing type

and antennae

25
distinct

30

parts highly modified, frequently by hook-like mandibles


Order DIPTERA page 189
apparently absent. Fig. 77

Mouth
or-

It

includes about 80,000 described

species.

The larval habits present a

great diversity: phytophagous, fungivorous,

Fig.

77.

Spornopoiius fulvus

Wied.

saprophagous,

predacious

and parasitic. Most are terrestrial.


some aquotic OT semiaquotic.
42

HOW TO KNOW
25a.

25b.

Head capsule
Head capsule

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

directed distinctly cephalad


directed ventrad or

26a. Usually with

31

somewhat cephalo-ventrad.

one or more

al folds or depressions
lateral aspects of the

distinct

on the

26

cephala-coud-

lateral

and

ventro-

abdominal segments; body

U-shaped.

Order

Fig. 78
Fig.
Hills

COLEOPTERA page

72

Black
78.
beetle,

Dendroctonus
ponderosoe
Hopk.

26b. Usually without such folds or depressions

ventral aspects;

on

lateral

or

latero-

body not U-shaped

27

27a. Adfrontal areas, spinneret,

or

more

pairs of

simple eyes and prolegs with crochets usually

Order LEPIDOPTERA page 149

present. Fig. 79

Fig. 79. Tischeria

malifoliella

Clem.

27b. Not so

28

28a. Larvae

may be

pointed at one or both ends

U-shaped; live within plant tissues, or in

and

mud or
may

paper-like cells; one pair of simple eyes


occur. Fig. 80..
80.
Clover
seed chalid, Bruchophagus gibFig.

bus (Boheman)

43

.Order

HYMENOPTERA page

210

HOW TO KNOW
28b. Lanrae usually long

and

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


slender; (a) terristrial species: spiracles

on several abdominal segments, the caudal pair


(b)

aquatic species

may have

gills

much

is

larger:

or breathing tubes at caudal

end of abdomen. Fig. 81.


Order

DIPTERA
page
Fig.

81.

MyiotroM

<>'

more

29a. Larvae usually U-shaped,

both endi and larger in

or less pointed at

mid-region;

so),

reduced

a pair

to

oi

morium

mum

sensoria. Fig. 82... Order

Men<

mouth parts

opposable

(or

nearly

sharp-pointed mandibles or to sclerotized plates

fused with the cephalic segment or


82.

Fig.

within

live

plant tissues or live in cells or nests;

may be

189

-.

to

more fleshy

HYMENOPTERA page

210

lini.

(Bruckley)
(U.S.D.A.)

Larvae epindle-like or peg-like with


cephalic ead pointed and mouth parts

usually

bedded

in the prothorax; or the

or 2 hook-like structures

em-

mouth

parts greatly reduced; aquatic species

may show
legs
Fig.

83.

a,

ftlifltli
b,

Sulata
(Loew);
phid lorva.

cinsyr-

Order DIPTERA page 189

Labrum a
4orial

"sf*^f^i^n
84. Q, Flat-headed
borer,
ClirvB^toHiri*

or several vemtral pro-

gills.

Fig. 63

90a.

Fig.

and a caudal breathing tube or

single lobe; ambula-

worts

may

occur on ab-

domen; many species


wood.

apple tree

Fig. 64.

fMrt

..Order

live

in

COLEOPTERA
page 72

(U.S.D.A.); b, Round-heoded apple tree borer, SMrd tmndida Fab. (U.S.D.A.).


(Oliv.)

44

HOW TO KNOW

30b.

/a

Y,

and

clypeus

x^^^^^^v^-*^^
^

-^^jrVX

ad

^'*^^^

M ~^^i
r^

Labrum

^
O

subdivided

into 3 parts with

85.

o.

Heed

of

CI.,;

b,

C-Lx

on the

lateral

portions;

head

deeply

retracted

within

pro thorax; aquatic or semi-

^^^^ii

sp,

later-

groups

o^ setae or spines

aquatic.
Fig

sometimes

C- Jil'lJ^ iv

\C^~^^^}i/
'/

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Fig.

85.

O'^er DIPTERA page 189

e.

ComptocNidiHS byssinus Schrank.

31a.

Head capsule

peg-like, etc., variable in

^.-7p^|-^]^~J^~;;^^^

'^-.L:U:,;L4L:Xi^^
Fig.

31b.

86.

TMMto

ed type.

/f^ A

32a.

Fig. 86.

32

Mouth

parts opposable

or parable. Fig. 87.

Order DIPTERA page 189

ikiMnnis Say.

iibli*

not of

or depressed type

3.5/.^f.^J.5l^ ff^i^^r^
O^^^^^U^^tJZ^^^
87.

size,

Order DIPTERA page 189

iut Loew.

Head capsule round type

Fig.

shape and

usual rounded or depress-

7|-7~^?^~^-7^^

32b.

Chewing mouth

33a.

Abdomen with 11 segments; spiracles, ii present, inconspicuous;


several long setae on thorax and abdomen.
Fig. 88
Order SIPHONAPTERA
There ore approxima+ely 1,100 described species,
The larvae are small,
.2 /^./A/^/z/i^^^/*-/

parts usually distinct

33

'

^
^

Fig.

floors of

88.

CrtMliyNM fMciafm

human

habitations

cylindrical,

noiiparasitic

^^ upon a miscellaneous diet of vegetable


^^^ animal debris and
even the ieces of their
adults. They frequent the
<^^^

v-^
Bosc.

and the nests

of their hosts.

When

fully

grown, the larvae spin imall cocoons in which they transfer into the
pupae.
A^-^<su^^

33b.

^^hr'^fZ-^l'-^^
^*^^-^^^^*'''''^!b?5in*t^^
'*^%*i*<'^^^^'Svu>*^

'

*^^^

>di^^r-^^^!^Ni^ U-?

most abdominal seg-

Order

:iZ':'.:'iW^-"*-'i.':z'
Fig.

Abdomen with 9 or 10
gBants; spiracles usually present on mesothorax

COLEOPTERA
P^KTe 72

89. MIfNiIHiM 4klNi Lc.

45

HOW TO KNOW
on

34a. Prolegs absent

on

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


abdominal segments (rarely present

1st to 8th

8th)

35

34b. Prolegs present on 2 or

more abdominal segments.

39

.,

35a.

Head

directed cephalad

41

35b.

Head

directed ventrad or cephaloventrad

38

Head capsule may be deeply imbedded

38a.

prothorax;

many

may

in

also possess adirontal area;

species slug-like in form.

Order LEPIDOPTERA page 149

Fig. 90

Fig. 90. Soddle backed slug caterpillar,


Sobine stimuleo

(Clemens).

36b.

Head capsule

not deeply

embedded

in

prothorax and without

adirontal areas

37
37a.

One

pair of simple eyes present

or absent; 2 pairs of spiracles

on thorax

(pro-

and meso-); body

usually eruciform. Fig. 91.


91.

Fig.

Order

.
..^
Kirby.
Ve$p mocutoto

HYMENOPTERA page
*^ ^

210
38

37b. Several pairs of simple eyes present

may be present;
on mesothorax only;

38a. Several pairs of simple eyes

spiracles usually present

body U-shaped.
Order

Fig. 92

Fig.

92.

72

Anomalo
Hayes

kansanot
Ct

COLEOPTERA page

McColloch.

and in a close cluster usually present; mesoand metathoracic legs distinctly larger and project more

38b. Several simple eyes

thoracic

laterad than the prothoracic legs

Order

MECOPTERA

This small order represents some 350 species. The larvae are mostfew feed upon vegetable matter. The larvae bear a

ly carnivorous,

close resemblance to caterpillars.

48

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


39a.

^^^^^^T-^X^Y^^Y^^r^^^r^y^^

^^^^^'^\'U'f\*'fj'll*^^

'W^Y^^^^^^^

Fig.

39b.

93.

Panorpa rufescens
^'^^^-

Order

Fig. 93

Head with never more than


tirely

Head usually with more than 10


simple eyes on each side, closely
grouped; prolegs on abdominal
segments 1st to 8th or 3rd to 8th
inclusive; anal end resembles a
SUcking disk.

10 simple eyes

MECOPTERA

on each side or en-

wanting

40

40a. Prolegs usually present on abdominal segments 3rd to 6th and


last, crochets present; adfrontal areas usually present; 1 to 8
pairs of simple eyes usually present.
most LEPIDOPTERA page 149
Fig. 94

Fig.

94.

a, Cerura vinula <L.


b, Corn earworm,
(Hbn.); c, Euxoa auxiliaris Grate.
;

Heliothis

armigera

on abdominal segments 2nd to 8th


and last, sometimes 2nd to 6th,
^nd to 7th and last; no crochets
present; no adfrontal areas; one
pair of simple eyes usually pre-

40b. Prolegs usually present

sent. Fig. 95.

95. Imported currantworm,


Pteronidea ribesii (Scopoli).

Fig.

Order

HYMENOPTERA page

210

claw (stout spines about base of clow


42
create impression that there are 2 or more claws)

41a. Thoracic legs with single

may

41b, Thoracic legs with 2 distinct claws.

47

.44

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


42a. Single claws on thoracic legs;

and

mandibles

sickle-shaped

maxillae. Fig. 96.

Family SISYRIDAE,

Order

NEUROPTERA page

This family contains


cies

of

rather

as spongilla

140

some 20 speknown

small insects

flies

since

the

larvae

feed on Spongilla and other fresh96.

Fig.

Smoky

water sponges, as well as on algae

alderfly,

Sialis

in-

fumota Newman.

and bryozoa.

The small, elongate

on objects overhanging water from which the


larvae drop into the water upon hatching. Pupation takes place under
objects along shore or within the soil above the water line. The pupa
eggs are laid

is

in clusters

covered with a double walled silken cocoon.

Perhaps less than 5000 species


of these are rare.

a few

Some

have larvae

of the families

of

Neuroptera are known and

of the larvae are helpful friends of

many

man. Only

that are aquatic but all the families

are similar in having pupae that are enclosed in a rather spherical

cocoon.
42b. Single claws with spur or spine about the base;

parts

chewing mouth
43

43a. Thoracic legs

elbowed and

may

possess stout

spines at base of claw; prolegs and cerci

may

occur at caudal end of abdomen; aquatic forms

may

possess abdominal

gills.

Order

Fig. 97

COLEOPTERA page

72

This odd appearing larva belongs to the crawling

water beetles (family Haliplidae), and

members of the
slender and not likely
other

looking for them.


Fig.

97.

Pelto-

dytes sp.

48

family.
to

is

similar to

They are small and

be observed unless one

is

HOW TO KNOW

webs

43b. Larvae live in cases or

on or about the base


gills

may be

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


in water; thoracic leqt possess spurs

claw; no proleqs, but the caudal hooks;

ol

present on thorax and abdomen.

Order TRICHOPTERA page 146

Fig. 98

The

order

has

approximately

described species. The

4,200

lar-

vae are known as caddisworms


and are mostly aquatic, but a few
are terrestrial. The eggs ore deposited in the debris at

the

tom

to

tic

of

water or attached

and

plants

bot-

aqua-

other objects in the

water and are protected with gelatinous masses or strings. The larvae construct characteristic cases
or silken retreats. Their food hab-

Fig. 98. a, Case of Brochcentrut


sp.; b, Case of Limnephilus indivii-

its

c. Case of Astenophylos
Case of Trloenodes floviscensc Banks; e, Case of Hclieepsyeh* sp.; Larva of Hydropsyche sp.

us Walker;
sp.;

d.

The immense numbers

make them very

to

known

some are
be carnivorous.

to

which these interesting larvae develop

important as food for fish and doubtless a very large

percentage of the larvae contribute

to the

they are used extensively as fish bait.

dance

are varied, most of them ore

likely herbivorous but

in the debris of flowing

growth

of fish.

They may be found

streams or attached

to

Naturally
in

abun-

rocks under water.

Pupation usually takes place within the water, often within the
val case but sometimes outside

it

and within a

silken cocoon.

lar-

Some

species burrow in submerger logs or in crevices in the rocks to pupate.

The adult may emerge under water or bring the pupal case
surface of the water to effect

its

to

the

escape.

and maxillae usually of normal chewing type; on the


abdomen among terrestrial species cerci usually occur on the 9th
segment; among aquatic spe-

44a. Mandibles

cies the

be

may
may be

caudal segmentCs)

tube-like

or gills

present. Fig. 99.


Fig.

99

Order

Harpalus vogons LeConte.

49

COLEOPTERA page

72

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


and

44b. Mandibles and maxillae long


suctorial type; aquatic species

with hooks at caudal end;


inal segments. Fig. 100

sickle-shaped, of mandibulo-

may possess abdominal prolegs


may be present on most abdomOrder NEUROPTERA page 140

gills

About 5,000 species

the

of

order

have been described. The larvae exhibit great diversity

structure

mode

of

they are

and
but

life,

all carniv-

orous; in a consider-

proportion

able

the species they are


aquatic.
Fig.

100.

Golden-eye lacewing, Chrysopa oculato


Say (Redrawn from Smith); b, Corydolus
cornutus (L.); c, Mandibulo-suctorial mouth,
Q,

parts.

PUPAE and PUPARIA


45a.

Appendages, including mouth parts, invisible on exterior, or, if


they are fused with each other and to the body wall to
form a continuous covering; obtect type.
51
(see Figs. 107 and 109)

visible,

45b.

Appendages

distinctly visible

fixed position; resembles

and

free,

mummy;

even though held

in

exarate type.
46

(See Figs. 101-106)


46a.

Body

strongly

compressed;

mm.; wing
pads absent; antennae minute;
mandibles of piercing type;
length less than

compound eyes
Fig.

101.

Pupa

Ctenocephalides

46b.

absent. Fig. 101.

Order SIPHONAPTERA

of dog flea,
canis
(Curtis).

Body rounded or flattened, not strongly compressed; antennae


47
Tnd wing pads usually prominent
50

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


47a.

FlAQELkUM"

men. Fig. 102.


most HYMENOPTERA page 210

102. a, Chewing and lapping


mouth parts, b, Pupa of Vespa
macutata Kirby.

Fig.

47b.

Mouth parts
positors

18a.

for

Mouth parts for chewing and


lapping; mandibles present;
usually a median or bifurcate
lobe or tongue (the hypopharynx) arises from the labium;
distal segments or ends of
the 12 or more segmented
antennae usually adjacent to
and frequently parallel with
the meson; paired oviposifrequently visible
at
tors
caudal end; a distinct constriction usually present between the thorax and abdo-

chewing only; no

distinct

tongue or paired ovi48

present

Antennae long, always with

12 or

more segments; wing rudiments


49

not elytra-like

48b.

Antennae shorter than body, if elongated, with numerous stout


segments and much longer than the body, usually 11 or less
segments and distal segments usually far removed from meson;

wing rudiments always

and located between the distal


and metathoracic legs on the ventral aselbowed sharply at end of femur.
most COLEOPTERA page 72
elytra-like

portion of mesothoracic
pect; legs
Fig. 103

The pupae are mostly


in

some

of the

of exarate type, but

Staphylinidae they are obtect.

Pupation takes place mostly in earthen cells


in the soil, but also occurs within the food

plant.

Certain Curculionidae

with the product of

the

make cocoons

Malpighian

tubes,

while several of the Lamellicornia use the


contents of the posterior caecum.

ombycidae construct pupal

Many

Cer-

cells largely im-

pregnated with carbonate of lime. The pupae


Pupa of the
potato beetle,
Leptinotarsa
decimlineata (Soy).
Fig.

103.

Colorado

of

the Coccinellidae are often protected

by

the persistent remains of the last larval skin.

51

HOW TO KNOW

49a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Head abnormal in shape; head capsule and


mouth parts elongated; antennae with 16 or
more segments, arise from the head capsule near
the compound eyes and not from the beak as in
some weevils (Rhynchophora).
Fig.

Order

104

MECOPTERA

Fig. 104. Pupo of


Bittacus pilicernat

Westw.

49b.

Head normal

in shape;

mouth

parts not greatly elongated.

50

50a. Mandibles short, stout, curved, nearly cylindrical; they usually


project cephalad or nearly so

abdomen

and

cross each other; thorax

frequently bearing filamentous

gills;

and

usually found in

cases or webs constructed by the larvae (Micropterygoidea of the


Lepidoptera

may

also fall into this group,

aquatic and not over 4

mm.

but

they

are

non-

in length).

Order TRICHOPTERA page 146

105

The appendages are quite free from the body, and


abdomen is armed with dorsal spines which enable the pupa to work its way out of its habitation.
The pupae of some species are able to swim freely.
the

105. Pupa
of Hespcropkylax sp.

Fig.

52

HOW TO KNOW
and

50b. Mandibles large


other. Fig. 106

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

stout never overlapping or crossing

The pupae
each

and with

all the

tion occurs in the soil or in

able

to

work

their

way

140

enclosed in a silken

of this order are free,

cocoon, curved with the head and


other,

each

NEUROPTERA page

most

abdomen near

tip of

appendages visible. Pupamoss, etc. The pupae ore

out to the surface.

Fig.
106. Pupa
of Corydalus
cornutus (L.).

51a. All

appendages

face smooth or
ly resembling

similar (blunt);

invisible

made up

on

exterior, the ectol sur-

of concentric rings, usual-

a barrel with two ends somewhat


caudal and thoracic spiracles of last

larval stage usually visible as remnants or scars;

hardened or leathery larval exuviae (called


puparium) contains a pupa or a hibernating larva
this

within; coarctate type. Fig. 107.


107. Puparium of Zonosemata electa
(Say).
Fig.

51b.

chiefly

CYCLORRHAPHA, Order DIPTERA page

189

The cases possessing the appendages of the developing adult


on the lateral and ventral aspects of the thorax, yet more
or less fused to each other and in most instances to the body

visible

covering; obtect type

., .

52a. Distinct

respiratory

52

projecting

organs present on the dorsocephalic region; one pair of wings.


Fig. 108.

chiefly

NEMATOCERA,

Order DIPTERA page 189


Fig. 108. Pupa and cocoon of
Simulium venustum Say.

(U.S.D.A.)

53

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

52b. Distinct respiratory projecting organs absent on the dorsocephalic region; spiracles usually present on mesothorax and some of
the abdominal segments; functional mandibles absent (except
among Micropterygoidea); paired galeae of maxillae usually pre-

sent along ventro-meson; antennae adjacent to mesal margins of


wings; 2 pairs of wings, outer pair may conceal inner pair.
most LEPIDOPTERA page 149
Fig. 109

The lepidopterous pupae are of 2 main types:


the Incompletae which have the appendages
often partially free and more than 3 of the ab
dominal segments are mobile. Dehiscence is accompanied by the freeing of segments and appendages previously fixed. The pupae exhibit
considerable power of motion, usually emerging from the cocoon to allow of the escape of
the adult. (2) The Obtectae which are smooth
and rounded and the only free segments in both
sexes ore the 4th, 5th and 6th. Dehiscence takes
place by an irregular fracture. The pupa rarely emerges from the cocoon and a cremaster is
(1)

sa^iisCt

Pupa of the
European corn borer,

generally present.

Pyrausta nubilalis
(Hubner).

PICTURED-KEYS TO FAMILIES

ORDER PROTURA
la.

Mesa- and metathoracic spiracles and trachea present.


Family EOSENTOMIDAE
Fig. 110

Practically

nothing

is

known concerning

the

life

They have been found in


damp situations under leaves, bark and stones, in
rotten wood, decaying vegetation, turf and himius
histories of the proturans.

soils.

Fig.

110.

Eosen-

tomen ribogai
Berlese.

lb. Spiracles

and trachea absent

54

HOW TO KNOW
2a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Abdominal terga each with one

or three transverse sutures.

Family

Fig. Ill

ACERENTOMIDAE

The proturans are minute whitish organisms.


largest species scarcely attain 2

mm.

in length.

The
They

are widely distributed in Europe, Asia and America.

in. Aeerentomon doderoi


Fig.

Silvestri.

2b.

Abdominal terga without transverse

sutures.

Family

Fig. 112

PROTENTOMIDAE

Proturans are peculiar in that they walk only on the

middle and hind legs and hold the fore legs in front

and above

Pig.

112.

the head.

Micro-

entomon perposillom.

ORDER THYSANURA
la. 3

caudal appendages; compound eyes present (Suborder Ectotro-

phi). (See Figs.

lb. 2

and

113

114)

caudal appendages; compound eyes absent (Suborder Endotro-

phi). (See Figs. 115

118)

55

HOW TO KNOW
2a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

styli

large, more or less contiguous; ocelli present;


present on thoracic coxae, also on abdominal segments 2-9.

Fig.

113

Compound eyes

Family

MACHILIDAE

and slickers are the comjnon


The family contains about 150 described
species. They inhabit grassy and woody areas. Some
are tenants in caves and some inhabit the nests of
termites. At least six instars have been reported. In
Bristletails, silverfish,

names.

the

Pig.
lis

first

two instars scales and

styli

are absent.

113. Machi-'
morithno

Leach.

2b.

Compound eyes small, widely separated; ocelli absent; styli absent on thoracic coxae, but present on abdominal segments 7-9 or
FamUy LEPISMIDAE
8-9. Fig. 114
About 200 species are known. They are commonly called the bristletails, fish-moths or slickThey are found in dry hot places, among
ers.
leaves, under stones, debris, caves, buildings and
the nests of ants and termites. They feed upon
dry vegetation or plant products. They are also
fond of paste, glue and rayon cloth. The silverand the fire brat,
L.
fish, Lepisma saccharina
Thermobia domestica (Packard) are common in
buildings.

Fig.

14.

Thermobia

domestica (Packard).

absent on

2a,, Styli

Fig.

115

1st

abdominal segment.

Family

CAMPODEIDAE

About 75 species have been described.


Most species are from the Palaearctic,
Neorctic and Neotropical regions with
very few known in the Oriental regions.

They are blind and occur

Pig.
is

115.

Campodeo

frogil-

Meinert.

56

in

damp

places.

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


- _

3b. Styli present

on

segment

cbdominal

first
,

srY<<JS

Fig.

of

1 1

1st

6.

Ventral ospect

to 4th abdominal

segments

4a. Cerci with glandular

opening at apex.

Family PROJAPYGIDAE

Fig. 117

There are only 5 species known, distributed


Mediterranean regions of Southern Europe

in the

and Northern Africa, and in Mexico and South


America. They are small blind insects with a
pair of short segmented cerci.

Anajapyx

117

Fig.

vesiculosis

Silvestri.

4b. Cerci without


Fig.

opening at apex.

Family lAPYGIDAE

118

About 100 species toe described. The young have


segmented cerci which are replaced in the last moult

by pincerlike cerci. It is reported that


young are carried beneath the body of
protection.

Fig.

118.

lapyx

minemus.

57

the eggs

and

the female for

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER COLLEMBOLA
la.

lb.

Body more or
segmented

Abdomen

and

less cylindrical

elongate;

abdomen

(Suborder Arthropleona)

plainly
2

subglobular, segmentation obliterated or vestigial.


(Suborder Symphypleona)

2a. Prothorax well developed, with

granulated.

Fig.

definite tergum; cuticle usually

Family

119

PODURIDAE

These are the springtails and snow-

The
and are often white or colorless. The snowflea,
AchoTutes nivicolus Fitch is a widely
fleas including about 315 species.

young
Fig.

Achorutes ormotus

119.

i.

live

.,

on

2b. Prothorax greatly reduced, without

120

Fig.

life

species which
the surface of snow.

distributed

Nicolet.

lated.

a secluded

a tergum;
Family

tx

often occurs

cuticle

not granu-

ENTOMOBRYIDAE

There are some 600 described speThe marsh springtail, Isotoma


palustris (MuUer), is a widely distributed species. It may be found in
wet leaves, moss and soil and often
appears on the surface of fresh
water pools.
cies.

Fig.

Entomobrya laguna

120.

Bacon.

3a.

Antennae
Fig.

stout, not

longer than head; thorax very large.

Family NEELIDAE

121

THORAX

small family composed of 4 spe-

cies.

They are

globular

and

bristly

with very short antennae inserted on

AA^re/^/^

the middle of front of the head, with

eyes present or absent and with the


furcula about twice the length of the

They may be found under


dead bark and in decaying vegetation.
antennae.

Fig.

121.

Neelides

folsomi.

58

HOW TO KNOW
3b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Antennae more slender longer than head; thorax not exceptionally


Fig. 122
Family SMINTHURIDAE

large.

The family
200

species.

is

composed

These

of

about

are
very active and often occur in im-

mense numbers

springtails

moist places on

in

The
and the antennae
on the back portion of the

the surface of the soil or water.

head

is

inserted

vertical

head. Various species of living plants


Fig.

122.

Sminthurides

lepus

constitute their food.

Mills.

ORDER PLECOPTERA
key
present on
(This

la. Gills

Fig.

123

is

compiled from Claassen and Prison.)


2 or 3 abdominal segments.
Family PTERONARCIDAE

first

The naiads

of this family are all herbivorous.

live in the small

They

upland spring brooks and are un-

move rapidly, getting around awkwardly.


Upon being taken out of the water, they curl up. remaining motionless for some time.
able to

Pteronarbadia Hagen.

123.

Fig.

cella

2
lb. Gills absent on first 2 or 3 abdominal segments
2a. Venter of thorax covered with large over-lapping shield-like plates.
Fig.

124

SubfamUy PELTOPERLINAE, PERLIDAE

The single genus Peltoperla


distributed over the Eastern,
Southern and Western United
The naiads are herStates.
bivorous and can be distinguished from other families by
the large shield-like pro-, mesoand metanotum, short abdomen, wide legs, short cerci and
head bent under the body.

is

Fig. 124. a, Peltoperlo arcuola


Ventral aspect of thorax.

Ndm
59

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

covered with large over-lapping shield-like

2b. Venter of thorax not

plates

on thorax
absent on thorax
on the venter of prothorax.

3
4
5

3a. Gills present


3b. Gills

4a. Gills

Fig. 125.

NEMOURIDAE

..Family

The naiads are herbivorous and

live

mostly in the

small upland spring brooks. They are uniform throughout in color.

Ne125.
Fig.
moura sinuata
Wu.

4b

on

Gills

all

three thoracic segments.

Family PERLIDAE

126

The naiads are

all

carnivorous and brightly col-

They are mostly found

ored.

in rather swift run-

ning water.
This
It

is

the best represented family of stoneflies.

furnishes in

its

immature as well as

stages great quantities of food for

same time competes with them


smaller forms of insect

Fig.

life in

fish,

for

its

adult

but at the

many

of

the

the water.

Togoperia
(Walker).

126.

media

5a. 1st

and 2nd

tarsal

segments together less than half as long as


labrum 3 to 4 times as wide as long; lab-

3rd;

ium

2-lobed;

body

flattened

and

127

Fig.

brightly colored.

Family PERLIDAE

The eggs of stoneflies are very small but are produced in immense numbers, as many as 6000 for
one individual. They are laid directly into the

water.
Fig.

127.

Peria

vcrticalis Banks.

60

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

and 2nd tarsal segments together as long as 3rd


more than hali as long; labrum not

5b. 1st

very

much wider than

4-lobed;

body more

long;

or at least

labium

or less cylindrical,

not brightly colored; herbivorous.


Fig.

128

Fig.
128. Labium;
hostata Banks; b,
venoso Banks.

6a.

Hind wing pads diverging considerably outward from the body.


Fig.

FamUy NEMOURIDAE

129

The members

of this family are

widely distributed.

Their tails are characteristicly short.

The adults are

usually dork colored.

129. LeacFig.
Iro dcpta
Classen.

6b.

Hind wing pads wider than fore wing pads and not divergent outFamily CAPNIIDAE
ward from the body. Fig. 130

The smallest known

stoneflies

belong

to this

com-

paratively small family.

The naiads are herbivorous and live in small


The color of the naiads is brown or

water-courses.
blackish.

Fig. 130. Capnia


vernalis New-

port.

61

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER EPHEMEROPTERA
la.

Thorax shield-like covering most abdominal segments;


visible.

Family

Fig. 131

The naiads ore

flat

and

disk-like.

The

concealed by a large shield-like thorax.

caudal filaments are

short.

gills

in-

PROSOPISTOMATIDAE

They

gills

live in swift

water, and are vegetable feeders.

It

are

Their three

running

belongs

to the

old world.

Fig.

131.

sopistoma

ceum

lb.

2a.

Profolia-

Fourcroy.

Thorax not

shield-like; gills visible

Mandibles extending anteriorly far beyond the head;

mose

gills

short; gills not

2b.

Mandibles

3a.

The projecting part


ing laterally.

of

Fig. 132

plumose

plu-

mandible shorter than head; gills extendFamily POTAMANTHIDAE

upon silt-covered stones and


The mandibles are tusk-like
The gills are long and plumose. They

The naiads

muddy

live

bottoms.

but short.

feed on the vegetation of their area.

Potaman-

3b.

The projecting part

of

mandible almost as long as head;

gills ex-

tending dorsally
62

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

head with 2 tubercles; mandibles curved outwards at tips;


Family EPHEMERIDAE
r-^tennae with long cilia. Fig. 133

4a. Front of

The naiads live in muddy bottoms or muddy water.


The body is elongate and more or less cylindrical.
The mandibles are long and tusk-like. The caudal
filaments are IcJbg and almost equal in length.

Fig.

genio

133. Hexobilineota

Say.

Not

4b.

so.

Abdomen

5a.

with 6 pairs of

the lateral ones.

Fig.

gills;

median caudal filament

shorter than

Family PALINGENIIDAE

134

The mandibles are large and protruding. The


median caudal filament is shorter than the lateral
ones. They live in Europe and Asia.

Fig.,

134.

genio

Polin-

sp.

5b.

Abdomen

with 7 pairs of

gills;

median caudal

filament as long as or longer than the lateral


ones.

FamUy POLYMITARCIDAE

Fig. 135

The naiads sometimes dig into mud. The mandand tusk-like. The caudal filaments

ibles are long

are equal in length.


Fig,

135.

Compsurus

sp.

63

HOW TO KNOW
6a.

Eyes dorsal; body

6b.

Eyes

lateral;

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

distinctly flattened

body more or

less cylindrical

7a. Caudal filaments shorter than abdomen;

on the ventral side


Fig.

of 1st

136

1st

pair of gills inserted

abdominal segment.
Family OLIGONEURIELLIDAE

The body is more or less cylindrical with small


and short gills. Long hairs may be present on the
fore legs.

Fig.

7b.

136. Ohgoneuria sp

Caudal filaments longer than abdomen; 1st pair of gills inserted


on the lateral sides of 1st abdominal segment.
Fig. 137
Family ECDYURIIDAE

The naiads live in rapid waters, clinging to stones


and other objects, where the waves break over lake
shores and on the margins of gently flowing streams.
The body and appendages are flattened, the head
large and the gills leaf-like.

Fig.

137.

Hepta-

genia sp.

8a.

Abdominal

gills

inserted dorsally

8b.

Abdominal

gills

inserted laterally.

64

10

HOW TO KNOW
The 2nd pair

9a.

ing pairs.

of

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal

gills

normal, not covering the remain-

FamUy EPHEMERELLIDAE

Fig. 138

The naiads are often


species the venter of

They often

strikingly colored.

some

In

abdomen forms a sucking

disk.

cling to the underside of stones in swift

waters.

Eph-

138.

Fig.

maralla sp.

The

9b.

1st

Fig.

pair of abdominal gills very small;

and covering the remaining

large

2nd pair exceptionally

pairs.

Family

139

The naiads

sand or

live in

mud

CAENIDAE

bottoms.

They ore

peculiar in having the second pair of gills covering


the succeeding pairs.

are mostly of small

Fig.

139.

The members

of

this

family

size.

Tri-

corythus sp.

10a.

Claws

of

middle and hind legs as long as the

tibiae.

FomUy AMETROPODIDAE

Fig. 140

There

is

rather wide

tion in the naiads of the


flies.

to

be predacious. They appar-

their

many

Amathropus

sp.

65

times during

development. They belong

in the eastern

140.

May-

few are even thought

ently molt

Fig.

varia-

hemisphere

HOW TO KNOW
10b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

11
middle and hind legs shorter than the tibiae
caudal filaments with very short hairs, or with longer
hairs fringed on both sides.
Family LEPTOPHLEBIIDAE
Fig. 141

Claws

of the

11a. Lateral

The naiads are elongated with three


equal caudal filaments as long as the

body and with long slender

leaf-like

or string-like gills.

Fig.

141.

Blasturus cupidus Say

caudal filaments with long hairs on the inner side only.. 12


margin of the abdominal segments with tooth-like
Family SIPHLONURIDAE
projections. Fig. 142

lib. Lateral

12a. Latero-caudal

The naiads

live

in rapidly

running

water and sometimes occur in cataracts

and waterfalls. They have small head


and slender legs.

142.
Fig.
tus Say.

Siphlonurus

12b. Latero-caudal

olterna-

margin

like projection.

Fig.

abdominal segments without toothFamily BAETIDAE

of the

143

The naiads are found in waterfalls, cataslow currents and open waters. They

racts,

may
still

be also found among aquatic plants in


The family is large and widely

pools.

scattered.

Fig.

143. Gollihaetis flue-

tuons

(Walsh).

66

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER ODONATA
la.

Abdomen

stout,

usually

than

wider

head, with 3 short, triangular or spinelike appendages at tip (Suborder Anisoptera, dragonflies). Fig. 144

_ -tAref\Ai.AJ'/'fiJ>A9t

3
Dorsal

144.

Fig.

obdominol
dragonfly

lb.

Abdomen

gills at tip

of

(Sub2

order Zygoptera, damselilies). Fig. 1^5

be noted

will

of

slender, usually narrower than head,

with 3 long, leaf-like tracheal

It

aspect

segments
naiad.

that both the imature stages

and

the adults of the damselflies can be separated at

One does

sight from those of the dragonflies.

not
145.

Fig.

selfly

2a. 1st antennal

segment shorter

than the

Dorsal as-

abdominal
of
pect
segments of a dam-

always find distinguishing characters so obvious.

remaining

naiad.

segments

to-

gether; lateral gills 2-sided.


Fig.

Family

146

The naiads

of this large

very abundant.

Fig.

nura

146.
sp.;

Isch-

a,
b,

caudal

lat-

gill.

67

prolific

family ore

by fish and other aquatic


numbers escape to become

cate creatures are eaten

eral

and

large percentage of these deli-

associates, but large


adults.

COENAGRIONIDAE

HOW TO KNOW
2b. 1st antennal

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

segment as long as the remaining segments togethFamily AGRIONIDAE


147

er; lateral gills 3-sided. Fig.

This family of broadwinged damselflies

smaller than the proceeding one.


larger

Tig.
sp.;

147.
b,

caudal

3a.

a,

and

is

much

The naiads are

sturdier.

Agrion
lateral

gill.

Labium

spoon-like.

Fig.

Family LIBELLULIDAE

148

This

is

the large family of dragonflies in

abundance and numbers of


The immature forms may be found
among the debris of almost any shallow
body of water.

point both of
species.

Fig.

148.

a.

Libellulo

b,
Burmeistet;
luctuosa
Lateral aspect of head;
labium.
c,

3b.

Labium not

spoon-like.

Family

Fig. 149

The members

of this family

AESCHNIDAE

average larger

than those of the preceeding family, though


there are

much fewer

individuals

and

Their naiads while not as abundant


collected rather readily.

Fig. 149. a,
b.
Lateral

Aeschno
aspect

sp.;

of

head.

68

species.

may be

HOW

TO

KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER ORTHOPTERA
la.

Hind

lb.

segment or obsolete.
Subfamily Tridactylinae, GRYLLIDAE

150

Fig.

Fig.

with

tarsi

150.

Hind

Ellipes

tarsi

They are pigmy crickets, scarcely


more than 10 mm. long, with the fore
tibiae fossorial and the hind femora
enlarged for jumping. The terminal
end of hind tibiae provided with
movable elongated plates called matatory lamellae. They inhabit damp
places and near water. They can
also burrow into sand.

minuta Scudder.

with more than

segment

2a. Fore legs greatly modified, either

or

digging

for

adapted

lor

grasping Fig. 151a

Fig.

151b

151. a, Fore leg of a mantid; b, Fore leg of

Fig.

a mole cricket.

2b. Fore legs

normal

3a. Fore legs

adopted

for digging.

Subfamily Gryllotalpinae, GRYLLIDAE

Fig. 152

The subfamily

consists of about 50 species.

They

are called mole crickets, because of their fossorial

They

fore
live

tibiae
in'

mud

vegetable feeders.

Fig.
et,

152.

Mole

crick-

Scapteriscus dida.

etylus

Lotr.

and

their

along

burrowing habits.

waterways and are

HOW TO KNOW
adapted

3b. Fore legs

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


Family

for grasping. Fig. 153

MANTIDAE

About 1.550 species are describThe name, praying mantids, is


applied because their fore legs are
ed.

held in front of the face as

if

pray-

They appear to be wholly carliving


nivorous and devour only
ing.

prey.
153.

Fig.

mantis, Tenosinensis Saussure.

Chinese

dera aridifolia

4a,

Hind legs much larger than other

pairs,

adapted

for

jumping.
5

(See Fig. 159)


4b.

Hind legs

usual

of

size,

not adopted for jumping.


9

(See Fig. 161)

5a.

Antennae usually much

short-

er than the body; auditory or-

gan when
base

of the

present,

near the

abdomen.

154

Fig.

6
Fig.
154. A grasshopper, showing
the auditory organ on abdomen.

5b.

Antennae usually as long as or


longer than the body; auditory or
gan, when present near the base of
the fore tibiae. Fig. 155

Fig. 155. A fore leg with auditory organ on tibia.

and middle tarsi 2-segmented, hind


tum greatly extended, often beyond the

6a. Fore
Fig.

3-segmented; prono-

tarsi
tip of

the

abdomen.

FamUy TETTIGIDAE

156

About 650 species have been described. They


They
can swim and dive in water. Eggs are laid in
the soil. These are the pygmy or grouse locusts.
are herbivorous and found in wet places.

Fig.

156.

granulatum

Aerydium
(Kirby).

70

HOW
6b All

TO

KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

3-segmented; pronotum normal

tarsi

size.

Family LOCUSTIDAE
The family contains about 8,000
known species. The common name

157

Fig.

grasshopper is generally applied


to the nonmigratory species and
locust is applied to the migratory
forms.
crops.

They are all destructive to


The migratory locust, Lo-

cusia migTatoria
serious

(DeGeer), 3rd

L.

and

is

is

the

instar.

4-segmented

7a. Tarsi

7b. Tarsi 3-segmented.

most

distributed

widely in most of the Eastern


Hemisphere.
It
breeds in
dry
grassy areas. Grasshopper eggs
are often laid underground.

Melanoplus femur-rubrum

157.

