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: 512.64

2010

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I. ........................
1.1. ............
1.2. ...
1.3. ............
1.4. .

1.5. ..
II. .
2.1.
2.2. .
2.3.
. ..
III. .
3.1. .

3.2. ...
3.3.
.
3.4.
3.5. .
IV. ...
4.1.
.

4.2. ..
4.3.
.
V. .
5.1. , ,

.
5.2. .

5.3. .
VI.

VII. ..

2
2
2
4
7
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24
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28
32
34
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39
44
44
45
47
51
51
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59
62
70
77

.. , .. . .


: ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
. .
.
, .
I.
1.1.
. L
,
.
1. L, .. ,
x, y L z L ,
x y z = x + y .
2. L , ..
, x L
z L ,
x z = x .
3. :
1) x + y = y + x x, y L ( );
2) ( x + y ) + z = x + ( y + z ) x , y, z L ( );
3) L , x L
x + = x;
4) x L
x L , x + x = ;
5) 1 x = x x L ;
, R , x L ;
6) ( x ) = ( ) x
, R ,
xL
(
7) ( + ) x = x + x
);
8) ( x + y ) = x + y
R ,
x, y L
(
).
1) 8)
.
2

.. , .. . .

1)
.
2)

x L

x L .
3) 0 x =
xL.
4) 1 x = x x L .
5) =
R .
.
.
1. R .

.
2. V1 ,V2 ,V3 ,
, .
.
3. R n n ,
( -
n , ):
R n = {x = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) xi R, i = 1, 2 , ..., n}. x = ( x1 , ..., xn )

y = ( y1,..., y n ) R n
: x + y = ( x1 + y1 ,..., xn + y n ) , x = (x1 ,..., xn ) .
: = (0 ,..., 0) , x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) . .

.
4. M m n m n .

.
5. C [a, b] , [a, b] .

.
6. Pn x
, n :
Pn = f ( x) = a0 + a1 x + ... + an x n ai R , i = 0,1, ..., n .

. 0 R

.
, n
.
n .

.. , .. . .

f ( x) = x 2 + 3 x + 1

g ( x) = x 2 + 2 x ,
f ( x) + g ( x) = 5 x + 1
, .
7. R+
. x, y R+
x + y , x
x , R+
, .. x R+
.

R+ -. : x y = xy ,
x x
: o x = x . R+ .
:
1) x y = xy = yx = y x ;
2) ( x y ) z = ( xy ) z = x( yz ) = x ( y z ) ;
3) 1, ,
x = x 1 = x 1 = x ;
4) x R+
1
1
x = , , x x = x = 1 = ;
x
x
1
5) 1 o x = x = x ;

( ) = x = x = ( ) o x ;

6) o ( o x ) = x

7) ( + ) o x = x + = x x = ( o x ) ( o x ) ;

8) o ( x y ) = ( xy ) = x y = ( o x ) ( o y ) .
, R+

.
1.2.

L .
. e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L
1e1 + 2 e 2 + ... + n e n , 1 , 2 ,..., n R

,
,
.
. e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L
,
, , ..
4

.. , .. . .

1 , 2 ,..., n R ,
1e1 + 2 e 2 + ... + n e n = .

1. e1 , e 2 L

1 0 . e1 =

2
e , .. e1
1 2

e 2 .
2.
e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L

1 0 .

e1 =

2
e 2 3 e 3 ... n e n , ..
1
1
1

e1 .
, e1 , ..
.
.
. , e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L
, ,
.
. e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L
,

,
..
1e1 + 2 e 2 + ... + n e n =

1 = 2 = ... = n = 0 .
1. e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L
, , ..
.
2. , :
() e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L .
.
1. V2 V3

, ;
, ; .
.
2.
R n
e1 = (1,0,...,0,0) , e 2 = (0,1,...,0,0) ,, e n = (0,0,...,0,1) .
, e1 , e 2 ,..., e n R n
1e1 + 2 e 2 + ... + n e n = ( 1, 2 ,..., n ) ,
= (0,0,...,0) , 1 = 2 = ... = n = 0 .
3. M m n m n
.
Eij , i = 1,..., m , j = 1,..., n ,

Eij m n ,
5

.. , .. . .

, i - j - , 1,
. Eij , i = 1,..., m , j = 1,..., n ,
, ..

m n

ij Eij
i =1 j =1

11 ... 1n

A = ... ... ... ,

m1 ... mn
, ij = 0 i = 1,..., m j = 1,..., n .
4. Pn
, n ,
p0 ( x) = 1 , p1 ( x) = x ,
p 2 ( x) = x 2 ,, p n ( x) = x n . ,

n
1 1 + 2 x + ... + n +1 x . i , i = 1, 2, ..., n + 1 ,
, ,
n . , n ,
, x ( ,+ ) .
, 1 1 + 2 x + ... + n +1 x n 0 x ( ,+ )
1 = 2 = ... = n+1 = 0 , .. p 0 ( x) , p1 ( x) ,, p n (x) .
1. C (R ) ,

R , f1 ( x ) = cos 2 x , f 2 ( x ) = cos 2 x , f 3 ( x ) = 1
.
. cos 2 x = 2 cos 2 x 1 ,
f 2 ( x ) f1 ( x)
f 3 ( x) : f 2 ( x ) = 2 f1 ( x ) f 3 ( x ) . ,
.
2. C (R )

f1 ( x ) = sin x , f 2 ( x ) = sin 2 x , f 3 ( x ) = sin 3 x



.
. : sin x + sin 2 x + sin 3 x 0 x R .
x , ,
x = 4 , x = 3 , x = 2 . x = 4 , x = 3 , x = 2 ,

2 + + 2 = 0
2
23
3

.
2 + 2 =0
= 0


= = = 0 , ,
f1 ( x ) , f 2 ( x ) , f 3 ( x ) ,
, .
6

.. , .. . .

3.
,

f1 ( x ) = sin x ,
f 2 ( x) = sin 2 x ,, f n ( x ) = sin nx
n .
. . n = 1 ,
f1 ( x ) = sin x , ,
. ,
n=k,
..

f1 ( x ) = sin x ,

f 2 ( x) = sin 2 x ,, f k ( x ) = sin kx .
n = k + 1 , ..
f1 ( x ) = sin x,..., f k +1 ( x) = sin(k + 1) x . :
(1)
1 sin x + 2 sin 2 x + ... + k sin kx + k +1 sin (k + 1)x 0 x R .
(1):
1 sin x 4 2 sin 2 x ... k 2 k sin kx (k + 1)2 k +1 sin (k + 1)x 0 x R . (2)
, sin( k + 1) x ,

(1) (k + 1)2 (2):

((k + 1) 1) sin x + ... + ((k + 1)


2

k 2 k sin kx 0
x R .
f1 ( x ) = sin x ,, f k ( x ) = sin kx
, 1 = ... = k = 0 .
1 = ... = k = 0 (1), k +1 = 0 . ,
f1 ( x),..., f k +1 ( x)
, .. f1 ( x),..., f k +1 ( x) .
4. , - y
L
x 1 ,..., x k , .
.
x 1 , ..., x k :
1 x 1 + ... + k x k = . y
x 1 ,..., x k : y = 1 x1 + ... + k xk . , :
y = (1 + 1 ) x1 + ... + ( k + k ) x k . y
x1 ,..., x k , 1 = 1 + 1 ,, k = k + k ,
, 1 = ... = k = 0 , . .
x 1 ,..., x k . ,
x 1 ,..., x k .
1

1.3.
.
e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L L ,
L
7

.. , .. . .

, ..
x L
x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ,
x = x1e1 + x2 e 2 + ... + xn e n .
x e1 , e 2 ,..., e n , x1 , x 2 ,..., x n
x e1 , e 2 ,..., e n . x
:
x = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) .
.
1. e1 , e 2 ,..., e n
,
.
2.
.
3.
;

, ..
x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) ,
y = ( y1,..., y n ) ,

x + y = ( x1 + y1 ,..., xn + yn ) , x = (x1 ,..., xn ) .


, e1 , e 2 ,..., e n
, , )
, )
e1 , e 2 ,..., e n .
.
1. ,
V2 ,
V3 .
2. R n
e1 = (1,0,...,0,0) , e 2 = (0,1,...,0,0) ,, e n = (0,0,...,0,1) , ..
x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) R n
x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) = x1e1 + x2 e 2 + ... + xn e n , ..

e1 , e 2 ,..., e n . . e1 = (1,0,...,0,0) ,
e 2 = (0,1,...,0,0) ,, e n = (0,0,...,0,1)
R n .
3. M m n m n
E11 , E12 ,..., E1n , E21 , ..., E2 n ,..., Emn , ..
a11 ... a1n

, A = ... ... ...


a

m1 ... amn
8

.. , .. . .
m

M m n A = aij Eij , . . A
i =1 j =1

E11 , E12 ,..., Emn . . E11 , E12 ,..., Emn


M m n .
4. Pn
, n , p0 ( x) = 1 , p1 ( x) = x , p 2 ( x) = x 2 ,
, p n ( x) = x n , ..
Pn f ( x) = 1 1 + 2 x + ... + n+1 x n =
= 1 p0 ( x) + .... + n+1 p n ( x) , .. p0 ( x),..., pn ( x) .
.
p0 ( x),..., pn ( x)
Pn .
1.
.
( ),
( ).
2. ()

() (
),
.
. L n-,
n +1
n ,
. n
L dim L .
1. L n ,
n .
2. L ,
n , L n .
2,
, dim R n = n ,
dim Pn = n + 1 , dim M mn = m n .
1. , a 1 = (1,1,0) , a 2 = (1,1,0) ,

a 3 = (1,2,1) R 3 .
I (). a) , a 1 , a 2 , a 3
. 1 a 1 +2 a 2 + 3 a 3 = .
1 + 2 3 = 0

1 2 + 23 = 0 .
=0
3
9

.. , .. . .

1 = 2 = 3 = 0 , ,
a 1 , a 2 , a 3 .
) , x = ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) R 3
a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , .. 1 , 2 , 3 ,
x = 1a 1 + 2 a 2 + 3a 3 .
1 + 2 3 = x1

1 2 + 23 = x2 .
= x
3
3
1 1 1

A = 1 1 2 ( det A 0 )
0 0 1

1
x1

1
2 = A x2 .

x
3
3
II . ) , a 1 , a 2 , a 3 .


a1 , a 2 , a 3
1 1 1

A = 1 1 2 . det A 0 , A
0 0 1

, a 1 , a 2 , a 3 .
)

3
R ,
R3 .
2.
,

f1 (t ) = t 3 + t 2 + t + 1 , f 2 (t ) = t 2 + t + 1 , f 3 (t ) = t + 1 , f 4 (t ) = 1 P3
.
I ().
t (,+) .

1 f1 (t ) + 2 f 2 (t ) + 3 f 3 (t ) + 4 f 4 (t ) 0
,
1 (t 3 + t 2 + t + 1) + 2 (t 2 + t + 1) + 3 (t + 1) + 4 1 0
t (,+)

t 3 1 + t 2 (1 + 2 ) + t (1 + 2 + 3 ) + (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ) 0

t (,+) .

1, t , t 2 , t 3 ,

. t 3 , t 2 , t , 1
,

10

.. , .. . .

1 = 0
+ = 0
1
2
.

