Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 165

2006

I
. , . .-. . .


1

nm, n- , m- ,
, .
,
.
, .
aij, i , j .
A,B,C.
a11 a12 ... a1m

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 m
Anm =
... ... ... ...

a
a
...
a
n3
nm
n1
- (-) ,
() . ,
.
1.
A = (2 1 3 5 ) -
B = 1,4 -
8
0 0

32 = 0 0 3 2 .
0 0

(n=m),
.

( )

a11

0

...

0
a 22
...
0

... 0

... 0

... a nn

...

.
,
1, En
aij= aji , .
2.

2 1 5

1 3 6
5 6 4

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

A B ,
aik = bik , i = 1, 2,..., n; k = 1,2,..., m.
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. ,
.
() A B n m
, ,
() A B:
cij = aij bij . = .
:
1. + = +A
2. (A+B)+C=A+(B+C)
3. = + , B=C-A A=C-B
4. A+ =A, A-A= ,

, ,
, :
a11 a12 ... a1m

a21 a22 ... a2 m


C nm = Anm =
...
... ... ...

a
...

a
n2
nm
n1
:
1. ( A) = ( ) A
2. ( ) =
3. () =
4.1A=A, A=
1 2 3
1 3 4

3. = 2 1 4 ; B = 5 7 8 , 2 + .
3 2 3
1 2 4

2 4 6
3 7 10

2 + = 9 9 16 .
. 2 = 4 2 8 ,
6 4 6
7 6 10

A m s B s n
m n ,
:
2

2006

I
. , . .-. . .
s

ij = ai 1b1 j + ai 2 b2 j + ... + ai s bsj = aik bkj , i = 1,2,..., m, j = 1,2,..., n . (1.1)


k =1

AB = C;
: ij i- A
j- B
.
,
,
.
:
1) , ..
. , -
= ,
.
.
,
.
= =
, :
AO = O; OA = O, .
2) , ..
(), (), :
()=().
3)
, .. (+) (+),
:
( + ) = +
( + ) = + .
4) ,
:
(AB) = (A)B = A(B).
1

4. = 4 = (2 4 1) .
3

1 2 1 4 1 1 2 4 1
1

. = 4 (2 4 1) = 4 2 4 4 4 1 = 8 16 4 .
3 2 3 4 3 1 6 12 3
3

1

= (2 4 1) 4 = (21 + 44 + 13)=(2 + 16 + 3)=(21).
3

2006

I
. , . .-. . .
3 4

5. = (1 2) , =
5
6

3
4

= (3 + 10 4 + 12) = (13 16) .


. = (1 2)
5
6

3 2
3
, .
6. =
1 4
3 2 3 2 11 14

;
=
.2 = =
1
4
7
18
1
4


3
2
47
78
11
14



.
=
A3 =
1
4
39
86
7
18


3
2

11 14

.
,
1
4
7
18

( )( )(
( )( )(

)
)

, 3 2 11 14 = 47 78
1 4
7 18
39 86
11 14 3 2 = 47 78
7 18
1 4
39 86
AT ,
AT ,
AT .
11 a12 ... a1m
a11 a21 ... an1

...
a
a
a

a21 a22 ... a2 m

12
22
n
2

=
;

=
... ... ... ... ;
... ... ... ...

a
a
...
a
a
a
...
a
n2
nm
2m
nm
n1
1m
, ,
, AT .

T
1. ( AT ) = A
2. ,
: () =
3. +, AT + B T
T
: ( A + B ) = AT + B T
4.

( A ) = A
T

1 0 3
1
1

= 2 4 1 , = 3 , = 2
1 4 2
2
1

7.

= 2.

+.
1 2 1

. A = 0 4 4 ;
3 1 2

1 2 1 1 1 1 + 2 3 + 1 2 9



A B = 0 4 4 3 = 0 1 + 4 3 4 2 = 4 ;
3 1 2 2 3 1 + 1 3 + 2 2 10

2006

I
. , . .-. . .
9 2 7

+ = 4 + 4 = 8 .
10 2 12

2

C = 4 ;
2


() .

11

a
= 21
...

a
n1

... a1n

... a 2 n
, detA,
... ...

... a nn

a12
a 22
...
an2

A .

, ,
:
11 a12 ... a1n

... a2 n
... ... ... ...
an1 an 2 ... ann
, det(a11 ) = a11 .
2 2
, , :
a11 a12
= a11a22 a12 a21
(1.2)
a21 a22
3 3
, , :
11 a12 a13
a21 a22 a23 = a11a22a33 + a12a23a31 + a21a32a13 ( a13a22a31 + a12a21a33 + a23a32a11 ) (1.3)
a31 a32 a33

:
detA=

a21

a22

detA =

a
k =1

ik

(1) k + i M ik ,

(1.4)

i : 1,2,,n.
detA =

a
i =1

ik

(1) k + i M ik ,

(1.5)

k : 1,2,,n.
. (1815),
.,
(1693) . 1750
. . 1772 .
, .
1812 . ..

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

i
aik .
aik
,
i- k- . , ,
.

, , ,

. s ,
s. ,
, .
Aik aik
, (-1) ,
,
aik .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
(1.4) :
detA = a1 j A1 j + a2 j A2 j + ... + anj Anj ,
(1.4*)
j .
(1.5) :
detA = ai1 Ai1 + ai 2 Ai 2 + ... + ain Ain ,
(1.5*)
i .
()
.
, n-
(n-1)- ,
(n-1)- (n-2)- ..

.
()
.
1 (). s i1, ,is,
,
.
,
. 1.

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

:
1. ,
, ..:
det A = det AT;
: , ,
.
2.
det (A B) = det A det B.
3.
-, :
det (AB) = detAdetB
4. -
( ),
, .
5. ( )
.
: - ()
.
6. -
() , .
7.
, . ( , ..
.)
8. ,
() ()
(), .
9. -
: d = d1 d2 , e = e1 e2 , f = f1 f2 , :
a b

f = d1

e1

f1 d 2

e2

f2

10. -
() () .
11.
:
11 a12 ... a1n

a22 ... a2 n

...

...

...

...

= a11a22 ...ann

0
0 ... ann
,
. ,
, - ,
.
7

2006

I
. , . .-. . .
1 2 1

8. = 0 2 3
3 1 1

1 2 1
. 0 2 3 = 1 2 3 2 0 3 + 1 0 2 =
1 1
3 1
3 1
3 1 1
(2 1 1 3) 2(0 1 3 3) + (0 1 + 3 2) = -5 + 18 + 6 = 19.
9.

1 0
2 1

0
3
2 1

1
1 0 3 4
2
2 1 1 2
.
=
0
3 2 1
0
2 1 4 3
2

10

10

3
1

2 1
10 11

3
1
2
4

4
2
.
1
3

=-1 3
1

10

2 1
10 11

10

23 31
3 2 1 = 0 23 31 =-1
=-(23 21-31 17)=44.
17 21
1 10 11
0 17 21
44.
1 2
, =
3 4

10. =

5 2

. det(AB).
1 3

.
1- : det A = 4 6 = -2; det B = 15 2 = 13;
det (AB) = det A det B = -26.
1 5 + 2 1 1 2 + 2 3 7 8
,
=
3

5
+
4

1
3

2
+
4

3
19
18

2- : AB =

det (AB) = 718 - 819 = 126 152 = -26.


,
:
XA = AX = E,
, ,
-1.
11 a12 ... a1n

a21 a22 ... a2 n


2. , =

... ... ... ...

a
a
...
a
n2
nn
n1
,
, .. detA 0.
8

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

.
. A 1 , .. AA 1 = E ,
3 det( AA 1 ) = det A det A 1 = det E = 1 , ,
det A 0, det A 1 0 .
. det A 0 . S A
,

A :
A11 A12 ... A1n

SA =

A21

A22

... A2 n

...

...

...

...

Aik

An1 An 2 ... Ann


aik . ,
1
A 1 =
S AT
det A
11 a12 ... a1n A11

...
a
a
a
1
1 21
22
2 n A12
AA 1 = A
S AT =
det A
det A ... ... ... ... ...

...
a
a
a
n2
nn A1n
n1

(1.6)

A21
A22
...
A2 n

... An1

... An 2
=
... ...

... Ann

0
...
0 1 0 ... 0
det A

A
0
1
...
0
0
det
...
0
1


= E.
=
=

... ... ... ...


...
...
...
det A ...

0
... det A 0 0 ... 1
0
(1.4*) 10 :
c11 = a11 A11 + a12 A12 + ... + a1n A1n = det A
c12 = a11 A21 + a12 A22 + ... + a1n A2 n = 0

, i j
cij = ai1 A j1 + ai 2 A j 2 + ... + ain A jn = 0
det A, i = j
1
, A 1 A = E , .. A 1 =
S AT
det A
A.
.
1. ,
() ()
, .
2
.
2. A 1
(1.6).

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

3. , ,
.
.
1 2
-1
, .
3 4

11. =
. det A = 4 - 6 = - 2 0
A11=4;

A12= -3;

A21= -2;
A22=1
4 2
1
2
, S AT =
-1=
.
3
/
2
1
/
2

3
1

2 2 + 1 4 1 0
1 1 2 2 1 + 1 3
2
:
=


=
3 / 2 1 / 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 1 2 4 0 1
C :
1. (A-1)-1 = A;
2. (AB)-1 = B-1A-1
3. (AT)-1 = (A-1)T.
1
4. det A1 =
det A

10

2006

I
. , .-. .

2
.
()
:
1) ;
2) ()
(), ;
3) - () ;
4) () ;
1, s
, ,
- s s .
mn r ,
, r+1 ,
( 0 r min{m, n} ).
, ,
.
, .
A
, Rg.
.

, .
, ,
.
,
.
.. ,
.
1. .
1 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 5 1 5 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 11 2 11 0 0 0 ,


2 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


1 5
= 11 10 = 1 0 RgA=2.
2 11
2. .
3 5 7 4 8 12 1 2 3 1 2 3
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 5 , 1 2 = 3 2 = 1 0 Rg=2.

1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 0 0 0 1 3

11

2006

I
. , .-. .

3. .
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

~
~
~
A=
3 3 3 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


2 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 1 0 2 2 2 1
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
, 0 1 0 = 1 1 (2) 0. RgA= 3.
~
0 0 2 2 1

0 0 2
0
0
0
0
0

a11 a12
a1k
1 2
k
a2 a2
a

- , ,..., 2
...
...
...


a1 a 2
ak
n n
n
, 1 , 2 ,..., k
,
a11
a12
a1k 0
1
2
k
0
a
a
a
1 2 + 2 2 + ... + k 2 = .
(2.1)
...
...
...
...



a1
a2
ak 0
n
n
n
(2.1) -
1 = 2 = ... = k = 0 ,
.
. , (2.1),
a11 a12
a1k
1 2
k
a2 a2
a

- , ,..., 2 .
...
...
...


a1 a 2
ak
n n
n
1 ( ).
() (),
. ,
()
.
. detA=0,
.
.

12

2006

I
. , .-. .

. , detA=0, RgA < n 1


( n RgA ) ().
()
m n
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2
,
(2.2)

...............................................

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm


aij bi
. x10 , x20 ,..., xn0 (2.2),

x1 , x2 ,..., xn
.
,
. ,
.
,
, .

a11 a12 ... a1n
a
a22 ... a2 n
21

=
,
... ... ... ...

am1 am 2 ... amn


a11 a12 ... a1n b1

a22 ... a2 n b2
* a21

=
... ... ... ... ...

am1 am 2 ... amn bm


b1=b2==bm=0, .
, .. .

- .
2. (2.2) ( )
,
: RgA = RgA* , (2.2) ,
, * (RgA < RgA*) .
(2.2) ,

(1823-1891)
13

2006

I
. , .-. .

( RgA = RgA* =n),


, RgA = RgA* <n.
4. :
x1 + 3 x2 + 5 x3 + 7 x4 + 9 x5 = 1

x1 2 x2 + 3 x3 4 x4 + 5 x5 = 2
2 x + 11x + 12 x + 25 x + 22 x = 4
2
3
4
5
1
1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7
. A= 1 2 3 4 5 ~ 3 9 15 21 27 ~ 1 3 5 7
2 11 12 25 22 2 11 12 25 22 2 11 12 25



1 3 5 7 9
1 3
= 11 6 = 5 0 RgA = 2.
~ 2 11 12 25 22 .
2
11
0 0 0 0 0

1 3 5 7 9 1 1 3 5 7 9 1
A*= 1 2 3 4 5 2 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 1 ~
2 11 12 25 22 4 2 11 12 25 22 4

1 3 5 7 9 1 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 1 5 7 9 3
~ 0 0 0 0 0 1 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 1 ~ 0 1 0 0 0 0 ~
2 11 12 25 22 4 0 5 2 11 4 2 0 2 2 11 4 5

1 1 5 7 9 3 1 1 5
~ 0 1 0 0 0 0 , 0 1 0 = 2 0 RgA* = 3.
0 0 2 11 4 5 0 0 2

9
9 ~
22

RgA RgA* , , .. .
5. .
x1 4 x2 = 1
3 x + 2 x = 4
2
1
7 x1 + 10 x2 = 12
5 x + 6 x = 8
2
1
3 x1 16 x2 = 5
1 4
3 2

1 4
= 2 + 12 = 14 0; RgA = 2;
. = 7 10 ;

3 2
5 6
3 16

14

2006

I
. , .-. .

1 4 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 1 2
3 2
0 14 7 0 2 1 0 1 0
4




A* = 7 10 12 ~ 0 38 19 ~ 0 2 1 ~ 0 1 0 ~




0
1
0
5
6
8
0
26
13
0
2
1




3 16 5 0 4 2 0 2 1 0 1
0




1 1 2
0 1 0

1 4

= 2 0 RgA* = 2.
0
~ 0 0
0
2

0
0 0
0 0
0

RgA = RgA* =2=n, n ,


.

1. .
,
det A 0 .
.
.
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2
(2.3)

...............................................

an1 x1 + an 2 x2 + ... + ann xn = bn


:
a11 a12 ... a1n
a

a
...
a
n
21
22
2
, ;
A=
... ... ... ...

an1 an 2 ... ann


b1
b
B= 2 - ;
...

bn

15

2006

I
. , .-. .

x1
x
X= 2 - .
...

xn
(2.3)
:
AX = B
(2.4)
1
(2.4) A , :
A-1AX = A-1B, .. -1 = , = -1,
:
(2.5)
= -1
,
,
.
6. :
5 x y z = 0

x + 2 y + 3 z = 14
4 x + 3 y + 2 z = 16

0
x
5 1 1
. = y , B= 14 , A= 1 2 3
16
z
4 3 2

-1
.
5 1 1

=detA = 1

3 = 5(4-9) + 1(2 12) 1(3 8) = -25 10 +5 = -30.

M11 =
M12 =
M13 =

2 3
3 2
1 3
4 2
1 2
4 3

= -5;

M21 =

= 10;

M22 =

= 5;

M23 =

1 1
3

5 1
4

5 1
4

= 1;

M31 =

= 14;

M32 =

= 19;

M33 =

16

1 1
2

5 1
1

5 1
1

= -1;

= 16;
= 11;

2006

I
. , .-. .

5
1
1
;
a121 = ;
a131 = ;
30
30
30
10
14
16
1
1
1
= ;
= ;
= ;
a21
a22
a23
30
30
30
5
19
11
1
1
= ;
= ;
a31
a321 = ;
a33
30
30
30
1
1
1
6
30
30

7
8
-1 1
;

A =
3
15 15

19
11
1

30
30
6
C :
1
1
5

30
30
5 1 1 30
25 + 10 5 5 + 14 19 5 16 + 11

10
14
16
1

1
= 5 20 + 15 1 28 + 57 1 + 32 33 = E

A A = 1 2 3

30 30 30
4 3 2 30

+
+

20
30
10
4
42
38
4
48
22

19
11


30
30
30
:
1
1
14 16
1
1
0
+
+
6

6
30
30
30
30 1
x

1
7
8 1
98 128

-1

14 = 0 +

= y = =
= 2 .
3
3

15
15
15
15
z

16
3

1
19
11
1
266
176

0 +

30
30
30
30
6
6
: x =1; y = 2; z = 3.

,
, .
a111 =

2. .

, detA0.
,
, ..
. , -
, -

(1704-1752)
17

2006

I
. , .-. .

, - ,
.
.
( ). (2.3) n n
, ,
:

xi = i ,
(2.6)

= detA, i ,
i- bi.
a11...a1i 1 b1 a1i +1...a1n

i =

a21...a2i i

b2

a2i +1...a2 n

...

...

...

an1...ani 1 bn

(2.7)

ani +1...ann

. (2.5) A1
(1.4), :

A11b1 + A21b2 + ... + An1bn
A11 A21 ... An1
b1

1 12 A22 ... An 2
1 A12b1 + A22b2 + ... + An 2bn
1
X =A B=
,
b2 =

det A ... ... ... ... ... det A


.....


...
A
A
A
+
+
+
...
A
b
A
b
A
b

nn
2n
1n
nn n
2n 2
1n 1
bn
1
xi =
( A1ib1 + A2ib2 + ... + Anibn ) .
det A
i -
i ,
i - , (2.6).
7. :
5 x y z = 0

x + 2 y + 3 z = 14
4 x + 3 y + 2 z = 16

5 1 1
. = 1

3 = 5(4 9) + (2 12) (3 8) = -25 10 + 5 = -30;

1= 14

1 1
2

3 = (28 48) (42 32) = -20 10 = -30.

16 3 2
x1=1/= 1;
18

2006

2= 1 14

I
. , .-. .

1
3 = 5(28 48) (16 56) = -100 + 40 = -60.

4 16 2
x2=2/= 2;
5 1 0

3= 1

14 = 5(32 42) + (16 56) = -50 40 = -90.

3 16
x3=3/= 3.
, ,
.
, .. bi = 0, i = 1, 2,..., n , 0
x1=x2= =xn=0. =0
.
3. .
,
,
detA0.
.
,

.
.
(2.2):
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2

...............................................
am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm
a11 0 ( a11 = 0 ,
).
a
(2.2) 21
a11
.
a31
....
a11
a
, i1
a11

(1777-1855)
19

2006

I
. , .-. .

i- ( i = 1,2,..., n ). ,
, ,
, , x1 .
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1

1
1
1
1
0 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 + ... + a2 n xn = b2
(2.7)

..............................................

0
+ a1m 2 x2 + a1m3 x3 + ... + a1mn xn = bm1

,
.
. , , (m-1)
,
:
a11 a12 a13 ... a1n b1

(1)
(1)
(1) (1)
0
a
a
...
a
b

22
23
2n 2
.
(2.8)
A*(1) =
... ... ... ... ... ...

0 a (1) a (1) ... a (1) b(1)


m2
m3
mn m

(1)
, a22
0 2- (2.8)
3- mai12
: 1 i-
a22
(i=3,4,,m). (m-2)
,
. :
a11 a12 a13 ... a1n b1

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
a
a
a
b
0
...

22
23
2n
2

*(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2.9)
A = 0 0 a33 ... a3n b3 ,
... ... ... ... ... ...

(2)
0 0 am(2)3 ... amn
bm(2)

.
(1)
a22
= 0 , ,
ai 2 0 .
(..
4- m-, 5- m-
..) , m- . (r-1)-

:
20

2006

I
. , .-. .

a11 a12 ... a1r a1r +1 ... a1n b1

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
0 a22 ... a2 r a2 r +1 ... a2 n b2

( r 1)
( r 1)
( r 1)
( r 1)
0
0
...
a
a
...
a
b
*( r 1)

rr
r r +1
rn
r
=
(2.10)
A

( r 1)
br +1
0 0 ... 0 0 ... 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

0 0 ... 0 ... 0 ... ... b( r 1)


m

(m-r)

0 x1 + 0 x2 + ... + 0 xn = bi( r 1) , i = r + 1, r + 2,..., m
(2.11)
(2.2)
, , ,
br(+r11) , br(+r 21) ,..., bm( r 1) . ,

.
br(+r11) , br(+r 21) ,..., bm( r 1) 0, (2.11)
. ,
(2.11) ,
(2.2)
. br(+r11) = br(+r 21) = ... = bm( r 1) = 0
:
1. r = n , (2.10),
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + an1n1 xn1 + a1n xn = b1

(1)
a22
x2 + ... + a2(1)n1 xn1 + a2(1)n xn = b2(1)

(2.12)
..................................................................