Fig.

pest

8
Fig.

Family GRYLLIDAE

158

About 1,150 species have been


described.
Ihey are generally
called crickets, and are both her-

Snowy

Fig.

158.

thus

niveus

bivorous and carnivorous.


They
hide themselves in holes in the
ground or under stones and deOecan- bris and some live on trees, shrubs

tree-cricket,
(N. Y.

(DeGeer)

Agr.

and

Expt. Sta.).

grass.

Nymphs and

adults

are often found together.


8a. Auditory organ usually present on the fore tibiae.
Fig.

Fig.
et,

Family TETTIGONIIDAE

159

59.

Mormon

crick-

Anabrus simplex
Haldeman.

8b. Auditory
Fig. 160

Fig.

spina

160.

They are commonly called long-horned


grasshoppers or katydids, about 7,000 known
species.
They can produce stridulatory
sounds by the fore wings of the males. They
are both herbivorous and carnivorous, living
in grass or trees. The eggs are often inserted
in the stems of plants.

organ never present on the fore tibiae.


Subfamily Stenopelmatinae, TETTIGONIIDAE

Stenopelmatus

Brunner.

longi.

The subfamily includes about 300 described species. They are mostly carnivorous, living in caves, in holes, under stones and other concealments.
These camel crickets and related forms
are given their own family by some
systematists. The adults are wingless
and strongly resemble the nymphs.
71

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATUI^ INSECTS

meso- and metathorax modified either long and


form or short and in leaf form; antennae shorter than
Family PHASMIDAE
the body; cerci not segmented. Fig. 161

9a. Prothorax small,


in linear

i^ort^oifA^

They are commonly known as walkingsticks and


because of their body structures closely
resemble the twigs or leaves. Over 700 species are
vegetable feeders.
All of
them are
described.
The nymphs and aduhs of many species appear much
alike for most aduhs are wingless. The eggs are often

leaf insects

dropped

Fig.

16

1.

ingstick,

at

random.

WalkD a i

f e
pheromero
morato (Say)

9b. Prothorax large, projecting over the

head; antennae as long as or

longer than the body; cerci segmented.

Family BLATTIDAE

Fig. 162

About 1,200 species of cockroaches are known


and they occur under dead leaves, moss, refuse
and on flowers and bushes. The most familiar domesticated species are the

German

cockroach, Blai-

American cockroach, Periplaneta ameiicana (L.), and the Australian cockroach, Periplaneia australasiae (Fab.). They have
been distributed throughout the entire world and
are household pests. The females may often be
seen carrying their egg cases which are presently
tella

cSkr!>a?h,''"B7.T.
telle

germanica

germanica

left for

(L.),

the

hatching.

(L.).

ORDER COLEOPTERA
(The key

is

mainly compiled from Boving and Craighead,

and Van Emden,


la.

1942.)

Legs consisting of 5 segments (coxa,


trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus) and
1 or 2 distinct claws (except in instars
of MicTomalthus which are legless or
have 2-segmented legs). Fig. 163
2

72

v^

's^
\

f^'9

'63.

leg.

1931.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

HOW
lb.

Legs consisting

oi

trochanter, femur

and

segments (coxa,
tibiotarsus)

and

claw; or less than 4 segments; or


even vestigial or absent. Fig. 164... 13
1

^
Fig.

2a.

Mandible with molar

structure. Fig.

165

164.

leg.

The food habits of an insect possessing chewing mouth parts can usually be judged fairly accurately

by

the

size

and character

of

the

manFig.

These structures are

dibles.

when

it

comes

to

"first

securing food.

It

line"
is

organs

165.

right

mandible.

interesting to note that insect

jaws meet on a vertical plane instead of a horizontal one as with the

mammals.

2b.

Mandible without molar

structure. Fig. 166. ...

Fig.

166.

left

mandible.

abdominal segment extended terminally into a single, conical,


a simple, transverse, narrow sternal plate; legs short, conical; claws of subequal size.
Fig. 167
Family CUPESIDAE

3a. 9th

straight process; ventrally with

very

small

family

ranging into both hemispheres,


tralia.
is

a wood

Aus-

Cupes

borer, as are

other

memThey

of the

are

medium

and

may

bark.

73

of

bers of the family.

most

Fig.
167. a, Cupes eoncolor Westn.; b, a leg; c,
ventral aspect of 9th and
10th abdominal segments.

including

The larva

sized borers,

be found under

HOW
3b. 9th

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment with terminal process bent downward and

directed toward a similar but


al plate; leg (in instar in

upward bent process from

which

the stern-

developed) provided with a

fully

long, slender tarsus carrying 2 claws of equal length.

Family

168

Fig.

It

MICROMALTHIDAE

consists of

American

a single North

species,

Miciomal-

The biology
of this insect is most remarkable. It combines in its life
thus debilis Lee.

cycle 7 or 8 forms of larvae,

and exhibits both oviparous


and ovoviviparous paedogene-

*i^Ec rs OF

168.

Fig.

Micromaithus delibis Lee.


sis.

4a.

Cardo very large;


segment.

2 pairs of gills

on the

tip

of

9th

abdominal

Family GYRINIDAE

Fig. 169

They are called whirligig beetles


swimmers.
cies.

or surface

There are about 450 described spe-

The eggs are

laid

on objects

The
They pu-

in water.

larvae are aquatic and predacious.

pate in flimsy cocoons attached to rocks, water


plants, etc.

Fig.
sp.;

169. a, Dineutes
Maxilla of a

b.

gyrinid

4b.

Cardo

larva.

of

normal moderate

size or small;

never have
/)

2 pairs of gills
Fig.

on the

tip of

9th

170

CMiAmia

abdominal segment.
5
Fig.
la

170. Maxilof a carabid

larva.

74

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

5a. Labial palpi latent; mentum and ligula fused into an unpaired anFamily RHYSODIDAE
teriorly bilobed piece. Fig. 171

Rather more than 100

/^-^Ifi'.V
..h,aoiA

j/v/v/.*'

species

have been

de-

scribed.

Nothing

ap-

be known about
metamorphoses.
The larvae are probably
Look for
predacious.
them under decaying
u^-u
DOrK.

pears

to

their

r
Fig.

171. a, Clinidium sculptile


aspect of labium.

5b. Labial palpi distinct

Newn:;

b,

Ventrol

and segmented.
6

172

Fig.

abdominal segment present; 8th abdominal

6a. 9th

segment never terminal. (See

.^iuenijmm

Fig. 174)

Fig. 172.
Ventral
aspect of labium.

6b. 9th

abdominal segment rudimentary; 8th abdominal segment long,


segment oi the body.

conical, appearing as the terminal

(See Fig.

10

177)

abdominal segment developed as a pygopod


purpose

7a. 10th

7b. 10th
Fig.

for

locomotory
8

abdominal segment not developed as a pygopod.


Family HALIPLIDAE

173

They comprise about 100 widely

distributed species.

Their larvae possess segmentally arranged groups of

freshy process

and are aquatic

adults live together

among

insects.

Larvae and

aquatic plants and

may

be collected readily by raking these plants out on


the shore.

Fig. 173. Peitodytes sp.

75

to

HOW TO KNOW
8a. 2 or 3 pairs of

ment.

Fig.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

hooks present on tergiun

174

abdominal segFamily CICINDELIDAE

ol 5th

The family

consists of about

and their adults


ore called tiger beetles. The
larvae live in vertical or slant-

2,000 species

ing,

cylindrical

burrows often

more deep in which


they can move up and down
by aid of the dorsal hooks of
a

foot or

abdominal segment.
fifth
They are predacious and found
along the sandy banks of rivers and bodies of water, in wet
meadows, and in damp partially shaded canyons.
the

Fig.

8b.

174.

Megacephola

No hooks on

Carolina

5th abdominal tergum

9a. Terminal setae of tarsus

single or absent.

rig.

9b.

175.

(L.)

much

Terminal setae
bicuspidate.

shorter

Fig. 175

Harpalus viridiaeneus

ol

tarsus

Beauvois.

much

than

claws;

retinaculum

Family

CARABIDAE

The family is very large,


comprising around 21,000 described species. The larvae
are carnivorous and living
in the soil, grass, under debris or dead bark. Pupation
takes place in a cell in the
ground. They are elongate,
usually flattened and grublike, and often very active.

longer than claws;

retinaculum

FamUy OMOPHRONIDAE

Fig. 178

The members of this small family live


sand and debris along water
courses. They are comparatively rare.

in the

Fig. 176. a, leg


Mandible of
b,
Omophron sp.

Omophron;
Omophron; c,
of

76

HOW TO KNOW
10a.

Head

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

nutant; mandible falcate

acle absent.

and simple;

This
all

HYGROBIIDAE

a small family comprising


They are found

is

aquatic species.

in the Eastern
Fig.

8th abdominal spir-

Family

Fig. 179

Hemisphere.

177. Hydrobia tarda Herbst.

(Redrawn

from

Boving

and

Craighead)

10b.

Head

porrect;

mandible not simple; 8th adbominal spiracle

minal. (See Fig. 178)


11a.

Mandible with
nor
Fig.

II

distinct retinaculum, inner

margin neither sulcate

tiibular; legs fossoriaL

Subfamily Noterinae, DYTISCIDAE

178

The members

of this small sub-

family ore rather minute in


r

Fig.

ter*

178. o, Noferus sp.;

size.

Their larvae must feed, of course.

CL
b,

On

mandible.

tiny

animol formS.

lib.

Mandible without distinct retinaculum, inner margin either sulcate or tubular; legs ambulatory or natatory.
(See Fig. 179)
12

1 2a.

Prothoracic presternum large and subquadrate; gtUa present, subquadrate or triangular; gular suture double or anteriorly biiui^
cate. Fig. 179
Family DYTISCIDAE

The family contains more than 2,000 speTheir adults are

cies.

known as predacious

and dytiscids.
The larvae are predacious and feed upon
diving beetles, water beetles

many

kinds of aquatic animals including


moUusks, worms, tadpoles, salamanders and
fishes. Because the hunting life, the larvae

are

Fig. 179.. a, Dytiscus sp.;


b, Ventral aspect of head.

sometimes

called

water

tigers.

Their

pupae ore terrestrial and pupation takes


place above the water line.

77

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

presternum transverse, narrow and band-shaped;


gula absent; gular suture median and simple.
Family AMPHIZOIDAE
Fig. 180

12b. Prothoracic

The family consists of the single genus,


Amphizoa, with only 3 aquatic species.
They inhabit rocks and logs in fresh water
streams

along

America and

a,
180.
Fig.
sp.; b. Ventral

the

Pacific

coast

of

N.

species in Tibet.

Amphizoa
aspect of

head and prothorax.

13a. 8th
Fig.

abdominal segment glandular, discoidal and terminal.


Family PAUSSIDAE
181

3/

10^
4j/%^%^
^

'f
Fig.

%S^'if

-*^,_/

^
181.

Paussus

More than 300 species are known.


They are adapted to a myrmecophilous
^* ^ metamorphoses of this family
have received very little attention. Its
known members are all exotic.

kannegieteri

Wasm.
13b. 8th

abdominal segment not glandular and not discoidal

14a. Cerci segmented, individually

movable

15

14b. Cerci solid or absent

15a. (a)

28

Galea usually inserted on the

abdomen with only

14

palpifer;

if

absent, then the

8 distinct segments; or (b) galea less often

inserted on stipes (to the outside of lacinia), but


then the mandible serrate, the cerci 2-segmented,

and the

10th

ways with a
Fig. 182

abdominal segment almost

al-

pair of recurved ventral hooks.


114
Fig. 182. Maxilla.

78

HOW TO KNOW
15b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Galea never inserted on the

palpifer; often ab-

abdomen always

sent or fused with the lacinia;

with 9 to 10 distinct segments;


is

serrate, the cerci absent or

the mandible

if

1-segmented.
16

183

Fig.

Fig. 183. Maxilla.

16a.

Mandible with a usually large, asperate or tuberculate molar part.


184

Fig.

fe. ?r^^-'

'

17
184.

Fig.

16b.

molar

Mandible without asperate or tuberculate


without molar part

17a. 10th

Two

mandibles.

usually

part,

21

abdominal segment provided with a pair

recurved hooks.

of

SubfamUy Limnebiinae, HYDROPHILIDAE

Fig. 185

C^cA

The members

of

small

this

sub-

family are for the most pdrt found

on the Pacific

coast,

and are com-

paratively small in size.


Fig. 185. a, Ochthebius mipressus; b. Tip of abdomen.

17b. 10th

abdominal segment without terminal hooks but sometimes


18

with a pair of long setae

appendices on pro thorax, 1st and


abdominal segments; antenna very short and 2-segmented.
Subfamily Hydroscaphinae, HYDROPHILIDAE
Fig. 186

18a. Spiracles absent; balloon-like

8th

It

is

a small subfamily,

com-

prising only 4 or 5 species adapt-

ed
^<5;5'CA'\^
/T 1/^ ^^ILSk-^'
a.?\Sj^^\
/7^^:<X>f^^-^.lE

Fig.

186.

Hydroscopho natons Lee.

18b. Spiracles present;

no

'

for

an aquatic
running

^^^

^""^

j^Q^

springs.

species
west.

balloon-like

mented

is

The

found

appendices;

life.

water,

one
in

They

oc-

including

American
our

antenna

South-

3-seg-

19

79

HOW TO KNOW
19a.

Apex
Fig.

of

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

mandible multiserrate; cerci

1-segmented.

short,

Family PTILIIDAE

187

The larvae and adults


er-winged"

beetles

wood, fungi and

of these 'feath-

live

in

in

decaying

They

ant's nests.

are very minute, some of the smallest

known

beetles belong to this family.

187. a, Nossidium omericonum Mots.; b, Mandible.


Fig.

19b.

Apex

of

mandible

biiid or trifid; cerci

often multianniilated. (See Fig. 188)

20a.

2-segmented, last segment


20

Mandible with vestigial retinaculum.


Fig.

Family LEPTINIDAE

188

This
its

is

a very small family.

are practically

unknown

Its

but

have been found in rotten wood,


nests of birds and of field mice.

habthey

in the

Fig.
88. a, Leptinus testoceus
Mull; b, Mandible.
1

20b.

Mandible with
Fig.

189

distinct

retinaculum or prostheca, or both.


Subfamily Anistominae, SILPHIDAE

They are found among damp herbage, in fungi, under bark, etc. They
are fairly abundant but their very

small

size

results

rather poorly known.

Prionochaeto
a,
189.
Fig.
Soy; b, Mandible with retinaculum;
c. Mandible with prostheca.

80

in

their

being

HOW TO KNOW

21a.

Mala

(lacinia

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

and galea) and

stipes fused.

22

Fig. 190

Fig.

21b.

Mala

segment-like, movable. Fig. 191. ..Family

This

is

one

including

MAJLA

190.

Maxilla

STAPHYLINIDAE
and
The adults

of the largest family of insects

more than

20,000

species.

The larvae are typically

are called rove beetles.

campodeiform and often closely resemble the Cara-

The larvae of certain species are definitely


known to be carnivorous and predacious. Certain

bidae.

larvae ore pupal parasites of cyclorrhaphous Diptera


Fig.

22a.

191.

and undergo hypennetamorphosis.

Maxilla.

Mandible with apex simple/ recurved and bent away from the
sagittal

plane of the larva.

Family PLATYPSYLLIDAE

Fig. 192

>i^f<:c//fvf^

The family consists of a single species,


the beaver beetle, Platypsyllus castoris
Rits., which is an ectoparasite of the beaver in Europe and America. The biology of
the immature stages is not known.

Fig.
192. a, Mandible;
Plot/psylius castoris Rits.

22b.
23a.

b,

Mandible with apex

differently shaped,

Galea present, often developed as a small,


hairy lobe on top of lacinia. Fig. 193.

23b.

never recurved,

Galea and lacinia fused

.24

25

81

23

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

24a. Lacinia with entire surface asperate; terminal

segment

of maxil-

lary palpus subulate; ligula trilobed.


Fig.

Family SCAPHIDIIDAE

194

The members
or

of this family are fungivorous

occur in rotting
Less than

adults.

wood both as
100

species

larvae and

are

known

in

North America although some species are very

common.

Fig.

194.

Scaphi-

a,

soma convexum Say;


b,

Ventral

aspect, of

labium..

24b. Lacinia not asperate, or only along posterior margin; terminal

segment
Fig.

of maxillary

palpus not subulate; ligula bilobed.

FamUy SILPHIDAE

195

The carrion

beetles,

sexton beetles are the

members

adult

burying

beetles

common names

of this family

and

of the

which include

The eggs are


dead animal bodies and their larvae
lead a saprozoic life. However, some are
predacious and feeding upon snails or other
insects; others are found among plants and
about 1,600 described species.
laid in

fungi.
Fig.
195. a,
b. Mandible;

25a. Ligula

Silpha
c.

sp.;

Labium.

either

deeply bilobed

absent; labrum fused to


Fig.

anteriorly,

become

or

nasale.
26

196

196. Dorsal aspect of head.

Fig.

82

HOW TO KNOW
25b. Anterior
Fig.

margin

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


labrum

of ligula entire;

short elytra of the adult sstaphy-

b,

a,
Dorsal aspect
Oligota oviformis

26a. Cerci long

the

result

otten

resembling

er

.197.

in

linids

closely.

Fig.

movable.

most STAPHYLINIDAE

The

head;
Casey.

distinct, often

197

larva

each

and adults
other

The many species range

widely in

rather
rath-

size.

of

tmd 2-segmented; antennae more than twice as long

as head; ligula bilobed; 6 ocelli on each side.

Subfamily Steninae, STAPHYLINIDAE

Fig. 198

The members of this subfamily are rather fihort


and thick as compared with most staphylinids.
They live in sand and debris at the edge of water
courses and seem to be predacious.

Fig.

198.

Stenus so.

26b. Cerci absent or small

and immovable; antennae not longer than

head; ligula absent; less than 6

ocelli

on each

side,

sometimes no
27

ocelli

83

HOW

TO

expanded

27a. Terga

KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


body

laterally;

oval;

Fig. 199

It

antenna club-shaped.
Family SCYDMAENIDAE

more than 1,200 species of small


They mostly occur in moss, under

includes

insects.

bark or
pears

to

in ants' nests.

be known

Scarcely anything ap-

of the

biology of the fcan-

ily.

scydmaenid

27b. Terga not expanded; antenna not club-shaped.

Family PSELAPHIDAE

Fig. 200

The species mostly

live in ants' nests

bears a resemblance to ants.

and

the adult

The biology of the

larvae is little known. More than 3,000 species have


been described. Their size is small.

Fig.

200.

Eup-

lectus confluens
Lee.

28a,

Hypermetamorphosis present; mandible without molar

maxillary mala short, thick, almost


gular area present; cerci absent. Fig. 201

part;

Hypermetamorphosis

is

a condition

vestigial;

29

that prevails

among a relative small percentage of insect species.


Some of the instars are radically different from each
other in habits

and form or
between

tional instars occur

and

the adult.

28b.

No hypermetamorphosis;
than in 28a

in

some cases addigrown larva

Fig.
tral

the full

201. VenQspecT of

head.

different

combination

of

characters
31

84

HOW TO KNOW
29a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Gula well developed; maxillae inserted at a considerable distance in from anterior margin of presternum; labial palpi 2-segFamily MELOIDAE
mented. Fig. 202
This family comprises no
less than 2,500 species.

The

are

blister
called
Eggs are laid in

adults
beetles.

The
masses in the soil.
newly hatched larvae called
primary

or

triungulins

lar-

vae, are campodeiform. They


are active and feed on egg
masses of other insects in
the soil, or they may attach
themselves to certain adult
hosts and ride to the nests

and feed upon the food or


devour the young. Then they

Fig. 202. a. Forms of meloid


Ventral aspect of labium.

larvae;

transform into scarabaeoid


type of larvae, and some into still a third type of larvae.
A prepupa stage is followed
by the pupa and then the

b,

adult.

29b.

Gula

area

short;

maxillae

extending

posteriorly to near the anterior


of

presternum;

mented, reduced
sent.

Fig.

labial

palpi

margin

not

seg-

to warts, or entirely ab-

30

203

Fig. 203. Ventral aspect


of head and prothorax of
Rhipiphorus solidoginio

Pierce.

30a.

ocellus on

each

side

of

head.

OceUi^

Fig. 204.

Genus Tefraonyx,

MELOIDAE
The larvae

Fig. 204. Tetraonyx


1st instar.

quadrimoculoto

of this

genus seem

other Meloids
that some systematists would errect a family (Tetraonycidae) for

F.

85

from

so

different

the

few members

of the genus.

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

30b. Several ocelli placed together


Fig. 205

on each side of head.


Family RHIPIPHORIDAE

The larvae of this family are of great


on account of their parasitic
habits. Metaecus paradoxus is a parasite in nests of Vespa, but the eggs are
laid in old wood. The larva becomes
an endoparasite and then changes to
interest

ouaus
Fig.

205. Phlpiphorus solidaginis

Pierce.

Pupation

ectoparasite.

place

takes

in

the cell of the host.

31a.

Mandible

bearing

an

accessory

ventral

condyle; with either a free galea well sep-

arated from a distinct lacinia or with

cri-

briform spiracles, or with both characters.


Fig. 306

32
-^

C^ie/t,f:o/ifM S/>''!*<l.e

206. a,
mandible; b,
Fig.

illa;

c,

right

A max-

cribriform

spiracle.

31b. Characters not so combined.

40

32a.

Median epicranial suture present; 10th abdominal segment well


developed, usually about as large or larger than the well developed 9th abdominal segment, sometimes fused with it dorsally,
when shorter than 9th abdominal segment, then provided with a
pair of large anal pads
33

32b.

Median epicranial suture absent; 10th abdominal segment much


smaller than the well developed 9th abdominal segment and always without anal pads, or both 9th and 10th abdominal segments
vestigial
37

33a. Stridulating organ present on mesothoracic leg;

abdominal terga not

plicate.

Fig. 207

34
Fig. 207.
leg.

ic

86

mesothorac-

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

33b. Stridulating organ absent, or present as


teeth

on dorsal inner margin

maxil-

of

lary stipites, usually working against a

granulate or

striped

area

on

central

side of mandibles; abdominal terga

34a.

cate.

Fig. 208

Anus

longitudinal

end

of

pli-

"^f^lPu^AT,^*

35

between 2 large

Fig. 208.
ic leg.

^'^

mesothorac-

pads

oval, often sclerotized

at

body; metathoracic legs normal.

Figc 209

Family

LUCANIDAE

The family consists of around 900 speThe adults are called stag beetles.

cies.

larvae

Their

live

largely

wood. The larval stage


to

complete

their

in

decaying

lasts 4 to 6

development.

takes place in a cell formed of

wood

Fig.
209.
indricum.

34b.

Anus

gnawed

species are very

large.

AMAt Pav'
v^A^rAAi AM4C

Some

fragments.

years

Pupation

loee

Sinodendron

transverse;

eyl'

end

of

body

different; metathoracic legs reduc-

ed and much shorter than mesothoracic

legs.

Family PASSALIDAE

Fig. 210

About 300 species have been described.

It

reported that the parent beetles stay with the

vae and chew wood


their

into

a condition suitable

was
lar-

for

progeny. The metathoracic legs of the la#vae

are greatly modified and adapted to form an organ

which works across a

striated

area on the meso-

coxa, thus producing a squeaking noise.

Passalus sp.

87

HOW TO KNOW

35a. Lacinia

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

and galea separate.

36

Fig. 211.

211. Maxilla.

Fig.

35b. Lacinia

and galea

About

Family

Fig. 212

fused.

15,000 species are

SCARABAEIDAE

known

in

this

very-

large family. The larvae are typicqlly scarabaeoid

and feeding upon


some forms are recorded as being
myrmecophilous. The white grubs are best known

type, living mostly in the soil

plant tissues, but

larval

while

pests

the

Japanese

beetle,

June

and rose chafer are the serious adult pests.


The world's largest beetles belong here, and of

beetle
Fig.

212.

kansanas

Anomala
Hayes

course the largest grubs.

McColloch.

One

fairly large and widely represented group within this family,


Tumble bugs, are unique in their method of providing for their
young. A pair of beetles make a large ball of mammalian dung
which they roll, often for a considerable distance, and bury in an
excavation which they prepare. An egg is laid in the ball and the
grub makes its entire growth within the ball.

the

36a. Stridulating organs absent.

It

Fig. 213

is

Family

TROGIDAE

a small family composed

of three

genera and about 160 species. They most-

decomposing animal matand may be found in carrion.

ly live in dried
ter,

'

Fig. 213. o,
b. Antenna.

(L
Trox scobcr

L.;

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

36b. At least maxillary stridulating teeth present.

SCARABAEIDAE

Family

Fig. 214

The larvae

of

many

Scara-

baeids live in dung or other

decaying organic matter and


are of

little

consequence ex-

Many

on the
growing plants and

others

roots of

scavengers.

as

cept to act

are highly

feed

destructive.

214. o. White grub; b, Maxilla.

Fig.

abdominal segment of normal form and not terminal; 9th


abdominal segment large. (See Fig. 215)
38

37a. 8th

abdominal segment large and terminal; 9th abdominal seg-

37b. 8th

ment
38a. 10th

39

vestigial. (See Fig. 217)

abdominal segment almost obliterated and without

minal prolongation;

soft, ter-

ocelli absent.

Family DASCILLIDAE

Fig. 215

This is a group of small to med^ ium terrestrial and aquatic beetles.


The larvae have been found in

pasture land.

Some

500

species

are known.
215.

Fig.

38b. 10th

Dascilius davidsoni

abdominal segment well developed, with

paired, 2-segmented
side.

Lee.

and

soft

terminal un-

retractile prolongation; 5 ocelli

on each

FamUy HETEROCERIDAE

Fig. 218

The family is very widely


and about 100
species
are
known. The
larvae live in galleries which
distributed

they excavate in
Fig.

216.

Heterocercus ventrolis Melsh.

89

the

mud

bordering pools and streams.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

39a. 3 terminal tufts of gills retractile into a pocket; antenna long and
multisegmented; one large ocellus and one small ocellus on each

side of head.

FamUy HELODIDAE

Fig. 217

It

is

small

family.

Their larvae are aquatic.

They

are

all

of

small

size.

Fig.

217. Prionoeyphon discoideus Say.

39b. Gills absent; antenna 3-segmented; 5 ocelli on each side of head.

Subfamily Nosodendrinae,

Fig. 218

BYRRHIDAE

The single genus Nosodendron contains 3 described


America and 1 from Europe.
The larvae have been taken in fungi, under bark and
species, 2 from North

around the flowing sap of trees. They are thought to


be predators on dipterous larvae. No information
concerning the pupae

Fig.

is

available.

218. Noso-

dendron

oali-

fornicus Horn.

40a. Gular region or

sent or absent;
dibles having

median gular suture preabsent, with man-

when

mola

or prostheca or ex-

traordinary structures except a pgeudo41

mola. Fig. 219

Fig. 219. o, Ventral aspect of head; b. Mandible.

40b. Gular region or gular suture absent; mandibles with


or no mola

90

pseudomola
118

HOW TO KNOW

articulating

41a. Maxillary
distinct;

when

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

area either large or

(except in Catogenidae, Epilachninae


inae).

Fig.

in-

mandibles with mola

indistinct,

and Lami-

^^'^-^^

42

220

220. Maxiilta.

Fig.

by
and cushioned; mandible without molar

41b. Maxillary articulating area absent, or very small, or concealed

mentum,

not

large

43

part

a well developed lacinia and a


42a.
finger-shaped, 1 or 2-segmented galea; mandible without a distinct molar part but with a longitudinal series of hairs at the
Family BYRRHIDAE
base. Fig. 221
Maxillary mala divided

into

The family has about 500


are called
in

need

pill

beetles.

of study.

The adults

species.

Their

The larvae

life

of

are found beneath turf or moss.

histories are

Bynhus

Amphicyrta dentipes are often injurious

and

Fig.

221.

fasciatus

pilula

The larvae
to

of

wild

cultivated plants.

a, Byrrhus
Forst.;
b.

Mandible.

42b.

Mala simple, or division either indicated by distal notch or present with lobe-like galea; mandibles with or without a molar part
66
but without a longitudinal series of hairs at the base
below the entire abdomen, or with movable 10th abdominal segment usually covering retractile gills at the end
of the body, or with mamillaeform appendices
from the 10th abdominal segment; mandibles

43a. Either with exposed gills

never perforate or deeply

cleft. Fig.

222

44

Fig.

of

43b. Gills or anal appendices usually

mandible either perforate or deeply


44a.

Movable

10th

absent; when present,


cle|t longitudinally

abdominal segment absent


91

223.

Tip

obdomen.

then
48

45

HOW TO KNOW

44b.

Movable

10th

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdomincd segment present be-

low 9th abdominal tergimi.


45 a.

Body

47

Fig. 223

cylindrical, without ventral gills

46
222.

Fig.

45b.

Body flat, broadly oval; with ventral


2nd to 6th abdominal segments.

freely exposed from

gills

Family PSEPHENIDAE

Fig. 224

The larvae are aquatic and


stones

0,j^^s

tened and

merged and

Fig. 224. Psephenus


contei Lee.

Their

disc-like.

attach

streams,

swift-flowing

in

cascades and waterfalls.

46a.

Tip

abdomen.

of

to

rapids,

They are flatpupae ore sub-

firmly attached to stones.

le-

Antennae comparatively long;

abdominal segment with a pair

10th

of large lobes usually carrying spinose diverticles.

Subfamily Ptilodactylinae,

Fig. 225

The

biology

needs

to

of

HELODIDAE

this

subfamily

be investigated. The larvae

Say are found


Only a
known in North

of Ptilodactyla seTricollis
,

in the

few

damp

species

America.
that

this

soil of forests.

are

Some

systematists believe

subfamily

belongs

where or as a separate family.


Ptilodactyla

serri-

9th and 10th ab-

dominal segments.

92

else-

HOW TO KNOW
46b.

Antennae

short;

10th

Fig. 226

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdomincd segment without diverticles.


Genus Eurypogon, DASCILLIDAE

Some

500

known

rather

widely-

species are

distributed

for this family.

are found in

damp

and are small

sized.

adults are dull colored


Fig

226.

a,

Eurypogon

Half aspect of head;


dominal segments.

47a. 8 pairs of

c,

niger Melsh; b.
9th and 10th ab-

of

They

places

The
and

rather soft texture.

abdominal spiracles, all projecting, either cribiform or


a deviating sinuous type.
Family CHELONARIIDAE

biforous but of
Fig. 227

Only one species


family

is

known

in

of this small

the

United

States.

Fig.

227. Chelonarium sp.

47b. Abdomii^ol spiracles vary from 1 to 8 pairs, either onnuliform or


regularly biiorous, never sinuous.

Family

Fig. 228

DRYOProAE

The larvae

of Dryops is stated to live


earth beneath stones. The
larva of one species of Psephenus is
said to resemble a trilobite except that
its lateral margins are notched.
More
than 400 species are known. The aduhs
are named "long-toed water beetles."
in

Fig.

228. Heimis aeneus Muller.

48a. 9th abdominal

damp

segment operculafe,

vertical

Fig. 229

and

terminal.

Family RHIPICERIDAE

This small family of "cedar


beetles" are dull colored
of

medium

life

Fig.

229.

Zenoa picea Beauv.

93

and

to large size. Their

history is not well

known.

HOW TO KNOW
48b. 9th al)dominal

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

segment otherwise

49

49a. Spirades cribriiorm; 10th abdominal segment terminal; prothorax


large and more or less depressed, usually covered with a plate

both dorsally and ventrally.


Fig. 230

Family BUPRESTIDAE

The flat-headed borers are a large


family which consists of about 8,000
described species. The larvae are
blind and legless but capable of excavating in all kinds of dry and
moist wood. They live in the trunks,
limbs and roots of trees. A few are
leaf miners and gallmakers; some
are highly destructive to fruit and

pj^o rwoj? A;t

230. Western cedar borer,


Trochykele blondeli Mars.

Fig.

forest trees.

49b. Not so.

50

^trs:
50a.

Labrum

present.

60

Fig. 231.

231. Dorsal aspect of head.

Fig.

50b.

Labnmi

fused.

Fig. 232

51
232. Dorsal aspect of head.

Fig.

51a. Frontal sutures present (except in Throscidae and


head capsule and mouth parts are reduced or
ed)

Eucnemidae the

much

51b. Frontal sutures absent (except in Brachypsectrini


dae, both of which hove piercing mandibles)
52a.

Head capsule and mouth

parts very

much reduced

52

and Lampyri56
or extremely

specialized. (See Fig. 233)

52b.

Head capsule and mouth

specializ-

53
ports

normal

slightly

reduced

or

entirely

54

94

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

53a. Legs short but with normal segments.


Fig. 233

Fig.

THROSCIDAE

Family

The members of this small


family are of small size and
are known as "pseudo click
beetles". The adults are found
on flowers but not much is
known about the habits of the

233. ThroscMS sp.

larvae.

53b. Legs vestigial or absent.

Family

Fig. 234

EUCNEMIDAE

Less than 100 species


known for North
are
America. The larvae have
the head parts enlarged
Fig. 234. Melasis rufipennis Horn.
and closely resemble the
buprestid larvae.
They
bore in wood usually that is just beginning to decay and are fairly

7smmrir>,

common.

54a. Gular area well developed

and quadrate.

Fig. 235

55

Fig. 235. Ventral aspect of head.

54b. Gulor area small

gidar suture.

and

indistinct, or

represented only

by a median

Family ELATERIDAE

Fig. 236

This family is a large one


with about 8,000 known species. The larvae are called
wireworms and are well

known

Fig.

236.

pests

of

farm

and

garden. They are mostly


subterranean and phytophagous. Some are predacious
upon white grubs and a
number of species inhabit

wireworm.

wood and prey


upon the xylophagous lar-

decaying
vae.

95

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

and ventral prothoracic scleromes united into a solid cylinder; cervical membrane very large
and eversible forming a balloon-shaped sack below the head
Family CEBRIONIDAE
when raised. Fig. 237

55a. Larva strongly sclerotized; dorsal

This small family is


related
the
wire
to
worms. As for the Uni-

~
CMKyCAK

ted States our species


are southern or west-

I^CffOf^A'^t llPAMPtr>

Fig

237. Cebrio antennatus Schfr.

ern.

and soft-skinned; dorsal and ventral prothoracic


parts not forming a cylinder; cervical membrane not eversible.

55b. Larva white

Genus

Fig. 238

RHIPICERIDAE

^andaiivLs.

The information

available

garding the habits of


is

very

limited.

It

this
is

re-

genus

reported

a mature larva of %anda.his


niger Knoch was taken from the
that

nymph
Fig.

of

a Cicada, having de-

veloped OS a porosite.

238. Sondolus niger Knoch.

abdominal segment with an unpaired pointed prolongation, or


paired cerci; bcdy with feather-like or spinose processes.
Group Brachypsecti. DASCILLIDAE
Fig. 239

56a. 9th

This group has but

one

known North American

species.

This family of Soft-bodied Plant Beetles, has less

than a thousand
habitat
tively

is in

known

species.

The most frequent

proximity to water but only a compara-

small percentage

of

larvae

and adults are

aquatic as with the species here pictured.


239. Brochypsectra ful-

Fig.

vo Lee.

56b. 9th abdominal segment without prolongation or cerci;


out conspicuous processes

96

body

with-

57

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


a transverse bridge.
Family CANTHARIDAE

57a. Epicranial halves meeting ventrally forming


Fig. 240

The family

HAJLf^

is

scribed species.

composed

of

Their adults are com-

monly called

1,300 de-

soldier beetles.

are deposited in masses

in

The eggs
the

soil.

The newly hatched larvae of some species are feebly developed and are
called

"prolarvae".

The

larvae

are

and have a velvety appearance due to a covering of

primarily carnivorous

fine
Fig. 240. a, Contharis sp.;
aspect of head
b. Ventral

hairs.

Pupation

takes

place

in

cells in the soil.

(appendages omitted).

57b. Epicranial halves not meeting ventrally.

58a. Frontal sutures present.

Fig. 241

58

Family

LAMPYRIDAE

There are about 2,000 described species. The adults

known as

and glowworms. The eggs,


The
larvae are predacious and feed upon small animals
including earthwoims, snails, crustaceans and insects.

are

fireflies

larvae and pupae are also sometimes luminous.

They are subterranean but several Asiatic species


are reported to be aquatic. Pupation usually takes
place in a soil cell beneath rubbish or on the surface
in moist situations.

Fig.

241.

Pho-

sp.

.59

58b. Frontal sutures absent.

97

HOW TO KNOW
59a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Antenna 3-segmented with apical segment and a disk-shaped appendix; stipes and
mented. Fig. 242

mentum

separate; cardo present; galea 2-seg-

Family

It

PHENGODIDAE

reported that the species of ?h.en-

is

godes prey upon myriapods. Some larvae

have light-producing organs, and are very


attractive, sometimes displaying two or
more colors of lights. The adult females
ZRACoM

of

some species resemble

the larvae.

Fig. 242. a, Phengodes sp.;


b. Ventral aspect of head.

59b.

Antenna 1 or 2-segmented, distally covered with a large domeshaped appendix; stipes and mentiiin fused; cardo vestigial or
Family LYCIDAE
absent; galea 1-segmented. Fig. 243

They are similar to the lampyrids


which they are related. The adults
fly by day, and are not luminous.
to

Less than 100 species are


Fig.

243.

turn

F.

Calopteron

retieula-

j^^^^j^

known

for

America.

60a. Frontal sutures present

61

60b. Frontal sutures absent

65

61a. Lacinia distally


Fig.

armed with

or

more

spurs.

FamUy DERMESTIDAE

244

The family consists of about


550 described species. The larvae are covered with long or
short hairs and feed upon dead
animal and plant materials including skins, horn, hair, wool,
tallow, cxired meats, cheese, museum specimens and cereal
Fig.

244. a, Carpet beetle; b, Maxilla.

Some very serious


household pests belong to this
products.
family.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Fiq.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

63b Mandible with a short or no prothecal process; median epicranial


64
suture usually not well developed, or entirely absent
64a. Antenna with the sensory appendix longer than the distal segFamily CISIDAE
ment. Fig. 248
This is a widely distributed family comprising probably over 300 species which
are found in old wood or
Some of the grubs
fungi.
eat paper and are known as
"bookworms"; other species
ore pests where grain feed

J-^^A^rA

stored.

is
Fig.

248. Enneorthron sp.

Antenna with the sensory appendix shorter than the distal segFamily OSTOMIDAE
ment or absent. Fig. 249
The well-known cadelle, Tene-

64b.

broides mauiitanicus L., feeds primarily upon grain and grain products, but sometimes also preys
on other insects which live in the
same medium. They are whitish
Fig. 249. Airora cylindrico Serv.
grubs and noticably flattened.
65a. Antenna without sensory appendix; ventral mouth pQrts apparentFamily CUCUJIDAE
ly protracted. Fig. 250
This

family of

flat

bark

contains

less

than

beetles
1,000

known

species but they

are so variable that the family


ing the protracted
linearis Lee.