+
+
=
2
3
1
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 0
1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 0 , .. f1 (t ), f 2 (t ), f 3 (t ), f 4 (t )
.
II . 1, t , t 2 , t 3
P3 : f1 (t ) = t 3 + t 2 + t + 1 = (1,1,1,1) , f 2 (t ) = t 2 + t + 1 = (1,1,1,0) ,
f 3 (t ) = t + 1 = (1,1,0,0) , f 4 (t ) = 1 = (1,0,0,0) .
1 1 1 1

1
1
1
0

A =
. det A 0 ,
1 1 0 0

1 0 0 0
A ,
.
3. , A n n
p( x ) , p( A) = O , O
n n .
. M n n

n 2 , n 2 + 1 . ,

E , A , A2 ,..., An . ,
,

0 E + 1 A + 2 A2 + ... + n2 A n = O .

: p( x ) = 0 + 1 x + 2 x 2 + ... + n2 x n .
2

1.4. .

.
e1 , e 2 ,..., e n
- e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) ;
x e1 , e 2 ,..., e n
x1

x
X = 2 . x e :
M

xn
x = x1e1 + x2 e 2 + ... + xn e n x = e X .
11

.. , .. . .

e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) f = ( f 1 , f 2 , ..., f n ) n -


L . f
e :
f1 = 11 e1 + 21 e 2 + ... + n1 e n ,
f 2 = 12 e1 + 22 e 2 + ... + n 2 e n ,
(1)
L
f n = 1n e1 + 2 n e 2 + ... + nn e n .

ij

11 12 L 1n

21 22 L 2 n
Te f =
,
L L L L

n2
nn
n1
e f . , i - ,
i = 1, 2, ..., n , f i ( i -
) e , ..
, .
.
1. (1)
(2)
f = e Te f .
2. , ,
.
, det Te f 0 , .. f 1 , f 2 , ..., f n .
3. T e f ,
T 1
,

(2),
1
e = f T f e = f Te f .

e .

4. Te g = Te f T f g .
, .. g = e Te g , f = e Te f , g = f T f g , ,
g = e Te g = f T f g = e Te f T f g . , Te g = Te f T f g .
. X e - x e ,
X f - x f , Te f
e f . x e f

(3)
X e = Te f X f .
1. e = (i , j , k )
f = ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 ) V3 . f 1 = j , f 2 = k , f 3 = i .
12

.. , .. . .

. f 1 , f 2 , f 3 e : f 1 = (0,1,0) ,
f 2 = (0,0,1) , f 3 = (1,0,0) .
0 0 1

A = 1 0 0 . A e
0 1 0

f .
2. V3 f 1 = i + j , f 2 = i j ,
f 3 = i + 2 j k . , f = ( f 1 , f 2 , f 3 )
V3 e = (i , j , k ) f .
x = i 2 j + 2k f .
. ) f 1 , f 2 , f 3 e : f 1 = (1,1,0) ,
f 2 = (1,1,0) , f 3 = (1,2,1) .
1 1 1

A = 1 1 2 . det A 0 , f 1 , f 2 , f 3
0 0 1

. V3 , ..
V3 .
) A e f . (1,2,2)
x e = (i , j , k ) , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) x
1
x1


f = ( f 1 , f 2 , f 3 ) , .. X e = 2 , X f = x2 . X e ,
2
x

3
X f , A (3), , :

1 1 1 1 x1


2
1
1
2
=

x2 . ,

2 0 0 1 x
3

3
x1 = 12 , x2 = 2 , x3 = 2 . , x f

x = (12 , 32 , 2 ) .
3.

f 2 (t ) = t 2 + 2t ,

f1 (t ) = t 2 + 1 ,

f 3 (t ) = t 2 t P2 .

g (t ) = 2t 2 + t 1 .
. )

e = (1, t , t 2 )

P2 :
f1 (t ) = t 2 + 1 = (1,0,1) ,

f 2 (t ) = t 2 + 2t = (0,2,1) , f 3 (t ) = t 2 t = (0,1,1) .

13

.. , .. . .

0
1 0

A = 0 2 1 .
1 1 1

A .
det A 0 , A ,
, .

P2 , P2 .
) A e f .
g (t ) = 2t 2 + t 1 (1,1,2)
e = (1, t , t 2 ) ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) f = ( f1 (t ), f 2 (t ), f 3 (t )) ,
1
x1


.. Ge = 1 , G f = x2 . (3),
2
x

3
0 x1
1 1 0


1 = 0 2 1 x2 . x1 = 1 , x2 = 0 , x3 = 1 .
2 1 1 1 x
3

, g (t ) f
g (t ) = ( 1, 0, 1) .
. g (t ) = 2t 2 + t 1 f
.
g (t ) = 1 f1 (t ) + 2 f 2 (t ) + 3 f 3 (t ) t (,+) .
f1 (t ), f 2 (t ), f 3 (t ) ,

2t 2 + t 1 = 1 (t 2 + 1) + 2 (t 2 + 2t ) + 3 (t 2 t )
t 2 (2 1 + 2 3 ) + t (1 22 + 3 ) + (1 1 ) 0

t (,+)

t (,+) .

1, t , t 2 ,

. t 2 , t , 1 ,
2 1 + 2 3 = 0

1 22 + 3 = 0
. 1 = 1 , 2 = 0 , 3 = 1
1 = 0
1

. , g (t ) = ( 1, 0, 1) f .
4. f = ( f 1 , f 2 , f 3 ) g = ( g 1 , g 2 , g 3 ) R 3

e R 3 . f 1 = (1,1,0) ,
f 2 = (1,0,1) , f 3 = (0,1,1) , g 1 = (1,1,1) , g 2 = (1,2,0) , g 3 = (1,0,0) . x
14

.. , .. . .

g : x = ( 32 ,2,3) . x
f .
1 1 0

I . Te f = 1 0 1 e f .
0 1 1

f g ,
g f . g 1 f . g 1
(1,1,1) e ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) f , ..
1
x1


G1 e = 1 , G1 f = x2 . (3) G1e = Te f G1 f ,
1
x

3
1 1 1 0 x1


1 = 1 0 1 x2 . x1 = 12 , x2 = 12 , x3 = 12
1 0 1 1 x

3
. , g 1 f
g 1 = (12 , 12 , 12 ) . g 2 f ,

1 1

2 = 1
0 0

1 1

0 = 1
0 0

1 0 x1

0 1 x2
1 1 x3
1 0 x1

0 1 x2 . g 2
1 1 x3

g 3

f ,

g 2 = (32 , 12 , 12 ), g 3 f g 3 = ( 12 , 12 , 12 ) .

12 32 12

f g : T f g = 12 12 12 .
1 1
1
2 2
2
x f , (3):
12 32 12 32 154

X f = T f g X g = 12 12 12 2 = 14 . , x
1 1
1 3 5
2 2
4
2
15
f x = ( 4 , 14 , 54 ) .

15

.. , .. . .

II

Te f

1 1 0

= 1 0 1
0 1 1

f,

1 1 1

Te g = 1 2 0 e g .
1 0 0

f g , Te g = Te f T f g .
: T f g = Te1 f Te g . Te1 f T f g .

Te1 f

12

= 12
1
2

1
2

12
1
2

12

1
.
2

1
2
12

= 12
1
2

12 1

12 12 1
T f g = Te1 f Te g
1
1 1
2
2
x
1
2

1 1 12 32 12


2 0 = 12 12 12 .
1
0 0 12 12
2
f ,

12 32 12 32 154


X f = T f g X g = 12 12 12 2 = 14 . ,
(3).
1 1
1 3 5
2
4
2 2
x f x = ( 154 , 14 , 54 ) .
1.5.
. L1 L
L ,
.
1. x + y x y L1
L1 , .. x , y L1 x + y L1 .
2. x x L1
L1 , .. x L1
R x L1 .
. L1 ,
,
,
L .

16

.. , .. . .

.
1. L
:

, .
.
.
2. ,
, V 3
.
3. Pn x
, n ,
C [a, b] , [a, b] .
. e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k
L . e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k
, ..
{x1e1 + x2 e 2 + ... + x k ek xi R, i = 1,2,..., k }. ,


e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k .

e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k

L(e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k ) .
.
1. e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k
L,

L(e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k )

L .
2. e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k
, .
3.
.
.
L(e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k )

e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k . e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k ,
L(e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k ) k , e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k
.
1.
,

L1 = {an } R : an 0 n N

L = R .
. ,

{bn }: bn 0 n N , . . ,
L1 .

17

.. , .. . .

L1 = f ( x ) C [a, b] : f ( x )dx = 0

L = C [a, b]
a

.
. . ,
f ( x ) g ( x ) L1 .

f (x ) + g (x )

L1 ,

2.

( f (x ) + g (x ))dx = f (x )dx + g (x )dx = 0 .


a

L1 ,

f ( x )

(f (x ))dx = f (x )dx = 0 .

.
1. L
.
1) L = R 3 , a 1 = (1,5,2 ) , a 2 = (3,4,4 ) , a 3 = (1,2,1) .

2) L = R 4 , a 1 = ( 1,5,2,4 ) , a 2 = (3,3,3,5) , a 3 = (8,4,2,2 ) .

3) L = R 5 , a1 = (2,3,1,5,0) , a 2 = (3,1,4,9,4 ) , a 3 = (7,5,2,1,6 ) .


4) L = P2 , f1 ( x ) = 5 x 2 14 x + 1 ,

5) L = P3 ,

f 2 (x ) = 3x 2 4 x + 5 , f3 (x ) = 2 x 2 + x + 7 .

f1 ( x ) = x 3 + 3x 2 + 2 x + 5 ,

f 2 (x ) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + x + 3 ,

f 3 (x ) = 3x 3 + 8 x 2 + 4 x + 1.
6) L = C (R ) ,

f1 ( x ) = e x , f 2 ( x ) = sh x , f 3 ( x ) = ch x .

R,

7) L = C (R ) , f1 ( x ) = cos x , f 2 ( x ) = cos3 x , f 3 ( x ) = cos 3 x .


8) L = C (0,+ ) , f1 ( x ) = ln x , f 2 ( x ) = ln ( x + 1) , f 3 ( x ) = ln (1x + 1) .

9) L = C (R ) , f1 ( x ) = e x , f 2 ( x ) = e 2 x , f 3 ( x ) = e3 x .
10) L = C (R ) , f1 ( x ) = cos x , f 2 ( x ) = cos 2 x , f 3 ( x ) = cos 3 x
2. L a
e = (e1 , e 2 , e 3 ) .

1) L = R 3 , a = (3,2,7 ) , e1 = (2,1,1) , e 2 = (1,2,5) , e 3 = (3,4,1) .

2) L = P2 , a = a( x ) = 4 x 2 7 x + 3 , e1 = e1 ( x ) = ( x + 2 )2 , e 2 = e2 ( x ) = ( x + 2 ) ,
e 3 = e3 ( x) = 1 .
3. , x
- .
. L :
e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) . x = x1e1 + ... + xn e n , xi 0 .
18

.. , .. . .

x e i . ,
.
4. , L1 L
.
L = V3 , L1 = {a V3 : a ll }, - .
1)
2)
L = V3 , L1 = {a V3 : a = 1}.
3)

L = R n , L1 = { a = (a1 ,..., an ) Rn : a1 + ... + an = 0 }

4)

L = R ,
L1 = {an } R : {an } .

{{a } R

5)

L = R , L1 =

6)

L = R , L1 = {an } R : {an }

7)

L = R

8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)

L=R
: {an } .
1
n
L = M n n , L1 = {A M nn : A }.
L = M n n , L1 = {A M nn : A }.
L = M n n , L1 = {A M nn : A }.
L = M n n , L1 = {A M nn : detA = 0}.
L = M n n , L1 = {A M n n : a11 + ... + ann = 0}.
L = Pn , L1 = Pm , m < n .
L = C [a, b], L1 = { f ( x ) C [a, b] : f (a ) = 0}.
L = C [a, b], L1 = { f ( x ) C [a, b] : f (a ) = f (b )}.
L = C [a, b], L1 = { f ( x ) C [a, b] : f ( x ) 0 x [a, b]} .
L = C [a, b], L1 = { f ( x ) C [a, b] : f ( x ) }.

