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STUDIES IN MEDITERRANEAN ARCHAEOLOGY

VOL. LH

A GAZETTEER OF AEGEAN CIVILISATION


IN THE BRONZE AGE., VOL. I:
THE MAINLAND AND ISLANDS

BY

R. HOPE SIMPSON AND O.T.P.K DICKINSON

GOTEBORG 1979
PAUL ASTROMS FORLAG

Dedicated to our wives,


for all the help and support that they
have given during the production of this
work, and in particular for their patient
acceptance of desertion summer after summer

ISBN

91 85058 81 5

R. HOPE SDVIPSON AND O.T.P.K. DICKINSON 1978


PRINTED IN SWEDEN
MINAB, SURI'E 1979

A GAZETI'EER OF AEGEAN CIVILISATION IN THE BRONZE AGE


VOL. I:

THE GREEK MAINLAND AND ISLANDS


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
The Scope of the Study; Acknowledgements
Names of Sites and Map References
Description of Sites in the Gazetteer .
Conventions, Technical Terms, and Abbreviations
used in the Text
Special Terminology

..

5
7
7
8
ll

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

ll

RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY

23

GAZE'ITEER OF SITES
I

THE GREEK MAINLAND AND ADJACENT ISLANDS


Map A.
Map B.
Map c.
Map D.
Map E.
Map F.
Map G.
Map H.
Map J.
Map K.

II

The Argolid, Corinthia, the Megarid, and Aigina


Arcadia, Achaea, eastern Elis, northern Triphylia,
western Locris, and eastern Aetolia
Laconia and Kythera .
Messenia and southern Triphylia
The Ionian Islands, Acarnania, western Aetolia,
and western Elis .
Attica, Salamis, southern Euboea, and eastern
Boeotia
Boeotia, Phocis, eastern Locris, Malis, and
northern Euboea
Eastern Thessaly
Western Thessaly and Eurytania
Thesprotia and Epirus

27

75
107
126

181
197

235
272

294
299

THE AEGEAN ISLANDS


The Cyclades
The Northern Sporades
The Dodecanese
Samos and Chios

304

346
348
368

SUMMARY (with Maps 1-5)


The Early Bronze Age
The Middle Bronze Age
The Early Mycenaean Age
The Later Mycenaean Age
The End of the Bronze Age and the Dark Age
Mycenaean Trade
The Distribution of Settlements
INDEX OF SITES
INDEX OF SPECIAL FEATURES

~ee~~"<>e<>

ADDENDA
Omitted Abbreviations
CHRONOLCGICAL CHART
LIST OF MAPS
Map
Map
Map
Map
Map

1.

Er! I-II and Contemporary Sites

2.

EH
LH
LH
LH

3.
4.
5.

III - MH and Contemporary Sites


I-IIIAl and Contemporary Sites
IIIA2-IIIB and Contemporary Sites
IIIC - SMyc. and Contemporary Sites

KEY TO MAPS A TO K
MAPS A TO K (as listed above under Gazetteer of Sites)

372
374
375
378
381
384
386

INTRODUCTION
The Scope of the Study;

Acknowledgements

This work is focussed on the Bronze Age of the Greek mainland,


with the exception of Macedonia and Thrace, and especially on Early,
Middle, and Late Helladic; the only sites listed in Epirus are those
where material of Mycenaean type has been found. Sites in the islands
are more summarily treated. For the Cyclades we have relied on the work
of Scholes (1956) and Renfrew (1972) and on information kindly supplied
by Professor c. Renfrew, Dr. R. Barber, and (for Melos) Mr. J, Cherry.
The Dodecanese has been partially surveyed by Hope Simpson and Lazenby
(1962, 1970, 1973). For Asia Minor, readers are referred to the regular
and systematic reviews presented by Professor M. J, Mellink in the
American Journal of Archaeology, by Dr. D. H. French in Anatolian Studies,
and by Professor J. M. Cook and others periodically in Archaeological
Reports (by the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in conjunction with the British School at Athens). Macedonia has been well covered
by Dr. D. H. French in his Index of Prehistoric Sites in Central Macedonia
(circulated typescript, 1967). Crete is not included in this volume, both
because of the size of the task, and because others are more competent than
ourselves to do the work. For similar reasons we have included only those
Neolithic sites which have produced evidence of Bronze Age habitation.
We have been much assisted by recent publication of important surveys, of
Achaea by Zstr8m (1964), Arcadia by Howell (1970), Euboea by Sackett et al.
(1966), and Messenia by McDonald and Hope Simpson (1961, 1964, 1969, and
MME). We owe much to the recent study of Central Greece by Dr. D. H. French
(circulated typescript, 1972), who is also currently preparing a monograph
on Thessaly. We are greatly indebted to Dr. K. A. Wardle for allowing us to
make use of his unpublished doctoral thesis on North-West Greece (1972)
and for various comments. Dr. H. w. Catling and Professor c. Renfrew
have provided unpublished information on the Menelaion site and Phylakopi.
Further help has been given by Dr. w. cavanagh on Attica, Mr. P. Halstead
on Thessaly, Mrs. s. Sherratt on the classification of LH III material
from a number of sites, and Mr. R. J, Howell on the sequence of phases
in MH. We are also indebted to many other colleagues past and present,
especially Miss S. Benton, Professor J, Boardman, Professor G. Cadogan,
Dr. J, Chadwick, Professor J, N. Coldstream, Mrs. A. DemakopoulouPapantoniou, Mr. v. R. d 1A. Desborough, Dr. E. B. French, Miss D. H. F. Gray,
the Hon. Mrs. Vronwy Hankey, Dr. R. A. Higgins, Dr. E. J, Holmberg,
Mr. M. s. F. Hood, Professor G. L. Huxley, Mr. G. Konstantinopoulos,
Mr. J. F. Lazenby, Professor D. Levi, Professor w. A. McDonald, Dr. c. Mee,
Dr. G. Papathanasopoulos, Miss A. Romiopoulou, Dr. J, Rutter, Mr. L. H. Sackett,
Professor A. M. Snodgrass, Professor p, M. Warren, Lady Waterhouse, and
Dr. N. Yalouris.
Our collaboration began in 1969, largely at the instigation of
Dr. H. w. Catling. In 1970-71 Hope Simpson began the supplementary fieldwork in Greece, during his tenure of a Leave Fellowship awarded by the

Canada Council for the project. He is most grateful both to the Council
and to Queen's University at Kingston for the opportunities they have
provided. Both then and during part of the summers of 1974 and 1975
(again with the support of a grant from the Canada Council) he visited
several sites in Mainland Greece and the Islands, and also worked in the
libraries of the British School at Athens and the Societies for the Promotion
of Hellenic and Roman Studies in London.
Dickinson has worked upon the Gazetteer as a Sir James Knott Fellow at
the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (1970-72) and a Research Fellow in the
Faculty of Arts at the University of Birmingham (1972-75). Support from
these bodies, the University of Minnesota Messenia Expedition, and the
British Academy has made regular visits t.o Greece possible and greatly
facilitated research, for which the British School at Athens has been an
ideal setting; gratitude to all concerned is here duly recorded.
Inevitably certain limitations have been imposed, both by the comparative lack of time available to us for a project of this size, and by the
obvious need for compression and brevity. For this reason we have here
omitted fuller topographical commentary and speculative theories concerning
political organisation, ancient economy, and other related topics.
Dr. H. w. Castner, of the Department of Geography of Queen's University at
Kingston, together with Mr. G. E. Innes (photographer) and Mr. R. W. Hough
(cartographer) of the Department, helped greatly in the production of the
maps. Mrs. w. J. Hope Simpson and Mrs. N. Reid prepared the typescript at
Kingston, and we record here our great debt to Professor p, ~str8m and also
to those others who have assisted us in the final production of this work.
O.T.P.K. Dickinson
R. Hope Simpson
JULY 1976

The decision to produce the text by offset-litho reproduction has


made a final typing of the manuscript necessary; special thanks are due to
Mrs. C. Dowson for undertaking this. Further information and references
gathered since July 1976, most recently during a short visit to Phylakopi
and Athens made possible by the generosity of Professor c. Renfrew, have
been incorporated, but very little could be added to the Bibliography and
the Maps have not been changed. In any major divergence between these and
the text, the latter is to be preferred,
O.T.P.K. Dickinson
OCTOBER 1977

7
Names of Sites and Map-References
In the spelling of the place-names a system involving compromise
between the "phonetic" and the "classical" has been followed, the main
object being to avoid confusion; in doubtful cases, the spelling used is
that of the excavator or discoverer.
Map-references are given only for sites on the Greek mainland and
adjacent islands. The references are to the British War Office series
G.S.G.S. 1:100,000 GREECE. The coverage for Greece is
G.S.G.S.
4410/JV!DR 630
1:250,000
G.S.G.S.
4439/MDR 610
1:100,000
References are given in the standard form (e. g. "K. 7 Tripolis 554 E / 205 N"
refers to a position in the square whose south~west corner is the intersection of the North to South grid-line 55 and the East to West grid-line
20). Sets of the 1 :lOO ,000 and the 1:250,000 series (the latter also
covers Crete, the Cyclades, and the Dodecanese) are available in the
Library of the Institute of Classical Studies in London, and at the
British School of Archaeology in Athens.
The maps were prepared by the War Office during World War II, and
were sometimes executed in considerable haste. The value and accuracy of
the references is conditioned by the limits of accuracy of the maps themselves, and the standards vary from sheet to sheet. On the worst sheets,
villages are sometimes misplaced, wrongly named (or given names now
obsolete), or even totally absent from the maps, while contours are
sometimes extremely unreliable. Because of these limitations, in many
cases the best method of recording a site is still to give the local placename (toponym) for the particular area, together with an indication,
preferably a bearing, of the geographical relationship with the nearest town
or village. Normally the village name is given first in the Gazetteer,
followed by the toponym or other identification.
Maps A to K are partly based on the map-series produced by the
Statistical Service or Greece (1963 edition) at scale 1:200,000. But the
accuracy of our placing of modern villages, roads, etc. on Maps A to K can
not be guaranteed.
Description of Sites in the Gazetteer
In addition to marking the location, we have attempted wherever
possible to give an estimate of the size of each settlement. Naturally
such estimates are more reliable in the case of excavated settlements, and
it should be emphasised that any figures given here for the spread of
surface sherds do not necessarily indicate that all the area denoted was
covered with buildings. The effects of' erosion must be borne in mind and
conversely the possibility that part of a site may be buried beneath
accumulated soil. Thus it is always difficult to estimate the size of any
particular settlement.
It is even more difficult, therefore, to guess what may have been
the average size of the settlements. We have noted, however, that many of

8
the ordinary Mycenaean habitation-sites appear to have occupied about a
hectare (10,000 square metres). A site may reasonably be considered
small if the area denoted is less than half a hectare. Large settlements
(two hectares or more) are relatively rare, and major sites, such as
important fortresses or evident area-capitals, with palaces or the
equivalent, are few. These latter are denoted on the maps by larger
circles. It must be admitted that in some cases we can not be sure whether
to class a site as "majorn or simply 11 largett.
The decision to divide the map of mainland Greece into ten separate
area-maps inevitably causes somewhat artificial divisions, since the maps
cut across actual provinces, ancient and modern. It is important, therefore,
to indicate which groups of sites appear to form coherent geographical units,
although there is no guarantee that the groupings suggested here indicate
political groupings of any particular period.
Conventions used on Maps A to K are indicated at the bottoms of
Maps A and G. Although an attempt is made to define on the maps the periods
during which particular sites were in use, the text must always be consulted,
because of the variable nature of the evidence.
Conventions, Technical Terms, and Abbreviations Used in the Text
In the text, periodical-references will be cited by the first relevant
page of discussion, without author's name; books will be cited with the
author's name in the site-bibliography, and thereafter on the "Wace 1949"
system, unless a special abbreviation is used.
Symbols Used in the Gazetteer

denotes a site where excavations have been made.


denotes a site visited by one or both of the authors.

Abbreviations for Archaeological Periods and Cultural Phases


N
BA
DA
EB(A), EH,

SMyc.
PG
11

PG"

c
H

GP

Neolithio.
Bronze Age.
Dark Age.
EM, EPG, EG
Early Bronze (Age), Helladic, Minoan,
Protogeometric, Geometric (similarly for MB(A), LB(A) etc.).
(The terms Early, Middle, and Late Cycladic will not be used.)
Sub-Mycenaean.
Protogeometric.
Material termed Protogeomentric but having little or
no link with the Attic style.
Geometric.
Archaic.
Classical.
Hellenistic.
Grotta-Pelos (used as in Renfrew).
~

9
KS
Phyl I

Keros-Syros (used as in Renfrew).


Phylakopi I (used as in Renfrew).

Notes
(1)

In the case of lli material, the following conventions will be


used:
lli I/II indicates material of clearly early lli date, but not
closely assignable.
LH III(A-B) indicates material likely to fall somewhere within
the LH IIIA-B range (similarly lli III(A2-B), lli III(B-C) ).
LH IIIA-B indicates that material likely to fall in both lli IIIA
and LH IIIB is present.
LH I-IIIB (or similar) indicates that the whole range of phases
from LH I to IIIB (or similar) is certainly or probably present.
(2) Dates assigned on the basis of surface-finds must be considered
provisional, and are rarely given with great precision.
(3) Although we have attempted to cite all examples of later material at
BA sites and in particular to gather all reported occurrences of PG,
we do not claim comprehensiveness.
Abbreviations for Periodicals and Series
AA
AAA
AD

AE
AJA
AM
AR

AS
ASAtene
BCH

BSA
BullLund
Cl!A

Ergon
GRBS

ILN
Jdi
JHS

KC
OpArch
OpAth
PAE
PZ

Archaeologischer Anzeiger
Athens Annals of Archaeology
Arkhaiologikon Deltion
Arkhaiologike Ephemeris
American Journal of Archaeology
Mitteilungen der deutschen archaeologischen Instituts:
athenische Abteilung
Archaeological Reports
Anatolian Studies
Annuario della scuola italiana di Atene e delle missioni
italiani in oriente
Bulletin de correspondance hellenique
Annual of the British School at Athens

Bulletin de la societe royale de lettres de Lund
Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum
Ergon tes Arkhaiologikes Hetaireias
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies
Illustrated London News
Jahrbuch des deutschen archaeologischen Instituts
Journal of Hellenic Studies
Kretika Chronika
Opuscula Archaeologica
Opuscula Atheniensia
Praktika tes Arkhaiologikes Hetaireias
Praehistorische Zeitschrift

lO

RA
REG
SIMA

SMEA

Revue Arch~ologique
Revue des Etudes grecques
Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology
Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici

Abbreviations for Surveys


0

P. Alin, Das Ende der mykenische Fundst~tten auf der


griechischen Festland (1962).
Arcadia
R. J. Howell, "A Survey of Eastern Arcadia in Prehistory"
in BSA 65 (1970) 79-127.
Dodecanese I, I I, III
R. Hope Simpson and J. F. Lazenby, "Notes from
the Dodecanese", in BSA 57 (1962) 154-75, 65 (1970) 44-77,
68 (1973) 127-79.
Euboea
L. H. Sackett et al., "Prehistoric Euboea: Contributions
towards a Survey", in BSA 61 (1966) 33-112.
R. Hope Simpson, A Gazetteer and Atlas of Mycenaean Sites (1965).
GAMS
Laconia I, II
H. Waterhouse and R. Hope Simpson, "Prehistoric Laconia,
Part I (II)", in BSA 55 (196:J) 67-107, 55 (1961) 221-to.
Messenia I, II, III
w. A. McDonald and R. Hope Simpson, "Prehistoric
Habitation in the Southwestern Peloponnese", in AJA 65 (1961)
221-to, "Further Explorations in Southwestern Peloponnese
1962-3 (1964-8)", in AJA 68 (1964) 229-45, 73 (1969) 123-78.
Alin

Special Abbreviations
Alt-Rgllis

!?SA
CAH

CG

CMP
D &S
GBA

Hunter

I.MTS
MMA
MME

MP
MycCon I

H.-G. Buchholz and v. Karageorgis, Alt-Agilis


und Kypros (1971).
"
British School of Archaeology at Athens
Cambridge Ancient History (all references are to the latest
edition).
D. H. French, Notes on Prehistoric Pottery Groups from
Central Greece (1972).
A. Furumark, The Chronology of Mycenaean Pottery (1941).
c. Tsountas, Hai Proistorikai Akropoleis Dimeniou kai
Sesklou (1908).
E. Vermeu1e, Greece in the Bronze Age (1964).
A. Hunter, The Bronze Age in Thessa1y and its Environs, with
Special Reference to Mycenaean Culture (B.Litt. thesis,
Oxford 1953).
V.R. D'A. Desborough, The Last Mycenaeans and their Successors
(1964).
G. E. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (1966).
w. A. McDonald and G. Rapp Jr. (eds. ), The Minnesota
Messenia Expedition (1972).
A. Furumark, Mycenaean Pottery: Analysis and Classification
(1941).
Atti e memorie del prima congreso internazionale di micenologia
Vol. I (1968).

11

MT II, III
MV

PT
Renfrew

E. L. Bennett ~ The Mycenae Tablets II (1958),


J. Chadwick ~ The Mycenae Tablets III (1962).
A. Furtwaengler and G. Loeschcke, Mykenische Vasen (1886).
A. J, B. wace and M s. Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912).
c. Renfrew, The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and
the Aegean in the Third Millennium B.C. (1972).

Well-known excavations will be generally referred to by their name,


e.g. Korakou, and those in a series will be abbreviated, as Tiryns V,
Agora XIII, etc.
Special Terminology:

Tomb-TyP,es

A tomb almost always cut in soft rock, consisting of an


Chamber Tomb
open passage, the dromos, leading into a chamber hollowed out in the
rock, often through a narrow covered doorway, the stomion.
Gist Grave
A rectangular pit cut in earth or soft rock, lined with stone
slabs or walls, and roofed with a stone slab or slabs.
Pit Grave
A normally rectangular but sometimes oval or shapeless pit cut
in earth or soft rock and unlined, but usually roofed like a cist.
Tholos Tomb
A stone-built tomb made up of the same elements as a chamber
tomb, but nearly always of circular plan with a domed chamber; the
dromos may be unlined, but the stomion will always be walled and
covered over with one or more large lintel-slabs. Normally sunk
into a hillside or level ground to the level of the lintel-slabs,
the projecting dome being covered with an earth mound. In the
Gazetteer, this term will be applied selectively to tombs of some
size and wealth; small tombs built in a similar way will be
described otherwise.
Tumulus
A mound, usually of circular plan, retained by a low wall.
Burials may be made in pits or cists below the original ground level
or sunk into the mound, or in large pithoi similarly placed.
N.B. The term "shaft grave" will not be generally used, since tombs so
described prove to be pits or cists, lacking the essential feature of the
Mycenae graves, the deep shaft above the roof of the grave; this feature
is only found in two graves at Lerna and the Zafer Papoura graves near
Knossos.
SELECT

BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Including publications and preliminary reports of the most useful


excavations and significant groups of material, and the most useful
general and special studies.)
(l)

General

H. -G. Buchholz and V. Karageorgis, Al t-1\gll.is u.nd Kypros (1971).


G. Christopoulos (ed.), History of the Hellenic World I: Prehistory
and Protohistory (1970, English translation 1974).

12

v.
v.
s.

R. d 1A. Desborough, The Last Mycenaeans and their successors (1964).


R. d'A. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages (1972).
Marinates and M. Hirmer, Crete and Mycenae (l96o).
G. E. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (1966).
A. M. Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece (1971).
Lord William Taylour, The Mycenaeans (1964).
E. Vermeule, Greece in the Bronze Age (1964).
(2)

Surveys and Publications: General

P. Alin, Das Ende der mykenischen Fundst~tten auf der griechischen


Festland (1962).
J. Bintliff (ed.), Mycenaean Geography: Proceedings of the Cambridge
Colloquium, September 1976 (1977).
R. J, Buck, "The Middle Helladic Period", in Phoenix 20 (1966) 193-209.
J, L. Caskey, "Greece, Crete, and the Aegean Islands in the Early Bronze
Age" ( CAH I :2, Ch. XXVI(a) )
J. L. Caskey, "Greece and the Aegean Islands in the Middle Bronze Age"
(CAR II:l, Ch. IV( ) ).
R. A. Grassland and A. Birchall (eds.), Bronze Age Migrations in the
Aegean (1973).
V. R. d 1A. Desborough and N. G. L. Hammond, "The End of Mycenaean
Civilisation and the Dark Age" (CAH II:2, Ch. XXXVI).
0. T. P. K. Dickinson, The Origins of Mycenaean Civilisation (1977).
D. Fimmen, Die kretisch-mykenische Kultur (1921).
D. H. French, Anatolia and the Aegean in the Third Millennium B.C.
(Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge 1968).
A. Furumark, "The Settlement at Ialysos and Aegean History 1550-1400 B.C.",
in OpArch 6 (1950) 150-271.
R. Hope Simpson, A Gazetter and Atlas of Mycenaean Sites (1965).
c. Renfrew, The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean
in the Third Millennium B.c. (1972).
F. Schachermeyr, "Forschungsbericht llber die Ausgrabungen und Neufunde
zur t\glhschen Fri'mzeit", in AA (1962) 188-310 (1957-Eo), (1971)
387-419 (1961-5, EB-MB), (197lf) l-28 (1961-5, early LB).
F. H. Stubbings, "The Rise (Expansion, Recession) of Mycenaean
Civilisation" (CAH II:l Ch. XIV, II:2 Chs. XXI(a), XXVII).
K. T. Syriopoulos, H-;-Proistoria tes Peloponnesou (1964 ).
K. T. Syriopoulos, He Proistoria tes Stereas Hellados (1968).
(3)

Surveys and Publications:

(i)

Map A

Sites and Provinces (by Map).

J, L. Angel, Lerna II: The People (1971).


P. Rstr8m, "Das Panzer grab von Dendra: Bauweise und Keramik", in AM 82
( 1967) 54-67.
c. w. Blegen, "Corinth in Prehistoric Times", in AJA 24 (1920) 1-13.

13
C. W. Blegen,
c. w. Blegen,
c. W. Blegen,
c. W. Blegen,
J, L. Caskey,

Korakou (1921).
Zygouries (1928).
"Gonia", in Metropolitan Museum Studies 3 (1930) 55-86.
Prosymna (1937).
preliminary reports of excavations at Lerna, in Hesperia 23

(1954) 3-30, 24 (1955) 25-49, 25 (1956) 147-73, 26 (1957) 142-52,


27 (1958) 125-44, 28 (1959) 202-6.
J. L. Caskey, "The Early Helladic Period in the Argolid 11 , in Hesperia 29

(196o) 285-303.
p, Courbin, "Discoveries at Ancient Argos", in Archaeology 9 (1956)

166-74.
J. Deshayes, "Les Vases myc~niens de la Deiras (Argos )", in J2Q!); 77

(1953) 59-89.
J. Deshayes, Les Foui.lles de la Deiras (1966).
J. Deshayes, "Les Vases Vollgraff de la Deiras 11 , in J2Q!); 93 (1969)

574-616.
J. M. Fossey, "The Prehistoric Settlement by Lake Vouliagmeni, Perachora"

in BSA 64 (1969) 53-69.


FrBdi~nd A. w. Persson, Asine (1938).
K. Gebauer, 11 Forschungen in d~golis", in AA ( 1939) 268-94.
N. G. Gejvall, Lerna I: The Fauna (1969).
P. Gercke et al., Tiryns Forschungen und Berichte V (1971).
I and R. H~gg, Excavations in the Barbouna Area of Asine I (1973).
R H~gg, "Research at Dendra 1961", in OpAth 4 (1962) 79-102.
R H~gg, Die Gr~ber der Argolis I (1974).
J, P. Harland, Prehistoric Aigina (1925).
G. Karo, Die Schachtgr~ber von Mykenai (1930-33).

o.

A. D. Keramopoullos, 11Mykenaikoi taphoi en Aiginei kai en Thebais", in


AE (1910) 172-209.
K. MUller, Tiryns III: die Architektur der Burg und des Palastes (1930).
K. Mllller, Tiryns IV: die urfirnis Keramik (1938).
K. MUller et al., Tiryns VIII ( 1975).
a. E. Mylonas, Ancient Mycenae (1957).
Q. E. Mylonas, "He Akropolis ton Mykenon", in AE (1958) 153-207, (1962)
passim.
a. E. Mylonas, Mycenae's Last Century of Greatness (1968).
a. E. Mylonas, The Cult Centre of Mycenae (1972).
a. E. Mylonas, Ho Taphikos Kyklos B ton Mykenon (1973).
A. w. Persson; The Royal Tombs at Dendra near Midea (1931).
A. w. Persson, New Tombs at Dendra near Midea (1942).
a. Rodenwaldt, Tiryns II: die Fresken des Palastes (1912).
a. S~flund, Excavations at Berbati 1936-7 (1965).
H. Schliemann, Mycenae (1878).
H. Schliemann and w. DBrpfeld, Tiryns (1886).
H. B. Siedentopf et al., Tiryns Forschungen und Berichte VI (1973).
c. Tsountas, "Anaskaphai taphon en Mykenais", in AE (1886) 136-58.
N. M. Verdelis, "Neue Funde von Dendra", in AM 82(1967) 1-53.

14

w.
A.
A.
A.
A.

G.
G.
G.

Vo11graff, "Foui11es d'Argos", in BCH 28 (1904) 364-99, 30 (1906)


5-45, 31 (1907) 139-44.
J, B. Wace et al.,
"Excavations at Mycenae", in RSA 24 (1919-21)
185-209, 25 (1921-3) passim.
J. B. Wace, Chamber Tombs at Mycenae (1932).
J. B. Waoe, Mycenae: an Archaeological History and Guide (1949).
J. B. Wace et al., preliminary reports of excavations at Mycenae in
RSA 45 (1950) 203-28, 48 (1953) 3-29, 69-83, 49 (1954) 231-53,
266-91, 50 (1955) 175-237, 51 (1956) 103-22.
Walberg, "Finds from Excavations in the Acropolis of Midea 1939", in
OpAth 7 (1967) 161-75.
Welter, Aigina (1938).
Welter, Troizen und Kalaureia (1941).

(ii)

MapB

P. Rstr8m, 11Mycenaean Pottery from the Region of Aigion, with a List of


Prehistoric Sites in Achaea", in OpAth 5 (1964) 89-110.
w. D8rpfeld, "Alt-Pylos I. Die Kuppelgrtlber von Kakovatos", in AM 33
(1908) 295-317.
W. D8rpfeld., Alt-Olympia ( 1935), especially Ch. III.
E. J, Holmberg, The Swedish Excavations at Asea in Arcadia (1942).
R. J. Howell, "A Survey of Eastern Arcadia in Prehistory", in RSA 65
(1970) 79-127.
K. Milller, "Al t-Pylos II. Die Funde aus den Kuppelgrtlbern von Kakovatos",
in AM 34 (1909) 269-328.
A. J. Papadopoulos, Excavations at Aigion- 1970 (1976).
K. Romaios, reports of excavations at Thermon, in AD 1 (1915) 225-79,
2 (1916) 179-89.
J, Sperling, "Explorations in Elis 1939", in AJA 46 (1942) 77-89.
E. Vermeule, "The Mycenaeans in Achaea", in A~64 (196o) l-21.
F. Weege, 11 Einzelfunde aus Olympia 1907-9 I: d i e Funde aus Wohnhtluserschicht", in AM 36 (1911) 163-85.
N. Yalouris, "Myke;;;;;ikos Tymbos Samikou", in AD 20 (1965) A 6-4o.
N. Yalouris, "Trouvailles myceniennes et premyceniennes de la Region
de Sanctuaire d 'Olympie", in MycCon I 176~82.
N. Zafeiropoulos, preliminary reports of excavations in the Pharai area,
in~ (1952) 398-lfOO, (1956) 173-207, (1957) u4-7, (1958 167-76.
Reports of surveys and test excavations in the area of the Peneios river
dam in Elis, in AQ 23 (1968) B 174-94.
(iii) Map C
J. N. Coldstream and G. L. Huxley ( eds. ) Kythera:

Excavations and
Studies (1972).
K. Demakopoulou, "Mykenaika angeia ek thalamoeidon taphon periokhes
Hagiou Ioannou Monemvasias", in AD 23 (1968) A 145-94.

15
A. Harding et al., "Pavlopetri, an Underwater Bronze Age Town in
Laconia", in BSA 64 (1969) 113-42.
Lord William Tayle;:;;: "Excavations at Ayios Stephanos", in BSA 67 ( 1972)
205-70.
C. Tsountas, 11 El'evnai en tei Lakonikei kai ho taphos tou Vapheiou",
in AE (1889) 129-72.
H. Waterhouse and R. Hope Simpson, "Prehistoric Laconia (Parts I, II)",
in BSA 55 (1960) 67-107, 56 (1961) 221-60.
(iv) Map D
C. W. Blegen, "An Early Tholes .Tomb in Western Messenia", in Hesperia 23
(1954) 158-62.
c. w. Blegen and M. Rawson, The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western
Messenia I: The Buildings and their Contents (1966).
c. w. Blegen et al., The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western
Messenia III (1973).
A. Choremis, 11Mykenaikoi kai protogeometrikoi Taphoi Karpophoras
Messenias", in AE (1973) 25-72.
R. Hope Simpson, "Identifying a Mycenaean State", in BSA 52 (1957)
231-59.
R. Hope Simpson, "The Seven Cities Offered by Agamemnon to Achilles",
in BSA 61 (1966) 113-31.
Th. Karageorga, "Anaskaphe periokhes arkhaiou Doriou", in AE (1972)
Chronika 12-20.
G. s. Korres, preliminary reports of excavations in Messenia, in PAE
(1974) 139-62, Ergon (1975) 132-9, (1976) 127-40.
M. Lang, The.Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia II: The
Frescoes (1969).
S. Marinates, preliminary reports of excavations in Messenia, in PAE
(1952) 1f73-96, (1953) 238-50, (1954) 299-316, (1955) 245-55,(1956) 202-6, (1957) 118-20, (1958)184-93, (1959) 174-9,
(1960) 195-209, (1961) 169-76, (1962) 90-98, (1963) 114-21,
(1964) 78-95, (1965) 102-20, (1966) 119-32.
S. Marinates, "PALAIPYLOS", in Das Altertum 1 (1955) llKJ-63.
S. Marinates, "Problemi archeologici e filologici di Pilo", in SMEA 3
(1967) 7-18.
W. A. McDonald and R Hope Simpson, "Prehistoric Habitation in the
Southwestern Peloponnese", in AJA 65 (1961) 221-60.
w. A. McDonald and R. Hope Simpson, "Further Explorations in the
Southwestern Peloponnese (1962-3, 1964-8 )", in AJA (1964) 229-45,
73 (1969) 123-78.
w. A. McDonald and G. R. Rapp (eds.), The Minnesota Messenia Expedition
(1972).
W. A. McDonald, "Excavations at Nichoria in Messenia (1969-71, 1972-3 )",
in Hesperia 41 (1972) 218-73, 44 (1975) 69-141.
N. S. Valmin, "Continued Exploration in Eastern Triphylia", in BullLund
(1927-8) l-54.

16
N. S. Valmin, The Swedish Messenia Expedition (1938) Part I.
N. s. Valmin, "Malthi-Epilog", in OpAth l (1953) 29"-46.
(v)

s.
s.
s.
K.

w.
N.

w.

s.

E.

E.
J.

K.

Map E

Benton, "The Ionian Islands", in BSA 32 (1931-2) 213-46.


Benton, "Excavations in Ithaka III", in BSA 39 (1938-9) 1~16.
Benton and H. Waterhouse, "Excavations in Ithaka: Tris Langadas",
in BSA 68 (1973) 1-24.
Branigan, "The Round Graves of Leukas Reconsidered", in ~ 70
( 1975) 37-49.
D8rpfeld, Alt-Ithaka (1928).
G. L. Hammond, "The Tumulus Burials of Leucas and their Connections
in the Balkans and northern Greece", in BSA 69 (1974) 129-44.
A. Heurtley, "Excavations in Ithaka II", in BSA 35 (1934-5) 1-44.
Marinatos, reports of excavations in Kephallenia in AD 5 (1919)
82-122, 6 (1920-21) 175-7, AE (1932) 10-47, (1933)~0-97.
Mastrokostas, preliminary reports of excavations at Teikhos Dymaion,
in~ (1962) 127-33, (1963) 93-8, (1964) 60-67, (1965) 121-36,
Ergon (1966) 156-65.
Mastrokostas, "Anaskaphe Hagiou Ilia - Mesolongion (Ithorias )",
in AD 19 (1964) B 295-300.
Servais, "Le site helladique de Khlemoutsi et 1 'Hyrmine homerique",
in BCH 88 (1964) 9-50.
Wardle, The Greek Bronze Age West of the Pindus (Ph.D. thesis,
London, 1972).

(vi) Map F
M. Benzi, Ceramica Micenea in Attica (1975).
0. Broneer, "Excavations on the North Slope of the Acropolis", in
Hesperia 2 (1933) 329-72.
0. Broneer, "A Mycenaean Fountain on the Athenian Acropolis", in
Hesperia 8 (1939) 317-433
0. Broneer, "Athens in the Late Bronze Age", in Antiquity 30 (1956) 9-18.
V. Hankey, "Late Helladic Tombs at Khalkis", in BSA 47 (1952) 49-95.
H. D. Hansen, "The Prehistoric Pottery on the North Slope of the
Acropolis", in Hesperia 6 (1937) 539-50.
S. Iakovidis, He Mykenaike Akropolis~ton Athenon (1962).
s. Iakovidis, Perati: To Nekrotapheion I-III (1969-70)
S. Immerwahr, The Athenian Agora XIII: The Neolithic and Bronze Ages
(1971).
w. Kraiker and K. Klibler, Kerameikos: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen I
(1939).
H. D. Mussche et al., Thorikos I (1963) 27-46, III (1965) 20-24, ~ (1968)
21-102.
G. E. Mylonas, Proistorike Eleusis (1932).

17
G. E. Mylonas and K. Kourouniotis, "Excavations at Eleusis, 1932", in
AJA 37 (1933) 271-86.
G. E. Mylonas, "El.eusiniaka", in AJA 40 (1936) 415-31.
G. E. Mylonas, Aghios Kosmas (l959).
G. E. Mylonas, To Dytikon Nekrotapheion tes Eleusinos (1975-6).
M. Pantelidou, Hai Proistorikai Athenai (doctoral thesis, Athens, 1975).
G. A. Papavasil;;;iou, Peri ton en Euboiai arkhaion taphon (1910).
M. R. Popham and L. H. Sackett, Excavations at Lefkandi, Euboea 1964-66

(1968).
L. H. Sackett et al., "Prehistoric Euboea: Contributions towards a Survey",
in BSA 61 (1966) 33-112.
T. Spyropoulos, preliminary reports of excavations at Tanagra, in PAE

(1969) 5-15, (1970)29-36, (1971)7-14, (1973) 11-21, (1974) 9-33,


Ergon (1975) 17-26, (1976) 8-14, cf. also AAA 2 (1969) 20-25, 3 (1970)

184-95.
B. Stais, "Proistorikoi synoikismoi en Attikei kai Aiginei", in AE (1895)

193-263.
D. R. Theochares, preliminary reports of excavations at Raphina and
Asketario, in PAE (1951) 77-92, (1952) 129-51, (1953) 105-18,

(1954) 104-13, (1955) 109-17.


D. R. Theochares, "Asketario", in AE (1953-4) III 59-76.
D. R. Theochares, "Ek tes proistorias tes Euboias kai Skyrou", in
Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 279-328.
(vii) Map G
H. Bulle, Orchomenos I: die ~lteren Ansiedlungsschichten (1907).
J. L. and E. G. Caskey, "The Earliest Settlements at Eutresis,
Supplementary Excavations 1958", in Hesperia 29 (196o) 126-67.
L. Dor et al., Kirrha, Etude de prehistoire phocidienne (1964).
R. Hope Simpson and J. Lazenby, "The Kingdom of Peleus and Achilles",
in Antiquity 33 (1939) 102-5.
J. Jannoray and H. van Effenterre, "Fouilles de Krisa", in BCH 61

(1937) 299-326, 62 (1938) 110-47.

A. D. Keramopoullos, "He Oikia Kadmou", in AE (1909) 57-122.


A. D. Keramopoullos, "Mykenaikoi taphoi en Aiginei kai en Thebais",
in AE (1910) 209-52.
A. D. Keramopoullos, 11 Thebaika", in@ 3 (1917) passim.
A. D. Keramopoullos, "Biomekhanai kai Emporion tou Kadmou", in AE

(1930) 29-58.
E. Kunze, Orchomenos III: die Keramik der frilhen Bronzezeit (1930).
s. Symeonoglou, Kadmeia I (1973).
c. Vatin, Medeon en Phocide (1969).
Various authors, preliminary reports on excavations in Thebes in AD 19
(1964) Band following, to present, cf. also AAA 3 (1970) 322-7
(T. Spyropoulos), 7 (1974) 162-73, 8 (1975) 25-8, 86-90
(K. Demakopoulou).

18
(viii) Maps H and J

v.

E. Hanschmann and
Milocjic, Argissa III (1976).
A. Hunter, The Bronze Age in Thessaly and its Environs, with Special
Reference to Mycenaean Culture (B.Litt. thesis, Oxford 1953).
K. Kourouniotes, "Anaskaphe tholotou taphou en Voloi", in AE (1906)
211-~.
v. Milocjic, Hauptergebnisse der deutschen Ausgrabungen in Thessalien
1953-58 ( 196o).
v. Milocjic et al., Argissa I (1962).
V. Milocjic, "Bericht ilber die deutschen archaologischen Ausgrabungen
in Thessalien 1973", in AAA 7 (1974) 45-51 (on Pefkakia).
V. Milocjic et al., Magulen urn Larisa 1966 (1976).
D. R. Theochares, preliminary reports of excavations at Volos and
Pefkakia, in PAE (1956) 119-30, (1957) 54-69, (196o) 49-59,
(1961) 45-54.
D. R. Theochares, "Iolkos, whence sailed the Argonauts", in Archaeology 11
(1958) 13-18.
c. Tsountas, Hai Proistorikai Akropoleis Dimeniou kai Sesklou (1908).
A. J, B. Wace and M. s. Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912).
(ix) Map K
I. P. Bokotopoulou, "Neoi kibotioskhemoi taphoi tes YE IIIB-f periodou
ex Epeirou", in AE (1969) 179-207.
s. I. Dakaris, "Proistorikoi taphoi para to Kalbaki-Ioanninon", in AE
(1956) 114-53
S. I. Dakaris, "Das Taubenorakel von Dodona und das Totenorakel bei
Ephyra", in Antike Kunst Beiheft 1 (1963) 35-56.
S. I. Dakaris, "A Mycenaean IIIB Dagger from the Palaeolithic Site of
Kastritsa, Epirus, Greece, 11 in PPS 33 (1967) 30-36.
N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus (1967), especially Part II.
Wardle, op.cit. (Map E).
(x)

The Cyclades, S!)brades, Dodecanese

T. D. Atkinson et al., The Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos (1904).


R. Barber, "Phylakopi 1911 and the History of the Later Cycladic Bronze
Age", in BSA 69 (1974) 1-53
E. M. Bossert, "Kastri auf Syros: Vorbericht ilber eine Untersuchung der
prllhistorische Siedlung", in AD 22 (1967) A 53-76.
J, L. Caskey, "Investigations in Keos", in Hesperia ~ (1971) 358-96,
41 (1972) 357-~1.
R. M. Dawkins and J. P. Droop, "The Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos",
in BSA 17 (1910-11) 3-22.
C. Douma-;;:-"Notes on Early Cycladic Architecture", in AA (1972) 151-70.
c. Doumas, Early Bronze Age Burial Habits in the Cyclades (1977).
H. Gallet de Santerre, Delos primitive et archaique (1958).

19
H. D. Hansen, "Prehistoric Skyros", in Studies Presented to D. M. Robinson I
(1951) 54-63.
R. Hope Simpson and J. F. Lazenby, "Notes from the Dodecanese", in BSA 57
(1982) 154-75, 65 (1970) 47-77, 68 (1973) 127-79s. Marinatos, Excavations at Thera: First (etc. to Seventh) Preliminary
Report (1968-74).
G. Monaco, "Scavi nella zona micenea di Jaliso", in Clara Rhodos 10 (1941)
41-185.
G. Papathanasopoulos, "Kykladika Naxou", in@ 17 (1961-2) A 104-51.
N. Platon, "Ho taphos tou Staphylou kai ho Minoikos apoikismos tes
Preparethou", in KC 3 (1949) 534-73
c. Renfrew, "Cycladic Metallurgy and the Aegean Early Bronze Age", in
AJA 71 (1967) 1-20.
Renfrew, op cit., ( (2) General) Part I.
0. Rubensohn, "Die praehistorische und fr{!hgeschichtliche Funde aus dem
Burghllgel von Paros", in AM 42 (1917) 1-72.
K. Scholes, "The Cyclades in the Later Bronze Age: a Synopsis", in
BSA 51 (1956) 9-4o.
c. Ts-;;;:;;=;tas, "Kykladika", in AE (1898) 137-212, (1899) 73-134.
c. Zervos, L'Art des Cyclades--(1956).
(4)

Special Studies

(i)

Chronology
0

P. AstrCim, "Remarks on Middle Minoan Chronology", in !SQ 15-16 (1961-2) I


137-50.
P. 1\strC\m, "New Evidence for Middle Minoan Chronology", in Pepragmena
tou B. Diethnous Kretologikou Synedriou (1968) 120-27.
K. Branigan, "The Mesara Tholoi and Middle Minoan Chronology", in
SMEA 5 (1968) 25-8.
K. Branigan, "Radio-Carbon and the Absolute Chronology of the Aegean
Bronze Age", in KC 15 (1973) 352-74.
CAH I:l Ch. VI.
~M. Clark, "A Calibration Curve for Radiocarbon Dates", in Antiquity 49
(1975) 251-66 (with previous bibliography).
V. Hankey and P. M. Warren, "The Absolute Chronology of the Aegean Late
Bronze Age", in~ 21 (1974) 142-52 (with references).
K. A. Kitchen, 11 Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Second Millennium B. c. 11 ,
in Orientalia N.S. 36 (1967) 39-54.
Renfrew, op cit., ( (2) General) Ch. 13.
P. M. Warren, "Radiocarbon Dating and the Absolute Chronology of Late
Neolithic and Early Minoan Crete", in~ 17 (1976) 205-19.

20

( ii) Pottery
R. J. Buck, "Middle Helladic Matt-Painted Pottery", in Hesperia 33 (1964)
231-313.
O. T P. K. Dickinson, "Late Helladic IIA and Iffi: Some Evidence from
Korakou", in BSA 67 (1972) 103-12.
0. T. P. K. Dickinson, "The Definition of Late Helladic I 11 , in BSA 69
(1974) 109-20.
D. H. French, Notes on Prehistoric Pottery Groups from Central Greece
(circulated typescript, 1972).
E. French, "Pottery Groups from Mycenae: a Summary", in BSA 58 (1963)
44-52.
E. French, "Late Helladic IIIAl Pottery from Mycenae", in BSA 59 ( 1964)
241-61.
E. French, "Late Helladic IIIA2 Pottery from Mycenae 11 , in BSA 6o (1965)
159-202.
E. French, "A Group of Late Helladic IIffil Pottery from Mycenae 11 , in
BSA 61 (1966) 216-38.
E. French, "Pottery from Late Helladic IIffil Destruction Contexts at
Mycenae", in BSI\ 62 (1967) 149-93.
E. French, "A Group of Late Helladic IIffi2 Pottery from Mycenae", in
BSA 64 (1969) 71-93.
E. French, "The First Phase of L.H. IIIC", in AA (1969) 133-6.
A. Furumark, Mycenaean Pottery, Analysis and C~ssification (1941).
A. Furumark, "The Mycenaean IIIC Pottery and its Relation to Cypriote
Fabrics", in OpAth 3 (1944) 194"-265.
M. Popham and E. Milburn, 11 The Late Helladic IIIC Pottery of Xeropolis
(Lefkandi), a Summary", in BSA 66 (1971) 333-49.
J. B. and s. H. Rutter, The Transition to Mycenaean (1976).
F. H. Stubbings, 11 The Mycenaean Pottery of Attica", in BSA 42 (1947) 1-75.
N. M. Verdelis, E. and D. H. French, 11 Tiryns: Mykenaike epikhosis exothen
tou Dytikou Teikhous tes Akropoleos", in AD 20 (1965) A 137-52.
A. J. B. Wace and c. w. Blegen, "The Pre-Mycen;,;an Pottery of the Mainland",
in BSA 22 (1916-18) 175-89.
A. J. B. Wace et al., "Prehistoric Cemetery: a Deposit of L.H. III Pottery",
in BSA 52 (1957) 207-19.
E. B. Wace, "The Cyclopean Terrace Building and the Deposit of Pottery
beneath it", in BSA 49 (1954) 267-91.
K. A. Wardle, "A Group of Late Helladic IIffil Pottery from within the
Citadel at Mycenae", in BSA 64 ( 1969) 261-97.
K. A. Wardle, "A Group of Late Helladic IIffi2 Pottery from within the
Citadel at Mycenae", in BSA 68 (1973) 297-348.
(iii) Trade and Foreign Contacts

' micenea nell' Italia meridionale (1967).


F. Biancofiore, Civilta

21
A. M. Bietti Sestieri, "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to
the 11th century B.C., and its Connections with the Aegean", in
PPS 39 (1973) 383-424.
K. Branigan, "Prehistoric Relations between Italy and the Aegean", in
Bollettino di Paletnologia Italiana 75 (1966) 97-109.
K. Branigan, "Wessex and Mycenae: Some Evidence Reviewed", in Wiltshire
Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 65 (1970) 89-107.
K. Branigan, "Wessex and the Common Market", in SMEA 15 (1972) 147-55.
K. Branigan, "Halberds, Daggers and Culture Contact", in Origini 5
(1971) 47-58.
H.-G. Buchholz, "Keftiubarren und Erzhandel im 2 vorchr. Jahrtausend",
in PZ 37 (1959) l-4o.
H.- G. Buchholz, "Xg1lische 'Funde und Kul tureinflusse in den Randgebieten
des Mittelmeeres. Forschungsbericht llber Ausgrabungen und Neufunde,
196o-70", in AA (1974) 325-462.
H. w. Catling, Cypriot Bronzework in the Mycenaean World (1964).
V. Hankey, "Mycenaean Pottery in the Middle East: Notes on Finds since
1951 11 , in BSA 62 ( 1967) 107-47.
A. Harding, "Mycenaean Greece and Europe: the Evidence of Bronze Tools
and Implements", in PPS 41 ( 1975) 183-202.
w. A. Heurtley, Prehistor~Macedonia (1939).
s. A. Immerwahr, 11Mycenaean Trade and Colonisation", in Archaeology 13
( 196o) 4-13.
C. Renfrew, "Wessex without Mycenae", in BSA 63 (1968) 277-85.
c. Renfrew and J, Whitehouse, "The Copper Age of Peninsular Italy and
the Aegean", in BSA 69 (1974) 343-90.
F. Stubbings, Mycenaean Pottery from the Levant (1951).
Lord William Taylour, Mycenaean Pottery in Italy and Adjacent Areas (1958).
J, Vercoutter, L'Egypte et le monde ~geen prehellenique (1956).
(iv) Linear B (major publications of material from mainland sites)
E. L. Bennett and A. J, B. Wace, "The Mycenae Tablets", in Proceedings
of the American Philosophical Society 97 (1953) 422-70.
E. L. Bennett, The Pylos Tablets: Tests of the Inscriptions Found
1939-54 ( 1955).
E. L. Bennett, "The Mycenae Tablets II", in Transactions of the American
Philosophical Society 48 (1958) 1-122.
E. L. Bennett, The Olive Oil Tablets of Pylos: Texts of Inscriptions
Found, 1955 (Minos Supplement 2, 1958).
H. W. Catling and A. Millett, "A Study of the Inscribed Stirrup-Jars
from Thebes 11 , in Archaeometry 8 ( 1965) 3-85.
J. Chadwick ~., "The Mycenae Tablets III 11 , in Transactions of the
American Philosophical Society 52 (1963) 1-76.
J. Chadwick, "Linear B Tablets from 'rhebes", in Minos 10 ( 1970) 115-37.
J.-P. Olivier, The Mycenae Tablets IV (1969). - L. R. Palmer, The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts (1963).

22

J. Raison, Les vases a inscriptions peints de l 1 age mycenien et leur

contexte archeologique (1968).


T. Spyropoulos and J. Chadwick, The Thebes Tablets II (Minos Supplement 5,
1975).
M. Ventris and J. Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek (2nd ed., 1973).

Omitted from Section 3 (x)


V. Milocjic, Samos I (1961).

23
RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY
(i)

Relative Chronology

There are still areas of obscurity in the relative chronology of the


Aegean BA, particularly its earlier phases. The origins of mainland EH I
and the closely allied EB I of Thessaly and of the GP phase in the Cyclades
are not clear, and they can only be suggested to be broadly contemporary.
EH II and KS are lin_~ed closely with each other and with EM II by exchanges
of goods and influences; EH II seems universal on the mainland south of
Thessaly and is found on several islands, including Kea and Kythera, while
the characteristic KS types occur on most of the Cyclades, though hard to
find on Melos, where GP types might have continued to dominate at least for
a while. Phases clearly succeeding these can only be identified in some
parts of the area covered by the Gazetteer: the Ayia Marina variant of
EH III is found in central Greece, the Lerna IV variant in the north
Peloponnese, while on Euboea and Kea an assemblage of "Anatolian" type is
found. Similar "Anatolian" pieces have been found on others of the
northern Cyclades, notably among the late KS assemblage of Kastri on Syros,
while in the southern Cyclades types of the Phylakopi I assemblage are
widespread. Outside these areas there is virtually an archaeological blank;
exceptions are Kythera, where EH II was superseded by EM II, apparently
introduced by settlers from Crete, and Thessaly, where a local sequence
continued. It is conceivable that EH II persisted in some parts of the
mainland, and likely that KS types survived on some islands.
This remarkably varied and somewhat confused picture becomes simpler
in the MBA. Variants of the MH assemblage, which clearly derives in most
essentials from EH III, are found in most parts of the mainland and the
closest islands; some characteristic features are found in inland
Thessaly and the local culture in Epirus may also be related. No scheme
for the sub-division of MH has been generally accepted, and it has become
clear, from study of the long stratigraphical sequences at sites like Lerna,
Lefkandi, and Nichoria, that definitely early MH is not well represented in
the published material and that the various provinces of the mainland had
local sequences; the development of the Minyan wares may provide a framework in the central provinces, and it can at least be stated that the
angular shapes, including the ring-stemmed goblet, so often cited as
characteristic MH belong to a long mature stage and not to its beginning.
A series of imports at Lerna allows the linking of the MH with the MM
sequence (Hesperia 29 (1960) 298-9); the correlation of early MH with MM IA
is further supported by the presence of a late EH III or early MH import at
Knossos (M.S.F. Hood, in Varagnac Melanges (1971) 427).
In the Cyclades both Ay. Irini on Kea and Phylakopi on Melos have
produced sequences that cover the MBA and can be correlated with both Crete
and the mainland through the presence of MM and Grey Minyan imports (cf. also
AR (1959-60) 22 for a Phylakopi-style import in a MM IB stratum at Knossos).
Material of certainly MB date is not easy to identify elsewhere, and no other

24
major sites have been excavated except Paroikia on Paros, closely related
to Phylakopi, and Akrotiri on Thera, where there is little material that
can be dated before the LBA. A local MM sequence has been traced on
Kythera, and material of late MM type appears in the Dodecanese and
adjacent coast of Asia Minor, again perhaps indicating settlement from
Crete. The MM sequence is thus crucial for the establishment of absolute
chronology throughout the Aegean.
Relationships in the LBA are the most clearly perceived of all, for
at its beginning the Minoan tradition in pottery-decoration becomes
dominant throughout the Aegean. The LM IA style is imported and imitated
at Phylakopi, Ay. Irini, and Akrotiri, and is the ultimate ancestor of
mainland LH I, which seems to derive much of its immediate inspiration
from Kytheran LM IA; though time must be allowed for this development,
it took place within the LM IA phase, for LH I imports appear side by side
with IM IA in the Cyclades. The Cretan and mainland sequences are also
closely linked in the next stage, when LH IIA is strongly influenced by
IM IB, but this influence is most obvious in the fine "palatialtt types,
and the domestic pottery of the mainland develops separately (cf. BSA 67
(1972) 103) to result in LH IIB. Thereafter the mainland sequence is
essentially independent of the Cretan, though the two are linked by
exchanged imports and influences. From LH IIIAl, the mainland style begins
to dominate in the Cyclades and Dodecanese, although its influence in Crete
was never very great.
LH fine pottery is extremely similar wherever found and, although
deposits in the north-east Peloponnese have a wider range of shapes and
motifs than elsewhere, suggesting that this was the centre of development,
the principal types of each phase are found all over the mainland and
Aegean. The degree of local divergence from the standard is small, but
increases during LH III, and there is considerable local variation in
LH IIIB. The catastrophes at the end of LH IIIB were followed by a complete
breakdown in homogeneity, although some fine styles like the Argive ttclose
Style" and Aegean ttoctopus Stylett had wide influence; it is at first
possible to correlate local sequences in LH IIIC, but this becomes increasingly difficult as the period progresses, and it is comparisons between
other goods rather than pottery that have led to the suggestion that SMyc.
in central parts of 'the mainland overlapped with LH IIIC elsewhere. It
might in fact be better to consider SMyc. as merely one form of late LH IIIC;
it is not very distinctive stylistically, being identified partly on its
context, in cemeteries of cists and pits, but its most characteristic types
are found widely in the central mainland, suggesting a degree of homogeneity.
Local sequences continue in the DA, however, and it is only connections
with the Attic stylistic sequence that allow some precision in relative and
absolute dating.
(ii)

Absolute Chronology

There is still no agreement on the absolute chronology of the earlier


phases of the BA. The evidence is rather scanty; that deriving from

25
synchronisms with historically datable civilisations relates solely to
Crete, and dates obtained by scientific means, mainly the radiocarbon
method, though more widely spread, include few from the same site, let
alone the same context, which diminishes their value. Both sources have
been the subject of much controversy. In the case of the historical
synchronisms, this has centred on the contexts and stylistic assignation
of the relevant objects (RstrBm 1961-2, 1968, Branigan 1968): in
particular, most of the Egyptian connections for the MM phases have been
doubted or dated lower, while, even if accepted, their date-range seems
too wide to be of much use. The best contexts, for two Minoan imports in
Cyprus, depend for absolute dating on the still disputed Near Eastern
chronology (though the "low" .chronology followed by RstrBm is not generally
accepted, and one of the main arguments for it has been sho~m faulty in
Kitchen 1967). A still further complication that has not yet been properly
resolved is the precise definition and relation to one another of the
Minoan pottery-phases: if MM I can continue outside the palaces while
MM II is made within them, where should the finds of scarabs in MM IA
contexts be placed?
The radiocarbon dates are not as valuable as they have frequently
been thought to be. It is widely accepted that it is necessary to calibrate
them to obtain a true date in calendar-years (in the first instance because
of the unacceptably low dates obtained from Egyptian material). The latest
calibration-curve (Clarke, 1975) does not differ very markedly from previous
ones, but the recommended method ( op. ci t. 255-8) .for calculating the
"confidence interval" of the dates, and then calibJ?ating them, produces
a much wider range upwards and downwards than is normally suggested. It
should also be noted that the date then obtained may be no more than a
terminus post quem, if the sample is taken from old or reused wood (some
problems arising from the use of such samples are pointed out in
J. w. Michels, Dating Methods in Archaeology (1973) 160). All these
factors, together with the likelihood that some at least of the dates
available are based on contaminated samples, makes utter reliance on them
hazardous. The few dates obtained by the thermoluminescence method have
an even wider "confidence interval" (e.g. 700 years in the case of Fournou
Korifi ).
Aegean chronology before the relatively well-documented LBA is thus
still a matter for informed estimate which could yet prove to be far off
the mark. The general preference is for a long chronology, beginning the
BA at c. 3000 B.C. at latest; the rather tenuous links with Old Kingdom
Egypt would support such a chronology (Branigan's arguments for a low
chronology and against calibration (1973) are unsatisfactory methodologically, inter alia making no allowance for the likelihood that the dates are
for the wood rather than its context). The flourishing EH II, KS, and
EM II phases probably occupy the middle centuries of the third millennium,
while their poorly known successors fall in its last quarter or third.
The cumulative evidence for a substantial chronological overlap
between the MM I-II phases and the well-dated Egyptian Twelfth Dynasty

26
(c. 1991-1786 B.C.) remains strong, in our view, but more precise
apportioning of the first centuries of the second millennium to the various
phases must await their proper definition. A factor operating to lower
dates is the connection between the reign of the Hyksos king Khyan and
some phase of MM III, for this reign can hardly be dated before the middle
seventeenth century B.C. and may well be near its end. Unless disproportionately long MM II or early III phases are postulated, this would tend
to support a starting date for the F'irst Palaces no earlier than
c. l9CO B.C., pr'oducing a long MM IA phase beginning c. 2000 B.C. or earlier.
The few radiocarbon dates for the earlier MBA tend to support this (P-303A
from the beginning of Lerna V(MM IA connections) falls, on the Clark method,
between 2610 and 1850 (2a) or 2400 and 2080 (la); Pi-15 from the second
phase of the First Palace at Phaistos, between 216o and 1595 (2a) or 2025
and 1720 (la) ).
The evidence bearing on the absolute chronology of the LBA has
recently been assembled (Hankey and Warren 1974), and it has proved
possible to date most phases fairly closely. The beginning of the LBA is
still difficult to pin down, though it can hardly fall outside the sixteenth
century. The beginning of LH I should fall some way after that of lM I A,
but it is unlikely to have been a very long phase (only the latest of the
Shaft Grave burials, probably less than two generations, fall within LH I).
The dating for the end of the LBA is similarly imprecise, for there are no
synchronisms after early LH IIIC: connections with Cyprus suggest that
Attic PG may have begun c. 1050 B.C. (IMTS 241), but this provides little
help for the local sequences, which tie up with Attic LPG at the earliest
and in the south Peloponnese and north-west Greece cannot be related to
developments in the centre before the eighth century.
Notes on Chronological Chart
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

"The Mainland 11 here includes Euboea.