( n 2)
( n 2)
( n 2)
+
=
a
x
a
x
b
n

1
n

1
n

1
n

1
n
n
n
1

( n 1)

ann
xn = bn( n1)

( ), (2.12)
:
b( r 1)
n - xn = n
( r 1)
ann
(n 1) - xn1
xn
i - xi
xn , xn1 ,..., xi +1

21

2006

I
. , .-. .

,
xn , xn1 ,..., x2 x1 .
.
2. r < n , (2.10),
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1r xr + a1r +1 xr +1 + ... + a1n xn = b1

(1)
a22
x2 + ... + a2(1)r xr + a2(1)r +1 xr +1 + ... + a2(1)n xn = b2(1)

(2.13)

..................................................................

ar( rr1) xr + ar( rr+1)1 xr +1 + ... + ar( rn1) xn = br(r 1)

xr +1 , xr + 2 ,..., xn ,
(2.13), ,
x1 , x2 ,..., xr :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1r xr = b1 a1r +1 xr +1 ... a1n xn

a122 x2 + ... + a12 r xr = b21 a12 r +1 xr +1 ... a12 n xn

..................................................................

ar( rr1) xr = br( r 1) ar( rr+1)1 xr +1 ... ar( rn1) xn

(2.14)

.
,
, (2.14)
.
8. .
2 x1 + x2 x3 = 5

x1 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 3
7 x + x x = 10
1 2 3
. .
2 1 1 5 1 2 3
3 1 2 3
3 1 2 3
3

*= 1 2 3
3 ~ 2 1 1 5 ~ 0 5 7
11 ~ 0 5 7 11

7 1 1 10 7 1 1 10 0 15 22 31 0 0 1 2
, :
x1 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 3

, : x3 = 2; x2 = 5; x1 = 1.
5 x2 7 x3 = 11
x = 2
3
9. .
5 x y z = 0

x + 2 y + 3 z = 14
4 x + 3 y + 2 z = 16

22

2006

I
. , .-. .

. .
14 1 2
3
14 1 2 3
14
5 1 1 0 1 2 3

1
2
3
14
~
4
3
2
16
~
0

10

40
~
0

10

40

4 3 2
16 5 1 1 0 0 11 16 70 0 0 6
18

, :
x + 2 y + 3 z = 14

5 y 10 z = 40 , : z = 3; y = 2; x = 1.
6 z = 18

,
.
:
x1 + x2 x3 + x4 = 4
2 x x + 3x 2 x = 1
1 2
3
4
: {1, 2, 3, 4}.

+
=
x
x
x
2
6
4
1 3
3 x1 x2 + x3 x4 = 0



,
.
,
1936 . .. .
,
n ,
.
( ).

xi i- ( );
xij i- , j-
xj;
yi i- ,
() , ..
;
x
, j-
aij= ij
xj
i- xj.
x
, ij
xj
,
23

2006

I
. , .-. .

.
:

xij=aijxj

(i, j = 1, 2, , n),


.
i-
, n , ,
n

xi = xij + yi (i = 1, 2, n)
j =1

xi = aij x j + yi (i = 1, 2, n).
j =1

.
,
.
:

+Y=,

(2.15)

() ,
, ; Y .

.
.

Y. : ( E A ) X = Y .
, () , .. det ( E A ) 0 ,
Y
, :
1
X = ( E A) Y .
(2.16)

S = ( E A )
,
Sij i- ,
j-
.
, S X Y . ..
(
1

1, ..

a
i =1

ij

1 ).



10. 360
, 300 675 .
24

2006

I
. , .-. .

. ,
, :


2
2
6
1

1
3
1
4

3
1
2
5

.
. x, y, z ,
, .
x 3x , - 2y,
- z.

3x+2y+z 360, ..

3x+2y+z=360.

x+6y+2z=300
4x+y+5z=675,
x, y, z ,
.

, . .

.
1

4
1

2
1

1
5

16

300

360

675

1 6 2 300

0 - 16 - 5 - 540

15
0 - 7 2

300
1

540 0

570
0

16

1 6 2 300

0 16 5 540

0 - 14 4 30

300

570

540

300

2 9 570 .

0 - 67 - 4020

, :
x+6y+2z=300,
2y+9z=570,
-67z=-4020.
z=60; z
, y=15 , ,
x=90. , C (90, 15, 60) .
11. 6000 , 4000
3000 .
,
. 8000 ,
25

2006

I
. , .-. .

. ,
. 1
4,30, 5,25 2,20 . .
,
58850 . .
. , ,
: ,
. xij ( ) i-
(i=1,2,3), j- (j=1,2).
, .

x11+x12=6000,

()

x11, x12 - , .
:

x21+x22=4000.

()

, ,
x31=0,

x32=3000.

()

x11+x21=8000.

(D)

, , 58850 ..,
:

4,3x11+7,8 x12+5,25 x21+6,4x22+3,25x32=58850.

(E)

,

(5.7) - (5.11). (5.9) (5.11) :

4,3x11+7,8x12+5,25x21+6,4x22=49100,
x11,
x12, x21, x22, :
1
1

0
0
A* =
1
0

4,3 7,8

0
1
1

0
1
0

5,25 6,4

26

6000

4000
.
8000

49100

2006

A*

I
. , .-. .
1
0
0
6000 1 1 0 0 6000
1

0
1
0
8000 0 - 1 1 0 2000
1

0
0
1
1
4000 0 0
1 1 4000

4,3 7,8 5,25 6,4 49100 0 3,5 5,25 6,4 23300


1 1

0 - 1
0 0

0 0

6000

2000

4000

8,75 6,4 30300


0
1
1

0
0
1

1 1

0 - 1
0 0

0 0

6000

2000
.
4000

0 - 2,35 - 4700

0
1
1

0
0
1

:
x11+x 12
=6000,
-x12+x21
=2000,
x21+x 22=4000,
-2,35 x22=-4700,
x22=2000, x21=2000, x12=0, x11=6000.
12.
.
,
.

94 . 574 328 .


II
III
1
7
12
2

I
2
6

IV
4
3

. x1, x2, x3, x4 ,


, .
:

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 94,
2x1 + x2 + 7x3 + 4x4 = 574,
6x1 +12x2 +2x3 + 3x4 = 328.
:
1

1
12

7
2

94 1 1
1
1 94 1 1
1


4 574 0 - 1
5
2 386 0 - 1
5


3 328 0
6 - 4 - 3 - 236 0
0 26

94

2 386 .

9 2080

, ,
x4 - . :
x1 + x2 + x3 = 94 - x4,
- x2 + 5x3 = 386 - 2x4,
26x3 = 2080- 9x4.
27

2006

I
. , .-. .

x3=80-9/26 x4, x3
, : x2=14+7/26x4 , ,
: x1=-12/13 x4.
, .. .
x1 x4 ,
x1=-12/13 x4 : x1=x4=0. (0, 14, 80, 0)
.
13. -
(2.15). Y X,
0,1

A= 0
0,7

0,6
100

0,7 0,2 ; X = 200

;
0,1 0,1
150
0

. Y
Y=(E-A) X, E - .
0 - 0,6
0,9

E-A= 0 0,3 - 0,2 ,

-0,7 - 0,1 0,9

,
0 - 0,6 100 0,9 100 + 0 0,6 150 0
0,9




Y= 0
0,3 - 0,2 200 = 0 + 0,3 200 - 0,2 150 = 30 .




-0,7 - 0,1 0,9 150 -0,7 100 - 0,1 200 + 0,9 150 45

14. -.
X Y,
0,125 0,125
300
; Y=
.
1,125 0,125
400

A=

. X
X=(E-A)1Y.
0,875 - 0,125
.
-1,125 0,875

E-A=
B = E-A, B-1 =

1 A 11 A 21
1 0,875 0,125

.
det B A 12 A 22 5,4 1,125 0,875

X=

1 0,875 300 + 0,125 400


1 312,5 57,9
1 0,875 0,125 300
.

=
=


,
300 + 0,125 400 5,4 687,5 127,3
5,4 1,125 0,875 400 5,4 1125

28

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

3


1 n m
,

n m .
, - ,
,
, .
() L ,
, ,

,

G G G
G
1) a + bG= b + a -
;
G
G
G
G
G
;
2) a + ( b + ) = ( a + b )+ -
G
3)
0 ( ),
G
G
G
G
a + 0 = a a ;
G
G
a a
4)
G
G
G
, a +(- aG ) = 0 ;
G
G G
5) 1 a = a ; 0 a = 0
G
G
6) () a = ( a )
G
G
G
7) (+) a = a + a -

G
G
G
G
8) ( a + b ) = a + b -
.
:
G
\ 2 a = (a1 , a2 ) ;
G
\ 3 a = (a1 , a2 , a4 ) ;
, () ,

.
Anm (\)
.

.
1)-8)
.

29

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

()
, ,
, .
:
G G
G
a1 , a2 ,..., an
(3.1)
G G
G
a1 , a2 ,..., an ,

:
G
G
G
G
b = 1a1 + 2 a2 + ... + n an
(3.2)
G G
G
a1 , a2 ,..., an ,
G
G
G G
1a1 + 2 a2 + ... + n an = 0 ,
i , .. 12 + 22 + ... + n2 0 . : ,
G G
G
a1 , a2 ,..., an ,
(
).
G
G
G G
1a1 + 2 a2 + ... + n an = 0
1 = 2 = ... = n = 0 , .
(3.1) ,
G
G
G G
1a1 + 2 a2 + ... + n an = 0 ,
i 0 , (3.2).
1. (3.1),
, .
G G
G
2. a1 , a2 ,..., an ,
.
3.
, .
4. , ,
,
, .

L n ,
n+1 , L n, , L n ,
dim( L) = n .
L.
G G
G
e1 , e2 ,..., en
L .
, ,
G
G G
G
, e2 , e1 ,..., en . b
G
G G
G
L . b e1 , e2 ,..., en :
G
G
G
G
b = 1e1 + 2e2 + ... + nen
(3.3)
30

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

G
b (3.3)
1 , 2 ,..., n
,
G
G G
G
() b e1 , e2 ,..., en .
2: L n ,
, m , m > n .
1.
.
.
G
G G
G
e1 , e2 ,..., en L n , b
G (3.3)
G
G
G
b = 1e1 + 2e2 + ... + n en
(3.4)
(3.3) (3.4) ,
G
G
G
G
0 = ( 1 1 )e1 + ( 2 2 )e2 + ... + ( n n )en

G G
G
e1 , e2 ,..., en i i = 0, i = 1,2,..., n , .. i = i , i = 1,2,..., n .
.
n a1 , a2 , a3 ,...., an
G
G
n - a . n - a
G
a = (a1 , a2 ,..., an ) -
a1

G a2
-.
a =
...

an
n - n -
\ n .
G
G
a b ,
, ..
a1 = b1 , a2 = b2 , a3 = b3 ,...., an = bn .
, ,
G
0 = (0,0,...,0) .


.
G
G
G
a b c ,

G
c = (a1 + b1 , a2 + b2 , a3 + b3 ,...., an + bn )
(3.5)
G
G a
G
d = a ,
G
:

a
G
(3.6)
d = ( a1 , a2 , a3 ,...., an )
31

2006

I
. , . .-. . .


,
, , ,
, .. .
,
.
G
G
a b ,

:
G G
a b = a1b1 + a2b2 + ... + anbn
(3.7)
G
a
G
a :
G
G G
a = (a , a )
(3.8)
(3.2) (3.3), :
n
G
G G
a = (a , a ) = a12 + a22 + ... + an2 = ai2
(3.9)
i =1

:
G G
a b
a1b1 + a2b2 + ... + anbn
cos = G G = 2
=
2
2
2
2
2
a b (a1 + a2 + ... + an )(b1 + b2 + ... + bn )

a b
i =1

i i
n

a b
i =1

2
i

i =1

(3.10)

2
i


:
G G G G
1) a b =Gb a ; G
G
G
GG
2) ( a )b = a ( b ) = (ab ) , ;
G G
G G G
3) a ( b + c )= a b + a c ;
G G
G G
G G G2
4) a a = a 0 , a a = 0 a = 0 .
G
G
a bG ,
G
a b = 0 .
1.

,
- :

1
2
3
4

20
50
30
40

,
/.
5
2
7
4


, /.
10
5
15
8

,
./.
30
15
45
20

: S,
T, P .
32

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

.
,
:
G
q = (20,50,30, 40)
G
s = (5,2,7, 4)
G
t = (10,5,15,8)
G
p = (30,15,45, 20)

:
G G
S = q s = 20 5 + 50 2 + 30 7 + 40 4 = 100 + 100 + 210 + 160 = 570 ()
G G
T = q t = 20 10 + 50 5 + 30 15 + 40 8 = 200 + 250 + 450 + 320 = 1220 ()
G G
P = q p = 20 30 + 50 15 + 30 45 + 40 20 = 600 + 750 + 1350 + 800 = 3500 (..)

33

2006

I
. , .-. .H

4

:
. ,

, , , , , .
, , ,
,
\ 3 \ 2 , , , , .
, ,
,
, :
.
(
) :
() , , ,
. , ;

, .
,

.
, (
), -
G
. 0 .
, ,
.

,
G G
. a b .
,
G G
. a || b .
G
G

a
b
G
G
a b .
.
G
G
a b
,
G G
: a = bG.
G
a b ,
G
G
: a = b .
, ( )
.
,
.
34

2006

I
. , .-. .H

, ..
, .
,
, .

3,
.
G
G
a b
G
G

a
,
cG ,
G
G
G G G
b , b a . c = a + b .
G
c
.
.
G
G
G
a b = a ,

1. b = a
G

G G

2. a b ( a b ),
> 0;G
G G
G
a b ( a b ), < 0.


G
G

1.

b
,
G
G
G
G
b = a a = b .
1.
, .

1:
G
G G
G
G G
a || b b = a a b .
2.
,
.
G
G
3. a b ,
G
c , ,
G
G
G
G
: c = xa + yb . c
G
G
a b ; x y .
3 , , ,
-
( ) .

.
G G
G
4. a , b c
G
3
d \
(),

G
G
G
G
G
G
G
a , b c : d = xa + yb + zc .
35

2006

I
. , .-. .H

4 , \ 3
-
( ) .

G
G G G
\ e1 , e2 , e3 d
G G G
. , e1 , e2 , e3
G
G , d
G
G
G
d = xe1 + ye2 + ze3
.
x, y , z

G
G
G G G
() d e1 , e2 , e3 . d = {x, y, z} .
4 , ,
, .
, , ,
.
G
G G G G G
G G G G G G
i , j , k : i = j = k = 1 , i j , j k , k i .
3

. , -
, 3
G G
e1 , e2 , .
.
G
G
G
1. a (1; 2; 3), b (-1; 0; G3), (2; 1; -1) d (3; 2; 2)
G
G
. , a , b
d G .
G
G
. a , b , , ,
, ()
:
+ 2 = 0

2 + 0 + = 0 , :
3 + 3 = 0

1
1
2 0

2 + 0 + 1 = 0 .
3
3
1 0



,
.
1 1

1 0

36

2006
1 1

I
. , .-. .H

0 1
2 1
2 0
+
+2
= 3 + (2 3) + 12 = 4 0 .
1 =
1 1 3 1
3 3
1
JG
G
G G
G G G
a , b , d = xa + yb + zc .
2
3

0
3

x y + 2z = 3
1
1 2 3

x 2 + y 0 + z 1 = 2 2 x + 0 y + z = 2
3
3 1 2
3 x + 3 y z = 2

.
d1

b1

c1

3 1

1 = d 2 b2 c 2 = 2

1 =3

d3

x=

b3

c3

3 1

2 1

+2

2 0
2 3

= 3(3) + (2 2) + 12 = 1.

1
= 1/ 4 ;

a1

d1

c1

1 3

c3

1 = (2 2) 3(2 3) + 2(4 6) = 4 + 15 4 = 7;
3 2 1

2 = a 2 d 2 c 2 = 2 2
a3

y=

d3

2
= 7 / 4;

a1 b1 d1

3= a2

b2

1 1 3

d2 = 2

2 = 6 + (4 6) + 18 = 10;

a3 b3 d3 3 3 2

z = 3 = 5 / 2;

G G G
d a , b , : d ={-1/4, 7/4, 5/2}.
1,
.


. -
.
(
) . ,
.
,
.
.

37

2006

I
. , .-. .H

.
,

( )
G G G
e1 , e2 , e3 ( ).
(
)
,
G G G
i , j , k ,
.
G G
G
a , b c ,
G
G
, , a b
G
c , (
)
.

G ,
G G G
G G G
G G
, ( a , b , c ), ( c , a , b ), ( b , c , a ).
G
, ,
G G G
G G G
G
G
( a , b , c ) , ( b , a , c ).
i , j, k
.
,G
G G
i , j , k , : Ox ; Oy
; Oz . ,
, : Oxy,
Oxz, Oyz.

xyz.
G
G
G
i = {1,0,0}, j = {0,1,0}, k = {0,0,1}
Ox, Oy, Oz.
O(0,0,0)
. - .
,
-.

xyz
G G G
(i , j , k ) :
G
G
G G
(4.1)
OM = xi + yj + zk
M ( x, y, z ) .


G . - ,
M : OM = {x, y, z} .
A( x1 , y1 , z1 ) B( x2 , y2 , z2 ) ,
G
AB = { x2 x1 , y2 y1 , z2 z1}
(4.2)
38

2006

I
. , .-. .H

G
G
G
, AB = OB OA .

. G
A( x1 , y1 , z1 ) B( x2 , y2 , z2 ) \ 3 , AB ,
(3.9),
(4.3)
AB = ( x 2 x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2

(, , z) /, ,
:
x=

x1 + x 2
;
+

y=

y1 + y 2
z + z 2
; z= 1
.
+
+

(4.4)

:
x +x
y + y2
z +z
; z= 1 2.
(4.5)
x= 1 2; y= 1
2
2
2
, (3.5), (3.6)
G:
G
G
a b = ( xa xb ; ya yb ; za zb ); a = ( xa ; ya ; za )
3
:
G G
a b = xa xb + ya yb + za zb;
G G
a b
cos = G G =
a b

xa xb + ya yb + za zb

(4.6)

xa2 + ya2 + za2 xb2 + yb2 + zb2

a b
, .
G
G
G
G G
G
G G
2. (5 a + 3 b )(2 a - b ), a = 2, b = 3, ab .
.
G G

G G

G G

G G

G2

G2

10 a a - 5 a b + 6 a b - 3 b b = 10 a 3 b = 40 27 = 13 ,
G G

G2

G G

G2

G G

.. a a = a = 4, b b = b = 9, a b = 0 .
G

3. a b , a = i + 2 j + 3k ,
G
G
G
G
b = 6i + 4 j 2k .
G
G
G
G
. a =(1, 2, 3), b =(6, 4, -2), a = 1 + 4 + 9 = 14, b = 36 + 16 + 4 = 56
G G
a b = 6 + 8 6 = 8.
8
8
4 2
=
=
= ;
cos =
14 56 2 14 14 14 7

2
7

= arccos .
G

4. (3 a - 2 b )(5 a - 6 b ),
G
a = 4,

G
G G
b = 6, ^ b = / 3.

G2
G G
G2
G G

G G
G G
G G
. 15 a a -18 a b -10 a b +12 b b =15 a 28 a b cos + 12 b =
3
39

2006

I
. , .-. .H

1
= 15 16 28 4 6 + 1236=240336+432=672336=336.
2
G
G
G
G
G G
5. a b , a = 3i + 4 j + 5k ,
G
G
G
G
b = 4i + 5 j 3k .
G
G
G G
. a =(3, 4, 5), b =(4, 5, -3), a b =12 + 20-15 =17,
G
G
a = 9 + 16 + 25 = 50;
b = 16 + 25 + 9 = 50 .
17

17
;
50

17
.
50
50 50
G
G
G G
G
G
G
6. m a = mi + j b = 3i 3 j 4k .
G
G
.
a = (m, 1, 0);
b = (3, -3, -4)
G G
a b = 3m 3 = 0; m = 1 .
G
G
G
G
G
G
7. 2a + 3b + 4c 5a + 6b + 7c ,
G
G
G
G G G G G G
a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, a ^ b = a ^ c = b ^ c = .
3 G
G
G
G G
G G
G
G
G
G G
G
G G
G G
G
.( 2Ga + 3b + 4c )( 5a + 6b + 7c )= 10
a a + 12a b + 14a c + 15a b + 18b b + 21b c +
G G
G G
G G
G
G G
G G
G G
G G
G G
+ 20c a + 24b c + 28c c = 10 a a + 27 a b + 34a c + 45b c + 18b b + 28c c = 10 +

cos =

= arccos

+ 27 + 51 + 135 + 72 + 252 = 547.