{
, L = { {a } R
, L = { {a } R
1

: lim an = 0 .
n

: {an } .

II.
2.1.
. E
, .
1. ,
x , y E ,
( x , y ) .
2. :
1) ( x , y ) = ( y, x ) x , y E ( );
2) ( x + y, z ) = ( x, z ) + ( y, z ) x , y, z E ( );
3) (x, y ) = ( x , y ) x, y E , R ;
19

.. , .. . .

4) ( x , x ) 0 x E ; ( x , x ) = 0 x = .
1) 4)
:
1) ( x , y + z ) = ( x , y ) + ( x , z ) x , y, z E ;
2) ( x , y ) = ( x , y ) x, y E , R ;
3) ( x , ) = 0 x E .
.
1. V2 V3

: ( x , y ) = x y cos ,
x y , x y .
2.
R n
: ( x , y ) = x1 y1 + ... + xn y n .
3. C [a, b] ,
[a, b] , :
b

(x(t ), y (t ) ) = x(t ) y (t ) dt .
a

.
.
1. , R 2
: ( x , y ) = 2 x1 y1 + 5 x2 y 2 .
. 1) 4) x = ( x1 , x2 )

y = ( y1 , y 2 ) R 2 .
1) ( x , y ) = 2 x1 y1 + 5 x2 y 2 = 2 y1 x1 + 5 y 2 x2 = ( y, x ) .
2) ( x + y, z ) = 2( x1 + y1 ) z1 + 5( x2 + y 2 ) z 2 = (2 x1 z1 + 5 x2 z 2 ) + (2 y1 z1 + 5 y 2 z 2 ) =
= ( x , z ) + ( y, z ) .
3) (x, y ) = 2x1 y1 + 5x2 y 2 = ( 2 x1 y1 + 5 x2 y 2 ) = ( x , y ) .
4) ( x, x ) = 2 x1 x1 + 5 x2 x2 = 2 x12 + 5 x22 0 ;
( x , x ) = 2 x12 + 5 x22 = 0 x1 = 0, x2 = 0 x = .
2. ,
.

.
e = (e 1 , e 2 ,..., e n ) .
x = x1e1 + ... + xn e n y = y1e1 + ... + y n e n
: ( x, y ) = x1 y1 + ... + xn yn .
.

20

.. , .. . .

3.
m

( f , g ) = f (xi )g (xi ) ,
i =1

Pn

x1 ,..., xm R ,

, m > n .
. 1), 2) 3)
m

4)

( f , f ) = f 2 (xi ) 0 ,

i =1

( f , f ) = f 2 (xi ) = 0

f ( x ) 0 x ( ,+ ) .

i =1

) m n , Pn
f ( x ) = ( x x1 ) ... ( x xm ) m ,
m

( f , f ) = f 2 (xi ) = 0 , 4).
i =1

m > n ,

( f , f ) = f 2 (xi ) = 0

i =1

f ( x ) 0 , , n ,
n . , m > n
4) ,

( f , g ) = f (xi )g (xi )

i =1

.
. x y
- :
(1)
( x, y )2 ( x, x ) ( y, y ) .
-

.
1. V2 V3

( x, y )2

x y .

2.

Rn :
(x1 y1 + ... + xn yn )2 x12 + ... + xn2 y12 + ... + yn2 .
3. C [a, b] ,

[a, b] :

)(

b
b
b
x(t ) y (t ) dt x 2 (t ) dt y 2 (t ) dt .

a
a
a

2.2.
. N ,
.
21

.. , .. . .

1. , x N
,
x .
2. :
1) x 0 x N ; x = 0 x = ;
x N , R ;
2) x = x
x , y N (
3) x + y x + y
).
.

, x

x = ( x, x ) .
x = ( x , x ) ,
. V2 ,V3 :
R n :

x = x;

x(t ) =

x = x12 + ... + xn2 ; C [a, b] :

(t ) dt .


. V2 ,V3 :
x+ y x + y
( );
R n :

(x1 + y1 )2 + ... + (xn + yn )2

C [a, b] :

x12 + ... + xn2 +

y12 + ... + y n2 ;

2
2
2
(x(t ) + y (t ) ) dt x (t ) dt + y (t ) dt .

.
x N ,
, ,
1
.
x , ..
x

1
1
1
1, .. x0 = x
=
x = 1.
x
x
x
1.
x = (1,2,3,4) y = (5,6,7,8) R 4 .

x0 = x

( x, y ) = 1 5 + 2 6 + 3 7 + 4 8 = 70 ,

x = 12 + 2 2 + 32 + 4 2 = 30 ,

y = 5 2 + 6 2 + 7 2 + 8 2 = 174 .
2.
f ( x) = x + 1 , g ( x) = x 2 + x C [0,1] .
22

.. , .. . .

( f ( x), g ( x) ) = (x + 1)(x
1

( x + 1)

f ( x) =

dx =

7
3

(x

, g ( x) =

+ x dx = x 3 + 2 x 2 + x dx = 17
,
12
0

+ x dx =

31
30

3. x = (1,2,3,4) R 4 .
4
3
2
1 1
. x = 12 + 2 2 + 32 + 4 2 = 30 , x0 = x
=
,
,
,
.
x 30 30 30 30
. -
:
( x, y ) x y .
(2)
,
x y
. ,
x y ,

( x, y ) =
( x, y )
cos =
, [0, ].
x y
( x , x ) ( y, y )
( x, y )
, .. - (2)
x y
.
3

. f ( x) = x 4 g ( x) = x 4 C [0,1] .
1

( f ( x), g ( x) ) = x x dx = 1 ,
2
0

.
1

3
g ( x) = x 4 dx =

2
5

1
4

, cos =

3
4

( x, y )
x y

f ( x) = ( x 4 ) 2 dx =
0

15
4

, = arccos

15
4

2
3

.
x, y E ,
.
, x + y
x y

, x y .
.
.
, ( x, y ) = 0 , x = ( x , x ) y = ( y, y ) ,
x+ y

= ( x + y, x + y ) = ( x , x ) + 2( x , y ) + ( y, y ) = x

+ y .

23

.. , .. . .

2.3.

. x 1 ,..., x n
,
, .. (x i , x j ) = 0 i j , i = 1,2,..., n ,

j = 1,2,..., n .
. x 1 ,..., x n
,

1, i = j
, i = 1,2,..., n , j = 1,2,..., n .
, .. (x i , x j ) =
0, i j
.
()
.
.
n -
()
n
.
.
e1 ,..., e n
,
, .. (e i , e j ) = 0 i j , i = 1, 2, ..., n , j = 1, 2, ..., n .
.
e1 ,..., e n

(ei , e j ) = 10,, ii = jj , i = 1, 2,..., n ,


, ..

j = 1, 2,..., n .
.
1. V2 i, j
; V3 i , j , k .
2. R n
e1 = (1,0,...,0,0) ,
e 2 = (0,1,...,0,0) , ,
e n = (0,0,...,0,1)

.
.
.
f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k
L( f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k ) e 1 , e 2 ,..., e k

:
1) g 1 = f 1 , e1 = g 1 / g 1 ;
2) g 2 = f 2 ( f 2 , e1 ) e1 ,

e2 = g2 / g2 ;
24

.. , .. . .

3) g 3 = f 3 ( f 3 , e1 ) e1 ( f 3 , e 2 ) e 2 ,
e3 = g3 / g3 ;

k) g k = f k ( f k , e1 ) e1 ( f k , e 2 ) e 2 ... ( f k , e k 1 ) e k 1 , e k = g k / g k .
. f 1 ,..., f k
L( f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k ) e1 ,..., e k
,
:
1) e1 = f 1 ;
( f ,e )
2) e 2 = f 2 2 1 e1 ;
(e1 , e1 )
( f ,e )
( f ,e )
3) e 3 = f 3 3 1 e1 3 2 e 2 ;
(e1 , e1 )
(e 2 , e 2 )

( f ,e )
( f ,e )
( f k , e k 1 ) e .
k) e k = f k k 1 e1 k 2 e 2 ...
(e1 , e1 )
(e 2 , e 2 )
(ek 1 , ek 1 ) k 1
1.
f 1 = (1,1,1,1) ,
f 2 = (3,3,1,1) , f 3 = (2,0,6,8) . f 1 , f 2 , f 3 R 4 .
. , f 1 , f 2 , f 3 .

f1 , f 2 , f3

1 3 2

0
1 3
A=
. A

1 1 6

1
1
8

. r ( A) = 3
, A ,

f 1 , f 2 , f 3 .
:
1) e1 = f 1 = (1,1,1,1) ;
( f 2 , e1 ) = 1 ,
2) ( f 2 , e1 ) = 3 + 3 1 1 = 4, (e1 , e1 ) = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4 ,
(e1 , e1 )
( f ,e )
e 2 = f 2 2 1 e1 = (2,2,2,2) ;
(e1 , e1 )
( f 3 , e1 ) = 3 ,
( f 3 , e1 ) = 2 + 0 + 6 + 8 = 12,
(e1 , e1 ) = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4 ,
3)
(e1 , e1 )
( f 3 , e 2 ) = 4 12 16 = 32, (e 2 , e 2 ) = 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 16 , ( f 3 , e 2 ) = 2 ,
(e 2 , e 2 )
( f ,e )
( f ,e )
e 3 = f 3 3 1 e1 3 2 e 2 = (1,1,1,1) .
(e1 , e1 )
(e 2 , e 2 )
25

.. , .. . .

, e1 = (1,1,1,1) , e 2 = (2,2,2,2) , e 3 = (1,1,1,1) .


2. e1 = (1,2,1,3)

e 2 = (2,1,3,1) R 4

.
. )
(e1 , e 2 ) = 2 2 3 + 3 = 0 , e1 , e 2

R 4 . e 3 e1 , e 2 .
(e , e ) = 0
e 3 = ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) 1 3
, ..
(
,
)
=
0
e
e
2 3
x 2 x2 + x3 + 3 x4 = 0
1
.
2
+

3
+
=
0
x
x
x
x
1
2
3
4

x1
1
1



x2
1
1
, = c1 + c2 c1 ,c2 .
x
1
0
3


0
1
x4
e 3 = ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) ,
e 3 = (1,1,1,0) ( c1 = 1, c2 = 0 ).
) e 4 e1 , e 2 , e 3 .
(e 1 , e 4 ) = 0

e 4 = ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) (e 2 , e 4 ) = 0 , ..
(e , e ) = 0
3 4
x1 2 x2 + x3 + 3x4 = 0

2 x1 + x2 3 x3 + x4 = 0 .
x + x + x = 0
2
3
1
x1
1


x2
1
=
c
c1 .

x 1 0
3

x
1
4
e 4 = ( x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) ,
e1 = (1,2,1,3) , e 2 = (2,1,3,1) ,
e 4 = (1,1,0,1) ( c1 = 1 ).
e 3 = (1,1,1,0) , e 4 = (1,1,0,1) R 4 .
.
e1 ,..., e n n -
x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) , y = ( y1 ,..., y n )
E ;

e1 ,..., e n , .
26

.. , .. . .

1.

( x, y ) = x1 y1 + ... + xn yn = xi yi ,

..

i =1


.
n
n
n
n
( x. y ) = xi e i , y j e j = xi y j (ei , e j ) = xi yi ,
,
..
i
j
i
j
i
=
1
=
1
,
=
1
=
1

(ei , e j ) = 10,, ii = jj .

