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..


2008

.. . . . . . 2008
65 .
,
,
:





.

: . ., , .-. .

.. 2003-2008
, 2008


..

1.
1.1. 5
1.2. 5
1.3. 7
1.3.1. .. 8
1.4. . 11
1.5. - 13
1.6. .. 14
1 18

2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3. .....
2.4.
2.4.1.
..
2.4.2.

20
23
25
32
32
36

2 38

3.
3.1. ..
3.2. .
3.3. ...
3.3.1.
3.4.

39
39
41
42
45

4.
4.1. .. 47
4.2. . 49
3

4.3. .
4.3.1. ..
4.4.
4.4.1. .
4.5. .
4.6. ..

50
50
53
54
58
61

Exercises to Chapter 4 64
. 65

1.
1.1.
,

- , , , , ,
.
,
, ,
.

.
,
.

1.2.
,
.
1)
(*)
a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 = 0
,
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , - x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 .
, (*)
{a1 , a 2 , a3 , a 4 } .
,
a1,1 a1,2 a1,3 a1,4 a1,5

a
a
a
a
a
2
,
1
2
,
2
2
,
3
2
,
4
2
,
5

:
a1,1 x1 + a1,2 x2 + a1,3 x3 + a1,4 x4 + a1,5 x5 = 0
(**)

+
+
+
+
=
0
a
x
a
x
a
x
a
x
a
x
2,3 3
2,4 4
2 ,5 5
2,1 1 2,2 2

, ,
.

,
.
2)
: a = {a1 , a2 , a3} .

.
5

,
,
.
,
.
,
.

.
m n , , m n .
,
.
.

3 2

2 3

2 2

2 7

A = 1 0
3 4

1 5 0
B =

3 3 8

sin x cos x
C =

cos x sin x

A , i- j-
, ai , j Ai , j .
A =|| ai , j || , A
ai , j :
a1,1 a1,2 L a1, j L a1, n

a
a
a
a
L
L
2,1
2, 2
2, j
2, n
L
L L L L L
=|| ai , j || .
A=
ai ,1 ai ,2 L ai , j L ai , n
L
L L L L L

a
a
a
a
L
L
m,2
m, j
m,n
m ,1
A =|| ai j || .
, ,
.
a3,2 = 4 b1,2 = 5 .
1 n :
(a1,1 a1,2 K a1,n ).

a1,1

a
2,1
m 1 :
.
L

a
m ,1

. ,
3 3 .

1.3.

A =|| ai , j || B =|| bi , j || ,
, .

A = B ai , j = bi , j
{i, j} .
:

2
1) A = B = (2 0 )
0
, . A B .
2 0
2 1
2) C =
D =
,
1
3
0
3

, .
.
C D.

A ( )
B , A;
: bi , j = ai , j .
,
:
B = A bi j = ai j .

2 3 0
10 15 0
: A =
, 5A =
.

5
20
5
1
4
1



. A =|| ai , j || B =|| bi , j ||
C =|| ci , j || ,
ai , j bi , j :
ci , j = ai , j + bi , j .

,
:
C = A + B ci j = ai j + bi j .

3 7 1
6 15 3
: A =
B =
.

1
2
0
4
1
2

3 7 1 6 15 3 3 + 6 7 15 1 + 3 9 8 4
A + B =

=
+
=
1 2 0 4 1 2 1 + 4 2 + 1 0 + 2 3 3 2
.

1.3.1.

, - A
, - B . A
B ,
:
AB = (a1,1 a1,2

b1,1

n
b2,1
L a1, n ) = a1,1b1,1 + a1, 2 b2,1 + K + a1, n bn ,1 = a1, k bk ,1 .
L
k =1

b
n ,1

A a1,1 a1,2 K a1, n

A = 1 =
A2 a2,1 a2,2 K a2, n
b1,1

- B = M , A
b
n ,1
B . AB
2 1 :
8

A B a1,1b1,1 + a1, 2b2,1 + K + a1, n bn ,1


A
.
AB = 1 B = 1 =
+
+
+
a
b
a
b
a
b
K
A
A
B
2 , n n ,1
2 2,1 1,1 2, 2 2,1
2

, m- n m n .

AB
A B , A
B . A m ,
B n-, AB
m n . ci , j , i- j-
,
: i- A j- B .
A =|| ai , j || B =|| bi , j ||
m l l n , .
C =|| ci , j ||= AB m n
C = AB

ci , j =

ai,k bk , j .

k =1

A A1 , A2 , K, Am ,
B B1 , B2 , K, Bn ,
:
A1

A
C = AB = 2 (B1
L

Am

B2

A1B1

AB
L Bn ) = 2 1
L

Am B1

A1B2
A2 B2
L
Am B2

A1Bn

L A2 Bn
.
L L

L Am Bn
L

, A2
: A2 = A A .
A3 = A A A ,
,
An = A A K A .
14243
n

,
, AB BA . , AB
A 1 n B n 1 (
1 1 ), BA
n - .
9

A B ,
AB BA A B .
:
5

1) A = (1 2 3) B = 4 .
0

5

AB = (1 2 3) 4 = 1 5 + 2 ( 4) + 3 0 = 3 .
0

5 2
5 3 5 10 15
5
5 1

BA = 4 (1 2 3) = 4 1 4 2 4 3 = 4 8 12 .
0
0 1
02
0 3 0
0
0

2 1
3 5
2) A =
B =
.
0 3
4 1
:
2 1 3 5 2 3 + 1 4 2 5 + 1 ( 1) 10 9
AB =

=
=
,
0 3 4 1 0 3 + 3 4 0 5 + 3 ( 1) 12 3

3 1 + 5 3 6 18
3 5 2 1 3 2 + 5 0
BA =

=
=
,
4
1
0
3
4
2
(
1
)
0
4
1
(
1
)
3
8
1

9 6 18 4 9

=
.
3 8 1 4 4
1
.
1
1 1 1 1 1 2
A2 = A A =

=
,
0 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 2 1 3
A3 = A A2 =

=
,
0
1
0
1
0
1

1 1 1 3 1 4
A4 = A A3 =

=
, ..
0
1
0
1
0
1

1 2002
A2002 =
.
0
1

10
AB BA =
12
1
3) A2002 , A =
0
:

10

1.4.
A =|| ai , j || ai ,i ( i = 1,2,3,K )
.
, ,
:
0 L 0
a1,1

a
0
L
0

2,2
.
M
L O
M

0
L
a
n
,
n

, ai , j = 0 , i j .

1 0 L

0 1 L
E =
M L O

0 0 L

0
.
M

,
, ,
( ) :

AE = A

EA = A .