G
G
a b
G
c , :
G G G
G G
1) c = a b sin , - a b ,
sin 0; 0
G
G G
2)
c a b
G G G
3) a , b c

.
G G G
G G G
: c = a b c = [a , b ]

G
c

G
b

G
a

:
G G
G G
1)

:
b a = a b ;
G
G
G
G
G G
2) a b = 0G a b G a = 0 G b = 0;
G
G
G
3) (m a G) b = a (m bG ) = m( a b );
G
G
G
G G
4) a ( b + ) = a b + a ;
G
G
5) a (xa, ya, za) b (xb, yb, zbG)
G G
i , j , k ,

40

2006
G
i
G G
a b = xa
xb

G
j
ya
yb

G
k
za
zb

I
. , .-. .H

6) G :
G
,
a b ( )
G G
a b .
G
G
G G G G
G
G
8. a = 2i + 5 j + k b = i + 2 j 3k .
G
G
. a = (2, 5, 1); b = (1, 2, -3)
G G G
i j k
G2 5
G5 1
G2 1
G
G G
G G
j
+k
= 17i + 7 j k .
a b = 2 5 1 = i
2 3
1 3
1 2
1 2 3

9. (2, 2, 2),
(4, 0, 3), JJJG
(0, 1, 0).
JJJG
. AC = (0 2;1 2;0 2) = (2; 1; 2);
AB = (4 2;0 2;3 2) = (2; 2;1)
G
G
j
k
G 1 2 G 2 2 G 2 1 G
G
= i (1 4) j (2 + 4) +
j
+k
1 2 = i
2
1
2 2
2 1
2 2 1
G
G
G
G
+ k (4 + 2) = 5i 2 j + 6k .
G
i
AC AB = 2

65
S =
(2).
2 G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G G G
10. , a = 7i 3 j + 2k , b = 3i 7 j + 8k c = i j + k
AC AB = 25 + 4 + 36 = 65.

.
.
1 1 1 1 1 1

3 7 8 ~ 0 4 5 , .. , .
7 3 2 0 4 5

11. ,
G
G
G G
G G
G G
a + 3b ; 3a + b , a = b = 1; a ^ b = 30 0.
.
G

G G
G G
G G
G G
G G
G
G G
G G G G
(a + 3b ) (3a + b ) = 3a a + a b + 9b a + 3b b = b a + 9b a = 8b a
G
2
S = 8 b a sin 30 0 = 4 ( ).


G G
G
(-) a , b c
G
,

a ,
G
G
b c.

G G G
G G G
a b c ( a , b , c ).

41

2006

I
. , .-. .H


1) ()

G
G G G
G G
G G G
(a , b , c ) = (b , c , a ) = (c , a , b )
2)
G G G
G G G
G G G
G G G
a , b , c = b , a , c ; a , b , c = a , c , b

) (

G
G G G
G G G
G G G
3) (a1 + a 2 , b , c ) = (a1 , b , c ) + (a 2 , b , c )

) (

) (

x1
G
G
G
G G G
4) a = ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) , b = ( x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ), c = ( x3 , y 3 , z 3 ) , (a , b , c ) = x 2

y1

z1

y2

z2

x3

y3

z3

5) , :
) ;
) ;
) .
6)
:
G G G
aG b c ,
G
G
a , b G c .
G
b c

G
a
G
c
G
b
G

, a , b c ,
1 G G G
a, b , c
6

12. , (5; 7; 2), B(3; 1; -1), C(9; 4; -4),


D(1; 5; 0) .
JJJ

G .
JJJG
JJJG
AB = (2; 6;1); AC = (4; 3; 2); AD = (4; 2;2)
:
2 6
AB AC AD = 4

3 2 = 0

4 2

15 0 = 0 15 0 = 0 ,

10

42

10

2006

I
. , .-. .H

, ,
A, B, C D .
13. , BCD,
A(0; 0; 1), B(2; 3; 5), C(6; 2; 3),
D(3; 7; 2).
JJJ

:
G .
JJJG JJJG
BA = (2; 3; 4); BD = (1;4; 3); BC = (4; 1; 2)

2 3 4
1
1
1
V = 1 4 3 = (2(8 3) + 3(2 + 12) 4(1 16)) = (22 + 30 + 68) = 20(3 )
6
6
6
4 1 2

BCD.
G
G
i
j
k
G
G
G
G
G
G
BD BC = 1 4 3 = i (8 3) j (2 + 12) + k (1 16) = 11i 10 j 17k .
4 1 2
BD BC = 112 + 10 2 + 17 2 = 121 + 100 + 289 = 510

S = 510 / 2 (2)
.. V =

S h
;
3

h=

3V
120
4 510
=
=
().
17
S
510

43

2006

I
. , . .-. . .


5

,
(, ,
) .

, 4.
.
,
, .
. x y ,
, ;
,
. , x y
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
.
F ( x, y ) = 0 ,

, .

.

AB, b k = tg ,
Ox .
AB M ( x, y )
MP Ox . , OP = x PM = y .
BC, Ox .
.1 :
y = PM = CM + PC
(5.1)

17
. (16011665) . (15961650)

44

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

CMB :
CM = BCtg = xtg = kx
, , PC = OB = b
(5.2) (5.3) (5.1),
y = kx + b

(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)

x, y M ,
. , ,
- (5.4), AB.
, (5.4) AB. (5.4)
.
b k , ,
.
.
, x y (5.4)
, ,
.
, , , b = 0 ,
:
y = kx
(5.5)
(5.4) ,
. , =

(5.4)

.
, Oy ,
x = a , a , Ox
, Ox ,
45

(5.6)

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

y = b , b , Oy
(5.7)
(5.7) (5.4)
k = tg 0 = 0 .

( Oy ),
(.2)

AC : y = k1 x + b1 , k1 = tg1
(5.8)
(5.9)
BC : y = k2 x + b2 , k2 = tg2
, ,
2 , = 2 1 .

tg 2 tg1 k2 k1
tg = tg (2 1 ) =
=
(5.10)
1 + tg1tg2 1 + k1k2
,

k1 = k2
(5.11)
,

1
k1 =
(5.12)
k2
1. y=-3x+7; y=2x+1.
. k1=-3; k2=2
tg =

2 (3)
= 1 = /4.
1 (3)2

2. , 35+7=0 10+63=0 .
. k1=3/5, k2=-5/3, k1k2=-1, , .
46

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

,
PM
Ox P( x1 , y1 ) .
, ,
Oy . , ,
(5.4). P( x1 , y1 ) PM , x1 , y1
(5.4): y1 = kx1 + b .
(5.4), :
y y1 = k ( x x1 )
(5.13)
, P( x1 , y1 ) , Oy ,
:
x = x1
(5.14)
, , P( x1 , y1 ) ,
Ox , :
(5.15)
y = y1
k , (5.13)
, k ,
, P( x1 , y1 ) (.3),
k .

PM
G
s = { p, q} , (.4).

47

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

PM = {x x1 , y y1}
G
s = { p, q} :
x x1 y y1
,
(5.16)
=
q
p
.
x x1
y y1


(5.16)
p
q
t , ,
:
x = x1 + qt
(5.17)
y = y1 + pt , < t < + .
,
( P( x1 , y1 ) G
, s = { p, q} ,
).
3. (0; 1), B(6; 5), C(12; -1).
, .

. :
2
3

x 0 y 1
;
=
6 0 5 1

x y 1
=
; 4x=6y6;
6
4

2x3y+3=0; y = x + 1.
: y y1 = k ( x x1 ) ,
C(12; -1): y 12 = k ( x + 1) . k
2
3
k = 1 k = .
3
2

48

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

,
,
. ,
P( x1 , y1 ) Q( x2 , y2 ) . (5.16)
G
G
s PQ = {x2 x1 , y2 y1} ,
:
x x1
y y1
=
(5.18)
x2 x1 y2 y1
4. , (1, 2) (3, 4).
. (5.18), :
y 2 ( x 1)
=
42
3 1
y 2 = x 1
x y +1= 0
5. , (-2, -3)
.
. (5.18) 1=1=0; x2=-2; y2=-3, :
x0
y0
=
;
20 30

x
y
=
;
2 3

3 x 2 y = 0.


,
, .
, , Ox OA = a ,
Oy OB = b (.5), ,
.

, A = (a,0) B = (0, b) ,
(5.18):
xa y0
x
y
=
,
+ 1 =
0a b0
b
a
y x
+ =1
(5.19)
b a
49

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

C ,
, , ,
.
6.
. , ,
8 2.
. :

x y
+ = 1 . a=b>0 ab/2=8.
a b

, a=4.
, :

x y
+ = 1 +4=0.
4 4

x y

Ax + By + C = 0
(5.20)
A, B, C , A B .
1.

(5.20). ,
.
1. 1 , x y
. , ,
1 = 0 , ,
, .
2.
, , y ( x 2 + 1) = 0
Ox .
(5.20) .
, ,
.
1.
C = 0 , .. (5.20) :
Ax + By = 0
(5.21)
, .. (5.21)
x = 0 y = 0 . , (5.20)
. (5.20)
x = 0 y = 0 , C = 0 . , (5.20)
, ,
C (5.20) .
2.
B = 0, C 0 , .. (5.20)
Ax + C = 0
(5.22)
, Oy . :
(5.22)
3.
B = 0, C = 0 , .. (5.20)
50

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

x = 0 Oy

4.
A = 0, C 0
A = 0, C = 0
5.
:
G
n (, )
, ++=0.
7. , (1, 2)
G
n (3, -1).
. =3 =-1 : 3+ = 0.

.: 32+C=0, =-1.
: 31=0.
8. 12565=0.
.
12
5
.

=1
65
65

y
+
=1
:
(65 /12) (13)
: ( 5)
y=

12
65 12
x
= x 13.
5
5
5


x y :
A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0
(5.23)

A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0
(5.23) .
(5.23)

(5.23). :
1. (5.23) , ..
(5.23) .
2. (5.23) , ..
(5.23) .
3. (5.23) (5.23) .
2. ,
,
:
1. l ,
A B
A1 = lA2 , B1 = lB2 1 1
A2 B2
51

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

2. l ,
A B C
A1 = lA2 , B1 = lB2 , C1 = lC2 1 = 1 = 1
A2 B2 C2
3. l ,
A B C
A1 = lA2 , B1 = lB2 , C1 lC2 1 = 1 1 .
A2 B2 C2

P( x1 , y1 ) (5.20) :
Ax1 + By1 + C
d=
(5.24)
2
2
A +B

P( x1 , y1 ) Q( x2 , y2 ) :

( P, Q) = PQ =

( x2 x1 )

+ ( y2 y1 )

(5.25)


P( x1 , y1 ) Q( x2 , y2 ) M(x, y) ,
PQ /, P ,
:
x + x2
y + y2
x= 1
; y= 1
.
(5.26)
+
+
:
x +x
y + y2
.
x= 1 2; y= 1
(5.27)
2
2
9. ,
.
. B C Ox . B( x1 ,0)
C ( x2 ,0) . A( x, y )
. (5.25) :

AB =

( x x1 )

AC =

( x x2 )

..

( x x1 )

+ ( y 0) =

( x x1 )

+ ( y 0) =

( x x2 )

+ y2
2

+ y2 ,

AB = AC ,

+ y 2 = ( x x2 ) + y 2 .
(A)
. ,
:
2
2
( x x1 ) + y 2 = ( x x2 ) + y 2
2

2 xx1 + x12 = 2 xx2 + x22 2 x( x2 x1 ) = x22 x12


x2 x1 0 ,
52

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

x1 + x2
.
(B)
2
, Ox
BC . ,
, BC ,
B C , .
. (),
, ().
,
, ( ) .
, ,
, ,
, .. .
, ,

.
:
() , (), .. ,
()
AB = AC . ,
(),
AB 2 = AC 2 AB 2 AC 2 = 0 ( AB AC )( AB + AC ) = 0 .
, AB AC = 0 AB + AC = 0 . , AB > 0
AC > 0 , AB AC = 0 ,
().
() ()
() (),
(). , : ()
, ().
x=

53

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

6
,
L Oxy () 2- ,
2- x y , ..
:
Ax 2 + Bxy + Cy 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0 ,
(6.1)
A, B C .
, .

() ,
.

, ,
, ,
.
F1 F2 ,
2a . M ( x, y ) , ,

MF1 + MF2 = 2a
(6.2)
2c :
F1F2 = 2c
(6.3)


, 2c < 2a
c<a
(6.4)
, , , . Ox F1 F2 ,
54

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

F1F2 .
Oy (.1). ,
F1 (c,0) F2 (c,0) . M ( x, y ) (5.25):
MF1 = ( x c) 2 + y 2 ,
MF2 = ( x + c) 2 + y 2
(6.2) , M ( x, y ) ,
,

(6.5)
( x c) 2 + y 2 + ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = 2a
, (6.5) .
(6.5),

( x c) 2 + y 2

) (
2

= 2a ( x + c) 2 + y 2

x 2 2 xc + c 2 + y 2 = 4a 2 4a ( x + c) 2 + y 2 + x 2 + 2 xc + c 2 + y 2
:
4a ( x + c) 2 + y 2 = 4a 2 + 4 xc
,
a 2 ( ( x + c) 2 + y 2 ) = (a 2 + xc) 2 a 2 x 2 + 2a 2 xc + a 2c 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 4 + 2a 2 xc + x 2c 2 , ..

(a 2 c 2 ) x 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 2 (a 2 c 2 )
(6.6)
, (6.2) a 2 c 2 > 0 b 2 ,
:
a 2 c 2 = b 2 a 2 = c 2 + b 2
(6.7)
(6.6) :
b 2 x 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 2b 2 , a 2b 2 ,
:
x2 y 2
+
=1
(6.8)
a 2 b2
.

,
(6.8).
Ox Oy . O(0,0)
.
6 : -
x ( y ) ,
Oy ( Ox ).
, ,
, 1- .
(6.8) y :
55

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

b 2
a x2
(6.9)
a
4 :
1. x = 0 , y = b
2. x , y
3. x = a , y = 0
4. x > a , y , .. (6.8)
, x > a .
, x a y b
. A1 (a,0), B1 (0, b), A2 (a,0), B2 (0, b) ,
, .
:
A1 A2 A1 A2 = 2a ; OA1 OA1 = a ;
y=

B1B2 B1B2 = 2b ; OB1 OB1 = b .



2a 2b ,

. ,
.

,
. c = 0 , , b = a (6.8)
:
x2 y 2
+
= 1 ..
a2 a2
: x 2 + y 2 = a 2 .

, ..
56

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

c
(6.9)
a
.. c < a , 0 < 1 . = 0
. ,
(6.7) a 2 :
b2
+ 2 = 1
2
a
b
= 1 2
(6.10)
a
(6.10) , a b , ..
. 1, b
a , , Ox .
, .
,
. , ,
( 1). .. ,
, .
, ,
= 0,21 = 0,01 = 0,02 = 0,09 .
= 0,97 = 0,87 .
b
k =
.
a
: k 2 = 1 - 2 .

M(x1 , y1 ) :
,

x12 y12
+
< 1 ,
a2 b2

x12 y12
+
> 1 , .
a2 b2

, .
:
a
a
x= ; x=
(6.11)

1. ,
,

.
().
M ( x, y ) :

( x c)2 + y 2
= . ,
a
x

(6.8).
57

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

a
( x c) 2 + y 2 = ( x) . (6.9)

:
c 2
x)
a
a 2 ( x 2 2 xc + c 2 + y 2 ) = (a 2 cx) 2

( x c)2 + y 2 = (a

a 2 x 2 2 xca 2 + c 2 a 2 + y 2 a 2 = a 4 2a 2cx + c 2 x 2
(a 2 c 2 ) x 2 + y 2a 2 = a 2 (a 2 c 2 )
a 2 c 2 = b 2 ,
b 2 x 2 + y 2 a 2 = a 2b 2 .
a 2b 2 ,
(6.8).

.
.
O( x0 , y0 )
( x x0 ) 2 ( y y0 ) 2
+
=1
(6.12)
a2
b2
, a = b ,
O( x0 , y0 ) a = b :

( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 = a 2
(6.13)
1. ,
x2 y2
+
= 1.
, :
25 16

.
1) : x = 0; y2 = 16; y = -4.
2) : c2 = a2 b2 = 25 16 = 9; c = 3; F2(-3; 0).
58

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

3) , :

x0
y+4
=
;
30 0+ 4

x
y+4
=
;
3
4

4 x = 3 y 12;

4 x + 3 y + 12 = 0

2. , x 2 + y 2 + 4 x 6 y 3 = 0 .
.
. x y .
x2 + y 2 + 4 x 6 y 3 = 0
( x 2 + 4 x + 4) + ( y 2 6 y + 9) 4 9 3 = 0
( x + 2) 2 + ( y 3) 2 16 = 0
( x + 2) 2 + ( y 3) 2 = 16
(6.13),
A(2,3) , 4.

,
,
.
y
b

M(x, y)

F1

F2


F1M F2 M = 2a ,
(6.14)
2a . F1, F2
. F1F2 = 2c .
F1MF2 :
F1M F2 M < F1F2 , :
a<c
(6.15)
(, ). :
F1M = ( x + c) 2 + y 2

F2 M = ( x c) 2 + y 2

( x + c ) 2 + y 2 ( x c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a

( x + c ) 2 + y 2 = 4a 2 + 4a ( x c ) 2 + y 2 + ( x c ) 2 + y 2
59

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

4a ( x c) 2 + y 2 = 4a 2 + 4 xc
a 2 ( x c) 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 4 2a 2 xc + x 2 c 2
a 2 x 2 2a 2 xc + a 2 c 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 4 2a 2 xc + x 2 c 2
a 2 x 2 + a 2c 2 + a 2 y 2 a 4 x 2c 2 = 0
x 2 (c 2 a 2 ) + a 2 (c 2 a 2 ) + a 2 y 2 = 0
x 2 (c 2 a 2 ) a 2 y 2 = a 2 (c 2 a 2 )

2 2 = b2 ( )
a 2b 2 = b 2 x 2 a 2 y 2
x2 y2

=1
a2 b2

(6.16)

.

.
2a .
2b .

2a 2b ,

b
. y = x ,
a
, .
,
.
c
= > 1 , c
a
, a .
, 22=b2:
c2 a 2 + b2
b2
=
+
2 = 2 =
1
a
a2
a2
b
= 2 1
a

a = b , = 2 ,
(). 1, Ox .
1 (, a ] [a, +) ; +
, Oy .
,
a
,

a
. : x = .

60

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

2. M ( x, y ) ,
r
, = , r
d
- , d
.
(). .
a
y
d

M(x, y)
r
0

F1

OF1 = c
:
a
a
+ d = x , d = x .

F1MN :

(x - c)2 + y 2 = r 2
x 2b 2
(6.16): y = 2 b 2 ,
a
2

b2=c2a2 :

2 2

c x

x 2b 2
2
2
2
2
2 c
r = x 2 xc + c + 2 b 2 = x 2 xc + c + 2 x c + a = x a
a
a
a

c
r = xa
a
2

..

c
r xa
= , r = x a . =
= .
a
d x a

.

. .
O( x0 , y0 ) ,
x = x0 , y = y0 y = y0 ,

61

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

( x x0 ) 2 ( y y0 ) 2
(6.17)

=1
a2
b2
O( x0 , y0 ) ,
x = x0 , y = y0 x = x0 ,

( y y0 ) 2 ( x x0 ) 2

=1
(6.18)
b2
a2
3. 2 x 2 3 y 2 = 6 .
. 6, :
x2 y 2

= 1 , a = 3, b = 2 .
3
2
2
, y =
x .
3
4. , 2,

x2 y2
+
= 1.
25 9

. c2 = 25 9 = 16.
:
c
c2 = a2 + b2 = 16, = = 2 ; c = 2a; c2 = 4a2; a2 = 4; b2 = 16 4 = 12.
a
x2 y2

= 1 .
4 12

,
, ,
, .

