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Job Enrichment: The concept of job enrichment has been derived from Herzbergs

two-factor theory of motivation in which he has suggested that job content is one of
the basic factors of motivation. If the job is designed in such a manner that it
becomes more interesting and challenging to the job performer and provides him
opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and
growth, the job itself becomes a source of motivation to the individual.
According to Richard W. Beatty and Graig Eric. Schneider, Job enrichment is a
motivational technique which emphasizes the need for challenging and interesting
work. It suggests that jobs be redesigned so that intrinsic satisfaction is derived
from doing the job. In its best applications it leads to a vertically enhanced job by
adding function from other organizational levels, making it contain more variety and
challenge and offer autonomy and pride to the employee.
According to P. Robbins, Job enrichment refers to the vertical expansion of the jobs.
It increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and
evaluation of his work.
In the words of Robert Albanese, Job enrichment sometimes called. vertical job
leading is a job redesign strategy that focuses on job depth.
According to Mondy. Holmes, and Flippo, Job enrichment refers to basic changes in
the content and level of responsibility of a job so to provide for the satisfaction of
the motivation needs of personnel.
Rebert Ford, who was associated with designing of jobs to make them more
enriched, has provided some bases (though not exhaustive) for job enrichment as
shown in Table

Techniques of Job Enrichment: In order to enrich the jobs. The management should
adopt the following measures:

Freedom in decisions
Assign a natural work unit to an employee.
Encouraging participation
Allow the employee to set his own standards of performance.
Minimize the controls to provide freedom to the employees
Make an employee directly responsible for his performance.
Encourage participation of employees in deciding organizational goals and
Expand job vertically
Introducing new, difficult and creative tasks to the employees.
Sense of achievement.
Advantages of Job Enrichment: The advantages of job enrichment are as follows:
It enriches the role.
Job enrichment is the most widely used of job design as it provides a meaningful
learning to employees.
It makes the work interesting and employee get motivated.
It helps in reducing the rate of labour turnover and absenteeism.
It increases skills of the employees.
It increases morale and performance.
Reduce Boredom and dissatisfaction.
Increase in output both qualitative and quantitative.

Disadvantages of Job Enrichment:

Dunham and Newstrom state, Even the strongest supporters of job enrichment
readily admit that there are limitations in its application.
Newstrom and Keith Davis also write, Employees are the final judges of what
enriches their jobs. All that management can do is to gather information about what
tends to enrich jobs, try these changes in the job system, and then determine
whether employees feel that enrichment has occurred.
A few limitations of or problems with job enrichment are as follows:
Increase cost
Need more employee counseling, training, and guidance.
Not applicable to all jobs.
Negative impact on personnel.
Imposed on people.
Objected by unions
Pay dissatisfaction