The dotted lines indicate considerable uncertainty about the dating
of a division (shown between EM III and M~ IA partly because of
continuing disagreement over the nature of EM III, partly because
of higher dates sometimes assigned to MM IA).
The question-marks under Kea indicate that there is no certain
evidence for occupation at the time.
Phylakopi II:a is roughly contemporary with MM I-II.
Phylakopi II:b is roughly contemporary with MM III.
The ending of LH IIA before lM IB is deliberate, based on the
presence of LH IIB in the lM IB destruction-deposits at Ay. Irini
on Kea. The evidence for the relative lengths of lM II/LH IIB and
lM IIIAl/LH IIIAl is not very good; here they are suggested to
last c. l450/4o-14o5 and c. 1405-1375 B.C. The end of LH IIIA2 has
been put c. 1320, a conservative estimate; it could be a decade or
more higher. No attempt has been made to subdivide LH IIIC, although
the Granary destruction at Mycenae has often been put c. 1150; its
beginning is put c. 1190 by Hankey and Warren (1974, 150, 152).
Attic Late Protogeometric continues throughout the lOth century.

(For Cl1ronological Chart see end of volume)

27
MAP A:

THE ARGOLID, CORINI'HIA, THE MEGARID, AND AIGINA

The centre of this map is formed by the Argolid and Corinthia,


provinces whose history has always been closely linked. Before the onset
of deforestation they would presumably have been more fertile than at
present, and even now are highly fertile in some parts (e.g. around Tiryns,
Lerna, Asine, and Sikyon), while the Nemea and Cleonae valleys, the Troizen
plain, and the south-east part of the Megarid are also productive. These
supported minor states in Classical times, and generally include at least
one large prehistoric site.
Excavation has concentrated in the central parts of the map, whose
history can be sketched with some confidence, whereas the Argive peninsula,
Megarid, and Sikyon district are poorly known. The settlement-pattern goes
back to the EBA in essentials, when most important sites were established,
to be occupied without serious break to LH IIIB or later. In the Argive
plain sites were generally near its boundaries and most often centred on
prominent acropolises; others are spaced along the coasts and in the
inland plains, and in the Corinthia a whole chain of sites was established
along the foothills forming the southern boundary of the plain, while
others were close to the coast. The large number of sites in the Corinthia
may have prevented any one from rising to special prominence; on present
evidence the most important sites of the area have always been in the
Ar give plain.
EH II sites are plentiful, particularly in the Corinthia and in
coastal areas. Lerna (A 13) is the most outstanding for finds, but Tiryns
(A 7) and Zygouries (A 67) have almost equal claims to attention and several
others were clearly substantial. Of these only Old Corinth (A 52) and
Phlius (A 72) do not seem to have survived the EH II disaster, but the
rest were reduced to a more common level. Argas (A 8), previously
unimportant, became large in MH, and by the late phase of the period it
may be suggested that several others were quite prosperous, notably
Lerna, T.iryns, and Asine, and the cemetery of Mylos Cheliotou (A 53)
indicates another such centre near Corinth. But Mycenae (A 1), probably
inferior to all these in earlier phases although occupied for equally
long, was to outstrip all possible rivals to become the single most
important site in the whole area at the beginning of LH. It may be noted
that throughout these vicissitudes an important fortified town had
maintained itself on Aigina (A 45), which was probably closer in character
to the Cycladic towns than to the mainland settlements.
Like Argos in the Classical period, Mycenae could only have
supported such a position in the absence of rivals. It is inconceivable
that it should not have controlled at the very least the Argive plain and
a secure access to the sea. Tiryns and Dendra (A 6-6A), though they have
produced rich and important finds, must therefore be considered dependent
on Mycenae; none could have prospered to such an extent if they had been
forced to divide the plain between them. Tiryns certainly had a special
position, being the only other site in the province to have produced a
palace and Linear B documents, and to have fortifications as old,

28
apparently, as those of Mycenae;

it may well have been the ea pi tal of a

major administrative area and also have served as Myoenae s main port~
1

The tholos tombs of Prosymna (A 4), Berbati (A 5), Dendra, and Kazarma
(A 25) suggest that they were local centres of government or seats of
vassal rulers at an early stage, and the finds at Dendra suggest its
continuing importance into IJl IIIB. Argos too may have possessed a
fortification wall, and it is possible to suggest a deliberate policy in
the siting of fortifications, to guard the major approaches to the
Argive plain. Whether Mycenae also controlled the territories to the
north is debatable; the road-system traced northwards and the undertaking
of the Isthmus fortification (A 58), surely the work of a major power,
might suggest it, and on this view Zygouries and perhaps Korakou (A 50)
might be local centres of government. The remoter districts might have
been left to their own devices; there is no evidence that their settlements
included any of much importance.
In general, the major LE settlements were those of the previous
period; Lerna may have been in decline, while Nauplia (A 18) became
prominent. New settlements were founded and old ones expanded; population
seems especially dense in the neighbourhood of Mycenae, but several sites
had "lower towns". Some may already have been abandoned before the end of
LE IIIB (e.g. Berbati), when an extremely well-documented disaster,
involving destruction by fire and/or desertion, overtook the area. But
several of the most important si tes 3 Mycenae, Tiryns, Argas, Asine_.
Nauplia, and Korakou, survived as substantial centres. All but Korakou,
in fact, survived throughout the DA, although Mycenae seems to have lost
all importance after the middle of LE IIIC, and there is rather tenuous
but plausible evidence for similar continuity at Old Corinth. These
settlements must have depended on their own resources until Argas regained
control of the Argive plain and the states of Corinth and Sikyon were
established, none of which may have happened before late in the DA.
A l

MYCENAE

-x-

K. 8 Korinthos
N EH I-III ME

(GAMS No. l)

278 (spot-height) at 503 E / 227 N


Ul I-IIIC

SMyc.

PG

G A C

General Bibliography E. Schliemann, Mycenae (1878); G. Schuchhardt,


Schliemann's Excavations (1891) Ch. V; BSA 25 (1921-3) passim;
A. J. B. Wace, Mycenae: an Archaeological History and Guide (1949);
G. E. Mylonas, Ancient Mycenae (1957); E. \4ace and c. K. Williams IL
Mycenae Guide (1963); G. E. Mylonas, Mycenae, a Guide to its Ruins and
its History (1970); Alin 10, LMTS 73

29
I.

The Citadel

(1)
General Comments
See Orlandos Charisterion I 213; AE (1958) 153, (1962) passim,
MMA 15 as well as General Bibliography.
The acropolis is a flat-topped hill between ravines, with a sharply
defined upper citadel with steep or precipitous sides. The natural
approach is up the SW slope, where softer rock overlies the hard limestone
of the rest of the acropolis. Some N pottery has been found here, but the
site 1 s continuous history starts in EH I.
Apart from pottery, little has been found of any period preceding
LH IIIA2 except the Prehistoric Cemetery on the SW slope, which :i.ncludes
MH-LH IIB graves and Circle A. The earliest extant fortifications are of
LH IIIA2 date (Wace 1949, 132); the supposed MH fortification on the
upper citadel appears to be a LH IIIB terrace-wall (MMA 15), and it seems
unlikely that Mycenae was fortified before LH IIIA2 (but see AR (1962-3) llf
for a suggested MH fortification on the SW slope). The earli;;;t surviving
palace is of the same date, but it is likely that earlier buildings of
comparable status stood on the same site from the period of the Shaft
Graves (Wace 1949, 87), before which time Mycenae is unlikely to have
been of any importance. During LH IIIB the fortifications were progressively extended to include the SW slope (the Lion Gate belongs to this phase)
and ultimately the North-East Extension, within which the entrance to an
underground water-supply system was situated. The area enclosed within
the fortifications was at this time about 38,500 sq. m.
The whole citadel appears to have been destroyed by fire at the end
of LH IIIB, although traces of this are less easily identifiable in the E.
It was at least partly reoccupied during LH IIIC, especially on the SW
slope and in the E, and was probably never completely abandoned; sherdmaterial of post-LH phases from the SW slope probably indicates occupation
higher up (AR (1964-5) 10) and several DA burials have been found in w
parts of the citadel (BSA 68 (1973) 87).
(2)

The South-West Slope

The Prehistoric Cemetery BSA 45 (1950) 204, 48 (1953) 7, 49 (1954) 232,


50 (1955) 190, 51 (1956) 106, PAE (1957) 106, (1973) 101, AD 24 (1969) B 101+
Grave Circle A and Area G. Ka~ Die Schachtgrliber von Mykenai (1930-33),
BSA 25 (1921-3) 103, 39 (1938-9) 65 (the "Golden Treasure"), 49 (195lf) 244,
MMA 94
Early Excavations (Lion Gate, Ramps, Granary, Ramp House, House of
Warrior Vase, South House, Rhyton Well) Schliemann 1878, 99, 130;
BSA 2lf (1919-21) 200, 25 (1921-3) 1
s;;;:;th House and Citadel House (including "House of Idols") BSA 50 ( 1955) 177,
64 (1969) 261, 68 (1973) 297; MT III 35; AR (1959-6o) 9, ~96o-61) 30,
(1962-3) 12, (1964-5) 10, (1966-7) 8, (1968-9) 11, (1969-70) ll, AAA 3
(1970) 72, Antiquity 44 (1970) 270, AJA 75 (1971) 266
---

30
Tsountas 1 House and Area Wace 1949, 66; JHS 71 (1951) 25lf, A)l (l959-6o)
31; PAE (1886) 74, (1967) 107, (1968) 9, (1970) 118, (1971) 146,
(l9r(2) 116, (1973) 99, (1974) 89, brgon (1975) 90; G. E. Mylonas,
The Cult Centre of Mycenae (1972)
As noted above, the earliest material from Mycenae, of N date, has
been found here. EH remains were found particularly in the neighbourhood
of Circle A, while MH remains were widespread; these are mainly burials,
but there is evidence for occupation (cf. BSA 68 (1973) 208, also the
report of a granary and other structures in PAE (1971) 152). Near the
end of MH, Circle A was founded; it can be considered the burial-place
of Mycenae's ruling family to.the end of LH I (Grave I contained at least
one burial of early LH IIA date). Its area was left inviolate, and the
SW slope was apparently empty of occupation, until LH IIIB, though burials
were made in the Prehistoric Cemetery until LH IIIB; the "Golden Treasure",
found in what may be a pit-grave just S of the Circle, is probably loot
from a rich, even royal, tomb of LH IIA or IIB date(this would indicate a
tholos tomb rather than a shaft grave). There are traces of pre-LH IIIB
buildings beneath the Ramp House (BSA 25 (1921-3) 75, 59 (1964) 242).
In LH IIIBl many large buildings were constructed on the SW slope,
and the area of Circle A was tidied and a new supporting terrace and
enclosure-wall built; this building activity may well have succeeded the
construction of fortifications, which appear to curve deliberately around
the Circle. The remarkable complex of shrines and altars in the Citadel
House and Tsountas' House areas, together with the finds from the Rhyton
Well, indicate that this was a very important centre of religious
acitivity at this time, but the substantial buildings to the N and the
ordinary blocks of houses to the S have no obvious religious connections,
and there is evidence for workshops intermingled with the shrines, perhaps
attached to them.
Much debris from the destruction in LH IIIB2 collapsed onto these
buildings from higher up, including fragments of Linear B tablets and
very fine frescoes; this was levelled to provide a basis for LH IIIC
habitation, of which there are very deep strata here, and some buildings
were cleared (the Granary and perhaps the House of the Warrior Vase, if
the Warrior Vase belonged to the period of its final use). A further
destruction in mid-LH IIIC seems to have been ollowed by virtual
desertion of the area; some SMyc. and PG tombs have been found,indicating
its reversion to a burial-ground.
(3)

The Upper Citadel:

The Palace and Adjoining Areas

'I'he Palace PAE (1886) 59, BSA 25 (1921-3) 147, Wace 1949, 69, MMA 58
The Eastern ~races ~ (1965) 87, Hesperia 35 (1966) 419
The House of Columns Wace 1949, 91, ~ (1967) 7, G. E. Mylonas,
Mycenae's Last Century of Greatness (1968) ll
Building;s Gamma and Delta PAE (1966) 105, (1967) llf

31
The buildings attributed to the Palace occupied the upper citadel
and terraces descending from it to theE, over which it probably
progressively expanded during LH IIIA2-B; there is evidence for
considerable reconstruction during these phases, some of it following a
fire (accidental?). The oldest part of the Palace appears to have stood
on the summit, probably succeeding earlier buildings of similar character,
on a terrace supported by a long wall with regular set-backs on the W
and another, without set-back,;, on the N, entered through a Propyl on on
the NN. The original megaron-suite may have stood here; the surviving
one appears to be a later addition, being built on a fill supported by
the fortification, opening off a court on whose other side is the "Throne
Room" group of rooms. A grand staircase approaching the anteroom of the
"Throne Room" was also probably a late addition. The domestic quarter
survives in very eroded condition on the summit, including remains of
possible shrines, perhaps only repositories of objects (BSA 25 (1921-3)
223, JHS 59 ( 1939) 210). Very little was found in this part of the
Palace (cf. f1E ( 1953-lf) I 9 for trials below the collapsed part of the
megaron in the Chavos ravine), and its history after the LH IIIB2
destruction is obscure, althOUif,h DA buildings were apparently found in
the area of the court.
The buildings on the E terraces include likely workshops and storageareas, plausibly attached to the Palace; some parts produced evidence of
an upper storey, but the whole area is much disturbed by H buildings. On
the easternmost terrace, against the fortification-wall, stood the House
of Columns, which seems only to have been built in LH IIIB2. Its monumental character suggests that it was intended for the ruling family or
at least some very important person, but it was very eroded and finds
were few, though including an inscribed stirrup jar. After the LcB IIIB2
destruction substantial buildings were erected over it~ the later~
Building Omega, being apparently a reconstruction of the central part
(these are dated by early LH IIIC sherds found in the walls, the floors
being completely destroyed).
To the N was an open court, the meeting-place of several roads. It
was flanked by two buildings on raised terraces, Gamma and Delta, of
apparently LH IIIB date. LH IIIC has been reported from in and around
them.
(If)

The North-East Extension

AJA 38 (1934) 123, AE (1962) 142, PAE (1964) 74, (1965) 85


The fortifications were extended to include this area in late
LH IIIB, and constructions presumably post-date this. The most important
is the entrance to the underground water-system, a tunnel through the
wall to a cistern that was fed by an aqueduct from the Perseia spring.
There are traces of at least three buildings; their storage-areas,
containing pottery, storage-jars, lead containers, a stone mortar, and
some fine ivories, have survived, and one contained a clay bath. There

32

are few traces of the LH IIIB2 destruction in this area, and much LH IIIC
is reported.
(5)

The North and North-West Slopes

wace 191r9, 68, BSA 49 (1954) 2Sie;


(1963) 99, (196~68, (1968) 5

PAE (1959) 144, (1961) 155, (1962) 61,

A series of passages, courts, and terraces has been uncovered along


the N slope and to N of the Lion Gate; the whole area seems to have been
built over by LH IIIB2, and chambers were even constructed within the
fortification-wall. Especially notable is Building M, whose contents
include many lead vessels and a faience plaque with the cartouche of
Amenophis III as well as other fine goods. Other important finds are a
bronze hoard by a staircase, an unusually large and fine female figurine
that might have fallen from a small shrine, together with vases and
jewellery, and objects that had probably fallen from a storeroom, including
much ivory-work, a Linear B tablet, and a headless stone figurine~ Traces
of the LH IIIB2 destruction are widespread. LH IIIC is reported from the
floor of Passage Gamma (PAE (1964) 20) and from a gallery in the fortification (BSA 49 (1954) 254, associated with the destruction-layer, so in
reality LH IIIB2?).
II.

The Slopes Beyond the Citadel

Settlements that may originally have been independent of the


Mycenae acropolis were established in the neighbourhood from an early
date, the oldest, on present evidence, being that on Kalkani hill. In
LH times the bulk of the population probably lived in these settlements,
which were scattered over a considerable area (approximately 250,000 sq. m.),
as the distribution of chamber tomb cemeteries indicates; the slopes
closest to the citadel were probably covered by a "lower town", which
included buildings of considerable importance. This may have been largely
abandoned after a destruction in LH IIIBl (but the date of this has been
recently queried), only a scatter of sherds in surface-layers Indicating
some limited continuing occupation. DA occupation is similarly represented
for the most part by scattered sherd-material, but a megaron-like structure
and several graves have been found in the area of the West HouseJ and a
reputed altar near Circle B. The l!Agamemnoneion 11 appears to have been
founded just before the end of G, and there is G material in a number of
tombs, especially tholoi.
(l)

From the Prehistoric Cemetery to Circle B

BSA 45 (1950) 222, 48 (1953) 5, 50 (1955) 199, 52 (1957) 207, 61 (1966) 216,
64 (1969) 71; G. E. Mylonas, Ho Taphikos Kyklos B ton Mykenon (1973)

33

The erection of fortifications along the SW slope of the acropolis


in LH IIIBl has divided the Prehistoric Cemetery in two. There is no
evidence that it extended beyond the slope, for no graves were found
beneath the Perseia Fountain House, and Circle B originally stood on a
separate knoll; there is evidence for MH occupation in both areas,
however. Grave Circle B was founded in late MH and continued in use
alongside Circle A, but ceased to be used in LH I; Tomb Rho was (deliberately?) inserted in its eastern half in LH IIA. Of uncertain date, but
apparently constructed between the Tombs of Aegisthus~and Clytaemnestra,
is the East-West Wall, which may have served as a temenos-wall for the
Prehistoric Cemetery.
The next evidence for use of the area belongs to the time of the
construction of the Tomb of Clytaemnestra, when the area of Circle B
appears to have been used for stone-cutting operations, the Circle's
existence being apparently unsuspected. The chamber-wall cut into the NE
section of the Circle, and to judge from the radius of the Great Pores Wall,
which apparently held in the covering mound of the Tomb of Clytaemnestra,
this would have wholly covered Circle B. A LH IIIA2 or early IIIBl date
for the Tomb is suggested by the fact that a LH IIIBl floor in the Prehistoric Cemetery area extends to the Great Pores Wall (BSA 64 (1969)
72 n.9). Other evidence of LH IIIBl habitation in the area has been
found, and also LH IIIB2 deposits. Some crude walls built across the
Great Poros Wall might be LH IIIB2 or IIIC (PAE (1954) 268 reports
LH IliC habitation to theE of the Tomb of Clytaemnestra). Occasional
LH IIIC sherds and a late LH IIIC or SMyc. infant's burial have been
found (BSA 49 (1954) 258, 58 (1963) 50, 61 (1966) 233), and there are
some DA burials.
(2)

The Area North and North-West of the Lion Gate

The Cyclopean Terrace Building Area


BSA 25 (1921-3) 403, 48 (1953) 15,
lf9 (1954) 267, 56 (1961) 81, 88
Petsas' House and Area
PAE (1950) 203, BSA 6o (1965) 171
Recent Excavations
PAE (1972) 116
Important finds have been made on a series of terraces W of the
Lion Gate. There is evidence for habitation as early as LH IIA, but the
earliest major constructions found are to be dated to LH IIIA2. These
are a number of storerooms containing vast quantities of unused pottery
(Petsas 1 House) and the "House of the Wine Merchant" below the Cyclopean
Terrace Building (hereafter CTB). These were apparently destroyed by
fire; no later traces are reported over Petsas' House, but there was
widespread occupation on other terraces in LH IIIBl, to which the CTB
itself belongs. Only the massive foundations of this building, which may
never have been finished, survive. The importance of the buildings in
this area is indicated by various finds, fragments of fresco, a Linear B
tablet, and part of a gold vessel.

A general destruction in this area is attributed to LH IIIBl; the


filling of a well below the CTB with rubbish of this phase and several
bodies may be connected. Later remains are few, but include two LH IIIC
burials, one in an enormous, finely decorated pithos, set on top of the
fill of the CTB foundations.
(3)

The House of the Oil Merchant, House of Shields,


House of Sphinxes, West House, and Area

BSA 48 (1953) 9, 49 (1954) 235, 50 (1955) 180, 51 (1956) 107, 6o (1965)


183, 63. (1968) 149; PAE (1958) 157, (1959) 146, (1961) 161, (1962) 81,
(1963) 107; MT II 3, III 13
Not far S of the Tomb of Clytaemnestra and close to the modern road
are traces of occupation extending back to MH. In late LH times a major
road to the acropolis ran through this area, flanked by substantial
buildings on both sides, founded on rock and on terraces. The surviving
buildings are of LH IIIB date, but the contents of the terraces indicate
that they succeeded equally substantial LH IIIA2 buildings, some
decorated with frescoes. The basements, containing material fallen from
upper floors, are mainly what has survived from the four major structures.
The oldest, the West House, gives many indications of having been an
ordinary house, including a kitchen and a great deal of pottery; the
others, which were built in succession, may partly have been stores for
produce and various objects, including precious vessels and inlaid
furniture or boxes, but the presence of Linear B tablets in all four
suggests that they were also used as offices, and the whole group could
be considered a single unit, the residence and working-area of an
important noble or official. All were destroyed by fire, in LH IIIBl
according to present theory (but Tiryns VI 102 n. 126 suggests IIIB2); a
few LH IIIB2-C sherds from surface-layers might represent later occupation
on a reduced scale. DA reuse of the area is considerably later.
(4)

The Panayitsa (Makry Lithari) Ridge and Kalkani Hill

Traces of occupation have been found at many points W of the


acropolis, where there are good water-sources, the Epano and Kato
Pegadhia. Kalkani hill was settled from EH (A. J, B. Wace, Chamber Tombs
at Mycenae (1932) 19) and, while a single EH sherd found on the slope
opposite (Wace 1932, 29) may not be significant, MH pottery found along
the Panayitsa ridge and in the dromoi of tombs dug into it probably
indicates occupation (Wace 1932, 44, BSA 25 (1921-3) 291, 320, 59 (1964) 2,
244, 6o (1965) 174). Early LH has also been found, and the "Bothros
Deposit" through which the dromos of the Treasury of Atreus was cut
contained LH IIIAl domestic rubbish, including fresco-fragments (~ 59
(1939) 211, BSA 59 (1964) 241), presumably cleared off the top of the
ridge. The LH IIIA2 deposit in the dromos ofT. 505 (BSA 6o (1965) 174)
might have a similar origin, and there is widespread evidence for LH IIIBl

35
occupation, both on the summit of the ridge (BSA 51 (1956) 119, including
the "House of Lead") and the eastern slope, N of the Treasury of Atreus
(~ (1962) 65, (1963) 104, (1964) 68, (1965) 94, (1966) 111, MMA 83),
where a whole quarter of moderately substantial buildings has been uncovered. The many tombs cut into the sides of the Panayitsa ridge and Kalkani
hill also testify to the importance of the communities established on
them (cf. also AE (1896) l on the Kato Pegadhi area).
There is widespread evidence of a destruction, attributed to
LH IIIBl, which in House I appears to have resulted from earthquake rather
than fire. Some of the houses on theE slope are reported to have been
occupied in LH IIIB2, and LH IIIB2 or IIIC sherds have been found on the
summit (BSA 58 (1963) 50, 6o (1965) 183 cf. Pl. 52b); some tombs also
continued in use into LH IIIC or were reused (especially Ts. 502, 515).
(5)

Other Areas

MH occupation is reported near the NE edge of the acropolis (Wace


1949, 47). At Flakes, c. 150 m. N of the Postern Gate, an important
building has been found, containing frescoes, LH IIIB pottery, and other
finds; there is evidence suggesting that it was destroyed by earthquake,
including the presence of three bodies in the cellars (Ergon (1975) 95).
E. of the Perseia spring, a house of several rooms was identified, with
which copious LH III pottery was associated; it was probably a potters'
establishment (BSA 48 (1953) 18; but the pottery is LH IIIA2, not LH IIIB
as there stated).
III.

The Tombs

(l)

The Tholoi

Cyclopean Tomb BSA 25 (1921-3) 287


Epano Phournos Tomb
BSA 25 (1921-3) 292, 48 (1953) 69
Tomb of Aegisthus
BSA 25 (1921-3) 296, 50 (1955) 207, PAE (1955) 218
Panaghia Tomb
BSA 25 (1921-3) 316
Kato Phournos Tomb
BSA 25 (1921-3) 320
Lion Tomb
BSA 25 (1921-3) 325, 50 (1955) l8o
Tomb of the Genii
BSA 25 (1921-3) 376
Treasury of Atreus BSA 25 (1921-3) 338, Antiquity 14 (l94o) 233,
Wace 1949, 119; MMA 120; BSA 63 (1968) 331 (latest on facade)
Tomb of Clytaemnestra BSA 25 (1921-3) 357, 48 (1953) 5, 50 (1955) 194,
209; MMA 122
The above order probably represents the relative order of construction, but it need not be assumed that the tholoi were the tombs of nine
successive kings and so must be fairly evenly spaced over LH IIA - IIIB.
In fact, the first six all contain fragments of "palatial" LH IIA jars,
which provide the best indication of the date of construction, while the
Tomb of the Genii produced some LH IIB-IIIAl, and only the last two can be

36
dated much later. It seems likely on grounds of size, position, and elaboration that a distinction should be made between those on the west and
east of the Panayi tsa ridge, the latter being the more "royal"; most if
not all were in any case used for a series of burials, in all probability.
The dating of the Treasury of Atreus and Tomb of Clytaemnestra has
been a vexed point. The former can be no earlier than the end of LH IIIAl,
for its dromos cut through a deposit of that phase (BSA 59 (1964) 241);
the figurines found in the dromos-fill and beneath a large block"in the
dromos-wall suggest that it was not substantially later (BSA 66 (1971) 117).
The LH IIIB2 sherds from beneath the threshold are surely too late by any
standards to give a reliable indication, and must derive from reuse of the
tomb, during which the threshold would necessarily be disturbed (BSA 58
( 1963) lf6 n. 29). The Tomb of Clytaemnestra is generally considered to be
somewhat later than the Treasury of Atreus on architectural grounds;
since very similar gold ornaments and stone vase-fragments were found in
both, the difference in time may not be great, and a terminus ante quem
seems provided by the LH IIIBl material from the Prehistoric Cemetery
(supra).
All the tholoi had been thoroughly robbed, probably during the DA,
for G material was found in almost all of them. There are clear
indications of cult in several; the best evidence is of A date, including
figurines, but the G pottery may represent an earlier stage.
(2)

Chamber Tombs

PAE (1887) 65, (1888) 28, (1890) 36, (1892) 56, (1893) 8, (1895) 24,
(1896) 30, (1897) 27, (1899) 102, AE (1888) 136 (Ts. l-52), (1891) l (T. 70),
(1896) l (K. Pegadhi ts.), JHS 24 (1904 322 (T. 102); AD 5 (1919)
Parartema 34; A. J, B. Wace, Chamber Tombs at Mycenae (1932) (Ts. 502-33,
mainly Kalkani); AR (1958) 8, PAE (1952) 465, (1953) 207 (by Circle B),
(1962) 67, (1963) lll, (1964) ~Gourtsoulia), (1972) 114 (Panayitsa,
Vlachostrata, Kapsala), (1974) 92 (Kalkani); Die kretisch-mykenische
Glyptik und ihre gegenwlirtigen Probleme (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft,
1974) 37 (T. 26), 115 (T. 91)
The chamber tomb was almost certainly introduced in LH I , although
material plausibly of this date has only been published from T. 518 (Wace
1932, Pl. 42:5, 7-9). The wide spread of cemeteries, which must total
several hundred tombs, is generally considered to include those of outlying
settlements. The tombs of the Panayitsa and Kato Pegadhi neighbourhoods
are particularly noteworthy among the rich and important tombs (Ts. 2, 5,
21!-7, 1+9, 52-5, 70, 78, 81, 88, 91, 102-3), but their pottery has only been
published in rare cases; the bulk are likely to be of LH IIIA-B date.
Their contents, many of which are on show in the National Museum, including
quantities of gold jewellery, sets of bronzes, and many ivory objects, far
surpass those of almost all chamber tombs elsewhere, a striking proof of
Mycenae's exceptional wealth and importance.

37
A number of tombs continued to be used and even constructed (PAE
(1964) 68) in rn IIIC at some distance from the acropolis (Kalkani,-!Uepotrypa, Gortsoulia), but their goods are not remarkable, consisting
largely of pottery.
A2

PHYCHTIA:

BOLIARI

K. 8 Korinthos
LH IIIA2-C

!+93 E

I 238 N (approx.)

AD 19 (1964) B 118, 21 (1966) B 125


About 3 km. NW of Mycenae acropolis and l km. E of the CorinthArgas road, a chamber tomb was found containing LH IIIA2-C finds, on the
hillock marked Pera Sphalaktra on Steffen 1 s map. About 1 km. to SW, near
the 37 km. mark on the Corinth-Argos road, Mycenaean sherds and obsidian
were found.

A 2A

PHYCHriA:

AYIOS YEORYIOS

K. 8 Korinthos
LH III(A-B)

450 E

223 N (approx.)

AD 21 (1966) B 125
Surface sherds, including some attributed to rn IIIB, were found
near the chapel of Ayios Yeoryios, several km. W of Phychtia.
A3

MONASTERAKI (formerly PRIPHTIANI):


K. 8 Korinthos
LH IIIAl-B

1'93 E

Wace (1949) 1+, 130, 137,


Parartema 19, Alin 37

MAGOULA

*11

(GAMS No. 2)

I 201 N

AD 5 (1919) Parartema 34,

AE (1952)

Six chamber tombs in various locations around Monasteraki village,


and remains of LH settlement both on Magoula 200 m. to SW and on the E side.
A 3A

VRESERKA

11

K. 8 Korinthos
505 E
LH I?
lli IIA-IIIB
AE ( 1888) 123;

( GAMS No. 3)

191 N

RE Suppl. VI 6o5

A settlement (c. 200 m. E-W by lOO m.) on the S flank of Vreserka


hamlet, near the Mycenaean road from Mycenae to the Argive Heraion. This

38
is probably identical with the "Eleutherios" (named after the bed of the
old river Eleutherios nearby) from which R. w. Hutchinson collected fine
LH II-III sherds (now in the BSA collection). Tsountas (AE loc. cit.)
noted a probable chamber tomb cemetery near Vreserka.

A4

PROSYMNA:

'ri-lE

ANCIENT ARGIVE HERAION

K. 8 Korinthos
N EH II-III MH
l.

*#

(GAMS No. 4)

517 E / 181> N
G A C H

LH I-IIIB

Habitation

c. Waldstein, The Argive Heraeum (1902) 71; R A. Tomlinson, Argas and


the Argolid (1972) index s. v. "Heraion"; c. w. Blegen, Prosymna (1937);
AJA 43 (1939) 410, Hesperia 21 (1952) 165
The topography is well described by Blegen (cf. Prosymna fig. 1).
The sanctuary occupies the lower terraces of a conical hill on the NE
flank of the Argive plain. On the summit and upper W and S slopes (over
an area c. 150 m. NE-SW by lOO m.) above the sanctuary there was a
prehistoric settlement. N remains have been found on slopes adjoining
the hill to the NW, while the hill itself was first occupied in EH II, and
thereafter continued to be inhabited without a break until LH IIIB. There
are also traces of EH, MH, and LH habitation on the surrounding slopes,
notably the widely scattered groups of late MH graves, a IJ1 IIIB house on
Kephalari to the W, and LH pottery in the area of the A shrine, well to
the NW beyond the tholos. The site appears to have been abandoned in the
later stages of LH IIIB, and its earliest reuse, as a cult-centre, does
not seem to antedate the G period.
2.

Tombs

c. w.

Blegen, Prosymna (1937); AE (1956) Parartema 10, AD 25 (1970) B 156;


AM 3 (1878) 271, BSA 25 (1921-3)~30 (tholes tomb)
Apart from the late MH graves already mentioned, a large cemetery of
Mycenaean chamber tombs extends over the slopes W and MW of the sanctuary
hill, also including two cist-graves; it is the largest of Mycenaean date
to have been fully published (over fifty graves). The earliest tombs are
LH I (Ts. 25, 26, 52), the latest LH IIIB, and they contain an extensive
range of goods. Several contain LG deposits, perhaps connected with cult.
l km. to the NW is a tholos tomb, the largest (d. 9.5 m.) in the
Argolid outside Mycenae. Its scanty pottery all seems to be LH IIIA;
although robbed, it contained the remains of rich goods, including
several vases of stone and metal.

39
A

BERBATI :

MASTOS

* 11

(GAMS No. 5)

K. 8 Korinthos
554 E I 205 N
N EH I-III MH lli I-IIIB2 G
1.

Habitat ion

AA (1936) 139, (1938) 552, BCH 78 (1954) 117, G. sHflund, Excavations at


Berbati 1936-7 (1965) Part I; MycCon I 48
The settlement is centred upon a small but conspicuous acropolis
with a conical rock formationat the summit. It completely dominates the
Berbati valley, and commands the main entrance to it from the S. A
terrace on the S slope has produced the best early remains, including a
large EH II building; there is evidence for a destruction by fire in
late EH III or early MH. On the E slope, a MH settlement and cemetery
were succeeded by a potter's establishment of earlier Mycenaean date,
which includes a kiln; a larger building of LH IIIA2-B date was surely
also a potter's establishment, though no kiln was found. Large deposits
of "wasters", ranging from the end of MH to lli IIIB, were found, including
many fragments of "Pictorial Style". The settlement appears to have been
abandoned late in lli IIIB; the latest remains are two tile-covered graves,
apparently Mycenaean.
2.

Tombs
---

AA (1935) 200, ILN (151211936) 276 (tholes tomb), SHflund, op.cit. Part II
About l km. NW of the site is a tholes tomb (d. 8 m.); it had been
robbed, but produced much LH IIA-IIIAl pottery and some other finds (notably
parts of a gold-rimmed silver cup). Beyond it, in the slopes of the hills
on the W side of the valley, is a chamber tomb cemetery, of which several
tombs were excavated; their contents consisted largely of lli IIA-IIIB
pottery. A pit in one of them produced a fine group of MG I vases.
A 6

DENDRA :

PALAIOKASTRO (ANCIENT MIDEA)

* 11

K. 8 Korinthos
268 (spot height) at 571 E
EH II-III MH lli I-IIIB2 G? C or H

(GAMS No. 7)

I 113 N

A. w. Persson, The Royal Tombs at Dendra near Midea (1931) 73, New Tombs
at Dendra near Midea (1942) 3, 61; OpAth 4 (1962) 82, 7 (1967) 161;
MycCon I 54 (cf. ~ 20 (1965) B 134)
This extensive site occupies the summit (c. 220 m. NW to SE by 160 m.)
and N and W slopes of a tall conical acropolis hill. It was one of the
chief Mycenaean fortresses of the ArgoHd. The Cyclopean walls (on the NE
side as massive as those of Tiryns) enclosed an area larger than that of

40

all Mycenaean fortresses except Gla in Boeotia (G 9) and Petra in Thessaly


(H 17). Traces of occupation on the acropolis extend back to EH, and it
does not appear to have been deserted at any time between then and
LH IIIB2. The MH settlement may have been quite substantial, and late
MH wares are well represented; it extended to the lower W slope. The most
imposing LH remains are the fortifications, erected during LH IIIB; an
important building may have stood on an L-shaped plateau on the summit
(Persson 1942, 7), and a fresco-fragment is reported (OpAth 4 (1962) 174
n. 14). Traces of LH (II?-)III settlement have also been noted on theW
slope. The acropolis settlement was apparently destroyed by fire at the
end of LH IIIB; the acropolis was never reoccupied, but later remains
have been found in the neighbourhood.
A 6A DENDRA (VILLAGE)

*I!

(GAMS No. 6)

K. 8 Korinthos 555 E I 147 N


N EH II( -III?) MH? LH IIA-IIIB

A?

C?

Persson 1931, 1942; AD 16 (l96o) B 93, 18 (1963) B 63;


AM 82 (1967) l; ~ 127 (tholos tomb)

OpAth 4 (1962) 88;

On a very gentle slope on the ~W outskirts of the modern village,


there are extensive traces of an EH II settlement (Persaon 1931, 27, 29,
31; 1942, 17, 20, 51, 63), which may have continued into EH III and MH
(Persson 1931, 91). This was later the site of a very important LH
cemetery, of which one tholos tomb and fourteen chamber tombs have been
excavated. The earliest material is LH IIA (T. 6), but the most spectacular
finds date between the end of LH IIA (the coffin-burial in T. 8) and
LH IIIAl; the finds in T. 2, the "Cenotaph", may be rather later, the
relevant pottery ranging from LH II to IIIA2 (Persson 1931, fig. 64).
The tholos tomb is rather small (d. 7.3 m.) and poorly built, but the
intact burials in Pit I below the floor were extremely wealthy. There is
little pottery left to suggest a date, but the goods are of types found in
LH IIB-IIIAl contexts elsewhere, though some of the precious vessels could
be "heirlooms" of an earlier phase. A burial in Pit III, provided with
gold jewellery, and human remains found in Pit II and on the floor could
well be later (the human remains surely represent burials rather than
human sacrifices), but there is nothing to suggest long-continued use
into LH IIIA2-B. Some of the chamber tombs contain ordinary burials of
LH IIA-IIIB date. The only later remains are a solitary LH IIIC
amphoriskos (see LMTS 77 on date) found beneath the collapsed roof of the
tholos, a burial accompanied by an EG II pyxis high in the fill of the
tholes's doorway, and G and later pottery, including probable LG gravegoods, from the area.
A recent report (Ta Nea 12/11/1976, cited in Nestor l/3/1977) refers
to finds from Dendra ranging in date from N to H and mentions the discovery
of the remains of a pair of horses in the dromos of an early Mycenaean
tomb.

41
A7

ANCIENT TIRYNS

*#

(Q@':1_ No. 8)

K. 8 Korinthos
531 E I 076 N
N EHI-III MH IJl I-IIIC SMyc.

PG

G A C H

General Bibliography
H. Schliemann, Mycenae (1878) eh. l; H. Schliemann
and w. DBrpfeld, Tiryns (1886); AM 38 (1913) 329; AA (1927) 365; Guides
by G. Karo (1934), w. Voigtl\l.nder (1974); Tiryns I-VIII; Alin 25.
Special Finds AM 55 (1930) 119 (Tiryns Treasure); AE (1956) Parartema 5,
AD 20 (1965) A 137 (LH IIIB "Epichosis" outside WestGate, cf. also
nryns VI 241); AD 21 (1966) B 130, AAA 6 (1973) 306, 7 (1974) 25,
Tiryns VIII 37, BCH 101 (1977) 229 (Linear B finds); AAA 6 (1973) 158
(stone vase-fragment); AA (1977) 123 (lli 11 pebble-mosaiTin Lower City);
AM 78 (1963) 5 n. If, AJA 78 (1974) 141 (the "Mycenaean Dam" 4 km. ENE of
Tiryns at 570 E I 087

NJ

l.

The Citadel

Schliemann and DBrpfeld 1886, Tiryns III; AD 19 (1964) B 118 (Ramp area).
Excavations in Lower Citadel: AD 18 (l963)JB 66, 19 (1964) B 108;
AA (1967) 92, (1969) l; AAA 4 (1971) 398; Tiryns V (several studies),
VI l (EH pottery), VIII 5S
The Citadel occupies a long oval rock outcrop, of maximum dimensions
c. 300 m. N-S by lOO m. (about 22,000 sq. m. enclosed within the walls).
It divides naturally into Upper, Middle, and Lower Sections, of which the
first was always the most important. In EH II the whole Citadel may have
been covered with buildings, of which the most notable is the "Rundbau 11
beneath the LH III Palace, but after the EH II destruction remains of
occupation are sporadic at best outside the Upper Citadel for a considerable
time, and the Lower Citadel seems to have remained unoccupied until IJl IIIB.
A long sequence of MH building-strata, including several substantial
structures, has been identified on the Upper Citadel, but only the buildingplans, partially known through tests below the IJl III Palace, have ever been
published; indications of terracing on the east before the end of MH
have been thought to indicate fortification in this period, but more
evidence is required. The earlier Mycenaean remains are equally illknown, but a series of plaster floors, with which column-bases and frescofragments are associated in some cases, found below Court 16 in front of
the Little Megaron, seems to indicate that this was the site of a series
of palatial buildings stretching back to early Mycenaean times (Tiryns III
77).
The Upper Citadel was probably first fortified in IJl IIIA2, at roughly
the same time as Mycenae; the approach and the entrance on the E were
progressively elaborated and other additions were made, of which only the
latest, the extension of the wall to include the Lower Citadel and the
cutting of tunnels from here to an underground water-supply, can be closely
dated, to late in IJl IIIB. The IJl III Palace, whose earliest elements may

42
well date from LH IIIA2, had expanded by the time of its destruction to
cover virtually the whole of the Upper Citadel, but finds in it were few,
although storage-areas have been identified. Traces of habitation and a
kiln of similar date have been found on the Middle Citadel, and houses
were built in the Lower Citadel after its fortification, some quite
substantial; pit-graves at various points in the Lower Citadel appear to
post-date these houses.
Beneath the Palace and in the area of the main entrance on the E
there are traces of a destruction by fire that appears to precede that
datable to the end of LH IIIB, which affected the whole Citadel. Large
deposits found outside the West Gate have been thought to represent
destruction-material of this period (the 11 Epichosis 11 ) . The best evidence
for LH IIIC reoccupation is to be found in the Lower Citadel; a small
narrow megaron building partly founded on the E wall of the Great Megaron
of the Palace has been attributed both to LH IIIC and the eighth century
(cf. MMA 48). A further destruction identifiable in the Lower Citadel
should probably be correlated with the mid-LH IIIC destruction at Mycenae;
it was apparently followed by the collapse of a mudbrick superstructure
on the W fortification-wall, which sealed lower layers. The later history
of the Citadel is most obscure, but G pottery has been found and by A times
a sanctuary appears to have been established on the Upper Citadel: pottery
of similar date and of later phases, down to late Roman, has been found in
the Lower Citadel.
2.

The Lower City

Tiryns V 1, VIII 7, 137; AAA 2 (1969) 344, 7 (1974) 15;


cf. also AD 25 (1970) B 156 on extent to west

AA (1977) 123;

Already in EH II there were extensive traces of settlement on the


level ground surrounding the Citadel, and an outlying settlement has
been identified at Vourkateli, a low rocky hill to SE of Profitis Ilias
(AA (1927) 370). The excavated levels near the Citadel show evidence of
fire-destruction at the end of EH II, but there are traces of EH III
occupation, including two graves, and widespread MH remains. In LH times
the inhabited area extended to N of the Citadel, an area apparently
unoccupied previously; it has been stated that the final phase of the
extensive Mycenaean town shows a regular plan, but this requires full
demonstration. Continuing excavations in the Lower City, especially to
W and SE of the Citadel, are producing finds of considerable importance,
including Linear B tablets. Settlement outside the Citadel certainly
continued in LH IIIC (note especially the substantial megaron W in Area H
on the SE), and PG house-remains have also been found near the Citadel.
The Tiryns Treasure, a remarkable hoard of objects apparently hidden on
the site of a destroyed Mycenaean house, includes as well as some earlier
objects a substantial number that it seems difficult to date before Ll1 IIIC,
some being perhaps as late as the early DA; they constitute a striking
indication of surviving wealth at Tiryns in this obscure period.

3.

The Tombs

Tholoi: AA (1939) 251; Tiryns VIII l


Chamber Tombs: Tiryns VI 23
SMyc.-G graves: Tiryns I 127; AM 78 (1963) l;
(1969) B 104 (cf. also Lower City references)

AD 22 (1967) B l8o, 24

The Profitis Ilias hill Boo m. E of Tiryns was the site of a large
LH chamber tomb cemetery, dug into its E slope, and of at least two tholos
tombs, dug into theW slope. The excavated tholos (d. 8.5 m.) proved to
be empty of prehistoric finds, and had probably been robbed by the seventh
century B.C.; its advanced architecture suggests a date in LH III. The
fine early Mycenaean rings and jewellery of the Tiryns Treasure might have
come from this or another tholos, as might two gold head-bands reported
from Profitis Ilias's NW slope (AA (l94o) 220). The chamber tombs range
in date from Lrl IIA to early LH IIIC; their contents are unremarkable,
consisting chiefly of pottery. DA cemeteries of cists and (in G times)
pithos-burials as well as isolated graves have been found at several points
around the Citadel, and provide the best evidence for continuity of
occupation at Tiryns. They include some relatively well-provided burials,
notably the SMyc. "Warrior Grave".
A8

ANCIENT ARGOS

*#

(~ No. 12)

289 (spot-height) at 458 E I 127 N (The Larisa);


K. 7 Tripolis
466 E I 134 N (The Aspis)
K. 8 Korinthos
N EHII(-III?) MH LH I-IIIC SMyc. PG G A c H
The Larisa Mnemosyne 56 (1928) 315 ff., especially 323; BCH 54 (1930)
48o, 90 (1966) 932
~ 30 (1906) 5, 31 (1907) 139, 99 (1975)
The Aspis(and neighbourhood)
707, lOO (1976) 755 (settlement and fortifications); Orlandos
Charisterion II 239, AD 19 (1964) B 122, 26 (1971) B 76, 80, 27 (1972) B 198
(mainly tombs)
J. Deshayes, Argos: Les Fouilles de la Deiras (1966);
The Deiras
BCH 28 (1904) 364, 77 (1953) 59, 93 (1969) 574, AD 26 (1971) B 76 (mainly
tombs)
BCH 77 (1953) 263, 78 (1954) 164, 8o (1956) 207
The Agora
The South Quarter
~ 78 (1954) 176, 79 (1955) 312, 8o (1956) 370,
81 (1957) 678, 96 (1972) 157
Sector Delta (including the Aphrodision) BCH 91 (1967) 814 ff.,
especially 817, 92 (1968) 1021 ff., especially 1036, 93 (1969) 986,
94 (1970) 765, 95 (1971) 736, 96 (1972) 883, 886, cf. also 98 (1974) 761,
99 (1975) 696
Other Excavations (These are primarily references to material up to and
including SMyc., and are not comprehensive for the DA). BCH 83 (1959) 755,
90 (1966) 932, 91 (1967) 8o8, 92 (1968) l04o; AD 18 (1963) B 61 (see

44
AAA 8 (1975) 259 for full publication), 19 (1964) B 122, 21 (1966) B 127,
22 (1967) B 172, 23 (1968) B 127, 26 (1971) B 74, 27 (1972) B 201;
? PAE (1952) 415 (pithos looks MH)
(For the settlement generally see Archaeology 9 (1956) 166, IMTS So)
Of the two acropolises of ancient Argos, the Aspis (a low and broad
hill crowned with a small plateau, c. 200 m. NE-SW by 150 m.) is likely to
have functioned as the centre of the prehistoric settlement. Recent
investigations have failed to confirm the existence of the two fortifications shown on Vollgraff's plan, which he dated to~{; the claimed
"Cyclopean" character of the second would suggest a LH III date. Although
prehistoric pottery (mostly MH) has been found on the Larisa, it is too
lofty to have been attractive to early inhabitants (of. the Acrocorinth);
the "cyclopean" blocks found in the later walls there could have been
brou&ht from elsewhere, and are hardly sufficient evidence for a LH
fortification. At all periods, much of the population seems to have lived
on the lower ground below the acropolises, perhaps in scattered groups of
houses.
Although there are traces of earlier occupation, especially on the
Aspis where a "Final N" layer has been identified, the MH settlement seems
the first of any size. MH remains are extremely widespread, suggesting
that Argos was important in that period; notable finds are two apparently
MM I stone vase-fragments from the Aspis (P.M. Warren, Minoan Stone Vases
(1969) 22), whose context is presumably MH, a unique cremation (T. 301),
and a burial-tumulus containing vases of unusual type (but not, as claimed
by the excavator, of the European Tumulus Culture, according to
Dr. L. H. Barfield of Birmingham University).
Very little evidence of the LH settlement has been found, and its
extent may well have been less than in MH; its character is best assessed
from the tombs, whose contents are generally mediocre. If the Aspis was
fortified, this would indicate a certain importance. LH IIIC and DA
settlement-remains have been found, but tombs continue to provide the
best evidence for Argas's survival and growth during the DA. A stonebuilt
well of LH III date in the neighbourhood of the Aspis (AD 27 (1972) B 198),
containing many human and animal bodies is a remarkable find; it is
postulated that these were the victims of a flood or some other natural
disaster.
The majority of LH tombs have been found on the slopes of the Deiras,
mostly chamber tombs; one interesting rectangular built tomb containing
burials of LH IIA-IIIA2 date was found on the E slope of the Aspis, and
some pit graves containing single burials are closely associated with the
Deiras chamber tombs. The earliest chamber tomb proves to be one found on
the Larisa slope of the Deiras, containing LH IIA pottery and associated
gold ornaments (AD 26 (1971) B 76); few are so early or rich, Ts. 6-7
containing the best finds. A very fine stone-lined dromos (T. 10) was
presumably intended for an important tomb, most probably a tholos, which
was never completed. Some chamber tombs continued into use into early
LH IIIC, while others were reused in late LH IIIC and/or SMyc., but no

45
tomb . shows an uninterrupted LH IIIC sequence, a point which may have some
bearing on the settlement's history. Groups of cists and pits of DA date
have been found in various parts of the modern town, the earliest, in the
group on Tripolis Street (AAA 8 (1974) 259), being arguably of late
LH IIIC date.
A SA

ARGOS :

MAKROVOUNI (or MAKRYRACHI)

K. 7 Tripolis

lf58 E

I 136 N

EH II

c. w.

PAE (1916) 76;

Blegen, Zygouries (1928) 209, 221 n. l

This small site (not marked on Map A) is a low hill c. l km. WNW
of the Aspis hill, near the Xerias river. It is c. 1.5 km. W of the
Argas-Corinth road, and near the road from Argos to Koutsopodhi. Blegen
notes that MH is apparently lacking.

A9

SCHOINOCHORI:

MELICHI (or SKALA)

K. 7 Tripolis
385 E
EH MH LH IIII-IIIA2

JHS 22 (1912) 386 and refs.;

( GAMS No. 16)

185 N

BCH 47 (1923) 190;

CMP 53, 57, 62.

A small group of poorly-shaped chamber tombs was excavated on the


hill of Melichi (or 11 Skala") between Schoinochori and the river Inachos.
Their only remarkable feature is the early date for the cemetery's
establishment suggested by the Vaphio cup-fragment, probably LH I,
from T. E (surely not intrusive, pace ~ 53). A prehistoric settlement
was noted at a site between the tombs and the village.
A 10

MALANDRINI
K. 7 Tripolis
MH? LH

( GAMS No. 17)


4ol E

229 N (village)

RE Suppl. VI 606

Report of a pre-Mycenaean and Mycenaean settlement, near Malandrini,


on the N side of the Inachos valley, about 15 km. NW or Argos.

All

GYMNO:

KASTRO

K. 7 Tripolis
MH LH II-IIIB

/1
349 E
C H?

(~

243 N

No. 18)

46
AR (1961-2) 31, R. Hope Simpson and J. F. Lazenby, The Catalogue of the
Ships in Homer's Iliad (1970) 66 and Pl. 6a
The steep and rocky acropolis of Kastro (top dimensions c. 170 m.
E-W by 55 m.) lies toE of the road from Gymno to Sterna and Argas,
about 3 km. SSE of Gymno, on the height of the pass between Phlious and
the Inachos valley. Copious Mycenaean sherds were found here and a few
MH Grey Minyan. The position of the site is strategic, if somewhat
remote~

A 12

KEPFJ\LARI: MAGOULA

( GAMS No. 15)

K. 7 Tripolis
448 E I 065 N
N EH II-III MH LH IIIB A
PAE (1916) 79;

AA (1939) 271

The hamlet of Magoula (part of the community of Kephalari) is


centred on a prehistoric mound, near the railway station, on the W of
the Argos - Tripolis road, about 5 km. S of Argas. The settlement was
of moderate size, on the edge of the thin coastal plain. At the
Hellenistic pyramid site nearby (Hesperia 7 (1938) 538) a few EH sherds
were also found.
A 12A

KEPHALARI CAVE

(not marked on Map A)

(map reference not ascertained)


N EH II-III? MH G C
AM 86 (1971) 1;

AAA 6 (1973) 13;

AR (1972-3) 15

The cave is above the source of the Erasinos, about 8 km. S of


Argos. It is most important for the Palaeolithic and Neolithic deposits,
and especially in conjunction with the evidence from the Franchthi cave
(A 43 below).