.

y
(, )

p
2

p
2

62

2006

I
. , . .-. . .

( )
. .
: AM=MF; AM=x+p/2;
2
MF = y2 + (x p/2)2
(x + p/2)2 = y2 + (x p/2)2
x2 +xp + p2/4 = y2 + x2 xp + p2/4
(6.19)
y2 = 2px
: x = -p/2.
Ox .
y2 = -2px
(6.20)
: x = p/2.
Ox .
(6.19) (6.20) Ox .
Oy ,
:
x 2 = 2 py
(6.21)
: y = -p/2.
x 2 = 2 py
(6.22)
: y = p/2.
Oy ,
A( x0 , y0 ) , :
( x x0 ) 2 = 2 p ( y y0 )
(6.23)
Ox ,
A( x0 , y0 ) , :
( y y0 ) 2 = 2 p ( x x0 )
(6.24)
2
5. =8 ,
4.
. , = 4.
r = x + p/2 = 4; : x=2; y2=16; y=4.
: M1(2; 4), M2(2; -4).
6. ,
: y = x 2 + 4 x 5 .
. , .
y = ( x 2 4 x + 5) = ( x 2 4 x + 4 + 5 4) = ( x 2) 2 1
y + 1 = ( x 2) 2
A(2, 1) , x = 2 ,
1
1
, y = 1 + = .
2
2

63

2006

I
. , .-. .H.

7

Oxyz ,
S F ( x, y, z ) = 0
x, y, z ,
,
S .
.

G
n , ,
, .
G
G
n = { A, B, C} , n = { A, B, C} ,
0 , .
G
, n = { A, B, C}
M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) . M ( x, y, z )
G
G
, n = { A, B, C} M 0 M = {x x0 , y y0 , z z0 }
G
G
. , a b
,

G
G
. n M 0 M = 0 :
(7.1)
A( x x0 ) + B( y y0 ) + C ( z z0 ) = 0
,
M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) .
( Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 ) = D ,

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 ,
(7.2)
.
(7.2) ,
x, y , z .
,
:
G G
(7.3)
n r + D = 0,
G
G
n ; r = ( x, y, z ) -
.
(7.2):
1. D = 0 , Ax + By + Cz = 0 ,
;
2. D 0 , A = 0 , By + Cz + D = 0 ,
Ox .
64

2006

I
. , .-. .H.

3. D 0, C 0 , A = B = 0 , Cz + D = 0 ,
Oxy .
4. z = 0 Oxy .

(7.2).
(7.2) .
D
D
D
, : a = , b = , c = ,
A
B
C
(7.2) :
x y z
+ + =1
(7.4)
a b c
-
, ,
. 1(x1, y1, z1), M2(x2, y2, z2), M3(x3, y3, z3)
. (x, y, z)
1, 2, 3 ,
M 1 M 2 , M 1 M 3 , M 1 M , .. ( M 1 M 2 , M 1 M 3 , M 1 M ) = 0.
M 1 M = {x x1 ; y y1 ; z z1 }
M 1 M 2 = {x 2 x1 ; y 2 y1 ; z 2 z1 }
M 1 M 3 = {x3 x1 ; y 3 y1 ; z 3 z1 }

, :
x x1

y y1

z z1

x 2 x1

y 2 y1

z 2 z1 = 0

x3 x1

y 3 y1

z 3 z1

(7.5)

,
1(x1, y1, z1), M2(x2, y2, z2) (, , z)
G
a = (a1 , a 2 , a3 ) .
JJJJJG
JJJJJJG
M 1M = {x x1; y y1; z z1}, M 1M 2 = {x2 x1; y2 y1; z2 z1}

G
G
a = (a1 , a 2 , a3 ) , .. ( M 1 M , M 1 M 2 , a ) = 0
x x1

y y1

z z1

x 2 x1

y 2 y1

z 2 z1 = 0

a1

a2

(7.6)

a3

, ,
.
1.
1. x + 2 y + 3 z 6 = 0
2. x + 3 z 3 = 0
3. y 2 = 0

65

2006

I
. , .-. .H.

.
1. z = 0 x + 2 y + 3 z 6 = 0 .
x + 2 y 6 = 0 Oxy . y = 0 ,
x + 3 z 6 = 0 Oxz .
2. x + 3 z 3 = 0 y , ,
G
G G
n = {1,0,3} , Oy ( n j = 0 ).
, Oy .
x + 3 z 3 = 0
Oxz .
3. y 2 = 0 , Oxz
Oy y = 2 .
.

G
n2

G
n1


.
, ,
. ,
:
JG G
n1 r + D1 = 0
1
JJG G
n2 r + D2 = 0 ,
2
JG
JJG
n1 (A1, B1, C1), n2 (A2, B2, C2).

JG JJG:
n n
cos = JG1 JJG2 .
n1 n2

, (4.6):

66

2006

cos =

I
. , .-. .H.

A1 A2 + B1B2 + C1C2

A12 + B12 + C12 A22 + B22 + C22




.

1 A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
2 A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0
G
G
, n1 = { A1 , B1 , C1} n2 = { A2 , B2 , C2 }
, .. :
A B C
(7.7)
1 || 2 1 = 1 = 1
A2 B2 C2
(7.7) 1
2.
1 2 ,
, ..
:
1 2 A1 A2 + B1B2 + C1C2 = 0
(7.8)
(7.8)
1 2.

L
,
F1 ( x, y, z ) = 0 F2 ( x, y, z ) = 0 .

F1 ( x, y, z ) = 0
(7.9)

F
(
x
,
y
,
z
)
=
0
2
. ,
(7.9) . , , , ..
(7.9) . ,
(7.9), : L
M ( x, y, z ) ,
(7.9).


.

(7.3):
JG G JJ
G
G
n1 r + D1 = 0 n2 r + D2 = 0, :
67

2006

I
. , .-. .H.
JG
JJG
G
n1 (A1, B1, C1), n2 (A2, B2, C2); r (x, y, z).

:
JG G
n1 r + D1 = 0
JJG G
n2 r + D2 = 0
:

(7.10)

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0

(7.11)


.
l 0(x0, y0, z0) M(x,
G
y, z) s = (m, n, p ) .
z
G
S

M1

M0
r0

G
r

x
G
G
- r0 r , , r - r0 = 0 .
G
G
.. 0 s , 0 = s t, t
. , :
G
G
r = r0 + s t
(7.12)
.. ,
.

:
x = x 0 + mt

y = y 0 + nt
z = z + pt
0

(7.13)

t (7.13)
, :
x x0 y y 0 z z 0
=
=
m
n
p

(7.14)

68

2006

I
. , .-. .H.


G
s , :
cos =

m
m2 + n2 + p2

; cos =

n
m2 + n2 + p2

; cos =

(7.15)

m2 + n2 + p2

G
s
G
G
esG , s .
:
cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 = 1
(7.16)
m, n, p .
, .
M1(x1,
y1, z1) M2(x2, y2, z2), 5
,
x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
x 2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1

(7.17)

, .

(7.11) (7.14).

.
G
G
G
i
j k
G
G B C1 G A1 C1 G A1 B1 G
G
G JG JJG
s = n1 n2 = A1 B1 C1 = i 1
j
+k
= im + jn + kp.
B2 C2
A2 C2
A2 B2
A2 B2 C2

2. , :
2 x y + 3 z 1 = 0

5 x + 4 y z 7 = 0

. ,
= 0,
.
y = 3z 1
y = 3z 1
y = 3z 1 y = 2
, .. (0, 2, 1).

4 y z 7 = 0 12 z 4 z 7 = 0 z = 1
z = 1

.
m=

B1

C1

B2

C2

= 11; n =

A1

C1

A2

C2

5 1

= 17;

p=

A1

B1

A2

B2

2 1
5

= 13.

x y 2 z 1
=
=
.
11
17
13


. :
G JG JG
l1: r = r1 + s1t
G JG JG
l2: r = r2 + s2t
69

2006

I
. , .-. .H.

JG
JG
JG
JG
G
r = ( x, y, z ); r1 = ( x1 , y1 , z1 ); r2 = ( x2 , y2 , z2 ); s1 = (m1 , n1 , p1 ); s2 = (m2 , n2 , p2 ).

, . :
JG JG
s s
m1m2 + n1n2 + p1 p2
cos = JG1 JG2 =
(7.18)
2
2
2
2
2
2
s1 s2
m1 + n1 + p1 m2 + n2 + p2


,
, ..
.
m1 n1
p
=
= 1
m2 n2 p 2

(7.19)

,
, ..
.
m1 m2 + n1 n2 + p1 p 2 = 0
(7.20)


.

G
n

G
s

G JG G
G G
n r + D = 0 , - r = r0 + st .

(. .) , = ,
2
G G
n s . :
G G
ns
sin = cos = G G
(7.21)
n s
:
Am + Bn + Cp
sin =
(7.22)
A2 + B 2 + C 2 m 2 + n 2 + p 2
70

2006

I
. , .-. .H.



,
,
. ,
.
G G
G G
(7.23)
n s n s = 0 sin = 0 Am + Bn + Cp = 0.
,
,
. ,
.
G G
A B C
(7.24)
ns =0
= =
m n p

M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) (7.2)
:
Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D
d=
(7.25)
A2 + B 2 + C 2
,

n .
:
a1 x1 + a2 x2 + ... + an xn = b
(7.26)
, (7.26) .
n (7.26),

:
(7.27)
1. , a1 x1 + a2 x2 + ... + an xn b
(7.28)
2. , a1 x1 + a2 x2 + ... + an xn b
(7.26).
n ,
A, B X A + (1 ) B X , [0,1] , ..
A B
AB .

71

2006

I
. , .-. .H.


.
(7.27), (7.28) .
(7.26),
.

, , ,
, .

,
.

n
, d ( ) = max ( A, B ) .
A , B

\ m , :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn b1
a x + a x + ... + a x b
21 1 22 2
2n n
2
(7.29)

...

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn bm



, , -1.
,
,
(7.29). ,
n \ n .
3. :
x + y 9
x + y 9
x + y 9
x + y 9
5 x + y 5
5 x + y 5

(1)
(2)
5 x + y 5 (3)

5 x + y 5 (4)

2
x
y
6

2
x
y
6

2 y x 6
2 x y 6

2 y x 6
2 y x 6
. m
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 b1
a x + a x b
21 1 22 2 2
(7.30)

...

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 bm
(7.30).
1. .
,
.
72

2006

I
. , .-. .H.

2. . ,
.
3. . ,

. O(0,0) .

,
,
.
,

, .
4. . .
,
x + y = 9, 5 x + y = 5, 2 x y = 6, 2 y x = 6 .
, .

x y
y
x y
y x
+ = 1, x + = 1, +
=1, +
=1
9 9
5
3 6
3 6

.3 , (1)
, ABCD .
(2) .
(3) ADE . (3)
FBCG .

73

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

8

n- e1 , e 2 ,, e n
. e1 , e 2 ,, e n -

:
A e1 = a11 e1 + a21 e 2 ++ an1 e n
A e 2 = a12 e1 + a22 e 2 ++ an2 e n
(8.1)
.
A e n = an1 e1 + an2 e 2 ++ ann e n
a11 a12 ... a1n
a
a22 ... a2 n
21

(8.2)
A =
... ... ... ...

an1 an 2 ... ann


.
L x = x1 e1 + x2 e 2 ++ xn e n , A L.
Ax = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + ... + xn en ,
(8.3)

x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + ... + a1n x n


x 2 = a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + ... + a 2 n x n

..
x n = a n1 x1 + a n 2 x 2 + ... + a nn x n


e1 , e 2 ,, e n .
:
x1

x
x = e1 , e2 ,..., en 2 ,
...

x
n

x1 x1

x
x
2 = 2 ,
...
...

x x
n n

A x = x

1. , :
x = x + y
y = y + z
z = z + x
.
x = 1x + 1y + 0z
y = 0x + 1y + 1z
z = 1x + 0y + 1z

74

(8.4)

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
1 1 0

A = 0 1 1
1 0 1


.

, z ,

, z (
).
(8.5)
=
2. ,
, z .
, x z .
y1 = 2 x1 x 2 + 5 x3

y 2 = x1 + 4 x 2 x3
y = 3x 5 x + 2 x
1
2
3
3

z1 = y1 + 4 y 2 + 3 y 3

z 2 = 5 y1 y 2 y 3
z = 3 y + 6 y + 7 y
1
2
3
3

A
B
x

z
C
x
z

. =
3
2 1 5
1 4

A = 1 4 1 B = 5 1 1
3 5 2
3 6 7

0
7
2 + 4 + 9 1 + 16 15 5 4 + 6 15

C = 10 1 3
54+5
25 + 1 2 = 6 4 24 .
6 + 6 + 21 3 + 24 35 15 6 + 14 33 14 23

z1 = 15 x1 + 7 x3
.. z 2 = 6 x1 4 x 2 + 24 x3
z = 33 x 14 x + 23 x
1
2
3
3

. = 0, , .., ,
, .


L n- .
L ,
, :
A = .
(8.6)

(
)

,
.
75

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
e1 , e 2 ,, e n

a11 a12
a
a
A = 21 22
... ...

an1 an 2

... a1n
... a2 n
,

... ...

... ann
1, 2, ,n :
a11
a 21
...
a n1

...

a1n

a 22 ...

a2n

a12
...
an2

...
...
... a nn

(8.7)

=0

,
.
,
.
.

a11

a 21

a12
.
a 22

:
a11 a12 x1 x1
= ;

a 21 a 22 x 2 x 2
e1 , e2 .

x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2

x2 = a 21 x1 + a 22 x2


, = .
x1 = x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2
(a11 ) x1 + a12 x2 = 0

x2 = x2 = a 21 x1 + a 22 x2
a 21 x1 + (a 22 ) x2 = 0
.. x , 1 2

. .. , ,
, .

, .
=

a11 a12
= (a11 )(a 22 ) a12 a 21 = 2 (a11 + a 22 ) + (a11a 22 a12 a 21 )
a 21
a 22


.
, (1, 2)
, -
, 1 2
.

76

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

,
,
.
, - ,

.
, A( kx ) = kAx = k x = ( kx ) . ,
,
.
..
1 2,
. (..
). .
1 = 2 = ,
, ,
0 1 + 0 2 = 0
.
0 1 + 0 2 = 0

1 2.
, .
3.
5 4
.
2 3

. :

x1 = x1 = 5 x1 + 4 x 2
x 2 = x 2 = 2 x1 + 3x 2

5
4
= (5 )(3 ) 8 = 15 3 5 + 2 8 = 0
2
3

2 - 8 + 7 = 0;
: 1 = 7; 2 = 1;
(5 7) x1 + 4 x2 = 0 2 x1 + 4 x 2 = 0

2 x1 + (3 7) x2 = 0 2 x1 4 x2 = 0

1 = 7:

: x1 2x2 = 0.
: (t; 0,5t)
t- .
(5 1) x1 + 4 x2 = 0 4 x1 + 4 x2 = 0

2 x1 + (3 1) x 2 = 0 2 x1 + 2 x2 = 0

2 = 1:

: x1 + x2 = 0.
: (t; -t) t.
:
u1 = t (e1 + 0,5e2 ); u 2 = t (e1 e2 ).
77

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

4.
6 4
.

4
2

. :

x1 = x1 = 6 x1 4 x 2
x 2 = x 2 = 4 x1 2 x 2

(6 ) x1 4 x2 = 0

4 x1 (2 + ) x 2 = 0

:
6
4

4
= (6 )(2 + ) + 16 = 12 6 + 2 + 2 + 16 = 0
2

2 - 4 + 4 = 0;
: 1 = 2 = 2;
(6 2) x1 4 x2 = 0
4 x1 4 x 2 = 0

: x1 x2 = 0.
: (t; t) t.
G
: u = (e1 + e2 )t .
. -
, ,
1, 2, 3 1 , 2 , 3 ,
x1 = x1 ; x 2 = x 2 ; x3 = x3 ,
- ( ) .
:
a11

A = a 21
a
31

a12
a 22
a32

a13

a 23 ,
a33

x1 = a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x3

x 2 = a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x3
x = a x + a x + a x
31 1
32 2
33 3
3

a11

a12

a 21
a31

a 22
a32

a13
a 23 = 0
a33

, .

, .

.
5.
,
1 1 3

= 1 5 1 .
3 1 1

78

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

. :
x1 = x1 = 1 x1 + 1 x 2 + 3 x3

x 2 = x 2 = 1 x1 + 5 x 2 + 1 x3
x = x = 3 x + 1 x + 1 x
3
1
2
3
3
1
1
3

5
1 =0
1
1

(1 - )((5 - )(1 - ) - 1) - (1 - - 3) + 3(1 - 15 + 3) = 0


(1 - )(5 - 5 - + 2 - 1) + 2 + - 42 + 9 = 0
(1 - )(4 - 6 + 2) + 10 - 40 = 0
4 - 6 + 2 - 4 + 62 - 3 + 10 - 40 = 0
-3 + 72 36 = 0
-3 + 92 - 22 36 = 0
-2( + 2) + 9(2 4) = 0
( + 2)(-2 + 9 - 18) = 0
: 1 = -2; 2 = 3; 3 = 6;
(1 + 2) x1 + x 2 + 3 x3 = 0
x1 + 7 x 2 + x3 = 0
1) 1 = -2: x1 + 7 x 2 + x3 = 0

3 x1 + x 2 + 3 x3 = 0
3 x + x + 3 x = 0
2
3
1
7 x + x = 1
1 = 1, 2 3
2 = 0; x3 = -1;
x
x
+
3
=

3
3
2

: u1 = (e1 e3 ) t.
2 x1 + x 2 + 3 x3 = 0
x1 + 2 x 2 + x3 = 0
2) 2 = 3: x1 + 2 x 2 + x3 = 0

3 x1 + x 2 2 x3 = 0
3 x + x 2 x = 0
2
3
1
2 x + x = 1
1 = 1, 2 3
2 = -1; x3 = 1;
x2 2 x3 = 3

: u 2 = (e1 e2 + 3 ) t.
3) 3 = 6:

5 x1 + x 2 + 3 x3 = 0

x1 x 2 + x3 = 0
3 x + x 5 x = 0
2
3
1

x1 x 2 + x3 = 0

3 x1 + x 2 5 x3 = 0

x 2 + x3 = 1
x2 5 x3 = 3

2 = 2; x3 = 1;

1 = 1,

: u 3 = (e1 + 2e2 + 3 ) t.
6.
,
3 2 4

= 2 1 2 .
1
1
2

79

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

. :
3

=0

-(3 + )((1 - )(2 - ) 2) + 2(4 - 2 - 2) - 4(2 - 1 + ) = 0


-(3 + )(2 - - 2 + 2 - 2) + 2(2 - 2) - 4(1 + ) = 0
-(3 + )(2 - 3) + 4 - 4 - 4 - 4 = 0
-32 + 9 - 3 + 32 - 8 = 0
-3 + = 0
1 = 0; 2 = 1; 3 = -1;
3 x1 2 x 2 4 x3 = 0
1 = 0: 2 x1 + x 2 + 2 x3 = 0
x + x + 2x = 0
2
3
1

2 x1 + x 2 = 2 x3

x1 + x 2 = 2 x3

3 = 1, 1 = 0, 2 = -2

u1 = (0 e1 2 e2 + 1 e3 ) t, t .
u 2 u 3 2 3.
7. - (2.15).
,
A. X Y,

) ( )

A= 0,125 0,125 ; Y= 300 .


1,125 0,125
400

. A
. :
0,125 -

0,125

1,125

0,125 -

= 0,

(0,125 -)2 - 0,140625 = 0 0,125 - = 0,375.


, 1 = 0,5; 2 = - 0,25. ,
, A .

1
X = (E - A) Y.
0,875 - 0,125
.
-1,125 0,875

E-A=

B = E-A, B-1 =

1 A11 A 21 1 0,875 0,125


.

=
det B A12 A 22 5,4 1,125 0,875

,
1 0,875 0,125 300
1 0,875 300 + 0,125 400
1 312,5
X=

=
=
= 57,9 .
127,3
5,4 1,125 0,875 400 5,4 1,125 300 + 0,125 400
5,4 687,5

)( )

80

)( )

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


9

.
, , ..
, ,
.