.
:
0 L 0

O M O M.
0 L 0

, 0- ,
,
AO = O

OA = O

A .
, . ,
,
. ,

11

0 1 3 2 0 0
.


=
0
4
0
0
0
0

, , ,
, :
a1,1 a1,2

0 a2,2
M
L

0
0

L a1,n

L a 2, n
O
M

L an,n

0
a1,1

a2,1 a2,2
M
L

a
n,1 an,2

0
.
O
M

L an,n
L
L

m n A
,
AT . , A
AT , A
AT ; : ( AT )i , j = A j ,i .
A , AT = A .
a j , i = ai , j .
A , AT = A ,
a j ,i = ai , j .
:

a b
1) A =
,
c
d

a1,1 a1, 2 a1,3


2 3 .
B =
a2,1 a2,2 a2,3
,

1 0 a b a b
,


=
0
1
c
d
c
d

a b 1 0 a b
,


=
c
d
0
1
c
d

1 0 a1,1 a1,2


0
1

a2,1 a2,2

a1,3 a1,1 a1,2


=
a2,3 a2,1 a2,2
12

a1,3
,
a2,3

1 0 0
a1,3
a1,1 a1,2
0 1 0 =
a 2,3
a2,1 a2,2
0
0
1

a1,1 a1,2

a2,1 a2,2

a1,3
.
a2,3

2 7

2 1 3
2) A = 1 0 , AT =
.

7
0
4

3 4

4 2 7

3) S = 2 5 9 , S T = S .
7 9 3

0 3 1

4) A = 3
0 2 ,
1 2
0

3 1
0
0 3 1

AT = 3 0
2 = 3
0 2 = A.
1 2 0
1 2
0

1.5. c
- :
1, i = j,
i, j =
0, i j.
- :
i , j = j ,i .
i , j .
1. -
ai i , j , a j i , j , ai , j i , j , ai , j i , j , ..
j

i
n

ai i , j = a j ,

k j n .

i =k
n

ai i , j = 0 ,

j < k j > n .

i =k

13

100

i 2 i ,3

i =1

i ,3 = 1 i = 3 i ,3 = 0 i . ,
100

i 2 i ,3 = 32 = 9 .
i =1

100

i 2 i ,120

i =1

i ,120 = 0 1 i 100 , ,

1000

2k 10,k = 210 = 1024 ,

k =5

100

i 2 i ,120 = 0 .
i =1

1000

2k 10,k = 0 .

k = 20

2. i , j ,

1 0 L 0

0
1
0
L

E =|| i , j ||=
.
M L O M

0
0
1
L

i, j - ( A E )i , j AE ,
A m n , E n -
.

-,
n

( A E ) i , j = a i , k k , j = ai , j
k =1


. , A E = A .

1.6.
,

1. A ( A)
A + ( A) = A A = 0.
2. A B ,
A + B = B + A.
3. A, B, C ,
(A + B) + C = A + (B + C).
14

4.
:
( A + B )T = AT + B T .
.
.
,
,

,
.

1.

( A) = ( ) A .

2.

( AB ) = ( A) B = A( B ) .

3.

(AB)C = A(BC).

4.

( AB )T = BT AT .

5.
: AB = BA .
1) 2)
.
3
( AB)C
A(BC ) .
, i,j- AB C

(( AB)C ) i , j = ( AB) i ,k ck , j .
k

( AB )i , k = ai ,l bl , k ,
l

(( AB)C ) i , j = ai ,l bl ,k ck , j .
k

:
(( AB)C ) i , j = ai ,l bl ,k ck , j
l

= ai ,l ( BC ) l , j = ( A( BC )) i , j .
l

i j,
, :
( AB)C = A( BC ) .
15

4
( AB)T i , j = ( AB) j ,i ,
AT i , j = A j ,i a j ,i

B T i , j = B j ,i b j ,i .

( AB )T i , j = ( AB ) j ,i = a j , k bk ,i
k

=A

k , j B i,k

= B T i , k AT k , j = ( B T AT )i , j .

, ( AB)T
( B T AT ) , ,
: ( AB )T = BT AT .
5 :
1) , .. AT i , j = Ai , j .
2) .

:
( AB )i ,i = ai , k bk ,i = ak ,i bi , k = bi , k ak ,i = ( BA)i ,i .
k

, .
,
,
, .

1.

A( B + C ) = AB + AC

2.

( A + B)C = AC + BC

3.

( A + B) = A + B

1 , i-
j- A( B + C ) .

( A( B + C ))i , j = ai , k ( B + C ) k , j = ai , k (bk , j + ck , j )
k

= ai , k bk , j + ai , k ck , j = ( AB )i , j + ( AC )i , j = ( AB + AC )i , j
k

, A(B + C) (AB + AC) .


2,
(A + B)C (AC + BC):

16

(( A + B )C )i , j = ( A + B )i , k Ck , j = ( ai , k + bi , k )ck , j
k

= ai , k ck , j + bi , k ck , j = ( AC )i , j + ( BC )i , j = ( AC + BC )i , j .
k


, .

3
.
:

.
AB BA .

( || a1,1 || a1,1 ) , ,

.
1.
(AB)C = A(BC),
3 1
2 4 1
B =
C =

.
A = (1 2 ) ,
0 4
5 0 2
:
3 1
A B = (1 2 )
= (3 7 ) ,
0
4

2 4 1
( A B )C = (3 7 )
= (29 12 17 ) ,
5
0
2

3 1 2 4 1 11 12 1
B C =
,

=
0 4 5 0 2 20 0 8
11 12 1
A( B C ) = (1 2 )
= (29 12 17 ) = ( A B )C .
20
0
8

2.
( AB )T = B T AT ,
A =|| ai , j || B =|| bi , j ||.
:

1)

a1,1
A B =
a2,1

a1, 2 b1,1 b1,2 a1,1b1,1 + a1,2b2,1


=

a2, 2 b2,1 b2,2 a2,1b1,1 + a2,2 b2,1


17

a1,1b1,2 + a1,2 b2,2


,
a2,1b1,2 + a2,2 b2,2

2)
3)

a1,1b1,1 + a1,2 b2,1 a2,1b1,1 + a2, 2b2,1


,
( A B )T =
+
+
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
2 ,1 1, 2
2, 2 2,2
1,1 1,2 1,2 2,2
b1,1 b2,1 a1,1 a2,1 b1,1a1,1 + b2,1a1,2
=

B T AT =
b
b
a
a
1
,
2
2
,
2
1
,
2
2
,
2
b1,2 a1,1 + b2,2 a1,2

A B .

b1,1a2,1 + b2,1a2, 2
,
b1,2 a2,1 + b2,2 a2,2

1 1
3. f ( x ) = 2 x x 2 + 1 A =
.
0
2

f (A).
: f(A),
5 5I, I .
,
f ( A) = 2 A A 2 + 5 I =
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 0


+ 5

= 2
0 2 0 2 0 2
0 1
2 2 1 3 5 0 6 1

+
=
.
=
0 4 0 4 0 5 0 5

1.