A 13

MYLOI:

ANCIENI LERNA

*#

K. 8 Korinthos
454 E I 025 N
N EH II-III MH LH I-IIIB PG

G A C H

Geras Antoniou Keramopoullou (1953) 24; Hesperia 23 (1954) 3, 24 (1955) 25,


25 (1956) 147, 26 (1957) 142, 27 (1958) 125, 28 (1959) 202, 29 (196o) 285;
AJA 72 (1968) 313; Guide by J. L. caskey (1977)
Associated Tombs
AE (1955) ~tema 1, (1956) Parartema 12, AD 22 (1967)
B 182
Special Topics
Lerna I (animal bones), II (human bones); Hesperia 27
(1958) 81, 38 (1969) 500 (seals and sealings); Hesperia 39 (1970) 94

Orlandos Charisterion III 144 (Lerna IV

(Lerna III decorated pithoi);


houses)

A large low mound-site (c. 150 m. in diameter) close to the sea,


mainly built up of habitation-debris. Inhabited for much of the N period,
it was apparently abandoned during LN, to be reoccupied only in EH II.
At this time it was clearly a site of major importance, provided with a
fortification and substantial buildings; the final phase of EH II is
represented only by the "House of the Tiles", a well-planned building of
two storeys that had at least some of the functions of a palace, but
was destroyed by fire when still incomplete. There was no significant
break in habitation after this; but for much of the EH III period the
central part of the "House of the Tiles", which had been covered by a
mound with a regular stone perimeter, was not built over. The settlement
at this time was less important than in Er! II but still substantial,
maintaining trading contact with the Aegean, as it continued to do in MH
times. The late MH and LH remains have largely been eroded; two shaft
graves, emptied of their original contents in LH I, may well have held the
burials of important personages, but there are no later indications that
Lerna was a place of much importance. A few N and EH III and many MH
burials have been found on the site, normally in pits or cists; sporadic
burials of similar type of LH date have also been found, both on the site
and in the neighbourhood, most being LH I-II (one group of graves contains
burials of late MH and LH I date). A LH III chamber tomb has been
excavated and the presence of others confirmed to 3 of the site. Lerna
was apparently abandoned in LH IIIB and not reoccupied before later PG.

A 14

KIVERI :

NEKROTAPHEION

K. 8 Korinthos
LH IIIAl-IIlli
AD 22 (1967) B 179;

459

*#

I 002

AR (1968-9) 14

On the E slope of the ridge to S of Kiveri cemetery, on the N


outskirts of the village, 7 chamber tombs were excavated. A large number
of stone vase fragments is reported. The tombs have long dromoi,
similar to those at Asine and Dendra.

A 15

ACHLADOKAMBOS:

ANCIEI\lT HYSIAI

K. 7 Tripolis
LH nm c H

333 E I 004

R. A. Tomlinson, Argos and the Argolid (1972) 37 and Pl. 10


On the E side of the village and to 3 of the main road is a wellknown fortified site (identified by Tomlinson as ancient Hysiai) on a

48

steep spur overhanging the valley to s. Surface pottery is mainly C and


H, and the surviving circuit walls are either C or H. But a LH III
kylix stem and a fragment from a LH IIIB deep .. bowl with coated interior
were also noted.
A 16

ASTROS :

KASTRO

L. 8 Leonidhion
MH lli PG C
AA (1927) 365;

( GAMS No. 137 )


73 (spot height) at 490 E

886 N

BSA 56 (1961) 131

On the W side of the acropolis Wrede found a MH and PG cemetery and


on the SW side a few LH sherds.

A 17

AYIOS ANDREAS:

CHERSONISI

(GAMS No. 138)

L. 8 Leonidhion 28 (spot height) at 492 E


EH I I MH LH III(A-B) G A
AA (1927) 365;

BSA 56 (1961) 131;

841 N

BCH 87 (1963) 759;

AD 18 (1963) B 89

On this small promontory S of Astros, prehistoric and later material


has been found on the surface, and fragments of two EH pithoi and obsidian
in a small trial on the hill, which uncovered EH II levels, and some MH,
G, and A pottery.

A 18

NAFPLION:

ANCIENT NAUPLIA

*#

K. 8 Korinthos
523 E I 043 N
N EH LH IIIAl-IIIC SMyc. PG

(~No.

9)

G A C H

Athenaion 7 (1878) 183, 8 (1879) 411; AM 5 (188o) 142; AE (1895) 261;


PAE (1892) 52, (1953) 195, (1955) 235; AD 24 (1969) B 104, 26 (1971) B 74;
AAA 4 (1971) 10; R. Hllgg, Die Gr1lber de;:-Argolis I (Boreas 7:1, 197~) 71
N and EH remains are reported from the Pronoia area, but the most
important prehistoric remains are the IJl chamber tombs found on the NE
slope of the Palamidi and in its neighbourhood. These form a very
extensive cemetery, apparently arranged in regular horizontal rows; some
contained rich jewellery, stone vases, and ivories, suggesting that this
was an important site. One or two lli IIIC vases (IMTS So, cf. BCH 78 (1955)
238 fig. 11) and some SMyc. pit-graves suggest t,hat occupation ;:;;;;
continuous into the DA, although certain PG material is hard to identify.
Some lli sherds have been found on the acropolis of Ancient Nauplia (which
measures about 500 m. E-W by 200 m.). This was presumably the site of the
main lli settlement here, although it seems very unlikely that it covered

the whole of this large area. Obsidian and prehistoric sherds have also
been noted below the acropolis on the N slope, and part of a wall that
may be Cyclopean (AD 24 loc. ci t.).
A 19

ARIA

(GAMS llo. 10)

K. 8 Korinthos
LH II-IIIA

555 E

I o48 N (village)

BCH 79 (1955) 244


Two chamber tombs excavated here, reported to be of unusual shape,
contained LH II-IIIA vases (op. cit. 243 fig. 30 is hardly later than
LH IIA) and an early animal figurine (BSA 66 (1971) 153, 179).

A 20

ANCIENI ASINE

jl

(GAMS No. 19)

K. 8 Korinthos
590 E I 996 N
EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc. PG

G A C H

0. Fr8din and A. w. Persson, Asine (1938); OpAth 8 (1968) 87, ll (1975)177,


AD 25 (1970) B 157, 26 (1971) B 113, 27 (1972) B 231; AAA 4 (1971) 147,
S(l975) 151; AR (1971-2) 9, (1972-3) 14, (1974-5) 10; I. and R. H!lgg,
Excavations in the Barbouna Area of Asine I (Boreas 4: l, 1973);
Archaeology 28 (1975) 157
A rocky acropolis on a peninsula; habitation spread not only over
the terraced slopes of the acropolis, but onto the "Lower Town" immediately
below to the NW, to the slopes of Mt. Barbouna further N, and to the plain
below on the E, from MH times on. The settlement was apparently destroyed
by fire at the end of EH II, but was reoccupied, and by late MH was a
substantial settlement (spread over an area of about 6o,OOO sq. m.);
important graves have been found to the E, including a tumulus, and on
Mt. Barbouna. The LH settlement was similarly extensive; several chamber
tombs have been excavated in the cemetery on Mt. Barbouna, mostly large
and rich (especially T. I:5). The fortifications of the acropolis cannot,
however, be demonstrated to be LH, and few remains of buildings earlier
than LH IIIC have been found. LH IIIB is not well represented in the
tombs or on the acropolis, but LH IIIC remains include substantial buildings
in the "Lower Town", one of which contained a shrine. SMyc. pottery is
reported from mixed strata to the E, and occupation clearly continued
unbroken into the DA.
A 21

KANDIA:

KASTRO

(GAMS No. 26)

K. 8 Korinthos
669 E I 095 N
EH II-III MH LH IIII-IIIC G H

50
AA ( 1927) 365, ( 1939) 287, ( l94o) 220; AR ( 19114) 82; AD 20 ( 1965) B 157;
Tiryns VI 214 and 215 n. 41. (cf. also OpAth 6 (1965) 132 for G material)
The tiny acropolis hill (top surface c. So m. E-W by 50 m.),
marked by the chapel of Ayia Eleousa, rises about 200 m. N of the hamlet
of Kandia on the edge of a thin valley which stretches inland for c. 3 km.
The summit is enclosed by remains of fine Cyclopean walls, which have
been attributed both to LH IIIB and to G (the former might seem a more
likely date for initial construction). The settlement spread also over
the steep southern terraces, with fine MH Matt-painted and Grey Minyan
and good LH IIIB sherds abundant on the upper terraces, and on the lower
terraces fine G pottery, apparently connected with house foundations here.
Material from trial excavations indicates continuous habitation from
EH II to advanced LH IIIC; the site may well have been abandoned from
that time until G. Despite the fortifications it does not seem to have
been a large or important settlement, and the situation is rather remote.

A 22

SYNORO

K. 8 Korinthos
EH I I LH I-IIA

( GAMS No. 27 )
663 E

AA (1939) 293, (1940) 221;

010 N

Tiryns VI 195

On a small rocky hill further up the valley from Kandia (A 21)


trial excavations produced evidence for occupation in EH and early LH
times.

A 23

IRIA:

KASTRO TOU KAPETANOU

L. 8 Leonidhion
710 E
N EH II MH LH I-IIIC
AA (1939) 294, (1940) 221;

(GAMS No. 28)

94o N
G A? C H

AD 21 (1966) B 130;

Tiryns VI 127, 221

Two sites are to be distinguished here, the first a low double hill
by the sea, where there have been excavations, and the second at the
Kastro hill, at the end of the valley and remote from the sea, where
EH and LH sherds have been found. The Kastro overlooks the village of
Ano Iria and the small fertile coastal plain. Excavation on the W side
of the W hill uncovered a LH building and associated cistern, which
was partly filled with debris from a fire-destruction. Close analysis
of the pottery suggests that this took place at the very beginning of
LH IIIC, and that the site was abandoned shortly afterwards; other
material found indicated continuous occupation from MH at least.

51
A 24

PROFITIS ILIAS

*#

K. 8 Korinthos
lJ! II-IIIB A

598 E

AR (1962-3) 16;

(GAMS No. ll)

o8o N

BCH 87 (1963) 748;

18 (1963) B 65;

AJA 78 (1974) 149

The small village of p,rofitis Ilias is about 3 km. E of Ayios Adrianos.


The chapel of Profitis Ilias, on the steep hill toN of and above the
village, overlies the remains of an A temple, near which was an apothete
full of votives. On the S slope remains of a Cyclopean wall were found,
with associated LH and A sherds. A thick scatter of sherds was also
noted on the SE slope. The top surface of the hill measures only c. 60 m.
N-S by 40 m., but the lower E and ~~ slopes and the S side of the adjoining
lower ridge on the SE were also covered in LH sherds indicating a total
extent of c. 200 m. NW-SE by 150 m. Surface sherds included part of the
rim of a LHJIB Ephyraean goblet and some other splaying rims either
LH II or lJ! IIIAl, but lJ! IIIA2-B were predominant, while A sherds seemed
to be confined to the hill of Profitis Ilias itself.

A 25

AYTOS IOANNIS:

KAZARMA

*#

(GAMS No. 20)

K. 8 Korinthos
656 E I 068 N (Arkadiko bridge at 651 E
tholos tomb at 658 E I 065 N)
EH II MH LH IIA-IIIB PG C H

o66 N,

AJA 43 (1939) 83; BCH 79 (1955) 246, 94 (1970) 961, 95 (1971) 867;
AAA 1 (1968) 236, 2~969) 3; AD 22 (1967) B 179, 24 (1969) B 104
The hill of Kazarma dominates the highest point on the route from
Nafplion to Epidauros. It was fortified in C or H, but MH and LH sherds
are also abundant on the summit and upper S slopes, over an extent
c. 150 m. N-S by 130 m., and some EH sherds have been found near the
tholes tomb. This lies c. 10 m. N of the main road, and c. 200 m. E of
the village of Ayios Ioannis, which occupies the lowest slopes of Kazarma
hill. The tholos tomb is small (d. 7.5 m.) and badly preserved, but
intact burials of LH IIA date were preserved in deep pits below the floor
and a variety of finds, including a pyre, upon it. There is evidence of
sacrifice on an altar in the doorway in LH and PG (AD 24 (1969) B Pl. 84Y:
right is PG). The 11 Arkadiko bridge" in Cyclopean style c. 700 m. to the
W, on the left of the road from Nafplion, is surely part of the lJ! road
network in the Argolid. It resembles the culverts on the LH road which
runs E from Mycenae, around the hill of Agrilovouno (cf. MMA 87, AJA 78
(1974) 148).

52

A 26

LI GOURIO:

ALEPOTRYPES

K. 8 Korinthos
708 E
LH III(A-B) C or H
Alin 51;

AJA 43 (1939) 83;

( GAMS No. 21)

*#
I 072 N

AD 27 (1972) B 215

About 4 km. W of Ligourio and c. 200 m. N of the road are the remains
of a circular watchtower of C or H date, on a low limestone knoll (c. 8o m.
E-W by 40 m.). Here Rstr5m found a Mycenaean sherd, and obsidian chips
and C or H tiles are plentiful.
A cup and three stirrup-jars attributed to LH IIIB in the Nafplion
Museum are reputed to have come from Ligourio and may possibly be
associated with this site, although it appears to have been small and
unimportant. Further finds, including two badly damaged LH chamber tombs,
are now reported from the neighbourhood.
A 27

THE ASKLEPIEION OF ANCIENT EPIDAUROS:


TEMPLE OF APOLLO MALEATAS

(GAMS No. 22)

*#

K. 8 Korinthos
78o E I Oto N
EH II MH LH I-IIIB G A C H
PAE (1948) 90, (1949) 94, (1950) 197, (1974) 93;
(1976) 112; RA (1971) 3 (stone vase)

Ergon (1975) 101,

The upper N slopes of the Kynortion hill, on which stands the


sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas, seem to have been also a prehistoric settlement site. Material from beneath the sanctuary suggests continuous
habitation from EH II to LH IIIB but a gap thereafter until G. It is
claimed, as a result of new investigations, that there was a shrine here
in Mycenaean times, represented by a retaining wall and ashy fill dating
from early LH; figurines previously found have been thought to be votives
(BSA 66 (1971) 107), and more have been found in the new excavations,
including large hollow animal figurines. Unusual finds from the LH deposit
include a stone vase with relief decoration, of which new fragments are
appearing; fine prehistoric bronzes were found mixed with later ones in
a deposit of A date. The case for Mycenaean cult seems quite plausible,
though it is still unclear how late it continued; it seems impossible on
present evidence to link it firmly with the later cult, but a memory of
sanctity might have survived.

A 28

PALAIA EPIDHAVROS: PANAYIA (ANCIENT EPIDAUROS)


K. 8 Korinthos
MH LH IIIB-C

AD (1888) 155;

63 (spot height) at 853 E


G A C H

~ 36 (1911) 29;

Alin 51

*/I (GAMS No. 23)

097 N

53

The town of ancient Epidauros occupied the headland S of the


harbour of Palaia Epidhavros. The main area of the site lay on the steep
hill of the Panayia chapel, as is evidenced by circuit walls on the upper
slopes and widespread C and H sherds. G and later pettery is predominant,
but in 1961 MH Grey Minyan ware and obsidian chips were found near the
chapel. Seven LH chamber tombs were excavated, on the SW outskirts of
Palaia Epidhavros on a slope to W of the road; their contents included
a Close Style stirrup jar (cf. MP 613, 647).

A 29

NEA EPIDHAVROS:

PALAIOCHORI

K. 8 Korinthos
LH IIIB

828E

RE Suppl. VI 6o5;

(GAMS No. 24)

146 N (approx.)

AM 63 ( 1938) 558;

20 (corrected)

LH tombs were reported at Palaiochori c. 500 m. to ESE of Nea


Epidhavros on a slope on the S side of the road. In 1959 in the vicinity
of a newly dug chamber tomb here were found fragments of two tankards,
of shape similar to MP fig. 25 no. 26, decorated with MP Motives 37
1
( Myc. Flower' as onfigs. 14, 18) and 21 ( 'Whorlshell-'-as on figs. 51, 23)
respectively. While it is conceivable that there was a LH settlement on
the site of the Turkish fort on the N side of the village, it is more
likely that the cemetery is to be associated with the site at Vassa
(A 30 below).

A30

NEA EPIDFJ\VROS:

VASSA

/1

( GAMS No. 25)

K. 8 Korinthos 212 (spot height) at 808 E


EH II MH LH IIII-IIIB G
AA (1911) 150; RE Suppl. VI 6o6;
'Dimena'); GAMS 21

AA (1938) 559;

157 N

Alin 52 (s.v.

Vassa is a high rocky ridge, to N of the road inland from Nea


Epidhavros to the Dimaina plain. It commands both this route and the
coastal route N from Ancient Epidauros. The settlement was large
(c. 200 m. N-S by 120 m.), covering the high ridge and the extensive S
slopes. The Cyclopean walls are well preserved on the S flank of the
summit. MH Matt-painted and Grey Minyan and obsidian are plentiful at the
top and abundant LH IIII-IIIB sherds and some fragments from figurines
both on the top and on the W and S slopes. Gebauer (~ (1938) ) mentions
also LH and G sherds near the chapel of Ayios Leonidas (K. 8 Korinthos
798 E I 167 N) 1.5 km. to NW. Information in 1959 was that many LH tombs
had been found at Prinias Ktima, near the chapel. It seems likely that
this was the main LH cemetery for the Vassa settlement. Alin (loo. cit.)
mentions LH IIIA vases from Dimaina in the Nafplion museum. Gebauer also
mentions obsidian from Kastraki, on the W side of the Dimaina plain.

TRACHIA

A 31

(GAMS No. 43)

K. 8 Korinthos
LH
AA ( 1927) 365;

839 E

021 N (the village)

RE 3uppl. VI to5

A LH site was reported near the village of Trachia, on the route


between the Asklepieion at Epidauros and Troizen.
A

32

KALLONI:

AYI03 YEORYI03

9 Aiyina
969 E
LH IIIA-B C

K.

(GAM3 No. 39)

986 N

GAM3 25
The isolated hill of Ayios Yeoryios lies at the 3 end of a fertile
coastal plain (of ancient Lessia? ), overlooking the route from Troizen to
Ancient Epidauros (A 28), and also the pass to Choritsa (A 32A below).
Good quality LH sherds were found on the flat top, which measures about
110 m. E-W by 50 m., and C sherds on the 3 slope, where there is an
abundant spring.

A 32A

( GAM3 No.

KA3TRO CHORIT3A
K. 9 Aiyina in square
IJO?

890 E

~2)

990 N

AA ( 1927) 365
A 11Mycenaean watchtower 11 was noted in a position between Ortholithion

and Choritsa. This is presumably the same as the tower "zwischen Lessia
und Karatza" cited by Gebauer, AA (1938) 561. But we do not consider that
the evidence is sufficient, and we omit this site from the map accordingly.

A 33

TROIZEN: THE A3KLEPIEION


L. 9 Idhra
EHII

012 E

*#

(GAM3 No. 37)

939 N

G A C H

G. Welter, Troizen und Kalaureia (1941) 10;


Klio Beiheft 49 ( 1944) 46 f.

AM 36 (1911) 33;

The site of the Asklepieion is a broad low spur on the 3 side of


the plain of Troizen, not far W of the centre of the ancient city. EH II
sherds were found here, and G tombs nearby.

55

A 33A

MErflANA:

ISTHVIUS

K 9 Aiyina
EH II

050 E

019 N

Welter 191>1, 10
A small hill site on the neck of the isthmus connecting Methana
with the Troizen plain. EH II sherds and obsidian were found. The site
has been named "Isthmos, Hugel III". Similar finds were made at Magoula
Psiphti a mound on the plain.not far to SW near the coast, but we have
not been able to verify the latter location.

A 34

METHANA:

MEGALOCHORIO (ANCIENT MErflANA)

(GAMS No. 4o)

K. 9 Aiyina
010 E I 035 N
EH LH III(A-B) G A C H
Welter 1941, lO

AM 36 (1911) 35;

EH and LH III sherds were found on the acropolis of ancient Methana


c. l km. SW of Megalochorio.
A 35

LOUTRA METHANON:

VROMOLIMNI etc

K. 9 Aiyina
050 E
EHIILHCH
Alin 52;

( GAMS No. 41)

030 N (approx.)

GAMS 26

A LH and later settlement is reported at a site by the plain of


Throni near the village of Vromolimni, on the N outskirts of Loutra
Methanon. And in 1959 EH II sherds and obsidian were observed on the
promontory to S of Loutra Methanon (at 050 E I 019 N).

A 36

PDROS:

The Temple of Pose id on at Kalaureia

*#

(GAMS No. 38)

K. 9 Aiyina
134 E I 955 N
EH II LH III(B) G A C H
~

20 (1895) 297;

AM 39 (1911) 35;

Welter 1941, 10, 50, Taf. 28

EH II sherds were found both at the Temple site and on a slope E of


the chapel of Ayios Stathis, which lies to E of the path from Poros to the
Temple. A chamber tomb, probably LH, was found also to E of the same path
(Arch. Zeit. (1886) 26o Pl. A 3, 4). A deposit beneath the temple contained
LH III(B) pottery and jewellery; an early Eighteenth Dynasty scarab was

56

found just above this deposit (J. D. S. Pendlebury, Aegyptiaca (1930) 67).
The LH settlement may have centred on the hill of "Polis 11 to SW of the
Temple. There is a small fertile plain to N of the range of hills on which
the Temple is situated.
A

37

GALATAS:

HALIKI

L. 9 Idhra
118 E
EH? MH LH?
Welter 1941, 10, 20;

(~No. 36)

*#
I

913 N

Hesperia 33 (1964) 235;

GAMS 24

A small promontory on the mainland to SE of Poros. MH material is


reported from trial excavations, and in 1959 house foundations were
observed on the edge of the beach near the end of the promontory,
associated with a MH polychrome sherd and some pottery which appeared to
be EH. Other sherds on the surface were apparently LH, but MH Mattpainted, polychrome, and Grey Minyan predominate.

A 38

PHOURKARIA

(GAMS No. 34)

L. 9 Idhra in square lOO E


LH H
AA (1927) 365;

'Tourkaria';

84o N

RE Suppl. VI 6oS;
~52

Welter 1941, Taf. l, shown as


s.v. 'Phurkaria'

A small coastal settlement, at the edge of a plain, cut off by


rounded hills onE and w.

A 39

HYDRA:

CHORIZA

L. 9 Idhra
LH III(A-B)
AM 36 (1911) 38;

(GAMS No. 35)

078 E

750 N

AD 20 (1965) B 130

About 2 km. SW of Hydra town and opposite


tou Theologou is a hill c. 75 m. a. s. 1., with
shaping down less steeply on the NW to the Gulf
sherds and the head of a LH figurine were found
together with sherds of later periods.

the islet of Ayios Ioannis


cliffs on the S side and
of Vlichos. Many LH III
on the N and NW slopes,

57

A 39A

HYDRA:

DHOKOS

(not marked on map)


EH I I lli H
AAA 9 (1976) 17
In the bay of Skindos on the N of the islet of Dhokos, between
Hydra and the mainland, a shipwreck datable to EH II by quantities of
associated fine pottery has been discovered. Obsidian and flint blades
and pottery of EH II, IJ:l, H, and mediaeval date have been found around
the bay on Dhokos.
THERMISI

( GAMS No. 33)

L. 9 Idhra in square 9EO E

I 830 N

lli III(A-B)

RE Suppl. VI E06

The description reads "Thermisi, nordBstlich des gleichnamigen Kaps,


auf einem Felsvorsprung liber den Salzwerken, byzant. Festung und Sp~tmyk.
Scherben (Mitt. Heurtleys )". This seems to have been a small lli site in
this remote coastal plain.
A 41

HERMIONE:

KASTRI

( GAMS No. 31)

L. 9 Idhra
896 E I 813 N
EH II-III MH LH II-IIIB A
PAE (1909) 175;

AM 36 (1911) 37

The low promontory of Kastri or Magoula lies c. 500 m. WSW of modern


Hermione, and S of the hill of Gron, the necropolis of ancient Hermione.
To W of the settlement is a fertile coastal plain. The settlement was
relatively small (upper measurements c. 127 m. NE to SW by 55 m.), but
fine surface pottery was abundant, including MH Grey Minyan and Mattpainted, and some early IJ:l. The latest lli recognized was part of a
"Panel Style" deep bowl as MP Motif 50:22. The site was clearly a settlement and not a lli cemetery as previously thought (AM lee. cit.).
A 42

EILEOI: ILIOKASTRO (ANCIENT EILEOI)

*#

L. 9 Idhra
941 E I 899 N
EH I I MH lli III(A-B) C H
PAE (1909) 182;

AM 36 (1911) 35;

AJA 33 (1964) 231

( GAMS No. 32)

58

The hill of Iliokastro lies c. 2 km. NE of Eileoi (formerly


Karakasi), on the left of the route to Troizen. The circuit walls (of
ancient Eileoi) enclose an extent c. 350 m. N-S by 150 m. The cist tombs
at the S foot of the hill were attributed to LH III, but MH seems more
likely; and Grey Minyan and Matt-painted are attested (AJA loo. cit.).
Some LH III sherds on the S slopes of the hill demonstrate LH settlement,
but there is no evidence that it occupied the whole of the extent of the
later city.
A 43

KOILADHA:

AYIOS IOANNIS

(~No. 29)

L. 8 Leonidhion
810 E I 872 N
N LH (incl. IIIB) G C H
GAMS 22;

Hesperia 38 (1969) 343, 42 (1973) 45, 253;

AR (1974-5) 12

LH IIIB material was found on a small low rocky promontory, marked


by a chapel of Ayios Ioannis, almost 2 km. N of Koiladha, and 2.5 km. W
of the main road from Kranidhion to Nafplion. The settlement was small,
and more important remains were found in the Franchthi cave, c. 300 m. to
SE, on the N side of the Bay of Koiladha. The cave has revealed a unique
record of occupation from the Upper Palaeolithic to the end of .N, and LH,
G, C, and H sherds were found on the surface in and around the cave.

A 44

PORTO-CHELI:

ANCIENT HALIEIS

*#

(GAMS No. 30)

L. 8 Leonidhion
728 E I 752 N
N EH I? LH? PG G A C H
LAAA 4 (1912) 128;

Hesperia 38 (1969) 318

LN and possibly EH I material has been found on the Halieis


acropolis. The next period represented is PG (unstratified finds).
Thompson (LAAA loo. cit.) recorded Mycenaean finds near Porto-Cheli, and
there is a site 3 km. toN which has produced much EH to LH (AD 18 (1963)
B 73). The Indiana University and University of Pennsylvania Argolid
Exploration project has discovered many other sites (unpublished) in the
vicinity of Porto-Cheli, Koiladha, Fourni, and Kranidhion.
A 44A

SPETSAI:

AYIA MARINA

L. 8 Leonidhion
825 E I 676 N
EH II-?III LH IIII-III (A-B)
AD 26 (1971) B 84;

AR (1973-4) 13

On a low promontory on the E coast of Spetsai buildings and a well of


EH II date were excavated. One building was said to be of megaron type,

59
and much obsidian was also found. Some material is assigned to EH III
(but may be EH II Patterned Ware), and one LH IIII and several LH III
sherds are reported.

A 45

AIGINA:

KOLOJ\'NA (TEMPLE OF APHRODITE)

K. 9 Aiyina
N EH II-III

19 (spot height)
MH

LH I-IIIC

PG

at 089 E
G

(GAMS No. 392)

*#
C

I 212

AE (1895) 234, (1910) 172; AA (1925) 4, 317, (1938) 510; AD 22 (1967)


~147, 24 (1969) B 146, 25 (1970) B 136, 26 (1971) B 61, 27 (1972) B 183;
AR (1971-2) 7, (1972-3) 7, (1973-4) 6; J. P. Harland, Prehistoric Aigina
(1925) ll; G. Welter, Aigina (1938) 7; s. Hiller, Aigina IV (1975)
A relatively low mound-site on a promontory N of the modern town,
c. 250 x lOO m., only approachable from the SE. The original excavations
here have never been fully published, and new excavations are in progress.
There was already a substantial settlement in EH, provided with a
fortification-wall and a large tiled building; this settlement continued
to expand and to be provided with successive fortifications until late in LH.
It seems to have been an important trading-centre, close in character to
Cycladic towns like Ay. Irini and Phylakopi. EH wells and bothroi, early
LH cist or pit graves, and LH III chamber tombs have been excavated on
a hill to the E. The "Aegina Treasure" in the British Museum was found in
one of the chamber tombs, but is quite unlike ordinary LH jewellery in
character, and has been suggested to be a cache of MM jewellery looted
in modern times from Crete, perhaps from Chrysolakkos at Mallia (BSA 52

(1957) 42).
The recent publication of the best LH pottery from the original
excavations shows the quality of local production, especially in LH II
when there seems to have been a local "palatial style" workshop. It also
provides more conclusive evidence than the British Museum stirrup-jar
(IMTS 119) for continued occupation in the area in L!1 IIIC, in the shape
of two further whole stirrup-jars in the Aigina Museum, which presumably
came from tombs. The published LH III material from the site is very
scanty, however, including nothing certainly LH IIIC, and the next datable
material is Attic LPG.

A 46

AIGINA:

APHAIA TEMPLE

K. 9 Aiyina
N LH IIIA-B

(GAMS No. 393)

184 E I 207 N
LH IIIC? G A C H

G. Furtwaengler, Aegina:
Welter 1938, 7

das Heiligtum der Aphaia (1906) 369, 434, 471;

Some N sherds have been found in the vicinity of the Classical temple,
while near and below the temple terrace were some LH III sherds, many

fragments of figurines, and a few other probably BA objects. The figurines


have a wide date-range, apparently LH IIIA2-C, and may be a votive deposit
(~ 66 (1971) 107);
but this is not necessarily of LH date, and there is
no reason to suppose sanctity of the site in LH. One sherd from the site
might be of LH IIIC date (Furtwaengler 1906, Pl. 127:5), as one of the
figurines seems to be (BSA 66 (1971) 137).
A

47

AIGINA :

KILINDRA

( GAMS No. 395)

K. 9 Aiyina in square 170 E


LH IIIA2( -B?)
Furtwaengler 1906, 435;

16o N

CMP 41, 58

Several whole vases are reported to have come from a grave near this
small hamlet, which lies on a hill above and to N of the village of Partes,
near one of the few beaches on this rocky E coast of the island.

A 48

AIGINA:

MT. OROS

( GAMS No. 394)

K. 9 Aiyina
532 (spot height) at 150 E
MH? LH IIB or IIIAl LH III(A~B) C H

152 N

Furtwaengler 1906, 473; D. Fimmen, Die kretisch-mykenische Kultur (1921) 9;


Harland 1925, 27; Welter 1938, 26
A settlement near the top of Mt. Oros, whose position suggests that
it may have been a refuge-site. Four coarse sherds may have been
erroneously attributed to MH Matt-painted, since the bulk of the material
seems late LH III; a sherd in the collection of the Department of Ancient
History and Archaeology at Birmingham is earlier, however, being decorated
with 'scale Pattern' (MP Motif 70). Finds reported to be from here include
a fragment of a Type F sword (AJA 67 (1963) 151) and a bronze arrowhead
(BSA 35 (1934-5) 132).
A 49

AIGINA:

PALAIOCHORA

(not marked on map)


MH
Harland 1925, 29
Two fragments of large Matt-painted vases are reported from this
site, which we are not able to locate.

61
A 50

KORAKOU

*J

( GAMS No. 00)

K. 8 Korinthos
648 E I 441 N
EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC A C

c. w. Blegen, Korakou (1921); J, B. Rutter, The Late Helladic IIIB and


IIIC Periods at Korakou and-Gonia (Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania 1974);
BSA 67 (1972) 103; AJA 79 (1975) 1
A low but conspicuous oval mound (c. 200 m. E-W by 115 m. max.) on
a bluff overlooking the coast road, c. 2 km. W of modern Corinth. There
was a substantial settlement here (over an area of c. 225,000 sq. m.)
from EH I to advanced LH IIIC, apparently without serious break, although
there was destruction by fire in EH (probably EH II); the well-preserved
stratification provided the first reliable guide for the sub-division
of the mainland BA. The site may well have been of importance in LH III,
for remains of a likely fortification-wall and of substantial buildings
(a massive threshold block and a fresco-fragment) have been found. Several
of the buildings excavated belong to the LH IIIC phase, during which the
site seems to have suffered disaster. Reoccupation after this was followed
by final and perhaps hasty abandonment.

A 51

MODERN CORINTH

*J

( GAMS No. 66)

K. 8 Korinthos
684 E
EH II LH II-IIID PG

447 N

Hesperia 1 (1932) 62, 36 (1967) 26 n. 22;


(1954) 112

AJA 58 (1954) 232;

BCH 78

An EH II cemetery is reported near the Corinth Canal, and LH chamber


tombs have been found in the town. One large tomb was on the terrace of
the hill to S of the railway station. An unpublished tomb-group consisting
mainly of LH II vases is in the Corinth Museum (C 63123-30; this group is
to be published by Miss H. Palaiologos of the Greek Archaeological Service,
to whom we are indebted for permission to mention it).
A 52

ANCIENT CORINTH
K. 8 Korinthos
N EH I-II MH?

*J
628 E

(GAMS No. 56)

413 N (Temple of Apollo)


SMyc. PG G A C H

LH IIID-C

AJA 1 (1897) 313, 24 (1920) l, 27 (1923) 161, 4o (1936) 207; Hesperia 17


(1948) 197, 20 (1951) 292, 29 (1900) 240, 39 (1970) 12; 41 (1972) 144,
291, 42 (1973) 1, 43-(1974) 398, 44 (1975) 7; AD 26 (1971) B 94
There is widespread evidence for N and EH habitation, especially
from the Temple of Apollo site (EH II is also reported from Keramidaki,

Hesperia 36 (1967) 23, 410), but little trace thereafter (MH is reported
once) until LH IIIB, best represented by a small deposit behind the Julian
Basilica, including a 'chariot Krater' (a single fine sherd is published
by J. L. Benson in Horse, Bird, and Man (1971) 116 Pl. 41:7, and other
scattered material has been reported). LH IIIC material has been found
beneath the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore on the slopes of Acrocorinth
(cf. AJA 77 (1975) 24 n. l for an unpublished fragment), and SMyc. pitgraves, with a group of SMyc. or early PG vases found near a hearth,
stand at the beginning of the continuous series of finds indicating
habitation throughout the DA. On present evidence, it does not seem that
LH Corinth was as important as it later became, but it is possible that
the remains have been largely destroyed by later constructions.
A 53

MYLOS CHELIOTOU
K. 8 Korinthos
N EH I-III MH

*#

( GAMS No. 57)

616 E I 420 N
LH I-IIIB G A C H

AJA 24 (1920) 3, 27 (1923) 159, 34 (1930) 403;


(1949) lel5; G. w. Blegen; Korakou (1921) 116;
AD 21 (1966) B 121

Hesperia Supplement 8
Corinth XIII (1964) Part I;

A small site (top area c. 75 m. E-W by 85 m.) on an oval bluff


c. 30 m. high, above the new highway. The site appears to have been
inhabited continuously from EH I to LH IIIB. A well containing much
EH II pottery and many bodies has been excavated, perhaps to be associated
with the EH II disaster, and the North Cemetery includes a small group
of late MH graves, some relatively richly provided. A LH highway has
been claimed (on the basis of associated LH IIIA2 sherds), running parallel
to a road of the A period (AD loo. ci t.). These remains are about lOO m.
to NE of the site, on the S side of the new highway.

A 53

AIEIOPEIRA

K. 8 Korinthos
N EH I-III MH

(~No. 58)

575 E I 428 N
LH II-IIIB LH IIIC?

AJA 24 (1920) 3, 27 (1923) l6o;

~USA

4 Pl. 7: 21

An oval hill (c. 225 m. N-S by 100 m.) with steep cliffs, at the
mouth of a deep ravine leading S through the hills on the S side of the
Corinth plain. It lies c. 3 km. toW of Old Corinth, commanding a fine
view over the plain. The surface pottery was abundant, including fine
LH, and a fine EH III piece has been found(~ loo. cit.).

A 55

AYIOS GERASIMOS

( GAMS No. 59)

*!I

K. 8 Korinthos
618 E I 442 N
EH I-II EH III? MH lli IIII-IIIB

AD 26 (1971) B 68

AJA 24 (1920) 4, 27 (1923) l6o;

The chapel of Ayios Gerasimos stands on a slight rise near the shore
about 1.5 km. W of ancient Lechaion. Surface pottery suggests almost
continuous habitation from EH I to lli IIIB; excavation has uncovered two
EH building-phases, the later reported to include some EH III. A LH
chamber tomb was excavated in the vicinity of ancient Lechaion (BCH 78
(1954) 112), and this may be associated with the site.
A 56

ARAPIZA

/1

(GAMS No. 61)

652 E
K.8 Korinthos
EH II MH LH III(A-B)

I 417 N

AJA 24 (1920) 5, 27 (1923) 159


A small site on a ridge to W of the old main road from Corinth to
Argas.

A 57

GONIA

(GAMS No. 62)

*!I

K. 8 Korinthos
N EH I-III MH

77 (spot height) at 664 E


LH I-IIIB C H

414 N

AJA 21+ (1920) 6; Metropolitan Museum Studies 3 (l93C-3l) 55;


op. cit. (under A 50)

Rutter,

A broad plateau with mainly steep sides, l km. E of the old road
from Corinth to Argos, and c. 2 km. N of Examilia. The LH settlement
appears to have extended over the whole plateau, c. 350 m. E-W by 250 m.
The site may well have been occupied continuously from MN to LH IIIB (but
apparently not beyond the middle of lli IIIB, according to Rutter). Despite
its size, extensive trial trenching produced nothing suggesting any
particular importance. The LH remains, however, were often eroded.
A 57A

YIRIZA

*/I

K. 8 Korin~.hos
EH I-II

(not marked on map, since contiguous to A 57)


658 E

414 N

AJA 21[ ( 1920) 6


A small circular flat-topped hill, with steep sides.

The trial pits

64
(not fully published) showed that the site was only occupied in EH I-II.
It does not appear to have been of any importance, and was presumably
merely an extension of the neighbouring site (Gonia, A 57). A complete
jug is shown in Metropolitan Museum Studies 3 (1930-31) 69 fig. 19.

A 58

ISTHMIA

( GAMS No. 63)

*#

K. 8 Korinthos
70 (spot height) at 725 E I 418 N
EH I-II MH LH IIA-B LH III(A2-)B PG G A C H
AJA 24 (1920) 8; Hesperia 24 (1955) 142, 35 (1966) 346, 37 (1968) 25;
Antiquity 33 (1959) So; AD 24 (1969) B 84, 26 (1971) B 105; BCH 95 (1971)
843; 0. Broneer, Tsthmia II (1973) 6
There are scanty traces of BA habitation in the neighbourhood of the
later sanctuary, and on the eroded spur of Rachi to SW above, but more
important is the fortification-wall running roughly W from the Saronic
Gulf, which from its style and the LH IIIB material in its fill is judged
to be of LH IIIB date. Its purpose is not wholly clear, and it may never
have been finished, but the most plausible explanation is that it was
intended to cross the Isthmus and provide protection against attack from
the N. It has also been argued to be the retaining terrace for a road
(AAA 4 (1971) 85), but its course and direction make this unlikely.

A 59

PERDIKARIA

(GAMS No. 64)

K. 8 Korinthos
691 E
EH II MH LH III(A-)B

396 N

AJA 24 (1920) 7, 27 (1923) 16o


About 2 km. E of Examilia, on the S side of the road to Cenchreai
is an oval hill, steep on the N side. On an upper slope on the N side
is a section of Cyclopean walling about 30 m. long. preserved to a
maximum height of c. 3 m. The top of the hill measures c. lOO m. E-W
by 6o m., but sherds extend over theN terraces also for c. 150 m. by
130 m., indicating a fairly large prehistoric settlement. Further evidence
concerning the Isthmia wall (A 58 above, especially Hesperia 37 (1968) 25)
and from autopsy in 1974 rules out any direct connection between the
Isthmia Cyclopean wall and the Perdikaria section, and the latter seems
rather to indicate a fort guarding the route from cenchreai (No. 6o below).
A6o

ANCIENT CENCHREAI

*#

(~No.

K. 8 Korinthos
724 E I 384 N
EH II MH LH IIIB C H
AJA 24 (1920) 7;

AA (1939) 269

65)

The prehistoric site seems to have been small, and confined to the
hill above the NE mole of the harbour. But the extensive later occupation
may have obscured or removed the evidence.

A 61

GALATAKI

(GAMS No. 52)

K. 8 Korinthos
705 E I 343 N
LH IIA-IIIAl SubG A C
AE (1956) Parartema 8;

PAE (1958) 135;

AD 16 (196C) B 81;

Archaeology 15

( 1962) 184
On a low hill c. 300 m. SW of Galataki five chamber tombs were
excavated, some of unusual type, dug into various parts of the hill; they
had been disturbed in later times (notably by a deposit of some 1000 vases
and 50 figurines in one of the chambers) but some early LH vases survived
in two of the tombs. An archaic sanctuary was later found c. 50 m. toN,
but the absence of late LH and DA material makes any suggestion of
continuity of cult here very unlikely. There is no clear evidence for a
LH habitation site on the hill, but reported finds of obsidian suggest
settlement at some time in the prehistoric period.
A

62

KATAKALI:

(Gams No. 53)

MALLIA TUMSA

K. 8 Korinthos

758

I 335

LH C
AA (1939) 271
A Classical site at Ayios Antonios near Katakali and Vlaseika, and

LH sherds on the low hill of Mallia Tumsa nearby.


A

63

SOPHIKON:

(GAMS No. 54)

AYIA PARASKEVI

K. 8 Korinthos

792

I 284

LH?
AA (1939) 270
Prehistoric sherds, possibly LH, were found on the hill of Ayia
Paraskevi c. 2.5 km. E of Sophikon.
A 64

KORPHOS:

PANAYIA

K. 8 Korinthos
EH LH?
AA (1939) 270;

86C E I 253 N

GAMS 29 (No. 55

corrected)

66

EH sherds were found near the chapel of Panayia 3.5 km. ENE of
Korphos. Another site at Profitis Ilias, 2.5 km. E of Korphos, may be LH.
A

65

KLENIES:

(GAMS No. 5)

AYIOS NIKOLAOS

K. 8 Korinthos in square 630 E


LH C
AA (1939) 270;

320 N

Alin 58

LH and C sherds were found near Ayios Nikolaos on the saddle by


Athikia (where the 'Apollo of Tenea" was found). LH and later traces
were also found on the W side of Dyovouna, the ridge dividing the plains
of Athikia and Alamanou, and BA sherds at Alamanou (cf. RE Suppl. VI 6o6
for LH finds from a cult cave here). Alin separates the~hree sites
('Dyovuna', 'Alamanu', and 'Ajios Nikolaos'), but it is not clear whether
or not the prehistoric traces represent more than one settlement in this
area.
A 66

KLEI\TIES :

AYIA PARASKEVI

K. 8 Korinthos
LH? A C H

6o3 E

( GAMS No. 50)


289 N (approx.)

AA (1939) 271
BA sherds were noted in the vicinity of ancient Tenea, at Ayia
Paraskevi near Klenies, on the ridge to S of the plain.
A

67

zyQOURIES

*!I

(GAMS No. 48)

K. 8 Korinthos
536 E I 303 N
EH I-III MH LH I-IIIBl G

c. w.

Blegen, Zygouries (1928)

A low mound (c. 170 m. NE-SW by 90 m.), eroded on the top and disturbed
by Byzantine buildings. I t is likely to have been inhabited without a break
from EH I to early LH IIIB, its periods of greatest importance being EH II
and LH IIIB, when habitation spread to the level ground below the hill;
both phases ended with destruction by fire. Many substantial buildings
containing a wide range of goods belong to EH II; the '''Potter's Shop" is
the most substantial LH IIIB building, best interpreted as the basement of
a local magnate's house. On a hill c. 500 m. to theW were found EH II,
MH, and LH IIIB graves, the last being two chamber tombs whose contents
may be a little later than those of the "Potter's Shop" (BSA 64 (1969)
265 n. 18); the EH II graves, apparently ossuaries, contained some rich
goods, confirming the impression that Zygouries was important at this time.

67
A 68

AYIOS VASILIOS:

AYIA TRIADHA

K. 8 Korinthos
LH IIIA2-B

552 E

AA (1913) 116;

( GAMS No. 49)

277 N

Alin 37

The chapel of Ayia Triadha lies c. 4 km. to SE of Ayios Vasilios


railway station, on the SE slopes of the Daphnias range. About lOO Phi
and Psi Mycenaean figurines were found here, and a male figurine.
A 69

ANCIENT CLEONAI

(GAMS No. 47)

K. 8 Korinthos
525 E I 332 N
MH LH IIII-IIIB A C H

EH II

AA (1913) 114, (1939) 271;

Frazer, Pausanias III 82

The site of ancient Cleonai lies c. 4 km. NW of Ayios Vasilios, on


the pass via the Longopotamos river to the Corinthian plain. The highest
and westernmost of the three hills which form the acropolis was an
important LH site (extending c. 300 m. N-S by 250 m.). The hill is steep
on theW and NW, gentle on the S, and on theE connecting with the lower
hill on which are the remains of the Temple of Athens. Fine surface sherds
included MH Grey and Yellow Minyan, LH IIB Ephyraean, and LH IIIA and
LH IIIB from kylikes and deep bowls.

A 70

HERAKLION:

TSOUNGIZA

(GAMS No. 46)

*I!

K. 7 Tripolis
463 E I 318 N (village)
N EH I-III MH LH I-III(A- )B C or H
A.JA 31 (1927) 436, 32 (1928) 69;

Hesperia 44 (1975) 150, 45 (1976) 174

The ridge of Tsoungiza projects to N from the W end of Heraklion


village, and overlooks the Nemea valley. A N deposit and remains of an
EH-LH settlement were excavated but never published; notable features
are a reported destruction by fire in EH III, and the "House of the
Arrowmaker" which seems to have contained a LH IIB floor-deposit. More
recently, EN and LH IIIB material has been found at,a point 100 m. S of
the excavation. LH material is also reported from the area of the
Sanctuary of Zeus, over 500 m. to theE (Hesperia 44 (1975) 157, 161, 168).

A 71

NEJVJEA (Modern):

K. 7 Tripolis
LH IIIA-B

AYIA IRINI
4o4 E

1 329 N

(GAMS No. lf4)

68

AR (1961-2) 31
A low hill c. 2.5 km. WNW of modern Nemea (formerly Ayios Yeoryios),
on the W bank of the Asopos river, on the south side of the road to
Stymphalos. The hill lies at the foot of higher hills bounding theW side
of the plain of ancient Phlious. The total area of LH settlement seems
to have been c. 150 m. by lOO m. (maximum). The hill is heavily eroded,
and the sherds small and worn, but LH IIIA and LH IIIB were recognized,
from kylikes and deep bowls.
A 72

ANCIENT PHLIOUS

K. 7 Tripolis
N EH II

(GAMS No. 45)

*#

397 E
LH III(A-B)

373 N (approx.)
PG G A C H

Hesperia 38 (1969) 443


The low mound to W of the acropolis produced evidence of N and EH
settlement, very widespread in EH II. The only evidence for LH settlement
is one kylix stem fragment and a steatite whorl. It seems likely,
however, that the later building activities on the site, especially in
the H period, may have removed much of the evidence.

A 73

GONOUSSA:

AYIOS TRYPHON (ANCIENT TITANE)

(GAMS No. So)

K. 7 Tripolis
398 E I 448 N
EH II LH III(A2-B) C H
Frazer, Pausanias III 69;

E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen (1939) ll

The chapel of Ayios Tryphon lies on a spur projecting from the W


into the valley of the Asopos, about a kilometre SE of Gonoussa (formerly
Lopesi) and half a kilometre NE of Titane (formerly Voivonda). The fine
isodomic walls are C or H, and enclosed an area c. lOO m. E-W by 6o m. A
few EH II sherds were found here and part of the stem of a tall kylix
( LH IIIA2 or LH IIIB).
A 74

ZEVGOLATIO
K. 8 Korinthos
EH II

557 E

435 N

AJA 51 (1947) 166


Abundant EH II sherds were found at a site near this village.

A 75

KRINES:

BRAIBEY

*#

K 8 Korinthos
509 E I 483 N
EH I-III MH LH IIIA2-B
AD 21 (1966) B 123, 22 (1967) B 163

The prehistoric settlement (c. 250 m. ENE to WSW by lOO m.) occupies
the E tip of a long and low rounded hill called Litharakia in the district
named Braibey, about a kilometreS of Krines and c. 200 m. S of the new
Corinth-Patras highway, at tpe point where the old road from Krines to
Tarsina passes over it. A chamber tomb was found about a kilometre SW,
near the hamlet of Ellinocho~i. The site is one of a line of low ridges
at the south end of the fertile Sikyonian plain.

A 76

SIKYON (FORMERLY VASILIKO)

(GAMS No. 77)

K 8 Korinthos 123 (spot height) at 498 E


MH LH IIII-IIIB
AJA 24 (1920) 10;

AA (1939) 272;

503 N

JHS 68 (19 1+8) 6o n. 22

The prehistoric settlement lies at the E end of a spur projecting


from the plateau on which lies the village. The centre of the site is
a small hillock (85 m. by 30 m.), but LH occupation extended for at least
lOO m. down the slopes toN and NW, and along the ridge on the SW. Good
MH Matt-painted, one LH IIII and fine quality LH IIIA and LH IIIB sherds
were collected. It has been claimed (AA loc. cit.) that the hill of
Xerokastelli to S, the site of a mediaeval castle, was also the site of a
Mycenaean "Wacht-stelle", and a LH grave was noted nearby.
A 77

MOULKI
K. 8 Korinthos
LH III(A-B)

JHS

(under GAMS No. 77)


496 E

I 520 N (village)

68 (1948) 6o n. 22

LH III tombs have been recorded at Moulki, c. 1.5 km. N of Sikyon.


The tombs may belong to the site at Sikyon (A 76) or may represent a
further settlement on the edge of the Sikyonian plain.
A 78

LALIOTI
I. 7 Xilokastron
LH C

AA (1939) 272

(GAMS No. 78)


452 E

I 541 N (village)

70

At Ayios Ioannis, l km. N of Lalioti, C sherds and obsidian were


found, and a LH vase in the village was apparently discovered locally.
A 79

MELISSI AND THOLERON


I. 7 Xilokastron
EH II MH LH

457 E

570 N (Ayios Athanasios)

AA (1939) 275

An EH site was found S of t~elissi near the road to the chapel of


Ayios Athanasios, and to S of this, between Melissi and Tholeron (closer
to Tholeron), a site approx. 200 m. in diameter, occupied in EH, MH, and
LH. More EH was found on a site S of Tholeron. These sites are
sufficiently close together to be considered as forming one nucleus of
settlement.
A 80

MEilTEIKA

(GAMS No. 81)

I. 7 Xilokastron in square i+OO E


EH II LH

590 N

AA ( 1939) 287

This site is only approximately located. The village of Merteika


is about 3 km. SW of Xylokastro. Fine EH and LH sherds were noted.
A 81

PITSA
I. 7 Xilokastron
LH I A C

AA (1935) 197;

338 E

66o N (village)

Alin 61

In a cave near Pitsa A and C terracottas and a LH sherd were found.


There is also an unpublished LH I tomb-group from here in the Corinth
Museum; it is to be published by Miss H. Palaiologos of the Greek
Archaeological Service, to whom we are indebted for permission to mention it.
A 82

(GAMS No. 67)

KALAMAKI

K. 8 Korinthos
169 (spot height) at 749 E
EH II MH LH III(A-B)
Corinth I 114;

432 N

Alin 6o

A site on the hill above the village of Kalamaki, c. 1.5 km. NE of


the SE entrance to the Corinth Canal.

A 82 A

AYIOI THEODHOROI:

MOULKI

K. 8 Korinthos
MH G

855 E

420 N

AD 17 (1961-2) B 52 (G tombs), 24 (1969) B 103


A chance discovery of apparently late MH cists, one of which
contained simple gold ornaments like those of graves at A 53.
A 83

LOUTRAKI:

(GAMS No. 68)

ASPRA CHOMATA

K. 8 Korinthos
EH II MH LH

126 (spot height) at 733 E

467 N

AA ( 1939) 269

A small site, about halfway between Loutraki and Loutraki station,


over a kilometre E of the road from Corinth.
A 84

LOUTRAKI:

AYIA KYRIAKI

K. 8 Korinthos
732 E
MH LH IIIC

(GAMS No. 69)


490 N

EH II

AA ( 1939) 269

A high hill c. 2 km. E of Loutraki, where "submykenisch 11 was reported.


Sherds from here in the BSA collection include MH and LH IIIC.
A 85

DAMARI

(GAMS No. 70)

K. 8 Korinthos
LH III(A-B)

713 E

lf76 N

AA ( 1939) 269

A site c. 50 m. W of the road at a point about a kilometre


Loutraki.
A 86

LOUTRAKI MOUNTAIN
I. 8 Levadhia

1033 (spot height) at 719 E

LH A
Perachora I vii, 17;

(GAMS No. 71)

Corinth I Hlf n. l

I 6oo

of

72
LH and A sherds and A tiles were found on the slopes immediately
below the summit of Loutraki mountain.

A 87

MODERN PERACHORA:

AYIOS DEMETRIOS

I. 8 Levadhia
696 E
EH II IJl III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 73)

538 N

AA ( 1939) 269
EH II and LH sherds on the low saddle between the hills of Magoula
and Ayios Demetrios, to S of Perachora village.

A 88

( GAMS No. 72)

SITE TO NW

LOUTRAKI:

I. 8 Levadhia
LH

655 E

I 535 N (approx.)

Perachora I 20
LH sherds at a point halfway between Loutraki and the Perachora
lighthouse, i.e. to NW of Loutraki.

A 89

LAKE

VOULIAGJVIENI !\'EAR PERACHORA

I. 8 Levadhia
MH? IJl A

650 E

I 552

l. EAST SIDE

(GAMS No. 74)

Perachora I 9, 20
On a path from modern Perachora to the Heraion of ancient Perachora
(A 91 below) LH and A sherds were found, and some distance toE of Lake
Vouliagmeni were traces of rock-cut pit graves, possibly MH.
A 90

LAKE

VOULIAGMENI NEAR PERACHORA

I. 8 Levadhia
EH I-II

628 E

2.