65b.

appears at several places

250. a, Ventral aspect of head, show-

Fig.

mouth

in our key.

ports; b, Scolidio

Antenna with dilated sensory appendix; ventral mouth parts reGroup Bothriderini, COLYDIIDAE
Fig. 251

tracted.

Some

species of this group ore

some are predaupon wood boring insects,


and a few are parasitic. Look for
them on leaves or under the bark

phytophagous,
te

p^n^^^'l'^^^s

^^"'^

cious

of trees.
Deretophrus oregonensis
Horn; b, Antenna; c, Ventral aspect of
retracted
mouth
the
head, showing
Fig.

251.

a,

parts.

100

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

66a. Ventral

mouth parts

retracted. (See Fig. 251c)

66b. Ventral

mouth parts

protracted.

Fig.

67

(See Fig. 250).

FamUy CERAMBYCIDAE

252

The family is about sixth in size in the


order and contains about 20,000 described
species. Because of the large thorax the larFig.

252.

Roundheaded

apple tree borer, Saperda Candida Fab.

vae are called roundheaded borers. The eggs


are laid on or in the host plants and the female beetle sometimes girdles a limb so that

the larvae may feed on the dying wood. The


larvae feed as borers on both living and dead plants, and are very
destructive. Some of these larvae are known to live for many years.

The back of the mandible either with 2 long flagellate setae


and the body of the mandible partially fleshy or fully
sclerotized; or (b) the back of the mandible without long setae
distally, and the body of the mandible always fleshy, only with
the base, or the tip and the base sclerotized.
most LATHRIDIIDAE
Fig. 253

67a. (a)

distally,

The members of this famnumber more than 700


species and are found in
moss, decaying wood and
ily

fungi.
Pig. 253. a,
b. Mandible.

67b.

Cortodcre eottuloto

Reit.;

few have occured

in herbaria, dried carcasses

and

in ants' nests.

The back of the mandible without long flagellate setae


and the body of the mandible completely sclerotized

68a. Maxillary

galea.

mala with

Fig.

distinguishable

lacinia

distally,

and
69

254

Fig. 254.
Maxilla.

68b. Maxillary

mala

entire,

sometimes bilobed

anteriorly.

71

Fig. 255

101

68

HOW TO KNOW
69a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

2nd antennal segment more than 4 times as long as the basal


segment. Fig. 256
Family LATHRIDIIDAE

These "minute brown scavenger beetles" are

^vrfA/A>A<

Some

very small.

are pests in drugs and other

commercial products.

Both larvae and adults

are so small that they often escape detection.


Fig.

pect

69b.

256. Dorsal osof heod.

2nd antennal segment subcylindricol, 3 times or

less,

the basal segment


70a. Spiracles oimular, not
Fig. 257,

as long as
70

on tube; cerci not distinct.


Subfamily Eucinetinae, DASCILLIDAE

This subfamily contains only

small beetles.

a few

Their larvae are not

well known.
Fig.

257. a, Eucinefus sp.; b,

spiracle.

70b. Spiracles biforous,

on tubes;

cerci strong.

FamUy DERODONTIDAE

Fig. 258

The members

of

this

small

family live in fungi. They are

known as
Fig.

258.
Melsh; b,

a,

Derodontus moculofus
on tube.

the "Tooth necked"

fungus beetles.

spiracle

71a.

Mala

71b.

Mala obtuse, or with inner margin irregularly


78
toothed or notched. Fig. 260

falciform.

Fig. 259.

Fig. 260.
Maxilla.

102

HOW TO KNOW

spiracles,

73

Fig. 261

72a. Spiracles biforous.

The

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

openings along the sides of

..

^qpsA/ifiis

the thorax and abdomen of both immature and


adult insects which function in respiration take
various forms and numbers in different species.
Fig. 261. A biforus spiracle.

77

Fig. 262

72b. Spiracles annular.

Fig. 262. An annular spiracle.

73a. Spiracles at least some borne on tubes; cerci terminating abruptly with 2 or 3 conical processes. (See Fig. 263)
74
73b. Spiracles not at oil on tubes; cerci terminally pointed
or cerci absent. (See Fig. 265)

and simple,
75

74a. Labial palpus 1-segmented. Fig.


263.
Fig.

263.

Hesperobaenus

..Family

MONOTOMIDAE

sp.

74b. Labial palpus 2-segmented.

Famly RHIZOPHAGIDAE

Fig. 264

Fig.

75 a.

264.

Body

Rhizophagus grondis

cylindrical;

Fig. 265

Very little is known regarding the habits of the family.


The larvae of i?hizophagus are
predacious upon xylophagous
insects. Less than 20 species
are known for North America.

Gyli.

mandible with 3 apical teeth.


Subfamily Languriinae, EROTYLIDAE

(^m?333^333&
Fig.

265.

Langurki angustata Beauv.

103

This subfamily does not


contain many American species, but a few of them are
as plant
rather important
pests. The larvae are slim
whitish "worms" which bore
in the stems of clover and
other plants.

HOW
Bcdy

75b.

TO

fusiform;

KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

mandible with

76

2 apical teeth

edge

76a. Cutting

of

mandible be-

hind the apical teeth with a


single rounded projection; re-

266. a, Pharaxonotho kirshi Reit.;

Fig
b,

tinaculum short and broad.


Fig. 266. .Subfamily Cladoxeninae, EROTYLIDAE

Mandible.

76b. Cutting

edge

of

mandible behind the apical teeth multiserrate;

retinaculum long and slender.


Fig. 267
^triffACu

CRYPTOPHAGIDAE

Family

About 800 species are describThey are found on fungi and


decaying organic matter. A few
are found in the nests of ants and
wasps where they are thought to
be predators or scavengers.
ed.

Cryptophagus
Sturm.

saginatus

Mandible.

77a. Cerci absent.

Fig. 268.

Group Silvanini, CUCUJIDAE


The genus SiLvanus contains 55
known species. The larvae of

some

of the species are

very de-

structive to stored grain products,

Their small size


to get a good
start before being detected.
dried

268. Saw-toothed grain beetle,


Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.)
Fig.

77b. Cerci present.

fruit,

etc.

often permits

them

Family CUCUJIDAE

Fig. 269.

This

family consists

of

about

The development

1,000 species.

of

many
and

species takes place in grain


grain products. A few are

predacious upon wood-boring


Fig

78a.

269.

sects

and also on

in-

termites.

Mentum

with only apex free, or small, or infusion with other areas (except in
Sphindidae, mentum free to base and distinct,
but appearing together with a mandible provided with retinaculum and a 9th abdominal
segment without cerci). Fig. 270
79
distinct

78b.

Cucuius clavipes Fob.

Mentum

by

with more than apex free, often free

developed and

distinct

104

to

Fig.

270.

Mentum

and maxilla.

base, always well


93

HOW
79a.

Head swollen

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


laterally,

normal shape and

and much broader than

thorax; cardo of

round and

position; maxillary articulating area

well developed; hypostomal inner margin concave between fossa


for

mandible and posterior end

Fig. 271

of cardo.

Genera Prosfomis and Dryocoia, CUCUJIDAE


Prostomis mandibularis, here figured is almost
cosmopolitan in its distribution. The group is a
relatively small one.

The family Cucujidae has about a thousand

known

Fig. 271. a, Prostoniis" mandibularis


Fab.; b, Maxilla.

species of rather widely diversified forms.


Both the larvae and the adults are often serious
pests of stored food products and as such have
been distributed world wide. Many of the species
live under the bark of trees, some being plant feeders and others feeding upon the small animal forms
they find associated with them. The larvae are
usually elongate and flattened.

79b. Different development of some, or

all, of

the 4 characters.

80a. Maxillae appearing protracted in front of the

mandiblular articulations by a complete or

80

JLABIUM
^-^"xfw^^''

partial elimination of the cardines.


Fig.

81

272.

Fig. 272. Ventral


aspect of head.

80b. Maxillae deeply retracted. Fig. 273

Fig. 273. Ventral


aspect of head.

81a. Cerci present; terga without glandular openingb.

105

82

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

81b. Cerci absent; terga with paired glandular openings.

Family

Fig. 274

These
beetles".

dant.

As

are

ORTHOPERIDAE

"fringe-winged

the

They are small but


the

name

fungus

quite abun-

indicates they live in

fungi.

Fig

274. Corylophodes mor-

ginicollis

82a. 8th

Lee.

abdominal segment

distinctly longer

than

7th.

Family CUCUIIDAE

Fig. 275

gnQ
TnnrTn['*T*T^
^^^''^^^^^'^^^'^^^''^*'^^^^
275. Laemophloeus
Fig.
tatus Say.

bigut-

The genus Laemophloeus contains


more than 320 species which occur
urder bark and some are destructive
to dried fruit and cereals.

83
abdominal segment about as long as seventh or shorter
a swollen abdomen, slightly sclerotized;
head and body white.
Genera Scalidia and Catogenus, CUCUIIDAE
Fig. 276

82b. 8th

83a. Larvae parasitic, having

The species here pictured is found


our southern states. Only a few
species of these two genera are

in

Fig.

276. Seolidla

linearis

83b. Larvae not parasitic


normally sclerotized
84a. Apical

segment

ing posteriorly.

Lee.

known

to

America.

and abdomen not swollen; head and body


84

palpus normal; hypostomal rods divergFamily PHALACRIDAE


277

of labial

Fig.

The larvae of Olibrus bore into stems


and pupate underground. Eustilbus apicalis Melsh. is a predator upon the pea aphids. There are some 500 species of these
"shining flower beetles".

Fig.
277. a,
sp.; b, Ventral

Phaiacrus
aspect of

a half head.

106

HOW TO KNOW
84b. Apical
lel.

segment

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

palpus minute; hypostomal rods paralSubfamily Smicripinae, MONOTOMIDAE

of labial

Fig. 278

Only two species of this interesting subfamily are known for North America. They
are southern in their range.

Fig. 278. a, Smicrips polmicolo Lee; b, Ventral


aspect of a half head.

Cardo (a) comparative small, narrow, often spindle-shaped and


longitudinally directed; or (b) large, about as long or longer than
stipes, triangular, and immovable, without posterior condyle.

85a.

Family NITIDULIDAE
The family comprises some 2,500
species. The larvae are mostly saprophagous. They are found in fruit and
garbage dimips, in cereals, under
bark of dead trees, in galleries of
woodboring beetles and in ants' nests.
Several genera are predacious upon
aphids and scale-insects. Pupation
takes place in a cell in the soil.

Fig. 279

Fig.
lus
tral

279. a, Glischrochiobtusus Say; b, Venaspect of head.

Cardo (a) moderate size, subtriangular, much shorter than stipes


and obliquely directed; or (b) fused with stipes to a large, movcdsle
structure with a posterior condyle
86
86a. Mentum well developed and free to base.
85b.

Fig. 280

Fig.

Family SPHINDIDAE

Present day knowledge of this


family is quite limited. The larvae
are found under bark and in fungi.
Only a few species are recorded for North America.

280. Sphindus omericonus Lee

mBMEUTUt^

86b.

Mentum

not well developed,

submentum, only free

often

fused

apically. Fig. 281

with
87

Fig.

281.

Labium.

107

HOW TO KNOW

87a.

Mandible with

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

large, multituberculate or multi-

carinate molar structure; cardo

and subtriangular.

Fig.

proper

distinct

282

88
Fig.

282.

Mandible.

89

87b.

Mandible not so

88a.

Body shape similar to a scale-insect; along the sides with flat


projections carrying spinulose setae.
Family MURMIDIIDAE

Fig. 283

The species here pictured is widely scatOnly a few other

tered in both hemispheres.

species ore

Fig.

ovolis

88b.

known

for

America.

283. Murmidius
Beck.

Body

FamUy ENDOMYCHIDAE

different. Fig. 284

The family has about 950 known

species.

commonly called fungus


beetles. The larvae feed upon fungi, dead
wood and vegetable refuse.
Their adults are

Fig.

284.

ulkei

Cr.

Rhymbus

108

HOW TO KNOW
B9a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Mandible with reduced, smooth, and usually condyliform moiar


hypopharyngeal sclerome present.

structure; distinct

Subfamily Coccinellinae, COCCINELLIDAE

Fig. 285

The family
sisting

is

about

of

fairly large

3,000

one conThe

species.

adults are called ladybird beetles. Both


the adults and the larvae have the same
food habits. Among the few phytophagous species the genus Ephilachna are

very serious pests of agricultural crops.

Most of them are predacious and feed


upon aphids, scale-insects, mites and
other small insects. They have been
utilized effectively in the biological control

pupa; b, larva,

a,

89b.

90a.

90b.

molar

91a. 3 ocelli

on each

structure;

hypopharyngeal

sclerome

long, often branched, setiierous dorsal


91

setiierous dorsal

and

lateral processes.

92

Subfamily Ephilachnlnae, COCCINELLIDAE

The "black sheep"


ful

family

fall in this

unite to destroy as

plants as possible.

Mexican

beetle,

and

side, cerci absent.

Fig. 288

286.

larvae

90

Body without long

bean

The

produce a kind of protecfrom the joints of the legs.

or absent

Body armed with many


and lateral processes

Fig.

pests.

may

tive fluid

(U.S.D.A.

Mandible without

weak

crop

of

adults

285 Covergent lady beetle,


Hippodomio convergens Guerin:
Fig.

Epi-

vorivestris
iochaa
Mulsont.

109

of this otherwise

quite help-

subfamily. Larvae and adults

many

bean, squash and similar,

HOW TO KNOW
91b. 5 ocelli

on each

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

side; cerci well developed.

Family EROTYLIDAE

Fig. 287

has about 2,600 described species. The larvae live in the soil,
in stems of plants and on fungi.
It

Some
Fig.

287.

Clover stem

mozardi

ggrio

borer,

Latr.

colored.

Mentum and submentum

92a.

species are fairly large and


of the adults are brightly

many

Lan-

distinct.

Group Dacnini, EROTYLIDAE

Fig. 288

The

larvae

have

been

found in herbaceous plants.

They live in decaying wood


and are of little importance
economically.
Fig.

288. a, Penthe pimeira Fab.;

Mentum and submentum

92b.

Fig.

Lab-

b.

fused.

Family

289

They occur

I5

MELANDRYIDAE
in

dry

wood and

fungi or sometimes under bark.

The

larvae

cylindrical
Fig.

289. o. Melandrya striata Soy;

b,

are

slender

and may

often

and
be

found with the adults.

Labium.

93 a.

Body terminating

in

Fig. 290

^.

^^^

Fig. 290. Scraptia sericea


Meish.

a deciduous ovate appendix.


Group Scraptini, MELANDRYIDAE
The species of Scraptia occur in rotten
wood, fungi, etc. This is a small group
with but two genera and only
^ a few spe^

cies in America.
.

94

93b. Not so

94a.

Mandible with a

toil-like,

fleshy, hairy lobe


Fig.

hairy appendix or a

behind the base

of

mola.
95

291

Fig. 291.
mandibles.

94b.

Mcmdible not

Two
96

so.

110

HOW TO KNOW
95a. 3 large
of

and

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

2 or 3 small ocelli

on each side

ol

head; appendix

mandible tail-shaped.
Subfamily Byturinae,

Fig. 292

It

DERMESTIDAE

includes a single genus By-

few species. Both adults


and larvae are injurious to rasptuTus with

Fig.

95b.

292.

ocellus

berries.

Byturus unicolor Say.

on each side

head; appendix

of

Fig. 293

mandible lobe-like.
Family ANTHICIDAE

of

Well over

1,000 species of these


small beetles have been
described. They are widely scat-

rather

Fig.

Abdominal

96a.

^^^^^

293. Anthicus heroleus Csy.

^^^

O^^^^ ^^^7 numerous.

spiracles located in disk-like sclerites.

Family EURYSTETHIDAE

Fig. 294

Only a few species are recorded in


America for this family. All of them are
on the west coast.
Fig.

cus

96b.
97a.

294. Eurystethus
Melsh.

caiiforni-

97
Abdominal spiracles not located in disk-like sclerites
Mandible without molar structure; larvae parasitic with swollen
Group Bothriderini, COLYDIIDAE
abdomen. Fig. 295

The larvae
of Bothrideres

of

several

species

have been noted

to

be ectoparasites or predators of
other
Fig.

295.

Derataphrus

coleopterous larvae.

oregonensis

Horn.

97b.

Mandible with molar

structure.

98

Fig. 296

ill

HOW TO KNOW
Body elongate,

98a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

cylindrical or subcylindricaL or

Body elongate and strongly depressed with

98b.

iusiiorm..99

paral-

107

sides

lel

Cardo simple.

99a.

more

Fig.

100

297.

297.
Maxilla.

Fig.

Cardo divided

99b.

102

into 2 parts. Fig. 298.

Fig.

298.

Maxilla.

100a.

Mandible symmetrical.

Family COLYDIIDAE

Fig. 299

Some

Fig.

299.

Aulonium tuberculatum

Lee.

100b.

101a.

species are

known

Mandible asymmetrical

Mola

of

101

mandible depressed, with a grinding surihce on the

ventral or dorsal side or both.


Fig. 300

Family MYCETOPHAGIDAE
The members of this family

Fig. 300. a,
b. Mandible.

to feed

upon decaying vegetable matter,


a number of them are predacious
upon larvae or pupae of several
Cerambycidae.

Mycetophogus punctotus Say;

chiefly

wood

or

upon

lac

live

in

rotting

under bark, associated with fungi. The larvae of Berginus maindroni


Grouv. are reported to feed

and

the lac insects

in India.

101b.

Mola not depressed

Ill

102a. Cerci present

102b. Cerci absent

Most
small to

103

Subfamily Oedemerinae,

OEDEMERIDAE

members of this interesting family fall here. They are


medium size. The known larvae live largely in decaying

of the

wood.
112

HOW
1

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


on 2nd to 5th abdominal
Subfamily Calopodinae, OEDEMERIDAE

03a. Ambulatorial warts present ventrally

segments. Fig. 301

The larvae have been found


old

or under bark.

It

103b. Ambulatorial warts absent

104

104a. 9th

abdominal venter simple, without conical

104b. 9th

abdominal venter wdth a conical point on each


Fig.

302

points.

105

103
Fig.

and

302.
9th

dominal
ments.

105a.

Submentum and galea fused and heavily


Fig.

sclerotized.

Only a few genera and

many

not

303.

o,

Submentum and galea

mily.

They are mostly

this

small

fa-

Group Nosodermini, TENEBRIONIDAE


This

is

a small group

Phellopsis

106a. Cerci simple,

obcordata

Kby.

of most-

ly western beetles although the

species pictured

Fig. 305

or

for

fleshy.

Fig. 304

304.

species

known

western species.

Cephaloon
lepturides Newn.; b, LobFig.

Fig.

8th
abseg-

FamUy CEPHALOIDAE

303

-T,...^,

105b.

Calopus ongustus Lee.

301.

side.

in

is

very small subfamily.

'

Fig.

wood

is

found in the

^<^^*-

comiform and curved upward.


Group Sychroini,

MELANDRYIDAE

The one North American spegroup is here pictured. The adult is brown and of
medium size. Both adults and
larvae live under dead bark of
cies of this

Fig.

305.

Synchroo punctata

Nwn.

trees.

113

HOW TO KNOW
106b. Cerci with

a branch

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

at base. Fig. 306.

....Family PEDILIDAE

a small famsome 50 North


American species. The
This

is

of

ily

one pictured
306. a, Eurygenius companulotus
9th abdominal segment with cerci.
Fig.

107a. Venter of

9th

genus

Lee.

more

abdominal segment with

is

Members

ern.

Pedilus

westthe

of

are

frequent.

trans-

verse row of asperities, or small plates.


Fig.

108

307.

Fig.

307.

Ven-

aspect of
tral
8th and 9th abdominal s e g ments.

abdominal segment not so armed.


Family PYTHIDAE

107b. Venter of 9th


Fig. 308

This

CL
Fig.

L;

little

family of bark beetles

boasts less than 25 North Ameri-

^^

^^^ species. Adults and larvae


ore found under bark of pine trees
and occasionally Other species.

b^UX^

308. a, Rhinosimus ruficollis


Ventral aspect of 8th and

b.

9th abdominal segments.

abdominal segment at least twice as long as 9th, cerci excluded; a pair of pits in margin between cerci.
109
(See Figs. 309 and 310)

108a. 8lh

108b. 8th

and

9th

abdominal segments subequal,


margin between cerci.

excluded; a

cerci

single pit present in

(See Figs. 311


109a. 9th

and

110

312)

abdominal venter bearing asperities arranged in a continuFamily PYROCHROIDAE


Fig. 309

ous arch.

fs

*^<.nn

f^

j^^rn^

'jr\fv^'r' 7>i^7^\\

<]\

P^v^'l
^c/-.c,y

The larvae are found


bark or in

under

wood.

Adults

low

red

or

known as
Fig. 309. Neopyrochroa *emoralis Lee.;
b, Ventral aspect of 8th and 9th ob-

dominal segments.

114

have

areas of brilliant yel-

hp^ptlps"
DSeties

and are

"fire-colored

HOW TO KNOW
109b. 9th
ties.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


in place of asperi-

abdominal venter bearing small plates

Genus

Fig. 310

Boios,

TENEBRIONIDAE

The species pictured is


a medium sized beetle,
both adults and larvae
being found under bark
of dead pine trees. Some
systematists wish to make
a new family Boridae.

Fig. 310. a, Boros unicolor Say;


b. Ventral aspect of 8th and 9th abdominal segments.

abdominal segment dorsally with a continuous row ol small


dark tubercles on the cerci and on the space between them.
Fig. 311
Family PYTHIDAE

110a. 9th

Look under bark

for all

stages

of

beetles.

The species

these

small
pic-

tured ranges from Labra-

dor through the


''^ho niger Kby.; b. Dorsal aspect
^i^oi^'A
of
9th abdominal segment with cerci.

\and
*"^

New

Eng-

5tntP<5
siaies.

abdominal segment only with 2 small tubercles proximally


on dorsal side ol each cercus.

110b. 9th

FamUy OTHNIIDAE

Fig. 312

The species pictured is found in the


Middle West. This small family has
only this one genus and but a few
Fig.

Ilia.

312. Othnius umbrosus Lee.

Antenna contiguous
Fig.

to

specieS.

mouth frame.

313

112

Fig. 313. Dorsal


aspect of head.

111b.

Antenna inserted some distance


frame.

Fig. 314

in

from mouth
113
Fig. 314. Dorsal
aspect of head.

115

HOW
112a.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Back of mandible opposite the cutting edge with sharp margin;


opposite the mola, excavate and without a spinose setose elevaFamily ALLECULIDAE
tion. Fig. 315
"combthe
These
are
clawed bark beetles". They

.mmxf^

are

closely related

look
Copnochroo

Fig. 315. a,
b. Mandible.

112b.

Back

The

tenebrionids.

f uliginose

Melsh;

like

the

larvae

wireworms and

in rotten

live

to

wood

mandible not as described above.

of

FamUy TENEBRIONIDAE

Fig. 316

One

the largest family of


Coleoptera comprising more than
10,000 species. The larvae bear
a close resemblance to those of
the Elateridae, but the labrum is
Alobates pennsylvanico
il6.
Fig.
DeGeer.
distinct. The majority of the species are scavengers, some feed upon grain or grain products and a
few are found in association with bark and wood borers. The wellknown mealworm, Tenehiio molitoi L., and the confused flour beetle,
Tiiholium coniusum Duval, are pests in mills and storehouses.
113a.

Molar part

of

of

mandible with the grinding surface transversely

and 2-segmented.

multicarinate; antenna short

Family NILIONIDAE

Fig. 317

The members

of this exotic family are

found in

South America.

Fig.

317.

chrodes
Mandible.

113b.

a,
sp.;

Leiob.

Molar part

of

mandible with the grinding surface either smooth,


antenna elongate and 2 or 3-segsegment minute or absent.
Family LAGRIIDAE

or bearing obtuse tubercles;

mented, distal
Fig. 318

This

is

family of

a
Fig.

318. a, Lagria sp.;

another
beetles.

The larva often feed on


They are elonleaves.

b
b,

still

bark

Mandible.

116

gate and cylindrical.

HOW TO KNOW
114a. 9 complete

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segments;

10 th small.

115

(See Fig. 319)


114b. 8 complete

abdominal segments;

9tli

and

10th reduced.

116

(See Fig. 321)


115a.

No ocelli or but 1; cardo fused with stipes; coxae small and


FamUy HISTERIDAE
widely separated. Fig. 319
jy

Iv

hISS*
A \

y^

ai:<!aKfcsMaau^)-\u'-^*^>i^^

Fig.

319. a, Hololepta yueateea

Mars.; b,

consists of
This family
about 3,000 known species.
Many of the larvae are predacious upon coleopterous
and dipterous larvae and a

few species attack immature


stages of Chrysomelidae and
Lspidoptera.
A number of
them are myrmecophilous in
habitat.

115b. 6 ocelli; cardo distinct;

coxae large,

approxi-

mate.
Fig.

320.

Subfamily

Helophorinae,

HYDRO-

116a.

Head

from Boving

elevated; antenna
of the head than
321

margin
Fig.

320. Q, Helophorus aquaticus L. (Redrawn


& Craighead); b, Maxilla.

Fig

PHILIDAE

inserted

from

farther

the

lateral

the mandible.

is

Family

HYDROPHILIDAE

This

family

c o

prises about 1,700 species. The eggs of sev-

genera are enclosed in silken cases


and attached to grass
or floating objects, but
Fig. 321. a, Choetortria seminulum Herbst. (ReHelochares and Sperdrawn from Boving Gr Craighead); b. Dorsal aspect of a half head.
cheus fasten them on
their own bodies. The
larvae are chiefly vegetable scavengers, but a few species are predacious. The majority of species are aquatic or semiaquatic, but a
number of the subfamily Sphaeridiinae are known to be terrestrial.
eral

116b.

Head
margin

slightly
of the

inclined;

head than

antenna
is

inserted
the mandible

117

near

the

lateral

117

HOW TO KNOW
117a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Abdominal segments soft, with short conical gills; last 3 abdominal segments attenuate, not forming a breathing pocket.
Fig. 322
Subfamily Spercheinae, HYDROPHILIDAE

The hydrophilids include many species of rather widely diversified forms

and

habits.

The species

of

this

sub-

family are exotic.

Fig.
322. Spercheus emorginatus
Schall.
(Redrawn

from Boving

117b.

&

Craighead)

Abdominal segments with well developed plates; last 3 abdominal segments forming a breathing pocket.
Fig. 323
Subfamily Hydrochinae, HYDROPHILIDAE

The members

of this

subfamily are

small and in consequence frequently

Fig.

overlooked.

The species pictured

known from

the Great Lakes area.

is

Hydrochus squamifer

323.

Lee.

118a.

Hypopharyngeal sclerome absent; mandible without a real molar


structure

118b.

119

Hypopharyngeal
mandible with a
ture.

sclerome
definite

present;

molar

struc-

Fig. 324

142
Fig. 324. a, Mandible; b.
Dorsal aspect of labium

119a. 9th

abdominal tergum armed with a pair

ed spine.

of cerci or

Family

Fig. 325

an unpair-

MORDELLIDAE

There are about 800 known speSome larvae are found in termite nests and the burrows of stem
and wood-boring insects. They are
possibly predacious, but that has
cies.

Fig.

325.

Tomoxlo bjdentota

been questioned.

Say.

118

HOW TO KNOW
119b. 9th

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal tergum without a pair

of cerci

and without an

unpaired spine

120

adbominal segment in front of anus provided with a pair


cushioned and adjacent lobes separated by a median, longitudinal groove often marked at the anterior end by a small

120a. 10th
of

and

transverse sclerome. (See Figs. 326

120b. 10th

abdominal segment

oval lobes separated


(See Fig. 333)

in front of

by a

onus without a pair

of soft/

125

Head

protracted; mandible dentate

121b.

Head

retracted;

-.

mandible not dentate

122a. Thoracic spiracle


Fig.

121

longitudinal groove.

121a.

thorax.

330)

pushed forward

122

123

margin of proFamily PTINIDAE

to the anterior

326

About 550 species have been describThe larvae are scarabaeoid form
and feed upon dead and dried animal
and vegetable matter. The storehouse

ed.

beetle,
ski),

is

stored

Gibbium psylloides (Czempina most destructive species to


products.

Several

species

are

reported as inguilines in ants' nests.


Fig.

326.

Niptus sp.

122b. Thoracic spiracle not reaching, anterior


Fig. 327

margin of prothorax.
Family ANOBIIDAE

There

are

around

species.

The

larvae

described
scarabaeoid

1,200

are

form, very small, and living in dead


and usually well-seasoned hard woods.
Many feed on animal and plant products.
Fig.

327.

Nevermonnia dor-

catomoides Fisher. (Redrawn


from Boving & Craighead)

The

furniture

beetle,

Anobium

striatum Olivier, the cigarette beetle,


Lasioderma seriicorne (Fab.) and the
drugstore beetle, Stegobium pamceum
(L.)

are serious pests.

119

HOW TO KNOW
1

23a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Mandible without a dorsal, molar-like process; epipharynx witha large sclerome; lacinia mandibulae absent.
Family BOSTRICHIDAE
Fig. 328
out

There are about 400 known species. They are


known as branch and limb borers. The larvae are
scarabaeoid in form, feed in dead wood and may

be injurious

The very

to

furniture

interesting

circuit beetle,

and building

materials.

lead cable borer,

or

short-

Scobicia declivis (Lee.) here shown,

bores holes into the aerial lead telephone cables

causing the linemen frequent trouble.


Fig.

328. Lead cable


dec-

borer, Scobicia
livls (Lee.)

123b.

Mandible with a
like process,

sclerome

large
lacinia

dorsal,

in

molar-

against

grinding

epipharynx;

mandibulae present and

fleshy. Fig. 329

124
Fig.
329. a,
Epipharynx.

124a.

Abdominal spiracles subequal

Mandible;

b,

in size.

Group

Pacini,

LYCTIDAE

This small group lives in our western states.

124b. Last

abdominal spiracle much larger than the

The family consists


are

known as

the

of 60 species

powder post

furniture.

330.

and the adults

beetles. Their larvae

3- segmented legs, live


dead wood and are particularly destructive to

scarabaeoid in form with


in

Fig.

others.

FamUy LYCTIDAE

Fig. 330

Lyctus

cavicoilis Lee.

120

HOW TO KNOW
125a.

Hypopharyngeal

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

bracon

absent;

usually

with

segmented

legs

126

HYPopHH.K.rtSeAi,

125b.

Hypopharyngeal

bracon

usually

present;

without segmented legs. Fig. 331

136

Fig. 331. Ventral aspect of head, showing the hypopharyngeal bracon.

126a.

Mandible simple,

126b.

Mandible dentate,

teeth.

127a.

a broad transverse gouge127


a simple apex

distally either with

like cutting edge, or with

distally

with

from

Fig. 332

2 to 5

129

Prementum and mentum fused, bearing a common median escutcheon-like sclerome with a pair of light, circular areas anteriorly.

Family BRUCIDAE

Fig. 333

The members of this famnumber no less than 900


species and they are frequently known as pea and
bean "weevils". Their larvae
undergo a hypermetomorphosis in which the first instar is more or less carabif orm
with well-developed
legs. The first molt occurs
in the host and the body
becomes eruciform and mostly apodous and blind.
No
ily

AID
U-Si/SMef^n/j^

333,

Fig.

(L);

127b.

b,

a.

Pea weevil, BrHchus pUorum

Labium.

Prementum and mentum

less than 50 species are of

economic importance.

distinct,

ome
121

without escutcheon-like scler128

HOW
128a. Legs present

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


and

fully

Fig. 334

developed; body curved and plump.


SublamUy Sagrinae*. CHRYSOMELIDAE

The members
most primitive

Fig.

334.

Sagra

of this small

subfamily are the

of all the leaf beetles.

fe-

morato Jac.

128b. Legs absent;

body

straight.

Subfamily Orsodacninae*,

Fig. 335

CHRYSOMELIDAE

The adults feed on spring buds and


are highly variable.
Fig.
laris

335. Zeugophora scutelSuffr.

129a. Spiracles

on 8th abdominal segment biforous, terminal, and proa pair of spurs.


Subfamily Donaciinae*, CHRYSOMELIDAE

jecting like
Fig. 338

The larvae are aquatic and feed on


the roots or
plants.

in

the

stems

of

The pupae are enclosed

cocoons attached

to

roots

of

aquatic
in

tough

the host

plants.

Fig.

336. Donocio sp.

129b. Spiracles of 8th

abdominal segment not projecting

like spurs.. 130

is such a large one that some Coleopterists have proposed


o number of families. We have chosen to follow Leng and give
these ten groups subfamily significance.

* The family Chrysomelidae


splitting

it

up

into

122

HOW TO KNOW
1

30a.

Labrum smalL

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


and fused with

or indistinct

front

The genus pictured


Eastern Hemisphere.

and clypeus.

CHRYSOMELIDAE

Subfamily Clytrinae*,

Fig. 337

confined to the

is
It

is

represented in

North America by the genus Antipus.

337.

Fig.

o,

Clytro

quodri-

punctota L. (Redrawn from


b.
Boving & Craighead);
Dorsal aspect of head.

130b.

Labrum well developed and

131

free.

131a. Maxillary palpus 3 or 4-segmented (excluding


palpifer); 8th

laterally

minal.

abdominal spiracles present and


9th abdominal segment ter-

placed;

Fig. 338

132

Q
Fig. 338.
Ma)^illa.

13 lb. Maxillary palpus 2-segmented or less; 8th abdominal spiracles


if present, thus dorsally placed, or absent; 8th abdominal seg-

ment terminal with

free hind

margin

135

132a. Tarsus long, slender, without pul villus;

mandible compressed,

with 2 to a distal teeth.


Subfamily Eumolpinae*,
Fig. 339

CHRYSOMELIDAE

a large and important submembers are widely distributed and often highly economic.
This" is

family.

Fig.

339.

Chrysochtts

Its

ouratus

Fab.

132b. Tarsus of

moderate length, curved,

and usually with


palmate vdth 4

pulvillus;

,r

mandible

to 5 distal teeth.

Fig. 340

133
Fig. 340.
b. Leg.

123

a,

Mandible;

HOW TO KNOW
133a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

More than 1 ocellus on each side


antenna 3-segmented

133b.

head, usually 5 or 6

of

ocelli,

134

ocellus on each side, or none; antenna 2-segmented or less.

CHRYSOMELIDAE

Subfamily Galerucinae*,

Fig. 341

Their larval habits are varied,

feed

openly

on

the

leaves, others live in

ber are leaf-miners.


Fig.

Larger

341.

beetle,

Monocesto

elm

leaf

many

parenchyma of
roots, and a numIt is a large and

x
x
i-x
-i
unportant subfamily.

eoryli

(Say).

abdominal segments with ambulatory warts on ventral

134a. First 8

region; anal opening dorsal; labial palpus

-segmented.

Subfamily Criocerinae*,

Fig. 342

CHRYSOMELIDAE

Their larvae are fleshy grubs

which feed externally on the


leaves.
Some have the habit

&342.
Fig.
asparagi

Asparagus beetle,
b. Labium.

concealing themselves with


The
coverings of excrement.
asparagus beetle, Criocens asparagi (L.) is familiar to growers of asparagus.
of

Crioceris

(L. );

134b. Fiist 8

abdominal segments without any ambulatory warts; anal

opening ventral and placed in the middle

of the

sucking disk of

the 10th abdominal segment; labial palpus 2-segmented.

Subfamily Chrysomelinae*,

Fig. 343

CHRYSOMELIDAE

This family Chrysomelidae is one of the four


largest of the order,

prising
species.

com-

more than 25,000


The larvae feed

on leaves,

roots,

or

live

in stems, in galls, in leaf

mines, in ants' nests and


some are aquatic species.
They are most destructive
Fig.

343.

o,

Myochrous

denticolli Say;

Labium.

b,

insects

to

agricultural

crops. This subfamily contains

some common and

very interesting species.


124

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment terminal, with free hind margin; 8th


pair of abdominal spiracles well developed and dorsal.
Subfamily Hispinae*, CHRYSOMELIDAE
Fig. 344

135a. 8ih

^.

344. Chalepus oter


Wels.

The adults are usually wedge-shaped


with engraved elytra. The larvae often
feed on the surface of leaves or are
leaf-miners. They often conceal themselves with a covering of excrement.

Fig.

135b.

Tergum

abdominal segment often provided with an upbearing the cast skins or the excrement of the larva;

of 8th

right fork

8th pair of

abdominal spiracles

vestigial.

SubfamUy Cassidinae*, CHRYSOMELIDAE

Fig. 345

It

includes the tortoise beetles.

In

certain species the eggs are enclos-

ed

in

an ootheca. The larvae often

cover their bodies with excrement or


cast skin for protection

odd-looking
Fig.

345. Cassida nebulosa

and are an

lot.

L.

138a. Legs present, but small,

and usually 2-segmented.


Family BRENTIDAE

Fig. 346

Around 1,000 species have been


described. The immature stages
are passed in wood. The rostrimi

Fig.

of the female is used for boring


holes in which the eggs are laid.
The larvae are elongate and slender and provided with thoracic

346. Eupsalis minuta Drury.

legs.

136b. Legs absent, pedal lobes occupying their place

137a.

Head capsule
sides.

elongate, broadening posteriorly,

and with

137
straight

Family PROTERHINIDAE

Fig. 347

This is a very small family


consisting of 2 genera. Agiy-

Fig.

kins;

347. a, Proterhinus onthracias Perb. Dorsal aspect of head.

125

cyderes occurs in the Canary


Islands and New Zealand and
Protherhinus inhabits the Hawaiian and other Pacific Islands.

HOW TO KNOW
137b.

138a.

138b.

139a.

Head capsule narrowing

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


posteriorly

Abdominal hypopleuron subdivided

and with curved

sides... 138

into at least 2 lobes.

(See Fig. 352)

141

Abdominal hypopleuron not subdivided

139

Abdominal segments with no more than

2 transverse

dorsal

plicae. (See Fig. 350)

139b.

140

Abdominal segments with 3 or 4 transverse dorsal plicae.


and 349. .FamiKes CURCULIONIDAE and SCOLYTIDAE

Fig. 348

These two families are not separable by


larval characters.

The Curculionidae

ably the largest family of insects,

it

is

prob-

includes

about 40,000 known species.

348. Tychius pielFig.


(Cucur(Fab.)
rostris
lionidae)

The larvae feed on

roots, fruits, leaves,

seeds and

also live as borers and leaf miners. No truly aquatic


forms are known although the larvae of many species
live in the roots of plants growing in bogs and
marshes. The female usually uses her snout to make

a hole

in the plant

tissue into

which the eggs are

thrust.

