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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Chandkheda, Ahmedabad Affiliated

TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Chandkheda, Ahmedabad Affiliated Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology, Anita
TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Chandkheda, Ahmedabad Affiliated Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology, Anita

Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology, Anita (Kim)

A Report On Parking problem on road side

Under subject of

DESIGN ENGINEERING-2A

B.E., Semester-5 (Civil Branch)

Submitted by:

Group:8

Sr.

Name of student

Enrolment No.

1.

GABANI JAY.B.

140940106023

2.

ITALIYA CHIRAG.H.

140940106038

3.

LAKHANI KEYUR.P.

140940106054

4.

MONPARA MITEN.J.

140940106061

5.

PANCHOTIYA URVISH.D.

140940106065

MRS.MITALI KATHIWALA (Faculty Guide)

MRS.VRUNDA SULE (Head of the Department)

Academic year

(2016-2017)

VIDHYADEEP INSTTUDE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOIGICAL (ANITA), KIM

INSTTUDE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOIGICAL (ANITA), KIM CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. GABANI JAY

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. GABANI JAY , ITALIYA CHIRAG ,LAKHANI KEYUR ,MONPARA MITEN ,PANCHOTIYA URVISH 140940106023, 140940106038, 140940106054, 140940106061, 140940106065 Of Degree Civil Engineering

Department have successfully Completed his case study Report on “ PARKING PROBLEM ON ROAD SIDEin the subject “DESIGN ENGINEERING” in year 2016.

DATE:-

INTERNAL FACULTY

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Asst. prof.

MITALI KATHIWALA for his valuable guidance and motivation and for her extreme co-operation to complete my seminar report successfully.

I would like to express my sincere respect and profound gratitude to, Prof. Mrs.

VRUNDA SULE, Head of CIVIL . for supporting and providing the facilities for my seminar work.

Finally, my special thanks to my parents for their moral support and encouragement.

1. GABANI JAY B

2. ITALIYA CHIRAG H

3. LAKHANI KEYUR P

4. MONPARA MITEN J

5. PANCHOTIYA URVISH D

INDEX

   

PAGE

NO

NAME

NO

1

CERTIFICATE

 

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

   

3

INTRODUCTION

 

1

4

PREPARATION OF CANVASES

 

2

5

FEEDBACK ANALYSIS

 

23

6

SUMMARY PAPERS

 

24

7

SUMMARY

OF

THE

LERNING

FROM

REVERSE

 

ENGINEERING ACTIVITY

 

31

8

CASE STUDY

33

9

DESIGN THINKING & VALIDATION PROCESS

 

40

1.INTRODUCTION:

Importance of multi level parking and smart parking system:

It could be convenience for the peoples for parking.

It could be economical.

Road side problems could be solve.

Parking angle

Parking angles used in off street car parks shall be as fallows:

(A)90 degree angle parking

Parking aisles for 90 degree parking shall be designed for tow way movement even through one way movement may need to be imposed in some instances.

(B)30, 45, or 60 degree angle parking

Where space is limited or dose not lend itself to 90 degree parking. 30, 45, or 60 degree parking may be used instend. Aisles serving such spaces shall be one way with forward entry into the spaces only.

shall be one way with forward entry into the spaces only. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
shall be one way with forward entry into the spaces only. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and

AEIOU SUMMARY

AEIOU SUMMARY There are environment: 1. Noise 2. Dusty 3. Hot weather 4. Pollution 5. Clouds

There are environment:

1. Noise

2. Dusty

3. Hot weather

4. Pollution

5. Clouds

6. Greenery

7. Foggy

8. Fresh air

9. Trees & plants

Clouds 6. Greenery 7. Foggy 8. Fresh air 9. Trees & plants Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering
Clouds 6. Greenery 7. Foggy 8. Fresh air 9. Trees & plants Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering
Interactions: 1. People issue 2. Man woman issue 3. Traffic police & vehicle drivers 4.

Interactions:

1. People issue

2. Man woman issue

3. Traffic police & vehicle drivers

4. Watchman & visitors

5. Security & student

6. Bike owner & bike lifter

5. Security & student 6. Bike owner & bike lifter Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
5. Security & student 6. Bike owner & bike lifter Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
There are objects: 1. Divider 2. Police stick & whistles 3. Vehicles 4. Posters 5.