2. xi = ( x , e i ) i = 1,2,..., n , ..

.
. f 1 , f 2 ,..., f n n -
E

( x , y ) = xi y j ( f i , f j )
n

i , j =1

( x, y ) xi yi .
i =1

.
1. , ( x, y ) = x y sin ( x, y )
V3 , ( x, y )
x y.
2. , x y
( x, z ) = ( y, z ) z , x = y .

3. R 5
a = (3,5,1,5,2 ) b = (4,0,4,4,1) .

C [0,1]

4.
4
f ( x ) = 3 x g ( x ) = x .
5. a
2

b , a = 3 , b = 1 a 3b + 2a + 2b = 60 .
6. 4a + b ,

a = 2,

b =1

a 3b = 4 .
7. C [ l , l ] f ( x ) g ( x ) ,
f ( x ) , g ( x ) . , f ( x )
g ( x ) .
8. C [0, ln 2] a R ,

f ( x ) = e 2 x g ( x ) = e x + a .
9. C [0, ] a R ,
f ( x ) = 3 sin x + 2 cos x g ( x ) = sin x + a cos x .
27

.. , .. . .

10. ,

.
11. C [ 1,1]
1, x , x 2 , x 3 .
12. (e1 ,..., e n ) ,
{ f 1 ,..., f k }
, ij e i f j . ,

cos 2 ij = k .
i =1 j =1

(cos1 j ,..., cos nj )

j = 1,..., k

fj

, ,

cos 2 ij = 1 .
i =1

III.
3.1. .

A : L1 L2 L1
L2 , x L1
Ax L2 , x .
. A : L1 L2 L1
L2 ,
x, y L1 R
:
1) A( x + y ) = Ax + Ay (
);
2) A( x ) = Ax (
).
1) 2) .
1. , ..

k
k
A i x i = i Ax i
:
x i L1 , i R ,
i =1
i =1
i = 1,2...., k .

28

.. , .. . .

2. L1
A( L1 ) = L2 , L1 , L2
L2 :
L1 L2 .
3.

(), .. ()
().
L1 L2 n m
. A , L1 L2 .
L1 e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) , L2
f = ( f 1 , f 2 , ..., f m ) . A
e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) . Ae 1 , Ae 2 ,..., Ae n L2
f = ( f 1 , f 2 , ..., f m ) :
Ae 1 = 11 f 1 + 21 f 2 + ... + m1 f m ,
Ae 2 = 12 f 1 + 22 f 2 + ... + m 2 f m ,
L
Ae n = 1n f 1 + 2 n f 2 + ... + mn f m .

ij

11 12 L 1n

21 22 L 2 n
A=
,
L
L L L

m2
mn
m1
A e f . , i -

A , i = 1,2,..., n , e f
Ae i f .
,
L
L . L n . L
e1 , e 2 ,..., e n L . A
e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) . Ae 1 , Ae 2 ,..., Ae n L
e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) :
Ae 1 = 11 e1 + 21 e 2 + ... + n1 e n ,
Ae 2 = 12 e1 + 22 e 2 + ... + n 2 e n ,

Ae n = 1n e1 + 2 n e 2 + ... + nn e n .

29

.. , .. . .

ij

11 12 L 1n

21 22 L 2 n
A=
,
L L L L

n2
nn
n1
A e . , i -
A , i = 1,2,..., n , e
Ae i e .
. A :V2 V2 ,
.
A i , j .
Y
.

A
1
i , j .
sin
j
i , j
i
cos
i , j .

j
i
X
i , j i , j : i = (cos , sin ) ,
sin
0 cos
1
j = ( sin , cos ) (. . 1).

A
. 1

i, j

cos sin
.
A =
sin

cos

1. A : L L , L
L . e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) L . Ax e
A X , A A e , X
- x e .
2. e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) L , A

n n .
A : L L , e A .
1. A :V3 V3 ,
i , j , k . Ax = ( x , e ) e , e .
.
:
1) A( x + y ) = ( x + y, e ) e = ( x , e ) e + ( y, e ) e = Ax + Ay x, y V3 ;
2) A(x ) = (x , e ) e = ( x , e ) e = Ax x V3 , R .
A
. e
e = (cos , cos , cos ) , , , e
i , j , k .
30

.. , .. . .

Ai = (i , e ) e = cos e = (cos 2 , cos cos , cos cos ) ;

Aj = ( j , e ) e = cos e = (cos cos , cos 2 , cos cos ) ;


Ak = (k , e ) e = cos e = (cos cos , cos cos , cos 2 ) .
:
cos 2
cos cos cos cos

2
cos
cos cos .
A = cos cos

2
cos

cos

cos

cos

cos

2. A : R 3 R 3 ,
. Ax = ( x2 + x3 , 2 x1 + x3 , 3 x1 x2 + x3 ) .
. :
1) A( x + y ) =
= (( x2 + y 2 ) + ( x3 + y3 ), 2( x1 + y1 ) + ( x3 + y3 ), 3( x1 + y1 ) ( x2 + y 2 ) + ( x3 + y3 )) =

= Ax + Ay x, y R 3 ;

2) A(x ) = (x2 + x3 , 2x1 + x 3 , 3x1 x2 + x3 ) = Ax x R 3 , R .


R 3 : e1 = (1,0,0) , e 2 = (0,1,0) ,
e 3 = (0,0,1) . A
: Ae 1 = (0,2,3) , Ae 2 = (1,0,1) , Ae 3 = (1,1,1) .
0 1 1

A = 2 0 1 .
3 1 1

3. ,
, , .
L a x , xa x , x 2 a x a x , xa x , x 2 a x ,
.
.

:
a x = a x = a x ln a ,
xa x = xa x = a x + xa x ln a ,

x 2 a x = x 2 a x = 2 xa x + x 2 a x ln a .
a x = (ln a,0,0 ) ,
xa x = (1, ln a,0 ) ,

:
x 2 a x = (0,2, ln a ) . ,
0
ln a 1

: A = 0 ln a 2 .
0
0 ln a

. 1,
f ( x ) = a x x 2 + x + ,
.

) (

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

31

.. , .. . .

(a

, xa x , x 2 a x


0 ln a +
ln a 1


0 ln a 2 = ln a + 2
0
0 ln a ln a

f ( x ) = a x ln a x 2 + ( ln a + 2 )x + ln a + .
4. ,
, , .
L ex cos x, ex sin x ex cos x, ex sin x ,
OX c .
. OX
.
ex cos x = e ( x c ) cos ( x c ) = e c ex (cos x cos c + sin x sin c ) ,

(
)
(e sin x ) = e ( ) sin ( x c ) = e e (sin x cos c cos x sin c ) .

(e cos x ) = (e cos c, e sin c ), (e sin x ) = ( e sin c, e cos c ).


x

x c

,
e c cos c e c sin c
.
: A = c
c

e sin c e cos c
3.2.

L1 L2 .
. A : L1 L2
B : L1 L2
, Ax = Bx x L1 .
. A : L1 L2 B : L1 L2
( A + B ) : L1 L2 , ( A + B ) x = Ax + Bx
x L1 .
. A : L1 L2
(A) : L1 L2 ,
(A) x = Ax x L1 .
. A : L2 L3 B : L1 L2
( AB ) : L1 L3 ,

( AB ) x = A( Bx ) x L1 .
. A : L L . A
: A 0 = E , A1 = A , A 2 = A A , A3 = A A 2 ,, A n = A A n1 ,
E : L L , Ex = x
x L .
.
32

.. , .. . .

1. A B ,
A, A + B, AB ( , A + B, AB
).
2.
,

.
1. R 2
A : R 2 R 2 B : R 2 R 2 .
C = AB . Ax = ( x1 + x2 , x1 + 2 x2 ) , Bx = (3 x1 + x2 , 2 x1 x2 ) .

I . B x R 2
y = Bx = (3 x1 + x2 , 2 x1 x2 ) . C = AB :
x R 2
Cx = ( AB ) x = A( Bx ) = Ay =
= ( y1 + y 2 , y1 + 2 y 2 ) = ( (3 x1 + x2 ) + (2 x1 x2 ), (3 x1 + x2 ) + 2(2 x1 x2 )) =

= ( x1 2 x 2 ,7 x1 x2 ) , .. Cx = ( x1 2 x 2 ,7 x1 x2 ) x R 2 .
C e1 = (1,0)
e 2 = (0,1) R 2 : Ce1 = (1,7) , Ce 2 = (2,1) .
C e :
1 2
.
C =
7
1

II . A
e1 = (1,0) , e 2 = (0,1) R 2 :
Ae 1 = (1,1) ,
Ae 2 = (1,2) .
1 1
.
A e : A =
1 2
B : Be1 = (3,2) , Be 2 = (1,1) .
B e :
3 1
1 2
. C = A B =

B =
2 1
7 1
C e .
e C
,
..
Ce 1 = (1,7) ,
Ce 2 = (2,1) .

,
Cx = C ( x1e1 + x2 e 2 ) = x1Ce 1 + x2Ce 2 = ( x1 2 x 2 ,7 x1 x2 ) x R 2 .
. C , 1
Cx

(. 3.1.).
1 2 x1 x1 2 x2
, .. Cx = ( x1 2 x2 , 7 x1 x2 ) x R 2 .
=
C X =
7 1 x2 7 x1 x2

33

.. , .. . .

2. R 3
A : R 3 R 3 B : R 3 R 3 .
C = AB BA .
Ax = (7 x1 + 4 x3 , 4 x2 9 x3 , 3 x1 + x2 ) ,
Bx = ( x2 6 x3 , 3 x1 + 7 x3 , x1 + x2 x3 ) .
. A
R 3 : e1 = (1,0,0) , e 2 = (0,1,0) , e3 = (0,0,1) .
Ae 1 = (7,0,3) , Ae 2 = (0,4,1) , Ae 3 = (4,9,0) .
7 0 4

A = 0 4 9 .
A e :
3 1 0

B
: Be1 = (0,3,1) , Be 2 = (1,0,1) , Be 3 = (6,7,1) .
B e :
0 1 6
4 11 46
18 2 9

7 12 ,
B = 3 0 7 .
A B = 3 9 37 ,
B A = 42
1 1 1
3 3 11
4
3 5

13 37
22

C = A B B A = 39 16 25 . C

1
6
0

C e .
e C

,
..
Ce 1 = (22,39,1) ,
Ce 2 = (13,16,0) ,

,
Ce 3 = (37,25,6) .
Cx = C ( x1e1 + x2 e 2 + x3e 3 ) =
= x1Ce 1 + x2Ce 2 + x3Ce 3 = (22 x1 +13 x2 37 x3 , 39 x1 16 x2 + 25 x3 , x1 6 x3 ) .
3.3.

A : L L , L L .
e = (e1 e 2 ... e n ) f = ( f1 f 2 ... f n ) n - L ;
Ae A f A e f .
. Ae

A f A : L L

e f

A f = Te1 f Ae T e f ,

(1)

Te f e f .
. Ae = Te f A f Te1 f .

34

.. , .. . .

A f = ( f1 , f 2 ) :
3 5
. B
f 1 =e 1 +2e 2 , f 2 = 2e1 + 3e 2 A f =
4
3

4 6
.
g = ( g 1 , g 2 ) : g 1 = 3e 1 + e 2 , g 2 = 4e1 + 2e 2 Bg =
6 9
A + B g .
.
, , e f
1 2
3 4
, Te g =
.
e g : Te f =
2
3
1
2

(1):
. L2

Ag = T

1
f g

f g

. f g
Te g = Te f T f g .