The Scolytidae is also a large family comprising


about 2.000 known species. The adults are called
beetles. Their larvae live
'rRQtz.)"^"sco' ba^k beetles or engraver
iytidae(
in galleries in dead or healthy shrubs and trees. They
attack all parts of the plants. In the United States alone the annual
losses in destruction of timber has been estimated at about $100,000,000.
Fig. 349. Shothole borer, Sco-

126

HOW TO KNOW
More than

140a.

2 ocelli

Fig. 350

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

on each side; head retracted.


Subfamily Rhynchitinae, CURCULIONIDAE

The larvae

of

Rhynchites and Attelabus live in tun-

nels formed of

rolled

leaves

constructed

by

the

HrFOfLiu(l.ui^

adults.

The larvae

of the species pictured live in Helian-

a very common species, develops


and cultivated roses.

R. bicoloi,

thus.

within the hips of wild


Fig.

Rhyaeneus

350.

chites

Boh.

140b.

ocellus on each side;

head

protracted.

Subfamily Apioninae,

Fig. 351

This small subfamily

is

CURCULIONIDAE

cosmopolitan in

its distri-

The species here pictured makes galls on


the scrub pine. The larvae of Apion, a rather large

bution.

genus, Hve principally within the seeds of legumes

and other
Fig.

plants.

Some

are gall makers.

351. Pine gall

Podopion
weevil,
gollicolo Riley.

141a. Maxillary palpus 2-segmented.


Fig. 352

Subfamily Calendrinae,

Many

of

our most

larvae belong here.

CURCULIONIDAE

destructive

The larvae

"bill-bug"

of the larger

species bore into the stems of plants, principally

com and

grasses while the smaller

ones give their attention to seeds


352. a, Granary weevil,
Sitophilus gronorius (L);

Fig.

b. Maxilla.

127

and

grain.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

141b. Maxillary palpus 1-segmented. Fig. 353.

The eggs are

laid in

which are made by the

make new

tunnels.

definite patterns

Fig.

PLATYPODIDAE

primary galleries

the

adults.

Often

The larvae then


burrows

the

which are characteristic

The ambrosia

species.

wood and

Family

beetles

live

form
of the

in

dead

cultivate fungi to feed their young.

353. a, Platypus
Say;
b,

compositus
Maxilla.

142a. Legs vestigial, without pointed tarsal segment, or absent; body


curved, fleshy, and with dorsal transverse plicae; 10th abdom-

segment small,

inal

in continuation of 9th.

Family

Fig. 354

Certain species of

PLATYSTOMIDAE

Brachyfarsus

dacious upon scale-insects.


B.

Fig.

354.

142b. Legs

are
larvae

preof

niveovariegatus Roel. attack the Chinese

wax

mormorius

The

scale, Ericerus pela

Chev.

Euporius
Oliv.

normoL with strong

tarsus;

body

elongate, cylindrical, covered with tergol


10th
abshields;

segment

dominal

well developed, as-

Fig.

355.

sericeum

Chestnut

timberworm,

Melittommo

(Harris)-

perate,

and placed

below

base

of

large 9th segment.


Fig. 355.

...Family

LYMEXYLIDAE
128

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER HEMIPTERA
la.

Aquatic or semi-aquatic

lb. Terrestrial

10

2a.

Antennae shorter than head, usually concealed

2b.

Antennae as long or longer than head, exposed

3a.

Bugs that

live within

3b.

Bugs that

live

4a.

Hind legs with

4b.

Hind leg without

5a.

water

on or near water
2 distinct

claws

tarsi

claws

distinct

Back swimmers; fore

with 2 claws.

Family

Fig. 356

The family

NOTONECTIDAE

composed of more
They are known
as back swimmers because they
swim on their back with oar-like
hind legs. They are common around
is

than 200 species.

edges

of

fresh

water ponds, lakes

and streams. They feed upon small


animals. Eggs ore laid on or in the
tissues of aquatic plants.
Fig. 356. Notonecta undulata
Say, 3rd instor.

5b. Fore tarsi flattened, without claws. Fig. 357. ...Family

CORIXIDAE

About 300 species hove been deThe common name is water


boatman. They live in fresh and
brackish water. Eggs are laid on
aquatic plants and other objects.
scribed.

Their food consists of all kinds of

organic ooze.
Fig. 357. Aretoeorixa
Say, 5th mstar.

aiternoto

129

HOW
6a. Tarsi

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

2-segmented aplca! appendages of abdomen short and

flat.

FamUy BELOSTOMATIDAE

Fig. 358

The family consists of about 150


species. They are commonly called giant water bugs or
described

electric light bugs.

short

and

The

raptorial; the

fore legs are

middle and

hind legs are for swimming.


live in fresh

They

water where they feed

on small aquatic animals.


Fig. 358. Beiostomo
Say, 5th instar.

fiumineum

6b. Tarsi 1-segmented; apical


der.

appendages

of

Fig. 359

abdomen long and slenFamily NEPIDAE

About 200 species have been described. They are


The fore legs are raptorial,
the middle and hind legs are long and linear. They
swim slowly, often crawling on objects in the water.
They are predacious and usually awaiting for prey.
They come to the surface for air and often hide under
called water scorpions.

stones near water.


Fig.

359. Water

scorpion, Ranatro fusca Palisot-Beauvois.

7a.

Body toad-shaped;

fore legs raptorial.

Family

Fig. 360

GELASTOCORIDAE

They resemble toads both in


shape and in method of crawling and hopping, which facts
have

given

the

name

"toad

bugs". About 60 species have

been described.
Cephalic view of a tood bug,
Geiastocoris oculatus (Fabr.)
Fig. 360.

130

HOW
7b.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Body not toad-shaped;

fore legs

simUar

to

middle legs.

FomUy OCHTERIDAE
These are shore-inhabiting bugs. The family includes only a single
genus, Ochterus and only three species have been described in the

United States.

8a.

They are

Head as long as

predacious.

all

entire thorax. Fig. 361.

The members

Family

of

HYDROMETRIDAE

family

this

are

called

water-measurers because they creep slowly

upon
tire

The body

the water surface.

slender and the head


thorax.

Only

is

very

is

as long as the en-

three

species have been

described in the United States.

Fig. 361. Hydrometra


martini Kirk, 4th in-

star.

8b.

9a.

Head

shorter than thorax

Beak 4-segmented; hind femur extending much beyond the apex


abdomen. Fig. 382
Family GERRIDAE

of

The

water-striders

skim

rapidly

over

and often congregate in


large numbers. They are predacious and
feed upon insects that fall into the water
or they sometimes jump to capture their
preys. Only about 20 species have been
the water surface

described in the United States as belonging to the genus Geriis.


Fig. 362. Gerris
Say, 1st instar.

remigis

few

water and are truly marine.

131

live

on

salt

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Beak 3-segmented; hind femur not extending much beyond the


apex of abdomen. Fig. 363
Family VELIIDAE

9b.

The broad-shouldered water-striders are closeThe distal segment of

ly allied to the Gerridae.

and the
They are
predacious and live on the water surface. About
20 species have been described in the United
the tarsi, at least of the fore leg is bifid

claws are inserted before the apex.

States.
Fig. 363. Mesovelia
mulsanti White.

10a.

Beak 3-segmented

11

10b.

Beak 4-segmented

13

11a.

Body broad and

flat,

without wing pads; parasitic.

Family CIMICIDAE

Fig. 364

These are bedbugs and swallow bugs,


about 36 described species.

Among

them,

humans: the bedbug, Cimex lectularius L. in temperate and subtropical regions; Cimex lotundatus Signoret in tropical Africa and Asia. The former
has a straight posterior margin of the pro2 species attack

thorax while the latter


Fig.

364. Bed bug

lectularius

L.,

is

rounded.

Cimex

newly

hatched.

lib.

With wing pads; not

12

parasitic.

12a. Fore legs with greatly thickened femora.

Family

Fig. 365

This family of

PHYMATIDAE

"ambush bugs"

contains about 150 described species.


Fig. 365. a, Ambush bug, Phymoto
erosa fasciota (Gray); b, fore leg.

They feed upon many kinds


honey bees,

of insects including

132

HOW
12b. Fore legs

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

somewhat thickened.

Fig. 366

Fconily

REDUVIIDAE

About 2,500 species of the


assassin bugs have
been
described.
They are predacious and feed upon insects. Some species invade
habitations in search of insects and other household
pests, but often inflict wounds
on humans. A few species
Fig.
(L.)

366.

a,

Wheel bug,

(From Glover);

b,

Arilus

cristatus

which suck blood from


dents and other animals

Fore leg.

cluding

man

roin-

are carriers of

trypanosomes.

13a. Dorsal scent

glands prominent. (See Fig. 367)

14

13b. Dorsal scent glands not prominent.

14a.

16

Body broad and ovaL with more than 3 dorsal cd^dominal segments with scent glands.
Fanuly

Fig. 367

They

ore

shield bugs.

stink

bugs

or

5,000 species are

They are often destructive


and other agricultural
members
of the subfamcrops. The
ily Asopinqe are predacious upon
other insects and in consequence
known.
to

^SCNT

called

About

PENTATOMIDAE

orchards

ore counted as helpful.


367. Aerosternum hllaris (Soy)

Fig.

o,

1st

14b.

instor;

b,

later

instar.

Body elongate, with

less than 3 dorsal scent glands

133

15

HOW
15a.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Antennae inserted high on side


upper half of the eye. Fig. 368

of

head, about the position of the


Family LYGAEIDAE

About 2,000 species are deMost of them are de-

scribed.

crops:

structive to

the

chinch

bug, Blissus leucopterous (Say),

and the
ius

false chinch bugs, Nys-

are

spp.

Some

serious

pests.

species belonging to the

genus, Geocoiis are predacious

on other injurious
Fig. 368.

ous (Soy): a-e,


adult; g, eggs.

15b.

insects.

Chinch bug, Blissus leucopter1st

to 5th

instars;

f,

Antennae inserted low on side

of

lower half of the eyes. Fig. 369

head, about the position of the


Family COREIDAE

1,000 species have been deThey are destructive to crops.


The squash bug, Anasa iristis (DeGeer)

About

scribed.

is

very injurious

to

pumpkins, melons,

gourds and squashes. The nymphs are


often associated with the adults.
Leptocorixa voricornis Fab., 5th
instar;
(last)
b, Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De
Geer).
Fig.

16a.

369. a,

Body spinous; meso- and metapleuron fused


Fig. 370

into a single piece.


Family TINGITIDAE

About 700 species of lace bugs have been described. They are plant feeders. The eggs are
laid in the plant tissues and the young are
spinous.

Look on the underside

them.

Fig. 370. Corythucho


orcuata (Say).

134

of

leaves for

HOW TO KNOW
16b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Body not spinous, meso- and metapleuron

distinct.

Family MIRIDAE

Fig. 371

They are called


bugs or leaf
bugs.
About 5,000
species have been
described. They are
plant

mostly plant feedbut some are


predacious. The tarnished plant bug,

ers,

Ly gus
Pig.

371. Tarnish plant bug, Lygus oblineotus

(Say)

(Say).

oblineatus

and

Creonti-

ades pallidus Rambur carry plant


diseases.

ORDER HOMOPTERA

la.

Beak

evidently arising from the


3-segmented. Fig. 372. 2

head;

tarsi

372. Cephalic
aspect
(o)
and
lateral aspect (b)
legs.
and
of head
Fig.

lb.

Beak evidently
tarsi

onies.

arising

between

the

fore

legs;

or 2-segmented; insects usually live in colFig. 373

6
Fig.

Beak (a)
between the

373.

arising

fore legs.

135

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Large insects, live underground in

2a.

ed and adapted

nymph

stage; fore legs enlarg-

Family CICADIDAE

for digging. Fig. 374

About 1,500 species of cicadas


have been described. Eggs ore laid
in stems, twigs, etc. A few weeks
after

hatching,

into

the ground

the

nymphs crawl

and feed upon the

for a long period.


The 17-year cicada, Magicicada sep-

roots of plants

tendecim
17 years

nymph
Fig.

374.

Magicicada
o, nymph;

cicada,

Periodical

septendecim
b,

nymphal

2b. Smaller insects,

(L.)
skin.

of

stage.

spends almost the


its

cycle

life

in

full

the

strain living in the

southern states completes


cycle in 13 years.

seldom over hall an inch long;

fore legs not adapted

3a.

(L.)

live

its

life

on plants;
3

for digging

Antennae inserted on the sides

of the

checks beneath the eyes.

Family

Fig. 375
A/VTIA//\JA

FULGORIDAE

This family

is

represent-

ed in the United States by


about 400 known species.

They are called lanternflies and all are plant


Certain tropical
forms are luminous. Some
feeders.

afro
375. a, Cranberry toad bug, Phylloscelis
Germar; b, Lateral aspect of head.
Fig

3b.

Antennae inserted
eyes.

in front of

secrete
species
quantities of wax.

large

and between the


4

Fig. 376

Fig. 376. Front


ospect of heocL

136

HOW TO KNOW
4a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Thorax with tubercles or spines.


Fig. 377

Family

About 200 known species

MEMBRACIDAE

of treehoppers are repre-

They are plant feeders.


in two parallel
shrubs. The nymphs ara dif-

sented in North America.

Eggs are
slits

in twigs of trees or

ferent
CI

laid in groups

from

arranged

their adults in the

absence

of the pronotal

process, but filaments or spinose projections are often

developed on the

tergites.

377.

Fig.

Stie^
tocephala
sp.
a,
4th instar;
b, 5th instor.

4b. Thorax without tubercles or spines


5a.

Hind

tibiae with

spines at the

tip.

or 2 stout teeth,

and crowned with

short, stout

Family CERCOPIDAE

Fig. 378

They are called

froghoppers

on

account of the frog-like appearance


of both the young and the adults.

They are also known as spittle-bugs


some genera hide
in a mass of white froth. The frothing is the result of a fluid issu^"5 &om the onus becoming blown
'" ^"^^^^^
^^ '"-

since the niunphs of

Fig.

378.

marius

a,
(
("ist'intel^mVcro"
(L.)

^d

instars),
.he lined spi,tb'i,!%*lf..:.T..n':
last

eatus

5b.

Hind

(L)

tibiae with

a row

of spines.

Family CICADELLIDAE

Fig. 379

There are more than 700 species of


leafhoppers

known

in the United States.

They are able to leap powerfully and


feed on many different kinds of plants.
The leafhoppers not only cause damage to cultivated plants but also trans379. The potato leafhopper,
Empoasca
foboe
(Harris)
2nd and 4th in-

Fig.

fer plant diseases.

stars.

137

HOW TO KNOW
6a. Tarsi with but

claw and

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


1

segment.

FamUy COCCIDAE

Fig. 380

The members
this

of

family ore scale-

insects,

mealy-bugs

They

and

others.

live

on the stems,

leaves,

roots

and

are the most serious


pests of horticulturists. However, there
are some useful species:

shellac

is pre-

pared from the

lac-

insects, Lacciiei lacFig.

380.

A, the scale, Mvtilospis citricola

mature stage with eggs;

b,

newly

Packard:

a,

nymph;

c,

hatched

secretion; d & e, intermediate stages.


ovilla Green, 1st instar. C, Florida wax
Ceroplbstes floridensis Comstock, different stages.

same with waxy


B,

Walkeriana

scale,

ca Kerr in India.
The wax is produced by Eiicerus pe-la
Chavannes in China; and the cochineal is composed of
dried bodies of Coc-

cus cacfi

6b. Tarsi with 2 clows

7a.

Hind legs

and 2-segmented

fitted for leaping. Fig. 381

L.

Family

CHERMIDAE

The members of this family have the ability


to jiunp and are called jumping plant lice. They
are plant feeders and often occur in large nimibers.

All of them secrete

honey dew and a few

produce galls on the leaves.

The nymphs are flat and possess large wing


pads and often have a marginal fringe surroimdSome are covered with a
ing the abdomen.

waxy
Fig.
ia.

381.

Psyda

Pear

secretion.

psyl-

pyricola

Foerst.

138

HOW TO KNOW
7b.

Hind legs not

leaping

fitted for

8a. Scale-like insects,

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

waxy

with

antennae inconspicuous.

filaments around lateral margins;

Family

Fig. 382

ALEYRODIDAE

The common name, whitefly is derived from the covering of whitish


powdery wax on the body of the
adults. The yoxmg produce quantities

of

Fig. 382. Aleyrodes sp.


a, dorsal aspect; b, lateral aspect.

The

greenhouse
vapoiaiioTum
cosmopolitan and a

honeydew.

whitefly,

Trialeurodes

(Westwood)

is

8b. Not as

general feeder.

8a

Family APHIDIDAE

9a. Cornicles usually present. Fig. 383

About 2,000 species have been deThe aphids have a complicated life history which is characterized by an alternation of parthenogenetic generation with a sexual generation. Moreover, they have alternations of winged and wingless
forms.
The host plants are also
changed in different seasons.
scribed.

COf{^ICJLt-

Fig.

383.

Green

Myzus persicoe
instar;

b,

9b. Cornicles

peach

(Sulzer)

aphid,
:

a,

2nd

3rd instar.

always wanting.

Fig.

384

Family PHYLLOXERIDAE

This family

is

closely related to the

They are often red, orange


or yellow and are frequently covered with wax. The grape phylloxera
which feeds on the leaves and roots
of some common grapes is a well-

aphids.

known
Fig. 384. Phylloxera spp., rootinhabiting form.

139

species.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER NEUOPTERA

la.

Mouth

parts chewing type. Fig. 385

Fig. 385. Dorsal


aspect of head.

lb.

Mouth parts mandibulo-suctorial

type.
4

Fig. 386

2a.

Abdomen

with lateral filaments


3

(see Fig. 389)

Fig.

386.

suctorial
ports.

2b.

Abdomen
Fig.

Mandibulotype

mouth

without lateral filaments.

FomUy RAPHIDIIDAE

387

There are 10 species described in the United States,

and

12 species in Europe.

known

Raphidia hermandi Navas

The adults are called snakeflies.


The larvae are found under bark and they are common in California under loose bark of the eucalyptus.
They are predacious and believed to be beneficial.
is

in Japan.

Fig. 387. Rophidia eblita Hogen.

140

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdomen with a caudal filament; sides


segmented filaments; without anal prologs.

3a. Tip of
of

of

body with

7 pairs

Family SIALIDAE

Fig. 388

The larvae

live in swiftly flowing

streams adher-

and also in trashy


places filled with aquatic plants. The full-grown larva leaves the water and transforms in an earthen
cell on the bonks of the streams or lakes. Two or
three weeks later the adult emerges. It is called an
alderfly.
The larvae are predacious and feed upon
ing to the lower side of stones

different kinds of small animals.


388.

Fig.

Smoky
Sialis

alderfly,

infumoto

New-

man.

3b. Tip of

abdomen

pairs of
legs.

without a caudal filament; sides of body with 8


unsegmented filaments; with a pair of hooked anal pro-

Subfamily Corydalinae, SIALIDAE

Fig. 389

About 80 species of dobsonhave been described. The

flies

larvae are found under stones


in

slow or swift water and are

predacious on naiads of dragonflies,

stoneflies

and Mayflies.

These larvae which are known


as helgramites are much used
for
.

PILAMENJ

bait

ing a

|iet

stones

in

stones are

mites
Fig.

389.

larva; b,

Corydolus cornutus
pupa.

L.

a.

141

They are
by holddown stream below

in

fishing.

rather readily caught

swim

the net.

rapids.

moved
or are

When
the

the

helgra-

washed

into

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

4a. Aquatic or semiaquotic

4b. Terrestrial

5a.

Mandibles and maxillae cunred


inal gills

slightly

upwards; without abdom-

but with spiracles; larvae live imder stones in or near

Family

water. Fig. 390

OSMYLIDAE

There are about 50 described species but none have

been found

in North

stones or about

America. The larvae lurk imder

moss

either in

or

near the

water.

Their food consists of dipterous larvae.

Fig. 390. Osmylutchrysops (L.)

5b.

Mandibles and maxillae cunred outward; with abdominal

gills;

larvae live in water cmd feed on sponges.

Family SISYRIDAE

Fig. 391

About 20 species have been described. The larvae


Accordingly the
feed upon fresh-water sponges.
"spongilla-flies."
They
may be also
adults are called
found on bryozoans and algae. Pupation takes place
in an oval loose double cocoon in soil or under stones.

Eggs are

laid in

masses on objects standing

in

or

overhanging fresh-water, and are sometimes covered

by a
Fig.

391.

silken

web.

Sisyro

umbrata Ndm.

142

HOW TO KNOW
Abdomen more

6a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

than two times longer than thorax; larvae with

Family MANTISPIDAE

hypermetamorphosis. Fig. 392

The family

known
two

consists of about 170

species.

different

The larvae are of

forms:

the

star is thysanuriform with

first

in-

squar-

second and later inbecome robust and eruciform with a small head and weak

ish head; the


stars
legs.

The fuUgrown larvae spin

cocoons and pupate within the

last

The habits of larvae


are parasitic on eggs of spiders
and also in the nests of Pilybia
larval skin.

Fig. 392.
o, newly
fully fed;

Montispo styrioco

Podo:

hatched;

instar

c,

last

1st

b,

instar

wasps.

6b.

Not OS 6a.

7a. Pro-

and mesothorox modified

into

a long and slender


Family

Fig. 393

neck.

NEMOPTERIDAE

The larvae are predacious and feed upon


and other small insects. They cover
themselves with dust particles and are found
in caves and buildings in semiarid regions and
desert. Pupation occurs in a cocoon of silk and
psocids

debris.

Fig.

393.

storeyi,

7b. Pro-

They belong

to the eastern

hemisphere.

Ptcrocroce

Withycombe.

and mesothorox normal

143

HOW
8a.

TO

KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Antennae with long hairs; labial palps long and clavate, extended
head; mandibles and maxillae hid underneath the labrum (if long, straight and needle-like).
Family CONIOPTERYGIDAE
Fig. 394

in front oi

This family includes about 50

The adults look

like cphids.

their larvae leads


tera.

known

species.

The structures

of

us to regard them as Neurop-

The larvae feed upon aphids,

and

the eggs of red-spiders.

they

make a double cocoon

scale-insects

When
in

full-grown

which pupation

takes place.
]

394.

Fig.

Parosemi-

dalis flaviceps Banks.

8b.

Not as 8a

9a.

Empodium trumpet-shaped.

Fig. 395

Family

CHRYSOPIDAE

MFOPlUM

Nearly 500 species of green lacewings have

been described. Their larvae are known as


aphid-lions and feed on aphids, mites, leaf-hoppers, scale-insects and other small insects. The
eggs ore laid singly or in group on long slender
stalks.

In

some species

the larvae are protected

with trash or debris.

395. Golden-eye
lacewing, Chrysopo
oculota Say.

Fig.

9b.

Empodium

10a. Tarsi

and

10

not trumpet-shaped.

tibia of

hind leg fused into a single segment; mand11

ible with teeth

144

HOW
Not as 10a.

10b.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


Family HEMEROBIIDAE

Fig. 396

This family consists of about 220 known species.


Their adults are called brown lacewings. The larvae

resemble the aphid-lions but

are

smooth without

Only the 1st instar larvae possess trumpet-shaped empodia which becomes pad-like and
greatly reduced in the later instars. They are predacious and feed on aphids, scale-insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, psyllids, etc. The eggs are devoid
tubercles.

of pedicels.
396.
Hemerobius pacificus
Fig.

Banks,

1st

11a. Sides

instar.

of

thorax and

abdomen with

projecting

Family

dilated posteriorly. Fig. 397

filaments;

head

ASCALAPHIDAE

About 210 species have been described. The larvae


resemble ant-lions in the form of the body, but they

have a

appendage on each side of the.


ambush on the surface of the
body more or less covered, and

finger-like

segment.

They

live in

ground, with the

wait for small insect prey.


Fig.

lodes

397. Uluhyalina

Latr.

lib. Sides of thorax

and abdomen without projecting filaments; head

not dilated posteriorly.

Family

Fig. 398

MYRMELEONTIDAE

This family consists of about

650

described

larvae are

They make

The

ant-lions.

sand to
and other wing-

pitfalls in

trap the ants


less

species.

known as

small animals.

some species do

not

However,

make

pits

but simply hide under sand or


debris.
Fig. 398. a.
pitfall.

Ant-lion, Myreleon sp.; b,

145

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER TRICHOPTERA
(Larval key to

some important

families,

adapted from Ross.)

ore-

la. Either

\^^^'^'^)

meso- or metanotum or both with sclerotized

shield subdivided into

separated

plates

or

mem-

branous. Fig. 399

u.x

^^^^

Fig. 399. Dorsal aspect of

>

thorax.

lb.

2a.

Both meso- and metonotimi each with a


embracing the entire notum

Abdomen

with

gills.

Fig. 400

single, sclerotized shield

fanuly

HYDROPSYCHIDAE

The larvae are campodeiform, often living greand about trash, logs, stones, etc.
or in running water. They spin loose silken nets.
Their food habits are both carnivorous and herbivgariously under

Fig. 400.
Hydropsyche sp.

2b.

Abdomen

without

gills. Fig.

Fanuly HYDROPTILIDAE

401

The

larvae

construct

cases

which open at both ends. They


feed on algae. A modified type
of hypermetamorphosis occurs in
the larval stage. The early instars
of some genera have a slender

body fitted for free,


and have no case.

401.
Hydroptila
woubesiona
Betten. (Redrawn from Ross)
Fig.

3a.

active

life

Anal legs projecting beyond 10th abdominal segment. Fig. 402

4
Fig.

of

146

402. Apex
abdomen.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Anal legs appearing as lateral


abdominal segment. Fig. 403

3b.

sclerites oi 10th

MiAi^ le^
Fig.

403.

Apex of

obdomen.

Dorsum

4a.

of 9th

Fig. 404

obdomincd segment with a sclerotized shield.


Family RHYACOPHIUDAE

The larvae

of the

subfamily Rhyacophilinae ore

predacious and free-living while the larvae of the

subfamily Glossosomatinae

are

the

saddle-case

makers.

These are the most primitive

of present-day cad-

disflies.

The larvae are campodeiform and possess

tracheal

gills.

404. Rhyocophila fenestro

Fig.

Redrawn
from Ross)

Ross.

4b.

Dorsum

of 9th

Fig. 405

abdominal segment without a sclerotized shield.


Family PHILOPOTAMIDAE

The larvae are campodeiform and Hve gregariousmoimtain streams where they construct
net-like cases in the form of either cyUndrical tubes
or broad sacks. Prior to pupating, the larva builds a
rough shelter of stone and encloses itself in a cocoon.
ly in swift

Fig.

405. Philo-

potamus sp.
( Redrawn from
Ross)

147

HOW
5a.

Claws

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

hind legs

of

much

shorter than those of middle legs.

Family

Fig. 406

Larvae
of

MOLANNIDAE

on the sandy bottoms

live

streams and lakes and construct

shield-shaped cases consisting of a


central

cylindrical

chamber flanked

on each side by an extension.


Fig. 406. o, Case of Molonno uniophila
phila Vorhies;
V
b. Middle leg; c,
Hir
find leg.

5b.
6a.

Claws

of

hind legs as long as those of middle legs

long, at least 8 times as long as wide.

Antennae

Family LEPTOCERIDAE

Fig. 407

.A^7-'/VA'A

All the larvae

make

variety of materials

cases using a

and

cases of various shapes.

wide

variety

lakes and rivers.

of

constructing

They

streams,

inhabit

ponds,

The larvae can

swim

freely with their legs outside the case.

They feed on vegetation.


a,

Lateral

Trianodes

Antennae

6b.

aspect of
flavescense

short,

Mesonotum with

7a.

Fig.

never more than 4 times as long as wide

sclerotized plates.

Family LIMNEPHILIDAE

408

There are about 400 described


species in this family. The larvae
are eruciform with a prosternal
tubercle or horn. They live mostwater and a few spewater. The genus
Enoicyla live only in damp moss
on land. The cases are tubular
ly in quiet

cies

in

swift

and ornamented with sticks, tiny


shells, sand and small pebbles.
They are herbivorous.

Fig. 408. a, Case of Astenophylox sp.;


b. Larva with case of Stenophylox sp.
c. Case of Limnephilus indivisus Walk
er.

148

HOW TO KNOW

7b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Mesonotiim submembronous^ or with a pair of


bar-shaped

sclerites. Fig.

409

8
Fig.
409.
aspect of

Dorsal

meso-

thorax.

8a.

Mesonotum with a

pair of bar-shaped sclerites.

Family LEPTOCERIDAE

Fig. 410

is a large family of wide distribuThe cases are cylindrical or tapering and may be either straight or curved.
They frequent both running streams and
quiet water and are good swimmers.

This

tion.

M?;
,V^;
(Woker).

Leptocello

olbido

(Redrawn from

Ross)

8b.

Mesonotum without a

pair oi bar-shaped sclerites.

FamUy PHRYGANEIDAE

Fig. 411

Most
built in

of the larval cases are long

spiral.

They

ly running water.

marshes and lakes

some

species

are

live in

still

and

or slowr

In general they favor


for

their

taken

in

abodes, but
rivers

and

sureams.
A, Agrypnia ves(Walker)
larval
a,

411.

Fig.
tita

b, young larval case;


ocellifero
Ptilostomis
(Walker), anterior end of

case;
B,

larva.

Key

to the

ORDER LEPIPOPTERA
LARVAE of the more important

tomilies

la.

Thoracic legs present and segmented

lb.

Thoracic legs absent or reduced to fleshy swellings

2a.

Body with
side.

Fig.

arranged in a double row on each


Family MICROPTERYGIDAE
The larvae of Micropteryx
//TV^ b live on wet moss and are characterized by the presence of 8
pairs of segmented abdominal
prolegs. The larvae of Saba-

large, ovate scales,

Fig. 412

412. a, Micropteryx sp.; b, a scale,

149

tijica

OCCUr

among

liverworts.

HOW
2b.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Body with setae only

3a. Prolegs rudimentary or wanting; crochets absent

3b. Prolegs at least indicated

by rudimentary

crochets.
12

Fig. 413

Fig. 413.
Crochets.

4a. Front extending


Fig.

upwards

to vertex;

small species.

Family

414

COLEOPHORIDAE

This family contains about 1,000 describ-

ed species. The caterpillars are known as


leaf miners and case bearers. They feed
on leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds of varFig.

414.

moiivorello

Coleophora
Riley,

ious plants.

Some

group a subfamily

systematists
of the

make

this

TINEIDAE.

4b. Front not extending to vertex.


Fig.

415

Fig. 415. Cephalic aspect of head.

5a.

Head retracted; body often with spines or secondary hairs; primary


setae obsolete; body with obscure incisures and usually with conFamily LIMACODIDAE
spicuous pits. Fig. 416

About 850 species are described. The larvae


known as slug-caterpillars. The

are slug-like and

body bears tubercles and stinging or poisonous


hairs. They feed on various plants.

Fig. 416. Saddle-backed slug caterpillar, Sabine ttimulea Clemens.

150

HOW TO KNOW
5b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Head exposed; body with primary

6a. Setae iv

and v

distant

Fig. 417

setae

and strong

incisures..

.6

on abdominal segments; prolegs present.


rregeticuJa) Family INCURVARIIDAE

About 300 species have been described. The caterpilAdelinae are case^beorers and are known as

lars of the

fairy moths, while that of the Proxodoxinae are borers


in

seeds and stems of Yucca and other Liliaceae.

used here

this includes

McDunnough's superfamily

As
IN-

CURVAROIDEA.
417. Setal
map Of on abdominal s e g ment.
Fig.

6b. Setae iv
Fig.

and v adjacent; prolegs absent

418
'^

7a.

y,

few GELECHIIDAE

HOW
7b.

Body

8b.

somewhat
if
upwards to vertex
ocellus on each side, or none
ocelli on each side

cylindrical or flattened;

front extends

8a.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Head with
Head with

spindle-shaped,

the
8
9
11

9a. Front triangular; ocellus at front.

Family ERIOCRANIIDAE

Fig. 420

The
leaves.

toothed
Fig.

420.

Mncmonlea aurleyoneo WIshm..

mine in
pupae possess
mandibles. They are

caterpillars

The

closely related to the

MICRO-

pxERYGIDAE

10
quadrangular; ocellus lateral
widest at posterior end; body usually flattened; prolegs
when present, on 3rd to 5th abdominal segments.
Family GRACILARIIDAE
Fig. 421

9b. Front

10a. Front

The larvae are

of

two types: the young have a flat


They

head, ocelli very small and variable in number.


are miners of leaves, bark, or
caterpillars

fruits.

The full-grown

are cylindrical, with normal head, prolegs

well developed on the 3rd to 5th abdominal segments-

They mine,

web, or skeletonize the leaves. The azalea


imported from

or

leaf miner, Gracilaria azaleella Brants

Japan

to the

United States

is

a pest

in green house.

Fig. 421. Lithocolletis homodry-

Clemens
oJelio
(round form larva).
10b. Front widest at anterior end; body cylindrical; prolegs on 2nd
FamUy NEPTICULIDAE
to 7th abdominal segments. Fig. 422

They are called serpentine miners. The caterpillar is


minute, about 2.5 to 10 mm. long. They mine in leaves
and sometimes in fruits and bark. The mines are linear
or serpentine.

Certain species of Ectoedemia are gall

makers. Pupation occurs

Plum
422.
leof-miner, Nepslingerf ic u I o
londella Kft.

Fig.

152

in

a cocoon

in the soil.

HOW TO KNOW
Abdomen

11a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

with rudimentary prolegs, bearing crochets on 3rd to

Fanuly TISCHERIIDAE

6th segments. Fig. 423

The

caterpillars

moke

blotch mines in the leaves of

oak. But Tischezia znalifoliella Clemens


leaf

423.

Fig.

erio

makes trumpet

mines on apple.

Tiseh-

malifoliella

Clemens.

lib.

Abdomen

without prologs on 6th

segment
Family

GRACHARIIDAE
6-rti

12a.

Body with

tufted

or secondary hairs; at least 2

setae on tubercle vi of 6th abdominal segment, or

with additional setae on proleg. Fig. 424

41

Fig.

map

424. Setal
of 6th ab

dominal segment.

12b.

O///

Body without tufted or secondary hairs; tubercle


i with a single seta; tubercle vii with at most 3
setae, unless the proleg has a multiserial circle of
crochets.

Fig. 425

\.- spiffAC 1.1

0'"

13
Fig.

425.

Setal

map of 6th abdominal segment.

13a.

Without prologs on 6th abdominal segment


Family GRACILARIIDAE
153

HOW TO KNOW
13b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

With prologs on 6th abdominal segment

14a. Crochets

ranged

in

prologs

of

circle

(sometimes

lipse
plete),

or

bands.

Fig. 426

in

or

14

arel-

incom-

transverse
15
Fig. 426. Crochets:
o,
bands; b, in incomplete
complete circle.

14b. Crochets

in

transverse

circle;

c,

in

forming a single band (sometimes

with a few vestigial ones in addition).


Fig.

37

427

Fig. 427.
in single

Crochets
band.

15a. Prespiracular wart of prothorax with 2 setae.

FamUy PYRALIDIDAE

Fig. 428

This family

is

the sec-

ond largest of the order


and about 10,000 species
have been described. The
larvae are largely phytophagous and some feed
upon dried vegetable matter. The meal moth, Pyralis iarinalis (L.) feeds on
cereal and cereal products.

The

caterpillars of

the subfamily
Schoenobiinae are borers in water

while Nymphula
nymphaeta (L.) and N.
stagnate! Donovan
are
plants,

Fig.
laris

428. a. Garden webworm, Loxostege simlLoxostege


(Guen.); b, beet webworn,
(L.); c, setal map of prothorax.

sticticolis

semiaquatic species Uving in silk-lined sacs on


water plants in Europe.

15b. Prespiracular wort of prothorax with 3 setae.


16

Fig. 429

Fig.

map

429.
of

thorax.

154

Setal

pro-

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

arranged in 2 transverse bands.

16a. Crochets of prologs

430

Fig.

17

^^'

430.
in
chets
bands.

Fig.

16b. Crochets of prolegs

circle

or

ellipse,

Cro-

two

arranged in

sometimes

broadly interrupted.
431

Fig.

22

Fig.

431.

plete

Crochets: a, in comincomplete
in
b,

circle;

circle.

a single series
bands formed of several

17a. Prolegs with

of crochets, or

series

of

with

alternate

crochets.

Family INCURVARIIDAE

Fig. 432
Fig.

432.

chets

in

Cro-

a single

series.

17b. Prolegs with 2 simple series of crochets.


Fig.

433

18
Fig. 433. Crochets
in two series.

18a.

Abdominal setae

iv

and v remote.

(Compare with Fig.


Family LYONETIIDAE

Fig. 434.

(BucculatTix)

435)

The caterpillars frequent forested areas and orchards. They are


mostly leaf miners. Those of Bucculatiix are first miners and later
skeletonizers. Pupation takes place

a cocoon. The cocoon of Bucand surrounded


by a palisade of erect silken fila-

in
Fig.

434,

Lyonetio speculello Clemens.

culatrix is ribbed

ments.
155

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Abdominal setae

18b.

iv

and v adjacent.

Fig. 435

19

Fig.

435.

map

Setoi

of an abdominal segment.

19a. Crochets of anal prolegs

arranged in 2 groups.

FamUy GELECHIIDAE

Fig. 436

The larvae pictured here is scattered very widely and does heavy

damage
Fig.

436. Potato tuberworm, Gnori-

moschcmo opcrcuUllo

(Zeller).

19b. Crochets of anal prolegs in

20a. Front extending about

one

to

the fruit of tomatoes as

well as to potato tubers. It attacks


still
other members of the nightshade family also.
20

single series

third

way

to vertex.

(Cossula) Family

Fig. 437

COSSIDAE

The common goat moth, Cossus cossus (L.) of Europe, is an


example. The caterpillars bore
into the trunks and limbs of
broad-leaved

deciduous

trees

shrubs. They make


large tunnels in the trunk. The
larvae of the carpenterworm,
Prionoxystus roJbiniae (Peck) of
America, make large galleries

and large

Cossus liquiperdo.

in

trees

which usually cause

the death of the trees.

20b. Front extending at least

two

thirds

way

to vertex

21a. Spiracles elliptical, normal in size; those ol 8th


ment located higher than the others.
Fig.

The

caterpillars live as borers in roots,

and limbs

herbaceous

438. Squash-vine borer,


satyriniformis

of shrubs

plants.

and

Aegeria

trees

and

apiiormis

a common species which inand willows chiefly. The too


well known squash borer belongs here.
(Clerck)

is

fests poplars
Fig.

abdominal seg-

Family AEGERIIDAE

438

trunks

Mclittia

21

Hub-

ner.