. , 3 , 25 , 9
, , ,
.
.

, .

, : .
, ,
.
, ,
.
A B A = B ,
.
A = {a1 , a2 , a3 ,...} , A
a1 , a2 , a3 ,... A B ,
, A = {a B | ...} ,
A .
[a, b]
: A = {x \ | a x b} .

, , () .


.
81

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

, ,
,
.
A B
: A B B A.

() ,
.
=.

()
, .
=.

, :
= = ;
A B = B A;
A B = B A;
(A B) C = A (B C);

(A B) C = A (B C);

A (B C) = (A B) (A C);
A (A B) = A;

A (B C) = (A B) (A C);

A (A B) = A;

A = ;

A = ;
,
, .
=\.

82

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

,
.
.
= (A \ B) (B \ A)

,
C = \ A.

, :
A \ B A;
A B = B A;

A \ A = ;

A \ (A \ B) = A B;

A B = (A B) \ (A B);

A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C);

A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C);

(A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B \ C);

(A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B \ C);

A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) (A C);

(A \ B) \ C = A \ (B C);

(A B) C = A (B C);
A CEA = E;

A CEA = ;

CE(A B) = CEA CEB;

A (B C) = (A B) (A C);
CEE = ;

CE = E;

CECEA = A;

CE(A B) = CEA CEB;

1.
,
- A \ B = A \ ( A B) .
. ,
A \ ( A B) = ( A \ A) ( A \ B) = ( A \ B ) = A \ B
.

83

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

AB

2.
, A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C)
. \ ( ), ,
, .
\ ,
.
\ ,
.
(A \ B) (A \ C) ,
, ,
.
, .
()
x X
y Y , , () f
f

X Y : X Y .
x X f , y Y
f , x X , y = f ( x) ,
, x X
y Y . X ,
y Y , x X ,
y = f ( x) , .

f: x X \ ! y Y \ : y = f ( x) .

( x, f ( x)) .

:
1.
: x , a x , log a x, tgx, ctgx,sin x, cos x .
2.
84

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

3.
, .. ,
, , .

? , ,
,
.
.

.
.
x y . ,
, x y
, .
, , ,
,
.
,
.

, ,
:
y = f ( x)
(9.1)

, y = ( x + 3)5 , y = 9 ctgx 2 .

,
, :
f1 ( x), a0 x a1
f ( x), a < x a

1
2
y= 2
(9.2)
...

f n ( x), an1 < x an


y x ,
, :
F ( x, y ) = 0
(9.3)
3. x 2 + y 2 1 = 0 , y sin y = x ( ).
y , (9.3), ,
y .
x (9.3)
85

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

y ,
.
x 2 + y 2 1 = 0 1 y
: y = 1 x 2 y = 1 x 2 ,
.

y . y ,
(9.3), .
,
( x, y ),
x = x(t )
t [a, b] , t .
(9.4)

y
=
y
(
t
)

x = cos t
t [0,2 ]
4.
y = sin t
. ,

, x 2 + y 2 = 1 .
f : X Y , g :Y Z . f , g
, g D f : X Z
def

( g D f )( x) = g ( f ( x))
(9.5)
(9.5) , x
f ,
g .
5. f : \ \ f ( x) = sin x , g : \ \ g ( x) = x 2 ,
( g D f )( x) = (sin x) 2 , ( f D g )( x) = sin x 2 .
,
.
:

y = x ,

y = a x ( a > 0) ,

y = log a x (a > 0, a 1) ,

y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tgx, y = ctgx

y = arc sin x, y = arc cos x, y = arctgx, y = arcctgx , y = c


.
,
,

86

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


y x (9.1). x
y . , , y , x
, y x .
(9.1) x y :
y f ( x) = 0 . , (9.1) x ,
.
, .. y
x1 , x2 , x3 ... x = ( y ) .

,
.
,
y = f ( x)
, .. f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) x1 x2 (
f : X Y ).
y = f ( x) (),
x1 , x2 X : x1 < x2 y1 = f ( x1 ), y2 = f ( x2 ) : y1 < y2 ( y1 y2 ).
y = f ( x) (),
x1 , x2 X : x1 < x2 y1 = f ( x1 ) Y , y2 = f ( x2 ) Y : y1 > y2 ( y1 y2 ).

.
,
y = f ( x) .

87

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

10

n n,
,
x1, 2, , n= {xn}
(10.1)
xn , n
.
.
n.
xn = f(n)
(10.2)
,
.
,
.
1. {xn} = {(-1)n} {xn} = -1; 1; -1; 1;
{xn} = {sinn/2} {xn} = 1; 0; -1; 0;
:
1) m: m{xn} = {mxn},
.. mx1, mx2,
2) () :
{xn} {yn} = {xn yn}.
3) : {xn}{yn} = {xnyn}.
4) :

{xn } xn
=
yn 0, n = 1, 2,...
{y n } y n



{xn} ,
>0, n :
xn M
(10.3)
.. [-; M].
{xn} ,
n M ,
(10.4)
xn M
{xn} ,
n ,
xn M
(10.5)
{xn} ,
>0 n , , :
xn > M
(10.6)
88

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

{xn} ,
>0 n , , :
xn > M
(10.7)
{xn} ,
>0 n , , :
xn < M
(10.8)
2. {xn} = {n} {1, 2, 3, } ,
M = 0,5 .
a {xn},
>0 N ( ) , n > N
:
x n a <
(10.9)
: lim xn = a xn a n .
n

n.

, {xn} a
, (10.6)
a < xn < a +
(10.10)
a (a , a + ) , > 0 ,

- a a .

:
a {xn},

. .
- ,
, ,
.
,

.
3. , lim

( 1) n
= 0.
n

(1) n
1
1
< , ..
< . n > ,
n
n

1
, N , , ,

n > N 0

.
1
2

1
3

1
4

1
n

4. , n 3, 2 , 2 , 2 ,..., 2 + ,
2.
: {xn}= {2 + 1/n} {1/n} = {xn 2}

89

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
1
, n, x n 2 = < , .. lim xn = 2 .
n
n

1. .
. , {xn}
a b, .
xn a; xn b; a b.
>0,

xn a < ,
2

xn b <

: a b = (a x n ) + ( x n b) a x n + x n b < + =
.. - , a b = 0 , .. a = b. .
2. xn a, xn a .
. xn a , xn a < . :
x n a x n a , .. x n a < , .. xn a . .

3. xn a, {xn} .
. .. a {xn},
>0 N ( ) ,

n>N

: x n a < .

xn = ( x n a ) + a < a + x n a < + a . M = + a ,

xn < M . .
, , ..
.
1
1 + n , n
5. xn =
,
1
2 , n

n
xn 2.

6. { xn } = sin( + n) , ..
2

n sin( + n) 1 . ,
2
1, n

.. sin( + n) =
2
1, n

90

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


> xn n,

xn+1
.
xn+1 xn n,
.
xn+1 < xn n, .
xn+1 xn n,
.
.

7.

{xn}=

n
2n + 1

n +1
n +1
=
2n + 2 + 1 2n + 3
n
n + 1 2n 2 + 3n 2n 2 2n n 1
=
: xn-xn+1=
=

2n + 1 2n + 3
(2n + 1)(2n + 3)
1
=
< 0 , .. n N, n.
(2n + 1)(2n + 3)

n + 1 xn+1=

, xn+1 > xn. ,


.
8. {xn} = 1/n
{xn} = n .

9.

{xn}={
x n +1 =
=

n
}.
5n

n +1
n + 1 n n + 1 5n
. x n +1 x n =

=
=
n +1
5
5 5n 5n
5 5n

1 4n
, .. n N, 1 4n <0, .. n+1 < xn.
5 5n

.
,
.
4.
.

n

1
{xn} = 1 + .

:
n
( a + b ) = a n + Cn1a n1b + Cn2a n2b 2 + ... + Cnn1a bn1 + bn ,
n!
n(n 1)(n 2)...(n k + 1)
=
Cnk =
k !(n k )!
1 2 ... k

91

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
n
2
3
n
n 1 n( n 1) 1
n( n 1)(n 2) 1
n( n 1)( n 2)...[ n ( n 1)] 1
1
+
1 + = 1 + +
+ ... +

1 n
1 2 n
1 2 3
1 2 3 n
n
n
n

,
xn = 1 + 1 +

1 1
1 1 2 k 1
1 1 2 n 1
1 + ... + 1 1 ...1
+ ... + 1 1 ...1

2! n
k! n n
n
n! n n
n

, {xn} . ,
xn+1 xn:
1
1
1
1
2 k 1
1
1
2
...
1
...1
+ ... + 1
1
1
+ ... + 1
2! n + 1
k! n + 1 n + 1 n + 1
n! n + 1 n + 1
1
1
n
n 1
...1
.
1
...1
+
n + 1 (n + 1)! n + 1 n + 1
x n +1 = 1 + 1 +

xn+1
xn, , , xn+1 .
, {xn} .
, n : xn < 3.
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
2n < 1 + 1 = 3
x n < 1 + 1 + + + ... + < 1 + 1 + + 2 + ... + n +1 = 1 +
1
1
n!
2! 3!
2 2
2
1
1
2
2
.
1

1
, 1 + -
n

, .. 4 .
.
n

1
lim1 + = e
n
n
n

1
1 + < 3 , 3. {xn}
n

, , :

1 +

1
1 1
> 2 + 1
n
2 n

1
2

, e 2 + = 2,5
, 2,5 3.
,
.
, 2,71828
x

1
, lim1 + = e ,
x
x

. ,

.
92

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

. . , e
.
. ,
,
. , .
100 . . 100 % .
,
100 . . 200 .. ,
100 . .,
. 100 . . 100
1,5 = 150, - 150 1,5 = 225 (. .).
1/3 , 100 . . 100 (1
+1/3)3 237 (. .).
0,1 , 0,01 , 0,001 .. 100 . .
:
100 (1 +1/10)10 259 (. .),
100 (1+1/100)100 270 (. .),
100 (1+1/1000)1000 271 (. .).

,
, 271. 2,71 ,
100% , ,
,
1
n

n
lim (1 + ) = e.
n

93

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

11

1.
f ( x) X .
X

{xn }

xn X , n = 1,2,...

{ f ( xn )} . A
f ( x) x a , lim f ( xn ) = A
n

{xn } , , lim xn = a xn a, n = 1,2,... , a X a X .


n

: A f ( x)
a , a x ,
a ,
A .
A , , y = f ( x)
a .
: lim f ( x) = A f ( x) A x a .
xa

f ( x) a ,
{ f ( xn )} .
1. f ( x) = x 1 . , lim f ( x) .
x 0

. -
lim xn = 0, xn 0, n = 1,2,...

{xn } ,

f ( xn ) = xn 1, n = 1,2,...

{ f ( xn )} = { xn 1} = { xn } 1. , ..
, lim( x 1) = 1

xn 0 ,

f ( xn ) 0 1 .

x 0

1
2. f ( x) = sin . , lim f ( x) .
x 0
x

1
1
. {xn } = {x 'n } =
.

n
+ 2 n
2

'
'
, lim xn = lim x n = 0, xn 0, x n 0, n = 1,2,...
n

f ( xn ) = sin n = 0, f ( x 'n ) = sin

= 1, n = 1,2,...
2
lim f ( xn ) = 0 lim f ( x 'n ) = 1 , lim f ( x) .
n

x 0

94

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

2.
f(x) = (..
= )
f(x) ,
>0 > 0 , ,
0 < x - a <

f(x) - A < .

:
a - < x < a + , x a,( x -
a ), - < f(x) < A + (
- A ).
y

f(x)

A+
A
A-

a-

a a+

, ,
; ,
- ,
.
sin x
x = 0 . ,
3. y =
x
, 1 x 0 .
,
a , ,
.
4. lim x = a a .
x a

, x a < ,
, x , - a ,
, = .
f(x) A1 x < a, lim f ( x) = A1
x a 0

f(x) = , f(x) A2
x > a, lim f ( x) = A2 f(x) =
xa + 0

.
95

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

f(x)
2
1
0

, f(x)
= ,
.
1 2
f(x) = . , ,
f(x).
1. f(x) a ,
, .
.
. , lim f ( x) = A > 0
x a

= ( ) > 0 , 0 < x - a < f(x) - A < , ..


a < x < a f(x) - A < a < x < a + f(x) - A < ,
.. lim f ( x) = A lim f ( x) = A .
x a 0

x a 0

lim f ( x) = A

x a 0

1 = 1 ( )
a < x < a + 2 ,

lim f ( x) = A , > 0

x a + 0

2 = 2 ( ) , a 1 < x < a
f(x) - A < . ,
1 2 , f(x) - A < 0 < x - a < , ,
lim f ( x) = A . .
x a


f(x) ,
>0 >0, , >M
A f (x) < .
, f(x)
. : lim f ( x) = A.
x

96

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

:
y

y
A

lim f ( x) = A >M
x +

lim f ( x) = A <M.


f(x) ,
, + -, lim f ( x) = 0 .
xa


.
.
5. f(x) = xn 0
1, .. lim f ( x) = 1 .
x 1

2. f(x) ,
, , =
f(x) = A + (x),
() (()0 ).

97

2006

1)
2)
3)
4)

I
. , . .-. . .H.

:

.

.
,
= .
,
, .


f(x) , , ,
>0 > 0 ,
f(x) > M

, 0 < x - a <
lim f ( x) = .
x a

, f(x)>M
f(x)>M, : lim f ( x) = +,
x a

f(x)<M, :
lim f ( x) = .
x a

,
, + -, lim f ( x) = A ,
x a

, + -.

.
3. f(x)0 ( ) ,
1
g ( x) =
.
f ( x)
98

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


4. lim C = C , = const.
x a

, f(x)
g(x) .
5. lim( f ( x) g ( x)) = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
xa

xa

xa

. f(x) = A + (x), g(x) = B + (x),


A = lim f ( x), B = lim g ( x) , f(x) g(x) = (A B) + (x) (x)
xa

xa

A B = const, () () ,
lim( f ( x) g ( x)) = A + B = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
x a

x a

x a

.
6. lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] = lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
x a

x a

xa

. f(x) = A + (x), g(x) = B + (x),


A = lim f ( x), B = lim g ( x) ,
xa

xa

f ( x) g ( x) = A B + A ( x) + ( x) B + ( x) ( x)
AB = const, () () ,
lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] = lim A B + 0 = A B = lim f ( x) lim g ( x) . .
x a

x a

xa

x a

. lim C f ( x) = C lim f ( x)
x a

7. lim
xa

xa

f ( x)
f ( x) lim
= xa
lim g ( x) 0
xa
g ( x) lim g ( x)
xa

8. lim ( f ( x) )
x a

g ( x)

= lim f ( x)
xa

lim g ( x )

x a

, lim f ( x)
x a

lim g ( x) .
x a

9. f(x)>0 = lim f ( x) = A , >0.


x a

f(x) < 0, f(x) 0, f(x) 0.


10. ( ) g(x)f(x)u(x) =
lim g ( x) = lim u ( x) = A , lim f ( x ) = A .
xa

xa

x a

. lim g ( x) = lim u ( x) = A ,
xa

xa

1 2 , x ,
x a < 1 x a < 2 g ( x) A <
u ( x) A < . x ,
x a < min (1 , 2 )
(11.1)
99

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

g ( x) A < , u ( x) A < , ..

A < g ( x) < A + , A < u ( x) < A + . .. g(x)f(x)u(x),


A < f ( x) < A + , .
f ( x) A <
(11.2)
.. , x , (11.1)
(11.2), lim f ( x) = A . .
x a

6 (, )
f(x), , g(x)f(x)u(x), ( , )
g(x) u(x).
f(x) = ,
>0, f(x)<M = .
11. f(x) ,
= .
.

..
f ( x) A < ,

lim f ( x) = A ,
x a

f ( x) = f ( x) A + A f ( x) A + A f ( x) < + A , .. f ( x) < M ,

M = + A .

.

. 49
.
6.
3x 2 x + x + 1
=
x 2
x2 5x + 3
3

lim

lim ( 3 x3 2 x 2 + x + 1)
x 2

lim ( x 5 x + 3)
2

x2

) ( )
( lim x ) 5lim x + 3
3

3 lim x 2 lim x + lim x + 1


x 2

x 2

x 2

x2

x2

3 2 2 2 + 2 +1
1
= 6
2
2 52 + 3
3
3

f ( x) =

Pn ( x)
,
Qm ( x)

Pn ( x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + ... + an , ,
, . ,
, , ,

. ,
,
.
, . ,
f ( x)

,
g ( x)
g ( x)
. , ,
f ( x)
100

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

f ( x)

g ( x)

f ( x)

= . : = .
x a g ( x )
0

0
: , , 0 , , 1 , 00 , 0 .
0
lim


(), () () .
, ..
.
, f(x) = x10 , f(x)
= x.
( x)
lim
= 0 , (x)
x a ( x )
, (x). ( x) = o( ( x)) x a .
( x)
= A, A 0, A = const , (x) (x)
lim
x a ( x )
.
( x)
lim
= 1, (x) (x)
x a ( x )
. (x) ~ (x).
7. 0 f(x) = x10 f(x) = x.
x10
lim
= lim x 9 = 0
x 0 x
x 0
10
.. f(x) = x ,
f(x)
= x.
(x) k
( x)
(x), lim

x a ( ( x )) k
.
,
( x)
,
. ,
( x)
.

101

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

( x)
1) (x) ~ (x), lim
= 1
x a ( x )

2)

(x)~(x)

( x) ( x)
( x)
lim
lim
1
1
1
=

=
x a

( x) xa ( x) ( x)

(x)~(x),

(x)~(x),

( x)
1
= lim
= 1
3) (x) ~ (x), (x) ~ (x), lim
x a ( x ) x a ( x )

(
x
)

( x)
( x)
4) (x) ~ 1 ( x) (x) ~ 1 ( x) lim
= k
= k , lim 1
xa ( x )
x a ( x )
1
( x)
( x)
= lim 1 .
lim
x a ( x )
x a ( x )
1
( x)
( x)
( x)
: ) (x) ~ 1 ( x) lim
= k , lim
= lim 1
x a ( x )
x a ( x )
xa ( x )
( x)
( x)
( x)
) (x) ~ 1 ( x) lim
= k , lim
= lim
x a ( x )
x a ( x )
xa ( x )
1
4 , .. ,

.

, .
( x) 0
sin ( x)
tg ( x)
1 cos ( x)

ln(1 + ( x))
e ( x ) 1
c ( x ) 1
(1 + ( x))c
arc sin ( x)
arctg ( x)

( x)
( x)
2 ( x)
2
( x)
( x)
( x)ln c
c ( x)

( x)
( x)

102

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

8.

( x) = x sin x, ( x) = x ,

0
( x)
x sin x

= lim
= lim sin x = 0 , .. ( x) = x sin x
lim
x 0 ( x )
x 0
x 0
x
( x) = x .
( x)
x sin x
= lim 2 = 1 , .. (x) 2
lim 2
x 0 ( x )
x 0
x
(x).
1
( x)
9. ( x) = x sin , ( x) = x , 0 lim
,
x 0 ( x )
x
.. (x) (x) .
tg 5 x
x 0 sin 7 x

10. lim

tg5x ~ 5x sin7x ~ 7x 0, ,
, :
tg 5 x
5x 5
= lim
=
x 0 sin 7 x
x 0 7 x
7

lim

x3
.
x 0 1 cos x

11. lim

x
x
x3
x3
= lim 2 = lim 2 x = 0 .
1 cosx = 2 sin ~ 2 0, lim
x 0 1 cos x
x 0 x
x 0
2
2
2
tgx
x
= lim 2 = .
12. lim
x 0 sin x 2
x 0 x
2

(x) (x) - , (x)


, (x), (x) = (x) + (x)
, (x).
( x)
( x)
= lim 1 +
lim
= 1.
x a ( x )
x a

x
(
)

, (x) (x).
13. 2 + 0,
. , (x) = 2, (x) = ,
x2
x2 + x
lim
= 0, lim
= lim( x + 1) = 1 .
x 0 x
x 0
x 0
x

103

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

12

,
.