WEST SIDE

,_

546 N

BSA 64 (1969) 53;

AR (1972-3) 8

Remains of an EH settlement have been partially excavated here,


including possible defences and a kiln; it was destroyed by fire in EH II.

A 91

PERACHORA:

THE HERAION

*#

I. 8 Levadhia
610 E I 550 N
N EH I-II MH? LH IIIB-C G A

(GAMS No. 75)

73
Perachora I 51
During excavation of the sanctuary some prehistoric material was
found. EH I-II and LH IIIB-C are certain and one sherd (Perachora I
Pl. 10:16) could well be late MH.
A 92

( GAMS No. 76)

SCHOINOS
I. 8 Levadhia in square 76o E
LH C

570 N

AA (1939) 270

LH and C sherds on the peninsula NE of Schoinos harbour.


A 92A

KATO ALEPOCHORION:
I. 8 Levadhia
EH II-III MH

ANCIENI PAGAI

901 E
C H

588 N

CG figs. 10-14
The acropolis of ancient Pagai appears to be the hill c. 500 m. S
of Kato Alepochorion, and a kilometre to S of the coast. Sherds from here
in the BSA collection include EH II-III and MH.
A 93

MEGARA

11

(GAMS No. 390)

K. 9 Aiyina
035 E I 488 N
EH II MH LH III(A-B) G A C H
D. Fimmen, Die kretisch-mykenische Kultur (1921) 9;

Alin 114

Before the acropolis of ancient Megara (in the centre of modern


Megara) became completely built over, EH, MH, and LH sherds and Cyclopean
walling were observed.
MEGARA:

K. 9 Aiyina Ay. Nikolaos at 046 E


EH II MH LH IIII-IIIB

AM 29 ( 1904) 94;
TNis1la 1

PALAIOKASTRO

11

A 94

->

BSA 19 ( 1912-13) 70 l

( GAMS No. 391 )

467 N

PAE (1934) 50;

Alin 114 s. v.

A prominent 'high mound' hill, near the shore, crowned by the


remains of a small mediaeval fort. According to Highbarger (The History

and Civil.ization of Megara (1927) ), this site is~ that of ancient


Nisaia. I t has been equated with Minoa (BSA 19 (1912-13) 70) and this
identification seems the more likely, since the site may once have been
an island (cf. Pausanias I 44, 3) in view of the marsh now round it. The
hill is small (top surface c. 90 m. in diameter) but LH and earlier fine
sherds were found, predominantly LH IIIA and LH IIIB. Trial excavations
suggest almost continuous occupation from EH II to LH IIIB.
A 94A

JI'LEGARA:

AYIOS YEORYIOS (ANCIENT NISAIA?)

K. 9 Aiyina
EH I I MH

050 E / 465 N (approx.)

BSA 19 (1912-13) 70
There is EH II and MH material from this site in the BSA collection.
Because of its close proximity to A 94, we have not marked it separately
on the map.

75
MAP B:

ARCADIA, ACHAEA, EASTERN ELIS, NORTHERN TRIPHYLIA,


WESTERN LOCRIS, A:ND EASTERN AEI'OLIA

Since this map covers several provinces wholly or in part, these will
be considered separately.
Arcadia
The mountainous centre of the Peloponnese includes many small
plains and valleys, the natural foci of settlement and centres of the
Classical states. Several of the Classical towns seem to have had a prehistoric predecessor (B 1, 18c 23, 34-5), but there is insufficient
evidence to judge whether they were of any importance. Survey in eastern
Arcadia has produced a respectable number of sites. There is a marked
shift in settlement between EH and MH, most MH sites being apparently new
foundations, and, unusually, several MH sites do not seem to continue
into LH (B 12-13, 21, 29); the sequence at As ea (B 30) provides further
evidence that sites might have a chequered history. LH remains are not
impressive, and practically nothing can be said of de~elopments in the DA;
there is one impressive LH IIIC site, however, at Palaiokastro (B 32),
which may have been a "refuge-site" founded by people from Laconia or
Messenia.

Achaea
Settlement in this province tends to concentrate along the narrow
coastal strip and in valleys running inland from it, which are divided by
mountain-ridges; another important area is the plateau land along the
Kalavryta-Patras route, where ancient Pharae was situated. The evidence
for the prehistoric settlement-pattern is still sparse, particularly for
pre-LH periods. The main concentrations appear to have been around Aigion,
around Patras and to the south of it, and the Pharae region, where the
most important pre-LH IIIC finds have been made (B 54), but very few sites
have been investigated, and the bulk of those identified are LH cemeteries.
It now seems that relatively many of these were founded before LH IIIC, but
none have been fully published, and it is difficult to estimate to what
extent they (and presumably the population) grew in ill IIIC, although there
can be little doubt that there was such an increase. Cemeteries newly
founded in LH IIIC are notably far inland, but most of the older ones
continued to flourish, and one of the latter (B 44) seems to be one of the
longest-lived. The wealth of these cemeteries in pottery and other goods
is a clear indication of Achaea's prosperity in LH IIIC; its history in the
DA is quite obscure, for finds such as the Derveni pithos-burial (B 36) can
hardly be dated before the ninth century B.C.
Elis and Triphylia
The settlement-pattern, particularly before LH, is
again poorly known in these provinces. The great plain of central Elis has
produced very little material, the few sites being concentrated in the
Peneios valley; in contrast, the Olympia region is thick with sites, most
of them LH. Other sites, some of them substantial, are scattered along
the coast or near it; survey of inland Triphylia might modify the picture

76
in this province, however. Considerably more MH than EH sites are known,
and early LH material is commoner than in Arcadia or Achaea, when at least
one site, Kakovatos (B 94), must have been of great importance. LH III
material is commonest in the Olympia region, where there are many chamber
tomb cemeteries, several of which continued in use into LH IIIC; in
general, these do not seem to last as long as the Achaean cemeteries.
A single tomb at Agrapidochori (B 65) in the Peneios valley is also used
in LH IIIC, suggesting that relatively substantial survival in this period
is characteristic of the whole north-west Peloponnese. But developments
in the DA are even more obscure than in Achaea~
Western Locris and eastern Aetolia
Very few sites have been identified
in these areas, and it is very unlikely that their present distribution
reflects the reality. Ancient Thermon (B 102) has perhaps gained an
inflated reputation through being one of the few investigated on any scale,
but it presents important evidence for the early penetration of the
Mycenaean pottery-style to a relatively remote area and for the survival
of previous traditions. The appearance of LH IIIC here is also of interest
and may be related to its presence at other sites (B 95, cf. also E 2, 6)
to suggest that this area also flourished in LH IIIC. But again developments in the DA are almost completely obscure.
B 1

ALEA:

ANCIENT TEGEA, THE TEMPLE OF ATHENA

L. 7 Sparti
LH IIIB PG

*#

(GAMS No. 89,


Arcadia No. 26)

185 E I 944 N
G A C H

BCH 25 (1901) 256, 45 (1921) 2!+7;

87

A few LH vase fragments, including parts of two stirrup-jars, were


found with later material during the excavation of the Temple; other finds
on display in the Tegea l'lluseum are a spindle whorl and a Psi figurine
(BSA 66 (1971) 183).
B 2

STRINGON:
L. 7 Sparti
EH II

AYIOS ILIAS
16o E

(Arcadia No. 25)


948 N

A small knoll, on top of a ridge overlooking the N end of Lake Taka,


c. Boo m. ~W of Stringon. EH sherds were found over an area c. 100 m. in
diameter.
B 3

VOUNON
L. 7 Sparti
162 E
MH LH III(A-B)

(Arcadia No. 27)

934 N

77
On the E and SE terraces of the long ridge on which stands the
village of Vounon, on the NE edge of Lake Taka, a few MH and LH sherds
were found.
B 4

(Arcadia No. 28)

KAMARION
L. 7 Sparti
EH II C

175 E

926 N

On the slope between the village and the main road from Tripolis to
Sparta, on the W edge of the village, a few EH and C sherds were found.
B 5

GAREA:

(Arcadia No. 29)

KHAIROLIMNES

L. 7 Sparti
EH II

212 E

917 N

A fairly extensive site c. 500 m. SSW of Garea. The finds include


an EH figurine. EH sherds were found for about 200 m. along a low ridge
and on both flanks.

B 6

PSILI VRYSI:

VATIONA

L. 7 Sparti
LH III(A-B)

224 E

(Arcadia No. 30)


913 N

Several LH sherds were found in a broad depression (or "hollow")


named Vatioria c. 300 m. N of Psili Vrysi.
B 7

PSILI VRYSI :

MYRMINGOFOLIES

L. 7 Sparti
EH II

235 E

(Arcadia No. 31)

884 N

A few EH sherds were found on the saddle of the Mirmingofolies


ridge c. 2 km. S of Psili Vrysi.
B 8

ALEA :

PALAIOCHORI

*!I

(GAMS No. 90, Arcadia No. 32)

L. 7 Sparti
197 E I 896 N
EH? LH IIII-III(A-B) PG C
BCH 45 (1921) 403;

~56

(1961) 130 n. 119

Palaiochori is a gentle depression on the plateau high above the E


bank of the Sarandapotamos, about 5 km. SSE of Alea and c. 1 km. S of the
Tegea plain. In the hollow to \'/ of the church of Ayia Sotira here LH and
mediaeval sherds were found over an area c. 300 m. in diameter. About

500 m. SW of the site, on the E bank of the Sarandapotamos, several small


built tombs of tholos type were identified, of which one was excavated.
It produced one LH IIII vase (BSA loo. oit., the jar decorated with dots
on the shoulder, cf. MP Motif 76) and three LH II-III; and a PG vase may
belong with this group.
B 9

MANTHYREA:

(Arcadia No. 33)

PANAYIA

L. 7 Sparti
151 E I 901 N
EH II LH III(A-B) C
A scatter of sherds including some EH and LH was found for about
200 m. NW from the Panayia church, c. l km. W of Manthyrea.
B 10

TP~NAS:

(Arcadia No. 23)

STOYIA

L. 7 Sparti
1 1>5 E
MH LH III(A-B)

963 N

A fairly extensive site along the whole of a low ridge c.


SE of Thanas.
B ll

THANAS :
L.

148 E

m.

(Arcadia No. 21)

TOURKODHEJ\l])HRI

7 Sparti

Boo

975 N

EH II
A very small site revealed in the sides of a disused clay pit on a
low hillock about 1..5 km. ENE of Thanas.
B 12

STADHION:

AYIOS KONSTAJ\l])INOS

L. 7 Sparti
EH II MH

204 E

(Arcadia No. 24)

949 N

The church of Ayios Konstandinos stands on a low mound at the N end


of Stadhion. EH and MH sherds were abundant over an area c. lOO m. in
diameter around the church.
B 13

TRIPOLIS:

AYIOI APOSTOLOI

K. 7 Tripolis
EH?

155 E

(Arcadia No. 19)

006 N

MH

The church of Ayioi Apostoloi lies on a small low hillock (c. 150 m.
in diameter) c. 1.5 km. E of Tripolis and c. 300 m. N of the TripolisArgos road. A few sherds, including one possibly EH and two MH, were
found near the church.

79
B 14

ZEVGOLATEION:

(Arcadia No. 18)

PANAYIA

196 E I 026 N

K. 7 Tripolis
EH II

Three EH sherds were found when a grave was dug out in the cemetery
of the Panayia chapel, c. 2 km. NW of Zevgolateion. Surface investigation
provided no further evidence.
B 15 MERKOVOUNION:

(Arcadia No. 17)

AYIOLIAS

150

K. 7 Tripolis
N? EH II MH

I 045

LH III(A-B)

The chapel of Ayiolias lies on top of the rounded hill immediately


toE of Merkovouni. The hill measures c. 1 km. E-W by Soo m. On the
top and the upper slopes a thin scatter of prehistoric sher-ds was found
and one C sherd.
B 16 AYIORYITIKA

(Arcadia No. 20)

L. 7 Sparti
250 E I 982 N
NEHIICH
AJA 32 (1928) 533;

Metropolitan Museum Studies 3 (1930-31) 55

The low mound is at the E end of Ayioryitika, c. 400 m. S of the


Tripolis-Argos road. Excavations in 1928 revealed remains of N settlement
and bothroi containing EH II material. C and H sherds were found near
the church of Ayia Kyriaki to E.
B 17

LOUKAS:

AYIOS YEORYIOS

(Arcadia No. 16)

K. 7 Tripolis
215 E I 075 N
MH LH III(A-B) C H
The church of Ayios Yeoryios stands at the N end of the rocky ridge
that runs into the plain N of Loukas. The church partly incorporates the
remains of a H tower. Prehistoric and C and H sherds occur sparsely over
most of the ridge, and include several LH and a few MH.
B 18

PIKERNIS: GORTSOULI (ANCIENT PrOLIS)


K. 7 Tripolis
167 E I 143 N
EH? MH LH III(A-B) PG? G A C H

BCH 11 (1887) 49;

AD 18 (1963) B 88

*If

(GAMS No. 87, Arcadia No.ll)

8o
The rounded hill of Gortsouli lies 3.5 km. SW of Pikernis, just to
N of the ruins of Classical Mantinea. The site is almost certainly the
Ptolis mentioned by Pausanias, since excavation demonstrates the existence

of a sanctuary and habitation from G onwards. A single EH sherd is


reported to have been found in a G deposit and some MH on the SW slope.
Evidence for LH is confined to surface material, and the actual date of
the Cyclopean fortification visible on the upper E flank remains to be
established (cf. R Hope Simpson and J. F. Lazenby, The Catalogue of the
Ships in Homer's Iliad ( 1970) 92 and Pl. 8).
B 19

NESTANI:

PANIYIRISTRA (ANCIENT NESTANE)

K. 7 Tripolis
N MH LH IIII

235 E

(GAMS No. 88,


Arcadia No. 14)

ll7 N

C H

AA (1913) 395
The rocky hill of Paniyiristra lies above the village of Nestani on
its NW edge. The fortifications are mainly C or H, although a section near
the eastern gateway resembles Cyclopean. The site is identified as ancient
Nestane (Frazer, Pausanias IV 177, JHS 15 (1895) 81). Some prehistoric
sherds have been found here, none of which are certainly later than early LH.

B 20

ARTEMISION:

(Arcadia No. 10)

AYIOS ILIAS

7 Tripolis
LH (II-IIIAl)

K.

150 E

157 N

The church of Ayios Ilias is situated on a low hill c. 3 km. SE of


Artemision to E of the main road. Sherds from the E slope include an early
LH goblet stem.
B 21

IEVIDHION:

(Arcadia No. 7)

PANAYIA

K. 7 Tripolis
105 E I 202 N
N? EH II(-III?) MH C H
The church of Panayia lies c. 2 km. E of Levidhion, to S of the road
to Artemision. About 200 m. E of the Panayia and lOO m. to S of the road
is a slight knoll, where abundant prehistoric sherds were found, over an
area c. 150 m. E-W by 80 m.
B 22

LEVIDHION:

(Arcadia No. 8)

AYIOLIAS

K. 7 Tripolis
EH II

130 E

200 N (approx.)

81
The small spur of Ayiolias is c. 3 km. NW of Artemision on the road
from Kalpaki. A few EH sherds were found here.
B 23

ANCIENT ORCHOMENOS

(GAMS No. 85, Arcadia No. 5)

*.#

K. 7 Tripolis
119 E I 249 N
MH LH III(A-B) G A C H
Ancient Orchomenos occupies a conical hill at the E end of the chain
of hills which separate the plain of Orchomenos from the plain of Caphyai
to the N. Kalpakion village is on the S slopes of the hill, outside the
C and H fortifications. Some Matt-painted sherds and a LH kylix foot are
recorded, but C and H predominate, and the earliest material found in
excavations seems to have been G.
B 24

KANDHILA:

(Arcadia No. 4)

BIKIZA

K. 7 Tripolis
117 E I 290 N
EH? MH LH III(A-B) G A C
The deserted hamlet of Bikiza is c. 12 km. from Kandhila, but only
The long spur above the ruins of the hamlet projects
from the plateau on theN edge of the plain of Caphyai. Prehistoric and
G sherds were found on terraces at the SW foot of the spur, and more
sparsely on the south tip. Some N sherds were found on the SE slopes,
above the ruined hamlet, and A and C sherds on a low rocky hillock c. 100 m.
to SW of the spur.

4 km. from Limni.

B 25

VLAKHERNA :

PLESSA

K. 7 Tripolis
EH? MH LH

o8o

(Arcadia No. 3)
E

1 26J

On a terraced slope c. Soo m. toW of the hamlet of Plessa near


Vlakherna were found two possibly EH sherds, several MH, and one LH,
scattered over an area c. 100 m. by 50 m.
B 2 6 VLAKHERNA :

PETRA

K. 7 Tripolis
N? EH II LH?

.#

070 E

(~No.

86, Arcadia No. 2)

I 270 N (approx.)

Petra is an isolated rock in the SW corner of the plain of Caphyai,


c. 4 km. S of Khotoussa and c. 4 km. NE of Vlakherna. The small area of
the top of the rock, barely 35 m. by 20 m., is surrounded by polygonal
walling. Much obsidian, some EH II sherds, and coarse ware resembling
both LN and LH was found together with C sherds and tiles.

82

B 27

KHOTOUSSA:

(Arcadia No. 1)

AYIOS YEORYIOS

K. 7 Tripolis
EH? MH? LH?

073 E / 284 N (approx. )


PG? G? C H

Immediately to S of Khotoussa are the ruins of Hellenistic and


Roman Caphyai. About 500 m. to SE of these, and c. 1 km. to SE of
Khotoussa and to S of the road to Limni is an isolated hill c. 300 m. ~~
to SE by 150 m., on top of which stands the church of Ayios Yeoryios.
Sherds are scattered over the whole of this area and for some distance to
N. The prehistoric sherds were not easy to identify, but EH and/or MH and
PG are the most likely; the presence of obsidian and shert further attests
prehistoric occupation, and the site appears to have been large.
B 28

KARVOUNION:

(Arcadia No. 45)

SFAKOVOUNI

K. 6 Dhimitsana
MH L!-I III(A-B)

016 E

286 N

A steep-sided hill, c. 400 m. in diameter, about 1 km. E of


Karvounion, has produced ample evidence of MH and LH occupation.
B 29

TSELEPAKOS:

(Arcadia No. 50)

KASTRO

K. 7 Tripolis
MH C

045 E

035 N

The Kastro of Tselepakos stands on a small peak c. 500 m. SE of


the village. Over the peak and the lower ridge to NE several MH sherds
were found.
B 30

KATO ASEA:
L. 7 Soarti
N EH I-III

PALAIOKASTRO (ANCIENT ASEA)


056 E I 897 N
MH LH I-IIA LH IIIA2

*#

(GAMS No. 91,


Arcadia No. 51)

G H

E. J. Holmberg, The Swedish Excavations at Asea in Arcadia (1944)


The rocky acropolis hill of Palaiokastro lies immediately to N
of Asea railway station, and c. 4 km. SE of Asea village. The TripolisMegalopolis road runs past the foot of the hill. The site is fairly
large (top surface c. 250 m. N-S by 120 m.).
It seems to have been
inhabited continuously from EH I to earlier MH, being destroyed by
fire at the end of EH II. There is hardly any trace of later MH
material, and LH is only represented by a few sherds, mostly early.
One sherd is certainly LH IIIA2, and an askos :from a cist-grave
may be of the same date (there are no grounds for a

LH IIIC attribution). Despite the considerable size, the site is remote


and does not seem ever to have been important.
B 31

DHIMITSANA

(Arcadia No. 47)

K. 6 Dhimitsana
870 E I 150 N
EH II MH LH III(A-B) G? C
The town of Dhimitsana is situated on two peaks joined by a saddle,
overlooking the Lousios valley. On the E slope of the western peak one
EH sherd, several MH, and one LH were found, together with later material.
B 32

PALAIOKASTRO:

AYIA SOTIRA AND PALAIOPYRGOS

K. 6 Dhimitsana
789 E
LH IIIC A C H

( GAMS No. 92,


Arcadia No. 55,
MME No. 330)

068 N (approx.)

BCH 8o (1956) 537, 82 (1958) 717;

Messenia I 227;

AAA 2 (1969) 226

The village of Palaiokastro lies on a hill at the W end of a range


bordering the right bank of the Alpheios. On the summit, just toW of the
village, are the remains of ancient Bouphagion. Some LH walls were
identified here (although the evidence has not been explained) and
obsidian and LH sherds were found. Below the hill, some distance to NW at
Palaiopyrgos, is an extensive chamber tomb cemetery, which includes several
large and well-cut tombs. One of these, T.6, imitates a tholos, and
contained fine pottery and weapons (of special interest is a Naue Type II
sword (AAA loo. cit.) ). The pottery from the six excavated tombs is
exclusively LH IIIC, including examples of the Close Style, and one or
two vases may be as late as SMyc. The cemetery appears to represent a new
and substantial LH IIIC site.
B 33

DHIMITRA:

TROUPES

(Arcadia No. 43)

K. 6 Dhimitsana in square 770 E I 340 N


N Er! II MH LH IIII-III(A-B) PG?
BSA 68 (1973) 193
The small hill called Troupes is c. 2 km. NE of Dhimitra, on the S
slopes of Mt. Aphrodision. During road construction a cutting was made
through the prehistoric settlement here and many sherds were collected,
mainly from the eastern slope. Most of this was MH coarse ware and
provincial LH. Some LH IIII is recognizable, but the LH IIIC claimed is
not certain, and BSA 68 Pl. 48b:8 may well be PG.

84
B 34

KALYVIA:

PYRGOS (ANCIENT PHENECS)

K. 7 Tripolis
130 E
EH II MH LH IIIA2-B
AD 20 (1965) B 158;

*I!

(GAMS No. 83,


Arcadia No. lJO)

476 N
G? A? C H

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 91, Pl. 7b

The site lies on the NW edge of Lake Pheneos, on a conspicuous


knoll which projects from higher hills on thew. It is c. 1 km. E of
Kalyvia, and adjoins the acropolis of the historical Pheneos. On theE
side of the hill, beneath an Asklepieion of the 2nd century B.C., and to
N of it, deep soundings have revealed MH and LH strata. MH-LH and later
sherd material was found over most of the hill (c. 250 m. N-S by 150 m.)
and especially the SE slopes, and two EH sherds at the top. Few details
are available of the excavated material, but it is of some interest that
the two earliest MH phases should include wood-framed structures.
B 35

KIONIA:

ANCIENT STYMPHALOS

(GAMS No. 84,


Arcadia No. 41)

*#

K. 7 Tripolis in square 24o E


LH III(A-B) A C H

390 N

Ancient Stymphalos lay to S of Kionia at the edge of Lake Zarakas.


The acropolis is on a long narrow ridge at the E end of a spur from
Mt. Kyllini. Excavations were conducted below the acropolis from 1924
to 1930, but the earliest remains reported are A. Two LH sherds,
together with some obsidian chips, were found in 1958 on the lower E part
of the acropolis ridge. This area, c. 250 m. E-W by 50 m., is divided
from the higher W section by a thin saddle. On the S side of the lower
section are traces of circuit walls in a style resembling Cyclopean.
B 36

DERVENI:

SOLOS (ANCIENT AIGEIRA)

I. 7 Xilokastron

LH IIIAl?

- 11

lfl6 ( 'Paliokastro') at 197 E


LH IIIA2-C G A C H

AE (1956) Chronika 11;


157, 9 (1976) 162

OpAth 5 (1964) 97;

(GAMS No. 82)

689 N

AAA 6 (1973) 197, 7 (1974)

On the acropolis (c. l4o m. N-S by 120 m.), at the Send of the
long ridge which stretches down to the coast and formed the city of
Aigeira, LH surface sherds have been found and building-levels assigned
to LH IIIC have been excavated, the next datable material being G. A
group of finds reported to come from Aigeira, presumably from a chamber
tomb, include an early figurine (BSA 66 (1971) 178), fine weapons, one
a probably early Type C sword, and LH IIIA2-C-pottery. Chamber tombs
were found at Psila Alonia, 1.5 km. to ESE of the acropolis, on the
opposite side of a deep ravine. Two of unusual type have been excavated,
one containing many and the other three burial-cists, like the Kephallenian

85
chamber tombs;
B 37

AIGION:

they may well be of similar date (LMTS 86).


PSILA ALONIA SQUARE ETC.

I. 6 Patrai
N EH II MH

( GAMS No. )04)

959 E I 847 N (town centre)


LH IIA-IIIC G H

PAE (1939) 104, (1954) 289; OpAth 5 (1964) 89; ~ 1 (1968) 136; AD 22
(1967) B 214, 26 (1971) B 175~J. Papadopoulos, Excavations at Aigion 1970 (1976)
Modern Aigion is on the site of ancient Aigion, a high bluff controlling the coast road and the fertile plains to E and W. Material ranging
in date from N to G has been found in Aigion, and two chamber tomb
cemeteries have been identified, one in Psila Alonia Square on the seaward
slope of the town, the other at its edge, on the road to Patras. The
latter is the older, indeed the oldest-established cemetery known in
Achaea to date.
B 38

ACHLADIES:

ACHOURIA

(GAMS No. 307)

I. 6 Patrai in square 940 E


LH III(A2-C)?
PAE ( 1938)

119, ( 1939) 103;

I 780 N

OpA th 5 ( 1961+) 87, 96

A LH cemetery on a steep hill near Achladies. Vases and other


goods from chamber tombs at this site have been mixed with those from
tombs at B 39. They include a stirrup-jar of SMyc. appearance (OpAth 5
(1964) 93 fig. 2:1).
B 39

CHADZI:

(GAMS No. 308)

TRAPEZA

I. 6 Patrai in square 900 E


LH III(A2-C)? G
PAE ( 1938) 119, ( 1939) 103;

810 N

OpA th 5 ( 19611) 89, 108

The site is a trapezoidal hill toE of Chadzi. LH tombs, mainly


plundered, were found here, and walls claimed to be Cyclopean (but OpAth
loo. cit. contra). A G sherd was found on the surface. See above~
B 38 for LH finds mixed with those from Achouria. We have marked both
B 38 and B 39 with a simple LH mark on the map, but one or both may have
produced LH IIIA2-C.

86
B 4o

ARRAVONITSA
864 E

I. 6 Patrai
MH
~H

80 (1956) 291;

I 866 N

OpAth 5 (1964) lOO

MH vases were found in a tomb opened by peasants here.


B 41

KAMARAI:

XERIKO

I. 6 Patrai
88o E I 903 N (village)
EH II MH LH III(A-B)
PAE (1934) 114;

OpAth 5 (1964) 106, 109

Prehistoric sherds and stone implements were found at this hill on


the banks of the River Salmeniko. The EH settlement is located on the W
slope near the river, and a MH Matt-painted sherd and a LH sherd were
found higher up to NE.
B 41A AKARNES (NOT MARKED ON MAP B)
I.

6 Patrai

76o E

950 N (approx.)

LH IIII?
BSA 32 (1931-2) 238;

OpAth 5 (1964) lOO

Some sherds which were shown to Miss s. Benton were said to be from
Akarnes. She describes these as "IM I", but LH IIII is presumably
indicated (cf. OpAth loo. cit.). The location has not been confirmed.
B 42

ANO SICHAINA:

AGRAPHIDHIA EIC.

I. 6 Patrai in square 700 E


LH IIIC (and earlier?)
BCH 47 (1923) 512, 48 (1924) 472;
OpAth 5 (1964) 97

( GAMS No. 288)

*
870 N

AA (1925) 334;

AD 16 (196o) B 137;

A half-destroyed chamber tomb cemetery was excavated here, E of the


village; another is reported to the w.
Finds include pottery, jewellery,
and a dagger.
B 43

PATRAS:

AROE, SAMAKIA, LOPESI, GEROKOMEION

I. 6 Patrai

LH IIIA2-C

668 E

859 N (Aroe)

(GAMS No. 287)

PAE (1933) 92, (1934) 114;

OpAth 5 (1964) 106;

AD 22 (1967) B 214

There were extensive LH cemeteries in the hills behind Patras on the


E. Part of these lay at Aroe Mesatis, part at a place Lopesi-Englukas,
and part at Samakia. Aroe is c. 6oo m. E of Patras castle and Lopesi a
little more than 1 km. S of Aroe. More recently road construction has
revealed chamber tombs near the Gerokomeion monastery (I. 6 Patrai 676 E I
851 N) c. 2 km. ESE of Patras outskirts. The contents of an excavated tomb
include LH IIIB and LH IIIC (mostly the latter?) as well as a spearhead and
a "razor". A group of objects reputed to be from the Patras area, in Yale
Museum, includes LH IIIA2. There must have been an important settlement
somewhere in the foothills behiud Patras Castle, if not at the Castle itself.
B 44

KOUKOURA (NEAR THE ACRAIA-KLAUSS FACTORY)


I. 6 Patrai
LH IIIB-C

677 E

(GAMS No. 289)

8o8 N

PAE (1936) 95, (1937) 84, (1938) 118;


104

PPS 22 (1956) 111;

OpAth 5 (1964)

A cemetery of well-cut, rich chamber tombs at the foot of the mountain


Koukoura behind the Klauss factory. The tombs resemble the best examples
in the Argolid, with dromoi sloping inward towards the top. The pottery,
of which many examples are cited in AJA 64 (196o) 9 ff., seems largely
LH IIIC but probably extends back into LH IIIB; some "duck-vases" should
be contemporary with SMyc. The goods include a finely decorated stone
pyxis, ivory comb, glass jewellery, and several weapons. It seems likely
that the LH settlement lay on the same site as the Klauss factory, a
prominent spur dominating the Patras plain.
B lf5

TSAPLANEIKA

( GAMS No. 290)

I. 6 Patrai
LH IIIB-C

in square 630 E

PAE (1933) 90, (1934) 115, (1935) 70;

770 N

OpAth 5 (1964) 109

Chamber tombs were found here near the road to Chalandritsa, and
also at Pavlokastro in the SE foothills of Mt. Panachaikon.
B 46

KALLITHEA

( GAMS No. 291)

I. 6 Patrai

655 E

770 N (village)

LH IIIA(2 )-C

!2Q!i

r(8 (1954) 12/f;


OpAth 5 (1964) 102;

JHS

An

74 (1954) 157; PPS 22 (1956) 112;


26 (1971) B 185;---"Ergon (1976) 105

AM 75 (196o) 42;

88

At a site 10 km. S of Patras and about l km. N of Ano Kallithea, on


the W slope of an outlier of Mt. Panachaikon, two chamber tombs were
excavated. One had been plundered, but the goods were recovered: the
most important all apparently belonged to a single burial in a .pit, a sword,
spear, fragmentary bronze fittings from a corslet, and a pair of bronze
greaves with good European parallels. These may be dated to LH IIIC, for
fragments of a stirrup-jar of that date were excavated in the pit's fill.
The other tomb was found intact: goods included several bronzes and boar's
tusk plates from a helmet. In both tombs LH IIIC and earlier pottery was
found. At another site c. 500 m. W of Ano Kallithea six more chamber tombs
have been identified; the three excavated are small but relatively rich in
finds, containing many LH IIIA-C vases, sealstones, and tools of bronze and
stone.
B 47

<-

PLATANOVRYSI (FORMERLY MEDZENA)


I. 6 Patrai
LH (III)

661 E

PAE (1930) 88, (1932) 61;

( GAMS No. 292)

740 N (village)

AD 17 (1961-2) B 129;

OpAth 5 (1964) 106

A cemetery of chamber tombs, from one of which four vases were


recovered.

B 48

VRACHNEIKA:

AYIOS PANDELEIMON

I. 5 Mesolongion
LH IIIA2-B?

(GAMS No. 286)

83 (spot height) at 570 E

BCH 78 (1954) 124, 80 (1956) 291;

768 N

OpAth 5 (1964) 109

A chamber tomb excavated here may be the source of at least two


The tomb lies
on the E edge of the small fertile valley which runs inland from Vrachneika.
A small hill nearby may have been the settlement site, and the vicinity of
Dresthena (to SE) is mentioned as another possibility (OpAth loo. cit.).

LH IIIA2-B vases (AJA 64 (l96o) 8 (no.22l), ll (no. 41) ).

B 49

TSOUKALEIKA
I. 5 Mesolongion
LH

(GAMS No. 285)


556 E

766 N

78 (1954) 124; OpAth 5 (1964) 109

LH chamber tombs are reported at this village on the N coast, about


14 km. W of Patras and 8 km. E of Kato Achaia.

B 50

CHALANDRITSA:

AYIOS VASILIOS

( GAMS No. 293)

I. 6 Patrai
682 E I 708 N (village)
LH IIIA? LH IIIC G
PAE (1928) 110, 119, (1929) 86, (1930) 81;

OpAth 5 (1961>) 101

To the S of the road from Patras just before Chalandritsa is a row


of small hillocks called Troumbes in which were three so-called tholes
tombs. At Ayios Vasilios in fields below Troumbes some chamber tombs were
excavated; their contents seem wholly LH IIIC (cf. AJA 64 (l96o) 5 ff.
for some of the pottery). A LH IIIA figurine (BSA 6E;{1971) lSo) was found
in a tumulus at Troumbes, with otherwise G material, and undatable coarse
pottery in cists at Agriapidies, to N of the road. The cists may have been
covered by a tumulus, and the pottery has been considered DA (cf. V.R. d'A.
Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages (1972) 92).
B 51

KATARRAKTIS:

DRAKOTRYPA

I. 6 Patrai in square 720 E


MH LH IIIA2-C

( GAMS No. 297)


690 N

AE (1919) 98; AR (1955) 17; ~ (1958) 166;


AR ( 1957 ) ll, (1958) 10; OpAth 5 (1964) 103

Ergon (1957) 69, (1958) 139;

A settlement with MH and LH III strata was tested at Drakotrypa,


a small hill to E of Katarraktis, and chamber tombs containing LH III
pottery and glass jewellery were excavated at the village itself (formerly
Lopesi, cf. AJA 64 (l96o) 5 (no. 2) for one LH IIIC vase, p. 16 for
jewellery).
B 52

KATARRAKTIS:

NEAR 28TH KM. MARK

I. 6 Patrai
LH G

715 E

AE ( 1919) 98;

I 690 N

PAE ( 1952) LiDO;

OpA th 5 ( 1964) 103

In 1920 seven LH chamber tombs were excavated at the foot of the


steep hill to S of the road to Patras, W of Katarraktis below the 28th km.
mark. The pottery was not published. LG cist tombs were also excavated
here (PAE (1952) 4oo) and others observed.
B 53

KATARRAKTIS:

PYRGAKI

I. 6 Patrai

726 E

MH

*
699 N

90
~

PAE (1958) 172;

5 (1964) 103

A large MH settlement was tested on this hill c. 6oO m. N of


Katarraktis.
B 54

RODHIA:

AYIOS ATHANASIOS

I. 6 Patrai
716 E
MH lli III(Al-B)

( GAMS No. 298)

I 677 N

PAE (1956) 193, (1957) 114, (1958) 70;

OpAth 5 (1964) 103

Ayios Athanasios is c. 2 km. to S of Katarraktis, above Rodhia.


MH and LH III strata have been tested, and a building of megaron type
was noted. But lli material was comparatively scarce. To the N, at
Bouga, two tholos tombs, both robbed, were discovered; near the larger
(d. 5.2 m.) a collection of rich goods was found, and in it bones and
pottery. The pottery has been dated LH IIIB, but a lli IIIA date would fit
the description better and would be more plausible for the goods, whose
parallels go back to lli IIIAl (earlier, in the case of the inlaid dagger).
B 55 MIRALI

I. 6 Patrai
MH lli?

700 E

PAE (1930, 87, (1952) 398;

I 690 N (approx.)
OpAth 5 (1964) 106

About 26 km. from Patras to Kalavryta, on the N side of the road


c. 1.5 km. SW of Mirali, two tumuli were excavated, one containing MH
pottery. Rock-cut tombs are reported from Pori nearby.
B 56

AYIOS VLASIOS:
I. 6 Patrai
LH C H

BCH 83 (1959) 620;

ANCIENT LEONTION
782 E

( GAMS No. 301)

I 612 N

OpAth 5 (1964) lOO

lli sherds were found on the lower part of a hill 3 km. N of Ayios

Vlasios at the foot of Mt. Erymanthos, near the 51st km. stone of the road
from Patras to Kalavryta. The site is also part of ancient Leontion
(cf. E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen (1939) Pl. 31, Map VII,
BCH 79 (1955) 252).

91
B 57 MANESI:

VROMONER.I

I. 6 Patrai

828 E

(GAMS No. 302)

I 598 N (village)

LH IIIC
PAE (1929) 91, (1930) 87;

OpAth 5 (1964) 106

A chamber tomb cemetery on a low hill.

All vases illustrated from

i t are LH IIIC.

B 58

KATO GOUMENITSA:

VRISARION

I. 6 Patrai
894 E
LH IIBIIIIAl-IIIB

(GAMS No. 303)

932 N

PAE (1925) 43, (1926) 130, (1927) 52; ~ 9 (1924-5) Parartema 14, 16 (196o)
B 138; AR (1959-60) 12; BCH 85 (1961) 682; OpAth 5 (1964) 104
At the 72nd km. stone on the Patras-Kalavryta road, a short distance
beyond Kato Goumenitsa, is a white hill with levelled top, a little toE
of the road. A cemetery of large chamber tombs was excavated here; the
goods included many weapons and fine jewellery. Known vases include an
early alabastron (AJA 64 (196o) Pl. 2:15-16) and a somewhat later rhyton.
An early LH grave containing a vase and dagger is also reported.
B 59 MIKROS BODIAS:
I. 6 Patrai
LH IIIC
PAE ( 1933) 90;

LOBOKA
815 E

(GAMS No. 300)

I 654 N (village)

OpA th 5 ( 1964) 105

Loboka, the summer quarters of the villagers of Bodia, is on the bank


of the river Selinos, below Mt. Krania. An intact chamber tomb, with
contents of LH IIIC date, and two looted tombs were excavated here. Pithoi
from the so-called tholos tomb at Bartholomio near Mikros Bodias may be
DA (OpAth 5 (1964) 106).
B 6o

LEOJ\'TION (FORMERLY GOURZ01Jli!ISA)


I. 6 Patrai in square
EH III? LH IIIB-C

Soo

( GAMS No. 299)

I 700 N

PAE (1930) 88, (1931) 71, (1932) 57;

OpAth 5 (1964) 102

Some chamber tombs were found below the spring above the village.
Only one was intact, and from it came LH IIIC pottery and a vase that has

92

been assigned to EH III (AJA 64 (l96o) 4). Near Ayios Ioannis c. 3 km. S
of the village, is another chamber tomb cemetery to W of the road, from
which came LH IIIB-C pottery and some jewellery. Destroyed chamber tombs
were noted at Koutreika, and traces of a possible LH settlement at Ayios
Andreas.
B 61

STAROCHORION (FORMERLY LALOUSI)


I. 6 Patrai
LH

PAE (1933) 91;

649 E

( GAMS No. 295 )

651 N (village)

OpAth 5 (1964) 105

A LH cemetery was noted on hills around the village.


B 61A

MITOPOLIS :

(GAMS No. 294

AYIA VARVARA

I. 5 Mesolongion
LH (III)

585 E

66o N (village)

PAE (1929) 91, AD 17 (1961-2) B 129;

OpAth 5 (1964) 106

From a LH cemetery at Profitis Ilias here came three bronzes and


a LH jar. A LH settlement was reported on an acropolis named Ayia Varvara,
one of the three hills of the village.
B 62

PROSTOVITSA

(GAMS No. 296)

K. 6 Dhimi tsana
635 E
LH IIIC (and earlier?)
PAE (1927) 52, (1928) 114;

515 N (approx. )

OpAth 5 (1964) 107

This village is on theW slope of Mt. Erymanthos. A very large


chamber tomb cemetery on hills W of the village had been badly robbed, but
bronzes and fine jewellery were found in excavation. The only vase known
to come from here is LH IIIC (AJA 64 (l96o) 6 (no. Sa); 10 (no. 35) may
also be from here).
B 63

FOSTAINA
I. 5 Mesolongion
LH (III)

(GAMS No. 284)


510 E

690 N (village)

AR (1961-2) 12
A "Late Mycenaean" tomb and signs of others were noted in the region
between Fostaina (to which the map reference refers), Elaiochorion, and
Lousika. The location is c. 7 km. SE of Kato Achaia.

93
B 64 KATO ACHAIA:

BOUCHOMATA

I. 5 Mesolongion
EH II LH

475 E

7Eo N (approx.)

AD 19 (1964) B 190

On the hillock Bouohomata a little to NW of Kato Aohaia abundant


EH and IJ! sherds were found, of a quality comparable to those from Teichos
Dymaion (E 47).
B 65

AGRAPIDOCHORI:
K. 5 Pirgos
LH IIIA2-C

KOTRONA:
450 E

AE (1971) Chronika 52;

GISA

I 475 N (approx.)

AD 27 (1972) B 268

Kotrona is c. 2 km. SE of Agrapidoohori. In the region named Gisa


here, on the S slope of a low hill and above a torrent bed, a chamber tomb
was excavated. It contained LH IIIA2-B inhumations and at least one
LH IIIC cremation, whose pottery seems of advanced style. This might
indicate reuse of the tomb. The early appearance of cremation at such a
relatively remote spot is of considerable interest.
B 66

AGRAPIDOCHORI:
K. 5 Pirgos
MH G A C

ARMATOVA
432 E

490 N (approx.)

AD 20 (1965) B 216, 24 (1969) B 156;

BCH 92 (1968) 834 fig. 3

The long low hill of Armatova is c. l km. NW of Agrapidochori. This


site and nos. B 67-69 were investigated in the course of an international
cooperative salvage project prior to the construction of the Peneios dam.
The sites are shown on AD 23 (1968) 175 (plan) together with sites of other
periods (cf.~ loo. oft.). A simple interment at theE end of the hill,
provided with a kantharos, is certainly MH; a similar grave and t;wo built
of stones might be. Three tumuli at the SE edge, two containing oist graves,
are probably later, although prehistoric sherds, including MH, are reported
from their vicinity.
B 67

AYIOS ILIAS:

YERO YANNI RACill

K. 5 Pirgos
MH

377 E

AR (1967-8) 11;

473 N (approx. )

23 (1968) B 178

MH Grey Minyan, perhaps from a pithos burial, was found at this hill
above Ayios Ilias on the SE side.
B 68

ORAIA:

TSALEIKA :

K. 5 Pirgos

BOUKA

395 E

I 420 N (approx.)

lli

AR (1967-8) 11;

BCH 92 (1968) 832;

AD 23 (1968) B 178

On the lower slopes of the ridge Bouka near Tsaleika c. 1 km. S of


Oraia a thin scatter of LH sherds was found, including a possible LH IIIC
sherd from a large artificial mound on the J\'E edge of the ridge.
B 69

KOSTOUREIKA

5 Pirgos
EH I I H

385 E

K.

I 46o N (approx.)

AD 23 (1968) B 18o, 25 (1970) B 197;

AR (1969-70) 15

On a low hill near Kostoureika a large EH II deposit was found


beneath the scanty remains of a H farmhouse.
B 70

GOUMERO :

K. 5 Pirgos
LH IIIC?

AR (1959-60) 11;

( GAMS No. 279)

AMMOULI
476 E

348 N (village)

BCH 83 (1959) 658

A vase described as an alabastron was found at Ammouli N of Goumero.


It was attributed to lli IIIC, but alabastra are not common in this period.
B 71

OLYMPIA:

THE ALTIS

*J

(GAMS No. 267, MME No. 315)

K. 5 Pirgos
509 E I 211+ N
EH II MH LH I-IIIC "PG" G A C H
AM 36 (1911) 163, 77 (1962) 23; BCH 83 (1959) 655, 84 (196o) 720; AA (1962)
198; AD 17 (1961-2) B 108, 25 (1970) B 191; W. DBrpfeld, Alt-Olympi; I
(1935) 73; MycCon I 179
Considerable quantities of prehistoric material have been found in the
area of the later sanctuary: EH is reported from the Pelopion, EH II and
LH I-IIIB from the north of the Stadion, and a LH figurine of early type
from its E edge (AD 25 (1970) B 194), and apsidal megara and pithos-burials

95
were found in the Altis. These appear to be of MH date, although the
finds include a class of incised pottery without close parallel elsewhere
in Greece. The level covering these appears to have been basically of
late DA date, containing coarse clay figurines, bronze figurines, and G
pottery (S!:!. 36 ( 1911) 185), and is presumably the source of a bronze
horse found in the stratum of the houses (op. cit. 180), probably also
of a sherd which appears LH IIIC and a ringed kylix stem (JHS 56 (1936) 81
fig. 1: found above House 5; cf. also S!i 36 (1911) 189, DBrpfeld 1935; 87).
It may be noted that finds clearly datable between LH IIIB and LG are rare:
a ribbed kylix stem probably belongs to a phase equivalent to PG (cf. ~
91; a late date is suggested by parallels with material from Nichoria,
D lOO), but the earliest finds that may be considered dedications may not
predate the eighth century. Moreover, there is no reason to suppose that
the site had religious importance in LH times; a LM bronze statuette
(MycCon I 179) has no known context and could easily be a post-BA dedication. It is also doubtful whether the sanctuary area was the centre of
the LH settlement, which may rather have been at B 73.
B 72

MODERN OLYMPIA

(MME Nos. 321-2)

- 11

K. 5 Pirgos
505 E I 222 N (New Museum area)
EH II-III MH LH IIIA2-B
AD 16 (l96o) B 125, 17 (1961-2) B 105, 18 (1963) B 103, 19 (1964) B 175,
20 (1965) B 309, 24 (1969) B 149, 27 (1972) B 268; MycCon I 178
Much prehistoric material is reported from the neighbourhood of the
new museum-and the railway station, to the north of B 71. EH and early MH,
including EH III (AA (1971) 392 fig. 77a-b), come from the valley NW of
Kronion hill, while on the hill were remains of a pre-LH and LH settlement,
and a LH chamber tomb cemetery was cut into its slope. MH-T~ material
has been found in the N bank of the Kladeos river, and a LH grave some
Boo m. E of the new museum and 200 m. N of the Kladeos. Very little
detailed information is available about this material yet.
B 73

OLYMPIA:

DROUVA

K. 5 Pirgos
LH III(A-B)

(~

*/I

500 E

No. 266, MME No. 317)

217 N

Messenia I 226
A LH settlement, perhaps the most important of the Olympia area, has
been identified here at the S end of the ridge overlooking the confluence
of the Alpheios and Kladheos rivers. The hilltop here, around the chapel
of Ayios Yeoryios, measures c. 150 m. E-W by lOO m., and the settlement
also extended to slopes on the E below and to the N end of the ridge where
the village of Drouva is situated.

96

B 74

FLOKA:

(MME No. 316)

ALPHEIOS DAM

K. 5 Pirgos
470 E
LH III(B?) C H

204 N

AD 18 (1963) B 103
An unusual bell-skirted figurine and three LH III(B?) vases were
found here, perhaps from a destroyed tomb.
B 75

MIRAKA:

OINOMAOS

* j

(~No.

268, MME No. 323)

K. 5 Pirgos
521 E I 215 N
MH LH III(A-B) C H
AM 33 (1908) 318;

AA (1909) 121;

Messenia I 226

On a high conical hill, c. 1.5 km. E of Olympia and on the N side of


the road to Tripolis, trial excavations revealed a MH settlement. Although
no LH was reported, a kylix-foot seems to have been found on the surface
here later. The hilltop measures only c. So m. E-W by 6o m., and the
prehistoric site was probably subordinate to the larger settlement at
Olympia (B 71-3).
B 7 6 MIRAKA:

REMA, CHAl'JTlAKIA, EI'C.

(MME No. 324)

K. 5 Pirgos
530 E I 215 N (village)
LH II? LH IIIA-B LH IIIC? C
AD 21 (1966) B 171, 23 (1968) B 161, 25 (1970) B 189, 193
A variety of finds is reported from this district. From destroyed
tombs at Chandakia come a Type F dagger and a spearhead, probably LH IIIIIA, and LH IIIA2 vases; from chamber tombs at Lakkopholia other weapons
and LH IIIA2 pottery; from Gouva an alabastron attributed to LH IIIA, but
perhaps LH IIIB; and from Rema two vases attributed to LH IIIB-C, but
perhaps LH IIIA2.
B 77 MAGEIRA:

KIOUPIA EI'C.

(MME No. 319)

K. 5 Pirgos
523 E I 250 N (village)
MH? LH III(A-B) C H
fill 21 (1966) B 170, 22 (1967) B 211;

MycCon I 178

AAA 2 (1969) 248;

AA (1971) lflO;

97
A tumulus containing pithos-burials, variously attributed to MH and
late LH, has been excavated at Mageira; LH sherds are reported from the
area. Fragments of large clay statuettes, probably LH III, have been
found at Kioupia.
B 78

PLATANOS:

TOMBRINO

482 E
K. 5 Pirgos
LH IIIA2-B A H

(~

*
I

No. 318)

249 N (village)

AD 19 ( 196~) B 177
A chamber tomb at Renia on the SE edge of Platanos contained fine
jewellery and pottery (none clearly later than LH IIIB); another at
Tombrino nearby had been wholly robbed.
B 79

KAFKANIA:

FENGARAKI AND AGRILITSES

K. 5 Pirgos in square 510 E


MH LH (IIIA-B?) H

(~ No. 327-8)

250 N

AD 16 (l96o) B 126, 19 (1964) B 178, 22 (1967) B 209


A probable settlement of MH-LH date is indicated by finds of
pottery at Agrilitses between Kafkania and Kladheos; prehistoric tombs,
including cists containing faience beads, are reported from Fengaraki
nearby, but the date of the latter is unclear. MycCon I 177 reports
a variety of finds of EH-LH date from the area of Kafkania, without closer
find-spots; this may refer to material from the following sites.
B So

KLADHEOS:

STRAVOKEFALC

K. 5 Pir gos
531 E
LH IIIA(l?)-C
AD 18 ( 1963) B 103;

(~No.

325)

258 N (village)

MycCon I 178

Seven chamber tombs, partially destroyed by road works, were


excavated here near theW bank of the Kladheos river, part of a large
cemetery. The finds were rich, and included a diadem of glass reliefbeads found in position on a skull; at least one published vase, a
hydria decorated with a thick wavy line, ought to be LH IIIC.
B 81

KLADHEOS:

K. 5 Pirgos
LH IIIA2-C

TRIPES

535 E

(MME No. 326)

*
I

265 N (approx.)

98
AD 19 (1964) B 177
Ten chamber tombs of a rich cemetery to N of Kladheos, whose goods
include fine jewellery and objects of bronze and ivory, were excavated
here; published vases show that its use continued into LH IIIC.
B 82

STREFI

(!'!!2 No. 309)

K. 5 Pirgos
430 E
EH II LH III(A2-B)

250 N
"PG" H

AD 17 (1961-2) B 104, 24 (1969) B 150


An EH II settlement, two LH III chamber tombs, and a DA pi thosburial have been excavated on the N side of Strefi.
B 83 VARVASSAINA:

VROMONERI

K. 5 Pirgos
384 E
MH LH III(A-B) H

(MME No. 307)

261 N

Messenia I 225
A rather small site, c. 1.5 km. WNd of Varvassaina, on upper slopes
to N of the Pyrgos-Olympia road. Sherds are spread mainly over an area
c. 200 m. ~~-SW by 50 m.
B 84

LADZOI :

ETIA

K. 5 Pirgos
LH III(A-B)

#
439 E
C H

(GAMS No. 265,

1!!2 No. 320)

291 N

Messenia I 226
About 1.5 km. ~~ of Ladzoi is a low hill c. 200 m. NE-SW by 6o m.
The LH sherds are concentrated in the higher central area c. lOO m. by 30 m.
B 85

EPITALION:

AYIOS YEORYIOS

*#

K. 5 Pirgos
375 E I 216 N
MH LH IIII-III(A-B) LH IIIC?
Messenia I 227, III 129;
(1968) 201

(GAMS No. 270, MME No. 303)

C H

AD 21 (1966) B 172, 23 (1968) B 170;

AAA l

On and at the foot of a group of four hills 1.5 km. NW of Epitalion


MH-LH material has been found. The site controls the N-S coast route and
a ford across the Alpheios on the N. A LH house was partly excavated on
the SE hill, below which were possible traces of chamber tombs. Likely

99
traces of MH tombs have also been found. The prehistoric finds were
concentrated mainly in an area c. 200 m. NW-SE by 150 m.
B 86 MAKRYSIA:

AYIOS ILIAS

K. 5 Pirgos
MH LH I-IIA
Messenia I 229;

(~

*#

No. 272, MME No. 312)

474 E I 191f N
LH III(A2-B) H

AAA 1 (1968) 126;

AD 23 (1968) A 284, 25 (1970) B 189

A steep acropolis c. 700 m. W of Makrysia, whose area (c. lOO m.


E-W by 8o m.) is strewn with MH and LH sherds. A small burial-tumulus
(d. 4.7 m.) was found here, but was largely destroyed before proper
excavation; the material indicates use from late MH to LH IIA. A LH IIA
alabastron was later found 50 m. from the tumulus.
B 86A

MAKRYSIA:

CRANIA

(GAMS No. 273, MME No. 311)

*#

K. 5 Pirgos
468 E I 196 N
EH II MH LH IIIA2-B
PAE (1954) 295;

Messenia I 229, III 130

About 2.5 km. WNW of Makrysia, the lowest spur of the ridge W of the
Selinounta river juts eastward into the valley. Two LH chamber tombs in
the SE slope were excavated and EH and MH settlement material was found
nearby. But the LH settlement connected with the tombs may be B 86 opposite.
B f57

MAKRYSIA :

YERAKOVOUNI

K. 5 Pirgos
MH? LH IIII

/1

(GAMS No. 274, MME No. 313)

501 E I 194 N
LH III(A-B) C

Messenia I 229
A small isolated hill c. 2 km. ENE of Makrysia. LH sherds occur on
the N and W slopes over an area c. 130 m. N-S by 50 m. Two LH IIII vases
were found at Raza to the E nearby.
B 88 BABES: ARNOKATARACHO

K. 5 Pirgos
523 E I 187 N
MH?LHIIBGACH
BCH 83 (1959) 658;

MycCon I 177;

Messenia III 130

A town site of the historical period was found on an acropolis 1.5 km.
W of Babes (cf. ~ (1956) 186). A destroyed rectangular built grave here

100

produced vases, one at least LH IIB. A dagger found on the N slope has
been attributed to LH, but is more MH in appearance (AA (1974) 16 fig. 27).
B 89

DHIASELA:

*I

KOUTSOCHEIRA

K. 6 Dhimi tsana
LH IIIA2-C C

590 E

(~

147 N

BCH 8o (1956) 287, 81 (1957) 574;

PAE (1955) 243;

No. 275, MME No. 331)

Messenia I 229

The site is c. 2.5 km. ~~of Dhiasela, c. 300 m. NE of Ayios


Athanasios chapel, on a low hill (c. 130 m. E-W by lOO m.). Remains of
a LH settlement were discovered; a fortification-wall is more probably c.
Three chamber tombs in a cemetery on the S slope were excavated; most of
the pottery seems LH IIIA2-B, but some LH IIIC (including a very latelooking coated jar) was found in Tomb c.
B 90

ASPRA SPITIA:

TOURLA

K. 6 Dhimitsana
635 E
EH? MH? LH? C H
AJA 46 (1942) 86;

I
I

(GAMS No. 269, MME No. 329)


163 N

Messenia I 227

About 3 km. SE of and below Aspra Spitia, to NW of the confluence


of the Erymanthos and Alpheios rivers,is a magoula-shaped hill c. 45 m.
in diameter. The sloping plateau which stretches southward from the hill
down to the Alpheios is c. 150 m. E-W by 120 m. Prehistoric sherds are
spread sparsely over the hill and plateau over a maximum area of c. 200 m.
E-W by 150 m. The position is strategic, and it is unfortunate that sherds
could not be closely dated. They are certainly BA, and MH is the most
likely.
B 91

TRYPETI:

KASTRO

K. 6 Dhimi tsana
MH LH? C H
AJA 46 (191'2) 81;
Messenia I 230

/1
626 E

(~

No. 276, MME No. 332)

120 N

E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen (1957) 4o,

69:

A fine acropolis immediately above and SW of Trypeti, with extensive


Nand E slopes. On the acropolis (c. 150 m. E-W by 25 m.) and E slopes
sherds are predominantly C or H. But MH and possibly LH have been found
in the vicinity of the Kastro.