T f g = Te1 f Te g . ,
3 4
3 2
3 2 3 4 7 8
1
5
,
, T f g =
, T f
=

Te1 f =
=
g
7
6
2 1
2 1 1 2 5
2
2
38
44
40
44
1

Ag = T f
,
A
B
Ag + Bg

+
=
g A f T f g =
g
g
71 34
59 25 .
2

A + B g .
3.4.

A ,

L L .
. x L
A : L L ,
, Ax = x .
A ,
x .
.
Ax = x
( A E ) x = , E : L L ,
Ex = x x L .
1. x A ,
, k 0
kx A ,
.
, A(kx ) = k Ax = k (x ) = (kx ) .
35

.. , .. . .

2. x y A ,
, x + y
, .
, A( x + y ) = Ax + Ay = x + y = ( x + y ) .
. ,
A ,
L , ..
. ,
L ,
.
3. A
.
. ,
, .
. , n -
,
n
.
. A A : L L
. A

P( ) = det ( A E ) = A E .
. A
.
, Ae
A f A : L L

e f A f = Te1 f Ae T e f .

A f E = Te1 f Ae T e f Te1 f E T e f = Te1 f ( Ae E ) T e f =


= Te1 f Ae E T e f = Ae E .
.

A E = 0

A .
.
A , ,
A .
. x ,
, ( A E ) X = O , X
- x , O -.
1.
A :V3 V3 . Ax = [i , x ].
I ().
e = (i , j , k ) .
Ai = [i , i ] = 0 = (0,0,0) ,
Aj = [i , j ] = k = (0,0,1) ,
36

.. , .. . .

Ak = [i , k ] = j = (0,1,0) .

A E = 0

0 0 0

A = 0 0 1 .
0 1 0

0
0

1 = 0 .

, (2 + 1) = 0 . = 0
. ,
= 0 ,
0 x1 + 0 x2 + 0 x3 = 0
( A E ) X = O = 0 : 0 x1 + 0 x2 x3 = 0 . :
0x + x + 0x = 0
2
3
1
x2 = x3 = 0, x1 = , . ,
x = ( ,0,0)
0 ,
= 0 .
II . x A ,
, Ax = [i , x ] = x . , [i , x ]
x , x 0 x ,
, 0 [i , x ] = x
[i , x ] = 0 .
. = 0

x i , .. x = ( ,0,0) 0 . ,
x = ( ,0,0) 0 A ,
= 0 .
2.
,
0 1 0

A = 4 4 0 .
2 1 2

1
0

A E = 4 4
0 = 0 .
2
1
2
, ( 2) 3 = 0 . = 2
3.
, = 2 ,

37

.. , .. . .

2 x1 + x2 + 0 x3 = 0

( A E ) X = O = 2 : 4 x1 + 2 x2 + 0 x3 = 0 .
2x + x + 0x = 0
1
2
3

,
2 x1 + x2 = 0 . : x1 = , x2 = 2 , x3 =
, .
x = ( ,2 , ) ,
,
,
A , = 2 .
. x = ( ,2 , )

x = (1,1,0) + (0,0,1) . e 1 = (1,1,0) e 2 = (0,0,1)
A ,
= 2 .
3.

C (R )


R
.
. f ( x ) ,
,
Af ( x) = f ( x ) = f ( x ) .
f ( x)

f ( x ) = f ( x ) . f ( x) = 0
. ,
df
:
= dx ; ln f = x + ln c c 0 ; f ( x ) = cex c 0 .
f
f ( x) = 0 , :
f ( x ) = cex c R . , f ( x ) = cex c 0
,
R .
4.
,

n .
. , AT = A .
,
:
p( ) = A E = ( A E )T = AT E T = A E = ( 1)n A + E .

n , ( 1)n = 1 , , p( ) = A + E = p( ) R , ..
p( ) .

38

.. , .. . .

3.5.

L .
. A : L L
,
A .
.
1. e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n )
a11 0 ... 0

0 a22 ... 0
: A =
. , i -
... ... ... ...

0
0
...
a
nn

A e Ae i ,
e,
:
Ae 1 = (a11 ,0,...,0) = a11 e 1 ,
i = 1, 2, ..., n ,

Ae 2 = (0, a22 ,...,0) = a22 e 2 , , Ae n = (0,0,..., ann ) = ann e n . ,


e1 A ,
a11 , e 2 ,
a22 , , e n
, ann .
2. e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n )
A , 1 , 2 ,..., n
. Ae 1 = 1 e 1 = (1 ,0,...,0) , Ae 2 = 2 e 2 = (0, 2 ,...,0) , ,
Ae n = n e n = (0,0,..., n ) .
1 0 ... 0

0 2 ... 0
e = (e1 e 2 ... e n ) : A =
.
... ... ... ...

0
0
...

. A : L L
e = (e1 , e 2 , ..., e n ) ,
A , ,
.
1.
, n - , n
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
39

.. , .. . .

,
2 1
.
A =


0 2
2
1
A E =
= (2 ) 2 = 0 . = 2
0
2
2. ,
= 2 , ( A E ) X = O = 2 :
0 1 x1 0

= . : x1 = , x2 = 0 .
0 0 x2 0
, x = ( ,0) = (1,0 ) 0 ,
A ,
= 2 . A ,
= 2 , A
.
, A , ,
, ,
.
2. ,
A : L L ,

A L .
.
1 1 1

. A = 1 1 1 e .
1 1 1

f ,
.
.

A.

1
1
1
A E =

= 0 . ,

2 ( 3) = 0 . 1 = 2 = 0 ,
3 = 3 .
,
( A E ) X = O . 1 = 2 = 0
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0

x1 + x2 + x3 = 0 . 1,
x + x + x = 0
2
3
1
40

.. , .. . .

n r = 3 1 = 2 .
, x1 = x2 x3 .

1
1
1




X = = 1 + 0 , , 1

0
0
1




2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 0
1

0 . 3 = 3 x1 2 x2 + x3 = 0 .
1
x + x 2x = 0
2
3
1

2, n r = 3 2 = 1
1



. , X = = 1
1



1

, 1 .
1

f 1 = (1,1,0) , f 2 = (1,0,1) ,
,
f 3 = (1,1,1) ,
A .
0 0 0

A f = 0 0 0 . A f
0 0 3

A , , .

Te f

. e f
1 1 1

0 1 , A f = Te1 f A T e f (. (1) . 3.3.).


= 1
0
1 1

.
1. ,
.
2. e1 ,..., e k
L , f 1 ,..., f k
L1 . , : L L1 ,
e i = f i . i = 1,2,..., k .
3. , .

41

.. , .. . .

1) : R n R n , x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) Ax = ( x1 ,..., xk ,0,...,0 )


k , 1 k n , ( ).
2) : R n R n , x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) Ax = x12 ,..., xn 2 .

3) : R n R , x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) Ax = a1 x1 + ... + an xn
a1 ,..., an .
4) : V3 R , Ax = (a, x ) a .
5) : V3 V3 , Ax = (a, x ) x a .
6) : L R , L ,
A({an }) = lim an .
n

7) : L R , L ,
A({an }) = d , d .
8) : L L , L ,
A({an }) = {bn }, bn = an + m m (
).
9) : L L , L ,
A({an }) = {bn }, bn = an +1 an ( ).
10) : C [a, b] R , A( f ( x )) = f (a ) .
b

11) : C [a, b] R , A( f ( x )) = f ( x )dx .


a

C 1 (R )

12) : C (R ) C (R ) ,
R , A( f ( x )) = f ( x ) (
).
13) : C (R ) C (R ) , A( f ( x )) = f ( x a ) a
( X a ).
14) : M n n R , A(B ) = det B .
1

15) : M n n R n , A(B ) = (b11 ,..., bnn ) .


16) : M n n M n n , A(B ) = BC C
n n.
4. ,
L .
1) L = V3 , Y .
2) L = V3 , Ax = [a, x ] , a = ( , , ) .
3) L = R n , x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) Ax = ( x2 , x3 ,..., xn , x1 ) (
).
4) L = P3 , .
5) L = P2 , X a .
a b
.
6) L = M 2 2 , A(B ) = BC , C =
c d

42

.. , .. . .

5. ,
L , ,
.
1) L a x , sin bx, cos bx ,
.
2) L a x , sin bx, cos bx ,
.
3) L a x , sin bx, cos bx ,
X c .
4) L ex cos x, ex sin x ,
.
5) L a x , xa x , x 2 a x ,
X c .
6. ,
A , 1
A1 .
A A1 ?
7. x A ,
. , x
Ak . ?
8. p( ) A2 2 .
, p( A) = O , O .
a b
. p( ) = 2 (a + d ) + ad bc .
. A =
c d
p( A) .

{
{
{

}
}
}

9. C (R )
R .
10. A
. , A1 1 .
. , x = (1,...,1)
A , . ,
x A1 ,
1 .
11. .
2 1 3

. A = 3 2 3 .
1 1 2

43

.. , .. . .

IV.
4.1.
.

E .
. A* : E E
A : E E , x , y E

(Ax , y ) = x, A* y .
. A* , A ,
.
. A : E E

A* : E E ,

A* e
A
e : A* = AT .
1. V3
. Ax = [a, x ] , a .
. ( Ax, y ) = ([a, x ], y ) = a, x, y = x, y, a = ( x, [ y, a ]) = x, A y x, yV3 .

a, x, y

).

, A x = [ x , a ] = [a , x ] = Ax , .. A* = A .
2. L
. L = f ( x ) C 1 [a, b] : f (a ) = f (b ) = 0 ,

C 1 [a, b]
[a, b], .
b

. f ( x), g ( x) C [a, b]. ( Af , g ) = f ( x )g ( x )dx . ,


1

f (a) = f (b) = g (a) = g (b) = 0 ,

f (x )g (x )dx = g (x )df (x ) = f (x )g (x ) f (x )dg (x ) = f (x )g (x )dx .


b
a

, ( Af , g ) = f , A g = ( f , Ag ) , A = A .
.

A :E E

, A* = A , .. x , y E
( Ax, y ) = ( x, Ay ) .
. O

E . , x , y E
44

.. , .. . .

(Ox, y ) = ( , y ) = ( x, ) = ( x, Oy ) ; (Ex, y ) = ( x, y ) = ( x, Ey ) .
.
, .. A = AT .
. A A : E E

( A = AT ),
A .

.
1.

(..
).
. , n -
, n ,
, .
2. ,
, .
3.

1 , 2 , ..., n
A , n -
E , , E
, A ,
1 0 ... 0

0 2 ... 0
A A : A =
.
... ... ... ...

0
0
...

.
,
4.
4.
A
,
A . A A
,
A , ,

.
4.2.

E .
.
A :E E

,
E , .. x , y E ( Ax , Ay ) = ( x , y ) .
45

.. , .. . .

1.
.

, Ax = ( Ax , Ax ) = ( x , x ) = x
x E .
2.

.
( Ax, Ay ) = ( x, y ) = cos ( x, y ) .
cos ( Ax , Ay ) =
,
Ax Ay
x y
( Ax, Ay ) Ax Ay , ( x, y )
x y .
. A : E E
Ax = x x E , .
2

E , ..

. V2 ,V3
, ..
.
1. A : E E
, E
E .
. U ,
U 1 = U T .
.
1. E .
cos sin
. ,
2. U =
sin cos
U ,
,
i , j .
1.
U ,
T
T
U U = UU = E .
2.
: det U = 1 det U = 1.
2.

; ,
,
.
3. U


, U .

46

.. , .. . .

4.3.