:
0
; ; 0; 0 ; 1 ;
0


P ( x)
= ,
1. lim n
x Qm ( x )

Pn(x)=a0xn+a1xn-1++an, Qm(x)=b0xm+b1xm-1++bm n
m .
a
a
a
a
x n (a0 + 1 + ... + nn )
a0 + 1 + ... + nn
P ( x)
x
x
x = xnm
x .
=
n
b
b
b
b
Qm ( x) x m (b + 1 + .... + m )
b0 + 1 + ... + mm
0
m
x
x
x
x
x :
a
a
a
a
a0 + 1 + ... + nn
a0 + 1 + ... + nn
x
x = lim x nm lim
x
x = lim x nm a0
lim x nm
x
x
x
x
b
b
b
b
b0
b0 + 1 + ... + mm
b0 + 1 + ... + mm
x
x
x
x

0, n < m
P ( x) a0
: lim n
= , n = m
x Qm ( x )
b0
, n > m
x5 3 x3 + 2 x 2 x + 1
1. : lim
x 11x 4 7 x 2 + x + 4
.
x5 3 x3 + 2 x 2 x + 1
lim
= = (.. n = 5 > m = 4 )
x 11x 4 7 x 2 + x + 4

3 x3 + 26 x 2 13
2. : lim
x 6 x 3 x 2 + x
.
3 x3 + 26 x 2 13 3 1
lim
= = = (.. n = 3 > m = 3 )
x 6 x 3 x 2 + x
6 2

104

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

25 x 2 x + 1
3. : lim
x 17 x 3 x 2 + 5 x + 9
.
25 x 2 x + 1

lim
=
= 0 (.. n = 2 > m = 3 )
x 17 x 3 x 2 + 5 x + 9

Pn ( x) Pn (a ) 0
=
= .
x a Qm ( x )
Qm (a ) 0
Pn (a ) = 0 , x = a Pn ( x) .
Qm (a ) = 0 , x = a Qm ( x) .
, ( x a) .
( x a ) ,
Pn ( x)
, .

Qm ( x)
P ( x)
( x a) Pn 1 ( x)
Pn 1 ( x)
= lim
=
lim
: lim n
 ( x) x a Q ( x) .
x a Q ( x)
x a ( x a )Q
2. lim

m 1

m 1

,
( x a ) , .. x a .
4. lim
x2

xa

x 2 6x + 8
.
x 2 8 x + 12

.
.
x26x+8=0;
x28x+12=0;
D=3632=4;
D=6448=16;
x1=(6+2)/2=4;
x1=(8+4)/2=6;
x2=(84)/2=2;
x2=(62)/2=2 ;
lim
x2

( x 2)( x 4)
x4 2 1
= lim
= =
( x 2)( x 6) x 2 x 6 4 2

x2 5x + 6
5. lim
x 3
x2 9
x 2 5 x + 6 32 5 3 + 6 0
=
=
. lim
x 3
0
x2 9
32 9

:
x 2 5 x + 6 = ( x 2)( x 3)
x 2 9 = ( x 3)( x + 3)

x2 5x + 6
( x 2)( x 3) 3 2 1
lim
=
lim
=
=
x 3
x 3 ( x 3)( x + 3)
3+3 6
x2 9
105

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

x3 6 x 2 + 11x 6
.
6. lim
x 1
x 2 3x + 2
. .
x23x+2=(x1)(x2)
x36x2+11x6=(x1)(x2)(x3), ..
a0xn+a1xn-1++an ( x a ) :
x36x2+11x6
x3x2
-5x2+11x
-5x2+5x
6x-6
6x-6
0

x-1
x25x+6

x25x+6=(x2)(x3).
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
( x 2)( x 3)
lim
= lim
= lim( x 3) = 2
x 1
x 1
x 1
( x 1)( x 2)
( x 2)
x3 2 x 2 4 x + 8
7. lim 4
x 2 3 x 16 x 3 + 24 x 2 16
x3 2 x 2 4 x + 8
0
. lim 4
=
3
2
x 2 3 x 16 x + 24 x 16
0
:
x3 2 x 2 4 x + 8 = ( x3 4 x) + (2 x 2 + 8) = x( x 2 4) 2( x 2 4) = ( x 2 4)( x 2)
3 x 4 16 x3 + 24 x 2 16 = ( x 2)3 (3x + 2) (

( x 2) )
( x 2 4)( x 2)
x3 2x 2 4x + 8
x+2
lim
= lim
=
4
3
2
3
x 2 3 x 16 x + 24 x 16
x 2 ( x 2) (3 x + 2)
x 2 ( x 2)(3 x + 2)

lim

- , ..

2 .
,
x+2
2+0+2
4

lim
=
=
x 2 + 0 ( x 2)(3 x + 2) (2 + 0 2)(3 (2 + 0) + 2) +0 = +
x+2
lim
=
20+2
4
x+2
x 2 ( x 2)(3 x + 2)
lim
=
=
=
x 2 0 ( x 2)(3x + 2) (2 0 2)(3 (2 0) + 2) 0
0
,
0
,

. ,
.
3.

106

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

8. lim
x 0

1+ x + x2 1 x + x2
.
x2 x

1 + x + x2 1 x + x2 0
=
. lim
x 0
0
x2 x
,
: lim
x 0

1+ x + x2 1+ x x2
x( x 1)( 1 + x + x 2 + 1 x + x 2 )

= lim

1 + x + x2 + 1 x + x2 )

x 0 ( x 1)(

9. lim

x 1 3

x 1

= lim
x 0

2x
x( x 1)( 1 + x + x 2 + 1 x + x 2 )

2
= 1 .
1 (1 + 1)

x 1
5x2 + 3 2

0
x 1 3
5x2 + 3 2 0
,
,
( x + 1 ). ,

. lim

(5 x 2 + 3)2 + 2 3 5 x 2 + 3 + 4 ,

(a b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a3 b3 :

lim

x 1 3

= lim

x1

x 1
2

5x + 3 2

= lim

x 1 (

( x 1)( x + 1)( 3 (5 x 2 + 3)2 + 2 3 5 x 2 + 3 + 4)


3

x + 1)( 5 x + 3 2)( (5 x + 3) + 2 5 x + 3 + 4)
3

( x 1)( 3 (5x2 + 3)2 + 2 3 5x2 + 3 + 4)


( x + 1)(5x2 + 3 8)

= lim

( x 1)( 3 (5x2 + 3)2 + 2 3 5x2 + 3 + 4)

x1

5( x + 1)( x2 1)

( x 1)( 3 (5 x 2 + 3)2 + 2 3 5 x 2 + 3 + 4)
( 3 (5 x 2 + 3) 2 + 2 3 5 x 2 + 3 + 4)
= lim
= lim
=.
x 1
x 1
5( x + 1)( x 1)( x + 1)
5( x + 1)( x + 1)
4+4+4 3
=
=
522
5
4.

0
,
0

sin x
lim
= 1.
x 0
x

1. ,
, , ..
sin x
= 1.
x 0
x

lim

107

(12.1)

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

x , , 0 < x <
0< x<

.
2

.
2

R = OA = OB
AOB = x (.1). AC
C OB . :
S+OAB < S OAB < S+OA
:
R2
sin x
S+OAB =
2
1 
x
S OAB = AB R = R 2
2
2
2
1
R
S+OA = R R tgx =
tgx
2
2

R2
R2
R2
sin x <
x<
tgx sin x < x < tgx
2
2
2
,
sin x , :
x
1
<
(12.2)
1<
sin x cos x
x 0 (.1) cos x 1 , ,
1
1 . (12.2)
cos x

108

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

x
1
1
= lim
= = 1.
x 0 sin x
x 0 sin x
1
x
x < 0 ,
sin( x) sin x sin x
=
=
.
x
x
x
.
sin ( x )
1. lim
=1
( x )0 ( x)
tg( x) 0
sin ( x)
sin ( x)
1
2. lim
= = lim
= lim
lim
= 11 = 1
( x ) 0 ( x)
0 x0 ( x)cos ( x) x0 ( x) x0 cos ( x)
lim

sin n ( x )
sin ( x) sin ( x ) sin ( x )
=
lim

...
= 1
1
...

1 = 1

( x )0 n ( x)
( x )0 ( x)
( x)
( x)
n


3. lim

1 cos ( x ) 0
= = lim
x 0
0 x 0
2 ( x)
2
arcsin ( x)
5. lim
= 1.
( x)
(x) 0

4. lim

( x)
( x)
sin 2
2 = lim
2 =1
2
2
x 0 ( x)
( x)
2
4

2sin 2

t
arcsin ( x) 0 arcsin( x) = t
= 1.
= = ( x) = sint
= lim
( x)
0 t 0 ( x) 0 t0 sin t
(x) 0
arctg ( x)
6. lim
= 1.
( x)
(x) 0
mx
0
mx nx
nx
mx m
7. lim
= = lim
= lim
=
lim
x 0 sin nx
0 x 0 nx sin nx x 0 sin nx x 0 nx n
. 13, 5,6
( x) 0
11.
, lim

10. lim
x 0

sin5x
.
x

. : lim
x 0

sin 5 x 0
sin5x
. t=5x. x0 :
= = lim 5
0 x 0 5x
x

t0. (12.1), 5

11. lim
x
. lim
x

sin 3x
.
sin 4 x

sin 3 x 0
= .
sin 4 x 0
109

sin t
5.
t

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

y=-x. x, y0.:
sin3x=sin3(-y)=sin(3-3y)=sin3y.
sin4x=sin4(-y)=sin(4-4y)=-sin4y.
lim
x

sin 3x
sin3y
sin 3 y
4y 3
3
=- lim
= lim
lim
= .
y 0 sin 4 y
y 0 3y
y 0 sin4y 4
sin 4 x
4

tgmx
.
x 0 sin nx
tgmx 0
tgmx mx nx
tgmx
nx
mx m
. lim
= = lim
= lim
=
lim
lim
x 0 sin nx
0 x 0 mx nx sin nx x 0 mx x 0 sin nx x 0 nx n
tgx tgx0
13. lim
.
x x0 x x0
.
tgx tgx0 0
sin( x x0 )
sin( x x0 )
1
= = lim
= lim
lim
=
lim
x x0 x x0
x x0 cos x cos x0
0 x x0 ( x x0 )cos x cos x0 x x0 x x0
1
1
= 1
=
cos 2 x0 cos 2 x0
sin x cos x
14. lim
.
x / 4
4x
.
2
sin( / 4 x)

sin x cos x 0
1
sin( / 4 x)
2
= = lim
= lim
=
lim
x / 4
x / 4 2 2( / 4 x )
4x
4x
0 x / 4
2 2

12. lim

cos x
.
x / 2 2 x

15. lim
.

5.

y = / 2 x

cos x 0 x = / 2 y
cos( / 2 y )
sin y 1

= =
= lim
= lim
=
lim

x / 2 2 x
y 0 y
0 y 0 x 0 y 0
2y
2
2 x = + 2 y

n

1
10 , lim1 + = e . ,
n
n
x

1
lim1 + = e .
x
x

n x n +1

1 1
1

n x n +1
1
1
1
1+ 1+ 1+
n
x
n +1

110

2006
1
1 +
n

n +1

I
. , . .-. . .H.
x

1
1

> 1 + > 1 +

n + 1

n +1

1
e
1

lim 1 + = e 1 = e;
= = e. ,
lim 1 +

n
n
n
n +1
1

x

1
lim 1 + = e .
x
x

1
1. lim 1 +

( x )
( x)

(12.3)

( x)

=e
1

2. lim (1 + ( x ) ) ( x ) = e
( x )0

,
( x )
1

1
( x ) =

=
=e
lim (1 + ( x) )
= lim 1 +
( x )

( x )0
( x )
x

(
)

( x) ( x ) 0
ln(1 + ( x))
3. lim
= 1.
( x ) 0
( x)
,
1
( x)

ln(1 + ( x))
lim
= lim ln(1 + ( x)) ( x ) = ln lim (1 + ( x)) ( x ) = ln e = 1,

( x ) 0
( x )0
( x )0
( x)
.
-
,
.
x +3
16. lim

x x 1
x +3
. lim

x x 1

x +3

x +3

x+3

= 1 = lim 1 +
1
x
x 1

x +3

x + 3 x +1

= lim 1 +

x
x 1

y 4
( y + 4)
y

4
y+4
x + 3 y = x 1

4
4
1

= lim 1 +
= x = lim 1 +
= lim 1 +

y
x
y
x 1
y
y y

= lim e
y

4
( y + 4)
y

=e

4
lim ( y + 4)
y

= e4

111

x +3

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
4x

2x 1
17. lim
.
x x + 1
4x
2+ = + x +

2x 1

. lim
= 2 =
1
1

2 = + =
= +0 x
x x + 1

+
2
18. lim x ( ln(4 x 2) ln(4 x + 1) ) .
x

1
4x 2 x

ln(4 x 2) ln(4 x + 1)
1 4x 2
= lim ln
= lim ln
=
x
x x
x
4 x + 1 x 4 x + 1

. lim

1
4x 2 x

1
4x 2 x

1
x

4x 2
= lim ln
= ln lim
= ln lim 1 +
1 =

x 4 x + 1
x 4 x + 1
x
4x + 1
3 4 x +1 1

3 x

4 x +1
1

3 x
1

= ln lim 1 +
= ln lim 1 +

4x + 1
x
x
4x + 1

= ln lim

4 x +1
e 3 x

= ln e

lim

4 x +1
3 x

= ln e

4
3

4
= .
3

112

= ln lim

4 x +1
e 3 x

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

13

f(x), 0,
0, 0,
, ..
(13.1)
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 )
x x0

: lim f ( x) = f ( lim x)
x x0

(13.2)

x x0


. :
y
f(x0)+
f(x0)
f(x0)-
0 x0-

x0

x0+

,
, (13.1) .
f(x) 0,
>0 > 0 , ,
x x0 < f ( x) f ( x0 ) < .
x x0 x .
y y = f ( x) x0
y = f ( x) f ( x0 ) y = f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) .
f(x) =0,
y 0 x 0 , ..
lim y = 0
(13.3)
x 0

,
. .
(. 11) lim f ( x) = f ( x0 + 0) = f ( x0 ) ,
xx+0

0.
y

x0
113

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

(. 11) lim f ( x) = f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 ) ,
xx0

0.
y

x0

0,
.

1) f(x) = C, C = const
.
a x n + a1 x n1 + ... + an

2) f ( x) = 0 m
b0 x + b1 x m1 + ... + bm
, , .
, .
3) y=sinx y=cosx
.
4) y=ax x.
3 y = sinx.
y=sin(x+x)sinx, :
x x

y = 2cos x +
sin
2
2

x x

lim y = 2 lim cos x +


sin = 0
x 0
x 0
2
2

, cos x +

2

x
sin
. 0
2
x
x

cos x +
sin
= 0 ,
1 , .. lim
x 0
2
2

0.
,
, , , ..
. ,
=sinx =0
, .. .
114

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


1) , 0
, 0.
f ( x)
2)

g ( x)
, g(x) 0.
sin x
,
1. y = tgx =
cos x

, cos x = 0 , .. x = (2k 1) , k ] .
2
cos x
, y = ctgx =

sin x
, , sin x = 0 , .. x = k , k ] .
3) .
:
u=f(x), v=g(x) =0,
v=g(f(x)) .
,
.
4) y = f ( x)
x = ( y ) , .
y = n x , n ` , y = log a x, (a > 0, a 0) ,
y = arctgx, y = arcctgx, y = arcsin x,
y = arccos x ,
.

f(x) 0,
0,
0. , f(x)
0; 0 ,
.
f(x),
0, . 0
f(x), f(x) 0
.
2.
1, x
f ( x) =
0, x

(1805-1859) , -
1837
115

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

0.
0 1- ,
f(x) ,
.
lim f ( x) lim f ( x) f ( x0 0) f ( x0 + 0)
x x0 + 0

x x0 0

,
=0, ,
.
, 0 1-
,
f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 0) .
f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0) f ( x0 ) , 0
. ,
( f
0) f , f ( x0 0) = f ( x0 + 0) = f ( x0 ) ,
0 .
x 1, x > 0
3. f(x)= =
x 1, x < 0
y
1
0

x
-1

y=sign(x) . =0
. .. ,
=0 1- .
=0, f(0)=1, ,
f(0)=-1, , f(x)
- , 1 1,
, , , ,
=0 1- . 1-
.
sin x
4. f(x)=
=0,
x
lim f ( x) = 1, .. =0 1x 0

116

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

. , ..
sin x
:
f(x)=
x
sin x
, x 0

g ( x) = x
, x .
1, x = 0
:
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

-20

-10

10

20

-0.2

0 2- ,
f(x)
.
1
5. f(x)= 0=0 2- , ..

lim f ( x) = +; lim f ( x) = .
x 0 + 0

x 0 0

7.5
5
2.5
-10

-5

10

-2.5
-5
-7.5
Graphics


f(x) (),
().

.
6.
, .

117

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

x + 4, x < 1

f ( x) = x 2 + 2, 1 x 1
2 x,
x >1

. ,
, x1 = 1 x2 = 1
, .
(, 1) , (-1,1), (1, +) f(x)
,
x . (, 1) , (-1,1), (1, +) f(x)
. f(x)
x1 = 1 x2 = 1 :
lim f ( x) = 3

lim f ( x) = 3

x 1 0

x 10

lim f ( x) = 2

lim f ( x) = 3

x 1+ 0

x 1+ 0

f (1) = (1) 2 + 2 = 3
f (1) = 12 + 2 = 3
, =-1 , =1
1- . lim f ( x) = 3 = f (1) , f(x) =1
x 1 0

3
2

-4

-1

7.
, .

cos x, x 0

f ( x) = x 2 + 1, 0 < x < 1
x,
x 1

. ,
, x1 = 0 x2 = 1
, .
118

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

(,0) , (0,1), (1, +) f(x)


,
x . (,0) ,
(0,1), (1, +) f(x) .
f(x) x1 = 0 x2 = 1 :
lim f ( x) = 1

lim f ( x) = 2

x 0 0

x 1 0

lim f ( x) = 1

lim f ( x) = 1

x 0 + 0

x 1+ 0

f (0) = cos0 = 1

f (1) = 1

, ..

lim f ( x) = lim f ( x) = f (0) , 1=0

x 0 0

. 2=1

x 0 + 0

lim f ( x) lim f ( x) = f (1) ,

x 1 0

x 1+ 0

1- . 2=1 f(x) .

2
1
-

-/2 0

,
1: ( ). ,
, , .. [a, b]
M f(x) M.
: 1 ,
. , .
1
8. y = (0,1)
x
; y = x
.
2: , [a, b],
.
.. 1 2, f(x1) = m, f(x2) = M,

(1815-1897)
119

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

m f(x) M
1: ,
( f(x)=sinx).

.
2: f ,
, , ,
, .
3: ( ). , [a, b]
, f (a ) = A, f (b) = B , C ,
A B , [a, b] , f ( ) = C .
, , , .
4: f(x) =0,
0, .
5: ( ). f(x)
[a, b] ,
,
.
.. sign(f(a)) sign(f(b)), x0 [a, b] : f(x0)=0.
f(x) [a, b],
>0 >0 , 1[a,b] x2[a,b]
,
x1 x2 <

f(x2) f(x1) <
,
, ,
.
6: ( ). , ,
.
: ,
.

(1845-1918)
120

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

9. y = sin

1
x

0.5

-3

-2

-1

-0.5

-1

1
(0, ),
x
, .. >0 ,
1 2 , f(x1) f(x2)>, -
, 1 2 .
7: f(x) ,

( a , b) ,

c = lim f ( x), d = lim f ( x) , =g(y)


y = sin

xa + 0

x b 0

, c d .

121

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.



14

y=f(x) =0
,
.
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
y
f ( x0 ) = lim
= lim
(14.1)
x 0
x 0 x
x

f(x)

f(x0+x)
f
f(x0)

|M
M0

x
x0

x0 + x

y=f(x) (a,b).
M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) (a, b) M ( x0 + x, y0 + y ) (a, b) , ,
y
y = f ( x) . tg =

x
0M y=f(x). M M 0 , x 0
0M
0P 0 , .
y
lim tg = lim
(14.2)
= f ( x0 ) = tg ,
x 0
x 0 x
0M f(x) (x0, f(x0)),
0P f(x) (x0, f(x0)).
, ,

.
:
(14.3)
y y0 = f ( x0 )( x x0 )
:
1
(14.4)
y y0 =
( x x0 )
f ( x0 )
122

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

() s=f(t)
t0, f(t) .
s = f (t0 + t ) f (t0 ) ,
s
t ,
= v. t .
t
s
= f (t0 ) = v.
lim
t 0 t
t0.