3 1
1 1
2 2
1. A =
, B =
C =

2
0
4
1
0
5

2 A 3B + 4C .
x

2. A = y
z

0
0
1



Z = 0 .
X = 0 , Y = 1 ,
1
0
0



3. AB BA
.
1) A 3 5 ; B 5 2 .
2) A 3 2 ; B 2 3 .
3) A 4 2 ; B 4 2 .
4) A 1 7 ; B 7 1 .
5) A B 5- .
18

5 2 1
4. A =
.
3
4
2

AAT AT A .
AAT AT A , .
, .
0 2 1

5 2 1
3 5 1
5.
3 4 2

4 3 2
6.
( AB)C = A( BC ) ,
3 1
5
A =
, B = C = ( 2 8 1) .
2 4
6
7. AB BA , A B
4- .

1 0
8. A50 , A =
.
1 1
5 2
9. B T AT , AB =
.
3
4

1 2
10. A =
f ( x ) = 3x 2 + 5 x 4 . f ( A) .
0 3
11.

1 0
. B ,
A =
1 0
AB .

19

2.

2.1.
S 1 to n,
( ):
S = {1, 2, 3, K, n} .
S ,
:
{1, 2, 3, K, n} {i1 , i2 , i3 , K , in } .

,
,
.
:
{1, 2, 3, 4}

{2, 4, 1, 3}

:
{1, 2, 3, 4}

{4, 2, 3, 1}

S
. , {2, 4, 1, 3}
:
{1, 2, 3, 4}

{3, 2, 1, 4}

{2, 3, 1, 4}

{2, 4, 1, 3} .

, S
i j ik ,
i j > ik j < k.
, {2, 4, 1, 3} :
2 1,
4 1,
4 3.
.
,
.
.
,
,

.
20

. {2, 4, 1, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4}
, 3 .
1
.
:
, -, i j i j +1
.
-, i j i j + k
(2k 1)

, k i j
i j {L, i j + k , i j , L} :

k1 i j + k
i j+k

{L, i j , L, i j + k , L} :

k + ( k 1) = 2k 1
, , .
2
n! S = {1, 2, 3, K, n} .
:
S,
n .
21

n
n 1 ,
n 2 .. n-
. , n(n
1)(n 2)1 = n! S.
.
S = {1, 2, 3} ,
3! = 6 :
{1, 2, 3} , {2, 3, 1} , {3, 1, 2} ,

{3, 2, 1} , {2, 1, 3} , {1, 3, 2} .

a)
{1, 2, 3} , {2, 3, 1} {3, 1, 2}
,

S:
{1, 2, 3}

{3, 2, 1}

{2, 3, 1} ,

{1, 2, 3}

{2, 1, 3}

{3, 1, 2} .

:
{1, 2, 3} , {2, 3, 1} {3, 1, 2} ,
. ,
{2, 3, 1} :
2 1, .. 2 1.
3 1, .. 3 1.
b) ,
{3, 2, 1} , {2, 1, 3} {1, 3, 2}
,

S. , {3, 2, 1}
1 3 S.
, ,
{3, 2, 1} ,
:
3 2, .. 3 2,
3 1, .. 3 1,
2 1, .. 2 1.
22

{2, 1, 3} 2 1.
{1, 3, 2} 3 2.

2.2.

A =|| ai , j || n- ,

{k1 , k 2 , L , k n }
S = {1, 2, L, n} n .
, n ,
, A
:
a1, k1 a2, k 2 K an , k n .
(1)

k1
, k2
..
2 n!
{k1 , k 2 , L , k n } , ,
n!
.

{k1 , k 2 , L , k n } : +,
.
,

{k1 , k 2 , L , k n } ,
P{k1 , k 2 , L , k n } . ,

+ 1
(1) P{k1 , k 2 , K, k n } =
1

a1,k1 a 2,k2 K a n ,kn ( 1) P{k1 , k2 , K, kn }


( ) A:

det A =

a1, k a2, k
1

{k1 , k 2 ,K, k n }

K an, k n (1) P{k1 , k 2 ,K, k n } .

23

(2)
,

det A =

a1,1
a2,1
M

a1, 2 L a1, n
a2, 2 L a2 , n
L

(3)

an ,1 an , 2 L an , n

, (2)
n! / 2.
.
,
. ,
, det A 0 .
:
, .

1. ,
: det || a1,1 ||= a1,1 .

2. ,
a1,1 a1,,2
.
A =
a
a
2
,
1
2
,
2

{1, 2} : {1, 2} {2, 1} .


{1, 2} ,
{2, 1}
.
+ a1,1a2,2 a1,2 a2,1 ,

a1,1 a1, 2
= a1,1a2,2 a1, 2 a2,1
a2,1 a2, 2
3.
{1, 2, 3} :
{1, 2, 3} ,

{2, 3, 1} ,

{3, 1, 2} ,

{3, 2, 1} ,

{2, 1, 3} ,

{1, 3, 2} .

24

,
.
,
. (. . 22.)
,
a1,1 a1, 2 a1,3

a2,1 a2, 2

a2,3 = a1,1a2, 2 a3,3 + a1,2 a2,3a3,1 + a1,3a2,1a3, 2

a3,1

a3,3

a3,2

a1,3a2,2 a3,1 a1,2 a2,1a3,3 a1,1a2,3a3,2



, .

, ,
,
.
, .
,
.

2.3.

:
det AT = det A .
.
:
.
1.

2.

,
:

25

: ( )
.
:

a1,k1 a 2,k2 K a n ,kn ( 1) P{k1 , k2 , K, kn }

det A =

a1,i a2,i
1

{i1 ,i2 ,K,in }

3.

Kan,in ( 1) P{i1 ,i2 ,K,in } .


( ) .

: 1,
. ,

det A =

a1,i a2,i
1

{i1 ,i2 ,K,in }

P{i1 ,i2 ,K,in }


K
a
(

1
)
n
,
i
2
n

.
4.

(),
:

26

L
ai ,1

L
ai ,2

L L L
ai ,3 L ai , n

0
0
a j ,1 a j ,2

0
a j ,3

L 0 =0
L a j,n
L L

: () ,
, .
5.

() ,
:
L L
ai ,1 ai ,2
L L
ai ,1 ai ,2
L

L L L
ai ,3 L ai , n

L L L =0
ai ,3 L ai , n
L L L

: 3
. ,
. ,
det A = det A
6.

det A = 0.