There are objects:

1. Divider

2. Police stick & whistles

3. Vehicles

4. Posters

5. Digital boards

6. CCTV camera

7. Dustbin

8. Watch man

5. Digital boards 6. CCTV camera 7. Dustbin 8. Watch man Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
5. Digital boards 6. CCTV camera 7. Dustbin 8. Watch man Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
There are Activities : 1. Car parking 2. Eating food 3. Policeman whistling 4. Traffic

There are Activities :

1. Car parking

2. Eating food

3. Policeman whistling

4. Traffic jam

5. Off street parking

6. BRTS station construction

7. Road construction

parking 6. BRTS station construction 7. Road construction Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 5
parking 6. BRTS station construction 7. Road construction Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 5
There are users: 1. Sales man 2. Tour & travelers 3. Students 4. Traffic police

There are users:

1. Sales man

2. Tour & travelers

3. Students

4. Traffic police

5. Transporter

6. Visitor

7. Labour

Students 4. Traffic police 5. Transporter 6. Visitor 7. Labour Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
Students 4. Traffic police 5. Transporter 6. Visitor 7. Labour Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
Define Which Area? We had visited mini bazaar and singonpor road and we find that

Define Which Area?

We had visited mini bazaar and singonpor road and we find that there was traffic problem because of that there was multilevel parking made by SMC. And we have made AEIOU summary sheet from that we had concluded that by A-Activities, which were going on road side by number of peoples. And E stands for Environment on road side at the time of observation. I-Interaction of peoples on road side’s. O-Objects which were there we find on road side. U-Users of parking at the time of observation.

on road side. U-Users of parking at the time of observation. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
on road side. U-Users of parking at the time of observation. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and

MIND MAPPING:

MIND MAPPING: Mind mapping is a technique to develop the thinking approach of person observing over

Mind mapping is a technique to develop the thinking approach of person observing over a project by thinking more and better over their subject. A mind map is a graphical way to represent ideas and concepts. It is a visual thinking tool that helps structuring information, helping you to better analyze, comprehend, synthesize, recall and generate new ideas.

Just as in every great idea, its power lies in its simple

There are main users and stakeholders

Main users: visitors, students, employees

Stakeholders: salesman, drivers, tours and travelers, handicapped people, etc.

drivers, tours and travelers, handicapped people, etc. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 8
drivers, tours and travelers, handicapped people, etc. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 8
.There are Main users:- 1. Visitor 2. Students 3. Employee There are Stakeholders:- 1. Salesman

.There are Main users:-

1. Visitor

2. Students

3. Employee

.There are Main users:- 1. Visitor 2. Students 3. Employee There are Stakeholders:- 1. Salesman 2.

There are Stakeholders:-

1. Salesman

2. Drivers

3. Traffic Police

4. Handicapped People

5. Transporter

6. Tours & Travellers

4. Handicapped People 5. Transporter 6. Tours & Travellers Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
4. Handicapped People 5. Transporter 6. Tours & Travellers Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
There are activities:- 1. Car Parking 2. Road Construction 3. Off Street Parking 4. Bike

There are activities:-

1. Car Parking

2. Road Construction

3. Off Street Parking

4. Bike Parking

5. Auto Parking

6. People Taking Lunch on Road side

7. Parked Vehicle in No Parking Zone

8. Accident

9. Traffic Jam

10.Vehicle Pickup Crane 11.Policeman Whistling 12.Bus Parking

10.Vehicle Pickup Crane 11.Policeman Whistling 12.Bus Parking Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 10
10.Vehicle Pickup Crane 11.Policeman Whistling 12.Bus Parking Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 10
HAPPY STORIES: 1…At PVR cinema theatre parking are full and one person named jay was

HAPPY STORIES:

1…At PVR cinema theatre parking are full and one person named jay was waiting for place to park his bike and the show was going to start and jay was suffering to put his bike, at a time one gentle person named saileshbhai help him to put his by putting other bikes properly in a row.

2…Once at Dumas beach one person pareshbhai parked his bike in a row and other bikes were uneven on roadside and RTO(regional transport office) persons lifted other bikes which uneven on road side and pareshbhai bike are saved.