101
B 92

KATO SAMIKON:

KLIDHI

(GAMS No. 257, MME No. 302)

*#

K. 5 Pirgos in square 470 E


EH II-III MH LH I-IIIB C
AM 33 (1908) 320; . AA (1909) 120;

110 N

Messenia I 230;

PiD 20 (1965) A 6, B 210

A low isolated hill adjoining a coastal lagoon c. lOO m. W of Kato


Samikon railway station. The total extent of the hill (now bisected by the
railway line) was c. 300 m. NW-SE by 50 m. Rich sherd-material of all
prehistoric periods listed was found; remains of a "Cyclopean" wall reported in 1908 were confirmed in 195~. A small burial-tumulus (d. 5 m.) was
excavated at the N end; it was used for a dozen or more burials between
late MH and LH III (A2-B ), and contained some fine pottery but no goods
of much value. A stray stirrup jar (LH IIIBl?) has also been found on
the site, which might have been an important l~cal centre for much of the
BA.
On the summit enclosed by classical fortifications (Hesperia 6 (1937)
525) toE of Klidhi was found the base of a LH III kylix. This may have
been the site of a LH watchtower, combining with Klidhi to control the
coast route (for photos of both sites, of. MME Pls. 5-l and 7-3).
B 93

ZACHARO:

KAIMENA ALONIA

K. 5 Pirgos
LH III(A-B)

513 E

1 oEo

(MME No. 301)

Messenia II 231
A low ridge c. 300 m. NE-SW by lOO m., o. 4oo m. NN of Zacharo.
The LH sherds were found mainly on the SE slopes, and the site seems to
have been small, occupying only part of the ridge.
E 94 KAKOVATOS:

NESTORA

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH LH I-IIIB

(GAMS No. 255, MME No. 300)

*#

514 E

998 N

AM 32 (1907) vi, 33 (1908) 295, 34 (1909) 269, 38 (1913) 101;


Messenia I 230
The site lies near the main road o. 1.5 km. ENE of Kakovatos. The
acropolis is small, rather thin and elongated, with steep slopes on the E
and S. There was also a fairly extensive MH and LH "lower town" on the
NW slopes, indicating an inhabited area of at least 200 m. E-W by 90 m.
Excavation on the acropolis revealed a large building, which included
storerooms, and a wall of large blocks at the S end, both presumably of
LH date. On a separate slope to NE, three tholos tombs were excavated:

102

all were large (diameters 12.12, 9.0, and 10.35 m. respectively) and
contained pottery of U! IIA date, mostly fragments of "palatial" jars,
and the remains of rich goods. Tomb A in particular held large quantities
of amber beads and other jewellery (see~ ll (1970) 5 on the former).
This was clearly a centre of considerable importance in early U!, although
its later history and the date of the buildings on the acropolis are
obscure.
B 95

(GAMS No. 450)

GALAXIDI
I. 7 Xilokastron
226 E I 955 N
EH I-II LH III(A2-B) U! IIIC G

AE (1956) Parartema 22; BCH 87 (1963) 937, 88 (1964) 559;


Les Locriens de l'Ouest (1952) 157

L. Lerat,

An EH settlement c. 800 m. to S of Galaxidi has been cut through


by the main road. A LH III(A2-B) stirrup jar, a LH IIIC amphoriskos,
and two G vases come from

B 96

PENTEORIOI:

~ombs

in the area.

PALAIOPANAYIA

I. 7 Xilokastron
MH LH C

153 E

( GAMS No. 1151)


001 N

AE (1956) Parartema 22
The low hill of Palaiopanayia to S of Penteorioi is surrounded by a
C fortification with nine towers. MH and LH sherds were found on the
W slopes.

B 97

EUPALION:

(GAMS No. ~53)

GOUVA

I. 6 Patrai in square 890 E


LH III(A2-B)
PAE (1906) 134;

AM 31 (1906) 394;

020 N

Lerat 1952, 102

Two stirrup-jars were found in a chamber tomb at Gouva, near the


shore c. 1.5 km. E of Eupalion. A U! spear point from Eupalion is
mentioned (AD 20 (1965) B 243) as having been stolen from Thermon museum.
B 98

KATO VASILIKI:

AYIA TRIADHA

I. 5 Mesolongion
570 E
LH III(A-C) C H
AA (1941) 99;

AD 22 (1967) B 320

/1

990 N

(~No. 309)

103
To E of Kato Vasiliki is the isolated low hill of Ayia Triadha
(top c. 170 m. N-S by 120 m.). BA sherds, obsidian, and C and H were
noted in 1958, and a LH bronze double axe and a LH III rider figurine
were later found here.
B 99

KRYONERI

(GAMS No. 310)

I. 5 Mesolongion
534 E I 988 N
N MH LH II-III(A-B) G C H
~

32 (1931-2) 238

The prehistoric settlement lies on a low amd much eroded terrace


projecting from theW foot of Mt. Varassova, c. 6oo m. NE of Kryoneri.
The top area measures c. 150 m. N-S by lOO m. Nand LH II to LH IIIB and
G sherds were noted and house walls perhaps MH. To N are caves which
have the appearance of destroyed LH chamber tombs.
B lOO

ANCIENT KALYDON
I. 5 Mesolongion
LH III(A-B) "PG"

PAE (1908) 99;

* 11

(~No. 311)

485 E

I 025

G A

AD 17 (1961-2) B 183, 20 (1965) B 343, 22 (1967) B 320

The higher and northernmost hill was the Mycenaean acropolis. Traces
of a possibly LH fortification were found by the W corner of the c fortification, and quantities of LH III and G pottery have been found in the
neighbourhood. Vases from a cemetery, assigned to EH and MH, are more
plausibly local DA, and a pithos-burial is certainly of this date.
B 101

PSOROLITHI NEAR KALYDON


I. 5 Mesolongion
LH

AD 20 (1965) B 343;

in square 500 E

I o4o

N (approx.)

BCH 92 (1968) 849

About 2.5 km. from ancient Kalydon on the right bank of the river
Euenos was found a cache of LH bronzes, including double axes, an arrowhead, sickles, and a dagger.
B 102

ANCIENT THERMON
T. 5 Agrinion
MH? LH I-IIIC

PAE (1908) 95;

* 11

(GAMS No. 313)

620 E I 215 N
"PG" G A C H

AD l (1915) 225, 2 (1916) 179, 25 (1970) B 296

W4
The site is about l km. S of Thermon village, on a fertile upland
plateau c. 3 km. E of Lake Trichonis. The site is famous for its early
Temple of Apollo, whose remains overlie a series of prehistoric buildings,
most of unusual type and built largely if not entirely of stone. The
earliest find stratigraphically, a burial, may be MH. Some oval buildings
appear to have been destroyed in LH IIA, for they contain a deposit of
whole pots including types deriving from the local MH tradition and LH IIIA vases, both imports and probable local products. An apsidal megaron
and some rectangular structures are apparently later stratigraphically,
and may be associated with the considerable quantities of LH III pottery
found (this division is suggested by Dr. K. Wardle). It is possible that
the site may have been inhabited continuously through the DA into later
times, for Matt-painted pottery of local Iron Age type can be distinguished,
but the next closely datable pottery is LG.
B 103

LITHOVOUNI
T. 5 Agrinion
LH III(B-C)

544 E / 163 N (village)

AD 18 (1963) B 147, 22 (1967) B 318;

BCH 89 (1965) 761

Lithovouni is near the S shore of Lake Trichonis. A small chamber


tomb was discovered here in the course of road-cutting; it seems to have
been uncononical, lacking a dromos. Many burials were reported, and finds
included LH sherds and part of a handmade cup, two bronze spearheads, the
top of a Type F dagger, and two bronze fibulae, the latter being the best
indication of a late date.

105

APPENDIX TO MAP B
We list here certain unverified reports concerning the location of
LH cemeteries or the provenance of LH vases in Achaia and Elis.
AKRATA
I. 7 Xilokastron
LH?

in square 170 E

720 N

OpAth 5 (1964) lOO


A LH cemetery was presumed at the W foot of the hill above
Akrata (but see under B 36 for substantiated information concerning
this region).
DAMIZA
(not located)
LH?
RE Suppl. VI

W7

"Damiza (bei Amalias )" is listed among LH chamber tomb cemeteries in


Elis and Achaia. But the map reference and other references given
in GAMS 81 are in error.
DIAKOFTO :
I. 6 Patrai

KASTRON
051 E

772 N (approx.)

LH?

OpAth 5 (1964) 102


A LH cemetery has been claimed at this locality.
KOUI!lURA :
I. 6 Patrai
LH IIIC?

PALIOKAMARES

969 E I 821 N (village)

OpAth 5 (1964) 106


It is possible that a LH IIIC stirrup-jar (OpAth 5 (1964) 90
fig. 1, 4-6) came from here.
---

106
KRINI (FORMERLY VELIZI)
I. 6 Patrai

656 E I 796 N (village)

LH?

OpAth 5 (1964) 109


Verbal report of LH tombs here.
MAMOUSIA
I. 6 Patrai
LH? G

998 E I 732 N (village)

PAE (1938) 119, (1939) 104;

OpAth 5 (1964) 105 (with refs.)

A LH cemetery was inferred, but never tested. A burial pithos


and 12 G vases were found at the foot of the hill where ancient
Keryneia is located, near Derveni (004 E I 758 N).
SKOURA
(not located)

LH?
OpAth 5 (1964) 107
Some LH objects brought to Patras museum in 196o were said to
have come from the neighbourhood of this village, which lies to SW
or S of Prostovi tsa (B 62).
VOVODA

r. 6

Patrai
928 E
LH IIIC? G A

I 785

OpAth 5 (1964) 109


A Close Style stirrup-jar (OpAth 5 (1964) 90 fig. 1:1-3) may
come from here. Tombs were said to have been found at Ayios Ioannis
near Vovoda (c. 5 km. SSW of Aigion), and an A building and G cemetery
were noted near Vovoda (Q!i 84 (196o) 690, .@; (196o-61) 14).
N.B.

Omitted from this list are 'Neraida 1 (Alin 69) and 1Kalliani 1 (GAMS
No. 93, Arcadia No. 54, and especially BSA 68 (1973) 201 n. 28)-.-

107

MAP C:

LACONIA AND KYTHERA

Laconia is bounded by two great mountain-ranges, Mt. Taygetos on the


west and Mt. Parnon on the east. The main concentration of settlement has
always been in the Eurotas valley, principally the Sparta and Skala plains;
next in importance are the Molaoi and Vatika (Neapolis) plains in the SE,
and the Vardhounia valley inland from Gythion, and other important centres
can be identified in LH times at Epidauros Limera (C 35), Pellanes (C 56),
Vourvoura (C 58), and in the neighbourhood of Leonidhi (C 6o-63). Although
the Laconia survey was not complete, there are good indications that EH II
sites were concentrated on or near the coastline, especially in the Skala
plain round the mouth of the Eurotas; there are other clusters in the
Sparta plain, along the route inland from Monemvasia via Molaoi, and on
Elaphonisi and in its vicinity (cf. especially C 39). MH sites are largely
confined to the Sparta and Skala plains, and it is not until LH that there
is again a wide diffusion of settlement. Fine early LH pottery has been
found at most excavated sites and several of the unexcavated, suggesting
early prosperity; this was of course the period of the Vaphio tholos (C 4),
and the Menelaion site (C 1) was already flourishing. The transition from
MH to LH, involving heavy 11Minoan" influences, is documented by the stratification of Ay. Stephanos (C 17), currently being investigated. The
Menelaion site may have been the most important in Laconia in LH IIB-IIIAl,
but its monumental buildings have no successor until the smaller scale
reoccupation in LH IIIB. The general impression (given mainly by surface
finds) of LH IIIA2-B as the most widespread and flourishing prehistoric
phase of Laconia may need some adjusting as a result of the Menelaion
excavations; there is certainly no evidence at present from excavation for
a really major centre at this time. Evidence for continued occupation in
LH IIIC is still thin, but has been traced at four widely separated excavated
sites (C 3, 24, 35, 56), of which all but the last appear to have maintained
contact with other parts of Greece; survival may therefore have been on
quite a substantial scale. Laconia's history in the DA is still wrapped in
impenetrable obscurity, however: the next identifiable phase, Laconian PG,
is unlikely to have begun before the tenth century, and is represented at
very few sites.

THE MENELAION

*#

(GAMS No. 95)

L. 7 Sparti
182 E / 510 N
LH I-IIIAl LH IIIA2? LH IIIB2

G A C H

lfili

Laconia I 72;

AR (1973-4) 14, (19711-5) 12, .(1975-6) 13

The site occupies most of a long ridge high above the E bank of the
Eurotas, but it is not clear how densely this area (c. 4oo m. N-S by 150 m.)
was inhabited, for surface pottery is sparse. Recent excavations have
greatly enlarged knowledge of this site. First settled in later MH, it was
already of some importance in LH IIA, to judge from the presence of fine

108

palatial 11 jar-fragments and Uil IB imports. A large building-complex was


constructed in LH IIB, to be superseded during LH IIIAl by one even more
elaborate, on a different orientation; in plan and details these seem to
be predecessors of the later palaces. Ihe second building was abandoned,
apparently before completion, at the end of LH IIIAl, to be partly repaired
and reoccupied in LH IIIB2; LH IIIA2-Bl material has not been found in
this part of the site, but a deposit from the "North Hill" includes very
probable LH IIIA2, and may bridge the gap. The last building was destroyed
by fire at the end of LH IIIB, and there is no trace of occupation or use
anywhere until LG. But it is possible to link plausible indications of
cult in LH times with the later worship of a goddess on the site and suggest
a continuing tradition of the site's sanctity preserved somewhere in the
neighbourhood.
11

ANCIE"''T SPARTA
L. 7 Sparti
LH III(A-B)

11

(GAMS No. 94)

*#
157 E I 531 N
PG 11 G A C H

Laconia I 70
Sporadic traces of LH III habitation have been found in excavations
in two separate areas, on the acropolis and to the SE. But the low rounded
hills of ancient Sparta would not provide an optimum situation for a large
LH centre.

c 3

THE AMYKLAION

L. 7 Sparti
177 E I 479 N
EH II MH LH IIA-IIIC 11 PG 11
AM 52 (1927) l;

( GAMS No. 97)

*#
G

Laconia I 74; IMTS 88;

A C H
BSA 66 (1971) 139

The chapel of Ayia Kyriaki, built over the remains of the Amyklaion,
is on the northernmost hill of the chain which runs N-S in the centre of
the Spartan plain. The fairly extensive BA settlement (about 200 m. E-W
by 120 m.) was mostly on the SE slopes. Habitation was probably continuous
from MH, though not all Mycenaean phases can be clearly identified; the
LH IIA material includes some pieces of 11 palatial 11 jars. A pithos-burial
(MH?) and two chamber tombs are reported from the neighbourhood. The most
important finds are the figurines, including both elaborate Psi figurines
and wheelmade animals, which seem to indicate cult in late LH IIIB and
IIIC. The next certain evidence for use of the site is provided by
Laconian PG pottery, whose date is unclear but cannot in any case approach
that of the latest LH IIIC; continuity is therefore quite unproved (it
cannot be based on the wheelmade animals alone, although these belong to a
class found in the DA). The evidence of tradition and of cult at a later
period might suggest continued habitation or use of the site or at least

109

its continued sanctity; here it should be noted that, although Hyakinthos


is a name of "pre-Greek" form, his worship appears to have been widespread
among the Dorians, and therefore could have been introduced by them.
C 4

VAPHIO:

*I

PALAIOPYRGI

(Q!\li No. 98)

L. 7 Sparti
193 E I 464 N
EH II MH LH IIA-IIIB
AE (1889) 136;

Laconia I 76;

AD 18 (1963) B 87

The Habitation-Site
Palaiopyrgi is the highest point in the chain of
hills in the centre of the Spartan plain. The Mycenaean settlement here
is the largest in Laconia, as indicated by the spread of potsherds (over
about 200,000 square m.). Most of these were of the LH IIIA-B periods.
The hill was first settled in EH II, and was probably occupied continuously from MH to LH IIIB.
2. The Vaphio Tholos Tomb
This was set into the top of an immediately
adjacent hill (not on the top, as sometimes stated), was large (d. 10 m.)
and relatively well-built. Remains of 11 palatial" LH IIA jars have been
found in the dromos, some probably late LH IIA pottery in the grave-pit,
and other sherds in the chamber (a selection is on show in Sparta Museum,
including one that looks LH IIIAl). The grave-pit contained an untouched
array of extremely rich goods, arranged as if around a body (no bones
were found); further fine jewellery and remains of other goods were
found scattered about the chamber-floor, with some bones, probably what
has survived from ancient robbery. (See further BSA 69 (1971>) 219 n. 23
for comment on the date of some of the material.) There is no evidence
for late Mycenaean use of the tomb.
l.

c5

SKOURA:

*I

MELATHRIA

L. 7 Sparti
217 E
LH IIIAl-IIIB
AD 22 (1967) B 197;

I 471 N

l (1968) 37;

BSA 66 (1971) 95

About 2 km. to N of Skoura, on the W side of the valley of Melathria,


and toW of the deep charadra which runs through it, is the hillock of
Profitis Ilias. Chamber tombs were dug into the soft rocks on its S and E
sides, but their dromoi have been removed by cultivation. Five tombs were
excavated, most already robbed: their contents are unremarkable, consisting mainly of pottery, but include an early LH IIIA vase decorated with a
human figure, and an iron ring.

110

C 6

KOUPHOVOUNO

(GAMS No. 96)

*#

L. 7 Sparti
150 E I 495 N
N EH II LH III(A-B)

AA (1942) 156; Laconia I 72


A low mound c. 170 m. in diameter, c. 2 km. SW of Sparta, and SE of
the road from Sparta to Ayios Ioannis. It was intensively occupied in
earlier Nand again in EH II, and reoccupied in a small way in LH III.

c7

AYIOS VASILIOS

/1

M. 7 Yithion
197 E
EH II MH LH IIIA-B

(GAMS No. 99)

I 412

C H

Laconia I So
The chapel of Ayios Vasilios is on a low hill immediately SE of the
turning to Xerokambi on the Sparta-Gythion road. The EH and MH sherds were
concentrated in the area of the chapel; the LH sherds were more widespread,
over an area of c. 250 m. NE-SW by 120 m.
C8

A~~HOCHORION:

(GAMS No. lOO)

ANALIPSIS

M. 7 Yithion
177 E I 377 N
LH IIA-IIIB "PG" G A C H
PAE (1962) 113;

AD 18 (1963) B 86

The site is on flat ground near the chapel of Analipsis, in the


territory of Anthochorion village, about 2 km. S of Xerokambi, on the road
to Goranoi. Mycenaean and DA habitation-strata are reported, and there is
evidence for cult from A if not G times. Drawings of the pottery shown by
Mr. P. Cartledge to Dickinson indicated that the site was inhabited from
at least LH IIA onwards, but there was nothing to suggest continuity
between LH III and the DA, although Laconian PG and a skyphos that could
be early DA were found.

c9

IUL!\INES

(GAMS No. 101)

*#

M. 7 Yithion
129 E
LH III(A-B) C

I 342

Laconia II 128
In a high wooded valley just S of the summit of Mt. Taygetus, at the
head of the Goranoi river, were found traces of a LH III site and remains

111

of at least two, probably more, small built tombs, the largest of which
may fairly be considered a tholos (d. 4. 7 m.) and contained some jewellery.
This relatively remote site was clearly a centre of some importance, and
may have been connected with an ancient route across Taygetus.
C 10

CHRYSAPHA:

PALAIKASTRO

L. 7 Sparti
EHII C H

2~9

/1

(GAMS No. 102)

519 N

Laconia I 82
The low hill of Palaikastro is the tip of a spur projecting into
the valley c. 2.5 km. S of Chrysapha. The EH and later pottery was found
over most of the top surface over an area c. 150 m. in diameter.
C 11

GORITSA :

LAINA

L. 7 Sparti
N EHII MH

/1

(GAMS No. 103)

300EI450N
LH IIII LH III(A-B)

Laconia I 83
The site is about 2 km. SE of Goritsa on a hillock overlooking the
plain to the E and the road to Geraki. It is about 200 m. by 180 m. in
extent. N was found in a cave nearby.
C 12

GERAKI :

ANCIENT GERONTHRAI

M. 7 Yithion
N? EH II MH

*/I

( GAMS No. 105)

400EI420N
LH III(A-B)?

BSA 15 (1908-9) 163, 16 (1909-10) 72;

Laconia I 85

An imposing acropolis on the hill above Geraki with remains of EH II


and MH occupation, the latter including a cist that contained two vases of
late type and a fine bronze pin. The fortification-walls are of "Cyclopean"
type, and so may be LH III, but there is no certain evidence of Mycenaean
occupation; if the figurines are Mycenaean, they are very late (BSA 66
(1971) 139). Despite tradition (Paus. III.2.6), there is no evid~e of
DA occupation either.
C

13 VRONDAMA

/1

M. 7 Yithion
335 E
LH III(A-B) C H
Laconia I 83

(~No.

367 N

104)

112

A small acropolis c. 2 km. W of Vrondama, on the edge of a plain on


theE side of the Eurotas. The LH III pottery was found on the top of the
hill over an area about 120 m. N-S by 90 m.
C 14

KROKEAI :

KARNEAS

( GAMS No. 121)

*#

M. 7 Yithion
255 E
LH II-IIIB C H

294 N

Laconia I 103
The hill Karneas is about 300 m. SE of Krokeai. On the top surface
(c. 120 m. NW-SE by 6o m.) several LH III sherds were found. A large
rectangular stone-built grave was found on the SW side, whose contents
included LH II-III pottery.
C 15

LAGIO

(GAMS No. 122)

M. 7 Yithion
145 (spot height) at 281 E
EH II LH III(A-B)

225 N

Laconia I 105
A small low hill (top surface c. 110 m. N-S by 8o m.), c. l km. to
ESE of Lagio village, with scant traces of EH and LH III habitation.
C 16

PAIZOULIA

(GAMS No. 123)

M. 7 Yithion
28o E I 203 N
EH II MH LH IIII LH IIIA-B

C H

Laconia I 105
A low hill adjoining a small coastal plain. The prehistoric pottery
was found on the S slopes, over an area about 170 m. E-W by 6o m., indicating a settlement of medium size.
C 17

AYIOS STEPHANOS

*#

(GAMS No. 120)

M. 7 Yithion
39 (spot height) at 320 E
N? EH II MH LH I-IIIB2 C H

234 N

Laconia I 97; BSA 67 (1972) 205; AR (1973-74) 15, (1974-75) 15;


J. B. and s. H. Rutter, The Transition to Mycenaean (1976)
A conspicuous limestone spur, projecting into the W side of the Helos
plain. It was probably a promontory jutting into the sea in BA times. The
BA settlement was large, occupying an area approximately 16o m. in diameter.

113

It was first certainly inhabited in EH II, after which there was apparently
a break until some time in MH (it is not clear how early MH habitation
began), and then continuously inhabited until the end of LH IIIB. The
excavation results are of the utmost importance for the study of the
prehistoric sequence in Laconia, but do not suggest a site of really firstclass importance. In MH there was clearly contact with Crete, Kythera,
and the Cyclades, and the site may well have served as the major port of
central Laconia; Lapis Lacedaemonius from the nearby quarries was probably
being exported through the site before the end of MH, and there is evidence
that it was locally worked. There is an unbroken sequence of strata
covering the transition to LH, which have an important bearing on the
origins of Mycenaean pottery, showing steadily increasing "Minoan" influence probably exercised from Kythera. The Mycenaean remains are not
remarkable, although there is possible evidence for a fortification-wall.
The site appears to have been abandoned at the end of LH IIIB or shortly
after (BSA 67 (1972) 246, 270: HS 56 has generally been considered LH IIIC,
but is associated with vases attributed to the end of LH IIIB). Many pit
and cist graves of all phases of the BA have been found on the site.
C 18

STEPHANIA:

LEKAS (SOUTH)

(GAMS No. 119)

M. 7 Yithion
318 E I 247 N
EH II MH LH III(A-B) C H
Laconia I 97
About 1.5 km. to NNW of Ayios Stephanos is a low mound, c. 150 m.
N-S by 120 m., on theW edge of the former marsh.
C

19

S'rEPHANIA:

LEKAS, PANAYIOTIS

(GAMS No. 118)

M. 7 Yithion 316 E I 256 N


EH II MH LH IIIA-B C H
Laconia I 95
An isolated hillock c. 4oo m. S of the Skala-Krokeai road, where it
begins to climb towards Krokeai. The site, which may have been walled, is
thickly strewn with BA pottery, LH III predominating, over an area c. 250 m.
N-S by l8o m. This wide spread may be largely due to cultivation and
erosion, so that the site should probably be classed as "medium to large"
rather than as "large". An interesting find is a fragmentary female
figurine of the earliest type (BSA 66 (1971) 110).
C 20

XERONISI

M. 7 Yithion
333 E
EH II MH LH IIIA -B

(GAMS No. 117)

250 N

ll4
Laconia I 95
A small low mound site, S of the road about 2 km. WSW of Skala. It
was probably of greater importance in the EH and MH periods than in the
LH. With it may be included the sparse traces of LH III and C found at
Ayios Ioannis a little to the N, on the N side of the road.
C

21

SKALA:

AYIOS l\'IKOLAOS

M. 7 Yithion
MH LH IIIA-B

344 E

(GAMS No. ll6)

I 259 N

Laconia I 94
A small low knoll about l km. W of Skala, next to the springs of the
Vasilopotamos. A red-on-black fragment may be MM III of Kytheran type.
C

22

TSASI

( GAMS No. 115)

M. 7 Yithion
373 E I 277 N
EH II LH IIIA-B C H
Laconia I 92
A small site c. 500 m. E of Tsasi on the S slope of a low hill bordering the plain. A chamber tomb here produced vases of LH IIIA2 or IIIB date.
C 23

VLAKHIOTI:

KOKKINADHA ETC.

M. 7 Yithion
383 E
EHIILHCH

(~No.

114)

I 274 N

Laconia I 92
Sporadic traces of EH and LH settlement on hills bordering the Helos
plain, both to NW and SE of Vlakhioti.
C 24

ASTERI:

KARAOUSI

M. 8 Molaoi
N EH II MH
Lac onia I 89;

( GAMS No. 112)

*!I

4o8 E I 238 N
LH IIII-IIIC DA

BSA 67 ( 1972 ) 2 62

About 200 m. to N of Asteri village, on the right of the road to


Vlakhioti, is the prominent flat-topped hill of Karaousi, whose top surface
measures c. l6o m. NW-SE by lOO m. The trial excavations showed that it

115
was badly eroded. The bulk of the material found was Mycenaean, including
some IIIC; likely DA is reported from the neighbourhood.
C 25

ASTERI :

SITE TO NORTH

M. 8 Molaoi
LH IIIA-B

409 E

(GAMS No. 113)

254 N

Laconia I 92
A small settlement (c. lOO m. by 80 m.) about 2 km. N of Asteri, in
a district of small undulating hills.
C 26 ASTERI:

DHRAGATSOULA

(GAMS No. lll)

M. 8 Molaoi
413 E I 232 N
EH II MH LH III(A-B)
Laconia I 89
A small flat-topped hillock, c. 500 m. ESE of Asteri, south of the
road to vezani, on the N edge of the plain.
C 27

AYIOS EFSTRATIOS

(GAMS No.

M. 8 Molaoi
423 E I 217 N
N EH (I?-)II MH LH II-IIIB

no)

Laconia I 87
The chapel of Ayios Efstratios is c. 3 km. WSW of Vezani. The main
BA site is on a low knoll c. 1 km. ESE of the chapel, but some Nand EH
sherds were found on the knoll c. 300 m. S of the chapel, also bordering
on the plain.
C 28

AYIOS IOANNIS

/1

M. 8 Molaoi
450 E
MHLH?CH

(GAMS No. 109)

242 N

Laconia I 87
Some MH sherds and others possibly LH were found on the top surface
(c. 150 m. by 130 m.) of the hill above the village.

116
C 29

.#

APIDffiA

M. 8 Molaoi
N EH II MH

(GAMS No. 106)

469 E I 286 N
LH II-IIIB "PG"

Laconia I 86
The acropolis hill lies to SW of and above the village. The site
is of moderate size (top surface c. 16o m. by 90 m.) and good Nand BA
pottery was found, especially MH and LH.

C 30

.#

GANGANIA

(GAMS No. 107)

M. 8 Molaoi
518 E
EH MH LH III(A-B)

I 228 N

Laconia II 139
This rocky hill lies about 4 km. NW of Molaoi, and commands the
approach to the Molaoi plain. EH, MH, and LH III sherds are plentiful on
the upper slopes, and a red-on-black sherd was found similar to that from
site C 21.
C 31

ELEA

.#

(GAMS No. 150)

M. 8 Molaoi
466 E I 138 N
EH LH III(A-B) C H
Laconia I I 135
A steep and rocky hill on the S side of the village of Elea. EH and LH
sherds were found on the upper E slopes over an area c. lOO m. in diameter.
C 32

PLITRA :

GOULAS

.#

(GAMS No. 151)

M. 8 Molaoi
48o E I 076 N
N EH I-II MH LH III(A-B) C H
Laconia II 139
An acropolis hill (top surface c. l8o m. N-S by lOO m.) about 2 km.
N of Plitra and at the S edge of the Molaoi plain.
C 33

SIKEA :

ANEMOMYLO

M. 8 Molaoi
582 E
EH II LH III(A-B)

/1
I 158 N

(GAMS No. 149)

117

Laconia II 138
A gentle rise about 1.5 km. NW of Sikea, and c. 300 m. NE of the
road from Sikea to Molaoi. The site is about lOO m. in diameter.
C 34

ANGELONA:

KOLLYRI

636 E
M. 8 Molaoi
EH II LH? C H

(GAMS No. 148)

*#

128 N

Laconia II 138
A small rocky hill c. 1.5 km. E of Angelona, on whose SW slopes
were found EH II and other BA sherds.
C 35

ANCIENT EPIDAUROS LIMERA

* # (GAMS

M. 8 Molaoi
68o E I 117 N
N? EH or MH? LH I-IIIC SMyc.?
PAE (1956) 207;

Laconia II 136;

No. 146)

C H

AD 23 (1968) A 145

The acropolis of Epidauros Limera is c. 5 km. N of Monemvasia, above


a long and partially sheltered beach. The summit and upper slopes measure
about i+OO m. N-S by 250 m., and some LH IIIA-B sherds were found in this
area. Thus the acropolis was certainly occupied in LH III, and perhaps
before, as suggested by some coarse ware and obsidian. Mycenaean chamber
tombs of an individual type have been excavated at three spots in the
neighbourhood: the earliest material from them is LM IA or very early
LH I, and they probably represent a type developed or adopted locally,
independently of the Argolid. The presence of a good number of LH IIIC
vases, some having clear connections with the Argolid and Aegean, suggests
that this site was an important survivor in that period; some of the
vases might be classed as SMyc. (@ 23 (1968) A Pls. 75r:J:44, 78a,:56, 82r:J
especially).
C 36 AYIOS IOANNIS

M. 8 Molaoi
652 E
EH LH III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 147)

118 N

Laconia II 137
About 1 km. NE of Ayios Ioannis and 2 km. W of Epidauros Limera is a
small but steep acropolis, whose top surface measures c. 6o m. by 50 m.
On the upper SE slope were found obsidian and a few EH and LH III sherds.

118

C 37

DAIJIIONIA :

KASTELLI

11

(GAMS No. 152)

M. 8 Molaoi
54o E I 018 N
MH LH IIA-IIIB G C H
Laconia II 141
The rocky acropolis of Kastelli lies c. 1200 m. SE of Daimonia,
midway between the village and the sea, commanding a small coastal plain.
The area within which the prehistoric pottery was found measures c. 200 m.
NE-SW by 150 m.
C 38

STENA

(~ No. 153)

11

Ayioi Anaryiroi at 612 E


M. 8 Molaoi
EH II lli IIA lli III (A-B)

931 N

Laconia II 141
A steep conical hill commanding the pass from Elika into the Vatika
plain. The EH and LH sherds were found over an area about 120 m. NW-SE
by So m.
C 39

ELAPHONISI:

PAVLOPETRI

11

M. 8 Molaoi
619 E I 867 N
EH II MH LH I-IIIB C H
BSA 64 (1969) 113
This site was probably the most important in the Vatika plain. It is
now mainly covered by 2-3 metres of water. It occupies an area at least
350 m. NE-SW by 200 m., between Pavlopetri islet and the mainland, about
700 m. NE of Elaphonisi village. It is clear that the island of Elaphonisi
was at this time joined to the mainland. An extensive plan of the site has
been obtained, but conclusions as to the date of the preserved walls must
be tentative in the absence of excavation. The plan most resembles that of
Aegean towns like Phylakopi, rather than of any Mycenaean settlement
hitherto excavated, and the settlement's connections may prove to have been
stronger with the Aegean than with the mainland in the phases when the
Aegean towns flourished most, MB and early LB. A wide range of pottery
was recovered, both underwater and on Pavlopetri island. A large cemetery
of small rock-cut tombs on the mainland shore may be EB, while two larger
tombs are likely to be Mycenaean chamber tombs.

119

C 40

ELAPHONTSI VILLAGE
M. 8 Molaoi
Eo5 E
EH II LH III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 157)


858 N

Laconia II 146
Under this heading are grouped sites A, B, C, D, K, L, and M listed
in the reference, all to S and SW of Elaphonisi village. The pottery found
was mainly EH II, with some LH, and may represent only scattered farms or
single dwellings. All the sites may indeed be subordinate to and dependent
upon C 39.
C lfl

ELAPHONTSI:

PANAYIA

N. 8 Kithira
573 E
EH II LH III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 158)

839 N

Laconia II 147
A fairly extensive EH II and LH III site to S and E of the hamlet and
church of Panayia in the SW part of Elaphonisi island. This is the site
marked H in the reference. Other traces of BA occupation were found in the
S of the island, at sites G, F, and E. These are not significant, and may
represent scattered single dwellings.
C 42

AYIOS GEORGIOS
M. 8 Molaoi
LH

#
633 E

(GAMS No. 155)

895 N

Laconia II 145
Some plundered Mycenaean chamber tombs, including examples similar
to those at C 35, were found near the village school.
C 43

NEAPCLIS

/1

(GAMS No. 154)

M. 8 Molaoi
674 E I 862 N
EH LH III(A-B) C H
Laconia II 142
About l km. NW of Neapolis is a low hillock near the shore, to the
left of the road. LH III sherds were found here, over an area about lOO m.
in diameter, and a few EH, with obsidian, on the summit of a ridge to the
NE, on the other side of the road. Ruined chamber tombs were found in the
elopes of this and other ridges.

120

C 44

GYTHION:
M.

ISLAND OF CRANAE

7 Yithion

266 E

11

(GAMS No. 124)

I 158 N

LH IIIA-B
Laconia TI 114
LH III sherds were found on the W part of the islet of Cranae, which
measures about 300 m. E-W by lOO m.
C 45

GYTHION:

MAVROVOUNI

7 Yithion 234 E
EH II LH IIIB "PG"

M.

(GAMS No. 125)

135 N
G C H

Laconia II 114
An extensive cemetery of LH III chamber tombs is found on a hill
c. 4 km. SW of Gythion, near the shore and on the edge of the rich vardhounia plain. EH and LH III sherds were found in a well near the S foot of
a hill, and "PG", G, C and H remains among the low hills to NE of the site.
C 46 KOTRONES:

SKOPA

11

(GAMS No. 128)

M. 7 Yithion
177 E I oo8 N
EH II MH C H
Laconia II 119
The promontory of Skopa SW of Kotrones measures about 300 m. N-S by
150 m. EH II and MH pottery has been found here, but Classical remains
predominate.
C 47

SPIRA
M.

EH

11

( GAMS No. 129)

7 Yithion
LH?

Laconia II 119;

168 E

I 890 N

C
BSA 63 (1968) 335

On the W slope of the hill of the hamlet of Spira ( near Kyprianon)


fragments of BA pottery were found, some EH and others probably LH. The
traces of habitation are insignificant, but may possibly be connected with
the ancient quarrying of Antico Rosso in the mountains above to thew.

121
C 48 KIPOULA

11

( GAMS No. 1:;;<))

N. 7 Tainaron
EH? LH (III?)

054 E I 881 N
A C H

Laconia II 123
Sporadic pieces of LH and other prehistoric pottery on a high
plateau, near "marginal" land.
C 49

KOUTIPHARI:

SVINA (ANCIENT THALAMAE)

*11

(GAMS No. 173,


MME No. 150)

M. 7 Yithion
058 E I 204 N
DA?
A C H
LH III(A-B)
~

10 (1904-5) 24, 52 (1957) 232;

Messenia I No. 84

Traces of a small LH III settlement on slopes E of and above the


village of Koutiphari. An odd figurine may be DA.
C 50

KYTHERA :

KASTRI

*11

(GAMS No. 164)

N. 8 Kithira
658 E I 540 N
EH I-II EM II - IM IB LH IIIA2-B(l)

G A C H

Laconia II 152; J. N. Coldstream and G. L. Huxley, Kythera: Excavations


and Studies (1972)
The promontory of Kastri is about 3 km. W of the village of Avlemon,
at the SE end of the Palaiopolis valley. Excavations and surface-finds
indicate that the Minoan settlement extended at least 250 m. N-S by 150 m.,
and at least part of this area was heavily built up. The EH settlement on
Kastraki, however, may have been only c. 50 m. in diameter, on a small
knoll about 200 m. N of the promontory. It was superseded by the settlement
of Kastri, apparently founded by immigrants from Crete, within EM II. This
grew and prospered until the early LBA, maintaining contact with both Crete
and central Laconia; its prosperity may well have been founded on the
extraction of purple dye from the Murex shell. The town was abandoned in
late IM IB, perhaps after the destruction-horizon in Crete, and does not
seem to have been reoccupied until LH IIIA2 (two LH IIB fragments are
almost certainly contemporary with late IM IB); it did not survive until
the end of LH IIIB, and scanty G sherds, probably or certainly late, are
the next sign of habitation. Many chamber tombs, some with several chambers,
have been found in neighbouring slopes; datable material from them ranges
from MM III to IM IB, and one contained a deposit of LH IIIA2-B domestic
pottery. A MM pithos-burial is also reported. Goods that may well have
come from these tombs are cited in the publication.

122

C 51

KYTHERA:

LIONI

(GAMS No. 161)

*!I

N. 8 Kithira
583 E I 470 N
LM I LH (IIB-)IIIAl
AD 1 (1915) 191;

Laconia II 149;

Coldstream and Huxley 1972, 263

A spread of sherd-material suggesting a settlement of LM I (and


earlier?) date is on slopes E of the road to Livadhi, over an area c. 200 m.
N-S by lOO m. About 150 m. left of the road and c. 1 km. N of Chora are
two chamber tombs, one of which contained LM IB and LH (IIB-)IIIAl pottery
and other goods, notably a fine stone pyxis, apparently a MM "heirloom".
C 52

KYTHERA:

AYIA SOPHIA

N. 8 Kithira
LMI

617

/1

I 459

(GAMS No. 162)


N

Laconia II 152

and
C 53

11

To the S of Kalamos is a cave, possibly used for cult;


polished Bronze Age pottery" was found here.
KYTBERA:

POURKO:

N. 8 Kithira
LH III(A-B)

571

AYIOS DEMETRIOS
E

I 494

/1

a LM I sherd

(GAMS No. 163)

Coldstream and Huxley 1972, 34


A small settlement, c. 100 m. in diameter, about 200 m. N of the
Pourko churches. Several fragments of long-stemmed kylikes were found here.
C 54

KYTHERA :

AYIA PELAYIA:

VITHOULAS

If

(GAMS

No. 16o )

N. 8 Kithira
589 E I 648 N
EH II LH III(A-B) C H
Laconia II 149
A small acropolis overlooking the harbour of Ayia Pelayia, which is
about 6oo m. to the NE. The prehistoric sherds were distributed over an
area c. 150 m. by lOO m. on the top and on the E slopes.
C

55 KYTBERA:

PYREATIDES

N. 8 Kithira
EH II

/1

56o E I 700 N

(.Q!ill. No. 159)

123

Laconia II 149
EH II sherds and obsidian were found in a barren and rocky district
towards the N end of the island.
C 56

PELLANES:

PALAIOKASTRO

*#

(GAMS No. 138)

L. 7 Sparti
076 E I 686 .N
EH? LH IIIAl-C C H
AD 10 (1926) Parartema 41;

Laconia II 125

A few LH III sherds were found within the mediaeval walls of the
Kastro, which lies about 300 m. N of Pellanes. A chamber tomb cemetery
at Spilies 700 m. to the NW includes the two largest (d. 6 m.) and most
finely cut tombs in Laconia, shaped like tholoi. A fine range of pottery
and other goods was found in one. This must have been a centre of some
importance.
C 57

BEIMINA

/1

(GAMS No. 134)

L. 7 Sparti
028 E I 751 N
EH? MH? LH III(A-B) C
Laconia II 125
On a small plateau named Kanalaki on the S slope of the Belmina hill
and at Iannakas nearby some LH III fragments were found. Remains of pithosburials at Iannakas may be MH. The mainspring of the Eurotas river is less
than a kilometre to the ~N.
C 58 VOURVOURA:

ANALIPSIS

*/I

(~No.

135)

L. 7 Sparti
197 E I 808 N
N. MH LH I-IIIB C H
PAE (1954) 270, (1956) 185, (1957) lll;
Arcadia 95

AA (1926) 257;

Laconia II 130;

The hill of Analipsis lies about 4 km. W of Vourvoura and 2 km. E of


the Sparta-Tripolis road. The hill is c. 300 m. in diameter, and falls away
steeply on the N to the Sarandapotamos river, c. 50 m. below. A burnt layer
containing LH IIB pottery is reported (AA fig. 49) as well as LH III kylixsherds. A child's burial in a cist is most plausibly dated to late MH
(AA fig. 48). A large number of tombs was found on a lower hill adjoining
the site on thew. One large tholos (d. 8.65 m.) contained goods of LH IIA
-B date, and eight small built tombs imitating tholoi are reported to have
contained a LH I-IIIB range of pottery and goods. Another Mycenaean tomb

124
at the foot of the hill contained pottery either late MH or early LH
(AA fig. 47). This was clearly an important centre in early Mycenaean
times, but may have dwindled later.
C 59

TYROS

(GAMS No. 139)

L. 8 Leonidhion
EH II LH? C

Ligarias at 568 E

679 N

Laconia II 131
On the acropolis at the south end of the bay some EH II sherds were
found.
C 6o

LEONIDHI :

(GAMS No. 14o)

PLAKA

L. 8 Leonidhion
LH IIIA2-B C

578 E

574 N

Laconia II 131
A few LH III sherds and some obsidian were found near the port of
Leonidhi.
C 61 VASKINA:

KOTRONI

L. 8 Leonidhion
LH IIIA2-B

(GAMS No. 141)


466 E

I 650 N (approx.)

Laconia II 131
Kotroni is c. 2 km. NW of Vaskina, in an upland region. A small
elliptical built tomb contained many burials and several vases.
C 62

PALAIOCHORI :

KOTRONI ETC.

(GAMS No. 142)

L. 7 Sparti
420 E I 595 N (Kotroni)
EH II MH? LH IIA-IIIB
AD 9 (1924-5) Parartema 18;

Laconia II 132

There was a settlement at Kotroni, a rocky hill with flattish top


and terraced slopes, on the NE outskirts of the village. The identifiable
sherds were EH II, but MH and LH may be represented also. Two groups of
small elliptical built tombs were found, to the SE of the village (Sykokis
property) and on the hill Mikri Tour la S of the village. A group of LH IIAIIIAl vases, including late lM IB cups, is reported to have come from the
former, where in fact LH III pottery was found in a tomb. These tombs, like

125

that at C 61, are corbelled; they may be built versions of the ovalchambered tombs of Epidauros Limera. This was clearly an important local
centre.
C 63

AYIOS VASILIOS.:

LYMBIADA

L. 7 Sparti
394 E /
EH II LH III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 143)

620 N

Laconia IT 135
A small BA settlement on a rocky knoll near Ayios Vasilios, c. 4 km.
NW of Palaiochori. The site may be that of ancient Glyppia or Glimpeis,
and is marked by a decayed monastery, the Palaiopanayia.

126

MAP D:

MESSENIA AND SOUTHERN TRIPHYLIA

The area covered by this map is the most thoroughly surveyed part of
the mainland to date. Much if not all of it may have been controlled from
the palace at Pylos (Epano Englianos, D l) in late LH, and later formed the
province of Messenia, but its natural subdivisions tend to form separate
units. Being well-watered and fertile, it can support a considerable
population, which generally concentrates in the hinterland of the Osmanaga
lagoon and in the Pamisos and Soulima valleys, although there were important
sites elsewhere, e.g. in the neighbourhood of modern Kyparissia and down
the coasts of the Messenian peninsula.
The evidence for EH habitation is surprisingly scanty, largely
confined to the middle and lower Pamisos valley, with a few sites widely
spaced along the coasts elsewhere. This picture may be misleading, and
the recent discoveries at Akovitika (D 151) have revolutionised previous
impressions of the importance of this area in EH times. But the succeeding
MH pattern of settlement largely ignores the lower Pamisos, concentrating
in two belts across country, from Kyparissia to the upper Pamisos, and
from the Pylos area to the Messenian Gulf, from which some sites are
spread up and down the coasts. Many of the MH settlements appear to be
new foundations, and their total is considerably larger than that in EH;
it seems plausible to suppose that this represents a progressive expansion
into sparsely settled or virgin territory. Detailed information on the MH
period is still surprisingly rare: the province had local traditions in
pottery and burial-customs (the use of tumuli), and has produced hardly a
trace of contact with more central parts of the mainland or with the Aegean.
Several centres important later were already substantial (e.g. Pylos,
Nichoria (D lOO), Mal thi (D 222) ) , but the date of the Malthi fortifications
should probably not be put much before the end of MH, when the establishment
of other dynastic centres can be documented by important tombs (e.g. the
"Grave Circle" at Pylos, the Koryphasion tholos (D 5 ), Kephalovryso T.l
at Volimidia (D 20), Nikitopoulou T.4 at Nichoria).
An almost embarrassingly large number of early LH tholos tombs has
been excavated, many of which were in use in LH I (e.g. Pylas (T.IV),
Koryphasion, Koukounara (D 35, the Gouvalari tombs), Peristeria (D 200,
T.3), perhaps also Routsi (D 54) and Nichoria (Veves T. ) ), and it seems
unlikely that all can present independent principalities. There is no
reason why sites like Kambos (D 146), Peristeria, Malthi, and Nichoria,
which are a considerable distance from Pylas, should not have been
independent of it for the whole early LH period, and this may also be true
of Koukounara, which is separated from Pylos by much broken country and
was clearly the centre of a considerable population; but Koryphasion,
Routsi, and Tragana (D ll) seem too close to represent anything but powers
subordinate to or dependent upon Pylos (compare Prosymna, Berbati, etc. in
the Argolid). A similar explanation can be applied to the separate groups
of tholoi around Koukounara and to the general proliferation of tholoi in
LH II-IIIA.

127
The LH settlement-pattern represents a logical expansion of the MH.
The two main belts are reinforced, and there is considerably more settlement in the Pamisos valley and along the west coast between the neighbourhoods of Gargalianoi and Kyparissia; settlements down the coasts to Cape
Akritas and into the Mani are still relatively few, well-spaced, and
substantial, and there was some expansion into upland areas. It seems
from the survey-evidence that most of this expansion took place in LH III,
when the greater part of this area is thought to have been coming under
the control of Pylos. But the lack of secure identification for most of
the major centres named in the Linear B texts makes establishing the
extent of Pylian control very difficult, and, while it is widely accepted
that the two Pylian provinces are divided on an east-west basis, the
distribution of population might seem to suggest a north-south division.
Further exploration and study may throw light on this. In general, the
important later LH centres appear to be those already established, although
Mouriatadha (D 201) may have superseded Peristeria, and, being a new
foundation of LH III and fortified, is a plausible seat for a "warden of
the frontier". Malthi also appears to be of lesser importance, and the
history of other centres identified on the basis of tholoi, such as Routsi,
becomes obscure once these cease to be used. Brief reports indicate the
presence of large buildings that might be local centres of government at
several sites ( D 36, 46, 223).
The survey-evidence has been understood to indicate a catastrophic
disaster at or near the end of LH IIIB, marked by the desertion of almost
all sites (at least nine in ten). It is difficult to be certain how far
such evidence can be relied upon for detailed conclusions, but there is no
doubt that the Pylos palace and settlement were burnt and deserted at
this time, that other major sites were abandoned, e.g. Peristeria, Mouriatadha, Volimidia (to judge from the cemetery), or show scanty or dubious
signs of continuing use (Malthi, Nichoria, Koukounara), and that many of
the small sites found in survey have produced no evidence of post-LH
habitation. The surviving population may well have concentrated in a
few areas, as the distribution of post-LH IIIB finds suggests, and it is of
interest to note a cluster south of Pylos itself (D 2, 11) and a possible
short-lived "refuge-site" near Malthi (D 221). But the only site to produce
a great deal of evidence on the transition to the DA and subsequent developments is Nichoria, where there was a probable break in occupation after
LH IIIB, but which was reoccupied relatively early in the DA, perhaps even
before the end of LH IIIC, and seems to have been a major centre thereafter
until LG times. Its evidence will make it possible to place the reported
"SMyc." and "PG" remains from Messenian sites more accurately and clarify
the almost totally obscure Messenian DA.
N.B. The numbering of sites on Map D generally follows that assigned in
MME. Some numbers are therefore either omitted or used for sites
subsequently identified.

128

Dl

CHORA :

EPANO ENGLIANOS (ANCIENT PYLOS)

*I

(GAMS No. lCJ],


~ No l)

L. 5 Kiparissia
522 E / 513 N
MH LH I-IIIB G C or H?
Pylas I-III
l.

Habitation

The centre of the site is a low fla:t-topped hill, 170 m. NE-SW by


It was first occupied
in MH, of which there are remains not only on the hill but below .it to N
and S (Pylas IIT 48, 53, 63), and by the end of MH was clearly of considerable importance, a local capital, to judge from the contents of the "Grave
Circle". It expanded in early ill, when the hill was probably covered with
buildings; a monumental gateway was constructed on the NE at an early
stage, perhaps ill IIA, since this phase is represented in the' lowest
associated strata as well as LH I. A wall has been traced for some 10 m.
to NW of this gateway, and another stretch on the SW of the hill is built
in the same style; these remains, together with possible tumble at other
points, have been taken to represent a circuit of fortifications, and this
seems the most plausible explanation, although the wall could not be
traced in many other trials on the scarp (see Archaeology 27 (1974) 1113 for
a contrary view). Few other traces of early structures have survived;
most noteworthy are a small kiln (Pylas III 19) and parts of what may be
an early palace (op.cit. 32 ff., especially 39).
The construction of the great Palace appears to have been accompanied
by extensive clearing and levelling operations, and dumped material was
noted particularly to the S (Pylos III 41, cf. also AJA 64 (l96o) 156).
Although a destruction by fire has been stated to precede this, traces
of fire have only been noted in a few areas, notably the "Lower Town" to
Sand SW (Pylos III 41, 54); a deposit of whole pots here is to be dated
to LH IIIAl, which gives an indication of when the Palace was founded
(cf. also Pylos III figs. 139, 141, for sherds from below Hall 65, none of
which are clearly later than LH IIIAl). The different elements of the
Palace may have been built in succession, the South-West Building being
earlier than the Main Building; in some areas there is evidence for more
than one construction-phase. Apart from the Palace and its dependent
buildings, the hill seems to have been open at this time and the early
fortification to have been no longer in use (cf. AJA 64 (l96o) 15, Pylas I
19: a near sterile layer over the LH I-II stratum and evidence of
deliberate demolition); the very thick outer wall of the South-West
Building covered the early wall in one place (Pylos III fig. 306). The
excavators' statement that no trace of a fortification contemporary with
the Palace was found must be accepted.
Both Palace and "Lower Town" were completely destroyed by fire at
a date near the end of LH IIIB but probably earlier than the destructions

90 m. maximum, particularly steep-sided on the N.

129

in the Argolid; the vases attributed to early lli IIIC in Pylos I 421 can
hardly be placed so late, with the exception of 677, which remains problematical. Thereafter there is no sign of activity on the site until late in
the DA, when an olive-press seems to have been in operation.
II.

Tombs

Earliest of the important tombs to be found in the neighbourhood is


the "Grave Circle" (Pylos III 134), nearly 150 m. to the S. The exact
nature of this tomb remains uncertain, since very little of its structure
survived; the absence of evidence for a dromos or vault was thought to
rule out identification as a tholos, while the disposition of goods surely
rules out a tumulus. However, it is pointed out (op.cit. 154) that much
stone had been removed from the area, and it is possible that this was a
11
proto-tholos", as its early date would suggest. The earliest burials,
mostly secondary, were placed in pithoi and provided with goods of Shaft
Grave type; one, in a spouted jar of Cretan appearance, was provided
with a cup that should belong to the beginning of lli. Later burials,
mostly less well-provided and laid in pits, have a lli I-IIIAl date-range.
Tholos Tomb IV (op.cit. 95), directly opposite the monumental gateway
and some 70 m. distant, is large (d. 9.35 m.) but not especially well
constructed. It seems to have been built little later than the "Grave
Circle", to judge from two vases ( op.ci t. fig. 196:1, 4) that can hardly
be dated after LH I; some of the surviving jewellery has clear Shaft
Graves connections. Although robbed twice, it retained a remarkable
quantity of finds, especially jewellery, and seems likely to have been
that of the early ruling family.
Tholos Tomb III (op.cit. 73), 1 km. to SW of the site, is smaller
than T. IV (d. 7.66/.71 m.) and undoubtedly later. The earliest vase,
an alabastron (op.cit. fig. 174:5a-b) is lli IIA, and most of the pottery is
lli IIIA-B. This too had been thoroughly robbed, but fragments of fine
ivory-work and much glass jewellery survived; a notable find is a
"Canaanite" amphora. This may well have replaced T. IV as the "royal"
burial-place.
A chamber tomb cemetery has been identified on the S slope of the
ridge running W of the site, upon which a lli IIIA(l?) pit-grave was also
found (op.cit. 176). Six chamber tombs and two unfinished dromoi were
excavated; the finds are not remarkable, but include several early
figurines, a group of weapons, and a fine series of vases ranging from
lli IIA to IIIB.
III.