E .
Ae A f A : E E
e f
A f = Te1 f Ae T e f ,

(1)

Te f e f (. III, . 3.3).
e f ,
e f
, .. Te1 f = TeT f ,
(1)
(2)
A f = TeT f Ae T e f .
.
, ..
A ( A = AT )
U ( U 1 = U T ) ,
U T AU = , ,

A , , .
. , U

,
A.
11 2 8

1. A = 2 2 10
8 10 5

. .
. ) A : A = AT .

e .
) A .

11
2
8

A E =

10 = ( 18)( 9)( + 9) = 0 . 1 = 18 ,

2 = 9 ,

8
10
5
3 = 9 .
) ,

( A E ) X = O .

47

.. , .. . .

7 x1 + 2 x2 8 x3 = 0

1 = 18 2 x1 16 x2 + 10 x3 = 0 .
8 x + 10 x 13 x = 0
1
2
3

2, n r = 3 2 = 1 .
1
1

1


, X = 2 = 2 , 12
1
1

. , f 1 = ( 32 , 13 , 23 ) .
2 x1 + 2 x2 8 x3 = 0

2 = 9 2 x1 7 x2 + 10 x3 = 0 .
8 x + 10 x 4 x = 0
1
2
3

2, n r = 3 2 = 1 .
2
2
2



, X = 2 = 2 , 2
1
1




2
2
1
. , f 2 = ( 3 , 3 , 3 ) .
20 x1 + 2 x2 8 x3 = 0

3 = 9
2 x1 + 11x2 + 10 x3 = 0 .
8 x + 10 x + 14 x = 0
1
2
3

2, n r = 3 2 = 1 .
2
12


, X = = 1 ,

1

12

1 . , f 3 = ( 13 , 32 , 23 ) .
1

,
, ( 2 . 4.1.),
f 1 = ( 32 , 13 , 23 ) , f 2 = ( 23 , 23 , 13 ) , f 3 = ( 13 , 32 , 23 )
.
18 0 0

A f = 0 9 0 .
0 0 9

48

.. , .. . .

) , f
e . , e
23 23 13

f U = 13 23 23 . U
2 1 2
3 3 3
, U

A f = U 1 AU = U T AU .
2 2
2

2. A = 2
5 4
2 4 5

. .
. ) A : A = AT .

e .
) A .

2
2
2
A E =

4 = ( 1) 2 ( 10) = 0 .

1 = 2 = 1 ,

3 = 10

2
4 5
.
) ,

( A E ) X = O .
8 x1 + 2 x2 2 x3 = 0

3 = 10 2 x1 5 x2 4 x3 = 0 .
2 x 4 x 5 x = 0
1
2
3

2, n r = 3 2 = 1 .
2
12
12



, X = = 1 , 1

1
1

. , f 3 = ( 13 , 32 , 32 ) .
x1 + 2 x2 2 x3 = 0

1 = 2 = 1 2 x1 + 4 x2 4 x3 = 0 .
2 x 4 x + 4 x = 0
1
2
3

1, n r = 3 1 = 2 .
49

.. , .. . .

,
x1 = 2 x2 + 2 x3 .

2 2
2
2
2 + 2

X =

= 1 + 0 , , 1 0 .
0 1
1

a 2 = (2,0,1) ,
a 1 = (2,1,0)
1 = 2 = 1 , ,
.
)

,

1 = 2 = 1 ,
:
1) g1 = a 1 = (2,1,0) , f 1 = g1 / g1 = ( 25 , 15 , 0) ;
2) (a 2 , f 1 ) =

4
5

, g 2 = a 2 (a 2 , f 1 ) f 1 = 52 , 54 , 1 , f 2 = g 2 / g 2 = 2 , 4 , 35 .
3 5 3 5

f 1 = (

2 , 1 ,
5
5

0) ,

f2 =

2 , 4 , 5
3 5 3 5 3

),

f 3 = ( 13 , 23 , 32 )

.
1 0 0

A f = 0 1 0 .
0 0 10

) , f
e . , e f
2
1
2
5 3 5 3
U = 15 3 4 5 32 . U

5
2
0
3
3

,
U , A f = U 1 AU = U T AU .

.
1. L
.
1) L = V2 , .
2) L = C [a, b], ( f ( x )) = f ( x ) p( x ) , p( x )
L.
3) L = f ( x ) C 2 [a; b] : f (a ) = f (b ) = 0 , C 2 [a, b]
[a, b],
.

50

.. , .. . .

2.
, .. = A . , x
( Ax, x ) = 0 .
3. 2 2 .
a b
.
. 2 2 : A =
b c
A2 = E .
a , b c .
4. ,
, = 1 .
5.
.
2 3
0

. A = 2
3 6 .
3 6 8

V.
5.1. ,
,

.
n

f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) =

aij xi x j ,

i , j =1

aij = a ji

i, j = 1,2,..., n .

( x1 , x2 ) = 8 x12

. f
3 x1 x2 + 6 x22 ( n = 2 ).
. , aij = a ji i, j = 1,2,..., n ,
n

f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) = aii xi2 + 2


i =1

aij x i x j
1i < j n

a11 ... a1n

A = ... ... ... ,


a

n1 ... ann
,

51

.. , .. . .

.
x1

x
: f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) = X T A X , X = 2 , A
...

xn
.
1. :
f ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) = x12 2 x22 + 4 x32 + 6 x1 x2 8 x2 x3 .

. , aii xi2 ,
aij + a ji = 2aij = 2a ji xi x j , 1 i < j 3 ,

f ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) = X A X = ( x1
T

x2

i = 1,2,3 ,

0
1 3

A = 3 2 4 .
0 4 4

0 x1
1 3


x3 ) 3 2 4 x2 .
0 4 4 x

2.

2
3 1

A = 1 4 1 ,
2 1 5

.
. f ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) = 3 x12 + 4 x22 + 5 x32 + 2 x1 x2 + 4 x1 x3 2 x2 x3 .
. L n - .
f : L R ,
x L ( x1, x2 ,..., xn )
e

aij xi x j :

i , j =1

f ( x) =

aij xi x j .

i , j =1


e Ae .
. e f

A f = TeT f Ae Te f ,
Te f e f .
, X x L e , Y
x L f . x
e f X = Te f Y .
:
52

.. , .. . .

f ( x ) = X T Ae X = (Te f Y )T Ae (Te f Y ) = Y T TeT f Ae Te f Y = Y T A f Y .

T
A f = Te f Ae Te f .
. L
X = Te f Y .
1.

f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = x12 4 x1 x2 + 5 x22

x = 2 y1 3 y 2
.
: 1
x2 = y1 + y 2
I . , :
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = (2 y1 3 y 2 )2 4(2 y1 3 y 2 )( y1 + y 2 ) + 5( y1 + y 2 )2 =

= y12 + 2 y1 y 2 + 26 y 22 .
1 2

II . Ae =
2 5
e .
x 2 3 y1
2 3
. U =
,
: 1 =
x
y
1
1
1
1

2
2
1 1
.
. A f = U T Ae U =
1 26
,
f ( x ) = f ( y1 , y 2 ) = y12 + 2 y1 y 2 + 26 y 22 .
2.

2
2
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = x1 + 4 x1 x2 + 2 x2 f 1 = (1, 3) , f 2 = (1, 2) .
1 2
e .
. Ae =
2
2

1 1
e f .
Te f =
3
2

e f
1 3 1 2 1 1 31 9

.

=
A f = TeT f Ae Te f =

1
2
2
2
3
2
9
1

f ( x ) = f ( y1 , y 2 ) = 31y12 + 18 y1 y 2 + y 22 .

53

.. , .. . .

5.2. .

.

f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) = aii xi2 ,


i =1

,
. aii , i = 1,2,..., n ,
.
.
.
. ,
.
. ,
, .

: .
I. .

.
. a11 0 , a11 ,
, x1 ,
.
2

f ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) = a11 x1 + b j x j + f1 ( x2 ,..., xn ) ,

f1 ( x2 ,..., x n )
j =2

, x1 .

y1 = x1 +

b j x j ,
j =2

f ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) = a11 y12 + f1 ( x2 ,..., xn ) .

f1 ( x2 ,..., x n ) .
.
.

2
2
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) = x1 + x3 3 x1 x2 + 4 x1 x3 + 2 x2 x3
.
. a11 = 1 0, , x1 ,
:
x12 3 x1 x2 + 4 x1 x3 = x12 + 2 x1 ( 32 x2 + 2 x3 ) + ( 32 x2 + 2 x3 ) 2 ( 32 x2 + 2 x3 ) 2 =
= ( x1 32 x2 + 2 x3 ) 2 ( 94 x22 6 x2 x3 + 4 x32 ) = y12 94 x22 + 6 x2 x3 4 x32 ,
y1 = x1 32 x2 + 2 x3 .

54

.. , .. . .

, f ( x ) = y12 94 x22 + 6 x2 x3 4 x32 + x32 + 2 x2 x3 = y12 94 x22 3 x32 + 8 x2 x3 .


x22 ,
, , x 2 ,
:
94 x22 + 8 x2 x3 = 94 ( x22 32
x x ) = 94 ( x22 2 x2 169 x3 + (169 x3 ) 2 (169 x3 ) 2 ) =
9 2 3
= 94 ( x2 169 x3 ) 2 +

64 x 2 = 9 y 2 + 64 x 2 ,
9 3
4 2
9 3
2
2
2
9 y + 64 x 3 x = y 2
3
1
4 2
9 3

y 2 = x2 169 x3 .

, f ( x ) = y12

94 y 22 + 37
x 2 = y12 94 y 22 + 37
y2,
9 3
9 3

y1 = x1 32 x2 + 2 x3 , y 2 = x2 169 x3 , y3 = x3 .
. x1 , x 2 , x3

x1 = y1 + 32 y 2 + 32 y3
1 32 23

y1 , y 2 , y3 : x2 = y 2 + 169 y3
. , X = UY , U = 0 1 169
0 0 1
x = y
3
3

e f . ,
,
, f 1 = (1,0,0) ,

f 2 = (32 ,1,0 ) , f 3 = (23 , 169 ,1).

f ( x ) = y12 94 y 22 + 37
y2 .

:
9 3
f 1 = e1 ,

f 2 = 32 e1 + e 2 , f 3 = 32 e1 + 169 e 2 + e 3 .
1. a11 = 0 , .. x12 ,
- ,
.
2.
,
. , , a12 0 , .. 2a12 x1 x2 .

: x1 = x1 + x2 , x2 = x1 x2 , xi = xi ,

i = 3,4,..., n , 2a12 x1 x2 = 2a12 ( x1 + x2 )( x1 x2 ) = 2a12 ( x1 )2 ( x2 )2 .


,
( x1 )2 .

II. .
E n - .
e
f

A f = TeT f Ae Te f , Te f e f
(. V, . 5.1).

,

55

.. , .. . .

, .. Ae
U ( U 1 = U T ), U T Ae U = .
,
Ae , ,
. U
,
Ae (. IV, . 4.3).
1 0 ... 0

0 2 ... 0

A f = =
... ... ... ...

0
0
...

: f ( x ) = 1 y12 + ... + n y n2 . f ,
Ae ,
.
1. ,
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = x12 + 4 x1 x2 + x22
. .
1 2

. ) A =
2 1
e . A .

1
2
A E =
= (1 ) 2 4 = 0 .

1 = 1 ,
2 = 3
2
1
1 0

=
.
0
3

f (
A ). f
f ( x ) = f ( y1, y 2 ) = y12 + 3 y 22 .
) ,
( A E ) X = O .
, 1 = 1 ,
2 2 x1 0
= . :

2
2

x2 0


1
= . a1 = (1,1)
X =

1
A , 1 = 1 .
, 2 = 3 ,
56

.. , .. . .