SAD STORIES:

1…Once at gajera circle on road side at tea stall some peoples put their bikes and therefore customers of that tea stall were problems and because of that owner of tea stall and bike owner started fighting with each other.

of tea stall and bike owner started fighting with each other. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
of tea stall and bike owner started fighting with each other. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and

2…At railway station two friend named raj and suraj went out of station and parked their motorcycle on road where was no parking and when they come back at a place their bikes were stoled and both of them become very sad.

their bikes were stoled and both of them become very sad. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
their bikes were stoled and both of them become very sad. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 13
Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 13
Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 13

IDEATION CANVAS:

IDEATION CANVAS: There are many people’s which are included in ideation canvas: 1. Driver 2. Labour

There are many people’s which are included in ideation canvas:

1. Driver

2. Labour

3. Student

4. Visitor

5. Employee

6. Beggars

7. Policeman

8. Salesman

4. Visitor 5. Employee 6. Beggars 7. Policeman 8. Salesman Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
4. Visitor 5. Employee 6. Beggars 7. Policeman 8. Salesman Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
There were many peoples to whom we saw about doing activities: 1. Drivers were parking

There were many peoples to whom we saw about doing activities:

1. Drivers were parking cars and vehicles.

2. Labors were working on road side on road construction work.

3. Students going for tuition.

4. Visitors taking visit on historical places.

5. Policeman whistling on traffic signals.

historical places. 5. Policeman whistling on traffic signals. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 15
historical places. 5. Policeman whistling on traffic signals. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 15
There are many tools/objects/equipment based on which peoples work: 1. Cars on roadside. 2. Shovel

There are many tools/objects/equipment based on which peoples work:

1. Cars on roadside.

2. Shovel for road construction.

3. Books and pen for students.

4. Garland for god by visitors.

5. Bowl and coins by beggars.

6. Sticks and whistles by policeman.

7. Chalks and blackboard of teachers.

whistles by policeman. 7. Chalks and blackboard of teachers. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
whistles by policeman. 7. Chalks and blackboard of teachers. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
There were many Props which we find it on road side:- 1. Car 2. Shovel

There were many Props which we find it on road side:-

1. Car

2. Shovel

3. Books & Pen

4. Office Bag , Laptop

5. Sticks & Whistle

6. Pen , Bill Book

7. Chalks & Blackboard

8. Coconut

There were many interactions which we find it on road side:-

1. Policeman and watchman interacting about some bikes parked in no parking.

2. Beggars and people interacting about place of parking on road side.

3. Bike owner and bike lifter on road side interacting on bike towed in towing van.

4. Security and students taking about parking place on road side.

5. Men and women issue on parking place on road side.

6. Watchman and students interacting for parking.

7. Visitors and guide interacting on historical place.

8. Teachers and students interacting on tuition

9. Policeman and beggars on road.

interacting on tuition 9. Policeman and beggars on road. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
interacting on tuition 9. Policeman and beggars on road. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page

10.Transporters and policeman interacting on document. 11.Salesman and common peoples interacting on road place. 12.Car driver and watchman interacting on parking problem.

12.Car driver and watchman interacting on parking problem. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 18
12.Car driver and watchman interacting on parking problem. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 18
12.Car driver and watchman interacting on parking problem. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 18

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS:

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS: PURPOSES:  High capacity of parking vehicles in multilevel parking.  Easy

PURPOSES:

High capacity of parking vehicles in multilevel parking.

Easy transportation on road side.

Safe and comfortable for driving vehicles on road side.

 Safe and comfortable for driving vehicles on road side. PRODUCT EXPERIENCE :  Comfortable 

PRODUCT EXPERIENCE:

Comfortable

Faster

less pollution

Better and safe.

 Faster  less pollution  Better and safe. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
 Faster  less pollution  Better and safe. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
PRODUCT FUNCTIONS:  Good security system  high capacity for parking  valet parking. PRODUCT

PRODUCT FUNCTIONS:

Good security system

high capacity for parking

valet parking.

system  high capacity for parking  valet parking. PRODUCT FEATURES:  Cleanness  Toilet 

PRODUCT FEATURES:

Cleanness

Toilet

refreshment room

fire extinguisher

Security

AC and NON AC room.

 fire extinguisher  Security  AC and NON AC room. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
 fire extinguisher  Security  AC and NON AC room. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
COMPONENTS:  CCTV camera  Dustbin  digital posters  speed breakers  Solar light

COMPONENTS:

CCTV camera

Dustbin

digital posters

speed breakers

Solar light poles.

digital posters  speed breakers  Solar light poles. CUSTOMER REVALDATION:  Reasonable cost.  Need

CUSTOMER REVALDATION:

Reasonable cost.

Need comfortable.

REVALDATION:  Reasonable cost.  Need comfortable. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 21
REVALDATION:  Reasonable cost.  Need comfortable. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 21

We took visit on ring road and we saw multilevel parking on road by government. So there should be high capacity parking by make it large and there should be high security system over there for safety and there should be comfortable parking. There should be region able cost.

be comfortable parking. There should be region able cost. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
be comfortable parking. There should be region able cost. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
be comfortable parking. There should be region able cost. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page

FEEDBACK

Multi level parking is not economical.