Dependent Settlements

Traces of several areas of settlement outside the immediate neighbourhood of the site have been found. Two are of MH date (Pylos III 176 (350 m.
to the NE), 219 (500 m. to the SW, datable to early MH by parallels with
Nichoria) ) and one is lli III (op.cit. 178; remains along the ridge W of
the site).

130

D 2

PISASKION:

MAVROUD!:ITA

L. 5 Kiparissia
LH IIIB-C "PG"

(~

*#

No. 199, MME No. 2)

520 E I 490 N

Pylos III 224


Some 3 km. S of D 1 a chamber tomb and a small tholos-shaped built
tomb were found close to one another. The former contained a series of
burials of LH IIIB-C date, provided with much fine pottery and other goods,
including a remarkable bronze bowl. The preserved half of the latter
produced six vases, probably datable in the late tenth or early ninth
century B.C., and fragments of bronze and iron objects.
D3

KORIFASION:

FORTES

(GAMS No. 206, MME No. 3)

M. 5 Pilos
489 E I 481 N
MH? LH III(A-B) C H
AJA 43 (1939) 559;

Messenia T 242

A low mound c. 120 m. E-W by So m., c. 700 m. SW of Korifasion,


bisected by the Pylos-Chora highway at a point c. 4oo m. S of the turning
to Korifasion. The sherds, mainly LH, were found mostly to E of the highway, and artifacts of stone, obsidian, and flint were also numerous.

D4

KORIFASION:

BEYLER BEY

M. 5 Pilos
493 E
LH III(A?- )B
AJA 43 (1939) 559;

I 474

(GAlVIS No. 208, MJ'f!E No. 1+)

*#
N

PAE ( 196o) 197;

Messenia I 242, III 149

A low hill c. 1 km. S of Korifasion at theN end of a long ridge.


The site measures c. 200 m. N-S by 150 m. There was much good surfacepottery, but trials show that the site was badly eroded, and its
importance is open to doubt.
D

KORIFASION:

CHARATSARI

M. 5 Pilos
490 E
MH (late) LH I
PAE (1925-6) 14o;

I 475

*#

(GAMS No. 207, MME No. 5)

Hesperia 23 (1954) 158

The tholos tomb excavated here is on present evidence the earliest


in Messenia and quite probably on the whole mainland, It is of medium
size (d. 6 m.) and constructed entirely underground, with a steeply sloping

131

dromos. It had been robbed, but there survived, in a thin burnt layer
covering the chamber, fragments of silver and faience vessels and much
pottery, including several Matt-painted vases of local types, a
probably IM IA ripple-decorated ewer, other similar fragments, and the
shoulder of a jar probably attributable to LH I. It seems likely that the
Matt-painted vases represent a phase of use earlier than LH I, if not by
much.
D 6

PETROCHORI:

11

PROFITIS ILIAS

M. 5 Pilos
467 E
N? EH II MH?

(~No.

6)

460 N

Messenia I 242
The site (c. lOO m. E-W by 60 m.) occupies the saddle between the
hill of Profitis Ilias and the N arm of the Voidhokoilia bay on the NW
side of the Osmanaga Lagoon. EH II was certainly recognised, and there
may be an EH cemetery C. 500 m. to NE, on the lower E slope of Profitis
Ilias.

D7

PETROCHORI:
M. 5 Pilos
EH II

MH?

OSMANAGA LAGOON

(~

Nos. 219-21, MME No. 7)

!+73 E I 4!+9 N (the western area)


i+So E I 453 N (the eastern area)
LH III(A-B) 11 PG" H

Messenia II 232, III 149


A considerable quantity of prehistoric and other material found in
the banks of drainage canals in the Osmanaga lagoon reveals that its NW
and N banks were sparsely inhabited in EH II and LH III times. Some "PG"
sherds were also recognized, including part of a skyphos decorated with
cross-hatched lozenges which may belong to the "DA II" class identified
at Nichoria (D lOO, cf. Hesperia 44 (1975) 114). The finds were distributed
over a wide area, c. 1750 m. E-W by 600 m., but some presumably have been
washed into the lagoon from the banks (i.e. Messenia III Nos. 59B and 59E).
Finds which are more or less in position (i.e. Messenia III Nos. 59A and
59C-D) include EH II and LH III.
D

PETROCHORI :

VOIDHOKOILIA

M. 5 Pilos
472 E
LH (IIB-IIIA?)

*11

(GAMS No. 218, MME No. 8)

448 N

PAE (1956) 202; Antiquity 31 (1957) 97;


225; Ergon (1975) 139, (1976) 137

La Parola del Passato 78 (1961)

132

A small tholos tomb (d. c. 5 m.) has been found here, on theN side
of Voidhokoilia bay W of Osmanaga lagoon. It was apparently built above
ground, founded on rock. Investigations are not yet complete; the remains
of several burials and various goods, of relatively early date to judge from
those on show in Pylos Museum, have been recovered. A f~ature of considerable
interest is the presence of a large pithos set horizontally into the tomb's
covering mound, with its mouth facing into the dromos.
D 9

PETROCHORI:

PALAIOKASTRO (ANCIENT KORYPHASION)

M. 5 Pilos
LH III(A-B)

470 E I 445 N
"PG" C H

PAE (1958) 184;

Messenia I 243;

*#

(GAMS No. 217,


Ml'fl.E No. 9 )

La Parola del Passato 78 (1961) 225

The headland of Palaiokastro on the S side of Voidhokoilia Bay


commands the western entrances to Osmanaga lagoon. The low promontory to N
of and below the mediaeval fort measures c. 200 m. N-S by 70 m. LH and
later remains have been found in trial excavations and a DA grave group was
recovered nearby. This may have been the main centre of the harbour settlement of LH Pylas.
D 10

PETROCHORI:

"CAVE OF NESTOR"

M. 5 Pilos
469 E I 443 N
N EHII MH LH III(A-B)
Messenia I 243, II 32;

(!liME No. 10)

*#

Pylos I 9

The cave on the N slope of the Palaiokastro headland appears to have


been inhabited in N times, and contained stratified BA and C material.
D ll

TRAGANA:

VIGLITSA

-X-#

L. 5 Kiparissia
489 E I 499 N
MH LH I-IIIA2 LH IIIB? LH IIIC

(GAMS No. 205, !liME No. 11)

SMyc.

PG

AE (1912) 268, (1911+) 98; PAE (1955) 247, (1956) 202; BCH 80 (1956) 285;
AD 16 (196o) B 113; AA (1962) 113; Messenia I 24o; Ergon (1976) 139
At the S end of the ridge on which Tragana village stands two tholos
tombs have been excavated, set back to back. The smaller, T.2 (d. 7.2 m.),
has an unwalled dromos but is quite well built; it had been badly
disturbed by use as a H house, and its date of construction is uncertain
(some LH I sherds reported may be settlement-material), but it contained
a pit holding two intact cremations, apparently of young girls, provided
with jewellery and pottery probably datable to LH IIIA2. The larger
(d. 9.5 m.), T.l, was better built, with a walled dromos, and had a more

133

complex history. It must certainly have been founded early in LH IIA, for
one vase seems to be by the same hand as the ewer in Shaft Grave I (MH and
LH I sherds should, like reported flint and obsidian, represent settlementmaterial). LH II jars and good LH IIIA vases were found, and a hoard of
bronzes from a pit in the doorway should date within this range. There
is no clear evidence for the tomb's use in LH IIIB, but it was reused for
a whole series of burials extending from LH IIIC into SMyc. and even PG
(cf. IMTS 95, V. R. Des borough, The Greek Dark Ages (1972) 84),
D 12

TRAGANA:

L. 5 Kiparissia
497 E
MH LH I LH III(A-B)
PAE (1956) 202;

(GAMS No. 201+, MME No. 12)

*11

VOROULIA

I 519 N

AD 16 (196o) B 114;

Messenia I 239

A steep slope, c. Boo m. NNE of Tragana, toE of and below the road,
on which traces of habitation probably covering the MH-LH III range were
found. An excavated one-roomed building contained about a hundred whole
vases, datable to LH I; some shells were also found and it is possible
that this deposit has cult-connections (votives?).
D 13 TRAGANA :
L.

KAPOUREIKA

5 Kiparissia

11

498 E

(MME No. 13)

530 N (approx.)

MH?
Messenia I 239
About 2 km. N of Tragana road construction destroyed a multiple
burial mound (presumably MH) indicated by fragments of pithoi (similar to
those found at D 14) and stone slabs.
D llf

LEFKI :

KAWAMOU

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH

11
501 E

(MME No. 14)

545 N (approx.)

Messenia I 239
Six large MH burial mounds were discovered on a ridge to E of the
Tragana-Gargalianoi road, c. 2 km. SSE of Lefki. They were being rapidly
eroded by cultivation, and many pithoi or fragments of pithoi and large
flat stone cover slabs were seen, some in situ. In some cases whole pithoi
were found laid on their sides, indicating an arrangement similar to that
of the excavated MH burial mound at Papoulia (D 52). The mounds vary in
size from c. 25 m. by 15 m. to c. 10 m. by 8 m., and from c. 3 m. to c. 5 m.
in height (cf. the dimensions of the mounds at D 48 and D 52).

134
D 15

GARGALIANOI:

KANALOS

(GM1S No. 203, MME No. 15)

L. 5 Kiparissia
438 E I 557 N
MH LH IIII? LH III(A-B) C H
l~essenia

I 236

The hamlet of Kanalos is c. 2.5 km. WSW of Gargalianoi and 1.5 km.
of the Gargalianoi-Marathoupolis road. About 500 m. to W of Kanalos is
a low spur, on whose S and E flanks MH and LH sherds were scattered over
an area c. 170 m. NE-SW by 110 m., together with some C and H. A burial
mound (LH tholos tomb?) was observed c. 4oo m. to SE

D 16

GARGALIANOI:

11

KOUTSOVERI

L. 5 Kiparissia
LH (III?)

440 E

(JVIlVIE No. 16)

578 N

Messenia III 11+6


A rounded limestone hill on the E side of the road c. 3 km. NW of
Gargalianoi. The chapel of Ayia Sotira on the top of the hill marks the
approximate centre of a prehistoric site c. 150 m. WNW-SSE by 120 m.
Diagnostic sherds were few but at least one LH was recognized.
D 18

PIRGOS:

TSOUKA

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH

(JVIlVIE No. 18)

501 E

567 N

Messenia I 237
About 1.5 km. SW of Pirgos, on the top of a ridge, a MH burial mound
was discovered partly ploughed down, and pithos fragments and stone slabs
protruding from the cut sides. The mound was at least 12 m. by 9 m. and
5 m. in height. A similar but smaller mound was observed c. 200 m. to NE.
Two distinctive MH sherds were found beside the larger mound, which
resembles those at D 14.
D 19

AMBELOFITO:

LAGOU

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH? LH IIIB

11

522 E

(GM1S No. 202, MME No. 19)

5EO N

Messenia I 237, III 147


A small site c. lOO m. in diameter, on a spur c. 1 km. NNE of
Ambelofito, and c. lOO m. E of the road.

135

D 20

CHORA :

L. 6 Kalamai

MH

*I!

VOLIMIDHIA

LH I-IIIB

(Q!!!':'!_ No. 201, MME No. 20)

54o E I 550 N
G A C H

PAE (1952) 473, (1953) 238, (1954) 299, (196o) 198, (1964) 77, (1965) 102;
Das Altertum 1 (1955)-ll+o; Messenia I 237; AD 25 (1970) B 182, 27 (1972)
B 256
Some Boo m. N of the village of Chora is an extensive chamber tomb
cemetery; traces of a LH I-III settlement on more or less level ground
were found lOO m. S of the first tombs excavated (PAE (1953) 249). A
small LH settlement has also been identified at Megambelia, 1 km. E of
Chora. The earliest tomb excavated, Kephalovryso T.l, is of late MH date,
partly constructed within a natural hollow; others in the Kephalovryso
group are almost equally early and do not have the tholes-imitating shape
canonical in the other groups, that had certainly become standard by the
end of LH I. The tombs are generally large and well-cut, holding many
burials, but are not particularly rich in goods apart from pottery; they
nevertheless suggest a flourishing community here. The cemetery most
probably went out of use near the end of LH IIIB (one or two vases on
show in Chora Museum might be LH IIIC, notably examples of amphoriskoi);
in LG some tombs were rediscovered and apparently used for cult.
D 21

CHORA:

AYIOS IOANNIS

L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A2-B)

529 E

*I

(GAMS No. 200, MME No. 21)

I 543 N

PAE ( 1954) 305


A small group of chamber tombs has been identified here on the SW
edge of Chora; they are not of the Volimidhia type. Material from an
excavated example, on show in Chora Museum, falls in the LH IIIA2-B range,
D 22

METAXADHA:

KALOPSANA

L. 6 Kalamai
550 E
MH? LH III (A~B)

/1

(MME No. 22)

I 590 N

Messenia III 147


A high spur on the lower slopes of Mt. Aigaleon extending E into a
narrow valley, c. 1 km. SSW of Metaxadha. The site covered the upper
terraces on S and SE over an area c. 200 m. NW-SE by 150 m. Two LH bronze
double axes and a bronze sword in the Chora Museum were found at the site,
and there are reports that beads, bones and pottery were found in graves
here.

D 24 VLACHOPOULO:
L. 6 Kalamai
MH? LH?

STAMATI RA CHI
585 E

(!:'!!::lli No. 24)

538 N

Messenia III 152


About 2 km. ~~ of Vlachopoulo and c. 6oo m. toE of the road to
Metamorphosis is a hillock above the spring Katsibouri. Surface pottBry
is confined to the upper area c. 110 m. NNW-SSE by 6o m. Although few
diagnostic fragments were found, both MH and LH are probably represented.
D 25 VLACHOPOULO:

AGRILIA

L. 6 Kalamai
612 E
MH? LH IIIAl-2

PAE (1964) 89;

(MME No. 25)

*#

I 530 N

AD 20 (1965) B 204;

Messenia III 152

A large hill of Agrilia lies c. 2.5 km. ENE of Vlachopoulo above the
headspring of the Karya river. On the flat top surface, c. 120 m. NNE-SSW
by 80 m., LH and other prehistoric sherds were found, some probably MH.
On the lower ridge called Dhrakorachi c. 700 m. toW a small poorly built
tomb (d. c. 2.0 m.) imitating a tholos had been set into the upper NW
slope. A fine series of vases (LH IIIAl-2) and some bronze knives were
found. There may have been another similar tomb nearby.
D 26

CHATZI:

BARBERI

(!:'!!::lli No. 26)

L. 6 Kalamai
620 E
MH? LH III(A-B) C
AD 22 (1967) B 207;

506 N

Messenia III 151

About 1 km. WNW of Chatzi, on the W side of the road is a low hill
above the spring Kamari. The upper surface and the S and SE terraces
were strewn with LH sherds and some which may be MH, over an area c. 150 m.
NW-SE by 120 m.
D 27

MESOPOTAMOS:

VELEVOUNI

M. 6 Koroni
616 E
LH IIIA2-B H
Messenia I 245,

(MME No. 27)

457 N

III 151; AD 22 (1967) B 207

137

The village of Mesopotamos occupies the lower S slope of Velevouni


hill. The prehistoric settlement occupied the top and upper S slope, an
area c. 150 m. NE-SW by 70 m. The hilltop is heavily eroded, but
recognizable sherds include the base of a LH IIIB deep bowl. A tholos
tomb at Tourkokivouro c. 700 m. NNW, on the N side of the Pylos-Kalamata
road may be point of origin of some LH material (including a bronze
couldron) in the Kalamata museum. It is presumably connected with the
Velevouni site.
D 28

MESOPOTAMOS:

CHILIA CHORIA

M. 6 Koroni
6ol E
MH? LH III(A-B)
PAE (1966) 120;

11

(GAMS No. 231, ~ No. 28)

1+48 N (approx.)

Messenia I 245,

li! 151

About 2 km. NNW of Mesopotamos, and c. 250 m. N of the KalamataPylos road, is a LH (and possibly MH) site on the level plateau. The
sherds are scattered over an area at least lOO m. N-S by 50 m. But the
artificial mound c. 70 m. to S has been assigned to the Roman period.
D 29

SOULINARI :

TOURLIDHITSA

M. 6 Koroni
LH IIIA(l?)
PAE (1966) 129;

615 E
H

*11

(MME No. 29)

445 N (approx.)

Messenia III 151

About 900 m. to SE of the Kalamata-Pylos road and c. 500 m. W of the


branch road to Milioti a small tholos tomb (d. 5.1 m.), robbed in H times,
was excavated. Surviving finds included three vases, a bronze blade, and
a stone lamp.
D 30 MILIOTI:

AYIOS ILIAS

M. 6 Koroni
MH?

620 E

11

(~ No. 30)

I 440 N (approx.)

Messenia I 246
An artificial mound on the crest of a ridge c. 1 km. NW of Milioti
appears to have been a MH burial mound similar to those at D 14 etc.,
since stone slabs and numerous fragments of large pithoi were found. The
mound measures c. 20 m. by 17 m., and is c. 4.50 m. high.

l3S

D 31

ROMIRI:

AVISOS

M. 6 Koroni
639 E
MH? LH III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 190, MME No. 31)

44o N (approx.)

Messenia I I 233
The site occupies the top and extensive N and E slopes of a spur
above the Kephalovrysi spring c. 1.5 km. NW of Romiri. LH sherds are
scattered over the top (c. 8o m. E-W by 50 m.) and the slopes, for a total
extent of c. 120 m. E-W by So m. Some coarse ware resembling that from
Margeli (D 116) is probably MH.
D 32

CHANDRINOU:

KISSOS

*#

(MME No. 32)

M. 6 Koroni
5S9 E I 442 N (approx.)
MH? LH IIII-III(A2-B)
PAE (1962) 90, (1966) 120;

Messenia II 151

The site is c. l km. ENE of Chandrinou, and c. 300 m. SE of the


Kalamata-Pylos road. A large mound (d. 12 m.) excavated here contained
pithos burials in the centre (MH?) and around them three or four stone
enclosures of oval or oblong shape containing burials, and a small cistgrave. Pottery was abundant but relatively poorly preserved; it certainly
included both early and late types. This seems to be a poor example of the
type now being excavated near D 35. At Aelaki, 1 km. to E, there are
probable remains of a small destroyed burial-tumulus and indications of
cist-graves, all of which may be MH.
D 33

CHANDRINOU:

PLATANIA

(GAMS No. 230, MME No. 33)

M. 6 Koroni
5S5 E I 1f30 N
N LH III(A-B) A C
Messenia I, 245, III 151;
B 145

AD 19 (1964) B 149, 23 (l96S) B 156, 24 (1969)

The LB habitation site is W of the spring Platania at the S edge of


Chandrinou. The present low mound measures c. So m. E-W by 50 m., but was
originally larger. Sherds exposed by a bulldozer here include LH A and C,
and a cache of N celts was found c. 700 m. NW. A small tholos tomb at
Yenitsari near Chandrinou was empty but LH pottery was found around it;
and a small mound (containing bones) within the village was said to have
been destroyed.

139
D 34 KATO KREMMIDHIA:

FOURTSOVRISI

*#

(~No.

228, MME No. 34)

M. 6 Koroni
590 E I 4Eo N (approx.)
LH IIII-III(A-B) C H
Messenia II 233;

Ergon (1975) 137

A few LH sherds were found near the springs Fourtsovrisi and


Ma1akasa c. 9CO m. ESE of Kato Kremmidhia. One of the two mounds observed
has been partly excavated; it contained small tholos-like built tombs
holding many burials, with pottery of mostly early LH date but reported to
extend to LH IIIB in one. On top of the mound in the centre were found
two large pithoi. There were traces of H cult.
D 35

KOUKOUNARA:

KATARRACHI

*#

(~Nos.

226-7, MME Nos.35-6)

M. 6 Koroni
561 E I 449 N (approx. for Katarrachi)
MH LH I-IIIC G A H
PAE (1954) 311, (1958) 187, (1959) 174, (l9Eo) 195, (1961) 171+, (1963) Ulf,
(1974) 139; JlJJ 16 (l9Eo) B 115; Messenia I 241f, III 150; La Parola del
Passato 78 (1961) 223; ~ (1962) 176; Ergon (1975) 132
I.

Katarrachi and Gouvalari

The acropolis of Katarrachi, c. Boo m. NE of Koukounara village, is


rather small (120 m. N-S by 70 m.) but naturally defended by the deep
ravine Pot0mi tou Arapi by which it is surrounded everywhere but for a
small stretch on the N. Remains of MH-LH III habitation have been found
on the site, including early LH buildings; a LH IIIC deep bowl of "Granary"
type is reported to come from a deposit on the site (AD 19 (1964) B 164,
on show in Pylos Museum). Further traces of LH habitation have been found
immediately across the ravine to the E, in the Gouvalari area, but this is
more important for its tombs. These include two tholoi (Koukounara Ts. 4-5)
and a series of mounds containing small built tombs of various types, some
imitating tholoi. Some of the latter certainly date from LH I, and they
were in use until LH IIIB, containing many burials provided with pottery
and some other goods. Of the tholoi, T.5 (d. c. 5 m.) dates from LH I,
T.4 (d. 6.25 m.) from not much later; both had been robbed but contained
remains of rich goods, including much gold leaf, fragments of bronze
weapons and vessels, stone arrowheads, and boar's tusk helmet-plates.
They remained in use until Ll-l IIIA2 or later, and there are traces of A
cult in T.4. The mounds, still in the process of excavation, indicate a
large population on this fertile plateau, and Katarrachi appears to have
been the capital of the district.

140
II.

Other Tholoi

A total of six tholos tombs has been excavated at sites around


Katarrachi and Koukounara. Koukounara T.l, at Livadhiti, lies to the SE,
and c. 1.2 km. NE of Stenosia (Lezega); Ts. 2-3, at Phyties, lie a further
750 m. NE of Livadhiti; Ts. 6-7, at Akona, lie c. 500 m. NW of Katarrachi;
and T.B, at Polla Dendra, lies 1 km. E of Koukounara. Of these, Ts. 2 and
6 are almost as big as T.4, the rest being smaller; most are reported to
have some evidence of use in early LH, only Ts. 6 and 8 seeming completely
LH III. They had generally been robbed, and gave no indication of having
been as rich as the Gouvalari tombs, although well-provided burials of
LH II-IIIAl date are reported from both the Phyties tombs, and a variety
of goods, including weapons, comes from the Akona tombs; that at Polla
Dendra was poorest, containing only skeletons and a few vases. None are
too far from Katarrachi to be completely dissociated from it, and they
might hold lesser relatives or "vassals" of those buried at Gouvalari.
T.6, at Akona, produced evidence of LG cult.
D 36 KOUKOUNAHA:

PALAIOCHOHIA

M. 6 Koroni
557 E
LH III(A2-B, C?)

PAE (1961) 174, (1962) 90;

(under

M!~

No. 36)

444 N (Koukounara village)

Messenia III 150

An unusual tomb was excavated at Palaiochoria,situated apparently


c. 2 km. W of Koukounara. It appears to have been a circular enclosure
(d. 3.41.6 m.) with an entrance, covered by a mound, and may be related
to the tombs of Kissos and Gouvalari. Burials are described as being
scattered about its floor (which suggests that it had been roofed), with
pottery that included a kylix, stirrup-jar, and broad-mouthed vessel
decorated with a wavy line (LH IIIC?), and other goods. About 50 m. to
Sa large LH III(B?) building was partly uncovered, which contained at
least nine rooms; two pithoi were found in one, and a clay 11 bath 11 in
another filled with black matter. Nearer to Koukounara, at Palialona,
were remains of another LH building; glass beads and a pair of tweezers
found nearby presumably came from a tomb. The large building might have
been the seat of a local ruler.
D 37

CHANDRINOU:

KOUMBE

M. 6 Koroni
LH III(A-B)

573 E

#
I

( GAMS No. 229, !liME No. 37)

1e36 N

Messenia T 2115
The site is c. 300 m. WSW of Koumbe spring, c. lOO m. NW of the
Kalamata-Pylos road, about 1.5 km. W of Chandrinou. LH sherds were thinly

141
spread over a relatively flat area c. 130 m. E-W by 8o m. A very low
mound c. 17 m. in diameter lies c. 4o m. to NW, and another c. 15 m. in
diameter and 4 m. in height at Ayios Athanasios on the opposite SE side
of the road.
D 38

KYNIGOU:

11

ARVANITSA

M. 6 Koroni

54o E

(MME No. 38)

390 N

U!?

Messenia III 150


About 3.5 km. NNE of Kynigou is the ruined hamlet of Arvanitsa.
Prehistoric coarse ware was found on the top and upper S slopes of the
hill over an area c. lOO m. NW-SE by 50 m.
D 39

FILA:

11

ELITSA

M. 6 Koroni
LH III(A-B)

540 E

(MME No. 39)

432 N (village)

Messenia III 149


To S of Fila across a steep gully is a thin ridge named Elitsa c. 1 km.
long E-W, overlooking the Filokambos valley. An area c. lOO m. E-W by 50 m.
in the centre is sparsely covered with U! sherds.
D IIQ

FILA:

KOKKINORACHI

M. 6 Koroni
MH? U!?

541 E

(MME No. 40)

439 N

Messenia III 11+9


About l km. NNW of Fila is a small barren ridge on whose top a few
prehistoric sherds were found within an area c. 8o m. NW-SE by 40 m.
D lfl

FILA:

VI GLES

M. 6 Koroni
EH II? MH?

(MME No. 41)

546 E I 438 N
U! III(A-B)

Messenia III 149


At the E end of the Dappia ridge on the N side of the Filokambos
valley, c. 1.5 km. W of Fila, were considerable traces of U! settlement,
and some thin sherds found c. l.lO m. down in a cutting on the side may
be from EH II souceboats. A knoll c. 120 m. WNW of Vigles along the ridge

142

is almost certainly a MH burial mound. Its centre, disturbed by ploughing,


revealed a layer of hard white clay above stones; and bones and pithos
fragments were seen nearby.
D 42

YijJJJ)VA:

PALAIOCHORI

M. 5 Pilos
LH III(A-B)

515 E

(GAMS No. 222, MME No. 42)

434 N

Messenia I 242
At the W end of the Dappia ridge is an imposing acropolis above and
c. 500 m. NE of Yialova. LH sherds were abundant on the summit (c. 150 m.
N-S by 120 m.) and found more sparsely on the lower W terraces. Possible
burial mounds were noted c. 500 m. to E along the ridge and on a parallel
ridge to N.
D 42

SCHOINOLAKKA:

KOKKINIA

M. 6 Koroni
533 E
MH? LH III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 225, MME No. 43)

443 N

Messenia I 21+4, III 150


On the E end of the ridge on whose W edge is the village of
Schoinolakka LH sherds were observed over an area c. 125 m. E-W by lOO m.
There may have been a prehistoric cemetery at Akona on the slope c. 200 m.
to S opposite, to judge from reports of sherds, pithoi, gems and bronze
tweezers.
D 44

PYLOS:

VIGLA

M. 5 Pilos
513 E
N LH III(A-B)
AJA 43 (1939) 559;

(GAMS No. 223, MME No. 44)

4o2 N

Messenia I 244

The small spur of Vigla is immediately above Navarino Bay c. 1.5 km.
NE of Pylos and 700 m. SW of the junction of the Pylos-Chora and PyloeKalamata roads. The LH habitation site at Vigla has partially fallen down
the steep cliffs into the bay. What remains of the mound is c. 50 m. in
diameter and c. 4 m. high. Few surface sherds are visible. About 130 m.
to NE of the junction (named Midhen) are two collapsed tholos tombs, close
together. A LH III sherd was found near the southern of the two. Two N
celts were found near the road about midway between Pylas and Midhen.

D 45

PYLOS:

AYIOS NEKTARIOS

(MME No. 45)

50 1> E I 373 N

M. 5 Pilos
LH H?
Messenia III 154

Some LH sherds were found on a low hill to E of the Pylos~ethoni


road c. 1.5 km. SSE of Pylos. The area of settlement denoted is only
c. 120 m. WNW-ESE by 6o m.
D 46 IKLAINA:

(GAMS No. 214, MME No. 46)

TRAGANES

M. 5 Pilos in square 520 E


MH lli III(A-B)
PAE (19511) 308;

I lf70 N

Messenia I 241, III 149;

AD 17 (1961-2) B 92

About 1.5 km. WNW of Iklaina is a large site (c. 200 m. N-S by 150 m.)
at the W end of a broad spur. Remains of an important LH III building were
found, including a massive foundation, pebble-floor, and two fresco-fragments.
This may well have been another local capital in late LH times like D 36.
MH sherds were also plentiful, especially in theW part; and part of a
pithos, probably MH, was found in the village of Iklaina.
D 47

IKLAINA:
M. 5 Pilos
LH?

GOUVITSES

(GAMS No. 215, MME No. 47)

in square 520 E

I 48o

Messenia I 241
About 2 km. WNW of Iklaina, on an eroded slope, are some scattered
stones and sherds, including one probably LH. There are reports of two
collapsed LH tholos tombs nearby. All these traces are probably connected
with D 1+6, and we assign one combined symbol to D 46 and D 47 on the map.
D 48

PLATANOS:

KRITHARITES

L. 6 Kalamai in square 540 E


MH? LH?

(GAMS No. 210, MME No. 48)

I 500

Messenia I 241
Two mounds were noted to S of the road from Platanos to Korifasion,
one c. 500 m. WSW of Platanos, and the other c. 1200 M. WSW of Platanos.
The first is c. 12 m. in diameter and 3 m. high, and human bones and coarse
ware sherds were observed beside it. The second is c. 22 m. in diameter

144
and 4 m. high. Large stone slabs
its sides and coarse ware similar
likely that these are MH multiple
and D 52, although LH may also be
D

49 PLATANOS:

and fragments of pithoi are visible in


to that near the first mound. It seems
burial mounds like those at D 14, D 18,
present (cf. D 32).

LAMBROPOULOU PIYI

L. 6 Kalamai

528

(GAMS No. 209, MME No. 49)

SOS N

LH

Messenia II 232
A few LH sherds were seen above this spring on the slope of a low
hill above a ravine c. l km. W of Platanos.
D

50 IKLAINA:

PANAYIA

(GAMS No. 216, MME No. 50)

M. 6 Koroni in square 540 E


MH? LH III(A-B)

I 48o

Messenia I 241
The Panayia chapel occupies the E end of a spur c. 200 m. E-W by 70 m.,
about l km. NE of Iklaina. Some fragments of LH III kylikes were found and
coarse ware apparently MH. On the NW slope a very large stone slab and
reports of "gold nails" and "plates with pictured animals" suggest a LH
tholos tomb here.
D

51

PLATANOS:

MERZINI

L. 6 Kalamai
551 E
MH LH III(A- )B

11

(GAMS No. 211, MME No. 51)


SOl N

Messenia II 232
A very low mound c. SOo m. ESE of Platanos, MH and LH sherds are
abundant over an area c. 150 m. E-W by 120 m. Coarse MH similar to that
at Margeli (D 116) is abundant, and it should be noted that the excavated
MH burial mound (D 52) is only c. l km. to the NE.
D

52

PAPOULIA:

AYIOS IOANNIS

L. 6 Kalamai
MH

*11

(~No.

545 E I 513 N (approx. )

PAE (1954) 311, (1955) 254;

AD 24 (1969) B 143, 145

52)

A large, slightly oval mound (13 m. E-W) was excavated here, on the
N side of the Platanos-Papoulia road, c. l km. W of Papoulia. It contained
a large wall, into which pithoi had been set more or less horizontally,
facing outwards; these contained one or more burials (two are shown
reconstructed in PAE (1962) Pl. 93). In the centre was another pithosburial and a small horseshoe-shaped structure, in front of which was an
area surrounded by stones, containing bones and many traces of fire.
Although no goods were found, except a jar handed in previously, there
seems no doubt that this was of MH date; the structure and associated
finds may relate to ceremonies on the occasion of the first burial. A
possibly MH oist was found nearby. A LH III sealstone (of. now~ V:l
no. 311) was found by chance at a site 300 m. SE of the tumulus; oists
are reported from a small hillock here.
D 53

PAPOULIA VILLAGE

*#

L. 6 Kalamai
553 E
LH II-III(A-B) C?

PAE (1954) 315, (1955) 255;

(GAMS No. 213, MME No. 53)


511 N

Messenia I 24o, II 239

In and around Papoulia village were found three small tholes-imitating


built tombs and a rectangular built grave. These were not well preserved,
with the exception of one just outside the village. The largest (d. 4.4 m.),
which contained ten or more burials, held vases of clearly early type, and
was the centre of later cult. There are also traces of LH settlement
within the village.
D 54 MYRSINOCHORI:

ROUTSI

*#

(GAMS No. 212, MME No. 54)

L. 6 Kalamai
538 E I 522 N (approx.)
MH? LH I? LH IIA-IIIAl H
PAE (1953) 250, (1956) 203, (1957) 118; BCH 78 (1954) 124, 81 (1957) 558;
Arrtiquity 31 (1957) 97; ILN (614, 271411957); AD 16 (l96o) B 114;
AA ( 1962) 272
About 1.5 km. NE of Myrsinoohori three mounds and two tholos tombs
spaced along a ridge have been excavated. At least two of the mounds seem
to have been burial-tumuli, containing pithoi and likely to be MH; the
third contained only a heap of stones. The two tholoi, about 20 m. apart,
were small (d. c. 5 m.) and not particularly well-built. The first, which
had a primitive "relieving triangle" over the doorway, had been robbed
but contained a wide range of material; an ask os ( PAE ( 1956) PL 97CL l )
might well be lil I, and LH II-III pottery, a bronze pan, fragments of a
silver vessel, and gold ornaments were found. The second, slightly smaller
and rougher, was intact.: it contained a series of four or five burials in

146

a pit, the uppermost provided with three daggers (two inlaid) and an amber
necklace, a single girl's burial in another pit, and a final man's burial
extended on the floor, provided with a fine range of weapons, pottery, and
sealstones, and another amber necklace. The pottery from this tomb may
include LH I, to judge from vases on show in Chora Museum, and certainly
ranges from LH IIA to IIIAl, including several IM IB imports. These tombs
clearly held the burials of a dynastic group, quite rich but not of the
first rank.
D 55

MYRSINOCHORI:

VAIES

L. 6 Kalamai
LH

529 E

(MME No. 55)

512 N (approx.)

AD 19 (1964) B 150
On a ridge pArallel with that of the Pylos site and l km to the E,
trial excavations uncovered only a quantity of LH sherds near the surface,
i.e. traces of an eroded settlement, apparently small.
D 56

CHORA:

KOUKOUYERA

L. 5 Kiparissia

520 E

(GAMS No. 198, MME No. 56)

520 N (approx.)

LH
Messenia I 24o and Pl. 7Bb
A very large mound, c. 27 m. by 21 m. and c. 7 m. high, c. 500 m. W
of the Chora-11yrsinochori road about 2 km. S of Chora. It stands on the
crest of a high ridge. There is every reason to believe that this is the
site of an important LH tholos tomb, presumably not collapsed.
D 57

GARGALIANOI:

ORDHINES

L. 5 Kiparissia
EH II LH IIII?

(GAMS No. 233, MME No. 57)

418 E I 598 N
LH III(A-B)

Messenia I 236
About 4.5 km. NW of Gargalianoi, on the S side of the Langouvardhos
ravine is a low flat hill c. 200 m. N-S by lOO m. overlooking the coastal
plain. Sherds are scattered sparsely over the surface, and include the
base of an EH II sauceboat and a few LH III. The flat loop handle of a
goblet may be early LH.

D 58 VflliTA:

AYIOS PANDELEIMON

L. 5 Kiparissia
N.? LH C? H

455 E

(~No.

58)

I 610 N

Messenia III 145


The church of Ayios Pandeleimon on the SW edge of Valta was the
centre of a LH and later settlement. Coarse prehistoric sherds are found
spread sparsely over an area c. 150 m. NW-SE by 120 m. on the slopes below
the church, and a N (?) celt was found similar to those from D 33 and D 44.
About 150 m. SE of the church on the SE side of the road to Gargalianoi,
road widening seems to have destroyed a LH tholos or chamber tomb. A few
LH sherds were seen here and vases are reported to have been taken to Chora
museum.

D 59

VALTA:

KASTRAKI

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH LH III(A-B)

(MME No. 59)

452 E

I 607

N (approx.)

Messenia III 145


Kastraki hill is c. 300 m. S of Ayios Pandeleimon (D 58) at the SW
end of a small ridge. At the NE end of the ridge is a knoll in the sides
of which can be seen large stones and pithos fragments, and there was
apparently a pithos burial or more in the S side of the knoll at the SW
end of the ridge. Prehistoric sherds, mainly MH, are spread thickly
between the two knolls and down the S and W slopes over an area at least
120 m. NE-SW by 70 m. To N of the road to Gargalianoi, opposite the site,
LH III sherds were found from a destroyed burial mound (tholos tomb?).
D 60

VALTA:

AYIA PARASKEVI

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH LH III(A-B)

432 E

(~No.

60)

625 N

Messenia III 136


About 2.5 km. NW of Valta is a low spur overlooking the coastal
plain, on the edge of the Gargalianoi-Filiatra escarpment. MH and LH
sherds were sparsely distributed over an area c. 120 m. ENE-WSW by lOO m.
The chapel of Ayia Paraskevi is on a ridge c. 200 m. to ENE.
D

61

FILIATRA :

KASTRAKI

L. 5 Kiparissia
LH H?

455 E

(!VW' No. 61 )

I 630 N

148
Messenia III 135
The site is c. 55 km. SE of Filiatra but only 2.5 km. N of Valta,
on a spur dominating a gorge to W and overlooking the fertile plateau to
N, E, and s. A few LH sherds were found, mostly coarse, over the flat
top and NE slopes, in an area c. 150 m. NW-SE by 120 m.
D

62

KOROVILEIKA

(MME No. 62)

11

L. 5 Kiparissia
LH?

451 E

61e9 N

Messenia III 135


The hamlet of Korovileika is close to the route from Filiatra to
Christiani, which crosses the Filiatra-Gargalianoi escarpment here. The
site, only c. 75 m. N-S by 50 m., is on the spur immediately E of the
hamlet, overlooking the plateau to E. A few coarse BA sherds, probably LB,
were found here.
D 63

FILIATRA:

AYIOS CHRISTOPHOROS

L~

5 K:tparissia

MH

LH IIIA2-B

445 E

11

(MtflE No. 63)

6Lf8 N

Messenia III 135


The site is on a broad saddle on the W edge of the FiliatraGargalianoi escarpment, controlling the pass to Christiani from the
coastal plain. l'liany LH III sherds of good quality were found, and some MH,
on both sides of the Filiatra-Christiani road. Concentrations of sherds
occurred on a low knoll c. lOO m. to S of the road and on a terraced slope
to N of the road, and they were found almost as far as the edge of the
escarpment, under whose cliffs is the chapel of Ayios Christophoros. The
total extent is c. 300 m. N-S by 150 m., indicating a large and important
settlement.
D 61+

FILIATRA:

AYTOS IOANNIS

L. 5 Kiparissia
LH III(A-B)

'+26 E

11

(MME No. 64)

685 N

Messenia III 135


About 1.5 km. N of Filiatra the main road has cut through a LH site,
separating the smaller E section around the chapel of Ayios Ioannis from
the larger W section overlooking the coastal plain below. Plentiful sherds,
mainly coarse, but including a few LH III, were found over an extent c. 210 m.
NM1-SSE by 130 m.

149

D ff)

FILIATRA:

STClVliON

(~

416 E

L. 5 Kiparissia
LH III(A-B)

No. ff))

696 N

Messenia III 133


The site c. 125 m. in diameter occupies a low bluff on the S side of
the mouth of the Filiatra river beside an inlet named Stomion. It lies
c. 3 km. NNN of Filiatra, about 6oO m. W of the main road to Kyparissia.
Sherds were mainly coarse ware, but a LH III kylix stem was also found.
D

66

CHALAZONI :

PALAIOCHORI

L. 5

Kiparissia

MH?

LH?

450 E

(MME

No. 66)

700 N (approx.)

Messenia III 135


Some coarse ware sherds
obsidian fragments were found
S side of a stream and on the
site was small, at most 80 m.
D

68

ARJVIENIOI:

MANNA

L. 5 KipaYlssia
LH IIIB

which appear to be either MH or LH and


on a hill c. 4oo m. SW of Chalazoni, on the
edge of the coastal plain. The prehistoric
E-W by 50 m.

48o E

(MME

No. 68)

720 N (approx.)

Messenia III 133


On sloping ground above the spring Manna 1 km. SSE of Armenioi a few
coarse ware sherds and the base of a LH IIIB deep bowl indicate a small
settlement.
D 70

KYPARISSIA:

KASTRO

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH LH (IIIA-B?)

(GAMS No.

518 E

I 761 N

234, MME, No. 70)

Messenia I 232, III 133


An impressive acropolis, on a steep-sided spur at the E edge of the
town of Kyparissia, completely dominates the coastal plain, with a fine
view to the N. Sparse MH and LH sherds were found on the N slope, and an
amount of LH pottery at the WSW foot of the Kastro. The acropolis summit
measures c. 150 m. N-S by c. 65 m., but the extent of prehistoric occupation
on the slopes can not be estimated.

150
D 72

VRYSES:

PALAIOFRIGAS

L. 6 Kalamai

MH?

554 E

(~No.

72)

I 755 N

LH

Messenia III 133


The site is a spur projecting N from the base of the Kyparissia
Mountain, c. Boo m. WSW of Vryses. Sherds including LH and some probably
MH on the top and N slopes were spread over an extent of c. lOO m. E-W
by 90 m.
D 74

PALAIONERO:
M. 6 Koroni
MH? LH?

AYIOS KONSTANDINOS

515 E

I 375

(~No.

74)

N (village)

Messenia III 153


A small site, c. 6o m. E-W by 50 m. on a spur projecting W below the
village, toE of and above the side road to Mesochori. Some coarse sherds
were found, probably of both MH and LH date.
D 75

MESOCHORI :

KOUTSOVERI

M. 6 Koroni
MH? LH?

524 E

I 355

(~No.

75)

Messenia III 152


About 300 m. SE of Mesochori immediately N of the road to Pidhasos is
a round hill, on which coarse ware of both MH and LH type was found, over
an area at least lOO m. in diameter.
D 76 MESOCHORI:
M. 6 Koroni
MH

GDHITI RA CHI

526

I 342

(GAMS No. 196, MME No. 76)

Messenia I 247, III 152


About 1 km. SE of Mesochori, on the S side of the road to Pidhasos,
and opposite D 75 is a mound c. 15 m. in diameter and c. 2 m. high, part of
which has eroded into a deep ravine on the SE. Some MH sherds, including
one similar to Argive Minyan ware, together with the character of the site,
suggest that this is a MH burial mound, probably belonging to the settlement
(MH? ) at D 75.

151

D 77

KATO AJVIBELOKIPOI:
M. 6 Koroni
LH?

ASTRAPOKAIJVIENO

565 E

(MME No. 77)

392 N

Messenia ITI 153


A high spur above the
in the BA. The sherds were
with LH. An area c. 150 m.
slopes. The site is remote

village on its NW side was sparsely inhabited


all coarse, but are probably contemporary
E-W by 50 m. is indicated, mainly on the ~d
but situated on anE-W route across the

Messenian peninsula.

D 78 EXOCHIKON:

(MME No. 78)

AYIOS NIKOLAOS

M. 6 Koroni
570 E
MH LH III(A2-B)
AD 20 ( 1965) B 208;

375 N (approx. )

Messenia III 151>

On the W side of the road from Kaplani to Lachanadha is a long N-S


ridge, about 1.5 km. WSW of Exochikon. Coarse sherds, including MH, were
found on the N part of the summit and the upper E and NE slopes over an
area c. lOO m. N-S by So m. About 200 m. E of the site, and also toW of
the road, is a lower ridge named Mistofalakka where there is a destroyed
L}I tholos tomb c. 8.0 m. in diameter. Part of a LH IIIA2 or LH IIIB
stirrup-jar was brought to the Kalamata museum, presumably found during
the illicit excavation.
D 79

PHOINIKOUNTA:

AYIA ANALIPSIS

M. 6 Koroni
588 E I 268 N
EH II MH LH IIII? LH III(A-B)
Messenia I 21>7;

(GAMS No. 195, MME No. 79)

G C H

AD 22 (1967) B 207

The church of Ayia Analipsis lies at the centre of a small acropolis


on the promontory toW of Phoinikounta. The level top measures c. 75 m.
iJ-S by 6o m, Sherds here and on the slopes indicate a total area of
prehistoric habitat ion c. 180 m. N-S by llfO m., and the promontory has
been eroded by the sea on the S. There is a possible burial mound c. 500 m.
NE of the village (B on AJA 65 (1961) Ill. 12, but C in text) and a probable
ruined LH tholos tomb l km. E of the village on the coast at Mytika headland ( C on AJA 65 (1961) Ill. 12, but D in text). Recently a LG tomb has
been found (AD loc.cit.].

152

D 8o

METHONE: NISAKOULI
M. 6 Koroni
510 E
MH h'1 III(A-B)

AAA 2 (1969) 10;

(MME No. 8o)

*#

26o N (approx.)

AD 24 (1969) B 145;

Messenia III 153

Nisakou1i is an islet c. 6o m. in diameter and c. 10 m. high, which


is now c. 350 m. from the coast of Methone bay, but probably once formed
part of a promontory (see Journal of Field Archaeology 4 (1977) 19). Good
MH and a little LH have been found on the much eroded site: excavation
produced MH structures, one identified as an altar, and burials.
D lOO

RIZOMYLO:

NICHORIA

L. 6 Kalamai
N EH II? MH
I.

*#

698 E I 480 N (Approx.)


LH I-IIIB LH IIIC? "PG"

(~No. 182, MME No. lOO)

G A C H

Habitation. Hesperia 41 (1972) 218, 44 (1975) 69;


(pumice, cf. Science 179 (21211973) 471)

AAA 6 (1973) 136

Nichoria is a ridge about 500 m. long (Nd-SE) and a maximum 100 m.


broad, flat-topped but broken on both flanks by deep gullies. It lies to
W of, and dominates, the important cross-roads of the Kalamata-Pylos and
Rizomylo-Koroni highways, rising steeply above the village of Rizomylo at
the junction. Indications of pre~H settlement consist of some late N
material from just above virgin soil and a few EH II fragments, principally
small ring-bases often pierced for use as spindle-whorls, generally found
in MH levels. The first stratified deposits are of very early MH date, and
are found in the centre of the site; the settlement-area subsequently
expanded to N and S, and covered by LH II an estimated So% of the available
area. Few remains of structures survive from the earlier phases; most
notable are an early MH house (Hesperia 44 (1975) 107), near which considerable quantities of bronze-working debris were found and a substantial LH
IIIAl building (op. cit. 100), overlying a large LH II complex, that was
probably the residence of an important family, perhaps even the ruler's.
The quality of the pottery and other finds suggests that this was a local
capital from the beginning of Uo; extensive LH III remains have been
excavated, including a series of houses in Area IV and a LH IIIB street
flanked by poorly-preserved structures in Area III: one of the latest
houses, an apsidal building of LH IIIB2 date, was found near the street
but apparently unrelated to it. There seems to have been a break in
occupation, unassociated with any destruction, in LH IIIB2, and only a
very few sherds in mixed contexts might be attributed to middle or late
LH IIIC, but the site was certainly reoccupied early in the DA by people
whose pottery still retained LH IIIC features. An important series of DA
building-levels and a LG pithos-burial carry the site's history to the
later eighth century, after which it seems to have been completely abandoned

153
until late C times. The material from this site will provide an almost
complete MH-DA sequence for Messenia.
II.

Tombs. AD 16 (196o) B 108, 17 (1961-2) B 95, 26 (1971) B 129, 27


(1972) B:262; AE (1973) 25; Hesperia 44 (1975) 73

Most of the tombs associated with the site have been found at the
NW end of the ridge, but chamber tombs have been found to N, W, and SE,
two containing LH IIIA2-B pottery and goods, and one, apparently cleared
of its prehistoric material, much LG and later pottery. A medium-sized
tholos tomb (d. 6.6 m.) of quite good construction proved to have been
used in LH IIIA2-B, although a hoard of bronzes found in a pit has earlier
parallels; though robbed, it retained quite a range of goods, and it was
the site of probable cult in late C times. On theE it slightly overlapped
the "Little Circle", a curious well-like structure only 2 m. broad, in
which there had been ordinary burials, with which tbree LH IIA vases were
associated; later several bodies were carelessly flung in on top, whose
fate invites speculation. The smaller, Veves, tholos (d. 5.1 m.) was very
poorly preserved; the only finds were vases, ranging from LH I to IIIA2,
and a few gold beads, sealstones, and other objects. A series of smaller
built tombs in the Nikitopoulou field, mostly of tholos shape, contained
burials ranging from the end of MH (pit in T.4) to LH IIIA2-B, provided
with pottery and some interesting goods; one was reused in the early DA.
Other built tombs found at various points belong to the DA; most are oval
or apsidal in shape, but one, which contained a series of burials, is
closer to a tholos. Built tombs of apsidal shape were also found in a
tumulus close to the Veves tholos, as well as a cist grave; at least one
of the apsidal graves contained burials and goods of Mycenaean date.
Pottery of LG or early A date and a burnt layer containing H material were
associated with the tumulus, both attributed to cult.
D 101

NEROMILOS:
L. 6 Kalamai
LH A

VIGLITSA
670 E

(GAMS No. 186, ~ No. 101)

495 N

Messenia I 246
A mound c. 33 m. in diameter and c. 5 m. high lies toE of the
Kalamata-Pylos road at a point c. 1 km. WSW of Neromilos. It almost
certainly conceals a LH tholos tomb (and there are indications of a probable
dramas facing W). About 500 m. SE, on the S side of the road, a deposit of
A pottery was found near the Panayitsa chapel, and reports of sherds below
surface suggest a habitation site on this hill above a small spring.

154

D 102

PERA:

11

KARKANOS

M. 6 Koroni
MH? LH

(MME No. 102)

645 E I 470 N (approx. )

Messenia III 155


On a high rounded hill c. l km. NNE of Pera and c. 1200 m. SW of the
larger village of Paniperi, some LH and one possible t1H sherds were found
on s and SE slopes over an area c. 150 m. NE-SV,J by 120 m. above the spring
Kephalovrisi

D 103 KALOCHORI:
M

MH

6 Koroni

AYIOS ILIAS

I 458

650 E

11

(GAMS No. 189, MME No. 103)

LH III(A- )B

Messenia II 233.
The site is on a high spur 1.5 km. N of Kalochori projecting northward over a deep gorge. The road from Kalochori to Paniperi passes over
the saddle on the s. Several LH III and one MH sherd were found on the
upper area and E slope, over an area c. 120 m. N-S by 90 m. The hill
commands a magnificent view to N, W, and E, and may have served as an
important watch-post in LH.
D

104 MATHIA:

11

PYRGAKI

M. 6 Koroni
MH? LH

670

(GAMS No. 191, MME No. 104)

I 396

Messenia II 234, III 155


A conspicuous rounded hill c. 4oO m. ~rlli of Mathia, with a fine view
to N, E, and S. A few sherds which may be classed LH and some possibly MH
were found, in very fragmentary condition,mainly on the top (c. 50 m. in
diameter.

D 105 VI GLA :

AYIOS ILIAS

M. 6 Koroni
LH III(A-B)

11

(MME No. 105)

689 E I 382 N

Messenia III 155


About 300 m. W of Vigla is a higp ridge on whose E end is the chapel
of Ayios Ilias. The prehistoric settlement occupied the E half of the
ridge and the terraces to theE below for an extent of c. 200 m. E-W by

155

80 m.

LH III was well represented.

D 106 LONGA:

PALAIOKASTRO

M. 6 Koroni
N? MH

688 E

(GAMS No. 192,

No. 106)

343 N (approx.)

Messenia II 234, III 155


A steep hill, isolated between two deep ravines, c. 1.5 km. NNVI of
Longa. A cave on the S slope may be N. On the E slopes some prehistoric
sherds were found, including MH.
D 107

LONGA:

KAPHIRIO

(GAMS No. 193, MME No. 107)

*#

M. 6 Koroni
678 E I 328 N (approx.)
IVJH? LH III(A-B) "PG" G? A? C H

AR (1960-61) ll

Messenia I 248;

A high spur c. l km. SSW of Longa projecting eastward and overlooking


the coastal plain. The LH site extends c. l8o m. E-W by lOO m., with
sherds concentrated on the Nand E slopes. The site was badly eroded, as
was shown by the trial excavations, which uncovered scanty traces of LH
and "PG" remains. There was probably a LH tholos tomb under the chapel
of Ayios Ilias c. 500 m. to NW. Despite the poor preservation, it is
clear that this was the most important LH site in the Longa-Ayios Andreas
coastal plain.
D 108

FALANTHI :

PANORIA

M. 6 Koroni
LH?

670 E

(~No.

108)

285 N (village)

Messenia III 155


A few coarse BA sherds, probably LH, on a low ridge c. 200 m. NW of
Falanthi. The extent of the site is c. lOO m. N-S by 6o m.
D 109

CHARAKOPIO:

DEMOTIC SCHOOL

*#

(GAMS No. 194, MME No. 109)

M. 6 Koroni
681 E I 265 N (approx.)
LH IIII? LH III(A-B) C H
PAE (1958) 192;

Messenia I 247, II 233

A poorly built tholos tomb was found c. 120 m. NW of the new Demotic
School building c. 500 m. N of the centre of Charakopio. The tomb was

156
cleared following previous robbing. The finds included a bronze cauldron
(early LH? -unlikely to be later than LH IIIAl), the rim of another
bronze vessel, and pithos fragments; a sword is also reported. Traces of
a LH III settlement were found on the low broad hill c. 200 m. to S of the
tholos, in the course of levelling the playground.
D 110

AYIOS ISIDHOROS:
M. 6 Koroni
~1H?

LIOFrAKIA

670 E

(MME No. 110)

26o N (approx.)

LH?

Messenia III 154


A ridge c. 1.5 km. S of Ayios Isidhoros, and c. 4 km. W of Koroni.
The S part of the ridge, an area c. lOO m. in diameter, was occupied at
some time in the BA, since coarse ware of MH and LH types was found. The
site appears remote and unimportant.