() y=f(x) =0
y
()
,
x
.
y
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
= lim
(14.5)
f +( x0 ) = lim
x x0 + 0
x 0+ x
x
y
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
= lim
(14.6)
f ( x0 ) = lim
x x0 0
x 0 x
x
y=f(x) =0,
. ,
. -, 0, - ,
0,
.
1. f(x) = x =0 ,
, , .

. , ,
.

.
1. ( )
f(x) 0, .
: f(x), ,
(. 1).
,
, ,
.

u(x) v(x) , ,
:
(14.7)
1) (u v) = u v
2) (uv) = uv + uv
(14.8)

123

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

u uv vu
3) =
, v 0
(14.9)
v2
v
.
, , (14.8).
y = uv ,
x :
y + y = (u + u )(v + v) = uv + uv + vu + uv
y = uv + vu + uv .
x x 0 ,
:
y
v
u
v
= u lim
+ v lim
+ lim
u ,
lim
x 0 x
x 0 x
x 0 x
x 0 x
v
v
lim
u = lim
lim u = v 0 ( lim u = 0 ,
x 0 x
x 0 x x 0
x 0
.. u(x), , 1
)
: y = uv + uv + v 0 (uv) = uv + uv .

1) = 0;
9) ( sin x ) = cos x

10) ( cos x ) = sin x


2) x = 1 ;
1

11) ( tgx ) =
3) ( x ) = x 1
cos 2 x

1
1

12) ( ctgx ) = 2
4) x =
sin x
2 x

5) ( e x ) = e x
13) ( arcsin x ) =
1 x2

6) ( a x ) = a x ln a
14) ( arccos x ) =
1 x2
1
1

7) ( ln x ) =
15) ( arctgx ) =
1 + x2
x
1
1

8) ( log a x ) =
16) ( arcctgx ) =
1 + x2
x ln a
,
(14.1) (14.7)(14.9). ,
, 6):
: y = a x y + y = a x +x , y = a x +x a x = a x (a x 1) .

( )

124

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

y a x (a x 1)

=
.
x
x
x 0 , :
x
y
a x (a x 1)
a x 1 a 1 x ln a x
x ln a
x
lim
= lim
= a lim
=
a lim
= a x ln a
x 0 x
x 0
x 0
x 0
x
x
x
9):
y = sin x . x x , y + y = sin( x + x) .

( x + x) x
( x + x ) + x
x
2 x + x
y = sin( x + x) sin x = 2sin
cos
= 2sin cos
.
2
2
2
2
x
2 x + x
sin
cos
y
2
2
.
,
=

x
x
2
x 0 , :
x
x
sin
sin
y
2 cos 2 x + x = lim
2 lim cos 2 x + x = cos x .
y = lim
= lim
x 0 x
x 0
x 0
x
x x0
2
2
2
2
1
2. y = x cos x sin x + cos 2 x .
2
1
1
. : y = x sin 2 x + cos 2 x
2
2
1
1
1
1
y = sin 2 x + x 2cos 2 x + 2cos x( sin x) = sin 2 x + x cos 2 x sin x cos x = x cos 2 x.
2
2
2
2
2
x 2e x
3. y = 2
.
x +1
.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(2 xe x + x 2 2 xe x )( x 2 + 1) (2 x) x 2e x
2 x3e x + 2 x5e x + 2 xe x + 2 x3e x 2 x3e x
y =
=
=
( x 2 + 1) 2
( x 2 + 1) 2
2

2 xe x ( x 4 + 1 + x 2 )
=
( x 2 + 1) 2
(x 2 + 4)5 (3x-1)7
.
4. y=ln 3
(6x 3 + 1) 2 e tg 5x
. , :
5
7
2
1
y= ln(x2+4) + ln(3x-1)- ln(6x3+1)- tg 5x .
3
3
3
3
, :
125

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

5 2x
7
12x 2
5
y= 2
+
3

.
3 x + 4 3x-1 6x + 1 3cos 2 5x

2. y=f(u); u=g(x),
u=g(x) y=f(u), .. y
x: y=f(g(x)). , yu = f (u )
ux = g ( x) yx :
yx = f u(u ) ux ( x)
(14.10)
. x x , u
u , y .
y y u
=

x u x
y
y
u
= lim
lim
lim
x 0 x
x 0 u x 0 x
y
.
lim
x 0 u
ux = g ( x) , 1, u=g(x) , u0
y
y
= lim
x0. lim
x 0 u
u 0 u
y
y
u
= lim
lim
yx = yu (u ) ux ( x) . .
lim
x 0 x
u 0 u x 0 x
x
x
5. y = ln tg
2 sin x
.
1
1
1 sin x x cos x
1
sin x x cos x sin x sin x + x cos x
y =

=
=
2
2
2
x
x
x
sin
x
sin
x
sin
x
2 x 2
tg
cos
2sin cos
2
2
2
2
x cos x
=
sin 2 x
2x4
6. y = arctg
1 x8
.
1
8 x3 (1 x8 ) (8 x 7 )2 x 4 (1 x8 ) 2 (8 x 3 8 x11 + 16 x11 ) 8 x 3 + 8 x11

y =

=
=
=
(1 x8 ) 2
(1 + x8 ) 2 (1 x8 ) 2
(1 + x8 ) 2

4 x8
1 + (1 x8 ) 2

8 x3 (1 + x8 ) 8 x3
=
(1 + x8 ) 2
1 + x8

126

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


ln x, x > 0
.
y = ln x =
ln( x), x < 0
1
( x) 1
1
(lnx)= , .. ( ln x ) = ; (ln( x)) =
= .

x
x
x

f ( x)
.
, ( ln f ( x) ) =
f ( x)
f ( x)

f(x).
f ( x)
,
,
:
f ( x) = (ln f ( x) ) f ( x)
(14.11)

,

. :
1. y = f1 ( x) f 2 ( x) ... f n ( x) n > 2
f ( x) f 2 ( x) ... f n ( x)
, g1 ( x) g 2 ( x) ... g m ( x) 0 n > 1, m > 1
2. y = 1
g1 ( x) g 2 ( x) ... g m ( x)
3. y = f ( x) g ( x )
2

7. y = x 2 e x ln x cos 2 x
. :
2
ln y = ln( x 2 e x ln x cos 2 x)
:
ln y = 2ln x + x 2 ln e + ln ln x + 2ln cos x
:
y 2
1
2( sin x)
= + 2x +
+
y x
x ln x
cos x
:
1
2( sin x)
2
y = y + 2 x +
+

x ln x
cos x
x
2
1
2( sin x)
2
y = x 2 e x ln x cos 2 x + 2 x +
+

x ln x
cos x
x
-
,
, , .
,
-.
127

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

u = f(x) v = g(x) , ,
f(x)>0.
y = uv. , :
lny = vlnu
, :
y
u
= v ln u + v
y
u
u

y = u v v + v ln u
u

(14.12)
( u v ) = vu v1u + u vv ln u

-

(14.12),
.
8. f ( x) = ( x 2 + 3 x) x cos x .
v = x cos x;
. : u = x 2 + 3 x;
: u = 2 x + 3; v = cos x x sin x;
:
f ( x) = x cos x ( x 2 + 3 x) x cos x 1 (2 x + 3) + ( x 2 + 3 x) x cos x (cos x x sin x)ln( x 2 + 3 x)

= f(x) ,
x = g(y) ,
.
x = g(y) :
1 = g ( y ) y
.. g(y) 0,
1
y =
(14.13)
g ( y )
..
.
9. arctgx.
. arctgx , tgx, ..
:
y = tgx;
x = arctgy;
1
;
, y = (tgx) =
cos 2 x
:
1
1
;
(arctgy ) =
y =
(arctgy )
1/ cos 2 x
128

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

1
= 1 + tg 2 x = 1 + y 2 ;
2
cos x
:
1
(arctgy ) =
;
1 + y2
arctgx, arcsinx,
arcosx , .

..

.

. , f(x)
, -
x, f '(x) ;
g(x) , . . g(x)
x, g'(x) .


, .. .
,
, .
.

. ,
,
, ,
,
,
.
v x :
v
v=f(x),
,
x
dv
.

dx
.
u=u(t), u t.

t=t1-t0: u=u(t1)-u(t0)=u(t0+t)-u(t0).

u
.
, .. z . =
t
z(t0) t0 ,
u
z.

t0:
z = lim
.

t 0 t
129

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

, ,
: z(t0) = u'(t0).
K
x. K=K(x). ,
. x+
K(x+). ,

K=K(x+)-K(x).
K
.

x
.
K
lim
= K(x) .
x 0 x
u(x) x ,
u
lim
= u(x) .
x 0 x
,
.
( )
, .
(
). , y=f(x),
y=f(x). y=f(x)
x
y/y 100% x
= f (x) .
x o x/x 100%
y

lim

x
(14.14)
y .
y
x
( ),
1%. ,
, ,
.
,

.
.
, ,

.
.
,

E x (y)=

130

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

.
. ,

, ,
.
10. ,
y ( x) = 100 3 x , x 0 = 20 ..
. y y ( x) = 100 3 x : y( x) = 3 .
x
20
(-3)=-1,5.
(14.14) : E x (y0 )= 0 y( x0 ) =
100-3 20
y0
, () 1%
() 1,5%.

131

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

15

y
= f ( x0 ) .
x 0 x

y = f(x) 0: lim

2 11 :

(x)0, 0.

y
= f ( x0 ) + ( x) ,
x

, y = f ( x0 ) x + ( x) x .
(x)x ,
, , x, .. (x)x=(x).
, :
(15.1)
y = f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) = f ( x) x + (x)
(15.1) f(x0)x
x .
f(x) 0
.
f(x) 0 dy x = x
0

df(x0).
(15.1) ,
dy x = x =f(x0)x.
0

(15.2)

1. y = x \ .
. (15.2) :
dy x =dx=x.
, x :
dx=x
(15.3)
(15.2) (15.3),
dy x = x =f(x0) dx
(15.4)
0

(15.4) :
f ( x) =

dy
dx

(15.5)


(15.4) (15.1), :
y = f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) = dy x = x + (x)
(15.6)
0

(15.6) (x) ,
:

differentia
132

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

y = f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) dy x = x

(15.7)

(15.7) , x
.

y dy = (x)
(15.8)
(15.7) (15.4), ,
:
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) + dy x = x
0

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )x

(15.9)

2. 16,06
. f ( x) = x , x0 = 16, x = 0,06 , (15.9):
16 + 0,06 16 +

( x )

0,06 = 4 +
x0 =16

1
0,06
0,06 = 4 +
= 4,0075
8
2 16

3. tg 46
. f ( x) = tgx, x0 = 45 , x = 1 .
(15.9) :

3,14
=
0,0174
x0 = 45 = , x = 1 =
4
180 180
(15.9) :

1
) tg + ( tgx)
tg(45 + 1 ) = tg( +
1+ 2
0,0174 = 1 + 2 0,0174 = 1,0348
180
4 180
4
cos x x=
x=
4

f(x)
K
M

P
L

x + x

dy

MKL: KL = dy = tgx = yx
, f(x)
.

133

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

y dy
.

u=f(x) v=g(x) , ,

:
1) d(u v) = (u v)dx = udx vdx = du dv
2) d(uv) = (uv)dx = (uv + vu)dx = vdu + udv
3) d(Cu) = Cdu
u vdu udv
4) d =
v2
v
.

y = f(x), x = g(t), .. : y = f(g(t))
dy=yt(t)dt, (14.10) 14
dy = f g ( g ) gt(t )dt = f g ( g )dg
(15.10)
, dy ,
- ,

.
. , dx=x,
t, dx. , dy = f(x)x
.

f(x) . ,
,
y = f ( x) =

df ( x)
dx

f(x),
f(x).
y = f ( x) =

d 2 f ( x)
dx 2

d 2 y d dy
.. y=(y) 2 = .
dx dx
dx

, n.
d n y d d n 1 y
.
=
dx n dx dx n 1

(15.11)


( y )(0) = y

134

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


u=f(x) v=g(x) ,

1) (u)(n)=Cu(n);
2) (u v)(n)=u(n) v(n);
3) (u v) ( n ) = vu ( n ) + nu ( n1) v +

n(n 1) ( n 2)
n(n 1)...[n (k 1)] ( n k ) ( k )
u
v + ... +
u
v + ...
2!
k!

... + uv ( n ) = Cn0vu ( n ) + Cn1u ( n1)v + Cn2u ( n2)v + ... + Cnk u ( nk )v ( k ) + ... + Cnnuv ( n ) , (15.12)
Cnk n k , k = 0,1, 2,..., n .
.
(15.12) ,
:
(n)
{ n}
( uv ) = ( u + v )
{n} , ( u + v )
, .. ,
, u v
.
.
n-
dny=f(n)(x)dxn
(15.13)
. (15.13) n > 1 (
n = 1 ) , x .
{ n}

. (1646-1716) .
135

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

16

. f(x) [a, b],
(, b)
f(a) = f(b), (, b) , a < < b,
f(x) , f() = 0.
. ,
f(x) [a, b] .
m .
=m M m.
M=m. [a, b] f(x)
.
.
M m. ,
m [a, b].
. , a<<b , f()=M.
, ( ,
+ ) : f()
= f( + x) f() 0.
f () 0, x > 0
=

0, x < 0
x
,
f ()
.
lim
x 0 x
f ( )
f ()
.. lim
0 lim
0 , :
x 0 x
x 0 x
x > 0
x < 0

f ()
= 0, .. f () = 0. .
x 0 x
,
(a, b) ,
y = f(x) .
,
.
C . f(x) [a, b]
, f(a) = f(b) = 0, , a <
< b, , f() = 0. ..
, .
lim

(1652-1719)
136

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

. f(x) [a, b]
(, b),
,
f (b) f (a )
= f () , a < < b.
(16.1)
ba
,
,
.

.
.
F(x) = f(x) y
:
f (b) f (a )
( x a)
y f (a) =
ba
f (b) f (a )
( x a)
F ( x) = f ( x) f (a )
ba
F(x) . ,
[a, b] (, b).
, a < < b, F() = 0.
f (b) f (a )
f (b) f (a )
, F () = f ()
= 0 ,
.. F ( x) = f ( x)
ba
ba
f (b) f (a )
, .
f () =
ba
,
f (b) f (a )
.
ba

0
b
x
f(x) , (,
b) , y = f(x)
, .
, .

(1736-1813)
137

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

f (a) f (b) = f ()(b a)


.

.
:
y = f ( x + x)x ,
0 < < 1, x=b a, y=f(b) f(a).
. f(x) g(x) [a, b]
(a, b) g(x) 0 (a, b),
, a < < b, ,
f (b) f (a ) f ()
.
(16.2)
=
g (b) g (a ) g ()
..
.

.
, . ,
, ..
. ,
, - ,
, .
.
f (b) f (a )
F ( x) = f ( x) f (a )
( g ( x) g (a )) ,
g (b) g (a )
[a, b] .
, = =b F(a)=F(b)=0.
, a < < b, , F() = 0. ..
f (b) f (a )
F ( x) = f ( x)
g ( x) ,
g (b) g (a )
f (b) f (a )
F () = 0 = f ()
g ()
g (b) g (a )
f (b) f (a ) f ( x)
, g () 0 ,
. .
=
g (b) g (a ) g ( x)
,
( g(x)=x) .
.

, .

(1789-1857)
138

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


1 ( ). f(x) g(x)
( ), g(x) g(x)
lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = 0 .
x a

x a

( ) lim
x a

f ( x)
= A ,
g ( x)


f ( x)
f ( x)
lim
= lim
= A.
(16.3)
x a g ( x )
x a g ( x )
. , :
f ( x) f (a ) f ()
=
g ( x) g (a ) g ()
- , . , f(a) = g(a) = 0:
f ( x) f ()
=
g ( x) g ()
f ( x)

. ..
g ( x)
, ,
f ()

. ,
g ()
:
f ( x)
f ( x)
lim
. .
= lim
x a g ( x )
x a g ( x )
x 2 1 + ln x
1. lim
.
x 1
ex e
. ,
0

. ,
0
.
1
g(x) = ex;
f(x) = 2x + ;

1
2
x
+
f ( x)
x = 2 +1 = 3 ;
=
lim
x
x 1 g ( x )
e
e
e
2arctgx
2. lim
.
3
x
x
e 1

(1661-1704)
139

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

0
. ,
0
.


3
2
3
g ( x) = e x 2 ;
;
f ( x) =
2
x
1+ x

2x
2
2
2
= lim
lim
= .
=
3
3
x
(1 + x 2 )e x (3) x ( 1 + 1)e x (3) (0 + 1) 1 (3) 3

x2


,
, ..
. , ,

.
,
.
- (
, .).
e x e x 2 x
.
3. lim
x 0
x sin x
0
. . ,
0
.
f ( x) = e x + e x 2 ;
g ( x) = 1 cos x ;

e x + e x 2 1 + 1 2 0
lim
=
= .
x 0 1 cos x
11
0
.
f ( x) = e x e x ;
g ( x) = sin x ;
e x e x 1 1 0
=
= .
x 0 sin x
0
0
x
x
g ( x) = cos x ;
f ( x) = e + e ;

lim

e x + e x 2
, lim
= = 2.
x 0 cos x
1
2 ( ). f(x) g(x)
( ), g(x) g(x)
lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = ( +
x a

x a

). ( ) lim
x a


140

f ( x)
= A,
g ( x)

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

lim
x a

f ( x)
f ( x)
= lim
= A.
g ( x) xa g ( x)

(16.4)

x
2

xe
.
x + x + e x

4. lim

. ,

.
x
1
2
e (1 + x)
x
1
2 =
g ( x) = 1 + e x ;
lim
f ( x) = e 2 (1 + x) ;
+
x
1 + ex

2
x
1 2
1
e
+
x
(4
)
(4 + x)
x
x
x
x
1 2 1 2 x 2 1 2
x
4
4
= lim
=
f ( x) = e + e + e = e (4 + x) ; g ( x) = e ; lim =
x
x+
x+
ex

2
2
4
4
e2
1
1 2x
1
f ( x) = ;
g ( x) = e ;
lim x = 0;
x +
4
2
2e 2
x2
5. lim 2 x .
x + e

. .

f ( x) = 2 x;
g ( x) = 2e 2 x ;
lim 2 x = ; .
x e

.
1
1
f ( x) = 2;
g ( x) = 4e 2 x ;
lim 2 x = = 0 ;
x 2e

0 ; 1 ; 0
.
g ( x)
y = [ f ( x) ] , f(x)>0 .

lny=g(x)lnf(x).
6. lim x x .

x 0
x >0

. 00 . y = xx .
lny=xlnx.
ln x
1/ x
limln y = lim x ln x = 0 = lim
=
= lim
= lim x = 0.
x0 1/ x2
x0
x0
x0 1
x0

x >0
x >0
x >0
x >0
x >0
x
lim ln y = ln lim y = 0 . , lim y = lim x x = 1.

x 0
x >0

x 0
x >0

x 0
x >0

141

x 0
x >0

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


17

1. f(x) [a, b]
(, b), f(x) > 0 (f(x) < 0) a<x<b,
() [a, b].
. f(x)>0 1 2,
[a, b], x1<x2. : f(x2)f(x1)=f()(x2 x1),
f(x2)f(x1) >0, .. f(x)
x1< <x2. f()>0, ,
. .
:
y
y


f(x) 0 .

f(x) 0 (),
0 : f(x0) > f(x) (f(x0) < f(x)).
,
, ,
(
).
,

.
2. ( )
f(x) = 0 0
, .
. ,
f(x) = 0 .
>0 :
f ( x0 + x) < f ( x0 ) , .. f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) < 0
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
>0
< 0

x
142

2006

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
<0
x

I
. , . .-. . .H.

> 0

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
= f ( x0 ) .
x
.. 0, <0, f(0) 0, 0, >0, f(0) 0.
, 0 f(0) = 0.
, f(x) 0
. .
. f(0) = 0
, 0 y=f(x)
x.
. .
, ,
.