Enough space is not available in railway station.

Car parking is very big problem for mini bazaar.

Because of chaotic parking big problem created like a traffic jam.

Traffic jam through created noise pollution .

Because of chaotic parking road are block and created traffic jam.

Smart parking could be convenience.

created traffic jam.  Smart parking could be convenience. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
created traffic jam.  Smart parking could be convenience. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page

RESEARCH PAPER 1

INTRODUCTION

DTCP(1986),

TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION STUDY,TAMILNADU

The availability of less space in urban areas has increased demand for parking space especially in central business area. This affects the mode choice also. This has a great economical impact. Two wheeler sales at 15 million are expected to grow 14-15%, while car sales close to 8 lakhs units a year. In order to accommodate the large volume of vehicle, small cities and towns must develop the affect their infrastructures roads, flyovers, car parks and other facilities. Otherwise their arteries are most likely to get clogged like it happens in big and mini metros. The solution for this is systemic survey and management of traffic and pedestrian, although at a nascent stage in India, it the one of the options to decongest roads and solve parking and pedestrian problems. Before taking any measures for betterment of conditioned, data regarding availability of parking space, extent of it usage and parking surveys are intended to all these information. Since the duration of parking varies with different vehicles, the data has to be analyzed to access the parking need. As the traffic on the existing road system in the cities increases, congestion becomes serious problem.

Parking is one of the serious problems that confront the urban planner and traffic engineer. Before any measure for the betterment of the conditions can be formulated basic data pertaining to the availability of parking space, extent of its usage and parking demand are essential.Parking survey is intended to supply all these kind of information.With the growing population of motor vehicles, the problem of parking has assumed serious proportions. A systematic study of parking characteristic and demand and regulatory measures that are possible for controlling is of great help to a traffic engineers as well as town planner. As per as survey carried out in India it is roughly estimated that out of 8760 hours in year the car runs for an average for only 400 hours leaving 8360 hours when it is parked.

for only 400 hours leaving 8360 hours when it is parked. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
for only 400 hours leaving 8360 hours when it is parked. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and

RESEARCH PAPER 2

PARKING STUDY IN URBAN CENTER

HANSPETER GEORGI, PUBLIC INVESTMENT

Parking is an essential component of the transportation system. Vehicles must park at every destination. A typical automobile is parked 23 hours each day, and uses several parking spaces each week. Parking facilities are a major cost to society and parking conflicts are among the most common problems facing designers, operator, p[lanners and other officials. Such problem can be often defined either in terms of supply (too few spaces are available, somebody must build more) or in terms of management (available facilities are used inefficiently and should be better managed). Management solutions tend to be better than expanding supply because they support more strategic planning.

OBJECTIVES

 

Reduced development costs and increased affordability.

 

Encourage use of alternative modes and reduce motor vehicle use (thereby reducing traffic congestion, accidents and pollution)

Improved

design

flexibility,

creating

more

functional

and

attractive

communities.

 

Ability to accommodate new uses and respond to new demands.

 

Reduced

impervious

surface

and

related

environmental

and

aesthetic

benefits.

Parking management refers to policies and programs that results in more efficient use of parking resources. Parking management includes several specific strategies; nearly two dozen are described in this report. When appropriately applied parking management can significantly reduce the number of parking spaces required in a particular situation, providing a variety of economic, social and environmental benefits. When all impacts are considered, improved management is often the best solution to parking problems

management is often the best solution to parking problems Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
management is often the best solution to parking problems Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page

RESEARCH PAPER 3

REQUIREMENT STUDY

KADIYALI.L.R.(2007),DELHI

There is some minimum parking requirement for different types of building

For residential plotless than 300 Sq.m. only community parking space is required.

For residential plaot area from 500 to 1000Sq.m, minimum onefourth of the open area should be resereved for parking.

Offices may require atleast one space for every 70Sq.m Parking area.

One parking space is enough for 10 seats in a resturant

where as theatres and cinema halls need to keep only one parking space for 20 seats.

Thus the parking requirement is different for different landuse zones.

Average parking duration:

It is the ratio of total vehicle hours to the number of vehicles parked.

Parking duration = Parking load/Parking volume

Parking turnover:

It is the ratio of number of vehicles parked in duration to the number of

parking bays available. Parking duration = Parking volume/Number of bays available

Parking duration = Parking volume/Number of bays available Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 26
Parking duration = Parking volume/Number of bays available Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 26

RESEARCH PAPER 4

ESSENTIALITY

Roadside parking problem has created traffic issues. This can be rectified by creating multilevel parking in each area. Example, as in multilevel parking.