D lll

CHRYSOKELLARIA:

AYIOS ATHANASIOS

662 E

M. 6 Koroni
LH C or H

I 21e8

(MME No. lll)

N (village)

Messenia III 155


On the summit and S and SW slopes of the hill above the school,
c. lOO m. TcM of the village centre, prehistoric sherds, including LH,
were found. The extent indicated is c. 150 m. ~~-SSW by lOO m. The
village is hig~ above the coastal plain.
D 112

VELIKA:

SKORDHAKIS

L. 6 Kalamai
730 E
MH lli IIII-III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 183, MME No. 112)

I le77

N (approx.)

Messenia II 234, III 156


A very low hill 1.5 km. SE of Velika, on the E side of the Velika
river and c. 500 m. from its mouth. Sherds including a lli IIII cup
fragment were found in an area c. 120 m. N-S by 70 m.
D 113

VELIKA:

KOKORA TROUPA

L. 6 Kalamai
N lli IIIB-C
Messenia II

23~,

713 E

III 156

I
515 N

(GAMS No. 184, ~ill No. 113)

157
About 1.5 km. SW of Velika is a cave halfway up the steep E bank of
the Velika river. Some N and LH sherds (including one LH IIIC) were
found inside not far from the entrace. There is said to be a broad chamber
c. 300 m. within, but this is now inaccessible.
D 114

DARA :

VIGLITSA

(~No.

*I!

L. 6 Kalamai
721 E
MH LH III(A-B)

Messenia II 234, III 156;


137 n. 55

185, ~No. 114)

525 N

Nestor (11111974) 904;

Hesperia 44 (1975)

This is an isolated conical hill c. 6oo m. SE of Dara, on theW side


of the road to Daphni. The area of MH and LH settlement is c. 150 m. E-W
by 100 m., mainly on the more gentle Nand NW slopes. A tholos tomb was
excavated within the territory of Dara but c. 1.5 km. to SE of Viglitsa,
and only c. 1 km. N~ of Daphni. It lies just toW of the road to Dara.
It is not certain whether this tomb (not yet fully published) belongs with
the Viglitsa settlement. The contents include evidence of animal sacrifice
(horse and deer are represented) as well as much pottery.
D 115

STREPHI :

GARALAVOUNI

L. 6 Kalamai
68o E
EH II LH IIIA2-B
AD 20 (1965) B 20'7;

(MME No. 115)

544 N (approx. )

Messenia III 156

About 1.5 km. NW of


very low hillock in whose
sherds (including fine EH
of the hillock, c. lOO m.

Strephi, on the E of the road to Diodia is a


SE edge is a collapsed tholos tomb. EH and LH
II and one LH IIIA2-B) were found on the NW part
from the tomb, over an area c. 150 m. NW-SE by

lOO m.

D 116 MARGELI:

KOUTSOVERI

L. 6 Kalamai
MH LH? H

616 E

(GAMS No. 187, MME No. 116)

I 595 N

A rounded hill c. 500 m. NNW ofMargeli, whose top (c. 150 m. in


diameter) is strewn with MH pottery and coarse wares which appear to be
MH or in the MH tradition. The site is in a small remote valley.

158
D 117

FLESIADf!J\:

MISORACHI AND KOUFIERO

(~Nos.

73 and 117)

L. 6 Kalamai
578 E I 6o8 N (Misorachi)
N LH IIII? LH III(A-B)
Messenia I 235,

1li 145

A long ridge of Misorachi lies c. 700 m. NNE of Flesiadha, between


the village and the mainspring (Kephalovrysi) of the Velika river. The
ridge runs WSW to ENE. At the W end of the ridge was a small LH settlement
c. 150 m. WSVI-ENE by 80 m., indicated by sparse surface sherds.
About 1 km. ENE of Flesiadha and c. 6oo m. ESE of Misorachi is a
cave named Koufiero, high up the S side of the gorge on whose ~~ side
directly opposite is the village of Palaio Loutro. The cave is c. 4o m.
deep and c. 9 m. wide, and at the back is a chapel of Ayioi Anaryiroi.
N sherds were found both inside and on the steep slope outside. In a
pile of cleared debris just inside the entrance some fine LH sherds were
found with the N material. The latter predominates and the LH is probably
indicative of a cult rather than of habitation.
D 118

CHALVATSOU:

KASTRO

L. 6 Kalamai
MH? LH?

610 E

(GAMS No. 188, MME No. 118)

I 6o9

N (approx.)

Messenia I 235
A high conical hill on the E side of the road to Aristomenis at a
point c. 2 km. SSE of Chalvatsou. Rough BA sherds are sparsely strewn over
the middle and lower W and SW terraces below the remains of a mediaeval
village on the summit. The pottery is similar to that from Margeli (D 116)
although nothing distinctively MH was found.
D 119

DHRAINA:

KOU'I'SOVERI

L. 6 Kalamai
652 E
MH LH III(A-B)

(M11E No. 119)

631 N

!liessenia III 141>


On the W side of the road to Koromilea, c. l km. NNW of Dhraina a
rocky spur projects westward over a small upland valley. MH and LH sherds,
mainly coarse, are found mainly on the flat top which measures c. 120 m.
N'!I-SE by 8o m.

159

D 120 MANGANIAKO:

PALIAMBELA

L. 6 Kalamai
687 E
MH? LH IIIA2 -B

(MME No. 120)

642 N

Messenia III 11>4


The prehistoric settlement occupied three low knolls and the
connecting saddles c. 4oo m. NE of Manganiako and c. 150 m. E of the road
to Petralona. Some good LH III kylix fragments were noted with the coarse
ware, and the area indicated is c. 200 m. NE-SW by 130 m., on the top and
upper E slopes.
D 121

TRIKORFO:

KAKO KATARACHI

L. 6 Kalamai
661 E
MH LH III(A-B) C

(~

No. 121)

f!J7 N

Messenia III 157


On a low hill c. 2 km. SSW of Trikorfo numerous BA sherds were found
including coarse ware of MH type and one LH III piece. The sherds covered
the top and the SE terraces, an area at least 150 m. NE-SW by 120 m.
D 122 LA:f!JBAINA :

TOURKOKTVOURO

(GA_IVIS No. 181, MME No. 122)

*#

L. 6 Kalamai
766 E 1628 N
EH II LH III(A2-B) G
AD 19 (1964) B 153;

Messenia II 235, III 157

About l km. ESE of Lambaina, on the E of the road from Messini to


Valyra, a clay quarry had revealed EH II sherds, apparently from slabcists, and two whole vases. Subsequent excavation revealed stratified EH,
LH, and G layers, but the only structure found was an empty slab-cist,
probably EH. About 300 m. to E is a mound which may conceal a tholos tomb.
D 123

ARISTODHEMION:
L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A-B)

PALIAJVIBELES
773 E

(GAMS No. l8o, MME No. 123)

618 N

Messenia II 235
On the S side of the road to Plati, c . 500 m. SE of Aristodhemion,
LH sherds were found on a very low mound ( c. 90 m. N-8 by 35 m.) in an
olive grove. A small mound c. 20 m. in diameter and 5 m. high, in another
grove c. 200 m. to SE, probably conceals a tholos tomb.

D 124

ARISTODHEMION:
L. 6 Kalamai
EH II

Messenia II 235,

GLYKORIZI
775 E

(~

No. 180, ~ No. 124)

619 N

I!! 157

About 200 m. to NE of D 123, and c. 700 m. ENE .of Aristodhemion, is


a low mound (c. 120 m. E-W by 70 m.) on the N side of the road to Plati.
The mud brick hut in the centre was~ made of earth taken from the mound, and
the bricks were full of fine EH II potsherds. The EH II cemetery apparently
lay c. lOO m. E of Aristodhemion, where road widening revealed EH II stonelined cist graves beneath the circuit wall of the village cemetery of Ayios
Ioannis.
D 125

EVA:

NEKROTAPHEION

(GAMS No. 179, MME No. 125)

L. 6 Kalamai
763 E / 594 N
MH LH III(A-B) C
Messenia II 236, III 158
The site is a very low spur projecting eastward into the Pamisos
valley c. 300 m. ESE of Eva and ending c. lOO m. W of the village cemetery.
MH and LH sherds occur sporadically over an area c. 150 m. E-W by 100 m.
The situation is comparable to that of D 123.
D 126

ARIS:

MESOVOUNI

L. 6 Kalamai
MH? LH I/II?

(MME No. 126)

8o7 E I 564 N
LH III(A-B)

Messenia III 158


A low hill c. 1.8 km. SE of Aris and 800 m. E of the Pamisos river.
It is immediately to E of a road and railway intersection. Prehistoric
traces were found on the centre and E section, i.e. over c. 200 m. E-W by
8o m. only, whereas the hill is c. 350 m. E-W by 100 m.
D 128

KARTEROLI:

AYIOS KONSTANDINOS

(GAMS No. 178,

No. 128)

L. 6 Kalamai
779 E I 558 N
LH III(A-B)
,
N. Valmin, Etudes topographiques sur la Messenie ancienne (1930) 64;
BSA 52 (1957) 246; Messenia I 249

161

The chapel of Ayios Konstandinos is c. 500 m. ENE of Karteroli, to


~W of the intersection of the Messini-Meligala road and the branch road to
Karteroli. LH chamber tombs (9 certain and 4 probable) were found on both
sides of the main road, and surface sherds indicate a LH habitation site
on Rachi Papoulia to NE of the intersection and c. 150 m. ~~of the village
of Piperitsa. The spread of sherds indicates a minimum extent of c. 150 m.
N-S by lOO m.
D 129

MAVRC!V!ATI:

PANAYIA

L. 6 Kalamai
787 E
EH II LH III(A-B)

(~No. 129)

548 N

Messenia III 158


The chapel of Panayia is on a small low ridge to W of the MessiniMeligala road c. 500 m. ~lli of Mavromati. Several LH III sherds were
recognized and one EH II, and the spread indicates a small site only c. 90 m.
E-W by 50 m.
D 130

MESSINI:

MEXA

L. 6 Kalamai
EH II

#
770 E

(MME No. 130)

494 N

Messenia II 234
A low hill only c. 500 m. from the sea, !+ km. SSW of Messini, on the
SW edge of the Pamisos plain. A very small EH II settlement only c. 70 m.
E-W by 4o m. is demonstrated by some heavily worn sherds.
D 131

MADHENA:

AYIOS KONSTANDINOS

L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A2-B)
AD 20 (1965) B 207;

71>1 E

(MME No. 131)

520 N

Messenia II 156

The chapel of Ayios Konstandinos is on the low hill adjacent to


Madhena on the SW. A LH tomb was destroyed at the SE foot of the hill,
and a few fragments of vases were recovered. The LH IIIC date originally
assigned seems less likely than LH IIIA2-B, which appears to be the correct
range. Sparse LH sherds on the S slopes of the hill indicate that this
may also have been the habitation site, but cultivation and erosion have
destroyed nearly all traces.

162

D 132

AYIOS FLOROS:

11

KAMARIA

(~No.

132)

L. 6 Kalamai
798 E I 658 N
EH II LH III(A-)B H?
Messenia III 159
Kamaria is at the NE edge of the lower Pamisos plain, c. 6oo m. NNW
of the Ayios Floros springs, the source of the main E branch of the Pamisos.
The ridge, c. 200 m. W of the Kalamata to Tripolis highway, appears as an
"island" in the plain. Only part of its area (c. 150 m. N-S by lOO m.)
appears to have been used in prehistoric times. EH II and LH III (including 2 certainly LH IIIB) sherds were distributed sparsely, and mainly in
a limited area to N~ of the chapel of Panayia at the centre.
D 134

AYIOS FLOROS
L. 6 Kalamai
MH? LH?

(GAMS No. 177, Ml'fili No. l)if)

8o8 E

655 N

Messenia II 236, III 159


On the W slopes of a rocky knoll on the E of and above Ayios Floros
a few coarse BA sherds were found sparsely strewn over an area c. 150 m.
E-W by 8o m. MH and LH are probably represented, and some coarse ware
resembles that of Margeli (D 116).
D 135

PLATI:

PETROGEPHYRA

L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A-B)

791 E

(~No.

175, MME No. 135)

I 622 N

Messenia II 236
A low hill l km. WSW of Plati has been cut through by the road from
Aristodhemion immediately E of the Petrogephyra bridge across the Pamisos
river. A few sherds including LH III were found in the sides of the cutting.
D 136

PIDHIMA:

AYIOS IOANNIS

11

(GAMS No. 176, MME No. 136)

L. 6 Kalamai
820 E I 635 N
LH IIII LH III(A-B) A? C H
Valmin l93C, 53;

Messenia II 236

On a broad low terrace c. lOO m. SSW of the main Pidhima spring,


plentiful LH sherds cover an area at least 250 m. E-W by l6o m. The LH
site seems confined to the W side of the road to S and W of the chapel of

Ayios Ioannis (c. 700 m. S of Pidhima village). The higher terraces toE
of the road are even more heavily covered in sherds, mainly C and H. The
high site in the cleft above the reservoir seems entirely mediaeval.
D 137

AITHAIA:

ELLINIKA (ANCIENT THOURIA)

L. 6 Kalamai
824 E I 577 N
EH II MH lli IIIA2-B "PG" G?

A?

(GAMS No. 174, Mri'.E No. 137)

BSA 52 (1957) 234, 61 (1966) 121;


AD 20 (1965) B 207

Valmin 1930, 56;


II 239, III 158;

Messenia I 250,

A sketch map of ancient Thouria and its vicinity is given in BSA 61


( 1966) 122': The ridge which comprises the site is c. L 8 km. in length,
running parallel to, and E of, the Kalamata-Tripolis higpway to E of and
above the villages of Antheia and Ai thaia. The classical and later town
is mainly at the N end, the LH settlement is on the central ridge and its
upper W slope, and the EH settlement is near the S end and possibly also
at the Pisovrysi spring on the SW slope above Aithaia. At least 24 LH
chamber tombs, all robbed, are to be seen in the upper slopes mainly in the
E flank, and there is a tholos tomb on a lower slope toW of the LH site.
Two mounds on the upper slope of the E bank of the Xeropotamos gorge
opposite to E are probably also LH tholos tombs. The northerDITDst is c. 10 m.
in diameter and 5 m. high and the clay capping is partly revealed; the
second, c. 40 m. to S, is c. 10 m. in diameter and 4 m. high. LH III sherds
and obsidian were found nearby. The EH site appears to have been c. 90 m.
N-S by 70 m. Fine EH II wares of normal types were found and a stylized
figurine (BSA 52 (1957) 245 Pl. 50b). A MH Grey Minyan sherd and a few
LH were found in the area of the EH II settlement, but these may have
spilled over from the LH area adjacent to N. The LH site is certified by
several good quality LH IIIA2 and LH IIIB kylix and deep bowl fragments.
It was at least 400 m. N-S by 150 m. i.n extent, and may have extended
considerably further down the W slopes. Ellinika is therefore a large and
important LH site, possibly to be classed as a ma,jor site. There are no
definite signs of continuity into the DA. The "PG" vases and sherds found
near the monastery below the walls of Classical Thouria at the N end do not
appear to be of earlier PG date. Nothing certainly LH IIIC has yet been
found.
D 139

THOURIA:

AYTOS ATFJINASIOS

L. 6 Kalamai

MH

830 E

(MME No. 139)

561> N

LH?

Messenia III l6o


A small settlement (maximum 100 m. N-S by 6o m.), marked only by
obsidian and coarse pottery, on a hill c. 200 m. NE of the chapel of Ayios

164

Athanasios and c. 800 m. E of modern Thouria village. About 500 m. SW,


some MH sherds and others which may be lli were noted about 2.5 m. down
from the surface in the sides of a sunken track between two hills on the
way to the Panayia convent. Some large pithos fragments suggest that the
track may have cut through a prehistoric cemetery.
D

l~D

PERIVOLAKIA:

SOLA

L. 6 Kalamai
920 E
MH? LH III(A-B) H?
BSA 61 (1966) 118;

(MME No. l~)

I 514 N

Messenia III l6o

On a high spur projecting westward c. 300 m. NW


small LH site (lOO m. NNE-SSW by So m. maximum), much
LH III sherds and coarse wares of 11Margeli 11 type were
above fertile terraces and has an excellent view over
It also lies near an old route across Mt. Taygetos.
D 141

KALAMATA:

TOURLES

(GAMS No. 166, MME No. 141)

L. 6 Kalamai
886 E I 518 N
EH II 11H? lli III(A2- )B PG?
BSA 52 (1957) 242, 61 (1966) 116;

of Perivolakia is a
eroded. Some worn
found. The site is
the Kalamata plain.

Messenia I 251, III l6o

About 500 m. NE of Kalamata Kastro, on the N side of the road to


Sparta is a slightly higher hill named Tourles. LH III deep bowl and kylix
fragments together with coarse ware, some of "Margeli" type, were found
over most of the upper part of the hill and upper S and E terraces, over an
area c. 200 m. E-W by lOO m. On a S slope were remains of a house wall,
apparently prehistoric, and there are remains of LH chamber tombs on the
upper SE terraces and possibly elsewhere on the hill and the adjacent hill
to NE (cf. BSA 52 (1957) 241 fig. 5).
D 142

KALAMATA:

KASTRO

/1

(GAMS No. 166, MME No. llf2)

L. 6 Kalamai
882 E I 516 N
LH III(A-B) G A C H
BSA 52 (1957) 242, 61 (1966) 116; BCH 83 (1959) 632;
237, III l6o; AD 17 (1961-2) B 96, 23 (1968) B 156

Messenia I 251, II

LH III and later sherds were found on the S slope of the Kastro hill,
and it therefore seems likely that the Kastro was the LH citadel, and that
Tourles (D 141) comprised the main part of the outlying settlement beyond
the walls. But we are sceptical about the hypothesis (l2Ql:! loo. cit.) that
parts of the surviving ancient walls on the Kastro are LH.

165

D 143 VERGA:

KASTRAKI

L. 6 Kalamai
914 E
MH? LH III(A-B)
Messenia III 16o;

(MME No. 143)

466 N

BSA 61 (1966) 116

Verga is on the slope of Mt. Kalathion (an outlying range of Mt.


Taygetus). On the ridge adjacent to the village on the NW some LH III
sherds and BA coarse ware (including MH?) were found over an area c. lOO m.
in diameter on theW terraces.
D l4il

SOTIRIANIKA :

NEAR l lth KM. MARK

M. 6 Koroni
LH I?

919 E

1f39

( GAMS No. 167)

AJA 42 (1938) 304; BSA 52 (1957) 239: Messenia III 16o; A.Sakellariou
and G. Papathanasopoulos, National Archaeological Museum A. Prehistoric
Collections, a Brief Guide (1970) 52 (nos. 7381, 7385)
A hoard of gold objects was found in a barren and rocky area on the
left side of the road from Kalamata to Kambos, near the ll th km. mark (from
Kalamata) and c. l km. toN of the turning to Sotirianika. They were taken
to a local goldsmith, and some of the objects were melted down before the
police recovered the remainder. The goods, including a fine kantharos,
two smaller mugs, and fragments of a probable head-band or similar ornament,
have goorl Shaft Grave parallels (a sword-hilt and, less credibly, a statuette of gold are also reported as mong the original finds) and are likely
to come from an important tomb, perhaps a tholos, but there is no trace of
this in the vicinity (the nearest site is MME No. 144 c. l km. to WSW, and
LH habitation has not yet been established there). The find was presumably
a tomb-robbers 1 cache, ancient or modern, and we therefore omit the location
on Map D.
D 145

PIGADHIA:

KOKKINOCHOMATA

M. c( Yi thion
MH? LH IIII?
BSA 52 (1957) 2~0;

(GAMS No. 168, MME No. 1115)

970 E I 440 N (approx.)


LH III(A-B) "PG"?
Messenia I 251

In a collapsed cave c. l.f km. W of Pigadhia and c. 4 km. NE of


Sotirianika human bones and prehistoric sherds were found. These include
LH III and possibly MH or early LH, and one possibly PG.

166

D 146

KAMBOS:

ZARNATA

M. 6 Koroni
LH (IIB-III)
AE (1891) 189;

*I

936 E
C H

(GAMS No. 169, MME No. 146)

I 396 N

BSA 52 (1957) 236, 61 (1966) 114;

Messenia I 251

A tholos tomb was found in the side of a low ridge on which stands a
mediaeval tower, c. 6oo m. W of Kambos and c. 200 m. NE of the fort of
zarnata (also apparently the site of ancient Gerenia) which may also have
been the site of a LH settlement. The tomb (d. c. 7.5 m.) was finely built.
Finds were few, but included characteristic later LH jewellery, a sealstone,
and two lead figurines. The last have often been suggested to be of LH I
date and used to date the tomb, but the only pottery discoverable in the
neighbourhood of the tomb is LH III (BSA 61 (1966) 114 and subsequent visits),
and its architecture's quality and the jewellery would both support a later
date. It seems likely that it was built some time in the LH IIB- IIIA range.
D 147

KARDAMYLE:

KASTRO

M. 7 Yithion
N? EH? MH?

(GAMS No. 170, MME No. 147)

979 E I 339 N
LH III(A-B) 11 PG 11

G A C H

Valmin 1930, 198; BSA 52 (1957) 234, 61 (1966) 114; BCH 83 (1959) 639;
Messenia I 251, III 161; AD 20 (1965) B 208, 22(1960B 206
The steep acropolis of ancient Kardamyle is c. 800 m. NE of modern
Kardamyle at the W end of a long spur. LH sherds were found on the flat
summit and the upper W slopes over an area c. 300 m. E~W by 200 m. (maximum)
and two celts said to have come from Kardamyle are presumably earlier than
LH. The sherds attributed to SMyc. (AD 20 loc.cit.) are really local PG.
D 148

STOUPA:

ANCIENT IEUKTRA

(GAMS No. 171;

MME No. 148)

M. 7 Yithion
995 E I 275 N
MH? LH III(A-B) C H
Valmin 1930, 203;

BSA 52 (1957) 233;

BCH 83 (1959) 640

An isolated acropolis hill c. 4oo m. ESE of the small harbour of


Stoupa. A few LH III sherds were found on the hill over an area c. 250 m.
E-W by 200 m. (maximum), and a partly destroyed LH chamber tomb at the NE
foot, A celt said to have come from the acropolis is probably MH.
D 149

AYIOS DHIMITRIOS:
M. 7 Yithion
LH III(A-B)

VIGLA

022 E

I 234 N

(G~~S

No. 172, MME No. 149)

Messenia II 237;

BSA 61 (1966) 113

On broad terraces to S of the small fishing village of Ayios


Dhimitrios sparse BA coarse ware was found and a fragment of a LH III tallstemmed kylix. The maximum area indicated is c. 200 m. N-3 by lOO m.
D 151

KALAMATA:

AKOVITIKA

,{1

(MME No. 151)

830 E I 510 N (approx.)


L. 6 Kalamai
G
A
C H
EH II MH?
AAA 2 (1969) 352, 3 (1970) 30lf;
MME 131

AD 25 (1970) B 177, 26 (1971) B 126;

In a marshy area close to the present coast-line and c. 500 m. S of


Akovitika, remains of large and small EH II buildings have been excavated.
In size and complexity the large buildings compare with the "House of the
Tiles" at Lerna (A 13), but finds are few (a sealing of Lerna type is
reported). Some incised pottery has been thought MH, but the area clearly
lost all importance until the foundation of a sanctuary of Poseidon in G
times.
D 200 MIROU:

PERISTERIA

L. 6 Kalamai
MH LH I-IIIB

581 E
C H

*!I

(GAMS No. 235, MME No. 200)

I 790 N

PAE (l96o) 206, (1961) 69, (1962) 90, (1964) 92, (1965) 109; E.Vermeule,
a;;ece in the Bronze Age (1964) 117; SMEA 3 (1967) 10; Ergon (1976) 127
A fine acropolis c. 1.5 km. N of Mirou, and on the S bank of the
Kyparissia river. It is steep and rocky on the N but approachable by a
slope rising from the S; there is a copious spring at its foot. The site
(c. 200 m. N-3 by lOO m.) was apparently first occupied in MH; a tumulus
containing pithos-burials of this date on Koukirikou hill 500 m. to the W is
probably associated with it (PAE (1964) 92). Remains of structures have
been found all over the hill apart from the summit, including a fortificationwall across the S slope, whose simple character and parallels with Pylos and
Malthi (D 222) suggest that it is of early LH date. A large building of
apparently LH I date, the East House, has been partly uncovered. But the
most impressive remains are the tombs, whose number has been increased and
many of whose features have been clarified by recent excavation. The
earliest is a small roughly square built tomb (c. 2 m. square), used for
several burials, which contained a gold vessel, gold jewellery, and various
bronzes, and is attributed to the MH/LH transition. The smallest of the
tholoi, T. 3 (d. 6.9 m.), should date to LH I to judge from the Shaft Grave
parallels of the rich goods recovered and the two vases found (the new
excavations have conclusively demonstrated that this was a tholos, entered

168

from the W, and that the gold cups, etc. were found in the oval hollow
leading in from the dramas that is a feature of several early tholoi in
Messenia). The finely built Ts. l (d. 12.1 m.) and 2 (d. 10.6 m.) should
date to LH IIA, to judge from the fragments of" "palatial" jars found in
them; they had been robbed, but contained some gold jewellery and fragments
of precious vessels of metal and stone. The so-called "Circle" has proved to
be two unconnected stretches of walling that were probably intended to
separate the area of Ts. 2 and 3 from the ordinary houses; the figurines
and other associated finds have not yet been explained, and could represent
some form of cult. The figures include very early types (of. BSA 66 (1971)
l09).
A further tomb has been found to the S, tholos-like but apparently
partly covered with clay, built above ground, and relatively large (d. 5.08 m.)
It contained pithos-burials as well as ordinary inhumations; as described,
the pottery seems mainly of early LH type.
LH IIIA-B material is widespread on the site, but it is possible that
it declined in importance at this time; there is no clear evidence that the
great tombs were still in use. One excavated house contained a complex of
finds in one room, including figurines, that may be connected with cult;
the pottery is reported to range from the end of LH IIB to LH IIIA2 or
beyond. The site may have been superseded as a local capital by D 201.
D 201

MOURIATADHA:

ELLENIKO

L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(B)

585 E

PAE (196o) 201;


1964, 182

*!I

(GAMS No. 236, MME No. 201)

76o N (approx.)

AD 16 (l96o) B 116;

AJA 65 (1961) 193, cf. Vermeule

On a commanding but remote hill c. 1.5 km. E of Mouriatadha an


extensive fortified late LH settlement c. 200 m. N-S by 150 m. was briefly
investigated. On its summit was a large building with many rooms, having
painted plaster on the walls, and near a tower of the fortification was
a megaron containing four column-bases, thought to have been possibly a
shrine. The site was heavily eroded, and there were few finds; the pottery
is not described in detail, but is assigned to late LH by the excavator, and
Vermeule assigns the site to the thirteenth century. On a hill c. 200 m.
to the NE was a small tholos tomb (d. 4.8 m.), which had been largely
cleared of its original contents; some animal-sacrifices appear to represent a later cult. This was clearly a local capital of late LH date.
D 202

SELLAS:

NEKROTAPHEION

L. 6 Kalamai
MH

LH?

Messenia III 133

6oo E

/1
713 N

(MME No. 202)

169

The cemetery of Sellas c. 500 m. SW of the village occupies theW end


of a high spur projecting W over a remote valley. The prehistoric site is
on the top and upper S terraces, where coarse MH and probably LH are found
over an area c. 150 m. E-W by So m. The site commands the valley and an
interior pass, via Tripila to the S, from the Kyparissia river valley
through the Kyparissia mountains to SE Messenia.
D 203

KONCHILION:

KASTRO

L. 6 Kalamai
66o E
MH LH III(A-B) H?

(~No.

203)

720 N

Messenia III 141


Kastro is the flat-topped hill immediately above and W of Konchilion.
MH and LH III were recognized among sherds distributed over a walled area
c. 150 m. NNE-SSW by 70 m. on the summit and uppar W slope. The wall, now
ruined, was thick, and contained many large rough stones. It may be ancient,
and the site seemsa.typical hill fort of the Malthi type (D 222).
D

204

NEOCHORI :

KOUNOURA

L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A-B)

742 E

(MME No. 204)


710 N (approx.)

Messenia III 142


LH coarse wares and a LH III kylix foot were found among sherds thinly
scattered over an area c. 150 m. E-W by lOO m. on low NW slopes of the
foothills of Mt. Ithome, c. 800 m. SW of Neochori and c. 200 m. S of the road
to Zerbisia.
D 205

STENYKLAROS:
L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A-B)

KATORACHI
750 E

(MME No. 205)

730 N

Messenia III 144


At theE end of a range of low hills, c. 1.5 km. SE of Stenyklaros,
on the S side of the road to Magoula and c. l km. toW of Magoula, badly
worn sherds, including LH III, were distributed over the E summit, over an
area 150 m. in diameter (maximum).
D 206 MELIGALA:

AYIOS ILIAS

L. 6 Kalamai
764 E
MH LH III(A-B)

#
719 N

(MME No. 206)

170

Messenia TII 143


The highest point within Meligala is the conspicuous clock tower
beside the church of Ayios Ilias. Very worn BA sherds including MH incised
ware and LH III were spread over an area at least So m. E-H by 50 m. on the
top and the H and SW slope, where thick wall foundations (probably ancient)
were

D 207

observed~

KATSAROU:

AYIOS ILIAS

L. 6 Kalamai
Mll? Lll

798 E

(GAMS No. 253, MME No. 207)

713 N

Messenia II 232
A rather steep and rocky isolated hill in a prominent position to NE
of the junction between the Kalamata-Tripolis road and the branch road to
Katsarou, which is c. l ],m, to ENE. Horn BA sherds, including LH and others
of Margeli type, were found sparsely strewn mainly on the S and SE slopes
below the chapel of Ayios Ilias. The extent of the site is not clear, but
150 m. E-H by So m. may be the maximum.
D 208

SIAMOU:

L. 6 Kalamai
820 E
LH III(A-B)

(G~IS

PALAIOCHORI

No. 252, MME No. 208)

720 N

t~H?

)VJessenia II 231, III 143


A low rounded hill c. 4oo m. N of Siamou was a small site, occupied
in LH III and perhaps in MH. The BA sherds were few and confined to the
top area, c. 50 m. in diameter.
D 209

LOUTRO :

KARATSADHES

L. 6 Kalamai
Mll
Messenia T 235;

in square

Boo

(GAMS No. 250, MME No. 209)


E

750 N

N. Valmin, Das Adriatische Gebiet (1939) 39

A very low mound c. 200 m. in diameter, c. 800 m. E of Loutro and


immediately N of the Xerias river. Much MH coarse ware including incised
was found here and remains of slab-covered cist graves. One grave covered
with large pithos fragments and lined with stones resembles a burial at
Olympia (Alt-Olympia I, 94).

171

D 210

KALYVIA:

PANO CHORIO

L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A- )B
AD 22 (1967) B 206;

820 E

(!!_ No. 210)

730 N

Messenia III 144

A long flat-topped hill above and c. 300 m. E of Kalyvia. The top


and upper w terraces are strewn with LH fine and coarse wares, including
LH III, for an extent c. 180 m. N-S by 120 m. About lOO m. S of the
village a tomb was destroyed by a bulldozer cutting a road from Kalyvia to
Siamou. A piriform jar (LH IIIB), an alabastron, electrum beads, and some
gold leaf fragments were recovered. On the NW slope of the knoll above
(on which is the chapel and cemetery of Ayios Ilias) there are indications
of a probable collapsed tholos tomb.
D 212

POLICHNI:

AYIOS TAXIARCHIS

(GAMS No. 244, MME No. 212)

L. 6 Kalamai
753 E I 773 N
MH? LH I? LH (IIIB) C
BullLund (1928-9) 34;

Valmin 1930, 92;

Messenia I 234

On a high rounded hill c. 400 m. N of Polichni are the remains of


the convent of Ayios Taxiarchis. The flat hilltop measures c. 250 m.
SSE-NNW by lOO m. Coarse BA and some LH sherds were found within this
area, including a goblet base which may be MH or LH I. Some LH IIIB sherds
from monochrome deep bowls in Kalamata museum are also apparently from the
site.
D 213

PARAPOUNGION:

AYIOS YEORYIOS

(GAMS No. 247, MME No. 213)

I 818 N

L. 6 Kalamai
766 E
MH LH III(A-B)
Messenia II 231

The site is a high spur c. 1>00 m. NE of and above Parapoungion, to S


of the chapel of Ayios Yeoryios and to N of the railway line. The main
concentration of BA sherds is on the flat top and upper S terraces, an area
c. lOO m. N-S by 6o m. MH included many incised, and LH III is represented.
This site was chosen for detailed survey (MME 21> and Pocket Map 2-3) and
environmental study, as being a typical small hill settlement.
D 211> DHIAVOLITSI:

LOUTSES

L. 6 Kalamai
765 E
MH? LH III(A- )B

#
798 N

(GAMS No. 245, MME No. 214)

172

AD 19 (l96lf) B 154;

Nessenia II 231, III 143

This is a low rounded hill c. 4oo m. WSW of Dhiavolitsi. Surface


sherds are nearly all LH III fine ware or gritty coarse ware. They were
sparse, but found all over the hill, with an apparent concentration on the
N side. The area of the site is not clear, but must exceed c. lOO m.
diameter. A small LH IIIB chamber tomb was destroyed by construction near
the railway station, c. !+Oo m. ENE of Dhiavolitsi and c. 800 m. distant from
the site.
D 215

AGRILOVOUNO:

AYIOS NIKOLAOS

L. 6 Kalamai
752 E
MH LH III(A- )B

11

(GAMS No. 246, Ml'I!E No. 215)

SOl N

Messenia II 231, III 143


The site is on the S tip of a long spur which ends to N of and above
Agrilovouno. '['he hill top, c. 190 m. N-S by 40 m., and the upper slopes on
S and E are covered in sherds and stones. Some fine LH sherds (including
LH IIIB) were found, but the coarse wares predominate. An ear-shaped lug
is MH (parallels were found at Mal thi, D 222)
This important site
controls the access to the NW branch of the upper Pamisos valley (i.e. the
area of D 216 and 217).
D 216

KATO MELPIA:

KREBEI\'I

L. 6 Kalamai

MH?

LH IIIA-C

11

(GAMS No. 249, Mlfili No. 216)

739 E I 831 N (approx.)


A? C H

Messenia I 234, III 143


This is a large site c. 300 m. NE of and above Kato Melpia. The
sides are especially steep on the N and W, and the terraces on the SW are
also high and steep. C and H walls and sherds are abundant and cover an
extent c. 6oo m. E-W by 300 m. LH sherds of good quality, including
LH IIIB and LH IIIC, were concentrated mostly in the central and upper part,
indicating a less extensive, but still considerable, extent (perhaps c. 300 m.
E-W by 150 m.). l'his is a large, perhaps major, LH centre.
D 217

MANDBRA:

CHAZNA

11

L. 6 Kalamai
730 E I 820 N
LH III(A-B)

EH or MH?

RE Suppl. VI 6o7;

Messenia I 234, III llf2

(GAMS No. 2lf8, Ml'I!E No. 2H)

173

A ruined tholos tomb was found c. 20 m. SW of the church of Ayios


Yeoryios at the W end of Mandhra village. The exterior diameter is c. 13 m.
(the circle of stones and line of the dromos were still apparent). A
small LH habitation site was subsequently found c. 200 m. WSW of Mandhra
and c. 100 m. S of the tholos. Sherds were found only on the S and SE
slopes of the low ridge in an area c, lOO m, E-W by 50 m., and most were
coarse. They include a thin fragment which may be EH or MH.

D 218 MILA:

PROFITIS ILIAS

L. 6 Kalamai
MH?

710 E

(MME No. 218)

738 N (approx.)

LH?

Messenia III 142


The cemetery of Profitis Ilias ic c, 700 m. NNE of Mila on a high
spur projecting E from the main N-S Ramovouni ridge (on whose N end is the
site of Malthi D 222), Coarse BA pottery was found on theN slopes only
(area c. lOO m. E-W by So m.) but the top may have been included.
D 219

KASTRO:

KASTRO TOU MILA

L. 6 Kalamai
LH?

715 E

I 745

(MME No. 219)

N (approx.)

MH?

The Kastro is a high conical hill 200 m. N of the village. BA sherds


could only be found on the N and E slopes, and all were coarse ware, but
a size c. lOO m. in diameter is likely, if the area of the mediaeval fort
on the top is included,

D 220 VASILIKO:

XEROVRISI

L. 6 Kalamai
LHIIA

715 E
H

BullLund (1927-8) 190, 215;

(GAMS No. 243, MME No. 220)

*#

I 756

Messenia I 234

The excavated tholos tomb is c. 1.5 km. SE of Vasiliko on the N side


of the railway line, The second tomb (not excavated) is apparently c. 150 m.
to SE of this and c. 4o m. S of the railway line. The excavated tomb
(d. 6.5 m.) was not very well built and had been thoroughly robbed; fragments of a LH IIA "palatial" jar were the only finds. An unusual feature is
a niche set into the E wall of the chamber. There is evidence of later cult.
D 221

MILA:

LAKKATHELA ON RAMOVOUNI

L. 6 Kalamai 695 E I 745 N (approx.)


MH LH IIIA(2? )-C G A C

EH

174

AE (1972) Chronika 12;

AD 27 (1972) B 258

On the E side of the Ramovouni ridge, c. 2 km. NW of Mila, in a


hollow surrounded by hills, remains of a prehistoric settlement and later
sanctuary have been found. EH and MH pottery is reported, also LH IIIA-B
figurines and pottery. Two walls perhaps built earlier in LH III were
certainly in use in LH IIIC, being associated with a slab-floor on which
there was a deposit of LH IIIC vases. A destruction by fire may have
brought this settlement to an end.
D 222

VASILIKO:

MALTHI

L. 6 Kalamai
MH LH I-IIIB

(GAMS No. 242, MME No. 222)

*#

694 E

LH IIIC?

7D N
"PG"

BullLund (1926-7) 53; N. Valmin, The Swedish Messenia Expedition (1938)


Part I; Messenia I 233, III 141
11

Mal thi" is the name given by the excavator to the acropolis on the
N end of the Ramovouni ridge, over 1 km. W of Vasiliko; the area enclosed
within its fortification is c. 140 m. N-S by 80 m. With the exception of
a stone figurine that may be N, and could have been brought from elsewhere,
the earliest material from the site is MH, and not of the earliest phase
(cf. most recently Hesperia 44 (1975) 111). It has also become clear that
the "Adriatic Ware" reported from all levels (of which the inc:Lsed type is
only one class) is likely to be MH-LH rough plain and coarse ware, and that
the frequently mentioned tiles are probably Byzantine, and thus much of the
excavator's interpretation has to be called into question. In broad outline,
the site's history can be reconstructed thus: after several phases of
scattered buildings, a fortified village of integrated plan was founded,
probably late in MH or even early in LH, which survived with few modifications into LH (III?). The finds are not very impressive, particularly
after LH II. There are traces of a destruction by fire, but its date is
not clear; some pottery from the site seems attributable to the early DA,
but the iron objects may prove to be associated with the Byzantine occupation
(there is also some C material).
At theW foot of the hill, two tholos tombs (d. 6.85, 5.75 m.) were
dug into the slope of a low hill (the excavator's statement that they were
built completely above ground appears to be a misinterpretation of the
data). The pottery recovered is of LH III date, some from T.2 being
plausibly LH IIIC, but few finds have survived. A single cist grave was
found in a field to E of the site, where others have been reported.
D 223 MALTHI :

GOUVES

*#

(MME No. 223)

L. 6 Kalamai
692 E I 770 N (approx.)
MH? LH IIIA2? LH IIIB LH IIIC or 11 PG 11 ?

G or A?

175

OpAth 1 (1953) 29, 2 (1955) 66;

AD 16 (196o) B 119;

Messenia III 141

On a very low hill, c. 200 m. N-S by 150 m. (maximum) some lOO m, W


of the foot of the Mal thi acropolis and only c. 6o m. W of the two tholos
tombs (D 222), part of a late LH settlement or perhaps a single large
building was excavated. In one area a lower building-stratum is reported,
and a fragment of incised coarse ware and Phi figurine may indicate earlier
habitation. The finds included much pottery, probably LH IIIB, small
objects of similar date, and some unusual stone slabs with incised designs.
As described, some of the pottery may be post-LH IIIB, notably reported
fragments of swollen-stemmed kylikes and everted deep bowl-like rims, while
some surface finds were thought to be G or later. This may have been the
centre of late LH settlement in the area, which is not very well represented
on the Malthi acropolis, but the excavation was not extensive enough to
determine the nature or size of the site, and the lack of illustration of
the finds makes interpretation difficult.
D 224

KOKLA:

11

RA CHI CHANT

L. 6 Kalamid
690 E I
EH II MH LH III(A-B)

AD (1964) B 154;

(MME No. 224)

78o N (approx.)
H

Messenia III 141

The low rounded hill on the N side of Kokla was bisected by the cut
made for the new highway. LH sherds indicate a site at least lOO m. in
diameter; and a deposit of many EH II and MH sherds was found when the
cut was made, in addition to H and later cist graves.
D 225

AETOS:

PALAIOKASTRO

(MME No. 225)

L. 6 Kalamai
LH

MH

Messenia III 140


This steep conical hill c. l km. E of Aetas was the site of a mediaeval fort with a commanding view to N, E, and SE. The upper NE and E
terraces above the track to Dhrosopiyi were strewn with mediaeval and BA
sherds over an area c. lOO m. NW-SE by So m. MH incised ware and some LH
were found (the latter should have been mentioned in the text of
Messenia III).
D 227

AETOS:

AYIOS DHIMITRIOS (B)

L. 6 Kalamai
630 E
MH? UI III(A-B)

76o N

(MME No. 227)

176

Messenia III 140


About l km. l\1W of Aetos is a low ridge, at whose highest NE end is
the chapel of Ayios Ilias. The m site, however, is the slightly lower
height adjacent to WSW named Ayios Dhimi trios. On the upper surface
(c. 8o m. NNW-SSE by 50 m.) some LH III and probable MH were found with
the predominating coarse wares.
D 228

AErOS:

11

MOURLOU

(~No.

228)

L. 6 Kalamai
650 E I 78o N
MH LH III(A-B) LH IIIC?
Messenia III l4o
A low rounded hill c. 3.5 km. NNE of Aetos, 700 m, S of the main
highway and on theW side of the branch road to Aetos. Sherds strewn over
the top and upper slopes over an area c. 120 m. ENE-WSW by lOO m. include
MH and LH III, and one (formerly attributed to LH IIIA or m IIIB) which
may be LH IIIC.
D 229

KATO KOPANAKI:
L. 6 Kalamai
MH? LH?

11

CHALIKIA
623 E

I 777

(MJVIE No. 229)

Messenia III 140


The site, c. l km. SW of the village, is a thin isolated ridge
marked by a water tower; BA sherds, including probable MH and LH, were
found sparsely over an area c. 70 m. NW-SE by 40 m., mainly on the upper
NE slopes.
D 230

ARTIKI:

RACHI GORTSIA

L. 6 Kalamai
616 E
MH? m III(A-B)

11
745

(MJVIE No. 230)


N

Messenia III 136


A few worn BA sherds, including two LH III and one probably MH, were
found on the bare rounded hill c. 90 m. in diameter about 300 m. WNW of
Artiki.
D 231

DHORION:

KONDRA

L. 6 Kalamai
MH? m IIII?

669

11
E

(MJVIE No. 231)

1 8o4 N

LH III(A-B)

H?

177
Messenia III 139
About 2.5 km. NNE of Dhorion is the chapel of Ayios Konstandinos near
the spring Koprinitsa. To W of the road and above the chapel is a large
hill c. 6oo m. by 500 m. BA sherds are mainly concentrated in the upper
area (c. 16o m. NE-S1tl by 110 m.) and include a few LH III and some which
may be MH OR LH. Sporadic pottery was also found on the E and SE slopes.
The site was certainly larger than Malthi (D 222) and may have been of
major importance.

D 233

ANO KOPANAKI:

STYLARI

(GAMS No. 238, MME No. 233)

L. 6 Kalamai
61>5 E I 8oo N
MH? LH II-III(A-B) C H
BullLund (1927-8) 31;

Valmin 1930, 79, 101;

Messenia I 233

A prominent hill c. 1 km. ENE of Ano Kopanaki. The upper area,


c. 75 m. in diameter, is occupied by the modern hamlet of Stylari, and
there is a well-preserved section of H fortification along the N edge.
Many LH sherds are scattered on the gentle W, S and SE slopes, and part
of a LH III terracotta animal figurine, but the site itself may have been
confined to a smaller area, perhaps c. lOO m. in diameter, mainly on the S
part. A destroyed tholos was reported on the S slope (Valmin loc.cit.) and
another at Feretze c. 3 km. to the E (nearer Dhorion), but no trace of
either could be found in 196o.
D 234

ANO KOPANAKI:

AKOURTHI

*I

(GAMS No. 237, MME No. 234)

L. 6 Kalamai
627 E I 793 N
MH LH IIB-III(B) G A c H
BullLund (1927-8) 201, 216;

Valmin 1930, 79;

Messenia I 233

Three mounds lie close together to S of the railway line c. 1.5 km.
W of Ano Kopanaki. The easternmost (A) was only partially examined.
Remains of a wall and MH and LH III pottery were found on its surface. The
westernmost tomb (B), which is c. 40 m. W of Tomb A, was fully excavated.
It was small (d. 5.35 m.) and had been robbed; surviving finds included
pottery, some as early as LH IIB, a gold ring, and a bronze fibula of violinbow type that is unlikely to be earlier than LH IIIB. There are traces of
cult and possibly burials from LG onwards.
D 236 KAMARI:

GOUVA

L. 6 Kalamai
LH III(A-B)

#
610 E

(MME No. 236)

8o4 N

178

Messenia III 137


On a N-3 ridge on the skyline c. 1 km. SW of the Kopanaki-Kamari
road and 1.5 km. S of Kamari is a ruined LH tholos tomb. Further to N
and lower down on the same ridge LH sherds were found spread over an area
c. 120 m. N-S by 100 m,, mainly on the easy upper E slope.
D

237 KAJVIARI :

MESOVOUJ\'I

(MME No. 237)

I 822

L. 6 Kalamai
613 E
MH LH III(A-B)

Messenia III 136


Mesovouni hill is c. 300 m. ENE of Kamari on the opposite side of
the stream. Some representative MH and LH III sherds were found with coarse
ware on the top and upper slopes in an area c. 130 m. ~~-SSW by 70 m,

D 238

ANO KOPANAKI:

BAFANO

L. 6 Kalamai
LH

641

I 814

(MME No. 238)


N

Messenia III 139


About 2 km. N~~ of Ano Kopanaki is a ridge to W of the road to
Kephalovrysi. LH fine and coarse ware is thinly distributed on the E
terraces over an extent c. 130 m. N-S by 70 m.
D 239

GLYKORIZI:

AYIOS ILIAS

L. 6 Kalamai
581 E
N? MH? LH III(A-B)
Messenia III 139;

I 809

(MME No. 239)

AD 23 (1968) B l6o

A conspicuous rounded hill c. 1.5 km. WSW of Glykorizi, at the Send


of a long low ridge. The top is c. lOO m. in diameter, and sherds were
concentrated on its sheltered S and E parts and the corresponding upper
slopes. LH III fine wares are well represented and the settlement spread
over an area c. 180 m. NE-SW by 120 m. It has a magnificent view over
the lower Kyparissia valley, and may have been an important site.
D 24o

KEPHALOVRYSI
L. 6 Kalamai
MH? LH

TSOUKEDHA

633 E I 866 N

(MME No. 24o)

179

Messenia III 131


The site occupied the upper E slopes of a small flat-topped hill
c. 1.5 km. WNw of Kephalovrysi, an area c. 120 m. NW-SE by 8o m. (minimum).
Most of the sherds were coarse, but LH is certainly represented and probably
MH also.
D 241

SIDHEROKASTRO:

L. 6 Kalamai
610 E
MH LH III(A- )B
Valmin 1930, 82;

SPHAKOULIA

(MME No. 241)

870 N

Messenia III 131

A spur from the ridge on the N side of the Aulon valley, c. 1.5 km.
The flat top c. lOO m. NNW-SSE by 70 m., and the
upper W and S terraces are strewn with BA sherds, including MH and LH IIIB.
The total extent may be as much as c. 250 m. NNW-SSE by c. lOO m. This is
a large site controlling a fertile upland valley.
NNE of Sidherokastro.

D 242

VANADHA:

KASTRI

11

L. 6 Kalamai
58o E
MH? LH III (A-B)
~essenia

(MME No. 242)

868 N (approx.)

III 131

The site is the NW end of the ridge on whose SE end is the village of
Vanadha, c. 6oo m. distant. It is on the S side of the road to Agalianoi.
Only a few pieces of LH fine ware were found among the coarse BA pottery
which is thinly distributed on the summit and upper SE slope over an area
c. lOO m. in diameter. A small structure towards theW end of the top may
have been a cist grave. This is a small site but commands striking views
in all directions, and may have been chosen for its strategic position~
D 243

FONISSA:

ASPRA LITillL~IA

L. 5 Kiparissia
MH LH (III?)

549 E

(MME No. 243)

912 N

Messenia III 130


About 800 m. SW of Fonissa a spur named Aspra Litharia projects
northward from the range on the S side of the Neda valley. The area of BA
settlement seems to have been c. lOO m0 N-S by 6o m., mainly on theW slopes.
Only a few characteristic MH and LH sherds were found.

18o

D 244

THOLON:

AYIOS DHIMITRIOS

L. 5 Kiparissia.
LH III(A-B) C

522 E

(MME No. 244)

952 N

Messenia III 130


The chapel of Ayios Dhimitrios is on a low spur to SE of the junction
of the N-S coast road and the Tholon-Lepreon road, c. 500 m. ENE of Tholon.
On a lower knoll c. 200 m. E of the chapel LH and BA coarse ware is thinly
distributed over an area c. 6o m. in diameter. A much larger C site spread
over both the knoll and the spur.
D 245

LEPREON:

AYIOS DHIMITRIOS

(GAMS No. 254, MME No. 245)

L. 6 Kalamai
582 E I 986 N
EH II MH LH II-III(A-B) C H
AJA 46 (1942) 86;

Messenia T 231, III 130

A fine acropolis on a high and steep spur c. 200 m. ESE of Lepreon,


overhanging a deep and fertile valley. EH II, MH and LH II-III sherds of
good quality were abundant over the whole hilltop (c. 150 m. N-S by lOO m.).
The C and H sherds predominate in the S part, and these are only a small
section of the much larger C and H site toE and N of the prehistoric acropolis.
D 246

YIANNITSOCHORI:
L. 5 Kiparissia
EH II

AYIOS YEORYIOS

523 E

(MlllE No. 246)

I 92 1f N

Messenia Ill 130


On the NW edge of the village the newly constructed church of Ayios
Yeoryios occupies the centre of a prehistoric mound c. 6o m. in diameter.
Excellent EH II sherds were found here, comparable to those at Lepreon
(D 21+5), Aristodhemion (D 124) and Ellinika (D 137), and good representative
coarse ware and obsidian. It seems likely that occupation was confined to
the EH period, and that from MH onwards the settlement at Fonissa (D 243)
replaced this settlement.

MAP E:

THE IONIAN ISLANDS, ACARNANIA,

WESTERN AETOLIA, AND WESTERN ELIS


This map covers portions of several provinces, but sites are so rare,

except in the Ionian Islands, that they do not merit separate discussion.
The pre-LH periods are represented at very few sites, but the presence of
characteristic EH and MH wares indicates that these areas fell within the
11
Helladic" sphere. The pre-LH finds are not remarkable, except for the
rich tumuli of Leukas (E 10) and the KS figurines of Ay. Andreas (E 42 ),
which, together with the bronzes of early Aegean and Helladic type found in
Epirus, suggest trading activity that may have extended some way up the
Adriatic (cf. N. G. L. Hammond, Epirus (1967) 328, 337), the precursor of
the better-defined trade in LH times. LH finds on Leukas are few, and the
most significant centres discovered are further south, Ay. Ilias (E 2)
and Teikhos Dymaion (E !+7); although their history is unclear, both were
clearly of considerable importance in LH III. In many ways LH IIIC, when
both still flourished, is the best-defined phase in this area, represented
by a spread of material from Astakos (E 6) to Kangadhi (E lf8); the most
flourishing period of the Kephallenian cemeteries belongs to this phase,
although most had clearly been founded earlier. Long pins and fibulae found
in some of the Kephallenian graves suggest that they could have survived as
late as some Achaean cemeteries, while the material from Polis and Aetos on
Ithaka (E 18-19) is considered to provide a complete local sequence from
LH IIIC through the DA, and a cist cemetery at Elis (E 45) is attributed
to the SMyc. phase. Thus the final phases of the BA are better known in
this area than their predecessors, but it is still too early to tell
whether this represents a historical reality.
E l

MESOLONGBI:

GYPBTOKASTHO ('OLD PLEUHON')

I. 5 Mesolongion
EH? LH III(A2-B)
BSA 32 (1931-2) 239;

381 E I 056 N
"PG" G A? C

* I

(GAMS No. 312)

AD 22 (1967) B 320, 26 (1971) B 326

Gyphtokastro is a rocky hill c. 300 m. in diameter toE of the main


road about 2 km. N of Mesolonghi. Remains of ancient walls of "Cyclopean"
appearance were found on the N side and obsidian and coarse BA sherds on
the top. Hecently some LH pottery and cists of "PG" to G date have been
found on the N and NW sides, and a small prochous attributed to EH is
reported.
E 2

AYIOS ILIAS (ANCIENT ITHORIA?)


I. 5 Mesolongion
283 E
N MH LH IIB-IIIC C H

158 N

*/I

182

PAE (1963) 203;

AD 19 (1964) B 295

A habitation site on the saddle just below and to S of the acropolis


peak has been identified (by Dr. K. Wardle), with evidence of MH-LH and H
occupation; N material has been found in the Kokkini Spilia to the SW.
The most important finds, however, are the tombs, found on the lower slopes.
A chamber tomb in the village, to the N, was only partly dug; a notable
find from it was an Amenophis III scarab, together with much LH IIB-IIIA
(2 early?) pottery and one or two pieces that might be LH IIIC. One tholos
tomb was found at Seremeti, 300 m. to S of the acropolis, and three others
at Marathia between 300 and 500 m. to the SW. All were built of fairly
regular coursed blocks and had a slab-roofed dromos but no stomion. The
Seremeti tomb (d. 5.27 m.) held much pottery and jewellery, and had
apparently been in continuous use from LH IIB to IIIC; the Marathia tombs
(ds. 4.14, 4.17, 3.1 m. respectively) had all been robbed but contained
LH III material, LH IIIC whole vases being found with several burials in
the dromos of T.2. This was evidently a LH centre of considerable and
long-lived importance.
E 3

PALAIOMANINA :

MILA

I. 5 Mesolongion
LH (III?)
AD 22 (1967) B 322;

*
248 E

164 N (Pentalofos village)

AR (1968-69) 21

At tUla, on the W bank of the river Acheloos, between the villages


of Palaiomanina and Pentalofos, a large tholos tomb (d. 10.7 m.) was
excavated. Tts architecture is similar to that of the tombs at E 2, but
no finds are reported.
E 4

PALAIOMANINA:

ANCIE~~

T. 5 Agrinion
250 E
EH MH LH "PG" G

SAURIA
238 N (village)

AD 22 (1967) B 322
At the site of ancient Sauria near Palaiomanina EH, MH, LH, and G
sherds and PG pithoi were reported.
E

CHRYSOVITSA :

ANCIENT KORONTA

T. 4 Preveza
183 E
LH III(A) A C H
PAE (1908) lOO;

*!I

286 N (approx.)

BSA 32 (1931-2) 24o

( GAMS No. 315)

The site of ancient Koronta is a rooky tree-covered hill between


the villages of Chrysovitsa and Prodromos. Two small tholos tombs were
excavated here; they contained LH III sherds (pre-LH IIIB, according to
Dr. K. Wardle), several bronze knives, and beads.
E 6

ASTAKOS :

GRABES

(GAMS No. 314)

*#

T. 4 Preveza
119 E I 239 N
EH II MH LH IIIA2 -C "PG"? C
BSA 32 (1931-2) 243, 33 (1932-3) 219
The hill of Grabes lies to W of the road about l km. NE of Astakos.
On the surface of the small acropolis here (c. l6o m. N-S by lOO m.) much
EH and LH III was found, and in the fill of the cave on the E flank EH, MH,
and LH III material was excavated, including LH IIIC; a ridged stem
reported from here (BSA 39 (1938-9) 13 n. 6) might be local DA.