2 2 x1 0

= . :
2 2 x2 0

1
X = = . a 2 = (1, 1)

1
A ,
2 = 3 .
, ,
A : f 1 = 12 , 12 , f 2 = 12 , 12 ,

1
12
2

U=
e
1
1

2
2
f , = U T A U .
x1 = 1 y1 + 1 y 2
2
2
X = U Y :
.
1 y + 1 y
=

x
2
1
2
2
2
2. ,
. .
f ( x ) = f ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) = 11 x12 + 5 x 22 + 2 x 32 + 16 x1 x 2 + 4 x1 x 3 20 x 2 x 3 .
2
11 8

5
10
. ) A = 8
2 10
2

e . A .

11
8
2
A E = 8
5 10 = 0 .
1 = 18 , 2 = 9 , 3 = 9
2
10 2
18 0 0

. = 0 9 0
0 0 9

f (
A ). f
f ( x ) = f ( y1, y 2 , y3 ) = 18 y12 + 9 y 22 9 y32 .
) ,
( A E ) X = O .
, 1 = 18 ,

57

.. , .. . .

8
2 x1 0
7


: 8 13 10 x2 = 0 . :
2 10 16 x 0

3
2
2


X = 2 = 2 . a 1 = ( 2,2,1)

1


A ,
1 = 18 .
,
8
2 x1 0
2


2 = 9 , 8 4 10 x2 = 0 .
2 10 7 x 0

3
2
2


: X = = 1 . a 2 = ( 2,1,2)
2
2


A ,
2 = 9 . ,
3 = 9 , a3 = ( 12 , 1, 1) .
, ,
A : f 1 = ( 32 , 32 , 13 ), f 2 = ( 32 , 13 , 32 ) , f 3 = ( 13 , 32 , 32 ) .
.
23 23 13

2
U = 23 13

3
1 2 2
3
3
3

e f , = U T A U .
X = U Y :

1
2
2
x1 = 3 y1 3 y 2 3 y3

x2 = 23 y1 + 13 y 2 + 23 y3 .
x = 1 y 2 y + 2 y
3 3 1 3 2 3 3
. ,
. :

?
.
.
.

1) ;
58

.. , .. . .

2)
( ).
( ).
()

.
5.3.


.
( ),
x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) R n

f ( x) > 0

( f ( x ) < 0 ).
.
( ),
x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) R n f ( x ) 0
( f ( x ) 0 ),

x = ( x1 ,..., xn ) R n , f ( x ) = 0 .
. ,
x , y R n , f ( x ) > 0 , f ( y ) < 0 .
. f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = 3 x12 + x22

; f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = 3 x12
, ..
x = (0,1) R 2 : f ( x ) = 0 ; f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = 3 x12 x22
, .. f ( x ) = f (1, 0) = 3 > 0 , f ( y ) = f (0,1) = 1 < 0 .
. A
, i , i = 1,2,..., n , A .
1)
f ( x ) ()
, i > 0 i = 1,2,..., n (
i < 0 i = 1,2,..., n ).
2) f ( x ) ()
, i 0 i = 1,2,..., n (
i 0 i = 1,2,..., n ) .
3) f ( x )
, .
. ( det A 0 )
, ,
.

59

.. , .. . .

, det A 0 , = 0
A E = 0 , , = 0
A .
,
. A n n
. A : 1 = a11 ,
a11 ... a1n
a11 a12
2 =
,, n = ... ... ... .
a21 a22
an1 ... ann
( ).
n
,
,
: 1 > 0 , 2 > 0 ,, n > 0 .
.
n ,
,
, : 1 < 0 , 2 > 0 , 3 < 0 ,,

( 1)n n > 0 .

1.
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = x12 + 10 x1 x 2 +26 x22 .
.
1 5
1 5
, 1 = 1 , 2 =
= 1 .
: A =
5 26
5 26
A ,
.
2.
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 11x12 6 x22 6 x32 + 12 x1 x 2 12 x1 x3 + 6 x2 x3 .
.
11 6 6

11 6
2 =
= 30 > 0 ,
A = 6 6 3 ,
1 = 11 < 0 ,
:

6
6
6 3 6

11 6 6

3 = 6 6 3 = 81 < 0 . ,
6 3 6
,
.
3.

:
2
2
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = 2x1 + (2 + 8) x1 x 2 +( + 1) x2 .
60

.. , .. . .

.
2 + 4
2 + 4
, 1 = 2 , 2 =
= 2 6 16 .
: A =
+ 4 +1
+ 4 + 1
,
)
. det A 0 8 , 2 .
, ,
1 = 2 > 0
, ..
,

16
>
0

2
1 = 2 < 0
, ..
2
2 = 6 16 > 0
( , 2) .
, ,
. (2, 8 )
.
) = 8 = 2 .
= 8 :
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = 16 x12 + 24 x1 x 2 +9 x22 = (4 x1 + 3x2 ) 2 0 .
= 8 , ..
x = (3, 4) : f ( x ) = 0 .
) = 2 :
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ) = 4 x12 + 4 x1 x 2 x22 = (2 x1 x2 ) 2 0 .
= 2 , ..
x = (1,2) : f ( x ) = 0 .

(8, + ); ,

.
1.
.
1) x 2 + 12 xy + ( 5) y 2 .

2) ( 3)x 2 + 4xy + y 2 .

3) x 2 + y 2 + ( 6)z 2 + 4 xy 8 xz + 8 yz .
2. p1 p2 x1 , x2 x3 .

p12 + p22 = x12 + x22 + x32 ?


. p12 + p22 = x12 + x22 + x32 ,
p1 p2 .
.
3. ,
, 2.

61

.. , .. . .

. ,
.
.
4. ,
.
?
5. ,
f ( x ) f ( x )
.
6. ,
,
, ,
.
7. x 2 + 2 y 2 z 2 + 4 xy 2 xz 4 yz

) ; )
.
VI.

n R n .
R n e . x
( x ) ( x1 , x2 ,..., x n ) .

i , j =1

i =1

aij xi x j + bi xi + c = 0 .

x ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) R n ,
(1)

c , aij , i, j = 1,2,..., n , bi , i = 1,2,..., n, ,


aij = a ji i, j = 1,2,..., n , aij , i, j = 1,2,..., n
.
1. n = 2 (1)
, n = 3 (1)
.
n

2.

aij xi x j

i , j =1

(1),

bi xi + c

i =1

(1).

62

.. , .. . .

3.

f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) =

aij xi x j

(1)

i , j =1

a11 ... a1n

A = ... ... ... ,


a

n1 ... ann
n

bi xi
i =1

- B = b1 b2 ... bn . (1)

:
XT AX + B X + c =0,

(2)

x1

x
X = 2 - .
...

xn
(1).
. ,
A ,
f ( x ) = 1 y12 + ... + n y n2 , i , i = 1,2,..., n ,
A , , .

U .
X = UY . (2) :

(UY )T A (UY ) + B (UY ) + c = 0

Y T U T AU Y + (BU ) Y + c = 0
1 0 ... 0

0
...
0

2
=
Y T Y + DY + c = 0 ,
, D = B U .
... ... ... ...

0 0 ... n
:
n

i =1

i =1

i yi2 + d i yi + c = 0 .

(3)

(3) (1), . .
y i y j , i j . (3) n = 2 n = 3
,
.
. ( n = 2 )
det U = 1 X = UY
.
( n = 3 ) det U = 1
X = UY
63

.. , .. . .

,
.
1.

2
2
9 x + 4 xy + 6 y 16 x 8 y 2 = 0 .
. :
9 2
, B = (16 8) .
A =
2
6

x
: X T A X + B X 2 = 0 , X = y
.
X T A X .

A .
) A .
9
2
A E =
= 0 . 1 = 10 , 2 = 5
2
6
10 0

. =
0 5
f (
A ).
) A .
, 1 = 10 ,
1 2 x1 0
= .
( A E ) X = O = 10 :
2 4 x2 0
x1 + 2 x2 = 0 . a 1 = (2 , 1)
A , 1 = 10 .
, 2 = 5 ,
4 2 x1 0
= , 2 x1 + x2 = 0 .

2 1 x2 0
a 2 = (1, 2) A ,

2 = 5 .
, ,
A :
f 1 = 25 , 15 ,
f 2 = 15 , 25 . f

2 1
5
. U = 15
2

5
5

64

.. , .. . .

e f ,
A , det U = 1 .
) X = U X :
x = 2 x 1 y
5
5
. ( X )T X + D X 2 = 0 ,

1
2

y = 5 x + 5 y
x
10 0
, BU = D = (8 5 0) , X = .

= U T AU =

y
0
5

:
2
2
10( x) + 5( y ) 8 5 x 2 = 0 .

10( x)2 8 5 x = 10 x

10 x

2 2
5

2 2
5

8,

+ 5( y )2 10 = 0 .

Y
x = x 2

Y
5,

y = y

X ( X )
10( x)2 + 5( y )2 = 10 ,
a2
a1

(
x)2 ( y )2
Q
+
=
1
.

2
12
X
2

2
2
9 x + 4 xy + 6 y 16 x 8 y 2 = 0 , . 2

O
XOY ;
a 1 a 2
X OY . X OY
Q ( 25 ,0) , X Q Y

( )

, OX OY . X QY
a = 1 , b = 2 (. . 2).
2 1 cos sin
5
,
=
1.

U = 15

sin

cos

5
5
= arccos( 25 ) , ,

, . ,
f ,
A , i , j O
.
65

.. , .. . .

x = x 2
5
2.
y = y
OQ = ( 25 , 0) .
Q X OY : x =

2
5

, y = 0 ,

Q : x = 54 , y = 52 .
x = 2 x 1 y
5
5

,
1
2
y = 5 x + 5 y
x = 2 x 1 y + 54
5
5

.
1 x + 2 y + 2
y
=

5
5
5
2.
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 4 xy + 4 yz + 4 xz + 2 x 2 z 3 = 0 .
. :
1 2 2

A = 2 1 2 , B = ( 2 0 2 ) .
2 2 1

: X T A X + B X 3 = 0 ,

x

X = y
- .
z

X T A X
.
A .
) A .
1
2
2
x = x +
3.
y = y

A E =

2
5

= 0 . 1 = 2 = 1 ,

1
1 0 0

3 = 5 . = 0 1 0
0
0 5

f (
A ).
) A .
, 1 = 2 = 1 ,
2

66

.. , .. . .

2 2 2 x1 0


( A E ) X = O = 1: 2 2 2 x2 = 0 .
2 2 2 x 0

3
1, n r = 3 1 = 2 .

a 1 = (1,0 , 1)
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0 .
a 2 = (1,1, 0)
A , 1 = 2 = 1 .
A ,
3 = 5 . a 3 = (1,1,1) .
) a 1 = (1,0,1) a 2 = (1,1,0)
,

,
1 = 2 = 1 ,
-:
1) g1 = a 1 = (1,0,1) ,
f 1 = g1 / g1 = 12 , 0, 12 ;

2) (a 2 , f 1 ) =

, g 2 = a 2 (a 2 , f 1 ) f 1 = 12 , 1, 12

1
2

f 2 = g2 / g2 =

1 , 2 , 1
6
6
6

).

f1 =

1 , 0, 1
2
2

f2 =

1 , 2 , 1
6
6
6

.
) a 3 = (1,1,1) ,
A : f 1 = 12 , 0, 12 , f 2 = 16 , 26 , 16 ,
f3 =

1 , 1 , 1
3
3
3

).

f .