Power cut is another issue. Each locality can have solar panels half the number of houses in locality. Example, if there are 50 houses in the locality, 25 solar panels can be setup alternatively to meet the power cut issue.

Waste management should be actively participated by the locals and the municipal corporations.

Left-over food from each house should not be thrown away in drains. Instead, it should be sent to the corporations (working for children) each night by 10pm.

CCTV cameras be setup for the safety against eve teasing and theft, etc.

Sanitation problem can be rectified by creating covered drains. Bleaching powder should be sprinkled weekly to avoid insects.

Rain water harvesting methods should be made compulsory to be adopted by each house.

In case of any rally, berates, or other heavy people gathering on the roads should be allowed only on the specified boundary. A rope should be used to divide the road in advance

Parks should be looked for welfare by planting trees and by installing new swings.

Bus stands should be far from railway station and airport because it creates double traffic.

station and airport because it creates double traffic. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 27
station and airport because it creates double traffic. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 27

RESEARCH PAPER 5

TRAFFIC STUDY DUE TO TRANSPORTATION

Parking is an essential component of the transportation system. It is increasingly becoming an important aspect of transportation planning.

Parking facilities are a major cost to society, and parking conflicts are among the most common problems facing designers, operators, planners and other officials.

Public parking spaces as one of the important parts of a modern urban transportation system, plays an important role in decreasing the load of heavy traffic.

Suitable site selection for public parking spaces not only increases the parking efficiency, but it also decreases marginal car parking and so results in increase of streets' width and traffic fluency. A systematic study of parking characteristic, demand and regulatory measures that are possible for controlling is of great help to a traffic engineers as well as town planner.

Though there are parking lots available in these cities, the capacity of the parking lot is not sufficient to cater to the present demand and at the same time the location of the parking lot is questionable. In the absence of adequate parking facilities, the vehicles are parked on the side of the street leading to a major bottleneck in the smooth flow of traffic.

In addition, high population density, large number of pavement hawkers, sidewalk encroachments, heterogeneous nature of traffic and commercial area development along all the major roads have compounded the problem of congestion on the main as well as internal roads of these cities.

Problems can be often defined either in terms of supply (too few spaces are available, somebody must build more) or in terms of management (available facilities are used inefficiently and should be better managed).

Parking management includes several specific strategies. When appropriately applied management can significantly reduce the number of parking spaces required in a particular situation, providing a variety of economic, social and environmental benefits.

When all impacts are considered, improved management is often the best solution to parking problems.

management is often the best solution to parking problems. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
management is often the best solution to parking problems. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page

RESEARCH PAPER 6

DEMAND ASSESSMENT

The study area situated in a commercially vibrant location attracts significant number of shoppers generating a sizeable parking demand. It has many movie screens which also attract trips. These factors combined with the commercial surroundings attract a customer and traveller base that has a preference for personalized mode of travel. With the increased use of personalized modes of transport, the parking demand is high. BBMP had developed this MLCP on PPP model basis to provide public parking, due to its commercial viability. The MLCP with shopping mall did not have any Parking Demand Assessment study conducted prior to its construction thus resulting in irregular demand / supply of parking. The objective of this study is to assess the existing parking demand and supply for the study area, to assess how the existing MLCP facility can be optimally used, the measures to improve vehicular circulation in and around the study area, and to identify other factors that might affect the parking demand.

Parking accumulation: It is defines as the number of vehicle parked at a given instant of time. Normally this is expressed by accumulation curve. Accumulation curve is a graph obtained by plotting the numbers of bays occupied with respect to time.

Parking volume: Parking volume is the total number of vehicle parked at a given duration of time. This does not account for repetition of vehicles. The actual volume of vehicles entered in the area is recorded.

Parking load: parking load gives the area under the accumulation curve. It can also be obtained by simply multiplying the numbers of vehicles occupying the parking area at each time interval with the time interval. It is expressed as vehicle hour.

Parking Index = Parking volume/Number of bays available .This can be expressed as number of vehicles per day per time requirement.

Parking duration: The length of time spent in a parking space.

duration: The length of time spent in a parking space. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
duration: The length of time spent in a parking space. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology

To effectively manage parking demand through a series of measures which

include dynamic pricing of parking, congestion tax, proof of parking (vehicle-parking certificates) etc.