, .
1. f(x) =|x|
2. f(x) = 3
y
y
: lim
x 0

x
x
= 0 f(x) =|x|
= 0 f(x) = 3
,
,
.
, .
. f(x) ,
.

,
.
3. ( )
y=f(x) 0,
(, ,
0). 0
f(x) + -, = 0
f(x) , - +,
. , 0
f(x) , 0 .
143

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

.
f ( x) > 0 x < x0

f ( x) < 0 x > x0
: f(x) f(x0) = f()(x x0),
x x0.
: 1) < x0, < x0; f()>0; f()(x x0)<0, f(x)
f(x0)<0 f(x) < f(x0).
2) > x0, > x0 f()<0; f()(x x0)<0, f(x)
f(x0)<0 f(x) < f(x0).
. . f(x)<f(x0), , f(x)<f(x0)
0, .. 0 .
.
.
1-3

:
1. y = f ( x) .
2. y = f ( x) .
3. f ( x) = 0
,
, . ..
.
4. .
,
.
5. (
-
).
f ( x) > 0 , , f ( x) < 0 ,
.
6. ,
.
i f(x)
+ -, = i f(x) ,
- +,
.


( )
[a, b] y = f ( x) :
1) , (a, b) .
2) .
3) .
144

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

4) .
3. y = ln 2 x 2ln x
[1,5] .
.

1
1
ln x 1
y = ( ln 2 x 2ln x ) = 2ln x 2 = 2
.
x
x
x
: ln x 1 = 0 x = 0 .
.. x = e x = 0 . ,
x =e.

[1,5]

2
f (e) = ln e 2ln e = 1 2 = 1
f (1) = ln 2 1 2ln1 = 0 0 = 0
f (5) = ln 2 5 2ln 5 0,63

f (e), f (1), f (5) ,

y .[1,5] = f (1) = 0 ,
y.[1,5] = f (e) = 1 .


4. f(x0)=0, f(x) =0 ,
f(x0)<0 , f(x0)>0.
. f(x0)=0 f(x0)>0. x = x0 + x ,
x0 ... f(x)=(f(x)),
f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 )
f ( x)
f ( x0 ) = lim
lim
=
.
x 0
x x0
x
x x0
f ( x)
,
f(x0),
x x0
, ,
f ( x)
..
> 0 0 < x x0 < , .
x x0
f ( x)
,

x x0
, ,
f ( x) < 0 < x x0 < 0 f ( x) > 0 0 < x x0 < .
f ( x) x0 - +.
3 f(x) .
.
f(x0)=0, x0 .
.

145

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

.

(, b),
. ,
, , ,
.

x
.
5. (a, b)
f(x)
(), y=f(x) (
).
. 0 (a, b) f ( x0 ) < 0 .
.
: y=f(x);
: y . f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 )( x x0 ).
: y y. = f ( x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )( x x0 ) .
f(x)f(x0):
y y. = f (c)( x x0 ) f ( x0 )( x x0 ) , x0<c <x
y y. = ( x x0 )( f (c) f ( x0 ))

f (c) f ( x0 ) :
y y . = f (c1 )(c x0 )( x x0 ),
x0 < c1 < c
> x0 x0 < c1 < c < x. .. x x0 > 0 c x0 > 0,
f (c1 ) < 0 , , y y . < 0 .
x < x0 x < c < c1 < x0 x x0 < 0, c x0 < 0, ..
f (c1 ) < 0, y y . < 0 .
, f(x)>0 (a, b),
y=f(x) (a, b).
.
, ,
. .
146

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

6. ( )
y = f ( x) M 0 ( x0 , f ( x0 )) , f ( x0 ) = 0 f ( x0 )
.
7. ( )
y=f(x). f(x0) = 0
f(x0)
=x0 f(x) ,
M 0 ( x0 , f ( x0 )) .
.
1) f(x) < 0 < a f(x) > 0 x > a. x < a
, x > a , .. = .
1) f(x) > 0 x < b f(x) < 0 x < b. x < b
, x > b . x = b
. .
5-7
:
1. y = f ( x) .
2. y = f ( x) .
3. f ( x) = 0
,
, . ..
.
4.
. ,
.
5.
( -
).
f ( x) > 0 , ,
f ( x) < 0 , .
6. , y = f ( x) ,
, ,
.
.

,

.
,

.
, .
.
147

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


.
, , ,
, ,

x
3

y = x + e sin x . =.
10
5
-10

-5

10

-5
-10
-15
-20

.

, lim f ( x) = lim f ( x) =
xa + 0

xa 0

lim f ( x) = , = y=f(x).
xa

, f ( x) =

2
=5
x5

.

, y=f(x)

+b.

y.=kx

15
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5
1

,
.
148

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

. Q
N.
MQ=y , NQ= y . N
.
MP = 0 ,
: lim
x

NMP = , NM =

MP
cos

900,
lim MP = lim NM cos = lim NM = 0
x

NM = MQ QN = y y . = f ( x ) ( kx + b)

lim[ f ( x) (kx + b)] = 0 .


x

, y = kx + b .
k b.
:
b
f ( x)
lim x
k =0
x
x
x
b
b
f ( x)
.. , lim
k = 0 , .. b = const, lim = 0; lim k = k .
x x
x

x
x
x

f ( x)
lim
k 0 = 0 , ,
x
x
f ( x)
k = lim
.
x
x
.. lim[ f ( x) (kx + b)] = 0 , lim[ f ( x) kx] lim b = 0 , ,
x

(17.1)

b = lim[ f ( x) kx]

(17.2)

,
k=0.
4. y =

x 2 + 2x 1
.
x

.
1) :
x2 + 2 x 1
x2 + 2x 1
= , ,
lim y =
= +
lim y =
x 0 0
x 0 + 0
x
x
=0 .
2) :
x 2 + 2x 1
2 1
= lim1 + 2 = 1
2
x
x
x x
x

x 2 + 2x 1 x 2
x 2 + 2x 1
1

2x 1
= lim
b = lim( f ( x) x) = lim
= lim 2 = 2
x = lim

x
x
x
x
x
x x x
x

k = lim

, =+2 .
:

149

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
6

-3

-2

-1

-2

5. y =

9x
.
9 x2

. =3 =-3 .
,
9x
9x
27
= xlim
=
=
lim y = xlim
2
x 3+ 0
3+ 0
3+ 0
9 x
(3 x)(3 + x) 0
9x
9x
27
=
=
=
= +
lim
y
lim
lim
2
x 3 0
x 3 0
x 3 0
9 x
(3 x)(3 + x) +0
9x
9x
27
=
=
=
=
lim
y
lim
lim
x 3+ 0
x 3+ 0
9 x 2 x3+ 0 (3 x)(3 + x) +0
9x
9x
27
=
=
=
= +
lim
y
lim
lim
2
x 3 0
x 3 0
9 x x30 (3 x)(3 + x) 0
k b (17.1)
(17.2):
k = lim
x

9
=0
9 x2

9
9x
b = lim
= lim x = 0
x 9 x 2
x 9
1
x2

y=0 .
6
4
2
-7.5

-5

-2.5

2.5
-2
-4
-6

150

7.5

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
x 2 2x + 3
6. y =
.
x+2

. =-2 .
,
x 2 2 x + 3 11
lim
=
= +
x 2 + 0
x+2
+0
x 2 2 x + 3 11
lim
=
=
x 2 0
x+2
0
y = kx + b:
x 2 2x + 3
x 2 2x + 3
k = lim
= lim
= lim
x
x
x
x ( x + 2)
x 2 + 2x

2 3
+
x x 2 = 1.
2
1+
x

x 2x + 3 x 2x
x 2x + 3
4x + 3
x = 4
= lim
b = lim
= lim
x = lim
x
x
x
x
2
x
x
x
2
2
+
2
+
+

1+
x
2

4+

, =4 .
20
15
10
5
-10

-5

10

-5
-10
-15
-20


.

:
1) .
2)
0, .
3) ( )
.
.
4) .
.
5)
(
).
151

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

6) , ,
. .
7) ,
. .
.
8) ,
. .
9) ,
.
- .
.
7. y =

x3
.
x2 1

.
1. . ,
(-; -1) (-1; 1) (1;+).
2. 0
, ():
( x )3
x3
y ( x) =
= 2
= y ( x) , ,
( x) 2 1
x 1
.
3. =1, =-1 .
x3
1
x3
1
=
=
=
= +
lim y = xlim
lim y = xlim
x 1 0
1 0 2
x 1+ 0
1+ 0 2
x 1 0
x 1 +0
x3
1
x3
1
=
=
=
lim
y
=
lim
=
=
+
lim
y
lim
2
2
x 1 0
x 1 0
x 1+ 0
x 1+ 0
x 1 0
x 1 +0
, =1, =-1
.
4. .
.
x2
= lim
x x 2 1
x

k = lim

1
1
1 2
x

= 1;

x3 x3 + x
x3
x
= lim 2
b = lim 2
= lim x = 0
x = lim
2
x x 1
x
x

1
x 1 x

x 1

1 2
x

: y=x.
5. x x + :
x3
1
1
lim 2
= lim
= = ;
x
x 1 x 1 1 0
x
x3
6. :
152

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

Ox : y = 0 x = 0
Oy : x = 0 y = 0 . O(0,0) .
7. .

y =

3x 2 ( x 2 1) 2 x x 3 3x 4 3x 2 2 x 4 x 4 3x 2
= 2
=
( x 2 1) 2
( x 2 1) 2
( x 1) 2

: x=0; x=- 3 ; x= 3 .
.
.
- < x < - 3 , y > 0,
- 3 < x < -1,
y < 0,
-1 < x < 0,
y < 0,
0 < x < 1,
y < 0,
1 < x < 3,
y < 0,
3 < x < ,
y > 0,
, =- 3 , = 3
3 3
. y ( 3) =

2
3 3
y ( 3) =
.
2
8.
y =

(4 x 3 6 x)( x 2 1) 2 ( x 4 3x 2 )4 x( x 2 1)
=
( x 2 1) 4

(4 x 3 6 x)( x 4 2 x 2 + 1) ( x 4 3x 2 )(4 x 3 4 x)
=
( x 2 1) 4

4 x 7 8 x 5 + 4 x 3 6 x 5 + 12 x 3 6 x 4 x 7 + 4 x 5 + 12 x 5 12 x 3
=
( x 2 1) 4

2 x 5 + 4 x 3 6 x 2 x( x 4 + 2 x 2 3) 2 x( x 2 + 3)( x 2 1) 2 x( x 2 + 3)
.
=
=
=
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 3

: x=0; x=- 3 ; x= 3 .
.
- < x < - 3 , y < 0,
- 3 < x < -1,
y < 0,
-1 < x < 0,
y > 0,
0 < x < 1,
y < 0,
y > 0,
1 < x < 3,
3 < x < ,
y > 0,
x = 0 .
:

153

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
4

-2

-1

-1

-2

-3

-4

154

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

18

. 1) f(x) =
(n+1) . ..
n
.
2) , .
:
f (a )
f (a )
f ( n ) (a)
2
f ( x) = f (a ) +
( x a) +
( x a ) + ... +
( x a ) n + Rn+1 ( x) , (18.1)
n!
1!
2!
.
(18.1) , :
f ( n +1) ( )
( x a ) n +1 = Rn +1 ( x)
(n + 1)!

(18.2)

.
. f(x)
Pn(x), = f(x),

=.
Pn (a ) = f (a ); Pn (a) = f (a ); Pn(a) = f (a); ... Pn( n ) (a ) = f ( n ) (a)
(18.3)
Pn(x) f(x). n,
,
.
:
Pn ( x) = C 0 + C1 ( x a ) + C 2 ( x a ) 2 + ... + C n ( x a ) n
(18.4)
(18.4) n :
Pn ( x) = C1 + 2C 2 ( x a) + 3C 3 ( x a) 2 + ... + nC n ( x a ) n 1

n2
Pn( x) = 2C 2 + 3 2C 3 ( x a) + ... + n(n 1)C n ( x a )

..........................................................................................
P ( n ) ( x) = n(n 1)(n 2)...2 1C
n
n

(18.5) =, (18.3), :
f (a) = C 0
f (a ) = C1
f (a ) = 2 1C 2
f (a ) = 3 2 1C 3

.
f ( n ) (a ) = n(n 1)(n 2)...2 1C n

(1685-1731)
155

(18.5)

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

Ci (18.4), :

f (a)
f (a)
f ( n ) (a)
2
Pn ( x) = f (a) +
( x a) n
( x a) + ... +
( x a) +
n!
2
1

, f(x),
.. . Rn+1(x).
: f(x) = Pn(x) + Rn+1(x). .
Rn+1(x).
y
Rn+1(x)

f(x)
Pn(x)
0

, =
. , =
.
Rn+1(x). .. (a, x),
0 < < 1, = a + (x a).
:
Rn +1 ( x) =

f ( n +1) [a + ( x a )]
( x a ) n +1
(n + 1)!

(18.6)

, a = x0, x a=x, x = x0 + x,
:
f (x0 )
f (x0)
f (n) (x0 )
f (n+1) (x0 +x)
2
n
x +
(x) + ... +
(x) +
(x)n+1 , (18.7)
f (x0 +x) = f (x0) +
1!
2!
(n +1)!
n!
0 < < 1.
n =0, : f(x0 + x) f(x0) = f(x0 + x)x
.

.
, ,
..

.

156

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.


= 0:
f (0)
f (0) 2
f ( n ) (0) n
f ( x) = f (0) +
x+
x + ... +
x + Rn+1 ( x)
(18.8)
1!
2!
n!
f ( n+1) (x) n+1
Rn+1 ( x) =
x ;
0 < <1
(n + 1)!

.
,
,
, .. ,
- , , ,
.
, .
, ,
, , ,
,
.

, .
.. ( )
.
, , Rn+1(x)
, , (
)n, ..
Rn+1 ( x) = (( x a ) n ) .
,
.




.
,
.
, ,

.
,
.

(1698-1746) .
157

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

,
(, , 10
20 , ) 4-10
.

.
f(x)=ex
:
f(x) = ex, f(0) = 1
f(x) = ex, f(0) = 1

f(n)(x) = ex, f(n)(0) = 1


(18.8):
ex = 1+

x x2 x3
xn
x n +1 x
+
+
+ ... +
+
e ,
1 2! 3!
n! (n + 1)!

0 < <1

(18.9)

1. .
. (18.9) =1.
e = 1+1+

1
1 1 1
+ + + ... +
e
(n + 1)!
2 3! 4!

8 : e = 2,71827876984127003
10 : e = 2,71828180114638451
100 : e = 2,71828182845904553
2.75
2.5
2.25
2
1.75
1.5
1.25
2

10


.
, ,
, 67- .
f(x)=sinx
n x=0:
f(x) = sinx; f(0) = 0
f(x) = cosx = sin( x + /2); f(0) = 1;
f(x) = -sinx = sin(x + 2/2); f(0) = 0;
f(x) = -cosx = sin(x + 3/2); f(0)=-1;

158

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

f(n)(x) = sin(x + n/2);


f(n)(0) = sin(n/2);
f(n+1)(x) = sin(x + (n + 1)/2);
f(n+1)() = sin( + (n + 1)/2);
:
x3 x5
x 2 n1
n +1
sin x = x + ... + (1)
+ R2 n ( x) ,
(18.10)
3! 5!
(2n 1)!
f (2 n+1) () 2 n+1
cos 2 n+1
x
x
R2 n ( x) =
=
(2n + 1)!
(2n + 1)!
2.
.


.
4

-10

-5

10

-2

-4

. 1.
4

-10

-5

10

-2

-4

. 2.
4

-10

-5

5
-2

-4

. 3.

159

10

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.
4

-10

-5

10

-2

-4

. 4.


x0 , ,
.
3. sin200.
200 : 200 = /9.
,
:
sin 20 0 = sin

1
1
+ = 0,348889 0,007078 + 0,000043 = 0,341854
3! 9 5! 9


0,3420. , ,
0,0002.
, 0 sinx

. , , ,
,
.. sinx x.
f(x)=cosx
cosx :
f(x)=cosx; f(0)=1
f(x)=-sinx; f(0)=0;
f(x)=-cosx; f(0)=-1;
f(x)=sinx; f(0)=0;
f IV ( x) = cos x; f IV (0) = 1 .
x2 x4
x2n
+ ... + (1) n
+ R2 n+1 ( x)
2! 4!
(2n)!
cos 2 n+ 2
=
x
(2n + 2)!

cos x = 1
R2 n+1 ( x) =

f (2 n+ 2) () 2 n+ 2
x
(2n + 2)!

f(x)=(1+x) ( - )
f ( x) = (1 + x) 1 ; f (0) = ;
f ( x) = ( 1)(1 + x) 2 ; f (0) = ( 1);
160

(18.11)

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

..
f ( n ) ( x) = ( 1)( 2)...( (n 1))(1 + x) n ;

:
(1 + x) = 1 +
Rn +1 ( x) =

(n+1)

x+

( 1)

( 1)...( n)
(n + 1)!

2 1

x 2 + ... +

(1 + x) ( n +1) ;

f ( n ) (0) = ( 1)( 2)...( n + 1)

( 1)...( n + 1)
n!

x n + Rn +1 ( x)

(18.12)

0 < <1

=n, n
(x)=0, Rn+1=0,
(1 + x) n = 1 +

n
n(n 1) 2
x+
x + ... + x n
1!
2!

(18.13)

, .
f(x)=ln(1 + x)
f(x) = ln(1 + x);
f(0) = 0;

:
1
;
1+ x
1
;
f ( x) =
(1 + x) 2
1 (2)
;
f ( x) =
(1 + x) 3

f(x) =

f (0) = 1;

f (0) = 1;
f (0) = 2;

f ( n ) ( x) = (1) n 1

(n 1)!
;
(1 + x) n

f ( n ) (0) = (1) n1 (n 1)!;

1 2 1 2 3
(1) n 1 (n 1)! n
x ... +
x + Rn +1 ( x);
: ln(1 + x) = x x +
2
3!
n!
x2 x3
(1) n 1 n
ln(1 + x) = x
+
... +
x + Rn +1 ( x) ,
(18.14)
2
3
n
n +1
(1) n n! x
Rn+1 ( x) =

;
(n + 1)! 1 +


( ) .
4. ln1,5
. (18.14) :
ln 1,5 = ln(1 + 0,5) 0,5

0,5 2 0,5 3 0,5 4 0,5 5 0,5 6 0,5 7


+

+
= 0,4058035
2
3
4
5
6
7


, ,
,
.

161

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

1. , , .
2. , .
. .
3. . . . .
4. 1-, 2- 3- . . .
5. n- . .
6. .
7. . * .
.
8. - . .
. . .
9. m- n .
. .
10. m- n .
. * .
11. ( ).
.
12. .
13. m- n . .
14. () . n-
.
15. () n-.
16. n- .
* .
17. n-. n-,
, n-. .
18. . , ,
, . ,
.
19. . .
.
20. -
. .
. ; .
. .
21. . .
22. . .
23. .
.
.
24. R 2 . * .
162

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

25. .
* .
26. R 2 .
* .
.
27. R 2 . , .
* .
.
28. .
.
29. () 2- .
Ax 2 + Cy 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0
.
30. * .
31. , ,
.
32. * .
33. , ,
.
34. * .
35. , ,
.
36. * .
37. * .
38. , ,
.
39.
x = x0 0, y = y0 0 . .
40. , M 0
* .
41. , .
.
42. ,
* .
43. .
.
44. .
* .
45. .
* .

163

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

46. , .
, .
.
47. .
.
48. .
.
49. \ n , \ 3 , \ 2 .
50. m
.
51.
52.
53.
54. ()
55. : , ,
56. (, , , ,
, , ,
)

57.
, )
58.
59. *
60. ( )
61.
62.
63. .
64.
65. *
66. .
.
67. *
68.
69. .
70. *.
.
71.
72. ,
73. ,
74. .
75.
76. *
77. *
78. *
79. *
164

2006

I
. , . .-. . .H.

80.
arctgx, arctgx, arcsinx, arccosx*
81. . ,

82.
83. . .
84.
85. (, )
.
86. . *
87. *
88. . *
89. . *
90.
.
91.
*
92. *
93. *
94. *
95.
96.
97. f ( x) = e x
98. f ( x) = sin x
99.
f ( x) = cos x
100.
f ( x) = (1 + x)
101.
f ( x) = ln(1 + x)
102.

165