() ,
:
L
ai ,1

L
ai ,2

L
L
cai ,1 cai ,2
L

L
ai ,3

L
L

L
ai , n

L L L =0
cai ,3 L cai , n
L L L

:
, ,
. 5
.
7.


, :
27

a1,1 a1,2
0 a2, 2
0

L
0

L
0

a1,3 L a1, n
a2,3 L a2, n
a3,3 L a3, n = a1,1 a2,2 a3,3 K an , n .
L L L
0 L an , n

, E 1.
: , det A
(
), ,
A
.
,
a1,1 .

a 2, 2 ,
.
.
,
a3,3 ..
, (2) ,
, .

8.

()
,

28

: :

a1,i K(ak ,i

{i1 , i2 ,K, in }

+ bk , ik ) K an, in (1) P{i1 , i2 ,K, in } =

K ak , i

{i1 , i2 ,K, in }

9.

K +

Kbk ,i

{i1 , i2 ,K, in }

K=

,
, :

L
ai ,1
L
ak ,1
L

L
ai , 2
L
ak , 2
L

L
ai , 3
L
a k ,3
L

L
L L
ai ,1
L ai , n
L
L L =
ak ,1 + cai ,1
L a k ,n
L
L L

L
ai , 2
L
ak , 2 + cai , 2
L

L
L
L
L
L

L
L
ai , n
L
L
L
L ak ,n + cai ,n
L
L

: , ,
,
,
, , .

10. A B .

det( AB) = det A det B .


29

1)

:
sin x

sin x

cos x sin x

cos x

= sin x sin x cos x ( cos x) = sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1 .

cos x sin x
2)

cos x

a b

A =
c
d

T
det A = det A .

det A =

c d

= ad bc

det AT =

b d

= ad bc.

1 2 3
3) 4 5 6 .
7 8 9
: ,
, .
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

r2 r2 2 r1
r3 r3 3r1

1 2 3
2 1 0 .
4 2 0

2,
, :
1 2 3
1 2 3
2 1 0 = 2 2 1 0 = 0.
4 2 0
2 1 0

5 0
7 1
A =
B =
.
1 2
3 2
det AB = det A det B.
:
4)

30

det A =

5 0
1 2

= 10 , det B =

7 1
3 2

= 11 ,

det A det B = 110 .

5 0 7 1 35 5
AB =
,

=
1 2 3 2 13 5
det AB =

5)

35 5

= 5

35 1

13 1
3
det A1000 , A =
2
13 5

= 5(35 13) = 110 .


1
.
1

: , det A1000 = (det A)1000


,
3 1
det A =
= 3 2 =1

det A1000 = 11000 = 1 .


2 1

6)

2 3 4

A = 0 1 5 . :
0 0 1

(b) det A3 ,
(c) det(2 A) ,
(a) det A ,
(e) det( A 2 E ) .
(d) det(3 A) ,

:
(a)
.
,

2 3 4
det A = 0 1 5 = 2 1 ( 1) = 2 .
0 0 1
(b)
. ,
det A3 = (det A)3 = ( 2)3 = 8 .

(c) 2A 2E A, E .

31

2 0 0
det(2 A) = det(2 E ) det A = 0 2 0 (2) = 2 3 (2) = 16 .
0 0 2
(d) ,
det( 3 A) = det( 3E ) det A = ( 3) 3 ( 2) = 54 .

(e) ( A 2 E ) , :
4
2 3 4 2 0 0 0 3

A 2E = 0 1 5 0 2 0 = 0 1 5 ,
0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 3

det( A 2 E ) = 0 (1) (3) = 0 .

2.4.
.

, n-
n .

.
.

2.4.1.


.
n- . i,j-
ai , j i- j- .
(n1)- ,
ai , j M i , j .

32

Ai , j ai , j

Ai , j = ( 1)i + j M i , j .
, i,j-
, ,
, .
i+j
.
.

A
:

det A = ai ,1 Ai ,1 + ai , 2 Ai , 2 + K + ai , n Ai , n =
n

= ai , j Ai , j
j =1

: , A

det A =

a1, k a2, k
1

{k1 , k2 ,Kki ,Kkn }

P{k1 , k2 ,K, kn }
K
a
K
a
(

1
)
,
,
i
k
n
k
2
i
n

(*)

, .
, ,
i.
a1, k1 a2, k2 K ai , ki K an, kn . (*)
, ,
ai ,1 , ,
ai , 2 , ..
, (*)
ai , j ( j = 1,2,L, n ),

33

det A =

a1, k a2, k

1
j =1 {k1 , k2 ,K j ,Kkn }

= ai , j
j =1

K ai , j K an, kn (1) P{k1 , k2 ,K, kn } =

a1, k a2, k
1

{k1 , k2 ,K j ,Kkn }

P{k1 , k2 ,K, kn }
K
a
a
a
(

1
)
=
i
1
,
k
i
1
,
k
n
,
k

+
2
i 1
i +1
n

= ai , j Ai , j = ai ,1 Ai ,1 + ai , 2 Ai , 2 + K + ai , n Ai , n ,
j =1

Ai , j =

a1, k a2, k
1

{k1 ,L, ki 1 , ki = j , ki +1 ,L, kn }

L ai 1, ki 1 ai +1, ki +1 K an, kn (1) P ( k1 ,L, ki 1 , j , ki +1 ,L, kn ) .

, Ai , j
ai , j .
{k1 , L , ki 1 , j , ki +1 , L , k n } .
-, i1 j
, { j , k1 , L , ki 1 , ki +1 , L , k n } .
-, , j j1
.
,

(1) P ( k1 ,L, ki 1 , j , ki +1 ,L, kn ) = (1) i 1+ j 1 (1) P ( k1 ,L, ki 1 , ki +1 ,L, kn ) =


= (1) i + j (1) P ( k1 ,L, ki 1 , ki +1 ,L, kn )

L ai 1, k

{k1 ,L, ki 1 , ki +1 ,L, kn }

i 1

ai +1, ki +1 K (1) P ( k1 ,L, ki 1 , ki +1 ,L, kn ) = M i , j

ai , j .
i+ j
, Ai , j = ( 1) M i , j , .