1
1 1
2
6
3
2
1

U = 0
6
3
1

16 13
2

e
f , A ,

= U 1 AU = U T AU . det U = 1.
U (..
, 1 = 2 = 1 ). det U = 1 :
1
6
U = 26
1

1
2

0
1
2

1
3
1 .
3
1
3

67

.. , .. . .

f3 =

1 , 1 , 1
3
3
3

).

f1 =

1 , 2 , 1
6
6
6

),

f2 =

1 , 0, 1
2
2

),

) X = U X :
x = 1 x 1 y + 1 z
6
2
3

2
1
.

y = 6 x + 3 z
z = 1 x + 1 y + 1 z

6
2
3
1 0 0

T
( X ) X + D X 3 = 0 , = U T AU = 0 1 0 , BU = D = (0 2 0) ,
0
0 5

x

X = y . :
z

( x)2 ( y )2 + 5( z )2 2 y 3 = 0 .

( y )2 2 y = ( y + 1) 2 + 1 ,
( x)2 ( y + 1)2 + 5( z )2

x = x

2 = 0 . y = y + 1,
z = z

( x)2 ( y )2 + 5( z )2 = 2 ,

( x)2 + ( y)2 (z )2 = 1 .
2
2
2
2
2
2

( ) ( ) ( 5)

,
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 4 xy + 4 yz + 4 xz + 2 x 2 z 3 = 0 ,
XYZ ; O
b1 , b2 , b3 (b1 = (1,2,1), b2 = (1,0,1), b3 = (1,1,1) )
X Y Z .
X Y Z Q (0,1,0) ,
X Y Z ,
OX , OY , OZ . X Y Z
(. . 3).

68

.. , .. . .

Z
Z

Y
O

b2
Q

b3
b1

. 3

x = x

1. y = y + 1
z = z

OQ = (0,1, 0) .
Q X Y Z : x = 0 , y = 1 , z = 0 ,

Q : x =

1
2

, y = 0, z =

1
2

x = 1 x 1 y + 1 z
x = x
6
2
3

2
1
2. y = y + 1 y = 6 x + 3 z
,
z = z
z = 1 x + 1 y + 1 z

6
2
3

x = 1 x 1 y + 1 z + 1
6
2
3
2

2
1
.
y = 6 x + 3 z
z = 1 x + 1 y + 1 z 1

6
2
3
2
.
.
69

.. , .. . .

1) 9 x 2 + 6 xy + 17 y 2 = 72 .
2) x 2 8 xy + 7 y 2 = 36 .
VII.
1. :
a 1 , a 2 , a 3 . a 1 = (5,2,1,3,4) , a 2 = (3,1,2,3,5) , a 3 = (6,3,2,4,7) .
. a1 , a 2 , a3
3
6
5

1
3
2
A = 1 2 2 . A

3
3
4

4
5
7

. A
, A ,
, a1 , a 2 , a3 .
2. f1 , f 2 , f 3 R 3 ,
: ) b e ,
f ; ) c f ,
e . f 1 = (2,1,1) , f 2 = (2,0,2) ,
f 3 = (3,0,1) , b = (2,0,1) , c = (9,3,8) .
. ) , f1 , f 2 , f 3
2 2 3

R 3 . A = 1 0 0 .
1 2 1

det A 0 , A ,
, .
R 3 ,
R 3 .
) A e f .
(2,0,1) b f = ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 ) , ( x1 , x2 , x3 )
2
x1


b e , .. B f = 0 , Be = x2 .
1
x

3
, b e f
Be = A B f , A e
70

.. , .. . .

x1 2 2 3 2


f , : x2 = 1 0 0 0 . ,
x 1 2 1 1
3

x1 , x2 , x3 : x1 = 7 , x2 = 2 , x3 = 3 . , b e
b = (7, 2, 3) .
) (9,3,8) c e , ( x1 , x2 , x3 )
9
x1


c f = ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 ) , .. Ce = 3 , C f = x2 .
8
x

3
Ce , C f , A Ce = A C f , :
9 2 2 3 x1


3 = 1 0 0 x2 . , x1 = 3 ,
8 1 2 1 x

3
x2 = 3 , x3 = 1 . , c f
c = (3, 3, 1) .
3.
A :V3 V3 ,
x = ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) y = Ax ,
i , j , k . Ax = [ x , a ] , a = (3,1,2 ) .
.
:
1) A( x + y ) = [ x + y, a ] = [ x, a ] + [ y, a ] = Ax + Ay x, y V3 ;
2) A(x ) = [x , a ] = [ x , a ] = Ax x V3 , R .
A
Ai = [i , a ] = (0,2,1) ,
Aj = [ j , a ] = ( 2,0,3) ,

:
Ak = [k , a ] = ( 1,3,0 ) .
0 2 1

3 .
: A = 2 0
1 3 0

4. A A
. .
2 1 1

A = 1 2 1 .
1 1 2

. :
A : L L ,

A .
71

.. , .. . .

A .
1
1
2
A E = 1 2
1 = 0 . 1 = 0 ,
1
1 2
2 = 3 = 3 .
) ,

2 x1 x2 x3 = 0
( A E ) X = O . 1 = 0 x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 0 .
x x + 2 x = 0
2
3
1
2, n r = 3 2 = 1
. ,

1
1



X = = 1 , 1 . f 1 = (1,1,1)

1
1



, 1 = 0 . 2 = 3 = 3
x1 x2 x3 = 0

x1 x2 x3 = 0 . 1,
x x x = 0
2
3
1
n r = 3 1 = 2 .

1
1
1 1




X = = 1 + 0 , , 1 0 .

0
1
0 1




f 2 = (1,1,0) f 3 = (1,0,1) ,

,
2 = 3 = 3 .
f 1 = (1,1,1) , f 2 = (1,1,0) f 3 = (1,0,1)
, A .
0 0 0

A f = 0 3 0 .
0 0 3

A f A ,
, . e f
1 1 1

0 , A f = Te1 f A T e f .
Te f = 1 1
1 0
1

72

.. , .. . .

.
A .
.
5.
. .
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) = x12 + 5 x22 + 5 x32 4 x1 x2 + 6 x1 x3 + 20 x2 x3 .
. a11 = 1 0, , x1 ,
:
x12 4 x1 x2 + 6 x1 x3 = x12 + 2 x1 (2 x2 + 3 x3 ) + (2 x2 + 3 x3 ) 2 (2 x2 + 3 x3 ) 2 =

= ( x1 2 x2 + 3 x3 ) 2 (4 x22 12 x2 x3 + 9 x32 ) = y12 4 x22 + 12 x2 x3 9 x32 ,


y1 = x1 2 x2 + 3 x3 .
,
f ( x ) = y12 4 x22 + 12 x2 x3 9 x32 + 5 x22 + 5 x32 + 20 x2 x3 = y12 + x22 4 x32 + 32 x2 x3 .
x22 1 0 , ,
x 2 , :
x22 + 32 x2 x3 = x22 + 2 x2 16 x3 + (16 x3 ) 2 (16 x3 ) 2 =

= ( x2 + 16 x3 ) 2 256 x32 = y 22 256 x32 , y 2 = x2 + 16 x3 .


, f ( x ) = y12 + y 22 256 x32 4 x32 = y12 + y 22 260 x32 = y12 + y 22 260 y32 ,
y1 = x1 2 x2 + 3 x3 , y 2 = x2 + 16 x3 , y3 = x3 .
. x1 , x 2 , x3
1 2 35
x1 = y1 + 2 y 2 35 y3

y1 , y 2 , y3 : x2 = y 2 16 y3
. , X = UY , U = 0 1 16
0 0
x = y
1
3

3
e f . ,
,
,
f 1 = (1,0,0) , f 2 = (2,1,0 ) , f 3 = ( 35, 16,1) .

:
f ( x ) = y12 + y 22 260 y32 .

f 1 = e1 ,
f 2 = 2 e1 + e 2 , f 3 = 35 e1 16 e 2 + e 3 .
6.
.
f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x12 + x22 + x32 4 x1 x2 4 x1 x3 4 x2 x3 .
1 2 2

. ) A = 2 1 2
2 2 1

e . A .

73

.. , .. . .

2
1 2
A E = 2 1 2 = 0 .
2
2 1

1 = 2 = 3 ,

3 = 3

3 0 0

. = 0 3 0
0 0 3

f (
A ). f

f ( x ) = f ( y1, y 2 , y3 ) = 3 y12 + 3 y 22 3 y32 .


) ,
( A E ) X = O .
, 3 = 3 ,
4 2 2 x1 0


2 4 2 x2 = 0 . :
2 2 4 x 0

3

1


X = = 1 . a 3 = (1,1,1)

1


A , 3 = 3 .
a 3 , f 3 = 13 , 13 , 13 .

, 1 = 2 = 3 ,
2 2 2 x1 0

2
2
2

x2 = 0 .
2 2 2 x 0

3

1
1



X = = 0 + 1 , . a 1 = (1,0,1) , a 2 = (1,1,0) -

1
0



,
1 = 2 = 3 .
) a 1 = (1,0,1) a 2 = (1,1,0)
,

,
1 = 2 = 3 ,
:
1) g1 = a 1 = (1,0,1) ,
f 1 = g1 / g1 = 12 , 0, 12 ;

74

.. , .. . .

2) (a 2 , f 1 ) =

1
2

f 2 = g2 / g2 =

, g 2 = a 2 (a 2 , f 1 ) f 1 = 12 , 1, 12 ,
1 , 2 , 1
6
6
6

).

f1 =

1 , 0, 1
2
2

),

f2 =

.
) , f 1 =
f3 =

1 , 1 , 1
3
3
3

1 , 2 , 1
6
6
6

1 , 0, 1
2
2

),

f2 =

1 , 2 , 1
6
6
6

),

) ,

1
1 1
2
6
3
2
1


A . U = 0
6
3
1

1
1

6
3
2
e
f ,

A , = U T AU .
7. 7 x 2 + 48 xy + 7 y 2 = 625 ,

.
7 24
.
. A =
24
7

:
x
X T A X = 625 , X = - .
y
X T A X
.
A .
) A .
7
24

A E =
= 0.
1 = 25 ,
24
7
0
25

2 = 25 . =
0 25
f (
A ).
) A .
, 1 = 25 ,
32 24 x1 0
= ,
( A E ) X = O = 25 :
24 18 x2 0

4 x1 + 3x2 = 0 .
a 1 = (3 , 4)
75

.. , .. . .

A ,
1 = 25 .
,
18 24 x1 0
= ,
2 = 25 ,
24 32 x2 0
a 2 = (4, 3)
3x1 + 4 x2 = 0 .
A , 2 = 25 .
,
,
A : f 1 = (53 , 54 ) , f 2 = ( 54 , 53 ) .
f .

53 54
U = 4 3
5 5
e f ,
A , det U = 1 .
) X = U X :
x = 53 x 54 y
. ( X )T X = 625 ,

3
4
y = 5 x + 5 y

0
25
x
, X = .
= U T AU =
0 25
y
: 25( x)2 25( y )2 = 625 .

2
7 x + 48 xy + 7 y = 625 ,

XOY ;

O a 1
a 2

X OY .

a = 5 ,
b = 5 (. . 4).
.

3 4 cos sin
,
U = 54 35 =
sin

cos

5 5

(x')2 ( y ')2

52
,

52

= 1.

= arccos ,
5

X
Y
a2

a1

. 4
76

.. , .. . .

, ,
. ,
f , A ,
i , j O .

1. . ., . . . . IV. .:
- . . . , 2006. 335 .
2. . ., . . . .: . ,
1999. 296 .
3. / . . . .: , 1991. 154 .
4. . . 1.
: . / .
. ., . . .: , 1993. 478 .
5. . ., . . .
. 1. .: , 2007. 469 .
6. . ., . . .
. 2. .: , 2009. 456 .

77