156

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

21b. Spiracles circular, very small; the last pair about in line with

22a.

COLEOPHORIDAE

Family

others

Abdominal setae iv and v remote, or v absent


few small species. Fig. 439

in

a
23

Fig.

439.

Setal

map of an abdominal segment.

^'

-\
22b.

Abdominal setae

common

tubercle.

iv

and v adjacent,

often

on a

Fig. 440

27

Fig.

map

440. Setal
of an ab-

dominal segment.

23a. Prolegs with crochets arranged in


plete ellipse. Fig. 441

a single com24
441. Croin a single
complete ellipse.

Fig.

chets

23b. Prolegs with crochets arranged in a broken ellipse, or with additional rudimentary series at
the base of normal ones. Fig. 442
26
Fig.
442. Crochets in broken ellipse.

157

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

24a. Prespiracular setae of prothorax about as far from


as from each other; abdominal seta i higher than ii.

its

spiracle

Family LYONETIIDAE

Fig. 443

This small family of ribbed case bearers live

They are ofThe adults are usually brightly col-

as tiny leaf miners or skeletonizers.


ten flattened.
ored.
Fig. 443. Setal
of prothorax. .

map

24b. Prespiracular setae of prothorax about t^^ce as


far

from

its

each

spiracle as from

other.

25

444

Fig.

i
PF,0TH0KAK

Fig.

map

444. Setol
of prothor-

ax.

25a.

Abdominal setae
Fig.

much lower than

Family TINEIDAE

445

,11

The larvae of the case-making


clothes moth. Tinea pellionella (L.),
live
in
portable parchment-like

(T

SPIKACIS

Fig. 445. Casemaking clothes moth.


Tinea pelionella (L.) o, larva with
:

case; b, larva;

c,

map

setal

of on

abdominal segment.

25b.

Abdominal setae
Fig.

ii.

The webbing clothes moth,


Tineoia biselliella (Hummel), is
characterized by its larvae making webs with particles on which
they feed. Both feed on wool,
cases.

hair, skin, feathers

mal

not lower than

and other

ani-

matter.

ii.

Family HELIODINIDAE

446
^*^.

The
JP/KACLE

caterpillars are tiny either herbivorous or pre-

dacious.

mine

They feed on

in fruits.

Some

fruits

dators of mealybugs and


known as "sua moths."
Fig.

446.

Setal

map of an abdominal segment.


158

and leaves and some

species are believed to be prescale-insects.

They are

HOW TO KNOW
26a. Meso-

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

and metathorax with seta ia in front of ib and well sepabove level of spiracle.

arated; abdominal seta iv

Family HEPIALIDAE

Fig. 447

The

caterpillars are all

plant

borers

in-

cluding roots, stems, twigs of grasses, shrubs

and

trees.

often

Some

species are quite large

somewhat wrinkled.

and

Rather numerous

hairs arise from tubercules.

The larvae are

usually dusky, whitish or tinged with yellow.


MeiorHOKAX
Fig.

AODO/^INAK JFV7

447. a, Hepialus

The adults are narrow winged medium


large sized moths

and are known as

to

swifts.

hiimuli; b, setal map


of
mesothorax;
c,
setal map of an ab-

dominal

26b. Meso-

segment.

and metathorax with seta


iv below level of

abdominal seta
Fig. 448

'lib

ia

and

ib

closely associated;

Family

YPONOMENTIDAE

spiracle.

HOW
27a. Last pair of

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal spiracles placed dorsally and closer toFamily CARPOSINIDAE


line. Fig. 449

gether on middle

'^v

This family consists of about 100 described species.

The caterpillars are


in peaches in Japan.

fruit-borers.

One

species bores

HOW TO KNOW

30a. Setae

ii

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment closer together

of 9th

than on any other segments, frequently on the


plate.

same
31

Fig. 452

JefMe^r
Fig.

map

452. Setal
of 9th ab-

dominal segment.

30b. Setae

ii

of 9th

abdominal segment as

on other segments.

for apart as

32

Fig. 453

Fig.

453.

Setal

map of 9th abdominal segment.

31a. Crochets of prolegs uniordinal;

zontally placed.

The
seeds.

iv

and v

hori-

FamUy PHALONllDAE

caterpillars bore in plants or feed in

They and

454. <i,
Setol
of an abdominb, uniordinal crochet?
Fig.

map
al

abdominal setae

Fig. 454

segment;

161

their adult

moths ore small.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

31b. Crochets of prolegs usually multiordinal;

in

a diagonal or

abdominal setae

iv

and

vertical line.

Family TORTRICIDAE

Fig. 455

The

caterpillars are leaf rollers.

are destructive to
many
kinds of trees and other plants.
The larvae vrhen disturbed wriggle
violently and may escape backwards from the nests of rolled
leaves. The spruce budworm, Archips fumiferana (Clemens) ana
the fruit tree leaf roller, Azchips
argyiospila (Walker) are impor-

^They

455. o, Clover-seed caterpillar.


Laspeyresia interstinctana Clemens; b,
setal map of an abdominal segment.
Fig.

32a.

Abdominal setae

and

Fig. 456

ii

tant pests.

close together.

fSchreclrensteinia;

Family HELIODINIDAE

t&ii

The members
feeders.

of this

genus

All are of small size.

sun moths are plant


The family is interest-

of

ing in that a few species are apparently predacious

a
Fig.

456.

map

of

on scale

insects.

Seta!

an abdominal segment.

0-SfVMX:

32b.

Abdominal setae
Fig.

and

ii

widely separated.
33

457

V/}

Fig.

457.

Setal

map of on abdominal segment.

162

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

33a. Front reaching less than half


Fig.

Fig.

dinal

The

way

to vertex; crochets triordinal.

FamUy COSSIDAE

458

458. a, Leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina

L.;

b,

trior-

crochets.

heartwood of various kinds


The leopard moth, Zeuzeia pyrina (L.), the larvae
bore in the branches and stems of apple, beech, birch, cherry, currant,
elm, maple, oak, pear, plum, walnut, etc. The life cycle needs two
years to be completed.
of

caterpillars are mostly borers in the

woody

plants.

33b. Front reaching


thirds

way

more or

to the vertex,

less

two

and end-

ing in on attenuate point; crochets


uniordinal or biordinal; small species.

Fig. 459

34
Fig.

459.

ordinal;

34a. Crochets of prolegs biordinal. Fig. 460.

Crochets:
b,

a,

uni

biordinal.

35

Fig.

460.

Bior-

dinal crochets.

34b. Crochets of prolegs uniordinal. Fig. 461.

36

Fig.

461.

Uni-

ordinal crochets.

163

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

35a. 3 ocelli arranged closely together*


the other one. Fig. 462

The
webs
is
Fig. 462.

more widely separated from


Family
caterpillars

OECOPHORIDAE
usually

or rolled leaves.

live

One

in

species

destructive to parsnips.

Depressorio herocliono Oe

Geer.

Family GELECHIIDAE

35b. Ocelli evenly spaced. Fig. 463

The larvae pictured here is


a widely distributed and serious pest of

-..,-_...,,
Fig. 463. Pink bollworm,
gossypiella

36a. ^etae

and

(Saunders).

iii

its

country

cotton.

It

appearance

first

m
.

made
in

our

,^ri

1917.

on 8th abdominal segment usually placed

just

above

slightly before the spiracle.

Fig. 464

B *.
u
Pectinophoro

Fanuly GLYPHIPTERYGIDAE

HOW TO KNOW

37a. Prespiracular wart

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

on prothorax with 3 setae.


Family

Fig. 466

YPONOMEUTIDAE
'PROTHol\A\

Fig.

map

466. Setal
of prothor-

ox.

on prothorax with 2 setae

.38

on meso- and metathorax with 2 setae.


on meso- and metathorax with 1 seta.

,39

37b. Prespiracular wart

38a. Tubercle vii


38b. Tubercle vii

FamUy NOCTUIDAE

Fig. 467

About 20,000 species have been


described.
The caterpillars are
commonly known as armyworms,
cutworms, etc.
Night is their
usual feeding time, but when
very numerous they often spread
out during the day as well. Some
feed on seeds and some are stem
borers while the great majority
are foliage feeders. They are notorious pests of agricultural crops.

map

of mesothorax;
Fig. 467. o, Setal
b, Tomato fruitworm, or corn earworm,

The corn earworm, Heliothis armigeia (Hubner) is a cosmopolitan

ormigera (Hbn.); c, variegated cutworm, Peridromo margaritosa


(Howorth). (U.S.D.A.)
Heliothis

pest.

39a. Setae minute; tubercle reduced to obscure rings;

wide; prolegs reduced. Fig. 468

head usually

Family THYATIRIDAE

The larvae

spanworms

of

this

small family are

traveling like

the

geome-

There are known as the beautiful


mining moths, the "beauty" belonging
trids.

Fig.

468. Thyatira derasa.

39b. Setae

to the adults.
The naked caterpillars
sometimes live gregariously in webs.
They pupate in a cocoon.

heavy, almost always spinulose; with conspicuous tub40

ercles
40a. Tubercle

iii

of

abdomen with

Fig. 469

2 setae.

Subfamily Lithosiinae, ARCTIIDAE

The caterpillars possess tufted


hairs whicTi are much reduced in the
This subfamily includes
last instar.
about 50 North American species.
Fig.

469. Oenistis quodro.

The
165

caterpillars feed

upon

lichens.

HOW
40b. Tubercle

iii

of

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS


abdomen with

seta.

(Utethesia) Family

Fig. 470

470. Fall webworm, Hy(Drury).


phontria cunea

Fia

(U.S.D.A.)

41a. Less than 4 pairs of

reduced. Fig. 471

ARCTIIDAE

The caterpillars of this family are covered with dense tufted hairs often reddishbrown and black. When disturbed they
often curl into a compact mass and are
called woolly bears or hedge hog caterpillars. The cocoon are made of silk and
the no-longer-needed body hairs.
They
feed upon a wide variety of plants. The
fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury)
lives gregariously in webs.
abdominal prolegs; sometimes anal prolegs
Family GEOMETRIDAE

About 2,000 species have been deThe caterpillars are called


loopers,
measuring worms, or spanworms because of their methods of locomotion. They feed chiefly on living
plants but a few are able to subsist
upon dry vegetable matter.
scribed.

Fig.

471. PolMcrita vernato


Peck.

41b. 4 pairs of

abdominal prolegs or more.

42

42a. Crochets on prolegs uniordinol.


Fig.

472

Fig.

472.

Uni-

ordinol crochets.

42b. Crochets
triordinal.

on prolegs biordinal or
Fig. 473

52

Fig.

473. o, Biordinal crochets; b,

triordinal

43a.

crochets.

Warts rudimentary or absent, or obscured by secondary

43b. At least wart vi (subventral) many haired


ary hairs sparse or absent above prolegs
166

and

hairs.

44

distinct; r^econd-

49

HOW TO KNOW
44a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Anal plate bifurcated; head roughly papillose; 3rd ocellus very


Family SATYRIDAE
Fig. 474

large.

About 60 described species are rein North America. The caterpillars chiefly live on grasses and cereals.
The rice butterfly, Melanitis leda (L.), is
a pest of rice, barley, bamboo and sugar
cane in Asia.
corded

Fig.

44b.

474. Oeneis mocounii Edw.

Anal plate simple; head smoother; 3rd ocellus rarely much enlarged

45

45a. Spiracles ellipticaL larger; prolegs short

45b. Spiracles circular, small; prolegs slender,

Fig.

475.

46a.

or less stem-like,

PTEROPHORIDAE

More than 350 species have


been described. Most larvae are
stem borers and leaf rollers. Some
are of economic importance as
pests of ornamental plants and
agricultural crops. The adults are
the plume moths so named because of their finely split wings.

Grape-vine plume. Oxyptilus


Fitch.

Body with dense secondary

more

Family

with expanded planta. Fig. 475

periscelidactylus

46

setae.

Fig. 476

'/'':4^.

,47

"^/^A^rjerM
476. A body
segment showing
Fig.

the primary setae

and secondary setae.

46b.

Secondary setae very sparse

or

simple setae or a few subprimaries


167

absent

above

prolegs;

with
48

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

47a. Notch of lobrum deep, with parallel sides; anal prolegs as large
as others; with warts, more or less overshadowed by the second-

ary hairs. Fig. 477

few

NOCTUIDAE

This family of owlet moths is an


exceedingly important one, economically.
Cutworms hide in the earth
of gardens, cultivated fields, etc., by

day and come out at night to cut


off young plants at
ground level.
The corn earworm not only causes
heavy loss by feeding at the tips of

Fig. 477.
a, Corn earworm Heliioarmigera (Hbn.); b, cutworm,
Euxoa ouxiliaris Grote. (U.S.D.A.)

the maturing ears of corn but also


tunnels into tomatoes.

this

labrum acute, with convergent sides; anal prolegs much


reduced and not used; warts rudimentary and dominated by a
single hair (Melalopha) or absent (Datana).

47b. Notch of

FamUy NOTODONTIDAE

Fig. 478

These caterpillars are gregarious, and


pose often with the anterior and posterior
ends raised into the air and attached only

median prolegs. They frequently


possess dorsal humps or tubercles on the
body and are often brightly colored. Their
chief feed is the leaves of deciduous

by

478. Yellow-necked ca-

Fig

terpillar,

Dotono

ministrc

trees.

(Drury).

48a. Tubercle iv at about the


7th

and

8th.

same

level

on abdominal segments

This family includes


tive
tria

6th,

FamUy LYMANTRIIDAE

(Doa)

Fig. 479

many

destruc-

The gypsy moth, Porthedispar (L.) and the brown-tail moth,


species.

Nygmia phaeonhoea (Donovan) may


479.

Fig.

Hemerocampa

vetusto

Bdv.

cur in such large


pletely overrun

oc-

number as to comand defoliate large

areas of trees.

abdominal segment much lower than on other


segments; anal prolegs more or less reduced or modified.
Most NOTODONTIDAE
Fig. 480

48b. Tubercle iv of 7th

The

caterpillar

here

pictured

"puss moth". They never


attention.

The

is

fail to attract

backward

projecting

parts are anal tubes. This species feeds

on the leaves
Fig.

480.

Ceruro vinula

(L.)

168

of the

willow family.

HOW TO KNOW
49a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

With eversible mid-dorsal glands on 2nd abdominal segment.


Family LYMANTRIIDAE

Fig. 481

The

caterpillars

of

this

compara-

small family are usually


clothed with long hair-like scales
which are often sting producing.
They feed on the foliage of forest
tively

Tus'dA)^^'^^'''

49b.

No

antique

L.

trees.

eversible mid-dorsal glands

Family

50a. Spiracles circular, small


50b. Spiracles elliptical,

normal

50

PTEROPHORIDAE
51

in size

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

53b. Setae subequal or sometimes with setae

and prominent warts

and spines

54

54a. 8th abdominal


or tubercle

segment with a dorsal horn, or

plate,

55

54b. 8 th abdominal segment without


^
or tubercle

a dorsal horn, or

plate,

58

55a.

Body with numerous branching spines or enlarged

55b.

Body with

56a.

Head angulated or spined dorsally, or abdomen


dorsal spines; crochets of prolegs usually triordinal.
Family NYMPHALIDAE
Fig. 484

at

most 2 pairs

of

tubercles. ... 56

small spines on thorax

57

with several mid-

Fig.

484. a, Basilarchia ostyonox Fab:; b, Vanessa an-

tiopa.

About 4,000 species have been described. The caterpillars are


usually spiny but some are naked. The chrysalises are suspended by
the cremaster and the head is held downwards. They are often marked with silver or gold ornamentations. The adults are butterfhes.
56b.

Head rounded;

crochets biordinal.

....Family

Fig 485

The

485. Q, Samia cecropia

Fig.

L.;

b,

a proleg with

crochets.

57a.

Segments with

SATURNIIDAE

caterpillars chiefly

feed on broad-leaved deevergreen


ciduous and
They are called
trees.
giant or wild silkworms.
No less than 30 species in
oriental Asia are able to
produce usable silk.

6 or 8 annulets; prolegs not widely separated.

Family SPHINGIDAE

Fig. 486

About 900 species have been


described. The caterpillars are
called hornworms because of the
presence of a horn-like process on
abdominal segment. Some
larvae assume grotesque attitudes
which are thought to be responsible for the name "sphinx moth''
or "sphinx caterpillar".

the 8th
Fig.

486

Tobacco

porce sexto

hornworm,

(Johanssen).

Pro to-

170

HOW TO KNOW
57b.

Segments with

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

2 or 3 obscure annulets; prolegs widely separated.

Fig. 487

The

Chinese

487.

byx mori

Bom-

silkworm,

L.

58a.

Head

elevated, triangular

58b.

Head

not so

silkworm,

Bombyx

L. is

SPHINGIDAE

(Lapara) Family

59

59a. Crochets on prolegs forming

rupted.

Chinese

an important beneficial insect which has been domesticated


for more than 2,000 years. It was
estimated about 70 million pounds
of raw silk are produced each year.
mori

Fig.

BOMBYCIDAE

Family

on

ellipse, at

Fig. 488

most narrowly interFamily HESPERIIDAE

About 3,000 species have been deThe head of the caterpillars is


much larger than its prothorax which
forms a narrow "neck" and makes
them readily recognized. Its body is
widest at middle and tapering toward
both ends. They live exposed on plants
or within rolled and webbed leaves.
They feed chiefly on cereals and grasses. The adults are known as skippers.
scribed.

Fig.

488. Eporgyreus tityrus Fab.

59b. Crochets arranged

in

one band,

occasionally

interrupted.

rarely forming 2 separated bonds.


60a.

or
,60

Bands of crochets on prolegs reduced or interrupted at middls


and with a narrow spatulate, freshly lobe arising near the interruption.

LYCAENIDAE

Family

Fig. 489

The

caterpillars are largely

phytophagous and

ten found on leguminous plants.

Some

of-

are predaci-

ous and feed on scale-insects and other homopterous

nymphs.
short

few are myrmecophilous.

and broad,

slug-like

The body is
and the head is smaller

and narrower than the body.


Fjg.

489. Lycoe-

nid

larva.

60b. Prolegs with

band

of crochets continuous, without

near the middle

a fleshy lobe
61

171

HOW TO KNOW
Dorsum

61a.

When

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

prothorax bearing on eversible, forked scent gland.

of

the gland

retracted

is

a transverse groove

revealed:

is

body not hairy or spiny, but sometimes with fleshy filaments.


Fig.

FamUy PAPILIONIDAE

490

About 800 species have been deThe caterpillars feed on


a number of plants, but chiefly
on Citrus and Umbelliferae. The
scribed.

thorax of the larva

is

usually en-

larged, and sometimes possesses


protrusible scent
two eyespots.

490.

Fig.

gland on the dorsum which is


is often precalled osmeferium

cresphontes Cramer.

Papilio

sent

and

is

terpillar

is

ejected

when

disturbed.

the ca-

The adults

are the swallowtail butterflies.

61b. Not as 61a.

62a.

,62

Head and body

entirely without spines, high tubercles, or fleshy

63

filaments

62b.

Body with

63a.

Anal plate

63b.

Anal plate bifurcate

spines, higli tubercles, or fleshy filaments

entire,

65

34

rounded
at tip, bearing 2 distinct processes.

Family SATYRIDAE

64a.

Head apparently

64b.

Head smaller than

larger than prothorax.

prothorax. Fig. 491

Family

NYMPHALIDAE

Family PIERIDAE

About 1,000 species hove


been described. The caterpillars feed on many kinds of
plants but are especially fond
of cabbages and other crucifer-

ous crops. The cabbage butterPieiis rapae (L.) is a cosmopolitan species and the rape
butterfly, Pier is napi (L.) is also
common to both Europe and
North America.

fly,
FlQ.

491. Cabbageworm, Pirb

rpM

(L.

172

HOW TO KNOW
65a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Mesothorox and sometimes several other segments bearing fleshy


Family DANAIDAE
Fig. 492

filaments.

The

caterpillars chiefly

feed on milkweeds.

monarch

Fig.

492. DQnoHS plexippus

butterly,

The
Dan-

aus plexippus (L.) is nearly a cosmopolitan species.


Its caterpillar is black and

L.

yellow.

The chrysalis

is

pale green and iridescent.

65b.

Body without fleshy filaments

Key

to the

PUPAE
of

Family

NYMPHALIDAE

of the more important families

LEPIDOPTERA

(Chiefly from E. Mosher, 1916)

With functional mandibles crossing

la.

Families

Fig. 493

in front of head.

MICROPTERYGIDAE & ERIOCRANIIDAE

^MAfiPiBl^

The pupation of Micropterygidae takes place


a dense, parchment-like cocoon. The pupation of Eriocroniidae takes place in a tough
cocoon in the groimd. The pupa uses its large
mandibles to cut its way out of th^ cocoon and
to dig up to the surface.
in

493. Mnemonico
Hricyna WIshm.

Fig.

lb.

Without functional mandibles, or indicated only as small tubercles


or lobes

abdominal segment movable on the 3rd; or appendages free


from fKxch other.
3

2a. 4th

2b. 4th

abdominal segment fixed

to 3rd;

appendages fused

to

each
19

other.

173

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

scxiLpTuf^Ep

y^^px

n(oTMoKA<lc

3a. Maxillary

palpi

present,

separated

^'*

-A^BsoThOitACi

- -A/^re/v/vA

from maxillae by a suture.


4

Fig. 494

MFTATHofiMJK.

Fig.

494. Cephalic aspect of

head and thorax.

3b. Maxillary palpi absent

4a.

Dorsum
in

4b.

of

11

abdomen provided with

fine spines, but not

arranged

rows

The anterior edge of some abdominal segments coyered with a row


7
sometimes with a second posterior row of spines

of spines,

5a. Maxillary palpi extending as


eyes. (See Fig. 497)

a band along

posterior

margin

of

margin of eyes.
.....A few GRACILARIIDAE

5b. Maxillary palpi not extending along posterior


Fig. 495

Hibernation takes place either in adult stage


or in pupal stage.

adult

is

When

in

pupal stage, the

well developed inside.

More than 200


are known.

species of the genus pictured

Many

Fig.
495. a, Lithocolietis hamadryadella Clemens; b, Lithoargentinotelcolletis
lo Clemens 9

174

of

them are highly economic.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment covered by wings.


Family INCURVARIIDAE

6a. Spiracles of 1st


Fig. 496

Pupation takes place in a silken

cocoon

at

the

tnouth of the larval burrow.

Fig.

doxus

496. Proquinque-

punctellus

Cham.

abdominal segment exposed.


Family NEPTICULIDAE

6b. Spiracles of 1st


Fig.

497

When

larva

the

is

full-grown

it

drops to the ground and spins a dense,


flattened silken cocoon witnin the rub-

bish or on the surface of the

soil.

Fig. 497.
Nepticula piqtonello
.:
a, dorsal aspect;
b, ventral aspect.

Clemens

7a.

Middle abdominal segments, each with 2 rows

7b.

Middle abdominal segments, each with

8a.

Cremaster absent, or indicated only


without spines. Fig. 498

by a

row

of spines

of spines

spines; anal rise


Family AEGERIIDAE

a comparatively small
pictured Hves on Hiac and ash.
Fig.

is

498. Podo-

is

made

the larva.

This

scsio syrlngoe
(Harr.)
.

10

tuft of

Pupation takes place in the tunnel which

by

^^

175

family.

The species

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Cremaster well developed/ forming a definite process; or anal

8b.

rise

9a. Last
9b. Last
Fig.

with spines

abdominal segment with a group

of

angular nodules.
Family PHALONIIDAE

abdominal segment with setae only.


Family TORTRICIDAE

499

Pupation takes place in rolled leaves or on


the bark of the host plant.

which are attached

Some

spin cocoons

to other objects or put with-

in debris.

Fig. 499. Laspeyresio


interstinctana Clemens: a, dorsal aspect;
b, ventral aspect.
(U.S.D.A.)

Notum

iOa.

of

Fig. 500

mesothorox prolonged into a long lobe.


Family GLYPHIPTERYGIDAE

The information

of the

pupae

of this family is

very

limited.

Fig.

500.

thopilo
Clerk.

Art-

pariono

Notum

10b.

of

mesothorax not prolonged

into

a long

lobe.

Family TINEIDAE

Fig. 501

Pupation takes place in a silken cocoon or larval


case.

Fig.

501. Tineo

pellionello (L.)3t

176

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Ua. Dorsal head-piece much longer than the prothorax.


12

(See Fig. 502)


lib. Dorsal head-piece not longer than the prothorax

free from 3rd;

abdominal segment

12a. 4th

15

antennae and hind legs


13

not in subequal length

abdominal segment

12b. 4th

rigidly

fastened to 3rd; antennae and

hind legs subequal in length

14

Fig. 502

FamUy TISCHERIIDAE

13a. Labial palpi visible.

Pupation takes

The early stages are leaf-miners.

place in the Spring in the larval mine.

Fig.

502. Tiseh-

eria malifoliella

Clemens.

13b. Lfibial palpi invisible.

Family LYONETIIDAE

Fig. 503

Pupation takes place in a


cocoon which formed on the
leaf under two bands of
silk, or is sometimes naked
and suspended by a few

^\^
fiq

503.

Lyonatio tpculella Clemens.

silk

threads to a bent

leaf.

abdominal segments each with 2 deep punctures at


the anterior margin near the mid-dorsal line; 7th longer than 8th
(PbyUocnistis) LYONETIIDAE
to 10th together

14a. 3rd to 7th

Family GRACILARIIDAE

14b.

Not so

15a.

Cremaster with a

15b.

Cremaster without a stem,

I6a. 1st

distinct stem.

abdominal spiracles
rows

its

(Peronea)

hooks attached

to

TORTRICIDAE

body

invisible; dorsal spines or setae

16

arranged
17

in transverse

177

HOW TO KNOW
16b. 1st

abdominal spiracles

Fig.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

visible; dorsal spines or setae irregular.

504

Fteiily

Pupation takes place in a

which

Fig. 504.
chloris.

17a.

is

LIMACODIDAE

smooth silken cocoon

attached to the host plant.

Euclea

Mesothorax less than twice as long as


quadrangular, widely separated. Fig. 505.

metathorax;
.

maxillae

Family HEPIALIDAE

/fKONT
LABIAL pAtrus

PKOTHOl^ACK

vm/kbMr

The pupa
larval

is

rudimentary,

fitting

the

mandibles

are

slender,

burrow.

Its

but

sharply

Before emergence, the

defined.

pupa leaves

the larval burrow.

CU
Fig.

505. Sthenopis thufe Stkr.


b, lateral aspect.

a, ventral aspect;

17b.

Mesothorax more than twice as long as metathorax;

maxillae
18

longitudinal

abdominal segment movable on 2nd; abdominal segments


with an anterior row of spines and a posterior row of setae.
Family PSYCHIDAE
Fig. 508

18a. 3rd

The pupation takes place in the larval bag


The species pictured
ing to the host plant.
most common one
family
Fig.

is

of its

506. Thyrl-

worth.

178

is

family in our country.

fairly large one.

dopUryx ephemeroeformis Ha-

attach-

the

The

HOW TO KNOW
18b. 3rd

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment fixed on 2nd; abdominal segments with


Family COSSIDAE

both rows of spines. Fig. 507

The pupal stage passes

made by
This,

in the

burrow which was

the larva.

our most important species,

from Europe and

infests

many

was introduced

species of trees.

507. Leopard moth, Zeuzero pyrina L. cJ^

/ig.

19a.

Labium with
Fig.

3 lobes (pilifers distinct).

{f\S^~t^~^^'^^^'^A

20

508

i \\Wn '^^^''5'W
508. Anterior
part of pupa.
Fig.

19b.

Labrum simple

28

or bilobed (pilifers absent)

20a. Maxillary palpi present. (See Fig. 509).

21

20b. Maxillary palpi wanting

22

21a. Epicranial suture wanting; no deep dorsal groove between 9th


and 10th abdominal segments; 8th abdominal segment free on
7th in

male

iAUeYa)

YPONOMEUTIDAE

21b. Epicranial suture distinct at sides; or with a deep dorsal groove


between 9th and 10th abdominal segments; 8th abdominal segment fixed on 7th in both sexes. Fig. 509. .Family PYRALIDIDAE
.

Pupation takes place in various ways: some spin

The

cocoons in dead leaves or under rubbish.


aquatic species spend their pupal stage in

coon beneath the surface

Fig. 5U9. European


corn borer, Pyausta

nubilalis

(Hubner)

179

of the water.

co-

HOW TO KNOW
22a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

With a deep dorsal groove between 9th and 10th abdominal segSubfamily Epipaschiinae, PYRALIDIDAE
ments

23

22b. Not so

23a. Prothoracic
Fig. 510

femur exposed; antennae not swollen.


Family PTEROPHOIUDAE

Pupae usually suspend themselves by


on the host

They are

their

tail

plant.

often spiny.

The adults have divided

wings.

510. Pterophorus tenuidac-

Fig.

tylus Fitch.

23b. Prothoracic femur concealed; antennae swollen

24a. Maxillae in contact with eyes; tip of

mouth parts beyond

24

tip of

wings; pupa usually in a cocoon.

Family HESPERIIDAE

Fig. 511

in

Pupa is rounded, suspended by a Y-shaped


a cocoon.
This family has

girth

some 3000 known species some

of

which are economic.

Fig.

podes

511.

Col-

ethlius

Cr.

24b. Maxillae separated from eyes; tip of


of wings;

pupa usually exposed


180

mouth parts not beyond

tip

25

HOW
25 a.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Pupa normally exposed, rarely in


reaching forward to eyes. Fig. 512

cocoon;

mesothoracic

Family

legs

NYMPHALIDAE

Pupa suspended by the tail or in a girded thin


They are sometimes dull colored but are
often marked with silver or gold.
cocoon.

Fig. 512. Brenthia povonacello

Clemens.

-^

Pupa normally girded

25b.

at middle, rarely in cocoon; mesothoracic

legs not reaching forward to eyes

26

Body roimded; mouth parts not reaching the

26a.

tip of

Family

Fig. 513

The body
girded.

It

butterflies

is

of

pupa

short,

is

LYCAENIDAE

rounded and

closely

Our

smallest

usually smooth and small.

belong

wings.

to this family.

Fig. 513. Lycoenopsis ladon.

Body elongate; mouth parts reaching the

26b.

27a. Anterior

end

of

pupa with

tip of

wings.

27

2 points.

Fig. 514

FamUy PAPILIONIDAE

Pupa loosely girded and with two

points at the an-

terior end.

Most
1

Fig.

of the

members

in this stage.

\^

514. Popilto

Cra-

181

of the family

pass the winter

HOW TO KNOW
27b. Anterior

end

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

pupa with

of

point.

Family PIERIDAE

Fig. 515

The shape
spine and

is

of

pupa

is

angular ending in a single

Many

girded loosely.

species go through

several generations a year, making the pupal stage

very

short.

515. Collldryas eubule.


Fig.

28a. Tip of fore wings far beyond the posterior edge of the 4th ab29
dominal segment; prothoracic femur exposed

28b. Tip of fore wings not beyond the posterior edge of the 4th ab31
dominal segment; prothoracic femur concealed

29a. Maxillary

and

29b. Maxillary

pupa without movable segFomUy LYONETIIDAE


palpi exposed; with several movable ab-

labial palpi concealed;

ments

and

labial

30

dominal segments

Caudal end

30a.

abdomen with

of

lateral projections; maxillary palpi

Family

wanting. Fig. 518

COLEOPHORIDAE

Pupation takes place in the larval case ordinarily


fastened on the host plant.
Pfocrecnot(

Fig. 516. Coleophora malivoreilo Riley.

30b.

Caudal end

of

abdomen without

lateral

projections;

Family

palpi present. Fig. 517

Pupation takes place in a cocoon which

shaped and suspended

Fig.
thris
sis

517.

Sey-

eboraeen-

ZeMer.

182

in

its

maxillary

YPONOMEUTIDAE

larval web.

is spindle-

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

wings usually extending beyond 4th abdominal segment; if


body depressed, antennae adjacent on the middle;
first 4 abdominal segments usually longer than the remainder;
epicranial suture always present
32

3 1 a. Fore

not, then the

wings not extending beyond 4th abdominal segment; if beyond, then the maxillary palpi never present; first 4 abdominal
segments rarely longer than the remainder; epicranial suture

31b. Fore

rarely visible

35

Antennae 4/5 as long as

32a.

fore wings,

palpi distinct
32b.

meeting only at apex; labial


(Scythris)

YPONOMEUTIDAE

Antennae reaching almost to the tip of wings, meeting at middle


and sometimes diverging at apex; labial palpi usually concealed.
33

33a.

Antennae not diverging

33b.

Antennae diverging at apex

apex

at

34

35

34a. Prothoracic legs longer than

mouth

parts.
Fig.

Fig. 518

518. Depressaria heracliane

(Etbmia)

ETHMIIDAE

De Geer.

34b. Prothoracic legs shorter than

mouth

parts.

.A few GELECHIIDAE

35a. Fronto-clypeal suture complete. Fig. 519. ..Family

GELECHIIDAE

Pupation takes place in a silken cocoon.

The family

is a large one with several thousand


and numerous genera. The several species
of Recuivana mine within the needles of the conifers.
The other species pictured is a widely distributed pest

species

of stored grain, feeding


Fig.519. a. Spruce
leaf-miner, RecurV a r a piceaillo
Kearf; b, Sitotroi

ga cerealelia 01 iv.
(U.S.D.A.)

183

and pupating within the

grains.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

35b. Frotito-clypeal suture obsolete in middle.


Fig.

Famay OECOPHORIDAE

520

Pupation takes place

in

hollow stem, or larval web,

or folded leaves, varying differently with the larval


habits.

The larvae are often case makers.

Fig. 520. Cryp'


tolechia querci-

cello

Clemens.

36a. Labial palpi exposed, lanceolate

37

36b. Labial palpi invisible or reduced to

37a.

Body with secondary setae


larval warts.

a small area

(often minute), not

Family

Fig. 521

41

arranged around

LASIOCAMPIDAE

Pupation takes place in a silken cocoon hidden


debris or other objects.

have a smooth exterior. The nearly 30 members


this genus do serious damage to trees.

Fig.

in

Both the pupae and the eggs


of

521. Molp-

cosoma

disstria.

Hubner.

37b.

Body with primary setae

only,

warts

with

setae

around

larval

38

38a. Prothoracic femur

38b. Prothorac.

or

exposed

39

femur concealed

40

abdomen with a group of pyramidal points, setae obscure;


mesothoracic legs touching maxillary palpi; 5th abdominal segment without special ridge
(Diatraea) PYRALIDIDAE

39a. Tip of

184

HOW TO KNOW
39b. Tip of

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdomen with a cremaster

or

hooked cremastrcd setae;

mesothoracic legs not touching maxillary palpi; 5th abdominal

segment with a special

The pupal stage passes

make
for

ways: some

in various

loose cocoons in leaves,

pupation,

NOCTUIDAE

Family

ridge. Fig. 522

some

many pupate under

enter the soil

debris on the

surface of the ground.

The more than 20,000 species of this great family


size and habits that anything said
about the family must be of a general nature. Many
vary so widely in

of the species ore highly

economic and some

most destructive plant pests


collecting

The scars

is

hkely

to turn

up some

of larval

warts with setae not arranged in

Family

40b.

The scars

group.
of

of the

Any
their

pupae.

522. Popoip*nebris Gn. $

40a.

trip

fall in this

of larval with setae

arranged in

circles.

NOCTUIDAE

circles.

Family LYMANTRIIDAE

Fig. 523

is

Pupation takes place in a silken


sometimes mixed with body setae.

cocoon

which

The pupae of the white marked tussock moth, here


taken as an example of the family, are easily located
since they are often wrapped in a dead leaf attached
to the tree or other food plant.
The wingless female
after emergence and fertilization usually deposits her
eggs upon the cocoon and covers them with a white
coat which is weatherproof but which makes the
Fig.

523.

Hem-

rocompo leucos-

whole assembly more conspicuous.

Ngma S. & A.
185

HOW TO KNOW
41a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

MaxUlary palpi present; on thorax and base


cremaster present.
Fig. 524

of

abdomen with a

crest;

Subfamily Galleriinae, PYRALIDIDAE

The caterpillars live ordinarily in the nests of bees


and wasps. The bee moths or waxworms sometimes
do serious damages in beehives. The pupae have
well-marked appendages and are enclosed within a
thick,

Fig.

524.

moth,

tough cocoon.

Wax

Golleria

melonello (L)(5^

41b. Not OS 41a


42a.

42

Antennae club-shaped; cremaster wanting.


iOeneis)

42b.

Antennae not club-shaped;

43a.

The larval warts with setae arranged

43b.

The larval warts with setae arranged not

44a.

Antennae reaching beyond the

44b.

Antennae reaching

so,

if

cremaster present

in circles

46

wings

45

half of fore

less than half of fore wings.

45a. Cremaster as long as 9th

few LYMANTRIIDAE

and

10th abdominal segments together;


Subfamily Pantheinae, NOCTUIDAE

with hooked setae


if

43

44

in circles

45b. Cremaster

NYMPHALIDAE

present, then

abdomen with flanged

plates.

Family ARCTIIDAE

Fig. 525

The

by coarse silk and


The pupation takes place mostly
under leaves or within debris on Ihe ground.
larval

*^^^

cocoon

body

is

usually formed

hairs.

The pupa shown here comes from the very combrick-red and black "banded woolly bear" cater-

mon

pillar
Fig.

525.

isobllo

S.

so

much

in evidence in the Fall.

Isia

&. A.

186

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Body with secondary setae


Body with primary seiae or none
Body with rather coarse, short secondary

setae; cremaster rudi-

mentary. Fig. 526

Family

46a.

46b.
47a.

Pupation takes place in


silken cocoon.
lion

Fig.

526.

byx mori

of

48

white

or

BOMBYCIDAE

yellow

thick

The Chinese silkworm yields 70

raw

mil-

silk annually.

BomL.

Body with

47b.

pounds

47

fine, soft

Fig. 527

secondary setae; cremaster well developed.


Family NOTODONTIDAE

The pupa
en

cell.

is

often

naked and protected by an

earth-

Other species spin a scanty cocoon which

frequently contains

some

of the debris in

which

it

is

placed.
CJ^e^Asrei^

527. Phryganidia colifon


nica Pacic
Fig.

48a.

Antennae not pectinate; spiraculor furrows often present; frontoclypeol suture distinct at ends
49

48b.

Antennae pectinate; spiracular furrows


clypeol suture wanting. Fig. 528

rarely

present;

fronto-

Family SATURNIIDAE

Pupation takes place in dense silken co-

-V PKote^ SCAK

coons which have been utilized for

man.

Fig.