To effectively manage parking supply through construction and maintenance of off-street and on street parking lots, park and ride facilities in important transit centres and effective regulation of on-street and off- street parking etc.

To design parking infrastructure keeping in view the needs of physically handicapped, non motorized transport etc.

To design and construct truck terminals at vantage points to prevent haphazard parking of trucks on the arterial roads.

to prevent haphazard parking of trucks on the arterial roads. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
to prevent haphazard parking of trucks on the arterial roads. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
PURPOSE/PRODUCT CONCEPT:  Area management  To provide comfortable parking  To provide safety 

PURPOSE/PRODUCT CONCEPT:

Area management

To provide comfortable parking

To provide safety

DURING BE 2

To survey traffic area

Traffic rules

Energy conversation

Software : ma office

List of provide safety

List of parking system

 List of provide safety  List of parking system Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
 List of provide safety  List of parking system Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology
 Parking angle Parking angles used in off street car parks shall be as fallows:

Parking angle

Parking angles used in off street car parks shall be as fallows:

(A)90 degree angle parking

Parking aisles for 90 degree parking shall be designed for tow way movement even through one way movement may need to be imposed in some instances.

(B)30, 45, or 60 degree angle parking

Where space is limited or dose not lend itself to 90 degree parking. 30, 45, or 60 degree parking may be used instend. Aisles serving such spaces shall be one way with forward entry into the spaces only.

shall be one way with forward entry into the spaces only. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and
shall be one way with forward entry into the spaces only. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and

Solving parking issues:

a case study of Abu Dhabi city

M. Dibas, A. Al Jassmi & M. Ibrahim Department of Transport in Abu Dhabi, UAE

Abstract

Abu Dhabi has grown tremendously over a brief period of time. With this rapid growth there are usually growing pains. Knowing that the city would be of significant size and densely populated the road system was constructed with high capacities. Although these considerations were made for the movement of vehicles, it seems that the storage of these same vehicles was not given the same level of consideration. The road system was designed, but early on parking requirements was not enforced. Over the past several years, the Emirate has made attempts to correct vehicle storage or parking issues. The Department of Transport in Abu Dhabi prepared the Abu Dhabi Parking Strategy, which was comprehensive in scope as it documented current characteristics of parking from a supply/demand standpoint as well as a planning and policy standpoint (legislation and regulation). The strategy identified current and potential future issues, and provided an action plan to correct existing problems and mitigate potential negative impacts in the future. To date, parking management system which known as MAWAQiF, has had the greatest impact on parking with broad reach of parking operations and parking enforcement.

1 Introduction

The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has witnessed transformative growth over the past forty years, to drive forward social and economic developments including traffic growth and the issue of parking problems became a serious issue for residents and businesses. In 2009, the Department of Transport (DoT) published the 2030 Abu Dhabi Surface Transport Master Plan (STMP) to develop the transport aspects of Plan 2030. Effective parking management and development control formed a key part of the Congestion Management Strategy set out in the plan. For Abu Dhabi Island, in 2009, parking and land use surveys were completed in 46 sectors predominantly in the CBD (approximately 152 sectors on Abu

predominantly in the CBD (approximately 152 sectors on Abu Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
predominantly in the CBD (approximately 152 sectors on Abu Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page

Dhabi Island) where parking congestion had been observed. The parking survey indicated that in some sectors the parking demand was much higher than the available spaces for on-street parking. This formed the basis for the estimation of parking shortfalls and recommendation of actions to increase the parking supply and reduce parking demand. Two methods were applied for the estimation of the parking demand:

1.1 Method 1: parking survey data

The parking surveys in the 46 sectors provided the number of parked vehicles, legal and illegal, at several times of the day. This measured and revealed the utilization of parking spaces and was considered to reflect the real demand.

1.2 Method 2: land use based parking demand calculations

This method used the applicable DoT parking demand rates for various land uses

to estimate the parking demand. The two inputs to this method are the parking

rates and the land use intensities according to the 2012 Abu Dhabi Trip Generation and Parking Rates Manual (ADTGM).