det A = det AT ,
.
A
:

det A = a1, j A1, j + a 2, j A2, j + K + a n , j An , j


n

= ai , j Ai , j
i =1

34


. ,
n- n
(n 1)- .
s:
1) A =|| aij ||

(i) ;
(ii) .
:
a11 a12
det A = a21 a22
a31 a32

a13
a22
a23 = a11
a32
a33

a21 a22
a21 a23
a23
a12
+ a13
a31 a32
a31 a33
a33

= a11 ( a22 a33 a23a32 ) a12 ( a21a33 a23a31 ) + a13 ( a21a32 a22 a31 )
= a11a22 a33 + a12 a23a31 + a13a21a32 a11a23a32 a12 a21a33 a13a22 a31 ,
a11 a12
det A = a21 a22
a31 a32

a13
a11 a13
a11 a13
a21 a23
a23 = a12
+ a22
a32
a21 a23
a31 a33
a31 a33
a33

= a12 ( a12 a33 a23a31 ) + a22 ( a11a33 a13a31 ) a32 ( a11a23 a13a21 )
= a11a22 a33 + a12 a23a31 + a13a21a32 a11a23a32 a12 a21a33 a13a22 a31.
, , .
2 5 3
4 0
2) 1
3 7 5
(i) , (ii) .
:

(i)
2

5 3

0 =2

4 0
7 5

(5)

3 5

+3

3 7

= 2 4 5 + 5 1 5 + 3 (7 + 12) = 122.

(ii)
:
35

5 3

0 = ( 5)

3 5

+4

3 5

2 3
1 0

= 5 (5 + 0) + 4 (10 + 9) 7(0 3) = 122.

2.4.2.

.
N

1
.

2
.

3 ,
.


.

.
.


.
,

, .
:
( ),
,
().
.
.

2 4 1

1) A = 3 2 5 . det A ,
1
2 3

.
:

36

4 1

2
det A = 3
1
r r
1

r r 2r
1
1
3
r r + 3r

2
2

5
3

1
0

2
8

0 8 5

0
1

8
2

r r +r

3
14

0 8 5

14
3
1 2 3
0 8 14 .
0 0


:
det A = 1 8 9 = 72 .
2)

3
A=
7

5 2 0

1 6 1
.
0 1
3

5 2
1

:
,
.
, 5,
:

1
3
det A =
7
4

5 2 0
1 6 1
0 1
3
5 2
1

c c 5c
2
2
1
c c + 2c
3

1
0
0 0
3 14 12 1
.
7 35 15 3
4 15 10 1

:
14 12 1
det A = 35 15 3
15 10 1
,
:

37

14 12 1
35 15

15 10

r r +r
1
1 3
r r 3r

29

10

15 0

15

10

22

0
1

det A =

29

22

10

15

=5

29

22

= 5((29) (3) 22 2) = 105 .

2
1.
0 2 1
0 2 1
3 2 5

A= 2
4 1 , B = 2
0 1 , C = 2 4 1 .
1 1
1 1
5 1 7
7
0

3 2
6 3
2. A =
B =
.
1 4
5 2
A2 B 3 .
4 2
3. det A10 , A =
.
5 3
4. A 5. :
1) det(2 A) ;
2) det AT ;
3) det A3 ,
4) det(2 A2 AT ) .
1 5 0
5. det A = 2 4 1 ,
1 3 6
.
2 3 2

6. A = 4 0 7 ,
1 2 3

7. det A =

5 1 2

1 3
0 7
5 4

1
3
1

6
1
2

38

3.
3.1.
A.
A1 A,
A 1 A = A A 1 = E ,

E .
, ,
.
.
,
.
.
det A 0 , A (
, ).
A
,
A
adj A :

A1,1

A 2,1
adj A =
L

A n,1

A 1, 2 L A1,n
A1,1

A 2 , 2 L A 2 ,n
A1, 2
=
L
L L L

A1,n
A n, 2 L A n ,n

A 2,1 L A n ,1

A 2, 2 L A n , 2
.
L L L

A 2,n L A n ,n

, adj A =|| AiT, j || (adj A) i , j = AiT, j = A j , i .

3.2.
A n- .
1. ( )
()
:
n

ai ,k A j ,k = 0,

(i j )

(1)

(i j ) .

(2)

k =1

ak , i Ak , j = 0,

k =1

39

~
: A ,
A j- i- :
L L L L L
L L L L L

ai ,1 ai ,2 ai ,3 L ai , n
ai ,1 ai ,2 ai ,3 L ai , n
~
A= L L L L L A= L L L L L

ai ,1 ai ,2 ai ,3 L ai , n
a j ,1 a j ,2 a j ,3 L a j , n
L L L L L
L L L L L

~
det A j- :
n
~ n
~
~
det A = a j , k A j , k = ai , k A j , k .
k =1

k =1

,
. (
.)
~
A A j- ,
~
, A j , k = A j , k .
~ n
det A = ai , k A j , k .
k =1

~
, A
, .
, (1) :
~ n
(i j ) .
det A = ai , k A j , k = 0 .
k =1

(2).
2. det A 0 ,
1
1
A adj A =
adj A A = E ,
det A
det A
E .

(3)

. (3) :

( A adj A) i , j = (adj A A) i , j = det A i , j ,

(4)

0,
( A adj A) i , j = (adj A A) i , j =
det A,

i j
i = j

, i j . 1

40

(5)

ai , k A j , k = 0

ai ,k AkT, j = 0

k =1

k =1

( A adj A)i , j = 0 ,

(adj A A) j ,i = 0 .

ak ,i Ak , j = 0

k =1

ATj ,k ak ,i = 0

k =1

, ( )
A adj A
. ,
det A :
( A adj A) i ,i = (adj A A) i ,i = det A .
,
:
n

k =1

k =1

k =1

k =1

det A = ai , k Ai , k = ai , k AkT,i = ( A adj A)i ,i

det A = ak ,i Ak ,i = AiT, k ak ,i = (adj A A)i ,i .

3.3.
A
:

A1 =

1
adj A .
det A

.
.

1. , A.
A A 1 = E .
,
,
det A det A 1 = 1
, , det A 0 .
, .
2. , , A1
B 1 .
A A 1 = A 1 A = E

41

AB 1 = B 1 A = E .
B 1 :
B 1 = B 1 E = B 1 AA 1 = ( B 1 A) A 1 = EA 1 = A 1 ,

.
3. 2
1
1
adj A) = (
A(
adj A) A = E .
det A
det A
,
1
adj A = A 1 .
det A

3.3.1.
3 4
1. A =
.
1 2
. :
3 4
det A =
= 6 4 = 2.
1 2

det A 0 , .
:
A1,1 = ( 1)1+1 2 = 2,
A1,2 = ( 1)1+ 2 1 = 1,

A2,1 = ( 1) 2 +1 4 = 4,
A2,2 = ( 1)2 + 2 3 = 3.
A:
T
T
A1,1 A1, 2
2 1
2 4
=
adj A =
=
.
A
A