528. Somia ceeropio

187

silk

by

HOW TO KNOW
49a.

Antennae usually

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

width rarely greater than


then cremaster always
present; antennae never more than
the length of wings; epicranial suture always wanting; scar of dorsal horn of 8th abdominal segment usually present; labial palpi never visible.
Fig. 529
Family SPHINGIDAE
filiiorm, the greatest

that of the prothoracic legs,

ii

greater,

Pupation takes place in the ground in

Fig.

529. Tobacco
sexto

Protoparce

homworm,
(Johans-

sen).

49b.

an earthen cell which is made by the


soil and the body fluid. A few species
pupate on the surface of the ground in a
simple cocoon composed of leaves fastened with

silk.

Antennae usually broader near the proximal end, their greatest


width usually greater than that of the prothoracic legs; antennae
usually more than Va length of wings, if not, then epicranial suture is present, or the cremaster is wanting, or if present then bifurcate at the distal end or bearing hooked setae; dorsum of abdomen usually with a deep groove between 9th and 10th abdominal segments; scar of dorsal horn of 8th abdominal segment never
50
present; labial palpi sometimes visible

more than 3/5 length of wings; if not, then the


caudal end of body with hooked setae, or 3rd abdominal spiracle
concealed by wings; prothoracic femur often exposed; a deep
furrow usually present on the dorsum of abdomen between the
Family GEOMETRIDAE
9th and 10th segments. Fig. 530

50a. Maxillae usually

Pupation takes place in the

soil

with or without a

silken cocoon.

This rather large family includes


cies,

Fig.

530.

many

of

some

2,000 spe-

which ore well known.

Bre-

phos infans
Moesch.

seldom more than 3/5 length of wings; if so, then the


margin of mesothorax with a row of deep pits or entire
body punctate; 3rd abdominal spiracle never concealed by wings;
prothoracic femur never exposed; cremaster T-shaped.
Family NOTODONTIDAE

50b. Maxillae

posterior

188

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

ORDER DIPTERA
Key

to the

LARVAE

more important families

of the

(After John R. Malloch, 1917)

la.

Mandibles moving horizontally; head complete,


not, the posterior portion with deep longi-

ii

tudinal incisions, or the thorax

and abdomen

together consisting of 13 segments. Fig. 531.

Suborder
series

ORTHORRHAPHA,

NEMATOCERA

F.g. 531.

Head

of

Cuiex sp.

lb.

Mandibles moving

head incomplete,

vertically;

.-S

without a strongly developed upper arcuate plate.


2

Fig. 532

Fig. 532. Anterior part of body,

showing the mandibles.

2a.

distinct; mandibles
antennae well developed on

Maxillae well developed, palpi

normally

sickle-like;

the upper surface of

slightly arcuate sclerotized

dorsal plate. Fig. 533.

Suborder

ORTHORRHAPHA,
series BRACHYCERA

2b. Maxillae poorly developed, palpi visible only in


mandibles short and hook-like; antennae poorly

when

absent,

present situated upon

a few

a membranous
Suborder

Fig. 534

533. Doraspect of
head.
Fig.
sal

16

larvae:
or
surface.

developed

CYCLORRHAPHA^

rv

Fig.

534. a, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Calif. Exp. Sta.); b, Hessian fly, Phytophaga destructor (Soy)
(U.S.D.A.); c, Eristalis bastard! Macq.; d, Toxomerus politus Soy; e, Leucopis
Sriseora Fall (U.S.D.A.); f, Common cattle grub, Hypoderma
lineotum De Vill) in host sk\n (U.S.D.A.); g; Mediterranean
fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) with an anterior respiratory organ (Calif. Exp. Sta.).

^Key to families

is

not available.

189

HOW
3a.

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Head incomplete; thorax and abdomen combined

consisting of 13

segments; larvae peripneustic; usually with a sclerotized plate on


ventral surface of mesothorax. Fig. 535. ..Family

CECIDOMYIDAE

The larvae ore mostly gall-makbut some are predacious on


scale-insects and others live in
decaying organic
matter.
The
Hessian fly, Phytophaga destructor (Say) is a serious pest of
wheat. The larvae live and feed
on the stem beneath the leaf
sheaths, where pupation also takes
ers,

Fig.

555.

Retinodiplosis

inops O.

S.

place.

3b.

4a.

Not so

Head and

thorax and

1st

and 2nd abdominal segments


abdomen with a

larvae with minute abdominal spiracles;

fused;

ventral

longitudinal series of sucker-like discs.

Family

Fig. 536

BLEPHAROCERATIDAE

The adults are called net-winged midges. The larlive in swift-flowing streams and feed on algae
and diatoms. They may be found clinging to the

vae

rocks.

Fig.

536. Bibio-

cephala

4b.

Pupation takes place in the water.

sp.

Head

free, or

if

retracted within or fused with prothorox the other

thoracic segments are distinct

5a.

Head complete; mandibles opposed.


190

HOW TO KNOW
5b.

Head incomplete
slits (2

posteriorly, either with

on dorsum and

sclerotized

and

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

on

deep wedge-shaped

venter), or ventral suriace

very poorly

the dorsal one posteriorly in the form of 4 slender

heavily sclerotized rods, with a weakly sclerotized divided plate on

Family TIPULIDAE

anterior hali of the dorsum. Fig. 537.

There are about 6,000 spe*


of crane flies describ-

cies

The larvae are commoncalled leather


jackets.
They are aquatic, semiaquatic, and some are terrestrial.
ed.

ly

feed upon decaying


wood, decaying vegetations,

They
Fig.

537. Tipula eiuta Loew.

fungi,

moss,

many

plant:*.

and

roots

few are

of
leaf

miners.

Sa. Thoracic

segments fused ond

dilated, forming

a complex mass.
Family

Fig. 538

CUUCIDAE

Around 2,000 species of moshove been described.


The larvae are aquatic and
quitoes

live in various types

water

and even

in

of fresh

brackish

and

salt water. The cxilicine


larvae rest under water surface with the body obliquely
placed while the anophelines
ore horizontally placed. Many
species of female mosquitoes
are the vectors of human diseases. Anopheles are respon-

sible

for

malaria and Aedes

cany

the causative agent


yellow fever and dengue.

6b. Thoracic

7a.

segments

distinct.

Larvae peripneustic, or with at least rudimentary abdominal

spir-

acles

7b.

of

Larvae amphipneustic or metopneustic


191

11

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Larvae with rudimentary abdominal spiracles; mouth with a large


on each side which bears a nimiber of long
hairs and closes, fan-like, when at rest; posterior abdominal segments dilated, the last one armed on venter with a sucker-like disc
which bears concentric series of bristles; aquatic species.
Family SIMULIIDAE
Fig. 539

8a.

articulated process

About 300 species

of buffalo gnats or

black

The larvae live mostly in


swift fresh water and congregate in masses on
their webs on rocks in water. The larvae are
often so abundant as to completely cover the
rocks to which they are attached. The female
bites and causes painful swellings. They are
flies

are described.

disease carriers.
Simulium
Hagen; b, S.
venusfum Say; c, S.
sp.
(Utah Agr. Exp.
pictipes

Sta.)

though sometimes small abdominal spiracles;


processes; posterior abdominal segments
not noticeably dilated, the last one without sucker-like disc; ter-

Larvae with

8b.

distinct

mouth without
restrial

fan-like

species

Antennae elongate; body armed with

9a.

conspicuous bristles or
10

hairs
9b.

Antennae usually short and inconspicuous, sometimes apparently


absent; body without conspicuous bristles.
Family MYCETOPHILIDAE
Fig. 540
Around 2,000 species of the fungus gnats have been described.
The larvae inhabit damp places
in large numbers. They are active
and able to leap. Their food is
Fig. 540, Exechio nativo Johannsen.
decaying vegetation and fungi.
Some species are recorded as
pests of mushrooms.

10a.

Anal spiracles
ses.

at the apices of

a pair

of

long stalk-like proces-

Family SCATOPSIDAE

Fig. 541

The larvae live in dung, in


decaying organic matter, or under the loose bark of decaying
trees.
Kig.

541.

Rhegmoclema atrata

Their adults are known


or minute

as dung midges,
black scavengers.

Say.

192

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Ancd spiracles not noticecd)ly elevated, situated near base of


dorsal surface of caudal segment.
Fig. 542
Family BIBIONIDAE
About 500 species of the March flies
have been described. The larvae live
in and feed on decaying vegetable
matter, dung, and the roots of grasses,
Fig. 542. Bibio olbipennis Say.
cereals and vegetables. They are sometimes very abundant.

10b.

11a. Dorsal surface of 1st

wart-like elevations.

Fig.

543.

and 2nd abdominal segments each with 2


Family DIXIDAE
Only around 10 species

Fig. 543

Dixo

have been described in


the United States. The
larvae are aquatic and
feed on algae. The body
is bent and moves by altemote thrusts of the two

sp.

ends

of the

portion
lib. Dorsal surface of 1st

is

body, the bent


foremost.

and 2nd abdominal segments without

vated processes

some

ele-

12

segments with narrow^ sclerotized straplike transverse bands; or the apical segment In the form of a
short sclerotized tube; rarely the ventral abdominal segments bear

12a. All or

of the dorsal

central series of sucker^like discs.

.Family

Fig. 544

PSYCHODIDAE

The larvae are aquatic or


terrestrial and some live in
drain pipes. They feed on decaying matter, dung, fungi and
sewage. The adults are called
sand flies or moth flies. Some
sand flies are the carriers of

human
Fig.

544.

Psychoda superba Banks.

diseases.

Flebatomus

argentipes Annandale
netti,

F.

&

Brun-

major Annandale,

F.

chinensis Patton & Kindle are


the carriers of kala azar.
12b.

Dorsum without narrow, sclerotized, strap-like bands; apical segment not in the form of a short sclerotized tube; ventral abdominal

13a.

segments never with sucker-like discs

13

Antennae undeveloped, appearing as pale roimd spots on side


head; ventral surface of head with sclerites contiguous anter-

of

iorly,

widely separated posteriorly. ...Family


193

MYCETOPHILIDAE

HOW TO KNOW
13b.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Antennae pedunculate, usually well developed; ventral surface


head with sclerites contiguous for entire length, not separated

of

14a.

14b.

widely posteriorly

14

Abdominal segments not sixbdivided


Abdominal segments subdivided by means

15
of

transverse con-

Family TIPULIDAE
15a. (a) Aquatic larvae very slender, tapering towards both ends;
without thoracic or anal pseudopods or surface hairs (except about
8 at apex of abdomen), (b) Terrestrial larvae sioUt, with well-defined segments which are armed with strong bristles, some of
which are lanceolate; pseudopods present.
Fig. 545
Family CERATOPOGONIDAE
strictions

The members

of this famare called biting midges,


punkies, or sand flies. Their
larvae are aquatic, semiaquatic or terrestrial.
The
latter live in moist himius
The
^^^
^ under bark.
aquatic species inhabit various types of water including seashore and salt lokes.
The adults suck blood from
ily

\^

'

\\/\\/C\\^\i}\)/

oV^Si^/l^SiJC^

^^'u^l (IaI
mJ^"^^^?^^^

AI

\I

4)F1^
**

\^-^
Fig.

545.

Forcipomyia specuiaris Coq.

other insects and mammals.


Some species ore the vectors
15b.

of filaria worms.
Larvae rarely very slender, generally of an almost xmiform thickness, rarely with the thoracic segments appreciable swollen but
not fused; abdominal and thoracic segments frequently with
rather noticeable soft hairs, the last segment almost invariably
with a conspicuous tuft of hairs on dorsum near apex; pseudopods almost always present, sometimes (very rare) only the
thoracic one distingmshable in terrestrial forms.
Fig. 546
Family CHIRONOMIDAE

Around 2,000 species of the


midges have been described. The
larvae are aquatic or terrestrial.
The aquatic species live in various types of water including salt
lakes and ORpn sea. Some feed on
Fig.

546.

the water surface, others make


s^^^^ cases and attach to rocks
or other objects on the bottom or
in mud. The blood worms are red

Comptoeiadius byssiniu.

colored larvae.
The terrestrial
species live in dung, fungi, mosses and decaying vegetation.
194

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

approximated, situated within a terminal or


or chamber, usually concealed; body entirely
shagreened or wholly or in part longitudinally striated
17

16a. Posterior spiracles

subterminal

cleft

widely separated, visible, situated on


apical segment, which may be tnmcated, sclerotized, or armed
with apical processes; or upon penultimate or antepenultimate
segment; body not shagreened or visibly striated
18
17a. Head not retractile; body flattened, surface finely shagreened,
16b. Posterior spiracles rather

sometimes with lateral abdominal spiracles, without vestigial


pseudopods; spiracular fissure transverse, sometimes rather small;

pupae enclosed

in larval skin.

Fig. 547

Family

About

STRATIOMYIDAE

1,200 species of the soldier flies

Some

described.

have been

larvae live in water and feed on

decaying matter and algae or prey on small aquatic


Some possess a long breathing tube on the

animals.

caudal end.
rotting

Some

live in

mud,

in fruit, in

dung or

wood.

547. Geosorgus viridos Say.

Fig.

17b.

Head

retractile;

body

cylindrical, surface not shagreened, usually

longitudinally striated;

abdomen

each segment; spiracular

with a girdle of pseudopods on

fissure vertical;

pupae

free.

Family

Fig. 548

Around

TABANIDAE

have been
The larvae are spindle-shaped, living in
water or damp places. The flies ore blood-sucking
insects and biting on warm-blooded animals including man. Some of them are disease carriers.
2,500 spedies of the horse flies

described.

F-ig.

548.

Tabo-

mts otrotus Fab.

195

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

18a. Posterior spiracles situated

upon apical segment,

18b. Posterior spiracles situated

upon penultimate or antepenultimate

19

segment

23

head and flattened apical plate of terminal


abdominal segment heavily sclerotized/ the former cone-shaped,
entirely closed except at extreme apex, not retractile; the latter
obliquely tnmcate and with projecting processes.
Fig. 549
Family XYLOPHAGIDAE

19a. Projecting portion of

The larvae ore found in the soil or imder the bark


They feed upon the larvae of other

of rotten trees.
insects.

The members
r^'ss

Fig.

better

known

of this small family ore related to the

soldier flies

and

to the horseflies.

549. Xylolugens

phagus
Loew.

head more or less retractile, not cone-shaped,


the movable portion not enclosed; apical abdominal segment
without a heavily sclerotized flattened terminal plate
20

19b. Projecting portion of

20a. Apical

abdominal segment ending

in 2 long processes

which are

fringed with long soft hairs; abdomen with paired pseudopods


fleshy dorsal and lateral appendages.

and

FamUy RHAGIONIDAE

Fig. 550

Some

larvae live in fresh

water with flattened body


while others live in dung,

wood

or fungi with cylindri-

cal body. They ore predacious and feed on small ani-

mals.
Fig.

550. Atherix sp.

make

Some Vermileo can

ant-trapping pits in
dust or sand similar to those
of the ant-lions. The adults
are known as snipe flies.
196

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment not as above; paired abdominal


pseudopods usually absent; other appendages always absent.. .21

20b. Apical

21a. Apical abdominal segment ending in 4 short pointed processes or


2 fleshy lips; internal portion of head with a large, arched, sclerotized upper plate, the longitudinal rods and other cephalic parts

on a horizontal plane

Family

RHAGIONIDAE

abdominal segment not as above, or the internal portion


head without arched upper plate, and the longitudinal cephalic
rods and other cephalic parts meet at right angles
22

21b. Apical
of

abdominal segment without projecting processes, spiracles


very small; parasites of spiders.
Fig. 551
Fanuly CYRTIDAE

22a. Apical

Around 200 species


known. The

first

of the

humpbacked

flies

instar larvae are caraboid in

with distinct segments and two

long

anal

are

form

bristles.

They feed on spider eggs and spiders. They change


to eruciform larva which is not so active as the first
instar.

Fig. 551. Pterodontia flavipes


Grog. ]st instar.

22b. Apical

abdominal segment frequently with projecting processes,


mud, earth, or decaying

spiracles large; species live in water,

vegetable matter.
Fig. 552

FamUy EMPIDAE and

family

DOLICHOPIDAE

Empidae: About 1,600 species of


the dance flies are known. The
larvae live in water or in decaying vegetation, dead wood, soil

and mosses where they feed upon

Fig.

552.

Dolichopus sp.

small animals.
Dolichopidae: About 2,000 species of the long-legged flies have
been described. The larvae are
mostly aquatic and feed on other
insects. Some are found in plant
stems or under tree bark.
197

HOW

TO KNOW THE IMMATURE INSECTS

situated upon the antepenultimate segment;


abdominal segments 1-6 subdivided, the body apparently consisting of 20 segments exclusive of the head
24

23a. Posterior spiracles

23b. Posterior spiracles situated upon penultimate segment; abdominal


segments simple, the body apparently consisting of 11 or 12 segments exclusive of the head
25

24a. Posterior dorsal internal extension of head spatulate at apex;


ventral posterior projections in the form of 2 short sclerotized
rods. Fig. 553
Family THEREVIDAE

T^n^r^rnTTTTsr-^^

=i^^^4^^'?4^<^^-'-^^^
553.

Fig.

Psilocepholo

About 300 species have


been described. The larvae
frequent sandy soil, fungi
^^^ decaying wood. They
feed upon earthworms and
O*^^

hoemorrhoidolis

Macquart.

Soft-bodied insectS OI
organic
matter.
adults are known as

decaying

The

stilleto flies.

24b. Posterior dorsal extension of head not spatulate at apex; ventral


posterior projections absent. Fig. 554
Family SCENOPINIDAE

About 50 species

have

been

described.

The

larvae ore sometimes found in houses under carpets or in furniture

and

also in decaying wood.

Their food habits are thought

One

species

is

to

be predacious.

thought to destroy the larvae of

carpet beetles.
Fig. 554. Ventral
aspect of head of
Scenopinus fenes-

tralis

L.

abdominal segment longer than ultimate, with a deep


transverse depression near its apex giving it the appearance of
2 distinct segments; ultimate segment terminating in a sharp ridge
with a median sharp point, on either side of which dorsally and
ventrally are situated 4 very closely approximated; hairs.
Family MYDAIDAE
Fig. 555

25a. Penultimate

Fig.

555.

Mydos clovotus

Around 100 specie. have


been described. Both adults
and larvae are predacious. The
larvae are found in decaying
wood. The adults are known as
m'ydas flies and ore often conspicuously marked.

Drury.

198

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment shorter than ultimate, or if longthen without a deep transverse depression; apical segment
not as above, the hairs not closely approximated
26

25b. Penultimate
er,

26a. Thoracic segments each with 2 long hairs, one on each side on
ventro-lateral margin; apical segment with 6 or 8 long hairs;

head well developed, forwardly protruded, and more or less coneshaped when viewed from above, appearing flattened when viewed from side; penultimate segment usually shorter than ultimate
or not much longer; body straight in life.
Fig. 556
Family ASILIDAE
Around 4,000 species of the
robber flies have been described.
The larvae inhabit soil
with decaying
Fig.

556.

Promochus vertebrotus Say.

organic

matter

where they prey upon other


insect larvae.

segments without hairs, if present, they are very weak;


apical segment without distinguishable hairs; head not mucli

26b. Thoracic

downward, not cone-shaped, with a dorsal protuberance when viewed from side; penultimate segment distinctly
longer than ultimate; body usually curved in a half circle in life.
Fig. 557
FamUy BOMBYLIIDAE
protruded, directed

About

1,800 species of bee


are known. The first instar larvae are slender and
legless with hairs on thorax
and anal region which disap-

flies

pear in the latter instars. They


are predacious or parasitic on
the larvae of bees and wasps,

Fig.

pupae of tsetse flies, caterpillars and also on the eggs of


beetles and grasshoppers. Some
Hemipenthes have been reared

557. Spomopolius ffulvus Wied.

from

ichneumonid

That would suggest


ore hyperparasitic.

Key

to the

PUPAE

of the
of

cocoons.
they

that

more important families

DIPTERA

(After John R. Malloch, 1917)


la.

Pupa not enclosed within the larval skin, if so, the head is distinct
as in the larva, or the puparium is slightly flattened dorso-ventrally, its texture

leathery, not sclerotized,

and the

anterior respiratory

organs not distinguishable; adult or pupa emerges through a


tangular split on dorsum of larval skin.
Suborder ORTHORRHAPHA
199

rec-

HOW TO KNOW
lb.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

the larval skin; head always retracted, the


occupying a position on the inner side of the
ventral surface of the puparium; anterior respiratory organs distinct, either protruded from the antero-lateral angles of the cephalic
extremity or from dorsum of base of abdomen; adult usually
emerges by forcing off the rounded anterior extremity of the pupar-

Pupa enclosed with

sclerotized portion

in cap-like form, or the dorsal half of the thoracic portion


the lines of cleavage being along the lateral margins to a point at
base of abdomen; rarely emergence is through a rectangular
splitting of the dorsum of the puparium.

ium

Suborder

Fig. 558

Fig.

558.

CYCLORRHAPHA*

a, Toxomerus polltus Say; b, Phytophogo destructor (Say)


(U.S.D.A.); c, Sheep bot fly. Oestrus ovis L. (Ohio Exp. Sta.);
Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh); e, Leucopis griseolo Fall

d,

(U.S.D.A

2a.

Antennae much elongated,

distinctly visible beneath the pupal


normally curving well over upper margin of eyes and extending to or beyond base of wing, in some cases almost to apex of
wing; head without strong thocns (except in some Cecidomyiidae
and a few Tipulidae); thoracic respiratory organs much elongated
or sessile; abdomen sometimes unarmed in the species with short
3
Series NEMATOCERA
antennae
skin,

2b.

Antennae shorter, projecting downward and outward, not curving


over the eyes or reaching nearly to base of wing; head usually
with strong thorns or horns; thoracic respiratory organs sessile,
rarely stalk-like; abdomen usually armed with strong spines or
bristles, or if unarmed there are only 4 or 5 distinct pairs of abSeries

dominal spiracles

3a.

BRACHYCERA

21

several strong thorns in a vertical series on the median


living in galls, sometimes in the hardened larval skin
Family CECIDOMYIDAE
resembling a flaxseed. Fig. 559

Head with
line;

and

pupae

Pupation takes place in

dif-

ways: some pupae are


naked, some are borne in puparia and a few in silken coferent

Fig.

*Key

COOnS.

559. Monardio sp.

to families

is

not available.

200

HOW TO KNOW
3b.

Head without

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

strong thorns, or

if

at

base

of

each antenna with a

protuberance, thus not sharp; pupae not living in galls, but usually free

and not enclosed

in larval skin,

if

enclosed the larval moult

does not resemble a muscoid puparium

4a. Thoracic respiratory

organs

abdomen

sessil;

without strong thorns

or leaf like elevations; legs straight

4b. Thoracic respiratory

organs stalked, or

if

the

sessile

abdomen

with strong thorns or leaf-like elevations, or the legs are recurved

abdomen and apex

against base of

of thorax, or the

coxae do not

conceal the stemopleura and the scape of the antennae

is

almost

globose; legs straight or recurved

5a.

Legs

short, apices of

of wings;

antennae

hind

short,

tarsi projecting slightly

beyond apices

curved across middle of eye.

Family BIBIONIDAE

Fig. 560

Pupation takes place in on earthen

cell

in

the

ground.
This family, numbering

some 500

species, contains

a few members which are sometimes exceedingly


The species pict\ired is our most comnimierous.

mon

one.

All of the

members

of the family

seem

to

be vegetable feeders.

Fig. 560. Bibio


olbipennit Say.

5b.

Legs elongate, usually

all tarsi projecting for

a considerable

dis-

tance beyond apices of wings; antennae elongate, extending to or

beyond base

of

wings

201

HOW TO KNOW
6a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Thorax conspicuously swollen, almost globose,


declivous; stemopleura concealed.
Fig. 561

its

anterior profile

Family MYCETOPHILIDAE

Pupation takes place mostly in delicate cocoons and

a few ore suspended by some loose

silk

from the

sur-

face of fungi or other objects.

561. Leia
oblectobiNt
Loew.

Fig.

6b.

Thorax not conspicuously swollen, the anterior

profile not sloping

downward
7a.

Scape of antennae much swollen, globose; abdominal spiracles


small or absent; stemopleura enlarged, not concealed by fore
Family CHIRONOMIDAE
coxae and femora. Fig. 562

Some pupae
float

at

are

active

and

water surface, but some

remain in the larval tube. The


respiratory organs either consist
of a pair of branched filaments or
-.

Fig.

7b.

^^^
,
562. Tanypus

illinoensis

of

,.
Mall.

a simple
^

tube.

Scape of antennae not much swollen; abdominal spiracles distinct;


stemopleura not visible, concealed by large coxae and femora of
Family CECIDOMYIDAE
the fore legs
respiratory organs slender, long and tube-like; legs
extending well beyond apices of wings; body without
armature except a pair of hairs on anterior margin of head; stemoFamily CECIDOMYIDAE
pleura concealed

8a. Thoracic
straight,

such combination of characters;


with hairs or spines, or stemopleura exposed

8b. Species not in

202

abdomen usually
9

HOW TO KNOW
9a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Pupa in a pocket-shaped or slipper-shaped cocoon consisting of


coarse threads, thoracic respiratory organ projecting from the wide
open end. Fig. 563
Family SIMULIIDAE

Pupation takes place in the pocket-like co-

coon which

is

made by

the larva.

The

res-

piratory organs are tube-Uke filaments which


Fig.

protrude from the cocoon.

Simuvenustum
pupa and

563.

lium

Say,
cocoon.

Pupa free, or if enclosed or partly so the cocoon is not pocketand respiratory organs do not consist of tube-like filaments.. 10
10a. Pupa when seen from above oval in outline; the abdominal base

9b.

like

not conspicuously narrower than thorax, so that the lateral outline is continuous; dorsal surface with strong integument
11
10b. Pupa with abdomen well differenciated from thorax; the dorsum
membranous, or if strong and almost sclerotized, then surface
with well developed spines
12
11a. Thoracic respiratory organs lamelliform, consisting of 4 flat
plates, the broad sides of which are contiguous.
Fig.

Family

564

BLEPHAROCERATIDAE

Pupation takes place in the


place occupied by the larvae
often results in large
Fig.

of

564. Bibiocephala sp.

lib. Thoracic respiratory

organs simple,

tube-like.

Family

Fig. 565

numbers

individuals being produced.

PSYCHODIDAE

Pupation takes place in the same habitat as that of

Fig.

the larvae.

The pupa usually carries the larval

uviae at

caudal end.

its

565.

choda

Psysuperbo

Banks.

203

ex-

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment terminating in 2 or 4 paddle-like or


iin-shaped organs which are fringed on all or part of outer surface by strap-like hairs; or ii the apical segment terminates in
2 long subcorneal processes, the tarsi are recurved against the
ventral surface of the base of the abdomen and apex of thorax
13
so that they do not extend beyond apices of wings

12a. Apical

abdominal segment obtuse, armed with short or elongate


spines or thorns; or if ending in a pair of long, slender processes
they are more or less oval in cross section and without strap-like
hairs; tarsi generally entirely straight, rarely the apices of the
18
hind pair incurved slightly, but never recurved as above

12b. Apical

13a. Thoracic respiratory

filaments

organs terminating in numerous thread-like


Family CHIRONOMIDAE

13b. Thoracic respiratory organs consisting of a single stem, in some


cases with a few long, or many short, scale-like, surface hairs,

but never terminating in numerous thread-like filaments; occasion14


ally the thoracic respiratory organs not elevated
14a. Thoracic respiratory

organs not elevated; stemopleura exposed.


Family CHIRONOMIDAE

14b. Thoracic respiratory

organs conspicuously elevated

15a. Thoracic respiratory organs situated close to anterior


thorax; no stellate hairs on thorax and abdomen.

Family
15b. Thoracic respiratory

organs situated close

margin

of

CHIRONOMIDAE

middle of thoracic
16

dorsum
16a. Apical

to

15

abdominal segment ending

like plates.

in 2 or 4 broad, flat, paddle-

Family CULICIDAE

Fig. 566

The pupae are very active and float at water


by a pair of trumpet-like
respiratory organs on the thorax. This permits
their destruction by oil or poisons placed on
surface to breath air

the surface of the water.

Fig. 566.

Culex

sp.

204

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

abdominal segment ending

16b. Apical

in

long

subcorneal

cesses

pro17

17a. Apical processes


of outer

armed with

short hairs at apices

and on middle

Family CULICIDAE

margin

17b. Apical processes

unarmed.

Family DIXIDAE

Fig. 567

The pupae closely resemble the pupae


.^

of Culicidae both in habit

and

in

appear

ance.

Fig.

567. Dixo sp.

18a.

Apices of legs not extending beyond apices of wings

19

18b.

Apices of legs extending beyond apices of wings

20

19a. Apical

segment of abdomen ending in 2 conical processes.


Family CERATOPOGONIDAE

Fig. 568

The information

of

pupae

of

this

family

is

very

limited.

Fig.

568.

pomyio

Pal-

sp.

19b. Apical

segment

of

abdomen ending

in 2

upper and 2 lower short

FamUy PSYCHODIDAE

thorns

205

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

20a. Thoracic respiratory organs long, bifid; apical abdominal segment rounded, without processes; abdominal spiracles pedunculate.

Fig. 569

Family SCATOPSIDAE

The biology

of the

pupae

of

this

family

is

not

known.

569. Rheg-

Fig.

moclema atrato
Say.

20b. Thoracic respiratory organs simple; apical abdominal segment


not rounded, generally armed with protuberances.

FamUy TIPULIDAE

Fig. 570

Pupation takes place at the


similar situation as the larval.
Fiq.

21a.

570. Pochyrrhina ferruginea Fab.

Pupa enclosed within

larval skin.

Family STRATIOMYIIDAE

Fig. 571

Pupation takes place in

soil or

near the place where the larvae

under debris
live.

The family numbers more than 1,000 species.


The eggs are variously placed in mud, water or
waste materials.
Fig.

gaster
nine.

571. Neopoehymaculicornis

22

21b. ^ispa free.

206

HOW TO KNOW
22a. Prothorax with
spiracle.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

a long aperture mesad

of

and connected with the


Family

Fig. 572

TABANIDAE

The pupae are cylindrical


and elongate with thoracic
spiracles connected subcutane-

ously with a large cavity on


the prothorax.
.Fig.

572.

Tobanus losiophthalmus Macq.

22b. Not as 22a


23a.

23

Head without strong iorwordly directed thorns, at most with 1


thorn on base of antenna which is directed to the side: abdominal
armature weak becoming gradually stronger towards apex of
basal abdominal segment; apices of hind tarsi at most extending
slightly beyond apices of wings; abdomen with 7 pairs of spir24

acles
23b.

Head usually with

strong thorns, or if absent, the abdominal arstronger on basal of 2nd segment than it is on apical,
or there are less than 7 pairs of abdominal spiracles; apices of
26
hind tarsi usually distinctly beyond apices of wings

mature

is

24a. Antennal sheaths much thickened at base, apical portion slender,


styliform, the whole directed almost straight downward.

RHAGIONIDAE

Family

Fig. 573

The

information

the biology of
this
Fig.

family

is

the

concerning

pupae of

quite limited.

573. Chrysopilus ornotus Say.

24b. Antennal sheaths thickened throughout their length, the apical


portion generally more or less distinctly onnulated, the whole
directed either straight sideways or in a slightly downward direction

25

25a. Antennal sheaths

showing much more than 10 annulations.


Subfamily Rhachicerinae, RHAGIONIDAE

25b. Antennal sheaths

showing not more than 10 annulations.


Family XYLOPHAGIDAE

Fig. 574

Information about the pupae


is

Fig.

574.

Xylophagus lugens Loew.

207

very limited.

HOW TO KNOW
26a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

without strong thorns; abdomen with 3 to 4 distinct pairs


and without spinose armature.
Family CYRTIDAE
Fig. 575

Head

of spiracles

Pupation takes place in web, or burrow, or under


the place

Fig.

some

other objects near

where the host

died.

575. Ogcodes costatus

Loew.

26b.

Head usually with

strong thorns, at least with elevated ridgeantennal sheath and several small carinated elevations; ab27
domen with 7 pairs of spiracles and spinose armature

like

27a.

Head

27b.

Head with more than

28a.

Abdomen with a single transverse series oi spines on each dorsal


segment; wing with a long thorn at base.
Family THEREVIDAE
Fig. 576

with 2 thorns.

2 thorns or with several short tubercles.. .29

The pupae are

free

and the pupation takes place

in the soil.

The adults of this small family are known as stilThe larvae are apparently predacious.

leto flies.

Fig.

576. Psilo-

cephala

haemMac-

orrhoidalis
quart.

/ 28b. Abdomen with

2 transverse series oi spines

on each dorsal seg-

Family
ment; wings without thorns at base
Little is known about the biology of the pupae.
208

SCENOPINIDAE

HOW TO KNOW
29a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Upper pair of cephalic thorns directed sideways and slightly


upward; apices of wings extending to or very slight beyond apex
of 1st abdominal segment; apices of middle tarsi not extending
Family MYDAIDAE
to apices of wings. Fig. 577

The
r

jPI

is
Fig.

577.

available

information

about the biology of the pupae

very limited.

Mydos clovatus Drury

29b.

Upper pairs of cephalic thorns directed forward, at most slightly


divergent apically, generally slightly curved downward, or head
without strong upper thorn
30

30a.

Head with strong thorns, if absent the abdomen with dorsal


transverse armature consisting of very strong thorns and intervening long slender hairs; apices of antennae obtuse
31

30b.

Head very rarely with thorns, 2 carinate elevations present on


upper anterior margin; antennae with attenuated apices; body
32
without thorns, sometimes with bristles

31a.

Lower median portion of face with a closely approximated pair


which are occasionally fused almost to apices;
abdomen with transverse armature on dorsal segments consisting
of short flattened thorns and long slender hairs, the thorns usualof stout thorns

ly appearing as

if

attached

to,

rather than forming part of the


at bases and apices.

abdomen and sometimes turned up

Family BOMBYLIIDAE

Fig. 578

When

the

parasite

fully

is

grown then it leaves the host


and enters the soil for pupation.
Fig.

578.

Spogostylum

olbofasciotum

Macquart.

31b.

Lower median portion of face without thorns; abdomen with transverse armature consisting of alternating long and short thorns.
Family ASILIDAE
Fig. 579
Pupation takes place in

soil.

However, the pupae have the


habit of coming to the surface
of soil shortly before the
Fig.

579.

Ceroturgus cruciatus Say.

209

gence

of the adult.

emer-

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

32a Cephalic armature consisting of 2 carinated elevations on upper


anterior margin, on each of which is a very long hair; antennal
sheath raised above level of face, tapering apically, directed
downward and slightly outward; proboscis often much elongated.
Fig.

Family EMPIDAE

580

Pupation takes

Fig.

580.

place

cocoon which

is

ed with wood

particles.

in

densely coat-

Dropetis nigra Meigen.

32b/ Similar to Empidae, but proboscis never elongated.


Fig. 581

Family DOLICHOPIDAE

Pupation takes place in an


earthen cell or in a cocoon made
by wooden fragments and silk.
The pupa possesses a pair of
elongate thoracic respiratory horns
which protruded outside of the
pupal cell or cocoon.
Pig.

581. Aphrosylus praedator

ORDER HYMENOPTERA
(From H. Yuasa, 1923)
la.

Body caterpillar-like, thoracic legs usually present; head much


more strongly sclerotized than the rest of the body; prolegs usually developed,

if

absent the body

is

caterpillar-like;

antennae

al-

most always present

and more than 1-segmented; mandibles


heavily sclerotized almost always with more than 1 tooth; ocelli
often present; larvae generally free living, or plant borers, a few
are gall-makers (But the members of the family Orussidae is parasitic)

Suborder
210

CHALASTOGASTRA

HOW TO KNOW
lb.

Body maggot-like,
soft,

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


head not strongly

legless;

unsegmented; mandibles weak

sclerotized;

antennae

almost never more than an

apical tooth; ocelli wanting; larvae parasitic, or parasitoidal, or

upon the food supplied by the

living

adult,

Fig. 582

Fig

a few are gall-makers.

Suborder

CLISTOGASTRA*

Some parasitic larvae with hypermetamorphosis; g, AphHold Aphelinidae; h, Chelonus sp. (Braconidae) ;
Euplectrus plathypenae How. (Eulophidae) ; j, Vespa macutoto Kirby (Vespidae); k .Monomorium minimum Buckley
(Formicidae)

582. a-f,-

elinus moli

i,

2a. Thoracic legs present, either

normal in form and

mented or modified; if modified, fleshy or


and body depressed
2b. Thoracic legs not distinctly

normal

conical,

head
3

segmented, mamma-like or wanting;

mamma-like, head and body never

3a. Thoracic legs

conical,

distinctly seg-

if

distinctly

depressed

if

17

in form, not seta-like, rarely nipple-shaped;

prologs usually present; subanal appendages wanting; antennae

usually with less than 7 segments

3b. Thoracic legs seta-like; prolegs wanting;


sent, setaceous;
Fig.

583

Around

583.

^'Key to families

Pamphilium

is

100 species

The larvae

have been

de-

leaves or
spin webs usually live gregariously
together. A few ore serious orchard
scribed.

Fig.

subanal appendages pre-

antennae very long, 7-segroented.


Family PAMPHILIIDAE

sp.

not available.

211

roll

HOW TO KNOW
4a. 10 pairs of prologs present

or 7-segmented.

6-

THE IMMATURE INSECTS


on each abdominal segment; antennae
Family XYELIDAE

Fig. 584

"^^^^^ ^^ species of the xyelid


sawflies have been described. The
larvae are free feeders on elms,
pines, hickory, butternut, etc. Pupation takes place in an earthen cell
.u^
the ,J
ground.

/^IfRTra?i?R'^/5T}7?r^

isil?fl^?^!i?%/. s)?if::jDl!(H///^

'

Mogaxyelo

Fig.
584,
Cresson.

^"-^^

ry^

mojor

sometimes reduced or absent; antennae


never more than 5-segmented
5

4b. 6 to 8 pairs of prolegs,

5a. Thoracic legs

daws always
5b. Thoracic

normal

in form,

5-segmented;

legs

fleshy,

indistinctly

4-

tarsal
6

^^ff^'''y'''|p%^ J//'/

segmented; tarsal claws wanting.


Fig. 585.
Subfamily Phyllotominae,
.

modified,

if

present; prologs usually developed


i

|i

i
|

i||i

in

^^kJM'di-^^ -^^^^

^v^^i^^^^^^^^-^^^^'s^^s^^^^'*^^^

TENTHREDINIDAE

^.

Fig.

