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Lietuvos muzikologija, t.

12, 2011

Kseniya ZAMORNIKOVA, Margarita KATUNYAN

Fratres
Arvo Prts Fratres: he Prayer in Music
Arvo Prto Fratres muzikin malda

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Abstract
he music of Arvo Prt amazes by its spiritual beauty and purity. It is sent heavenwards and simultaneously to every one of us. he language
of sounds founded by the composer tintinnabuli is not only a system with strict rules and limitations. It is also an expression of Prts
personal aesthetics, world vision and creed. his is the music of penance, which teaches us to be silent and listen attentively to the innermost
depth of our soul. he tintinnabuli-technique is based on returning to the beginnings of European music: plainchant, choir compositions of
pre-Palestrina time. On the other hand, Prts technique can be compared by its rationality with the serialism of Anton Webern. he Fratres,
composed in 1977, is a wonderful illustration of all of the above. he many-sided analysis of this piece throws light on such problems like
dialog of the epochs in the art of the Estonian composer, the individualization of the mode, the new modality, extra-musical principles of
forming and many other matters.
Keywords: Arvo Prt, Fratres, tintinnabuli, serial-isorhythmic technique, medieval organum, neo-modalism, multivariate composition, addition, segmented retrograde, multiparallel variable mode, refrain form, the symbol of circle, the sonant gradation.
Anotacija
Arvo Prto muzika stebina dvasiniu groiu ir tyrumu. Ji kyla dang ir drauge yra siuniama kiekvienam i ms. Kompozitoriaus sukurta gars
kalba tintinnabuli tai ne tik sistema, kurioje galioja grietos taisykls ir apribojimai, bet ir paties A. Prto asmenins estetikos, pasauliros
ir pair iraika. Tai atgailos muzika, mokanti mus atidiai siklausyti slapiausias sielos gelmes. Tintinnabuli technikos pagrindas yra
grimas prie Europos muzikos itak: grigalikasis choralas, chorins kompozicijos iki Palestrino laik. Kita vertus, A. Prto technika savo
racionalumu gali bti lyginama su Antono Weberno serializmu. 1977 m. sukurtas krinys Fratres yra puikus ios technikos pavyzdys. vairialyp krinio analiz atskleidia tokias problemas kaip epoch dialogas est kompozitoriaus kryboje, stiliaus individualizavimas, naujasis
modalumas, muzikos pasauliui nepriklausantys form sudarymo principai ir daug kit aspekt.
Reikminiai odiai: Arvo Prtas, Fratres, tintinnabuli, serijin-izoritmin technika, vidurami organumas, naujasis modalumas, daugiavariant kompozicija, adicija, segmentuotas retrogradas, daugiaparalel kintama derm, refreno forma, apskritimo simbolis, sonant kaita.

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. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~tas3/perm.html#part, http://
www.linusakesson.net/music/fratres/index.php
Elste, Martin. An intervew with Arvo Prt. . : ,
. . In: ,
1991, 10, c. 16.
McCarthy, Jamie. An interview. . : , .
Musica sacra . In: ,
. 2, ., 1996, c. 212.
Klangwelten der Langsamkeit und Stille. . : , .
Tintinnabuli: . In: , 2007, 1, c. 221.
Savall, J. Arvo Prt Harmonie zu zwei Stimmen. In:
Classica, 20002001, 28, p. 2630.
.
. . : , . Op. cit., c. 223.
Microcosm in the Cathedral. An interview with the composer
Arvo Part by Espen Mineur Saetre. . : , . Op.
cit., c. 223.
, . Op. cit., c. 186.
Savall, J. Op. cit., p. 2630.
. : , . Musica sacra . In:
, . 2, ., 1996, c. 212.
Hillier, Paul. Arvo Prt. Magister Ludi. . : ,
. . In: ,
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133

Lietuvos muzikologija, t. 12, 2011

Summary
he individuality of the composition is the feature of
new time. However, as we know the aesthetics of the
Middle Ages the canon was the model which limited
the autonomy of composers. Fratres is a very particular piece.
However, we note that Prt, like medieval masters, longs to
resign his authorship.
herefore, we have to do with a combination of two oppositions within one piece: individuality and resignation of
the authorship.
In the third chapter, we examined the techniques of diferent
periods, which inluenced Arvo Prts method of composition.
We concluded that Prt, taking from each period some technique,
always treats it in his own way. herefore, he applies the method
of voice leading from the strict organum of the ninth and tenth
centuries, but uses the particular interval of doubling decima.
He takes the idea of palindrome (retrograde) from Machauts
technique but chooses the distinct method segmented retrograde. Using the techniques of the twentieth century, he always
treats them in the ordinary course of his conception.
A variety of techniques and methods are found in his work:











strict organum;
melismatic organum;
free organum of the second Notre-Dame school;
isorhythmic technique;
palindrome;
serial technique and serialism;
technique of sonant gradation;
use of free dissonances;
modality: rhythmical and modal;
use of individualized scale;
polymodality;
static tonality.