4
3

1
3
2, 2

2,1
,
1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2
1
1 3 .
A =
=
=

det A 1 3 2 1 3
2 2
:
1 3 4 2 4 1 2 0 1 0

=E,
=
=
AA1 =
2 1 2 1 3 2 0 2 0 1

1 2 4 3 4 1 2 0 1 0
=E.
=
=

A1 A =
2 1 3 1 2 2 0 2 0 1
42

1 2 3

2. A = 4 5 6 .
7 8 9

. :

1 2 3
1 2 3
det A = 4 5 6 = 3 3 3 = 0 .
3 3 3

3 3 3

, ,
.
1

3. A = 0
5


2 3

4 1.
0
1

.
1)
;
:

1 2
det A = 0

3 r r + 2r 1 2 3
2
2
1
2 5
1
=
2 0 5 = ( 2) ( 1)1+ 2
= 46.
5 1
1
5 0 1

2) :

A1,1 = ( 1)1+1

4 1
0

0 4

A1,3 = ( 1)1+ 3
A2,2 = ( 1) 2 + 2

5 0
1 3
5 1

A3,1 = ( 1) 3+1

0 1

= 4,

A1,2 = ( 1)1+ 2

= 20,

A2,1 = ( 1) 2 +1
A2,3 = ( 1) 2 + 3

= 14,

A3,3 = ( 1)3+ 3

1 2
0

= 4.

3) A:
43

2 3
0

0
1

= 2,

1 2

= 10, A3,2 = ( 1)3+ 2

= 5,

= 10,

0 1

= 1,

2
10
5 20
4
4

adj A = 2
1 .
14 10 = 5 14
20 10
10
1
4
4

4) det A ,
:
10
2
4

1
A1 = 5 14
1 .
46

20 10 4
5) :
10

1
4
0

0 = E.
1

2
1 2 3 4

1
AA 1 = 0 4 1 5 14
46
1 20 10
5 0
0
0 1 0
46

1
0 = 0 1
= 0
46
46
0
46 0 0
0
,
0
0 1 0
46

1
1
A A= 0
0 = 0 1
46
46
0
46 0 0
0
O.K.

0 = E .
1

3 5
4 1
4. A =
B =
.
1
2
3
1

XA = B .
(*)
.

det A =

3 5
1 2

= 1 0,

A 1 .
(*) A 1 :

XAA1 = B A1

XE = B A1

X = B A 1
A:
T
2 1
2 5
adj A =
=
.

5
3

1
3

44

A1 =

2 5
1
adj A =
.
1
3

det A

4 1 2 5 7 17
X =

=
.
3 1 1 3 5 12

7 17 3 5 4 1
X A =

=
B .

5
12
1
2
3
1

3.4.

, A
,
. .

A E:
a1,1 L a1,n 1 L 0

( A | E ) = L L L L L L .

an,1 L an,n 0 L 1

(E | B).
:
A 1 = B .

:
1) .
2) ,
.

3 4
.
. A =
1 2
3 4 1 0
. ( A | I ) =
.
1
2
0
1

:
3 4 1 0 1 0 1 2


.
1
2
0
1
1 2 0 1

45

:
1 0 1 2 1 0 1 2

1
2
0
1
0
2
1
3

2:
1 0 1 2 1 0 1 2

1 3 .

0 2 1 3 0 1 2 2
,
1 2 1 2 4
A1 = 1 3 =
.

2 1 3
2 2
:
1 3 4 2 4 1 2 0 1

=
=
AA1 =
2 1 2 1 3 2 0 2 0

1 2 4 3 4 1 2 0 1
=
=

A1 A =
2 1 3 1 2 2 0 2 0

0
=E
1
0
=E.
1

3.
1.
3

A = 4
7


2 3

1 6 .
5 1

3 2 3

2. A = 4 1 6 .
7 5 1

A adj A .

5 4
2 6
3. A =
B =
. X
3
2
1
7

AX = B.
0 5
1

4. A = 2 4 0 .
3 1 1

46

4.
4.1.

, A m n r,
r - ,
.
,
:
A m n r,
r- ,
.
,
rank A min{m, n} .


, .
:
1. .
2. .
3. () (),
.
, , .

, .. ,
:

2 7 2 0 1

A = 0 6 1 3 3
0 0 1 4 2

, ,
, , 3:
2 7 2
0 6
0 0

1 = 2 6 (1) 0 .
1

.
.
. ,
,
.
47

1.
.
2. ()
.
3. , ()
().
,
, .
.

2
4 1 5

1
0
3
3

.
1) A =
7 2 13 1

3 1 8 2
. :

2
4 1 5

1
0
3
3

A=
r3 r3 r1 r4
7 2 13 1

3 1 8 2

2
4 1 5

1
0
3
3

.
0 0
0
1

3 1 8 2

, (2), (3) 2,
, ,
:
2
4 1 5
r1 r1 2r3

1 0 3 3
r2 r2 3r3
0 0
0
1
r4 r4 + 2r3

3
1
8
2

4 1 5

1 0 3
0 0
0

3 1 8

0
.
1


:
4 1 5

1 0 3
0 0
0

3 1 8

0
r4 r4 r1
1

4 1 5

0 3
1
0
0
0

3
1 0

0
4 1 5

0
1 0 3
r
r
r

+
4
4
2
0 0
0
1

0
0
0 0

0
.
1

,
, ,
,
:
48

1 5 0
0 3 0 = ( 1) ( 3) 1 = 3 .
0
0 1
, A 3.

4.2.

m n :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + K + a1n xn = b1
a x + a x + K + a x = b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2

L
am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + K + amn xn = bm

(1)

ai j ; bi (i = 1,2,L, m) ;
x j ( j = 1,2,L, n ) .
(1)
x j , (1)
.
,
. .
(1)
AX = B ,
A , ai j ;
B ;
X x1 , x2 ,K, xn :
a11 a12 L a1n
x1
b1

a
a
L
a
x

2
b2
22
2n
=
=
,
,
A = 21
X
B
L
L .
L L L L

a
a
a
x
L
m2
mn
m1
n
bm
B = 0, :
AX = 0 .
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
.
49

4.3.

(1):
a11 a12

a22
a
( A | B ) = 21
L L

a
m1 am 2

L a1n b1

L a2 n b2
.
L L L

L amn bm


. ,

.

.
.

(1)

:
~
a~11
L L b1

~
L L b2
0 a~22
~
0
0 a~33 L L b3

( A | B)
M L L O
M M

~
0
0 L a~rr L br
0

0
0
0 L L M


, ,
..

.

4.3.1.