8a. Prologs present

on abdominal segments

^^^

^
cerosi
585. Caliroo

2-8

,.

and

10;

antennae

elongate, conical, usually 5-segmented


6b. Prologs present

ments

2-7

on abdominal segments

only or

2-6

and

2-7

and

rarely on seg-

10,

10

7a. Thoracic legs 5-segmented,

L.

11

normal

in

form

7b. Thoracic legs 4-segmented, modified.

FamUy TENTREDINIDAE

Fig. 586

xriTmmjTi
(r^;,JlJ^i^^
C^

^^^.^-^

.Wi
b

li'i JL(k|[)>ll332fN

fi^^naisi'^^^*^*^^'^^^^^
^
Fig. 586. a, Emphytus sp. (Emphytinae);
Phlebotrophie
b,
mofhesoni MQcGiiilvray.

8a. 3rd

abdominal segment with

About 5,000 species of sawflies


have been described. The habits of
the larvae are various: leaf feeders,
^^^ miners, gall

makers and some

^P^^ webs.

Pupation usually takes


place in a parchment-like cocoon on
or in the ground. Many species are
-^

^
,i,. j^..,^*:,,^
destruotive.
seriously

6 annulets

on dorsum.
9

(See Fig. 587)

abdominal segment with more or


dorsum

8b. 3rd

212

less

than

annulets

on
10

HOW TO KNOW

conical, 5-segmented.

Antennae

9a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

FamUy TENTREDINIDAE

Fig. 587

This includes three subfamilies: Doler-

Emphytinae and Blennocampidae.


The oaks, members of the rose family
and grasses and sedges are frequent
inae,

Tomosthethus bor(Blennocampinae); b,
Norton (Doler>

Fig.

587.. a,

dus

Say

Dolerus
inae)

food plants.

similis

Antennae not conicaL 3-segmented, erect and peg-like.


Family DIPRIONIDAE

9b.

Fig. 588

About 70 species have been deThe larvae feed on the

scribed.

Fig. 588.
Fitch.

10a.

Neodiprion

Antennae

leaves of pine, spruce, cedar, etc.


The body is usually yellowish or
greenish with grayish or brownish
stripes of with rows of black spots.

lecontei

conical, 5-segmented;

tudinal sutures.

Fig. 589

labrum without secondary longiFamily TENTHREDINIDAE

WWWWWIM
Here

included

is

belandriinae,

Many

thredininae.

subfamilies:

Emphytinae and Tenbroad-leafed trees

and shrubs and ferns are attacked by


members of these groupS.

Fig. 589. a, Strongylogoster onnulosus Norton


(Selondriinae) ;
Tenthredo sp. <Tenthredininae).

b,

10b.

Antennae not conicaL


longitudinal sutures.

1-segmented;

Fig. 590

labrum with secondary


Family CIMBICIDAE

About 50 species have been describThe larvae are caterpillar-like,


body usually curled spirally and covered with a waxy bloom. They feed on
ed.

Fig.

590.

Abia inflato Norton.

the leaves of different kinds of deciduous trees and shrubs. Pupation takes

place in a parchment-like cocoon


an earthen cell under ground.

normal in form; prologs on abdomin12


with or without anal prolegs

11a. Thoracic legs 5-segmented,

al

segment

2-7, either

in

213

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

lib. Thoracic legs 6-segmented, or phothoracic legs

4-segmented and

others S-segmented; prolegs on abdominal segments 2-7


2-6

and

10,

very small.

Family

Fig. 591

and

10/

or

ARGIDAE

About 200 species have been


known. Larvae feed on broad-leaved
deciduous trees and shrubs. The
members of this family are widely
Fig.

591.

Hylotomo

scattered.

sp.

on the last abdominal segment, either normal or


13
fused on the meson, forming a single prominence

12a. Prolegs present

12b. Prolegs absent

on the

abdominal segment.

last

FamUy TENTHREDINIDAE

Fig. 592
"ji

liliTpK

L,/:J.\iLb^

The subfamilies Fenusinae and Hoplocampinae are included here. A number


of leaf

592. Koliofenuso ulmi Sun


(Fenusinae).
devall
Fig.

^ies

miners ore included in the spe-

which

fall here.

13a.

Anal prolegs normal and separated

13b.

Anal prolegs united on the meson forming a single protuberance.


Family TENTHREDINIDAE
Fig. 593

K^I^'T^^^XiUi^^
^^^^^''^'^^^^^^^
Fig.

14

The subfamily SoHoneurinae belongs


They are leaf miners on members

here.

593. Metollus rubi

^^ ^^^ 'OSe family.

Forbes.

14a.

Antennae 5-segmented; 3rd abdominal segment with 6 aimulets;


10th abdominal tergimi with several caudal protuberances.
Subfamily Hoplocampidae, TENTHREDINIDAE
Fig. 594

Q^^ffl^^^^E^^

^^^

^^IY?^
Fig.

14b.

594.

The larvae feed on the leaves


pear and other Rosaceae.

of

Henichroa dyari Rohwer.

Antennae

4-,

rarely 3-segmented; 3rd abdominal segment usually

with less than 6 aimulets; 10th abdominal tergimi with or without


15

caudal tuberances
214

HOW TO KNOW
15a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

An

eversible gland on ventro-meson of each abdominal segment


body often with numerous conspicuous setae, setae arising
from distinct tubercles; antennae 4-segmented.

1-7;

Subfamily Nematinae, TENTHREDINIDAE

Fig. 595

Some members of this rather


large subfamily are gall makers,
while others are known to feed
on the foliage of broad-leaved
and shrubs and on grasses
and sedges.
trees
Fig,

595.

Pteronidae ribesi Scopoli.

15b.

Without eversible glands; body never conspicuously setiierous;


antennae 3- or 4-segmented
16

16a.

Antennae 4-segmented; 3rd abdominal segment with 5 annulets;


abdominal segments 2-4 and 8, or 2-5 and 8 without a postsubspiracular sucker-like protuberance.
Fig.

FamUy TENTHREDINIDAE

596

The

Fig.

cray

16b.

596. Cladius
(Cladinae).

pectinicornis

Four-

subfamilies

Hoplocom-

pinae and Cladinae are both


included
here. Members
of
the rose family furnish food
for

some

of these species.

Antennae 1-segmented; 3rd abdominal segment with 3 annulets;


abdominal segments 2-4 and 8, or 2-5 and 8 with a postsubspus
acular sucker-like protuberance.
Fig. 597

-Aw^-'Fig.

597.

ACORDULECERIDAE

Around 100 species have been deThe larvae are free feeders
and gregarious on plant leaves.

''

Acordulecero

Family

scribed.
sp.

17a. Thoracic legs present;

lost

abdominal

segment

17b. Thoracic legs wanting; last


Fig. 598

process.

with

suranol
18

(See Fig. 599)

process.

abdominal segment without suranal


Family ORUSSIDAE

About 50 species of the parasitic


wasps are known. The larvae are parasitic on the larvae of cerombycid and
buprestid beetles. The pupae have a
long ovipositor which
Fig. 598.
is

Oryssus occidental-

Cresson.

hark

i-'wv.a..

215

is

held over the

HOW TO KNOW
18a.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Subcmal appendages present, vestigial and palpiiorm; ocelli pre.Family CEPHIDAE


antennae 4- or 5-segmented. Fig. 599.

sent;

^t^AMj^l, /^feetss^

noceii
Fig.

599. Jonus integer Norton.

Around 100 species of the stem


sawflies are known. The body of the
larvae is C-shaped with a small terminal abdominal appendage. They
bore into the stems of grasses, trees
and shrubs. Pupation takes place in
the

larval

burrow

within

thin

cocoon.
18b Subanal appendages wanting; ocelli wanting
19a.

Antennae 3-segmented; meta-spiracles


smaller than abdominal spiracles.
Fig. 800

19

iimctionless,

very much

FamUy XIPHYDRIIDAE

Less than 50 species are known. The

Xiphydrio

19b.

sp.

larvae are borers in

trees.

maples are known

be attacked

to

Birches

and

in our

country.

Antennae 1-segmented; meta-spiracles functional, as large as


Family SIRICIDAE
abdominal spiracles. Fig. 601

Around 50 species of the hornare known. The larvae are Sshaped and deeply segmented with
a horny abdominal process. They
bore in the stems of pines and other
tails

Fig.

601.

Tremex columbo L

broad-leaved deciduous trees that


are usually not perfectly healthy.
Pupation occurs in thin parchmentlike

cocoon within

the larvae.

216

the

burrows

of

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

SOME IMPORTANT REFERENCES


GENERAL
Balduf, Vf. V. 1935. The bionomics ot
John S. Swift Co., St. Louis.

entomophagous

insects. 220 pp.

Clausen, Curtis P. 1940. Entomophagous insects, pp. x+668. McGraw-Hill,


N. Y.
Felt,

Key

1917.

E. P.

American

to

Mus.

insect galls. Bull. N. Y. St.

200:1-310.
Frost, S-

Hayes,

W.

Wm.

General entomology, pp. x+524. McGraw-Hill, N. Y.

1942.

The present

P. 1932.

ture insects. Tran.

Imms, A. D. 1930.

Acad.

111.

starus of the classification of


181-202.

imma-

Sci. 24:

general textbook of entomology, ed.

2.

viii+703 pp.

Dutton, N. Y.

Biologie der Wasserinsekten. pp.

Karny, H. H. 1934.

Wien.
Muesebeck, C.

F.

W.

Common names

1946.

American Association

of

1-311.

Wagner,

of insects

approved by the

Economic Entomologists.

Jour. Econ. Ent.

39(4):427-448.

Needham,

W.

and

B. H. Tothill. 1928. Leaf-mining insects.


Wilkins, Baltimore.
Needham. 1941. Guide to the study of freshwater biology. 88 pp. Comstock Pub. Co., Ithaca, N. Y.
Peterson, Alvah. 1939. Keys to the orders of immature stages of North
American insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 32(2):267-278.
1949 Larvae of Insects, Part I. 84 plates, 315 pp. Pub. by the author;
distributed by Ward's Natl. Sc. Est., Rochester, N. Y.
Torre-Bueno, De La J. R. 1937.
glossory of entomology, pp. ix+336.
Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Brooklyn, N. Y.
J.

G., S.

Frost,

pp. viii+351. Williams


Needham, J. G. and P. R.

&

PROTURA

Order
Ewing, H.

E. 1940.

The Protura

of

North America. Aim. Ent. Soc. Amer.

33:495-551.

Womersley, H.

1927.

Protura. Ent. Mthly.

study of the larval forms ot certain species of

Mag.

13:140-154.

Order
MacGillivray, A.

D.

1893.

THYSANURA

North American Thysanura.

Cand.

Ent.

25:173-174, 218-220.

Order
Bacon, G. A.

1912-14.

COLLEMBOLA

California CoUembola. Jour. Ent. Zool. 4:841-

845; 5:43-48, 202-204; 6:45-47, 84, 85, 137-179.


Mills, H. B.

College,

1934.

Mon.

monograph

of the

3:1-143.

217

CoUembola

of Iowa. la. St.

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Order PLECOPTERA
Claassen, P. W. 1931. Plecoptera nymphs of America (North of Mexico).
pp. 1-195. Thomas Say Foundation, Thomas, Springfield, 111.
Fall

Prison, T. H. 1929.

and winter

stone-flies or Plecoptera of Illinois.

Nat. Hist. Surv. 18:345-409.


1942. Studies of North American Plecoptera, with special reference
to the fauna of Illinois. Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 22(2):235-355.

Bull.

111.

EPHEMEROPTERA

Order

Morgan, Anna H. 1913.


Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.

contribution to

the

biology

of

Mayflies.

6:371-426.

1935. The biology of


J. G., J. R. Traver, and Yin-Chi Hsu.
Mayflies, pp. xiv+759. Comstock Pub. Co., Ithaca, N. Y.

Needham,

Osgood R. 1935. The eggs and egg-laying habits of North


American Mayflies (With a key to the eggs of N. American Mayfles). In Needham, J. G. et al. Ibid. pp. 67-89.

Smith,

Howe,

R. H. 1918.

Jr.

Order ODONATA
key to Zygoptera nymphs. Psche

Pictorial

25:106-

110.

and

1922

1925.

key to Anisopteran nymphs. Psyche 29,


Supplement Dec.
bibliography of keys for the identification of
52-55, 66-69.
II. Odonata. Ent. News 52(3-4):

Pictorial

Supplement Oct.-Dec;
Hayes,

Wm.

P. 1941.

immature

insects. Pt.

32,

93-98.

Kennedy, C. H. 1915. Notes on the life history and ecology of the


dragonflies of Washington and Oregon. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 49:
259-345.

Notes on the life history and ecology of the dragonflies of


Central California and Nevada. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 52:483-635.

1917.

Needham,

J.

G. 1903. The

In Aquatic insects of

histories of

life

New

York

Odonata, suborder Zygoptera.


Mus. 68(18):

State, pt. 3 N. Y. St.

199-517.

The dragonflies of Illinois with


J. G. and C. A. Hart. 1901.
descriptions of the immature stages, pt. I. Petaluridae, Aeschnidae
and Gomphidae. Bull. 111. St. Nat. Hist. Lab. 6(1): 1-94.

Needham,

Needham,

J.

G. and E. Fisher. 1936. The

luline dragonflies. Trans.

Amer.

nymphs

of N.

American

libel-

Ent. Soc. 62:107-116.

key to the genera of aniWright, Mike and Alvah Peterson. 1944.


sopterous dragonfly nymphs of the United States and Canada.
Ohio

Jour. Sci. 44(4):151.166.

Order
Blatchley,

W.

S.

1920.

ORTHOPTERA

Orthoptera of Northeastern America. 784 pp.

Nature Pub. Co., Indianapolis.


218

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

1939. Identification of the eggs of MidJ. B. and R. C. Smith.


western grasshoppers by the chorionic sculpturing. Kans. Exp. Sta.

Tuck,

Tech. Bull. 48:1-39.

COLEOPTERA

Order

Anderson, William H. 1939. A key to the larval Bostrichidae in the


United States National Museum. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 29(9):382391.

Boving, A. G. and A. B. Champlain. 1920. Larvae of North American


beetles of the family Cleridae. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 57:575-649.
Boving, A. G. 1925. Beetle larvae of the subfamily Gkxlerucinae. Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus. 75(2): 1-48.
Boving, A. G. and F. C. Craighead. 1932. Illustrated synopsis of the
principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera. Ent. Amer. 11:1-352.
Boving, A. G. 1942. Descriptions of the larvae of some West Indian
melolonthine beetles and a key to the known larvae of the tribe.
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 92:187-175.

Chu, H.
Ent.

F.

1945.

Amer.

The larvae

of

Harpalinae, Unisetosae (Carabidae).

25(l):l-70.

contribution toward a classification of the weevil


larvae of the subfamily Calendrinae in North America. Proc. U. S.

Cotton, R. T. 1924.

Nat. Mus. 66:1-11.


F. C. 1915. Contribution toward a classification and biology
the North American Cerambycidae. Larvae of the Prioninae.
U. S. Dept. Agr. Rept. 107:1-24.

Craighead,
of

1923.

North American Cerambycid larvae. Dom. Cand. Dept. Agr.

Tech. Bull. 27.

Gage,

J.

new

ser. Ent. Bull. 23:1-151.

H. 1920. The larvae of the Coccinellidae.

111.

Biol.

Mon.

6:1-62.

Hamilton, C. C. 1925. Studies on the morphology, taxonomy, and ecology of the larvae of holarctic tiger beetles (Cicindellidae). Proc.
U. S. Nat.

Mus.

65:1-87.

Hayes, Wm. P. 1929. Morphology, taxonomy, and biology of larval


Scarabaeoidea. 111. BioL Mon. 12(2):1-119.

Hayes, Wm. P. and H. F. Chu. 1946. The larvae of the genus Nosodendron Latr. (Nosodendridae). Ann, Ent. Soc. Amer. 39(l):69-79.

and A. P. Arnason. 1943. The identieconomic importance in Canada. Cand.

Glen, Robert, Kenneth M. King,


fication of

wireworms

of

Jour. Res. 21:358-387.

Glen, Robert. 1944. Contribution to the knowledge of the larval Elateridae. no. 3. Agriotes Esch. and Dalopius Esch. Cand. Ent. 76:73-87.
McGillivray, A. D. 1903. Aquatic Chrysomelida and table of families
of coleopterous larvae. Bull. N. Y. St. Mus. 68:288-327.

219

HOW TO KNOW
Muraycana, Jozo.
onomic study

1931.

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

contribution to the morphological

and

tax-

May-beetles which occur in the


nurseries of the Peninsula of Korea. Bull. Forest-Expt. Sta. Chosen
No. XI, pp. 1 - 108.

Fracker, S. B.
Mon. 2 (1)

of larvae of certain

The

1915.

classification of lepidopterous larvae.

111.

Biol.

169.

1 -

Rees, Bryant E. 1943. Classification of the Dermestidae based on


larval characters, with a key to the North American genera. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 511:1-18.
Richter, P. O.

1940.

Kentucky white grubs.

Bull.

Kentucky Agr. Exp.

Sta. 401:71-157.

1944.

Dynastinae of North America with descriptions of the larvae


to genera and species, ibid. 467:1-56.

and keys

Rutelinae of Eastern North America with descriptions of the


larvae of Strigodermella pygmaea (Fab.) and three species of

1945.

the tribe Rutelini. ibid. 471:1-19.

Salisbury, Murl Beauford. 1943. The comparative morphology and


taxonomy of some larval Criocerinae (Chrysomelidae). Bull. Brook-

lyn Ent. Soc. 38(3):59-74.

Key to known pupae of the genus Caiendra,


with host-plant and distribution notes. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 24(1):

Satterthwait, A. F. 1931.
143-172.
St.

George, R. A. 1924. Studies on the larvae of North American


beetles of the subfamily Tenebrioninae with a description of the
larvae and pupae of Merinus laevis (Oliv.). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
65:1-22.
F. I. 1938. On the taxonomy of Rhynchophora larvae.
Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. Lond. 87:1-37.
key to the genera and most of
1939. Larvae of British beetles I.
the species of British Cerambycid larvae. Ent. Mthly. Mag. 75:

Van Emden,

257-273; 76:7-13.
1941.

Larvae

of British beetles

II.

key

to the British

LameUicomia

larvae. Ibid. 77:117-127; 181-192.


1942. Larvae of British beetles III. Keys to the families. Ibid. 78:206272.
1943.

Larvae

of

British

beetles IV. Various

small families. Ibid.

79:209-223; 259-270.

key to the genera of larval Carabidae. Trans. Roy. Ent.


Soc. Lond. 92:1-99.

1942.

Order HEMIPTERA
Butler, E. A.

1923.

682 pp. H. F.

&

biology of the British


G. Witherby, London.

Esselbaugh, Charles O. 1946.

Ann.

Ent. Soc.

Amer.

Hemiptera-Heteroptera.

study of the eggs of the Pentatomidae.

39(4):667-691.

220

HOW TO KNOW
W.

Funkhouser,

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Biology of the Membracidae of the

D. 1917.

Lake Basin. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 11:181-445.


Hart, C. A. 1919. The Pentatomidae of Illinois with keys
genera. Bull.

Cayuga

to nearctic

Nat. Hist. Surv. 13(7):157-218.

111.

Hungerford, H. B. 1919. The biology and ecology of aquatic and senn


aquatic Hemiptera. Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 1 1:3-328.

Karny, H. H. 1934. Biologie der Wasserinsekten. pp. xv+311. Wagner,


Berlin.

Radio, P. A. 1928. Studies of the eggs of some ReduvL u^e. Kans.


Univ. Sci. Bull. 16:157-179.
1927. Studies on the biology of the Reduviidae of America North

Mexico. Ibid. 28:1-291.

of

Order

NEUROPTERA

Ross, H. H. and T. H. Prison. 1937. Studies of nearctic aquatic insects.


Nearctic alderflies of the genus Sialis (Megaloptera, Sialidae).
I.
Bull.

111.

Nat. Hist. Surv. 2K3):57-100.

Smith, R. C. 1922. The biology of the Chrysopidae. Cornell Exp. Sta.


Mem. 58:1287-1372.
1923. Life histories and stages of some hemerobiids and allied
species. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 16(2):12P-14B.

Order TRICHOPTERA
Winston A.

Elkins,

Trichoptera.

Lloyd,
no.

Lloyd

The immature stages


Amer. 29:65-81.

some Minnesota

of

Ent. Soc.

The biology of North Amierican caddisfly larvae.


Pharm. & Materia Medica. Bull. 21, Ent. Bull.

Lib. Bot.

pp. 1-24.

1,

Margey

Milne,

Ann

1921.

T.

J.

Bull.

1936.

J.

Immature North American Trichoptera. Psyche

1939.

46:9-19.

Ross, H. H. 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of


Nat. Hist. Surv. 23(l):l-326.

Buckler,
Vols.

Cook,

W.

1886-1901.

Ray

I-IX.

W.

C.

1894.

News.

butterflies

Bull.

111.

and moths.

Society, London.

Cutworms

Dyar, H. G. 1893.
Ent.

Order LEPIDOPTERA
The larvae of the British

Illinois.

On

and armyworms. Minn.

St. Ent. Cir. 52:1-8.

the larval cases of North American Psychidae.

4:320-321.

classification of lepidopterous larvae.

Ann. N. Y. Acad.

Sci. 8:194-232.

on the classification of lepidopterous larvae.


Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 14:49-62.
classification of Lepidoptera on larval characters. Am. Nat.
1895.
1895. Additional notes

29:1066-1072.

221

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

A descriptive list of a collection of early stages of Japanese


Lepidoptera. Proc. U. S. Not. Mus. 28:937-956.

1905.

Forbes, W. T. M. 1911. Field key to sphingid caterpillars of the Eastern United States. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 4:261-262.
1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Cornell
Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 68:1-729.
Jones, F.

M. and H.

B. Parks. 1928.

The bagwonns

of Texas. Bull.

Texas

Agr. Exp. Sta. 382:1-36.

Mosher, Edna. 1914. The classification of the pupae of the Ceratocampidae and Hemileucidae. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 7:277-300.

The

1916.

classification of

the

pupae

of

Saturnidae.

the

Ibid.

9(2):136-156.

1916.

Bull.

Pupae

1917.

based on characters of the


Lab. Nat. Hist. 12:12-159.
Maine species of Notodonloidea. Bull. Maine

classification of Lepidoptera

pupa.

111.

of

St.

some

Agr. Exp. Sta. 259:29-84.

Order DIPTERA
Banks, N. 1912. The structure of certain dipterous larvae with particular reference to those in human foods. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent.
Tech. Ser. 22:1-44.
1925.

Felt. E. P.

W.

Key

to gall

midges.

Bull. N. Y. St.

Mus.

257:1-239.

study of the leaf -mining Diptera of North America. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 78:1-228.

Frost, S.

1923.

T. 1922. Illustrated synopsis of the puparia of one hundred


muscoid fUes. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 60(10):l-39.
1925. The puparia and larvae of sarcophagid flies. Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 66(29): 1-26.
1926. Descriptions of larvae and pupae of two-winged flies belong-

Greene, C.

ing to the family Leptidae. Ibid. 70(2): 1-20.


Characters of the larvae and pupae of certain
Jour. Agr. Res. 38:489-498.

1929.

Hayes,
of

Wm.

P.

hnmature

1938-39.

insects. Pt.

fruit

flies.

bibliography of keys for the identification


I.

Diptera. Ent.

News

49(9):246-251; 50(1):

5-10, 76-82.

1944.

bibliography of keys to immature mosquitoes. Ibid.

55(6):

141-145, 184-189.

Heiss, E.

M.

Syrphidae

1938.

classification of the larvae

and puparia

of the

of Illinois. Univ. Bull. 16:1-142.

Johannsen, O. A. 1934. Aquatic Diptera. Pt. I. Nemocera, exclusive of


Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem.
164:1-71.

Aquatic Diptera. Pt. II. Orthorrhapha-Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha. Ibid. 177:1-62.


1937. Aquatic Diptera. Pt. III. Chironomidae; subfamilies Tanypodinae, Diomesinae and Orthocladiinae. Ibid. 205:1-84.

1935.

222

HOW TO KNOW

THE IMMATURE INSECTS

Aquatic Diptera. Pt. IV. Chironomidae; subfamily Chironominae. Ibid. 210:1-56.

1937.

Malloch, J. R. 1917. A preliminary classification of Diptera, exclusive


of Pupipara, based upon larval and pupal characters, with keys to

imagines in certain families.

Pt.

I.

Bull.

III.

St.

Lab.

Nat.

Hist.

12:161-409.
Phillips,

Venia

Tarris. 1946.

larvae (Trypetidae).

Thomsen,

L.

C. 1937.

Agr. Exp. Sta.

The biology and

Mem. Amer.

Aquatic Diptera.

Mem.

Pt.

identification of trypetid
12:1-161.

V. Ceratopoginidae. Cornell

210:57-80.

Order
Bischoff, H. 1927.

Ent. Soc.

HYMENOPTERA

Biologie der Hymenoptera. 597 pp. Springer, Berlin.

Duncan, C. D. 1939. A contribution to the biology of the North American vespine wasps. Stanford Univ. Pub. Univ. Ser. Biol. Sci. 8(ll):l-272.
Yuasa, H. 1923.
111.

Biol.

Mon.

classification of the larvae of the Tenthredinoidea.

7:1-172.

>^^^^^'

-^

'--^S.,^

223

INDEX AND PICTURED GLOSSARY


Aspirator 24

Anistominae 80

ANNULATIQN:

formation of Assosin bugs 133


ring-like ports or annul- Astenophylax 49, 148
Atherix 196
ets.
ANNULET: the ring-like sub- Attelobus 127
ATTENUATE: gradually tapdivision of a segment.

Abedus 9
Abia inflato 213

ACCESSOR\

secondary.

Acerentom'dae 55
Acerentomon doderol 55
Achorutes armatus 58
Achorutes nivicolus 58
Acordulecera 215
Acorduleceridae 215
Acrosternum hilare 39
Acrydium granulatum 70

ANNULIFORM:
Fig.

ring-like.

ering apicolly.

Atteva 179
Auditory organ 70, 71
Aulonium tuberculatum 112
Australian cockroach 72
Azalea leaf miner 152

603

Adelinae 151
Adelp'nocoris

rapidus

ADFRONTAL AREA:

31
''

area

and

between ths frontc


the adfror.tal sutur<
Fig.

602

Figui c

jiidae

Bock swimmers 129


Boetidoe 66

603

Bogworm

Ofnalo kcnsona 2, 46, 88


.nopheles 16, 191
,\noplura 37
(pi.

astyonox

170

BEAK: the

obitm striatum 119

ANTENNA:

Bosilorchio

119

jointed rostrum
of the front of head.
Fig.

605

antennae)

the segmented appendages


on toch side of the head.
Fig.

604

fifM-

Figure 602

ADULT:

the fully mature


form. 3
Figure 605

Aegeria oriformis 156


Aegeriidae 156, 175
Aeschno 68
Aeschnidae 68
Aglycvderes 1 25
Agrion 68
Agrionidae 68
Agrypnic vesTito 149
Airoro cylindrica 100
Aleyrodes 39. 139
Aleyrodldae 139
Alfalfa caterpillar 13
Alleculidoe 116
Aiobotes pennsy Ivan lea
Ambrosia beetle 128

AMBULATORIAL:

Bean thrips 10
Figure 604
Bean weevil 121
Bedbug 132
ANTEPE 'JLTIMATE: the Belostomo flumineum 130
seconc before the last.
Belostomotidae
30
Anthicidoo
Bee flies 199
Anthicus heroicus
Beet webworm 154
Anthophila pariano 164, 176 Berginus maindroni 112
1

Antipus 123
145
Aphelinidoe 211
116 Aphelinus mali 211
Aphididae 139

fitted

for

Ambush bug 132


American cockroach 72
a

collective
insects with-

out metamorphosis.

Bibio albipennis 45, 193, 201

Ant-lions

walking.

AMET030LA:
name for the

Ametropodidoe 65
Ametropus 65
Amphicyrta dentipes 91

Aphid lion 9,
Aphids 139

16,

18,

Bibiocephala 190
Bibionidae 193, 201
BICUSPIDATE: two-pointed.

144

Aphrosylus proedator 210


Apion 127
Apioninoe 127

APODOUS: footless.
APPENDIX: on additional
port.

Apple leaf roller 7


Apple skeletonizer 164

only AQUATIC: living wholly in


water.
thoracic and the
the last two pairs, Archips argyrospila 162
Archips fumiferana 162
of spiracles open.
Arctiidae 165, 166, 169, 186
Amphizoo 78
Arctocorixo alternota 129
Amphizoidae 78
ARCUATE: arched or bowAnabrus simplex 10, 71

AMPHINEUSTIC: having
the

first

lost or

Anajopyx

vesiculosis

ANAL

57

RISE: the anal openfrequently situated


on the summit of a moundlike
elevation known as
the anal rise.
ing

Anasa

is

tristis

134

Andricus seminator 21
AnisopTra 67

like.

Argidae 214

Armyworms 165
Arthropleona 58
Ascalaphidae 145
Asiiidoe 199, 209
Asopinae 133
Asparagus beetle

ASPERATE:

7,

124

roughened.

BIFOROUS: having two openings. Fig. 606

r y^^

INDEX
Black Hills beetle 43
Blastobasidae 164
Blasturus cupidus 66
Blatella germanica 35, 72
Biattidae 72

Blepharoceratidae 190, 203


Blissus leucopterus 1, 134
Blood worms 194
Booklice 35

00

Boll-weevil porasite 7
Bombycidae 171, 187
Bombyliidoe 199, 209
Bombyx mori 171, 187
Boros unlcolor 1 1
Bostrichidae 120
Bothrideres 1 1
Bothriderini 100, 111

larvae with flattened body Chrysomelidae 122-125


Chrysopa oculata 50, 144
and short legs.
CARDO (pi. cardines) bas- Chrysopidae 44
See Chrysopilus ornatus 207
al piece of maxilla.
1

Carpenterworm 1 56
Carpet beetle 98
Carpocapsa pomonella 5
60
Carposinidae
Carrion beetles 82
Cartodere costulata 101
1

50

moth

clothes

CATERPILLAR:

Brucidae 121
Bucculatrix 155
Buffalo-gnat 14, 192
Buprestidae 94
Burying beetles 82
Byrrhidae 90, 91
Byrrhus fasciatus 91
Byrrhus pilula 91
Byturinae 1 1
Byturus unicolor 1 1

Catogenus 106
Cattle grub 189
Cebrio antennatus 96
Cebrionidae 96
Cecidomyidae 190, 200, 202
Cedar beetles 93
Cephaloidae 113
Cephaloon lepturides
Cephidae 216
Cerambycidae 51, 101
Cerambycobius cyaniceps 7
Ceramico picta 41
Ceratitis capitate 189
Ceratopogonidae 194, 205
Ceratophyllus fasciatus 45
Ceraturgus cruciata 209
two appendages of
CERCI
the 10th abdominal segment, usually clender and
1

filamentous.

Cercopidae

37

Ceroplastes f loridensis
Cerura vinulo 40, 47
Chaetartrio seminulum
Chalastogastra 210
Chalepus ater 125
Checkered beetles 99
Chelonariidae 93

38
117

Chelonarium 93
Chelonus 211
18 Chermidae 138
Chestnut timberworm 128
Chestnut weevil 42
Chewing and lapping mouth

Cabbage butterfly 172


Cabbage root maggot 14,
Cabbageworm 172
Cadelle 100

Caenidae 65
Calendrinae 127

parts

51

CHEWING MOUTH

Caliroa cerasi 212


Callimerus arcufer 99
Callops nigriceps 99
Callydrias eubule 182

Fig.

607

fragilis

Cimicidoe 132
Cirphis unipuncta 41
pectinicornis 215
Cladoxeninae 104
CLAW: a hollow sharp organ at distal end of leg.

Cleridae 99
Clinidium sculptile 75
Clistogastra 21
Clover leaf weevil 13, 18
Clover-seed caterpillar 162
Cliver seed-chalcid 42, 43
CLYPEUS: a part of the
head, below the front, to
which the labrum is at-

tached

anteriorly.

elytra quadripunctata
Clytrinae 123

23

COARCTATE: a type of
pupa with the appendages
obscured with the larval
skin.

138

Coccidae

109
Cocoecia rosaceana 17
Coccus cacti 138
Cockroach 8, 72
COCOON a covering composed of silk or other materials and made by larva
Coccinellidae

51,

for the protection of larva and pupa.


Codling moth 5

Coenagrionidae 67
Coleophora malivorella 150,
182
Coleophoridae 150, 157,
182
Coleoptera 72
PARTS: Collecting apparatus 22
Collembola 58
COLLOPHORE: the ventral
tube of Collembola.
Colorado potato beetle 17,

98
Colydiidae

100,

Comb-clawed

111, 112
beetles

bark

116

cricket 71

Campodea

Cladius
of

larva

119
thin
CILIA (sing., cilium)
and scattered hairs.
Cimbicidae 213
Cimex lectularis 132
Cimex rotundatus 132
Cigarette beetle

Cisidae 100
Cladinae 215

125

Lepidoptera.

water-

Calopodinae 113
Colopteron reticulatum
Calopus angustus 113
Calpodes ethlius 180

on Cicadidae 136
Cicindelidae 76

feeding

animals,

158
Cassida nebulosa
Cassidinae 125

^o
Broadwinged damselflies 68
Brown lacewings 145
Brown-tail moth 168
Bruchophagus funebris 42
Bruchophagus gibbus 43
Bruchus pisorum 121

137

Cicadellidae

maxilla.

CARNIVOROUS:

Case bearers
Case-making

30

Broad-shouldered
striders 132

Camel

type

Brachycentrus 49
Brachycera 189, 200
Brachypsecti 96
Brochypsectra fulva 96
Brcchytarsus 128
Braconidae 21
Brenthia pavonace'la 181
Brentidae 125
Brephos infans 188
Bristletails

CARABIFORM:

Blennocampinae 213

Bookworm

Chrysobothris femorata 44
of Chrysochus auratus 1 23

Carabidae 76

Common cattle grub 14, 189


COMPLETE METAMORPHOS-

30, 56

Campodeidae 56

CAMPODEIFORM:

a type of
with flattened
larvae
body, long legs and caudal filaments. 12

Compsurus 63
Camptocladius byssinus
194
Cantharidae 97
Cantharis 97
Capnia vernalis 61
Capniidae 61
Capnochroa fuliginosa

45,

Figure 607

Chicken louse 34
Chinch bug 1, 134
Chinese mantis 70
Chinese silkworm 171
Chironomidae 194, 202, 204

CHRYSALIS: the pupa of


116

Lepidoptera.

225

IS: the growth of insects


from egg to larva and
then through the pupa to
the adult.

COMPLEX

METAMORPHOS-

same as complete
IS:
metamorphosis.
COMPOUND EYES: a group
of separate visual organs
known as ommatidia on
each side of the head.

INDEX
ELATERIFORM:

CONDYLE:

a process articthe base of the


mandible to the head.
Dacnini
CON DYLI FORM: condyle-

a type of
larvae with elongated cyl-

ulating

110

Damselflies

like.

32,

67

indrical
body and thick,
tough body wall.
light bugs 130

Electric

Danaidae 173
Eleodes letcheri 13
flour beetle 116
Danaus plexippus 173
Ellipes minuta 69
Coniopterygldae 144
Dance
flies
197
elytron)
ELYTRA
(sing.,
Conotrachelus nenuphar 40
Dascillidae 89, 93, 96, 102
the leathery fore wings of
Coreidae 1 34
Dascillus davidsoni 89
beetles.
Corixidae 129
EMARGINATION: a cut-out
Corn earworm 13, 47, 165, Datana ministra 168
place in the margin.
DECLIVOUS: sloping grad168
ually downward.
Embia major 36
CORNICLES (sing., corniculus)
a pair of dorso-lat- DEHISCENCE: the splitting Embioptera 36
of the pupal integument EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT:
eral tubules on the posin the emergence of the
the period of the develterior part of the abdomadult.
opment of an insect bewaxy
secrete
a
which
en
and
fertilization
Dendroctonus frontalis 41
tween
Fig. 608
liquid.
Dendrictonus ponderosae 43
the hatching of the egg.
Depressaria heracliano 164, EMERGENCE: the escape of
183
a winged insect from its
Derataphrus oregonensis 100,
nymph or pupal case.

Confused

111

Dermaptera 37
Dermestidae 98, 111
Derodontidae
02
Derodontus maculatus 1 02
Development
Diamond-back moth 159
Diapheromera femorata 72
Diatraea 184
Dineutes 74
Diprionidae 213
Diptera 189
DISCOIDAL: shaped like a
1

CORN FORM:
I

the

like

of an ox.
Corrodentia 35
Corydalinae 141
Corydalus cornutus
50,

53,

12,

141

horn

round plate.
Dixa 193, 205
Dixidae 193, 205
Doa 168
40, Dobsonfly 12, 141
Doierinae 213

Corylophodes marginicallls
106
Corythucha drcuata 1 34
Cossidae 156, 163, 179
Cossus cossus 1 56
Cossus liquidperda 156
COXA (pi., coxae) the basal segment of the leg. See
:

Dolerus similis 213


Dolichopidae 197, 210
Doiichopus 197

Donacia 122
Donaciinae 122

Emphytus 212
Empidae 197, 210
Empoasca fabae 137
EMPODIUM (pi., empodia)
the single pad-like or

fill-

form median process between the claws.


Endomychidae 108
ENDOPARASITE: one that
secures its food by living
within

other

animals.

Ennearthron

100
Entomobrya comparata 30
Entomobrya laguna 58
Entomobryidae 58
Eosentomen ribogai 54
Eosentomidae 54
Epargyreus tityrus 171
Ephemerella 65
Ephemerellidae 65
Ephemeridae 63

Ephemeroptera 62
Ephilachninae 109
Epicauta vittata

DORSUM: the dorsal surface. EPICRANIAL SUTURE: (epicranial stem) the suture
DOUBLE COCOON: some co-

coons contain an
inner
one within an outer one.
Dragonflies 32, 67
Drapetis nigra 210
Dredge 23
Drosophila ampelophila 189
Drugstore beetle 119
Dryocora
05
CRIBRIFORM: with perfor- Dryophanta gall 21
like
those of a Dryophanta lanata 21
ations
sieve.
Dryopidae 93
Criocerinae 124
Dryops 93
Crioceris asparagi 7, 124
Dytiscidoe 77
CROCHETS: the hooks on Dytiscus 77
the proiegs of caterpillars. Dung midges 192
154
Dustlice 35
Cryptolechia quercicella 184
Cryptophagidae 104
Cryptophagus saginatus 104
Ctenocephalides canis 50
Cucujidae 100, 104-106
ECDYSIS: shedding the larCucumber beetle 6
val skin between instars;
Cuiex 45, 189, 191, 204
moulting. 3
Culex pungens 7
Ecdyuriidae 64
Culicidae 191, 204, 205
Cupes concolor 73
Ectoedemia 152
Cupesidae 73
ECTOPARASITE: one which
Curculio proboscideus 42
lives and feeds on other
Curculionidae 51, 126, 127
animals from the outside.
Cutworms 165, 168
Egg 3
Cyciorrhapha 53, 189, 200
Egg types 5
Cyrtidae 197, 208
Efoteridae 95
leg.