2 Appraisal of historical problem

A clear understanding of the historic parking supply issues and current demand

for parking is an essential foundation for the Parking Strategy. This section includes an overview of the historic problems and associated impacts. As illustrated in Figure 1 the problems stem in part from supply issues resulting from the historical plot sizes allocated to developers and in part from lack of parking management. From the supply side, many high-rise buildings (20+ floors) have been permitted to be constructed on plots typically measuring 24m x 20m or less, with the following impacts:

Basement car parks are difficult to construct due to size limitations and several floors are required to meet demand. Due to high water table levels it has been generally accepted that 2 to 3 basement levels is a reasonable provision as additional levels are too costly;

Difficulty in providing required gradients and meeting other design criteria for vehicle circulation; and

High capital and maintenance costs of automated parking, which has the potential to partially mitigate the problem, has been considered prohibitive.

mitigate the problem, has been considered prohibitive. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 34
mitigate the problem, has been considered prohibitive. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 34
Figure 1: Historic parking problem diagram. Therefore, significant difficulties were encountered with supplying parking

Figure 1: Historic parking problem diagram.

Therefore, significant difficulties were encountered with supplying parking underground. Moreover, the historic development code used did not allow the above ground floors to be used for parking. As a result of the above and in the absence of clear enforcement and regulation of providing parking requirements, many buildings were exempted from providing parking facilities. In addition to this structural parking deficit there were several parking management issues that have exacerbated the parking problem including:

Lack of adequate enforcement of land use policy often creates parking problems within Abu Dhabi. For instance, the conversion of residential towers into commercial office space without proper authorization has resulted in severe parking shortages;

Division and sub-division of housing ‘units’ effectively multiplying the number of people per household;

Certain businesses, such as rental car companies, occupy the existing surface parking lots for extended periods of time;

Misuse of private off-street parking by private renting rather than assignment it to the building tenants. This is an indication of the propensity to unbundle parking from the rental of property. This is requires further study as part of the strategy action plans;

Irregular on-street parking resulting from un-marked parking bays/ lots within specific sectors;

from un-marked parking bays/ lots within specific sectors; Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 35
from un-marked parking bays/ lots within specific sectors; Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 35

Abandoned vehicles, (written off after accidents or whose owners have left the country), scrap and trolleys occupying or stored on marked parking areas;

Over-concentration of land-uses within one district or sector, e.g., the private school zone and the government agencies in the civic centre, which creates a huge demand for parking facilities; and

Land-use planning not being utilized to address problems through mixed use shared parking concepts. On 20 October 2009, Law No. 18 formally assigned the responsibility for parking management to the Department of Transportation. DoT had begun activities related to parking management during the first half of 2009 and established MAWAQiF as the division for the parking management program.

3 Achievements to date

Significant achievements have been made to manage the parking system within Abu Dhabi since 2009 after Law 18 was issued to transfer parking management to DoT. Some of the key benefits of the implementation of MAWAQiF include:

Improved access, circulation and parking layout changes;

Better provisions of turnaround facilities for vehicles;

Improved safety for vehicles / pedestrians;

Improved accessibility for emergency vehicles;

Improved pedestrian mobility, raised pedestrian crossings, traffic

calming measures and handicap access and parking provisions;

Improved ingress and egress to/from parking areas;

Various parking restrictions applied and issuance of illegal parking violations;

Disabled parking spaces are being provided as needed;

Spaces for Civil Defense, Ambulance and taxis are provided;

System is in place to handle requests from construction companies;

Enforcement through towing and storage of abandoned vehicles is in effect;

Inspectors are deployed to enforce regulations;

Permits for residential and commercial uses are issued;

Efforts made to monitor and enforce supply of parking in existing buildings; and

Multiple convenient payment methods exist for payment of parking fees.

convenient payment methods exist for payment of parking fees. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page
convenient payment methods exist for payment of parking fees. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page

As of early 2014 the total number of on street surface parking bays in the Abu Dhabi Island is 102,981 spaces from 95,504 bays in 2009.

4 Stakeholder engagement and feedback

The key role that parking plays in the urban fabric of any city as a land use as well as part of the transport system calls for interactions with a variety of Government and private stakeholders to facilitate the development process of a Parking Strategy that will be embraced by all. As such, the Parking Strategy has been informed by an extensive programme of internal and external stakeholder engagements. Twelve stakeholder groups were represented in the two rounds of consultation process in the development of the Parking Strategy. The stakeholder engagements were aimed to identify current parking problems and possible solutions and objectives to inform the development of the Parking Strategy Report. The majority of the stakeholders acknowledged that parking management MAWAQiF, should be a component of the overall Transport Mobility Management (TMM) within a city, and more coordination between MAWAQiF, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC), and other public transportation elements is required. There is also a need for government-level supervision of the entire public transport system and the multi-billion dirham planned public transport investments to ensure that parking supply and other individual components are not being optimized at the expense of the overall system.