Despite such variety, there is a modal mentality here. he


composer combines the opposites: modality, which means limited
resources, and a variety of techniques. he paradox is that from the
beginning Prt limited the range of techniques and because of it
gave himself the freedom of creativity. In other words, he inds a
great number of options in the minimum resources.
herefore, we ind the second pair of opposites: self-limitation of resources and multitude of techniques and versions.
Here is one of the paradoxes of the Christian faith: selflimitation in pleasures, putting veto on certain things allows
us to get rid of our sins. Yet it is the sin, and the only thing
that makes people not free.
I suppose, it is one of those truths, which Prt tried to
convey in his piece. he other truth is the unity: God is one
in three persons, and all of us are part of the whole, we merge
in Him, in His eternal existence.
Fratres, translated from Latin as Brotherhood, is actually
spiritual rather than secular music. Fratres is a kind of preaching, addressed to each of us, brothers and sisters, as a priest
would say. However, at the same time Fratres is a heavenward
prayer of a monk-ascetic.

134

Kseniya ZAMORNIKOVA, Margarita KATUNYAN

Santrauka
Krinio individualumas gldi laiko naujume. Taiau,
kaip inome, vidurami estetikoje kompozitori autonomij ribojo kanono modelis. Fratres yra labai savitas
krinys. Bet jame irykja A. Prto, kaip ir kit vidurami
meistr, noras atsisakyti autorysts.
Taigi turime dviej prieybi derin viename krinyje:
individualumas autorysts atsisakymas.
Straipsnyje nagrinjama skirting epoch technika,
turjusi takos A. Prto komponavimo metodui. Darytina
ivada, kad A. Prtas, i kiekvienos epochos perimdamas
tam tikr technik, visada traktuoja j savitai. Jis taiko
IXX a. grietojo organumo balso valdymo metod, drauge
naudodamas tam tikr dvigubinimo interval decim.
Perms i Guillaumeo de Machaut technikos palindromo
idj, A. Prtas pasirenka individual metod segmentus
suskirstyt palindrom. XX a. technikas jis traktuoja savo
sampratai prastu bdu.
Technik ir metod vairov:
grietasis organumas,
melizmatinis organumas,
laisvasis organumas, antroji Paryiaus Dievo motinos
(Notre-Dame) mokykla,
izoritmin technika,
palindromas,
serijin technika ir serializmas,
sonantin kaita,
laisv j disonans naudojimas,
modalumas: ritmikasis ir modalinis,
individualizuotos darnos naudojimas,
polimodalumas,
statinis tonalumas.
Nors technik ir metod vairov nemaa, akivaizdi autoriaus modalin galvosena. Kompozitorius sujungia prieybes:
modalum, reikiant ribotus iteklius, ir technik vairov.
Paradoksas tas, kad A. Prtas i pradi ribojo technik
skal ir rinkosi krybikumo laisv. Kitais odiais tariant,
minimals itekliai suteikia jam daugyb galimybi.
Taigi antroji prieybi pora: savs ribojimas itekli
prasme technik ir versij gausa.
Prisiminkime vien krikionikojo tikjimo paradoks:
apribodami malonumus, drausdami sau tam tikrus dalykus, galime atsikratyti nuodmi. Nuodm daro mones
nelaisvus.
Tai viena paprast ties, kurias A. Prtas mgina
perteikti savo krinyje. Kita tiesa yra vienov: Dievas yra
vienas trijuose asmenyse, o mes visi esame visumos dalis;
mes susiliejame Jame, Jo aminoje egzistencijoje.
Fratres, arba, ivertus i lotyn kalbos, brolija, yra
veikiau banytin nei pasaulietin muzika. Fratres tai
tam tikras pamokslas, skirtas kiekvienam i ms, kunigo
odiais tariant, broliams ir seserims. Drauge Fratres
vienuolio asketo malda dang.

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