1) :
2 x1 x2 + 5 x3 = 10

x1 + x2 3x3 = 2
2 x + 4 x + x = 1
1
2
3
.
, :
50

2 1 5 10
2 1 5 10
r3 r3 r2

r
r
2
4
2
2
6
2
1
1
3

2
r r2 r1

2 4
1 1 2
1 1
2 4

5 10
5 10
2 1
2 1

r
r
3
14
0
3
11
14
0
3
11

r3 r3 2r2
3

3
0 6
0 2
21 15
5
7

5 10
5 10
2 1
2 1

r3
r
14
0
3
11
14
0
3
11

43
0 0
0 0
1
1
43 43


2 x1 x2 + 5 x3 = 10

3x2 11x3 = 14

x3 = 1

. :
3x2 = 14 + 11x3 = 3

x 2 = 1 ,
2 x1 = 10 + x2 5 x3 = 4
x1 = 2 .
x1 2

, X = x2 = 1
x 1
3
:
2 x1 x2 + 5 x3 = 2 2 ( 1) + 5 1 10,

x1 + x2 3x3 = 2 + ( 1) 3 1 2,
2 x + 4 x + x = 2 2 + 4 ( 1) + 1 1.
1
2
3
2) ,
x1 + x2 x3 = 0

2 x1 x2 x3 = 2
4 x + x 3 x = 5
1 2
3
. ,
:
1 1 1 0 r r 4r 1 1 1 0

3
1
2 1 1 2 r r 2r 0 3 1 2 r3 r3 r2
2
2
1 0 3
1 5
4 1 3 5

51

1 1 1 0

0 3 1 2 .
0 7
0 0


0 x1 + 0 x2 + 0 x3 = 7 ,
, , .
3) ,
x1 + x2 x3 2 x4 = 0

2 x1 + x2 x3 + x4 = 2
x + x 3x + x = 4
1 2
3
4
.
:
1 1 1 2 0
1

r3 r3 + r1
2 1 1 1 2
0

r
r
2
r
2
1
1 1 3 1 4 2

0
1 1 1

0 1 1
0 0 2

1 1 2 0

5 2 r3 r3 + 2r2
1 1
2 4 1 4
2 0

5 2 .
9 0

:
x1 + x2 x3 2 x4 = 0

x2 + x3 + 5 x4 = 2

2 x3 + 9 x4 = 0

,
.
x4 = c
c:
x3 = 9 c / 2 ,
x2 = 2 + x3 + 5 x4 = 2 + 9 x4 / 2 + 5 x4 = 2 + 19c / 2 ,
x1 = x3 x2 + 2 x4 = 9 x4 / 2 19 x 4 / 2 2 + 2 x4 = 2 3c .

,
2 3c
19
2 + c
X = 9 2 .

c
2

c
52

c , ,
2

2
: X 1 = .
0

0
8

21
c = 2, : X 2 = .
9

2
, .

x2 = 2 +

: x1 = 2 3c ,

19
c,
2

9
x3 = c
2

x4 = c

x1 + x2 x3 2 x4 = 0

2 x1 + x2 x3 + x4 = 2
x + x 3x + x = 4
1 2
3
4
19
9

+
+

2
3
2
c
c
c 2c = 0

2
2
00

19
9

4 6c + 2 + c c + c = 2 2 2
2
2

44

19
27

2 + 3c + 2 + 2 c 2 c + c = 4
.

4.4.


AX = 0 ,
(2)
A ; X -,
.
0

, X = M ,
0

.

53

X 1 X 2 ,

c1 X 1 + c2 X 2

.
. ,
AX 1 = 0 AX 2 = 0 .
c1 c2
c1 AX 1 = 0
A( c1 X 1 ) = 0 ,
c2 AX 2 = 0

A( c2 X 2 ) = 0 .

,
A( c1 X 1 ) + A( c2 X 2 ) = 0 ,

A( c1 X 1 + c2 X 2 ) = 0 .

, c1 X 1 + c2 X 2
.

4.4.1.

1) .
x1 x2 x3 + 3x4 = 0

x1 + x2 2 x3 + x4 = 0
4 x 2 x + 4 x + x = 0
1
2
3
4
.
, :
1 1 1 3 r r r 1 1 1 3
1 1 1 3
2

2
1
1 1 2 1 r r 4r 0 2 1 2 r3 r3 r2 0 2 1 2
3
3
1 0
2
8 11

0 0 9 9
4 2 4 1

3, 4.
, , x4
.
x4 = c x1 , x2
x3 c.
:

54

x1 x2 x3 + 3c = 0

2 x 2 x3 2 c = 0

9 x3 9 c = 0

, x3 = c .
:
3
2 x2 = x3 + 2c = 3c

x2 = c ,
2
3
1
x1 = x2 + x3 3c = c + c 3c = c .
2
2
, :

1
1

c
2
2

3
3
X = c = c
.
2
2
1
c
1
c

X 1 , c . c = 4,
2

6
X1 = .
4

4
:
1
3
x1 = c , x2 = c ,
x3 = c ,
2
2
:
3
1
c
c c + 3c = 0

2
2

3
1

c + c 2c + c = 0
2
2

6
4
c
c + 4c + c = 0

2
2
.

55

x4 = c

0 0

0 0
0 0

1 1 1 1

2) A = 2 2 1 1 .
5 5 2 4


AX = 0 .
. :

1 1 1 1
1

r2 r2 2r1

2 2 1 1
0

r
r
2
r
r
3
2
1
5 5 2 4 3

0
1 1 1 1

3 1
0 0
0 0
0
0

1 1 1

3 1 r3 r3 + r2
0
0 3 1
1 1 1 1

3 1
0 0

rank A = 2 , 4,
,
. x2 = c1 x3 = c2 ,
2 x1 c1 c2 + x4 = 0,

3c2 x4 = 0,


x4 = 3c2

1
1
x1 = (c1 + c2 3c2 ) = c1 c2 .
2
2

c1 c2
2

X = c1
c2

3c2
:

1 c
1 2
1
c1 2


2 0
1

0
=
+
X = c1 +
c
c
1
2

0
1 .
c
0 2

3c2
0

3
0
56



X = c1 X 1 + c2 X 2 ,

, X 1 , X 2 , K
.

1 2
1


1

0
X 1 = X 2 = .
1
0


0
3
3) ,

4c1 + 7c2 2c3

1
X =
.
c2

2
7
4



0
1
0


, X = c1 + c2 + c3
0
1
0



1
0
0
4

1
X1 = ,
0

0

7
2


0
0
X2 = X3 =
1
0


0
1

.
1 1 1

4) A = 3 1 1 .
2
1 3

AX = 0 .
. :
57

1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1

r2 r2 + 3r1

3
1
1
0
2
3
r

2
r
0
2
3

3
2
r
r
2
r

+
3
3
1
0 4 5
0 0 1
2
2 3

x1 + x2 x3 = 0

2 x 2 3 x3 = 0

x3 = 0

x1 = x2 = x3 = 0 .