36
Cranberry toad bug
Crane flies 191
CREMASTER: the terminal
spine of the abdomen of
pupa.
Creontiades pallidus 135

on the dorsal surface of


the head.

Fig.

609.

226

Figure 609

Epilachna 109
Epilachna varivestis 6, 109
Epipaschiinae 180
EPIPHARYNX: the inner
surface of the labrum.
Ericerus pe-la 138
Eriocraniidae 152, 173
bastard! 189
Erotylidae 103, 104, 110
ERUCIFORM: a type of larEristalis

vae having a Cylindrical


body and both thoracic
legs

and

proiegs.

Ethmia 169, 183


Ethmiidae 169, 183

INDEX
FURCULA:

Eucinetinae 102
Eucinetus 102
Euclea chloris 178

Eucnemidae 95
Euiophidae 21
Eumolpinae 123
Euparius marmorius 128
Euplectrus platypenae 21
Euplectus confluens 84
Eupsalis

minuta 125

European corn borer 53, 179


Eurosta solidaginis 21
Eurygenius campanulotus 114

Eurymus eurytheme
Eurypogon niger 93

Collembola; Grouse locust 70


in
the more or less forked GRUB: the larva of Coleoptera.
leaping appendage on the
Gryllidae 69, 71
4th abdominal segment.
Gryllotalpinae 69
Furniture beetle 119
FUSIFORM: spindle-shaped. GULA: the central part of
the head beneath, laterally bounded by the genae.
GULAR SUTURE: the line
between the guia and the
GALEA: the outer lobe of
genae. Fig. 611
the maxilla. Fig. 610

Eurystethidae 1
Eurystethuu californicus 1 1
Eurytoma tylodermatis 7
Euxoa auxiliaris 47, 168
EXARATE: o type of pupa
with appendages free.
EXCAVATE: with a depression that is not a circle
1

or a

Figure 61

Gypsy moth
Gyrinidae 74

segment.

Exechia native 192


EXUVIAE: the cast skin of
insects.

Galerucinae
plant

caused

tissue,

by

not of the plant


generally by insects.
Galleria melonella 185
Gallihaetis fluctuans 66
stimuli
itself,

form of a
Fall
Fall

Garden webworm
54
Gelastocoridae
30

sickle.

armyworm 5
webworm 166

168

124

GALL: abnormal growth of

FALCATE: sickle-shaped.
FALCIFORM: having the

7,

Figure 610

HABITATION

(or

habitat)

the region where the ani-

mal lives naturally.


Haematopinus adventicius 37
Haliplidae 75
Harpalus vagans 29, 49
Harpalus viridiaeneus 76

Helgramites 141
Helieopsyche 49
Heliodinidae 158, 162
183
GENITALIA: all of the geni- Heliothis armigera 13, 47,
80
FEMUR (pi., femora): a segtal structures; the repro165, 168
haemorrhoidalis
Heliothrips
ment of the leg, between
ductive organs.
38
trochanter and leg.
See Geocoris 1 34
Helmis aeneus 93
leg.
Geometridae 166, 188
Helochares 1 1
Fenusinae 214
Geosargus viridas 195
FILIFORM: slender and more German cockroach 8, 35, 72 Helodidae 90, 92
Helophorinae 117
or less of equal diameter. Gerridae 131
Helophorus aquaticus 117
Firebrat 28, 56
Gerris remigis 131
Fire-colored beetles
Hemerobiidae 145
Giant water bugs 1 30
1 1
Fireflies 97
Hemerobius pacificus 145
Gibbium psylloides 119
FISSURE: a slit.
GILL: a special, variously Hemerocampa leucostigma
FLAGELLATE: whip-like.
formed respiratory organ
185
Hemerocampa vetusta 13,
in aquatic
insects.
Flat-headed apple tree
borer 44
Glischrpchilus obtusus 107
168
Hemipenthes 199
Glossosomatinae 147
Flat-headed borers 94
Hemiptera 129
Flebatomus argentipes 193
Glowworms 97
Giyphipterygidae 164, 176
Henichroa dyari 214
Flebatomous chinensis 193
Flebatomus major 193
Gnorimoschema operculelle
Hen louse 34
Florida wax scale 138
Hepialidae 159, 178
156
FORCEPS: hook or pincer- Goat moth 156
Hepialus humuli 159
iike
processes
on
the Golden-eye lacewing 50, 144 Heptagenia 33, 64
caudal end of the abdo- Goldenrod ball gall 21
HERBIVOROUS: feeding on
men.
Goniocotes gigas 34
plants,
Forcipomyia specularis 194
Hercothrips fasciatus 10
Gracilaria azaleella 152
Forficula 37
Gracilariidae 152, 153, 174, Hesperiidae 171, 180
Formicidae 211
177
Hesperobaenus 103
FOSSA (pi., fossae) a pit. GRADUAL METAMORPHOS- Hesperophylax 17, 40, 52
FOSSORIAL: fitted for digIS: the growth of insects Hessian fly 189, 190
ging or burrowing.
from tre egg through the Heteroceridae 89
Fringe-winged fungus
nymph to the adult.
Heterocerus ventral is 89
beetles 106
Granary weevil 127
HETEROMETABOLA: a colFrit fly 40
Grape phylloxera 139
lective name for the inFroghoppers 1 37
Grape-vine plume 167
sects with gradual or inFRONTAL SUTURE: the arms Grasshopper 7, 10, 70
complete metamorphosis.
of the epicranial suture.
Greenhouse thrips 38
Hexagenia bilineata 33, 63
Fruit tree leaf roller 162
Greenhouse whitefly 139
HIBERNATION: a period of
Fuigoridae 136
Green lacewings 144
lethargy or suspended aniFUNGI VOROUS: feeding on Green peach aphid 139
mation in animals occurfungi.
ing during seasonal low
Green stink bug 39
Fungus gnats 192
temperatures.
Ground beetle 12
Gelastocoris

False chinch bug 134


False wireworm 13
Feather-wingQd beetles

Gelechiidae

oculatus 1 30
151, 156, 164,

227

INDEX
Hippodamia convergens 109 Ischnura 67

Lead cable borer 120


Leaf bugs 135
Leaf miners 150

Hispinae 125
Histeridae 117

Isia

Hog

Isotoma palustris 58

186

Isabella

Isoptera 36

louse 37

Leaf rollers 17, 162


Leafhoppers 1 37
Leather jackets 191
LEG: Fig. 614

Hololepto yucateca 117


HOLOMETABOLA: o collective name for the insects

meta-

complete

having

morphosis.

Homoptera 135
Honey dew 20
Hoplocampinae 214
Hornworms 170

Janus integer 216


Japanese beetle 4, 88
Jopyx minemus 30, 57
Jumping plant lice 138
June beetle 88

Horse flies 195


Housefly 6

Humpbacked

Figure

197

flies

Hydrobio tarda 77
Hydrochinae 118
Hydrochus squamifer

Hydrometra martini
Hydrometridae 131
riydrophilidoe

Leiachrodes

mixture 26
Koliofenuso ulmi 214
Katydid 1. 71
K. A. A. D.

118
131

Hylemya brassicae
Hylotoma 214
Hymenoptera 210
Hypantria cunea
Hypera punctata

14,

146

18

63
49
Lepisma 30
Lepisma saccharine 56
Lepismidae 56
Leptinidoe 80
Leptinotorso decemlineata
Lepidoptera

LABIAL PALPI:

Leucopis griseolo 189, 200


Leuctra decepta 61
Libellula lactuosa 68

HYPERMETAMORPHOSIS:

Libellulidae 68

LIFE CYCLE: the period of


time between fertilization
of the egg and the sperm
and the death of the in-

metamorphosis
of
kind
with several different larsucceeding
stages,
val
each

other.
7,

14,

189
Hypophyaryngeal bracon 121

HYPOPHARYNX:
HYPOPLEURON:

see tongue.
the lower

part of the epimeron.


Fig.

the appen17, 40, 51


dages on each side of the Leptinus testaceus 80
labium.
LcDtocella albida 149
LABIUM: the lower lip of Leptoceridae 148, 149
the insect. Fig. 613
Leptocorixa voricornis 134
Leptophlebiidoe 66

166

Hypoderma lineatum

614

Leopard moth

79, 117, 118


40, 49, 146

Hydropsyche
Hydropsychidae 146
Hydroptila waubesiona
Hydroptilidae 146
Hydroscaphinae 79
Hvgrobiidae 77

612

dividual.
Life history

Figure 613

LABRUM:
the

upper

the

of

lip

insect.

pupa or adult stage.


LIGULA: the centra! scler-

138

Laccifer lacca

28

LIFE STAGE: a definite period within the life of an


insect such as egg, larva,

Lace bugs 134


Lacewings 144

ite of the labium.


Limocodidoe 1 50, 1 78
Limnebiinae 79
Limnephilidae 148
Limnephilus indivisus 49,
148
Laemophloeus biguttatus 106 Lined spittle-bug 137
Lagrio 116
Linognothus vituli 28
Lagriidae 116
Lipeurus caponis 34

LACINIA

the
(pi., lociniae)
inner lobe of the maxilla.
see maxilla.
Lac-insects 1 38
Ladybird beetles 109

Figure 612

Lomellicornia

Lithacolletis

51

LAMELLIFORM: shaped

HYPOSTOMA:

like

leaves.

the area of Lampyridae 97


the head around the an- Longurio angustata 103
tennae, eyes and mouth. Languria mozardi 110
Longuriinae 103
Lantern-flies 136

Lopara 171
Laphygma frugiperda 5
Large chestnut weevil 42
lopygidae 57
Large chicken louse 34
lopyx minemus 30, 57
Larger elm leaf beetle 124
Idiocerus provoncheri 39
IMAGO: another name for LARVA (pi., larvae): the
adult.

Imported currantworm 47
impressed
INCISURE:
the
line marking the junction
of two segments.
Incurvariidae 151, 155, 175
Inflated larvae 25
INQUILINE: an insect guest
of other insects.
INSTAR: the stage of an
insect between two moults.

young

insects
with
of
metamorphosis,
preceding the pupal stage
and after the egg stage.

complete

3,

11

Lasiocampidae 169, 184


Lasiodermo serricorne 119
Laspeyresia

interestinctono

162, 176
Lathridiidoe

Laxostege
Laxostege

101,

102
154
154

similoris

sticticalis

228

orgentinotello

174
Lithacolletis

hamodryodella

152, 174
Lithosiinoe 165

Locusta migratoria 71
Locustidae 71
Long-horned grasshopper 71
Long-legged flies 197

Long-nosed cattle louse 28


Long-toed water beetles 93
Loopers
66
Lucanidae 87
Lycaenidoe 171, 181
1

Lycaenopsis ladon 181


Lycidae 98
Lyctidae 120
Lyctus cavicollis 120

Lygaeidae 134
Lygus ibiineatus 135
Lymantriidae 168, 169, 185,
186
Lymexylidae 128
Lyonetia speculella 155, 177
Lyonetiidae

182

155,

158,

177,

INDEX

MAXILLAE

maxiilo)
of jaws.

pair

Mnemonica ouricyanea

52,

the grindMOLA
ing surface of the manFig.
619.
dibles.
(or molar)

martirna 56
:.rhilis
^,o(axyela major 21?

MAGGOT:

135

Miridae

173

618

Fig.

56

AAachilidae

(sing.,

the second

larvae of certain

Diptero.

Magicicada
39, 136

septendecim

4,

a lobe; sometimes
applied to the galea and

MALA:

when

lacinia
Fig.

fused.

Figure 618

615

MAXILLARY PALPI

(sing.,

a pair of
appendages carried by the

palpus or palp)

See

maxilla.

Figure 619

maxilla.

Mayfly 6, 33
54
Meal moth
1

Mealworm

Molamba

16

Mealy-bugs 138
Measuring worms 166
Mecoptera 46, 47, 52
Figure 615
Mediterranean fruit fly 189
Megacephala Carolina 76
Melalopha 168
Meiandryidae 113
Malacosoma americana 169 Melandrya striata 110
Meiandryidae 110
Molacosoma disstria 184
Melanitis leda 167
Mailophaga 34
differentalis 31
MALPIGHIAN TUBES: the Melanoplus
femur-rubrum 71
excretory organs of the Melanoplus
rufipennis
95
Meiasis
insect, emptying into the
Melittia satyriniformis 156
hinc' intestine.
MANDIBLE: the first pair of Me!^ttomma sericeum 128
Meloidae 85
jaws. 73 Fig. 616
Melyridae 99
Membracidac 37
1

METAPNEUSTIC: having

only
of abdominopen.

the last

"-air

sp

al

MENTU;/,: the
ite

lab

sclerite

the

of

the lateral
mesothor-

ax.

MESOTHORAX:
or middle
thorax.

MANDIBULO-SUCTORIAL:
type

of

Fig.

617

mouth

parts.

See

-..

MESOPlEURON:
Figure 61

scler-

distal

labium.

the

of

the

Molar structure 73
Mole cricket 69
Mollanidae 148

Monarch butterfly 173


Monardin 2(X)
Monocesta coryii 124

minimum

Monomorium

Metaecus paradoxus 86
214

Metallus rubi

changes
50 METAMORPHOSIS:
insects as they

44,

211

Monotomidae 103, 107


Mordellidae

Mormon

118
71

cricket
191

Mosquitoes

Moth

193

flies

MOULT

the per(or molt)


shedding of the
of
covering
outer
or
skin
insects as they grow. This
called
also
is
process
ecdysis.
PARTS: a collective
name for the structures of
an insect's mouth, includmandible,
labrum,
ing
maxillae, labium and othappendages,
related
er
(See Figs. 46 and 47)
:

iodical

MOUTH

second MULTI ARTICULATE:


many segments.

segment of the

of form of
pass from
another.

lonata 14
MolGr.na uniophila 148

with

MULTIORDINAL CROCHETS:
the hooks on the prolegs
when they are of many
different lengths but all
arranged in a single row.

Murmidiidae 108
Murmidius ovalis 108
Musca domestica 6
METAPLEURON: the
sclerite of the metathor- Mycetophagidae 112
Mycetophagus punctatus 1 1
ax.
METATHORAX: the last or Mycetophilidae 192, 193,
202
third thoracic segment.
one

stage

to

lateral

Metcalf, Z. P. 3
Mesovelia mulsanti 132
Mexican bean beetle 6
Microentomon perposillom
Figure 617

Mantid 8, 69
Mantidae 70
Mantispa styriaca 143
Mantispidae 143
Maple case-bearer 41, 151

March
Marsh

flies

plant

Minute

193

springtail

29, 55
Micromalthidae 74
Micromalthus debilis 45, 74
Micropterygidae 149, 173
Micropteryx 149
Midges 194
Migratory locust 71
MINES: galleries made by
larvae between the upper
and lower covering of a

58

MYRMECOPHILOUS:
that

live

in

insects

ant nests.

Myrmeleon 145
Myremeleontidae

145

Mytilaspis citricola 138


persicae 139

Myzus

21

leaf.

brown

beetles

Mydaidae 198, 209


Mydas clavatus 198, 209
Mydas flies 198
Myiatropa florea 44
Myochrous denticolli 124

scavenger

NAIAD:

any

nymph

aquatic habits.

102

229

with

INDEX
NASALE: labrum

fused with
the head. Fig. 620

a type o pupa
appendages
the
having
oppressed to its body.
OCELLUS (pi., ocelli): the
simple eye.
Ochthebius mipressus 79
Ochteridae 131
Ochterus 131
Odonata 67

Panorpa rufescens 47
Papaipema nebris 185

Oecanthus niveus 7
Oecophoridae
64, 1 84
Oedemeridae 112, 113
Oeneis 186

Parasemidolis

OBTECT:

Figure

620

167

Oeneis macounii

Oenistis quadra 165


Oestrus ovis 200
swimming,
NAUPLIIFORM: when the Ogcodes costatus 208
larva resembles the naup- Olibrus 106
lius

stage

in

Crustaceae.

Needle miners 151


Neelidae 58
Neelides folsomi 58

Nematocera 53, 189, 200


Nemopteridae 143

Nemoura sinuate

61

60,

Nemouridae 60, 61
Neodiprion 213

METAMORPHOSIS

NO

(a-

with but
metamorphosis)
no change of
or
form during development.
Nosodendrinae 90
Nosodendron californicus 90
Nosodermini 113
Nossidium americanum 80
Noterinae 77
Noterus 77
Notodontidae 168, 187, 188
Notolophus antique 169
29
Notonecta undulata
Notonectidae 129
:

slight

NOTUM:
sects

of

bent horizontally.

Nygmia phaeorrhoea 168

NYMPH:

the young of inwhich have gradual


metamorphosis. 3, 9

sects

Nymphalidae 170, 172, 173,


181,

186

Nymphula mymphaeta 154


Nymphulo stagnata 154
Nysius

134

Phasmid 8
Phasmidae 72
Phellopsis obcordata

ferruginea 206
PAEDOGENESIS reproduction
larval
the
in
occuring

Pochyrrhina

stage.
Poieacrita vernoto
Palingenio 63
Polingeniidoe 63

PALMATE:

like

166

the palm of
fingerwith

the

hand;

like

processes.

small

PALPIGER: a small
tirely

absent;

indistinct.

Philoenus lineatus 137


Philaenus spumorius 137
Philopotamidae 147
Philopotamus 147
Phlebatrophia mathesoni 212
Photinus 97

Phryganeidoe 149
Phryganidia colifornica
populiiella
laciniato

Phyllomorpha
Phylloscelis

sclerite

bearing the labial palpus.


Pomphilidoe 21
Pomphilium 211

230

136
212

Phylloxera 139
Phylloxeridae 139
Phymoto eroso fosciata

Phymotidae

187
21

atro

Phyllotominae

pus.

113

Phengodes 98
Phengodidae 98

Phyllocnistus
sclerite

bearing the maxillary pal-

en-

repro-

PALPIFER: a

OBLITERATE: indistinct.
OBSOLETE: almost or

151

Pachyposa otus 169


nodding; with the

41,

dots

raised

acerifoliella

protuberances.
fleshy
(sing., ootheca)
the cose of an egg moss Pedilidae 114
PEDUNCULATE: set on a
of certain Orthoptera. 8
stalk or peduncle.
OPERCULATE: having the
form of a lid or oper- Peltodytes 48, 75
culum.
Peltoperla orcuata 59
Orsodacninae 122
Peltoperlinae 59
Orthoperidoe 106
Pentatomidoe 133
Orthoptera 69
Penthe pimelia 110
Orthorrhapha 189, 199
PENULTIMATE: next to the
last.
Orussidoe 215
Oryssus occidentalis 215
PERFORATE: a part dilated
Oryzaephiius surinamensis
or flattened and the remaining port cylindrical.
12, 104
Peridroma margoritosa 165
Oscinella frit 40
osmeter(pi.,
Peridroma
soucia 6
OSMETERIUM
eversible PERINEUSTIC:
in
spiracles
tubular
io)
being
a row on each side of
gland, capable of
the body.
projected through a slit
in
the prothorocic seg- Periodica! cicada 4, 136
ment of certain Papilionid Periplaneta omericana 72
172
Perpilaneta australosiae 72
caterpillars.
Peripsocus phacopterus 35
Osmylidae 142
Perkinsielia saccharicida 6
Osmylus chrysops 142
Peria hastota 61
Ostomidae 100
Peria verticalis 60
Othniidae 115
Perlidae 59, 60
umbrosus
115
Othnius
OVIPOSITOR: the tubular or Petronarcella badia 59
means
Phaiacridae 106
valved structure by
of which the eggs are laid. Phalacrus 106
Phaloniidae 161, 176
Oxyptilus pericelidactylus
Pharoxonatho kirshi 104
167

in-

3.

NUTANT:
tip

species

Paraclemensia

by direct growth
egg without fertilization by the sperm,
Oligoneuria 64
Paussidae 78
Oligoneuriellidae 64
Poussus kannegieteri 78
Oligota oviformis 83
weevil 121
OMNIVOROUS: feeding on Pea
Pear psylla 10, 138
and plant Pectinophora gossypiella 164
both animal
food.
PEDAL LOBES: legs that have
Omophron 76
been modified to become
Omophronidoe 76

a segment.
of

with

papillae.

duction
of the

the dorsal part of

Number

or

PARTHENOGENESIS:

OOTHECAE

Neopachygaster maculicornis 206


Neopyrochroa femoralis 114
Nepidae 130
Nepticula platanella 175
Nepticula slingerlandella 152
Nepticulidae 152, 175
Net-winged midges 190
Neuroptera 53, 140
Nevermannia dorcatomoides 119
Nilionidae 116
Niptus 119
Nitidulidae 107
Noctuidae 165-169, 185, 186
NODULE: a small abrupt
knot or swelling.

covered

flaviceps 144
living on or in
get
to
animals
other
the
from
nourishment
host. 27

for

fitted

superficially

PAPILLOSE:

PARASITE:

NATATORY:

Papilio cresphontes 172, 181


Popilionidae 172, 181

132

132

INDEX
^hytophaga
190, 200

destructor

PHYTOPHAGOUS:
upon

189,

MOUTH

feeding

AND SUCKING

PARTS:

621

Fig.

gans

Predacious diving beetles 77


PREDATOR: an animal that
preys on others.
PREPUPA: a quiescent instar between the end of

plants.

PIERCING

PSEUDOCULI: a

Potomanthus 62
Praying mantid 70

the larval stage and the


pupal stage, active but
not feeding.
Preservatives 25, 26
PRESTERNUM: a narrow anterior part of the ster-

num.

PRIMARY LARVA:
ly

the new-

hatched larva of the

in-

hypermetamortriungulin. 85
the setae
SETAE:
PRIMARY
Figure 621
borne on setiferous tubernumber
definite
in
cules,
Pieridae 172, 182
and position.
Pieris napi 172
opaca
80
Prionochaeta
Pieris rapoe 172
Prionocyphon discoideus 90
Pigmy crickets 69
robiniae
156
Prionoxystus
PILIFERS: the caudo-lateral
projections of the labrum. PROBOSCIS: an extended
structure.
mouth
Fig. 622
sects with
phosis. See

pair of or-

the head; their


undetermined.
PSEUDOPOD: a soft footlike
appendage, as on
in

nature

the

abdomen

of

caterpil-

(in

Coleop-

lars.

PSEUDCPUPA

the
larva
in
a
quiescent coarctate condition which
is
followed
by the true pupa.
Psilocephala
haemorrhoidclis
198, 208
Psocids 35
Psychidae 160, 178
Psychoda superba 193, 203
Psychodidae 193, 203, 205
tera)

pyricola 10, 138


Pteraphorus tenuidactylus
180
Pterocrace storeyi 143
Pterodontia flavipes 197
Pteronarcidae 59
Pteronidea ribesii 31, 47,
Psylla

215

Pterophoridae 167, 169, 180


Prodoxus quinquepunctellus Pterostichus 12, 40
Ptiliidae 80
175
Ptilodactyla serricollis 92
Projapygidae 57
Ptilodactylinae 92
unsegfleshy
PROLEG: a
Ptilostomis ocellifera 149
mented abdominal leg.
Ptinidae 119
Promachus vertebratus 199

PROMINENCE:

the dorsal face


of the prothorax.

Pine goll weevil 127


Pink bollworm 164

PLANIDiUM: the
hatched

larva

Prosopistoma foliaceum
Prosopistomatidae 62

62

the ventral
newly PROSTERNUM:
the prothorax,

some

of

chalcids.

PLANTA:

elevated part.

PRONOTUM:

Figure 622

the anal clasping

legs of caterpillars.
Plant bug 10, 135

face of

PROSTHECA: a mandibular
sclerite set with hairs, articulated to the basalis.
80 Fig. 623

PLATYFORM: a

type of lorvae with short, broad and


flat body, with or without
short legs. 14
Platyphylax 16
Platypodidae 128

PLUMOSE: feathered

be-

structures

PUPA: the
stage

inactive

resting,

holometabolous
between the larva

of

insects,

and the adult.


Pupae of Diptera 199
Pupae of Lepidoptera 173

PUPARIUM:
the-last

the

larval

next-towith-

skin

which many maggots


pupate for greater protection.

PUPATION: the

act of becoming o pupa; entering


the resting stage.
Puss moth 168

Pygmy locust 70
PYGOPODS: the appendages

Figure 623

of

the

abdominal

tenth

segment taken

Plum curculio 40
Plum leaf-miner 152
Plume moths 167

pulvilli):

(pi.,

pad-like

tween the claws.


Punkies 194

in

Plotypsyllidae 81
Platypsyllus castoris 81

Platypus compositus 128


Platystomidae 128
Plecoptera 59
PLEURON (pi., pleura) the
lateral region of any segment of the insect body.
PLICATE: with folds.

PULVILLUS

collective-

ly-

105

mandibularis
Protentomidae 55
Proterhinidae 125Prostomis

Proterhinus

Pyralididae 154,
184. 186

179,

farinalis 154
Pyrausta nubilalis 54,

180,

Pyralis

179

anthracias 125 Pyrochroidae 114


the first or Pytha niger 1 1
segment of the Pythidae 114, 115

PROTHORAX:
like

plume.

maculipennis 159
Ppdapion gallicola 127
Podisus maculiventris 6
Podosesia syringae 175
Poduridae 58
Polymitarcidae 63
Popillia japonica 4
Plutella

PORRECT:

projecting.
Porthetria dispar 7, 168

POSTEMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT: the development of


an insect after hatching.
Pothamanthidae 62
Potato leafhopper 137
Potato tuberworm 156

anterior
thorax.

Protoparce

Ranatra fusca

Protoparce
1

quinquemaculata

17

sexto

13,

170,

88

130

Range caterpillar 7
Rape butterfly 172

PROTRACTED: extended.
Raphidia hermandi 140
PROTUBERANCE: any ele- Raphidia oblita 140
vation above the surface.
Protura 54
Proxodoxinae 151
Psoini

RAPTORIAL:
ing

Pseiaphidae 84
Psephenidae 92

Psephenus 93
Psephenus lecontei 92
Pseudo click beetles 95

231

fitted for graspprey.

and holding

RASPING

120

140

Raphidiidae

with

Rearing

MOUTH
file-like

insects

PARTS:
structure.

26

Rectal

tracea 1
Recurvaria piceailla
Reduviidae 133

183

INDEX
RETINACULUM:
of

process

tooth-like

the

mandible.

out prolegs.
Scatopsidae 192,

206

SCAVENGER:

a feeder on
decaying or waste matter.
Scenopinidae 198
Scenopinus fenestralis 198
Schoenobiinae 154
Schreckensteinia 162
Schymaenidae 84
SCLERITE: any piece of the
insect body wall bounded
by sutures.
Figure 624
SCLEROTIZATION: the hardening of the body wall
Retinodiplosis inops 190
by the deposit of chitinRETRACTED: drawn back or
ous substances in the exointo another part.
cuticula.
Rhachicerinae 207
Rhagionidae 196, 197, 207 Scobicia declivis 120
Scolytidae 126
Rhagoletis cingulata 44
Scolytus rugulosus 126
Rhagoletis pomonella 200
Rhegmoclema atrata 192, Scraptia sericea 110
Scraptini 110
206
Scythris 183
Rhinosimus ruficoliis 114
eboracensis 182
Scythris
96
Rhipiceridae 93,

624

Fig.

Rhipiphoridae 86
Rhipiphorus solidaginis

86
Rhizophagidae 103
Rhizophagus grandis

SECONDARY

85,

HAIRS: scattered hairs which have no

constant position.
Selandriinae 213

103

Rhodites bicolor 21
Rhyacophilidae 147

SEMIAQUAIIC:

reclosely
lated to water or partialaquatic.
SENSORIA: the circular openings covered by a memly

ulkei 108
Rhynchites aeneus 127
Rhynchites bicolor 127
Rhynchitinae 127
Rhysodidae 75
Rice butterfly 167

Rhymbus

Robber flies 199


Rose chafer 88
Rosy apple aphid 7
Round-headed apple tree
borer 44

on

brane,
or

the

antennae

borers
Rove beetles 81

101

hair-like

appendages,

hollow

structure.

in

SETAL: of or pertaining to

Sabatinca 149
,^ ., .-^
Sabine stimulea 14, 46, 150 Shining flower beetles 106
Saddlebacked slug caterpil- Shot-hole borer 126
lar

14,

46,

Sialidae

150

aiderfly

141

infumata 48, 141


Sifter 23
Silpha 82
Silphidae 80, 82
Silvanini 104
Silverfish 30, 56

141

Snowy tree cricket 7, 71


winged flower beetles
99
Soldier beetles 97
Soft

195

Soldier flies

Spanworms

Sparnopolius

65, 1 66
fuivus 42,

199
broad
and
rounded at tb; tip, more
slender at the base; spoon-

SPATULATE:

shaped.
Spercheinae 118
Spercheus 1 1
Spercheus emarginatus 118
Sphaeridiinae 117
Sphindidae 107
Sphindus americanus 107
Sohingidae 170, 171, 188
Sphinx caterpillar 170
Sphinx moth 170
SPINE: a large setae arising
from a calyx or a cup by
which it is articulated to
the cuticula.
SPINNERET: the opening of
silk

glands.
set

with

small

spines.

SPIRACULAR

FURROW:

furrow situated
cephalic
margin

on

the
the
movable abdominal segments
of
lepidopterous

pupae

SETI FERGUS: bearing setae.


Seventeen-year cicada 1 36
Sexton beetles 82
Sheep bot fly 200

Sheep louse 7
Shield bugs 133

Saddle-case makers 147


Sagra femorata 122
Sagrinae 122
, o-.
Samia cecropia 170, 187
Sandalus niger 96

Smoky

Snakeflies 140
Snipe flies 196
Snowflea 58

SPINULOSE:

legs.

Separator 24
Serpentine miners 152
SETA (pi., setae): slender

setae.

f^ound-headed

Smicripinae 107
Smicrips palmicola 107
Sminthuridae 59
Sminthurides lepus 59

and

of

cephalad

of

the spiracle.
It
is
frequently extended almost
to the meson on both the
dorsal and ventral aspects.
SPIRACLE: the opening of

the respiratory
Spittle-bugs 137

Spogostylum

organ.

albofasciatum

209
Spongilia-flies 142
Spring rose gall 21
Springtail 58

Sialis

Spruce budworm 162


Spruce leaf-miner 183
SPUR: a spine-like appenMETAMORPHOSIS:
SIMPLE
dage of cuticula, connectsame as gradual metaed to the body wall by a
SAPROPHAGUS: feeding, on
morphosis.
joint;
generally on
the
dead or decaying animal

Sand flies 193, 194


Saperda Candida 44, 101

Simuliidae 192, 203


and plant materials.
feeding on de- Simulium pecuarum 14

SAPROZOIC:

caying animal matter.


Saturniidae 170, 187
Satyridae 167, 172
Sawfly 16
Saw-toothed grain beetle 12
Scale insects 138
Scalidia

linearis

SCANSORIAL:

100, 106

tibia.

Simulium pictipes 192


Simulium venustum 53, 192,
203
Sinodendron cylindricum 87

SINUOUS: curving

in

and

out.

Siphlonuridae 66
Siphlonurus alternatus 66
Siphonaptera 45, 50

Squash bug 134


Squash-vine borer

56

STADIUM:

similar to stage.
Stag beetles 87
STAGE: the interval between

moults.
Staphylinidae 51, 81, 83

Stegobium paniceum

119

Steninae 83
climbing on
Stenopelmatinae 71
Siricidae 216
Stenopelmatus longispina 71
SCAPE: the first or basal
segment of the antenna. Sisyra umbrata 142
Stenophylax 16, 148
Scaphidiidae 82
Sisyridae 48, 142
Stunus 83
Scaphisoma convexum 82
Sitophilus granarius 127
STERNUM: the underside of
Scorobaeidae 88, 89
Sitotroga cerealella 151, 183
the thorax, between the
SCARABAEIFORM: a type Skippers 171
coxal cavities.
of larva with U-shaped, Slickers 30
Sthenopis thule 178
cylindrical body and with- Slug-caterpillars
150
Stictocephala 39, 137
fitted
hairs.

for

232

INDEX
flies

Stilleto

SUBTERRANEAN:

208

198,

beneath

bug 39, 133


STIPES (pi., stipetes)

Stink

basal

stalk

the

the

linear

illa.

34

Tipula eluto 191


of Tipulidae 191, 194, 206
Tischeria molifolieila 43,

existing

surface

soil.

owl-shaped;

max- SUBULATE:

the

of

the

at

153
attenuate Tischeriidae

base,

177

153,

Toad bugs 130


Tobacco hornworm 170, 188
206
6
Tomato fruitworm 13, 165
STRIDULATING ORGAN: an SULCATE: with deep grooves. Tomato hornworm 13, 17
organ producing sound by Sun-moths 158, 162
Tomostethus bardus 213
rubbing two parts.
SURANAL PROCESS: the pro- Tomoxia bidentata
Fig. 625
cess above the anal seg- TONGUE (the hypopharynx)
Stoneflies

at

Storehouse beetle 1
Stratiomyidae 195,

tip.

Sucking lice 37
Sugarcane ieafhopper

ment.
Swallow bug

132
172

Swallowtail butterflies
Sweeping net 22
Sychroini 1 1

Symphypleona 58
Synchroa punctata 1
Syrian silkworm 169

TARSI
annulosus
213
STYLET: a small style or
Strongylogaster

STYLI

(sing.,

stylus)

tarsus)

labium.

see

leg.

Tegeticula 151
Tenebrio molitor 116
Tenebrionidae 113, 115, 116
Tenebroides
mouritanicus
the
100
the

process.

stiff

(sing.,

face of the

Tooth necked fungus beetles


102
Topoperia 34
Tortoise beetles
25
Torticidae 162, 176, 177
Toxomeris politus 189, 200

Tabanidae 195, 207


Tobonus atratus 195
Tabanus losiophthalmus 207
Tagoperia media 60
Tarnished plant bug 135

Figure 625

a sensory structure attached to the upper sur-

TRACHEA

(pi.,
tracheae)
ringed tubes belonging to
respiratory
the
system.
:

TRACHEAL

GILLS: the flattened or hair-like processes


in
aquatic
larvae
through which oxygen is
absorbed from the water.
Fig.

629

appendages on
side of the abdo- Tenodera aridifolia sinensis
70
men in Thysanura.
Tent caterpillars 169
Fig. 626
Tenthredinidoe 212-215
Tenthredo 213
TERGITE: dorsal sclerite of
small

under

a semgent.
the dorsal part of
a segment.
Tetraonyx 85

TERGUM:

Figure 629

blondeli 94
Tettigidae 70
Tree-cricket 71
Tettigonidae 71
Treehoppers 137
Therevidoe 198, 208
Thermobio domestica 28, 56 Tremex columba 216
Trioleurodes vapororiorum
Thorn skeletonizer 164
139
Thrips 38
Trioenodes flovescense 49,
Throscidae 95
148
Throscus 95
Tribolium confusum 116
Thyatira derosa 165
Trichoptera 52, 146
Thyatiridoe 165
Tricorythodes allectus 6
Thyrididoe 160
Tricorythus 65
ephemerThyridoptei-yx
Tridactyiinoe 69
aeformis 16, 19, 160,
Triodopteryx ephemerae178

Trachykele

Figure

626

STYLIFORM: ending
long

slender

in

point.

SUBANAL APPENDAGE:

the
beneath
the
segment.
SUBIMAGO: a winged stage
in
after
Mayflies
just
emergence from the pupa

appendage
anal

and before the

last moult.

SUBMENTUM:

a sclerite of Thysanoptera 38
labium next to the Thysanura 55
mentum. See labium.
TIBIA (pi., tibae)
cal segments of"
Fig. 627
TIBIOTARSUS: the
of the tibia and
sus when fused

form is

Fig.

160

TRIORDINAL CROCHETS:

the

the apithe leg.

segments
the tartogether.

628

hooks of the prolegs when


in three different lenghts
but arranged in a single

row.
Triphleps tricticolor 39
TRIUNGULIN: the first instar of Meloidae, Montispidae and
Strepsiptera.

85

TROCHANTER:

a segment
the leg, between the
coxa and femur.

of

Fig.

630

Figure 628

SUBPRIMARY
rimory
later

the

setae
instors

first.

SETAE:
found
but not

the Tiger beetle 76


158,
in Tinea pellionelia
in Tineidoe
158, 176
Tingitidae 134

233

176
Figure

630

INDEX
WART:

Trogidae 88
Trox scaber 88
with

tubercules.

enlarged

the

mon base

TUBERCULATE: covered

Water boatman 129

Tussock moth 1
Tychius picirostris

Water-striders

Water-measurers

131

131

fruit;

X. A. A. D. mixture 26
X. A. mixture 25
in

usually reserved for

Coleoptera and especially


Ululodes hyalina 145
for the Rhynchophora.
CROCHETS: Western cricket 10
UNIORDINAL
prolegs Western
the
of
hooks
2-spotted cucumwhen of uniform length
ber beetle 6
one Western
in
and arranged
water bug 9
circle.
Wheel bug 133
Utethesio 1 66
Whirligig beetles 74
Whitefly 139
White ants 36
White grub 88
164 WING PADS: the encased
glandulella
Valentinia
1

Vanessa

70

Variable hen louse 34


Variegated cutworm 165
Veliidae 132
VENTER: the entire under

186

Water scorpion 130

Water tigers 77
WEEVIL: a larva boring

126

Woolly bear caterpillar


Wool sower gall 21

77

small solid
structure.
pimple-like
45
eluta
Tupula

TUBERCULE: a

com- Wireworms 95

of a group of

setae.
Water beetles

undeveloped
nymphs. Fig.

wings of
631

Xiphydria 216
Xiphyriidae 216
Xyelidae 212
Xyelid sawflies 212

Xylophagidae 196, 207

XYLOPHAGOUS:
wooden

feeding

on

tissues.

Xylophagus lugens 196, 207

Yellow-necked
168

caterpillar

Young 3
Yponomeutidae 159, 165,
179,

182,

183

surface.

VERMIFORM: worm-like

lar-

vae.

Vermileo 196
^ ^^
Vespa maculata 31, 40, 46,
51, 211
Vespidae 21

Zanosemata electa 53
Zenoa picea 93
Zeugophora scutellaris

122
Zeuzera pyrina 163, 179
Zygoptera 32, 67

w
Walkeriana

ovilla

Walkingstick 72

138
Figure 631

W^
234

THE

IMMATURE

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