5 Policies and regulations

In relation to world practice benchmarking, Table 1 (source of data except Abu Dhabi: Rye [1]) represents how different cities around the world approach particular aspects of parking policies. Key aspects from the table include:

Most cities have developed some form of on street parking regulation;

A number of cities have developed parking standards for new buildings;

Parking guidance systems (ITS) have recently been implemented across many European and North American cities; Abu Dhabi is arguably catching up with the world’s best practices in regards to policy and planning and the following points present a summary for each policy that will empower better managed, well enforced and effective parking.

empower better managed, well enforced and effective parking. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 37
empower better managed, well enforced and effective parking. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 37

Recommendations and key factors sustaining Abu Dhabi parking strategy

6

The key factors sustaining Abu Dhabi parking strategy are:

Objectives Mixed objective parking strategies are sustainable and should be adopted as the basis for any review of the strategy;

Need for Controls Lack of parking controls is a significant cause of parking problems rather than a lack of provision;

Live Document The Parking Strategy needs to be seen as a live, flexible document which will need to be adaptable to emerging future needs and issues;

Historic Deficits Focus on addressing the historic deficits on Abu Dhabi Island in a sustainable manner with optimal provision of additional parking controls and off-street parking facilities as key actions;

Extend Controls Extend existing controls in the CBD and complete the introduction of paid parking in other areas.

Industrial Areas Development of controls for use in the industrial areas;

New Growth Areas Introduction of new controls in all the new, higher density growth areas.

TMM and PT Support The use of parking controls to support transportation mobility management (TMM) strategies and the use of PT and non-auto modes. This involves a reciprocal obligation and will only be viable when public transport proposals are implemented to deliver a network that meets the needs of a global city and which offers a viable alternative mode choice to users;

Differential paid parking Need to introduce parking controls progressively, including the use of differential paid parking rates; Special Needs Special access needs for vulnerable road users and road freight;

Enforcement Need to provide a basis for comprehensive parking enforcement within urban areas;

Area treatments Area based treatments and action plans should be reviewed and extended to meet emerging needs;

Governance of strategy Need for effective governance of the progress and performance inherent in implementing the Strategy Action Plans and continued stakeholder involvement in the successful implementation and evaluation of the Strategy;

the successful implementation and evaluation of the Strategy; Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 38
the successful implementation and evaluation of the Strategy; Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 38

Improved coordination Need to coordinate internal and external stakeholder actions

Improved positive publicity Creation of more positive messaging around parking enforcement and parking facilities.

The value of parking management and adequate supply of parking cannot be overstated. Research shows that over 50% of the traffic in typical downtown areas is simply on the road, cruising around the block searching for vacant, convenient parking spaces (source: Millard-Ball [2]).

Undoubtedly, the historic parking problems continue to contribute to traffic congestion with significant adverse economic and environmental implications to businesses and the general public within the Abu Dhabi Island and other centres in the emirate. In the short term, Abu Dhabi Parking Strategy seeks to continue to address the historic parking problems in the context of current and planned land use developments and public transport initiatives.

land use developments and public transport initiatives. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 39
land use developments and public transport initiatives. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 39

LEARNING DESIGN AND VALIDATION PROCESS

LEARNING DESIGN

We thought on the daily study on parking problems on roadside, we decided about the preliminary parking wherever some place is there.

We planed that to make a starting of this preliminary with free parking is to be provided and there is different types of parking for different types of vehicles. The types of parking provided are 30,45,60,90 degree parking so that vehicles can be parked and there is no damage of vehicles during parking but for preliminary parking some open space should be there.

And this parking is costly but primary free parking is to be provided and after that pay and park is provided and we also need government support for this and this parking does not need too much maintenance as it is provided on open place and built up cost for preliminary parking is also very low.

VALIDATION PROCESS

Users of a facility should feel safe and not feel imprisoned or threatened. For example lighting, security cameras, emergency telephones, and appropriate vendors are preferable to fences and on-site security. Frequent removal of graffiti, broken glass, and trash is important when providing an environment that feels safe and secure to the user.

The perception of safety is as important as its reality. In planting areas near conflicting traffic movement, such as backing vehicles or opposing traffic, selectshrubs and groundcovers that grow no higher than 2 feet and keep trees limbed up to 8 feet above ground level to provide clear sight lines for safe traffic movement.

Clear lines of vision are important so that police can provide surveillance within the site and surveillance from the street. Lighting is an important component in pedestrian and vehicle security and safety.

component in pedestrian and vehicle security and safety. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 40
component in pedestrian and vehicle security and safety. Vidhyadeep Institute of Engineering and Technology Page 40