4.5.

,
.

.
.
AX=B

(3)

n n .
det A 0 , (3)

xi =

Di
,
D

i =1, 2, , n,

(4)

D = det A ; Di , D i-
B:
a11 L a1,i 1
Di = M

b1 a1,i +1 L a1n
L
M .

an1 L an ,i 1 bn

an ,i +1 L ann

. :
1) (3) .
2) (4) (3) ,
(4) (3).

det A 0 ,
A 1 . (3) A 1 ,
:
X = A1B .
58

(5)

.
i- xi X, i-
A 1 B.

1
A1 =
adj A
det A
, i- adj A
A1,i , A2,i , K, An ,i ,
b1

1
b 1 n
xi = ( A1B )i = (A1,i A2,i L An ,i ) 2 = Ak ,i bk .
M
D k =1
D

bn
Di
i- , ,
D
xi = i .
D
,
1 n
xi = Ak ,i bk
D k =1
(3).

D a j ,i i:
n

D a j ,i xi = Ak ,i a j ,i bk .
i =1

i =1 k =1

:
n

D a j ,i xi = bk Ak ,i a j ,i .
i =1

k =1

(6)

i =1

,
n

Ak ,i a j ,i = k j det A = k j D ,
i =1

k j .
, k j ,

i =1

k =1

D a j ,i xi = D bk kj = Db j

a j ,i xi = b j
i =1

.
59

AX = B ,

2 x1 x2 + 5 x3 = 10

x1 + x2 3x3 = 2
2 x + 4 x + x = 1
1
2
3
. ,

.
r1 2 r2 0 3 11
2 1 5 rr1

3 r3 r1
3 11
D = 1 1 3
= 43 ,
=
1 1 3 =
5 4
0 5 4
2 4
1
r1 + 5r2 0 4 10
10 1 5 rr1

2 r2 + r3
4 10
D1 = 2 1 3
= 86 ,
=
0 9 1 =
9 1
1 4 1
1
4
1
r1 r3
2 10 5 rr1
0 9
4

r
3 3 2 r1
9 4
D2 = 1 2 3
=
= 43 ,
1 2 3 =
5 7
2 1
1
0 5
7
r1 2 r2 0 5 9
2 1 10 rr1

3 r3 r1
5 9
D3 = 1 1 2
=
= 43 .
1 1 2 =
2 5
2 4
1
0 2
5

,
x1 =

x2 =

D1 86
=
= 2,
D 43

D2 43
=
= 1 ,
D
43

x3 =

D3 43
=
= 1.
D 43

,
1 . 50.

60

4.6.

. m
n
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + K + a1n xn = b1
a x + a x + K + a x = b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2

L
am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + K + amn xn = bm

(*)

A A
.
-
-.
.
1.
, , ..
,
, rank A = rank A .

a1,1 L a1,1 b1

A= M L
M
M
a

m ,1 L am , n bm
, .
, x1 ,
x2 , .. :
a1,1 L a1, n b1 ( a1,1 x1 + K + a1, n xn )

rank A = rank M L
M
M
.
a

m ,1 L am , n bm ( am ,1 x1 + K + am , n xn )

(*)
.

a1,1 L a1, n 0
a1,1 L a1, n

M M = rank M L
M = rank A .
rank A = rank M L
a

m,1 L am , n 0
m ,1 L am , n
2. : ,
rank A = rank A = r (*).

61

~
rank A = r , A r-
. r
,
(n r ) . r

( )
.
.
1) rank A = rank A n ,
.
2) rank A = rank A < n ,
.
:

.

. r = rank A = rank A
, (n r )
.
, ,
.
.

1. ,
x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 = a

4 x1 + 5 x2 + 6 x3 = b
7 x + 8 x + 9 x = c
1
2
3
a, b c,
.
.
:

a
a

1 2 3 a r r 2r 1 2 3
1 2 3

2
2
1
2
1
0
2
2
2
1
0
2
b

r
r
r
4
5
6
b
a

b
.

3
3
2

3
r
r
r

3
3
1
0 0 0 c 3a 2b
4 2 0 c 3a
7 8 9 c
c 3a 2b 0 , .
,
, .
62

2.
- :

1 3 1 5 2

0 7 0 2 4
.
A=
0 0 3 0 1

0 0 0 1 3

. , ,
,
. ,

.

3. ,

1 2 3 4 1

0
5
6
7
2

A=
0 0 8 9 3

0 0 0 0 a

a.
. a 0 , rank A = 4 , rank A = 3 .
.
a = 0 , rank A = rank A = 3 , ,
4.
,
.
, .

63

4
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

1
5 2
3 4

A = 2 1
4 .
3 0
3 7 10 5 14

3
11 3 18

2
1
11
5

A =
.
7 2 13
1

3
1
8
2

:
5 x1 + 2 x2 4 x3 = 4
7 x1 + x2 5 x3 = 3

x1 + 3x2 + 4 x3 = 3
4 x1 + x2 3x3 = 5
2 x + 4 x + x = 1
2 x + x + x = 2
1

2
3
1
2
3
,

3 2 2 1 2

1 1 1 2 .
2
1 1 3 1 4


5 3
2 2

A X = B, A = 2 2 1 1 .
5 5 2 4


2 x1 x2 + 5 x3 = 19
5 x1 + 2 x2 4 x3 = 4

x1 + x2 3x3 = 3
x1 + 3x2 + 4 x3 = 3
2 x + 4 x + x = 6
2 x + 4 x + x = 1
1
1
2
3
2
3
a, b c
x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 = a

4 x1 + 5 x2 + 6 x3 = b
7 x + 8 x + 9 x = c
1
2
3
.
a b
x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 = a

4 x1 + 5 x2 + 6 x3 = b
7 x + 8 x + 9 x = 0
1
2
3
.
64


.. . . , 1968.
.. . . .
. . . , 1973.
. .
. . , 1987.
5. . . ..
. . , 1988.
6. . . . .
, 1979.
7. .., .. . . , 1984.
8. ., .. . . , 1988 .
9. . . . . - , 1969.
10. . . .
, 1972.
1.
2.
3.
4.

11. . ..
.. 1. . , 1988.
12. .., .. ..
. . , 1987.
13. .., .., ..
. .: , 1980.
14. .. .( 3-
). : - , . 11965.
15. .. . .
, 1987.
16. .
. . , 1964.
17. .. . . ,
1987.
18. .. . . ,
1984.
19. ., . . . .
, 1977.