E 7

ASTAKOS:

AYIOS NIKOLAOS

T. 4 Preveza
082 E
N LH III(A-B) H

( GA_MS No.

31~)

I 211 N

BSA 52 (1947) 156, 173


In the cave of Ayios Nikolaos near the shore c. 2 km. SW of Astakos
a single LH III sherd was found with N material.

E 8

PALAIROS:

KEKROPOULA

(GAMS No. 317)

T. 4 Preveza
925 E I 587 N
LH III(A-B) G A C H
LAAA 4 (1912) 133;

AD 2 (1916) Parartema 49;

BSA 32 (1931-2) 238

LH III sherds were found in association with Cyclopean walls near the
SW gate of the C and H fortress, on this high acropolis dominating a fertile
coastal plain. Finds ranging from G to H have been reported recently from
near Palairos (AD 20 (1965) B 344).
E 9

LEUKAS:

PHRYNT:

ASVOTRYPA ("CAVE OF THE NYMP!iS")

T. 3 Lefkas
797 E
EH MH A C H
AD 23 (1968) B 321;

581 N (Phryni village)

AR (1969-70) 19;

BCH 9 2+ (1970) lOll

184

Some EH sherds and one MH with votives ranging from A to H were


found in the Asvotrypa cave NW of Phryni near modern Lefkas.
E 10

LEUKAS:

THE NIDHRI PLAIN

T. 3 Lefkas
EH II(-III?)

798 E
MH

( GAMS No. 320)

439 N

W D5rpfeld, Alt-Ithaka (1927);

BSA 69 (1974) 128, 70 (1975)37

Much prehistoric material has been found between Mts. Skaros and
Amali. Dorpfeld reported "Achaean" pottery widely scattered, cist graves
probably MH, traces of a large building near Steno with which pottery
resembling that from the R tumuli was associated (EH?), and remains of a
settlement on the lower N slopes of Mt. Amali, including apsidal buildings
(MH?). The most important finds, however, are the cemetery of R tumuli
near Steno, the L-shaped F tumulus not far W of these, and the S tumulus
at the foot of Mt. Skaros. The R tumuli contained at least fifty burials
of both adults and children, within pithoi, cists, or built graves sunk
into the stone fill that formed the base of the tumulus, or occasionally
outside it; burnt deposits considered to be places of cremation were also
found upon or associated with some graves. The goods of these graves were
often extremely rich, including gold and silver jewellery, objects of
copper or bronze (the excavator distinguished between these, but never
stated his criteria), obsidian blades, and pottery, much of which has
EH II parallels. Two daggers from R l7a may be Cretan imports, being
very similar to an EM III - MM I type, and other finds may be similarly
late (e. g. the "rapiers" from R 7 and 24), but nothing with clear MH links
has been found in these graves (the twin-vessels from R 10 and 27a are
argued to be MH in BSA 69 (1974) 137-8, but the local sequence is not well
enough known to allow any certainty).
The F and S tumuli each held about a dozen burials in cists, provided
with pottery and some metal goods that have clear JVJH parallels for the
most part. Their connections, e.g. with the cemetery at Sesklo (H Le),
suggest an advanced date, and it is not possible to consider them the
direct successors of the R tumuli, although they seem to be later
representatives of the same tradition.
E ll

LEUKAS:

AYIOS SOIIROS

T. 3 Lefkas
BA LH?
DBrpfeld, 1927, 319;

781 E

(GAMS No. 321)


Leo4 N

AM 59 (1934) 182

LH sherds were claimed from this area, but the only certified finds
are coarse and Scratched Ware.

185

E 12

LEUKAS:

(GAMS No. 322)

CHOIROSPILIA

T. 3 Lefkas
758 E I 347 N
N EH III? MH LH IIIA2 -B C
DBrpfeld 1927, 266, 330;

BSA 31 (1931-2) 230

The LH sherds from this cave in the S of the island were of good
quality. (N.B. it is to be distinguished from the Choirotrypa cave near
modern Lefkas, cf. AD 24 (1969) B 278, AR (1970-71) 19, where material
"ranging from the prehistoric to the Hellenistic period 11 was found. )
E 13 MEGANISI:

(GAMS No. 323)

SPARTOCHORI

T. 4 Preveza
81+3 E
N BA LH III(A-B)

388 N

BSA 32 (1931-2) 230


Fields to S of Spartochori were strewn with BA sherds (including
Scratched Ware) and LH III.
E 14

TirHACA:

PELIKATA

( GAMS No. 326)

*11

I. 3 Argostolion
723 E I 174 N
EH II-III MH LH III(A2-B) "PG"?

A?

BSA 35 (1934-5) l, 44 (1949) 307, 47 (1952) 279


The low rounded hill of Pelikata, c. 6oo m. N of Stavros village, has
a strategic position on the height of land controlling the three northern
bays of Ithaca. No good structural remains were found during excavation,
because of extensive erosion, but there are many traces of a ci~cuit-wall
of large blocks. EH II was found everywhere, but EH III and MH were more
restricted, and LH III only occurred near the summit, where foundations of
a house were traced. Some of the pottery classed as LH III may in fact be
DA, and one sherd originally attributed to EH III has been classed as SubG.
The nature and extent of LH occupation must be considered uncertain.
E 15

ITHACA:

AYIOS ATHANASIOS

I. 3 Argostolion
LH III(A-B) H

717 E

*11

( GAMS No. 327)

185 N

BSA 35 (1934-5) 33
A few kylix-fragments (from the spring chamber) and other LH sherds
are reported from this site (c. 1.5 km. NNW of Stavros). The later remains

186

on the hill above the spring may have removed much of the_LH level.
LH sherds were found below the spring in 1963.
E 16 ITHACA:

* 11

STAVROS VILLAGE

A few

( GAMS No. 324)

I. 3 Argostolion
720 E I 168 N
EH? MH? LH III(A-B) C
BSA 35 (1934-5) 33, 40-41 (1939-45) 2, 47 (1952) 227, 236
Within the village, traces of a BA settlement were found below a C
cemetery; the pre-LH pottery may include both EH and MH. A few LH
sherds were also found near the Asprosykia fountain on the W side of the
village.
E 17

ITHACA :

TRIS LANGADHAS

I. 3 Argostolion
MH LH IIIAl-B

713 E

*11
I

( GAMS No. 324)

162 N

BSA 68 (1973) l
The site is a steep hillside above Polis Bay, c. l km. SW of Stavros.
Remains of several LH buildings were found on various terraces, with
abundant pottery; some true MH sherds, and others that may represent a
local survival of the Matt-painted tradition, were found. On the basis of
the quality and quantity of the material, it could be argued that this
site was more important than E 14.
E 18

ITHACA:

POLIS CAVE

*11

I. 3 Argostolion
714 E I 159 N
EH MH LH IIII LH IIIA(2)-C "PG"

(GAMS No. 325)

G A C H

BSA 35 (1934-5) 45, 39 (1938-9) l, 44 (1949) 307;

IMTS 108

Much prehistoric and DA material was excavated in this cave on the W


shore of Polis Bay, the bulk of which seems to represent a local development
of LH IIIC which probably lasted some way into the DA. Complete continuity
to the G period, when the cave was certainly used as a centre of cult,
cannot be assured, but the presence in a later context of small spears of
LH IIIB-C type, and the reported origin of other bronzes from here (BSA 35
(1934-5) 71), suggests that the site's sanctity may have stretched back to
the end of LH.
E 19

ITHACA :

AETOS

I. 3 Argostolion

* 11

(GAMS No. 328)

l8o (spot height) at 7''3 E

061 N

187
LH III(A-B)?

LH IIIC?

PG

G A

BSA 33 (1932~3) 22, 48 (1953) 255, 267;


The Greek Dark Ages (1972) 243

LMTS 109;

V. R. Desborough,

The site is on the saddle between the Gulf of Molo and Pisaetos Bay.
Groups of stones associated with deposits of greasy black earth, originally
thought to be burial-cairns, are not thought to be remains of hearths or
industrial installations. Much pottery and a few other ob,jects are
associated with them; the pottery may include one or two true LH pieces,
especially stirrup jar sherds, and certainly has a complete DA range,
including a certain PG import (types claimed to be MH probably belong with
this material). A figurine of LH type and a few fibulae were also found,
and a sword is reported to have come from a tomb at the foot of the hill
(BSA 29 (1927-8) 113). The material from this site complements that of
E 18 to form a complete sequence from LH throu&h the DA.
E 20

KEPHALLENIA:

ANCIENT KRANEA

- #

(GAMS No. 333)

I. 3 Argostolion
576 E I 868 N
EH or MH? LH III(A-B) C H
F. Kavvadias, Proistorike Arkhaiologia (1909) 372; Comptes Rendus (1911) 7:
AD 5 (1919) 83, 2lf (1969) B 270; BSA 32 (1931-2) 223
Ancient Kranea is the extensive walled acropolis of Palaiokastro on
a group of three hills, above the SE end of the Koutavos lagoon and c. 3 km.
ESE of Argostoli. Prehistoric pottery and other finds are reported from
two locations on the higher SE hill of Pezoules (which measures c. 300 m.
NW-SE by 200 m.). Monochrome handmade BA pottery predominates, although
some of LH type was observed and a LH kylix stem was found in the wall of
"Building A" (BSA loo. cit. ). A ruined tholos tomb was also reported on
the acropolis slope.
E 21

KEPHALLENIA:

DIAKATA AND STAROCHORAFA

I. 3 Argostolion
LH IIIC
PAE (1912) 117;
42 n. 2

588 E

( GAMS No. 335)

865 N

AD l (1915) Parartema 59, 5 (1919) 92;

AE (1932) llf,

The Diakata tombs lie on the S slope of a ridge c. 1200 m. ESE of


the acropolis of Kranea. A large rectangular chamber tomb of the "cave
dormitory" type and a small roughly circular tomb have been excavated;
pits in them contained many burials, provided with weapons and find
jewellery as well as pottery. The presence of three long pins and a
fibula among the goods suggests that these tombs continued in use until
late in LH IIIC.

188

To S of the tombs, on the lower part of the slope, three walls of a


LH house were uncovered (AE (1932) loc. cit.). There was little depth of
earth, due to the steepness of the slope, and only a few worn LH sherds
were found, together with coarse ware, also presumably LH.
E 22

KEPHALLENIA:

GEPHYRI ( PROKOPATA)

I. 3 Argostolion
LH IIIBl

580 E

( GAMS No. 334)

890 N (approx.)

AD 5 ( 1919) 114
Gephyri is described as below the main road between Prokopata and

Razata.

A small chamber tomb excavated here contained few finds;

three

fine vases are assigned to LH IIIBl by Ward le.


E 23

KEPHALLENIA:

KOKKOLATA:

KANGELISSES

*#

(GAMS No. 336-7)

I. 3 Argostolion
581 E I 8~0 N
MH LH IIIA? LH IIIB( -C?)
Kavvadias 1909, 371;

Comptes Rendus (1911) 7;

PAE (1912) 247

Kangelic3ses is a small plateau, c. 300 m. SW of Kokkolata, on the


S side of a stream bed, and near the track to Menegata. The earliest
remains here were four MH cists, provided with large numbers of vases e
Two circular foundations probably represent small built tombs ( ds. 2. 7,
2. 913 .l m. ) , and several buri.al-deposi ts were found, apparently in irregular
pits. Apart from pottery, relatively many sealstones, other jewellery, and
a few bronzes were found in these. The pottery certainly includes LH IIIB
and may extend both before and after that phase.

E 211

KEPHALLENIA:

!1AZARAKATA

I. 3 Ar gostolion
LH IIIA2-CC

598 E

*#

(GAMS No. 338)

829 N

RA (1900) 128; Kavvadias 1909, 355, Comptes Rendus (1909) 382;


2il6, (19'51) 184; AAA 7 (l97!J) 186

PAE (1912)

A large chamber tomb cemetery in the l\'W flank of a low ridge c. 500 m.
SE of the hamlet of IV!azarakata. A ruined tholos tomb, built of coursed

blocks, and sixteen chamber tombsJ including eight of the 11 cave dormitory"
t:ypeJ v1ere excavated here. The pottery has a wide range.)' that from some
tombs extending late into LH IIIC; goods included gold and glass jewellery,
fibulae, at least one long pin, and other bronzes~

E 25

KEPHALLENIA :

LAKKITHRA

( GAMS No. 339)

*#

I. 3 Argostolion
570 E
LH IIIB-C C or H

I 823

AE (1932) 17
The site is at the SW end of the extended hill of the village of
Lakkithra, below the S edge of the crest of the ridge and near the church
of Ayios Nikolaos. Four chamber tombs of varied type were excavated
here, all but the smallest holding burials in pits. These were often
provided with rich grave-goods, including gold jewellery and bronze
weapons and vessels. What may well have been a grave-stele was found in
the smallest tomb. The large tombs all seem to have continued in use until
late in LH IIIC.
E 26 KEPHALLENIA:

METAXATA

*I

(GAMS Nos. 332, 340)

I. 3 Argostolion
596 E I 816 N
LH IIIB-C PG G A C H
AE (1933) 73;
AAA

7 (1974)

AD 16 (1960) A 41;

181

AR

(1960-61) 16; AA (1962) 289;

In the ~M and S slopes of the low hill called Ta Chalikera, c. 300 m.


SE of the village of Metaxata, a total of six chamber tombs have been
excavated, four of "cave dormitory" type and two imitating tholoi. The
burials, mainly in pits, were provided with pottery and other goods,
including spearheads and fibulae. Ts. A-B certainly continued in use
until late LH IIIC, and most showed signs of later disturbance, whether
for robbery or cult, the earliest being a PG conical foot in the dromos
of Tomb A.
E 27

KEPHALLENIA:

MAVRATA:

I. 4 Ekhinadhes

KOTRONIA

757 E I 748 N (village)

LH IIIC
A chamber tomb was excavated in 1936 at Kotronia near Mavrata. It
remains unpublished, but many LH IIIC vases found in it are displayed in
the Argostoli Museum. The discovery is of special interest since it
proves LH habitation in the SE part of Kephallenia. The northernmost part
of Kephallenia remains unexplored.
E 28

KEPHALLENIA:

KORNELI

I. 4 Ekhinadhes
EB MH C

c(89 E I 790 N (approx.)

( GAMS No. 331)

190

BSA 32 (1931-2) 220


A BA and later site was found below the village of Korneli and above
the road from Korone to Baltais. The sherds included a MH Minyan Ware
handle. The location seems to be the N slope of Palaiokastro hill
immediately SE of Korneli.
E 29

NEPHAIIJENIA:

KOULOURATA:

I. 3 Argostolion

EB

MH

715 E
705 E
LH III(A-B) H?

KAKOLANGADA AND PALATI

I
I

895 N (Palati) (approx.)


895 N (Kakolangada )

BSA 32 (1931-2) 225


The cave at Kakolangada to ~d of Koulourata contained EB sherds
and a Minyan Ware handle. LH kylix stems were found on the W side of the
hill on the opposite (E) side of the road from the cave, below a small
"Hellenic" fort, apparently at a location named Palati.
E 30

KEPHALLEl'i'IA:

SAMI:

I. 3 Argosto1ion
MH? LH?

ROUPAKI
692 E

PAE (1899) 17, (1919) 247;


AE (1964) 25

*#

( GAMS No. 329)

942 N (approx.)

Comptes Rendus (1909) 382;

BSA 32 (1931-2) 225;

The spring Roupaki is at the junction of the Sami-Argostoli and SamiPoros roads c. l km. S of Sami. About 300 m. toW, in the bank of a
stream some wall-foundations were revealed which were said to resemble ME,
and an oblong structure resembling a MH tomb (AE loc. cit.). On 4Pe hill
to E of the road, between Roupaki and Sami, foundations were excavated
which may be prehistoric, and the rim of a pithos in situ outside them
(BSA loc. cit., summarising the earlier references).
E 31

KEPHALLENIA:

VLACHATA:

I. 3 Argostolion

680 E

AYIOI THEODHOROI

94i+ N (approx.)

LH III(A-B)
AE (1964) 23
The recently abandoned village of Vlachata has been replaced by the
coastal settlement of Karavomilos (or "Nea Vlachata"). About l km. SE of
Karavomilos, and c. 300 m. to SW of the junction of the Sami-Karavomilos
and Sami-Roulata roads, is the N end of a long ridge which bounds the W
side of the Sami plain. On the top of the ridge, at its S end c. 1.5 km.

191

S of Karavomilos, and in the district of Ayioi Theodhoroi, part of a


house was excavated, which produced some plain LH III, much handmade
pottery, and some other finds.
E 32

KEPHALLENIA :

I. 3 Argostolion
484 E
LH III(A-B)? LH IIIC
AE (1933) 70, 77;

* 11

KONTOGENADA

(GAMS No. 341)

972 N

PAE (1951) 186

Three chamber tombs imitating tholoi in shape and a small, probably


half-finished tomb of the same type were excavated here. They were close
together, on the S side of, and below, the village of Kontogenada, beside
the valley of Chalikias, and immediately to N of "Stous Minous" where
there is a deserted village on a low hill. All but the first (Tomb A)
had been completely emptied. Tomb A contained some LH IIIC pottery and, in
a pit, the remains of one or more stone larnakes. The link with E 34
suggested by this find and the tomb-type might indicate a pre-LH IIIC date
for the establishment of these tombs. The area is now ruined by quarrying,
but two empty oval rock-cut pit graves, similar to those in the Lakkithra
tombs (E 25) were noted in 1975 in the quarry area.
E 33

KEPHALLENIA :

(GAMS No. 341)

OIKOPEDA

I. 3 Argosto1ion
493 E
LH II-III(B?) C or H
AD 6 (1920-21) Parartema 175;

I 977 N
AE (1932) 10

The site is about l km. ENE of Kontogenada village at theW end of


an upland plateau, now covered in thick brush. A large quantity of pottery
and other goods, including jewellery and bronze knives, was found here
without clear associations; a straight wall was definitely Cor later, but
a curving wall, which included worked stones, might have been a rebuilding
Of a prehistoric wall, perhaps the perimeter-wall of a tumulus or foundation
of a built tomb. Some of the pottery may be assigned to LH II on the grounds
of shape, and is thus the earliest LH pottery to be found in Kephallenia;
good LH III shapes and local types were also represented.
E 34 KEPHALLENIA:

PARISATA

I. 3 Argostolion
LH III(A2-B)
PAE (1951) 186

* 11

473 E 1957 N

192

To W of the road from Lixouri to Kontogenada the side road from


Monopolata to Parisata winds up a steep N-S ridge. At the saddle where
the road descends again to Parisata there is a very fine chamber tomb,
imitating a tholos, on the S side of the road. Its contents had been
disturbed, but included pottery, fragments of one or more stone larnakes,
and a gold cap that might be from a rivet. On theN side of the road is
a settlement site where LH III(B?) pottery has been found, on a small
rather conical hill (c. 150 m. N-S by 90 m. on top), terraced and with
steep E and W sides (there is a quarry on the E side, above the road).
The site is c. 6oo m. NNE of Parisata village.
E 35

ZAKYNIHOS :

KASTRO

11

K. 4 Zakynthos
870 E
LH (III?) A C

(GAMS No. 346)

422 N

BSA 32 (1931-2) 217


The castle of Zakynthos, towering above the N end of the town, was
presumably a LH centre also. It is built on compacted white earth
resembling rock, and is steep on all sides. The large area enclosed is
roughly triangular (the sides measure c. 4oo m., c. 350 m. and c. 200 m.).
One LH sherd with remains of two bands on the exterior has been found here
(now in the BSA collection), and some coarse ware on the surface appears
to be BA.
E 36

ZAKYNIHOS:

ALIKANAS:

K. 4 Zakynthos
LH II-IIIB

790 E

AKROIERION

* 11

(GAMS

No. 344)

486 N (tholos tomb)

BSA 32 (1931-2) 218; Annual Report of the British School at Athens


(1933-4) 5; JHS 54 (1934) 192; AA (1934) 161
The hamlet of Alikanas is on the SE flank of the steep hill of
Akroterion which forms the promontory on the E side of Alikes Bay. On the
hill itself was a LH settlement of moderate size. Remains of a house with
associated LH III and coarse pottery were found near the top, and on the
SE slope, halfway up from Alikanas and c. 200 m. toE of the house, a
tholos tomb (d. 5.0 m.?). The tholos had apparently been in use from
LH II onwards; its most notable contents are a necklace of amber (and one
faience) beads, and a bronze "violin-bow" fibula, which can hardly be
earlier than LH IIIB.
E 37

ZAKYNIHOS:

KATASTARI:

K. 4 Zakynthos
LH III(B?)

768 E

ELEOS

478 N (approx.)

( GAMS No. 345)

193

BSA 32 (1931-2) 218


Good LH III(B?) pottery was found in a well on the property of Eleos,
near the road from Katastari to the sea.
E 38

ZAKYNTHOS:

KAMBI:

VIGLA

K. 3 Volimais
690 E I ln8 N
LH IIIAl? LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC?
AAA 5 (1972) 63;

AD 28 (1973) A 198

On the E flank of the hill of Vigla, which rises sheer above the
sea c. 500 m. W of Kambi, a large cemetery of rectangular slab-covered
rock-cut tombs was found. Fourteen tombs have been investigated, most of
which had been robbed; three were dug below the floors of large pits.
The evidence from the unrobbed tombs suggested that all contained several
burials. Very few goods apart from vases were found; the bulk of these
were LH IIIA2-B, but alabastra from Ts. 12 and 1~- are probably LH IIIAl,
and two stirrup-jars handed in as from the area might be LH IIIC. Sherds
of handmade pottery were found in the fill of some tombs.
E 39

ZAKYNTHOS :

KERI :

K. 4 Zakynthos
LH II

KLAPSIAS
812 E

/1

285 N

AD 21 (1966) B 325, 28 (l973)A pls. 113-4;

AAA 5 (1972) 65

About 1.5 km. E of Keri, widening of a track revealed a small built


tomb in the S slope of the hill Klapsias. It measured 1.50 m. by 0.8o m.
and had a crude "relieving triangle" over the entrance and apparently two
lintel stones (one displaced). The only contents reported are two skeletons
and two vases, which should be dated to LH II.
E 40

ZAKYNTHOS:

VASILIKO:

K. 4 Zakynthos
954 E
LH I-III(A-B) G A

KALOGEROS

335 N

BSA 32 (1931-2) 213; Annual Report of the British School at Athens


(1933-4) 5; JHS 54 (1934) 192; AA (1934) 161
The Kalogeros promontory is to E of the Taverna at Porta Roma and
about l km. E of Vasiliko. It is much eroded and only c. 150 m. E-W by
50 m. now remains. Parts of two LH houses were excavated. The pottery
ranged from LH I (cf. Lord William Taylour, Mycenaean Pottery in Italy

194

and Adjacent Areas (1958) 21, 186) to LH III, of which there was a considerable quantity. There was also a later votive deposit. On the uninhabited
Triodi beach on the headland of Yerakas at the farthest SE tip of Zakynthos
a ruined structure is thought to be a LH tholos tomb (AAA 5 (1972) 65). If
so, this is presumably to be connected with the Kalogeros site, since the
Yerakas promontory seems too barren and exposed for settlement.
E 41

NEOCHORI :

CHLEMOUTSI CASTLE ( KASTRO)

K. 4 Zakynthos
099 E I 515 N
N? MH LH IIII? LH III(A-B) G

*11

( GAJV!S No. 28c)

BCH 85 (1961) 123, 88 (1964) 9


An imposing acropolis, the site of a mediaeval castle, on an isolated
conical hill to l\'E of Neoohori. One possibly N sherd is reported, but the
bulk of excavated material is MH, including late types that may overlap
with early LH; some comes from a burnt stratum, which contained a jar
filled with burnt grain. There is a little LH III material and a LH tomb
was found nearby. This is a well-placed site which should have been
important (of. R. Hope Simpson and J, F. Lazenby, The Catalogue of the
Ships in Homer's Iliad (1970)97 and Pl. 9a).
E 42

AYIOS ANDREAS:
K. 5 Pirgos
N EH II MH

AE (1957) 31;

POW"TIKOKAS'rRO (ANCIENr PHEIA)


11
(GAMS No. 258; MME No. 304)
235 E I 245 N
LH IIII-IIIB LH IIIC or SMyc. PG G A c H

Messenia I 224

A fine acropolis hill, fortified in mediaeval times, at the N end of


a long ridge above the harbour of Ayios Andreas. A wide range of prehistoric
material has been found, over an area at least 215 m. N-S by 75 m. on the
flat top and the upper slopes, suggesting that this was an important site
in all periods of the BA. Of particular interest are the chance-found
figurines of KS type (AE (1957) Pl. 12) suggesting trading connections
with the Aegean at an early date, and a vase reported to come from a oist
which is either late LH IIIC or SMyc. (IMTS 91).
E 43

SKAPHIDHIA:
K. 5 Pirgos
EH II LH?

AJA lf6 (1942) 85;

ANEMOMYLO
248 E

11

(GAMS No. 259;

MME No. 305)

290 N

Messenia I 225

On the ridge on the N side of the Pyrgos plain, c. l km. SE of


Skaphidhia, are sporadic traces of EH II and possibly LH habitation, mainly

195

on upper terraces of the W part overlooking the sea.


important and probably only c. lOO m. E-W by 50 m.
E lf4

AYIOS IOANNIS:
K. 5 Pirgos
EH II? LH?

SODHIOTISSA
293 E

The site was not

(GAMS No. 26o;

lliME No. 306)

272 N

Messenia I 225
This was a very small site (c. 50 m. in diameter) on the S slope of
the hills above the Mouria marsh, c. l km. W of Ayios Ioannis and only
150 m. N of the small monastery of Panayia Sodhiotissa. The sherds are
certainly BA, and EH and LH are probably represented.
E 45

ANCIENT ELIS

(GAMS No. 227)

*#

K. 5 Pirgos in square 310 E I Li8o N


EH II MH LH(III) SMyo. G A C H
PAE (1961) 180, (1963) 138;

AA (1962) 215, 263, (1971) 392, 411

During excavation of the ancient town EH-LH material has been


discovered in various spots (apparently LH III and G is reported from the
acropolis), and in the area of the theatre an EH II oist-grave and fourteen
pit-graves, which are probably survivors from a much larger cemetery, have
been excavated. The pit-graves are assigned to the SMyo. phase (of. most
recently V. R. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages (1972) 74) and contain bronze
objects as well as pottery, including two fine swords; some held more than
one burial.

E 46

KAPELETO:

STENOL'LI

->

K. 5 Pirgos in square 290 E


LH IIIA2

570 N

AD 21 (1966) B 172
At Stenouli c. 500 m. SE of Kapeleto four LH chamber tombs were
disturbed by a bulldozer in the slope of a hillock. A LH IIIA2 jug was
recovered~

E 47

ARAXOS:

TEIKHOS DYMAION

*#

I. 5 Mesolongion
350 E I 790 N
N EH I-III MH LH IIB-IIIC G A C H

(GAIIJS No. 282)

196

PAE ( 1962) 127, (1963) 93, (1964) Eo, (1965) 121; Ergon (1966) 156;
91 (1967) 666; Archaeology 15 (1962) 103; OpAth 5 (1964) 102, 110
( Gerbesi)

BCH

A fine acropolis strategically placed on the Araxos promontory at the


NW tip of the Peloponnese; the sea would once have covered the present
marshes on the SW flank~ The site may well have been occupied continuously
from LN times, although no distinctive LH I-IIA has been published. There
are traces of EH houses, a probably MH tomb, and LH III buildings and a
fortification; the latter, enclosing an area c. 190 m. l'M-SE by 'SO m. with
circuit walls from 1+.20 m. to 5.20 m. thick, is extremely well-preserved,
with a main entrance on the SE approached by a stairway and flanked by a
tower. It was probably not built before LH IIIB. The site appears to have
suffered destruction by fire in LE IIIB, but was reoccupied in strength in
LE IIIC, to which the bulk of the finds belong, to be destroyed again and
thereafter deserted until LG. Among the finds are fine bronzes, including
a

11

Peschiera 11 dagger and a fibula~

E 48

KANGADHl :

SOTIROULA Arm MYLOS

I. 5 Mesolongion
LE IIIA2-C
AR ( 1955) 17;

(GANS No. 283)

385 E / 665 N (approx.)

BCE 79 ( 1955) 252;

AD 20 ( 196';) B 223

A chamber tomb cemetery was found c. 6oo m. to N of Kangadhi, during


construction of the road to Riolo. Three tombs were dug at Sotiroula and
two at Mylos. The tombs were small, and one is unusual in that it is
divided by stone walls into compartments. Its use must have continued
very late, for among the pottery are nduck-vasesn, which should be

contemporary with SMyc.; other finds included gold jewellery and a bronze
pin-head.

19'7

MAP F:

ATTICA, SALAMIS,_ SOUTHERN EUBOEA, AND EASTERN BOEOTIA

The ancient province of Attica is effectively separated from central


Greece by Mt. Parnes, and has always tended to look towards the Aegean
rather than the mainland. The ranges of Hymettos, Pendeli, and Aigaleos
separate the major plains from one another; settlements are most numerous
in the Attic plain and the Mesogeia, being spaced along the coasts otherwise.
The EH pattern of settlement suggests that east Attica was originally the
more important division, including some major sites (F 45-6, 50), at a time
when AtherlS itself does not seem to have been very significant; there were
particularly close links with the Cyclades in EH I-II (cf. F 16, 30, SO).
The end of EH II is marked by considerable dislocation and followed by a
period of obscurity .. but a somewhat different pattern is established in
11H, in which many of the traditionally important local centres of Attica
are prominent (e.g. apart from Athens, Eleusis (F 9), Thorikos (F 25),
Brauron (F 38), filarathon (F 49), and Aphidna (F SLi) ). At this time, to
judge from the pottery, Attica was in close touch with the north-east
Peloponne;:"ie; occasional imports at the major centres indicate continuing

links with the Cyclades ..


The transition to LH is not very well documented, but it seems that

several of the major MH settlements became local dynastic centres; the


tholoi of l'horikos and rr1arathon outshine the relatively modest finds from
1

early LH
migl:lt be
LH IIIB,
(F I+) is

Athens, but the LH IIIAl tombs of Athens are notably rich. They
taken to suggest, with the fortification of the Acropolis in
that Athens had achieved a paramount position; the Menidi tholos
surely too close to Athens to represent an independent power, and

the LH III remains elsewhere are not very impressive, apart from the rich
and elaborate tomb of Spata (F 1+2), although the population was clearly
large. But the evidence is not good enouel1 for any firm statement that
At:tica was united under Athens 1 control. The LH IIIB disaster is less
clearly identifiable than in the Peloponnese, al thou g.;_~ several sites may
have been abandoned and Ay. Kosmas (F 16) appears to have been burnt; but
the!'e is ev::Ldence for a subsequent concentration of settlement in east
Attica and growth of a very important centre at Perati (F 34 ), which
contrasts with the relatively meagre LH IIIC remains from west Attica and
from Athens itself~ However, the spread of SMycQ graves at Athens indicates
a substantial centre_. whi.ch survived to become the leading site of the
province in the DA. It may be noted that there is a substantial amount of
LH IIIC-SMyc. material from Salami.s also (cf. F 10-12).
Survey of Euboea has suggested that its central pa:rt, especially the
coastal zone flanking the Euripos, was the most important and most heavily
populated in pTehi.storic times~ There v.ms at least one site of major
importance ln EH II (Manika_. F 75), and there were many othe:':' settlements;
::-"3ome sites seem to have been abandoned after this phase, but these may have
been o:' little importance, and many substantial settlements were occupied
in ffrH and LH. rrhere is no evici.ence for any really considerable UT centre,
althourh there Here clearly several of local importance, Psakhna (F c(O),
Chalkis (F 76), Lefkandi (F 81), Amarynthos (F 85), and Aliveri (F 86), all

of which survived into LH IIIC. The discoveries at Lefkandi indicate that


it was of great importance at this time, and, although the Xeropolis site
appears to have been abandoned for a while after the end of LH IIIC, the
nearby cemeteries show that there continued to be an important centre in
this neighbourhood, which rivals Athens in everything but the quality of
its pottery.
The settlements of eastern Boeotia, which concentrate in the Asopos
valley and along the Euripos coast, are not very well known at present;
those on the Euripos may have had a history similar to that of the central
Euboean centres, and at least two survived into LH IIIC (F 64, 67). The
remains from Dramesi (F 64) are of interest but require further study; the
cemeteries of Tanagra (F 63) indicate a large population, among which the
custom of larnax-burial, well-known in LM III Crete, but not on the mainland,
was uniquely popular.
F l

ATHENS:

THE ACROPOLIS AND ENVIRONS

K. lO Lavrion
372 E / 1e39 N
N EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC SMyc.

(GAMS No. 348)

*/I
PG

G A

C H

I. The Acropolis. B. Graef and u. Langlotz, Die antiken Vasen von der
Akropolis zu Athen I (1909) l; s. Iakovidis, He Mykenaike Akropolis ton
Athenon (1962). Special finds: OpAth 4 (1962) 31 (column-bases, of. also
Gnomon 35 (1963) 708); CMS I 408 (sealstones); AAA 6 (1973) 159 (stone
vase-fragment, cf. Jdi 7 (1892) So, AM 34 (1909) 94 fig. 13)
The North Slope and Peripatos. Hesperia 2 (1933) 356, 4 (1935) 109, 6 (1937)
539, 8 (1939) 317 (the "Fountain"); AD 24 (1970) A 1'74, B 25, 26 (l9crl) B 29
The Klepsydra Area. Agora XIII l, 51,~12, 261; AD 25 (1970) B 28
Later constructions on the Acropolis have largely destroyed or
covered the prehistoric remains, but pottery and other finds indicate that
it was inhabited from an early date. The series of wells in the Klepsydra
area includes many of Final N date, which may have served settlements on the
Acropolis and in the Agora. EH material is relatively scanty, but NH is
abundant on the summit and North Slope of the Acropolis, and six wells in the
Peripatos and Klepsydra areas belong to this phase; these held much pottery
of good quality, including late painted wares and some probable Cyoladic
imports (of. also Hesperia 6 (1937) 554 fig. lOc-d, from North Slope).
Fragments of "palatial" LH IIA vases and perhaps LM IB imports strengthen
the impression that Athens was a centre of some importance by this time.
Traces of a system of terraces that could have supported a palace have
been identified in the centre of the Acropolis, also house-remains on
the N and S, but the most impressive LH remains are the fortifications,
erected in LH IIIB, which enclosed an area c. 280 m. E-vl by 120 m.
(maximum dimensions). Material from wells and cuttings in the Klepsydra
dates mainly to lli IIIB or later; the shaft for the "Fountain" on the
North Slope seems to have been out late in LH IIIB, at which time houses
seem to have been built over a stairway leading to a postern gate on the N.

199

These are likely indications of troubled times, to which may be added the
caching of a hoard of bronzes in the wall of a house on the S of the
Acropolis, probably at the end of LH IIIB. The rubbish-fill of the
"Fountain" and material from the Acropolic indicate quite a substantial
settlement in LH IIIC; the latest remains include fourteen cist-burials,
mostly of children, which are attributable to the SMyc. phase (AJ"A 69
( 1965) 176), and a vase from a cutting in the Klepsydra area carLYJOt be
much earlier (Agora XIII Pl. 6Li: ~82). Thereafter, only rare sherd-material
indicates continued use of the Acropolis in the DA.
II. The Agora and Surrounding Slopes.
Agora XIII passim;
B 21 (Nymphs' Hill); AR (1972-3) 4, (1973- 11) ~; Hesperia

AD 23 (1968)
(1975) .375

The area of the later Agora, NW of the Acropolis, bounded on the S


by the Areopagus, on the W by the Nymphs' Hill and the Kolonos, and on the
N by the river Eridanos, has produced only a :few :finds earlier than l~II;
the earliest is the grave near the Metrtlon, whose vases can hardly be considered MH, but may well be Pinal N (of. C. Renfrev7J 'rhe Emergence of
Civilisation (1972) 70, contra Agora XIII 66). EH finds are very rare, but
MH material is abundant, and there is evidence of levelling operations;
the course of three roads crossing the Agora has been traced, but there are
no architectural remains or graves, though two pits containing domestic
refuse have been found near the Areopagus (Agora XIII 52). These roads
probably continued in use in LH times, when domestic material is equally
difficult to identify; only two small wells have been :found ( Agora XIII ll).
Many tombs were found, however; several chamber tombs were dug into the
slopes of the surrounding hills, the richest being those of the Areopagus
(Ts. I, !II), while groups of graves including chamber tombs, cic;ts and
pits of varying orientation were :found in the W, centre, and especially the
E and l'!'E of the Agora. The earliest burial can be assigned to LH IIA
(Hesperia loc.cit. ), but the bulk are of LH IIIAl-2 date, the richest being
almost without exception LH IIIAl; only a few are later, LE IIIC being
notably rare ('l'.VI is probably of this phase, and the latest burials in
T.VII may be), but this could indicate a shift of burial-ground. A find
of importance is a :fragment of a LH IIIC "Octopus stirrup jar" (Agora XITI
266, no. 503). Graves and a well (Agora XIIT 112, 261, Well U26: le) are
attributed to the S~lyc. phase, and there was no break in the use of the
area thereafter.
III. North Athens.
The Kerameikos
Kerameikos I, IV 32; ffifj 32 (1907) 157, 558, 78 (1963)
llc8; AA (1936) 197, (l97ie) 19~; Hesperi;-30 (1961) 174; AD 19 (1964) B 42
Odos Kriezis Cemetery
AD 22 (1967) B 92, 23 (1968) B 67; AAA l (1968)20
Acharnian Gate
AM 18 (1893) 77 (cf. Kerameikos I 132)
--The Academy
AJA 41 (1937) 138; AA (1937) 117; PAE (19'55) 56, (1956) 53;
AD 16 (l96o) B 33, 18 (1963) B 1el, 21 (1966) B 63

200

In the Kerameikos area, over l km. NW of the Acropolis, there are


some early remains, a small built tomb which may be EH, a MH grave, and

pottery from strata that seem to be flood-levels from the Eridanos


(AA (1974) l9 1f ). Pottery that may represent a LH IIIB-C settlement has
also been found (Kerameikos I 109), but the most important remains from
this area are the SMyc. and later cemeteries. A complete LH IIIC "Octopus
stirrup-jar" from near the Dipylon Gate might have come from a grave, but
could have been removed from a looted tomb and reburied, like the stirrupjar in T. PG 1; T. 106 has been attributed to late LH IIIC, but this is
disputable. SMyc. graves were found to Nand S of the Eridanos, the majority being on the N in the area of the later Pompeion: although badly
EH~1H

disturbed, this group included over one hundred graves, often arranged in

regular rows. Other SMyo. graves have been found in the Odos Kriezis
cemetery further N, including two cremations provided with weapons, and
a single grave was found near the later Acharnian Gate.
A small settlement has been found on the site of the Academy, over
2 km. NW of the Acropolis; the material has a N-LH range, and includes
an EH house apparently venerated as that of the hero Academos in later times.
IV. South Athens (including the South Slope of the Acropolis).
The South Slope and its Immediate Vicinity
AJA 9 (1894) 113; AE (1902)
123; ffi' 35 (1910) 3o; ASAtene 13-14 (1930-l) 411; Hesperia 5 (1936) 20;
AD 17 (1961-2) A 8'), 90, 18 (1963) B 111, 19 (l96if) A 62, B 2i.f, 20 (1965)
B 26, 21 (1967) B 36 (cf. Agora XIII 53 generally)
The Muses 1 Hill
AD 19 (1964) B 1!9 (cf. Agora XIII 113)
The Olympiei on Area
BCH 64-5 (1940-l) 238, 84 (l96o) 63 1f; AR (l96o-l) 3;
AD 17 ( 1961-2) B 10, 20 ( 1965) B 90, 21 ( 1966) B 83 (cf. Agora XIII 54, ll i+
generally)
Tombs le Odos Erechtheiou
PAE (1955) 1;3; AD 21 (1966) B 71, 23 (l968)B55
2. Odos Demetralwpoulou
AD 21 ( 1966) B 85; AAA 3 ( 1970) 171; AD
25 (1970) B 55 (of. also Hesperia 35 (1966) 55 n. 2)
3. Others
AA (1931) 213 (cf. Cl'!JS 1 leo8, 417); AD 22 (1967) B 73,
112, 23 (1968) B 48, 73, 21\ (1969) B 68, 73, 25 (1970) B 41e, 70,
71; AAA le ( 1971) le33
There is much scattered evidence for occupation S of the Acropolis,

particularly in LH and Sf1yc. times. A rectangular tumulus on the South


Slope is unlikely to be 1/lH (contra Agora XIII 53; the description of the
sherds in the original publication (AE (1902) 123) is too vague to be relied
upon, and the hafted arrovrheads have never certainly been found in MH contexts), but there is evidence for MH houses and graves, mostly close to the

Acropolis (but cf. AD 23 (1968) B 48). Graves of all periods from LH I/IIA
(AD 24 (1969) B 68) to Sf,1yc. have been found; especially notable are some
rich LH IIB-IIIAl graves (AA (1931) 213; AD 25 (1970) B 44), a LH IIIC
stirrup- jar probably from a grave (AD 2lf ( 1969) B 73) and SMyc. vases from
a chamber tomb (AD 25 (1970) B 71). I t seems likely that the LH settlement
here was as extensive as that to the N of the Acropolis (cf. Agora XITI ll3)o
(N.B. 11uch of this material is fully published in the doctoral thesis of
M. Pantelidou (Athens 1975), available in the BSA library).

201

F 2

KAISARIANI MONASTERY

K. 10 Lavrion
431 E
EH LH III(A2- )B C

420 N

JHS 87 ( 196'7) 183

Some LH III sherds were found on the saddle of the ridge to S of, and
above, the monastery, on the left of the track to Ayios Markos, and EH and
obsidian on a high conical hill to W (BSA collection).
F 3

CHALANDRI
I. 10 Ne a Psara
EH II

1+35 E

Neon Athinaion I (1955) 288;

490 N (approx.)

AA (1962) 189

An EH site was found on Tsako, a foothill of Mt. Hymettos in the


Chalandri district; an EH vase and stone bowl were found to N.
F 4

ACHARNAI:

THE MENIDI THOLOS TOMB

I. 10 Nea Psara
388 E
LH III(A2-B) G A C

*!I

( GAI'1S No. 382)

537 N

MV 39: H. G. Lolling et al., Das Kuppelgrab bei Menidi (1880);


(1899) 114; BSA 53-4 (1958-9) 293 fig. l (location map)

,Jdi 14

A large tholos tomb (d. 8.35 m.) excavated here at Lykotrypa 2 km. S
of Acharnai had an unusually long dromos (26.5 m.) and, in place of a
"relieving triangle", a series of spaced horizontal slabs. A bench-like
structure was built against the chamber wall. The remains of six burials
are reported, accompanied by much pottery, including four "canaanite"
amphorae, jewellery, ivories, stone vases, bronze arrowheads, and boar 1 s
tusk helmet-plates; the LH pottery is mostly plain or worn, and may well
belong mainly or entirely to LH IIIB. There are indications of cult from
G times in the dromos.

F 5

NEA IONIA:

NNVIESIS

( GAJI1S No. 381)

I. 10 Nea Psara
397 E I 530 N
N MH'I LH IIIA(l? )-B PG G C
BSA 53-4 (1958-9) 292
The low hill of Nemesis lies c. 1 km. to SE ofF 4, It now measures
c. l6o m. 1\lW-SE by 120 m., but is heavily eroded, especially on the VJ, so
that the original size may have been c. 30,000 square metres. LH sherds

202

were found over the hill and the eroded area, and thus demonstrate the
substantial sizea One N sherd and some coarse ware now considered MH
were also found. Other finds in this area are a vase from Koukouvaones
1 km. to NE, hardly later than LH IIIAl ( CVA Karlsruhe I Pl. 2:3) and a
LPG/EG amphora and G vases from "Menidi 11 , the former reported to have been
found with an inhumation (Kerameikos I 157, Pl. ~2, v. R. Desboroup)1,
Protogeometric Pottery (1951) 342; J. N. Coldstream, Greek Geometric
Pottery (1968) 402).
F 6

PEIRAEUS:

CHARAUGI

K. 9 Aiyina
LH IIIA2-B

305 E

AD 21 (1966) B 106;

410 N (approx. )

PAE (1935) 159

Remains of a LH burial were found in the Charaugi area, and a tallstemmed kylix and a bridge-spouted jar were

recovered~

LH sherds were

apparently found on the nearby hill of Kastella above Munychia harbour


(PAE loo.cit.), but this is not confirmed.
F

PEIRAEUS:

KERATSINI:

AYIOS YEORYIOS

440 N (approx.)

K. 9 Aiyina
EH I -II

26o E

AE (1933) Chronika

The road from Peiraeus to Perama cuts throur)1 an EH settlement on the


lower slope of the small hill of Ayios Yeoryios near Keratsini. The site
v,ras fairly extensive~ with an estimated depth of deposit of about 2 m~
Not far to the E is the LN settlement at Palaia Kokkinia, whose
pottery also includes pieces transitional to EH I and Cycladic imports
apparently KS. G pottery has been found at both Palaia Kokkinia and Nea
Kokkinia ( Coldstream 1968, i'03).

F 8

PEIRAEUS :

}\. 9 Aiyina

( GA!1S No. 385)

SKAJ1ANANGA

243 E

1e73

LH III(A-B)

AA ( 19113) 303
LH tombs were reported near the suburb of Skaramanga, in the industrial
district N of the Peiraeus, on a promontory opposite Salamis~

203

F 9

ANCIENT ELEUSIS
I. 9 Khalkis
EH II-III MH

*#

(~No.

386)

205 E / 533 N
LH I-IIIB PG G A C H

I. The Site
AE (1889) 187, (1898) 51, (1912) 2; AD 13 (1930-31)
Parartema 11+, (1931-2) Parartema 2, 15 (1933-5) Parartema 23; AJA 36
(1932) 104, 37 (1933) 271, lj{) (1936) lfl5; PAE (1952) 55; G. E. Mylonas,
Proistorike Eleusis (1932), The Homeric Hymn to Demeter and her Sanctuary
at Eleusis (1942), Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (1961) Ch. II
The acropolis of ancient Eleusis has now been ruined by quarrying,
and was previously eroded on the summit. It is difficult to estimate the
size of the prehistoric settlement, since the remains, found on the S and E
slopes, were largely disturbed and overlaid by later buildings. The
earliest preserved structures seem to be of later MH date; in the S an
ash-layer divided these from an early LH building, but although such ashlayers are widespread on the site, their significance is not clear (they
have been suggested to represent a destruction at the end of MH). There
are some building-remains of early LH (principally LH IIA) and LH III date;
the latter are best preserved near the top of the acropolis, where heavy
walls 0.90 m. thick, associated with LH IIIA2 pottery and figurines, may be
foundations of terrace-walls of important buildings, and on the E slope,
below the later Telesterion. Here there seems to have been a building of
megaron type, surrounded by an enclosure-wall, in front of which there was
a raised platform; a later structure was founded partly on the platform
and partly on the front of the megaron. Very little dating-material was
preserved: sherd-material from either side of the megaron and the enclosurewall has been suggested to date it to the end of LH II, while pottery from
a room of the later structure is assigned to LH IIIB, but two G handles were
found 0.05 m. above the final floor (Mylonas 1961, 37). A fresc~-fragment
was found in this area (op.oit. 43). The dating and nature of these
buildings remains rather obscure, and the argument for a religious purpose
is not conclusive; nor is there any evidence for continuity of occupation
or use in the area between LH III and the first plausible remains of a
Telesterion, a terrace dated at the beginning of the eighth century B.C.
LH III and G remains are also reported from the Kallichoron area
(PAE (1952) 55, of. Archaeology 5 (1952) 249 and Mylonas 1961, 45) and a
patch of LH III floor below the Lesser Propylaea. An inscribed stirrupjar was found on this, with pottery that has been assigned to LH IIIC
(Mylonas 1961, 49) but is unpublished. A further fresco-fragment is
reported (Jdi 34 (1919) 105 n. l). 'rhese finds suggest that Eleusis was a
place of some importance, but it cannot be assumed to have been fortified
merely on the basis of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. With the exception of
the pottery found with the inscribed stirrup-jar, no LH IIIC is reported
from Eleusis (for the tombs see below), and even this seems doubtful; nor
has anything later been reported before LPG (LMTS 114). Eleusis could then
have been abandoned for a considerable period after LH IIIB, although

204

occupation may have continued somewhere in the neigpbourhood.


II. Tombs
G. E. Mylonas, To Dytikon Nekrotapheion tes E1eusinos (1975);
cf. also PAE (1938) L:o, (1950) 127, (1952) 58, (1953) '77, (1954) 50, (1955)
67, (1956) 57; AE (1953-li) I 35
A number of rm-LH IIB cists were found on the site, but the bulk of

the excavated graves were found in a cemetery c. 750 m. NW of the Telesterion.


These were found in an area over 300 m. long; later graves and constructions
may have destroyed many prehistoric graves, but over 130 have survived,
ranging in date from late ~1H to LH IIIB. All but four were stone-built,
progressing from r~H cists to large rectangular built graves with an entrance,
intended for family-tombs, that were developed by the end of IYIH and continued
to be built and used in LH times. Four graves were earth-cut chamber tombs,
used in LE IIIA2 -B to judge from the published pottery but no later (bronzes
from CT ll might date to LH II). None of the graves was particularly rich
in goods. The area 'Has not used again foY' burials until EG (LPG cremations
have been found elsewhere); some MH and LH graves rediscovered later were
apparently thought to be those of the !!seven against rrhebes I!.
F 10

SALAMIS:

THE ARSENAL

K. 9 Aiyina

LH IIIC?
l"I}V LfJ,

83;

(1910) 17;

198 E
SNyc.

( GtuVJS No. 387)


i+59 N

D. Fimmen, Das kretisch-mykenische Kultur (1921) 9;


OpA th Le ( 1962) 103

AM 35

A nCyclopeann fortification-wall is reported from here, but the most


important find is a large cemetery of over one hundred graves, laid out in
seven parallel rovrs; all but tltJO were cists, the other two being pi thosburials, one holding a cremation. The contents of these g_;raves included
much pottery, the bulk of it SI'ilyc. but one or t~'ro vases looking a bit
earlier (especially nos. 361~, 3632, 3665), some jeVJellery, and a plain
bronze bov.,rl.

*
K. 9 1\iyina

l9':J E

(GAi~S No. 388)

426 N (Ambelaki)

LH III (B-C?)
AJ\ ( 1961-2)

7, ( 1963 -Li) 5,

AD 17 ( 1961-2) B 39, 23 ( 1968) B ll3, 27 ( 1972)

B 179
LE chamber tombs have been excavated at Ambelaki and an intact one
assigned to LL-l: IIIB at Limnionas, c. 1 km .. to S, reported to contain
cremations as v'rell as inhumations.. A nSubmycenaean tholos tomb 11 reported

205

from Kamini nearby seems more likely to be LH IIIC and a chamber tomb; it
is also reported to hold both inhumations and cremations. None of this
material is published and the dates require confirmation. Further finds
made at Kamini (AD 27 loc. ci t.) seem to indicate a Mycenaean settlement,
and pottery and bronzes evidently from tombs have been handed in.
F 12

SALAMIS:

MODERN SALAIHS

K. 9 Aiyina
167 E
EH MH LH IIA-IIIC

1>46

( GA!IiS No. 389)

*
N

Sl'1yc.

AE (1916) 8, (1948-9) llli n. 4; AA (1940) 183; MA 54 (1950) l; AR (1952)


27; Hesperia 33 (1961>) 235: AD 20 (1965) B 125; GVA USA 1i Pls. 8:3, 9:2
EH, IVlH and LH III sherds have been found on the slopes of hills above
the modern town of Salamis (formerly Koulouris). On the E slopes of

Prophitis Ilias to E of the town is a large chamber tomb cemetery at Ayia


Kyriaki, v-.rhich may be the source of various vases given a Salamis provenance.
Excavated examples have produced a range of pottery from LH IIIJI.l to Sl\lyc ~
(AD 20 ( 196')) B Pls. 98-9). This cemetery probably belongs to the ch:lef
settlement on the island} the predecessor of historic Salamis.
F 13

( GAIIiS No. 350)

PALAION PPJ\UlHON
K. 9 Aiyina
LH IIIA2 G

Fimmen 1921, 8;
(1947) 8

in square 350 E

380 N

GVA Karlsruhe I Pls. 1:8, 2:1, 5;

M (l9li3)

BSA 42

Chamber tombs have been found in the neighbourhood of Old PhaleronJ


some reported to contain rich contents. LG graves have also been found.

F l I!

~1T.

h'Yfi!ETTOS

K. 10 Lavrion
in square 390 E I 390 N
EH II MH LI-I IIIAl? Ul IIIA2 -B PG G A

(GAI1S No. 351)

AJA
( 19L;o) l; BSA
(19 1fT) 5'7: PAE ( 1950) 158;
Beschaving IfS ( 1973) 91; AA (1977) 137

H
BulletiE Antike

One EH IT and one LH sherd were found in the area of the Sanctuary
of Zeus to N of the summit of f'.r;t. Hymettos., together with PG and later
material. LH is also reported from a cave at the moun.tain 1 s foot~ not
\illholly convincingl;'/.o and LH IIIJ\.2-B vases and goods appear to have come
from chamber tombs on the \\J side. Pl :remarkable vu.se of ritual appearance
is also reported to be from a cave on Fit. Hymettos., and may be LH IIIAl
(BSA 42 (19117)
) Obsidian and EH-IVlH pottery are now reported from a
site on the H approaches (M loc.cit. ).

206

F 15

( Gfu'VIS No. 352)

TRACHOliES
K. 10 Lavrion
EH II Ul IIIB

in square 370 E
G A C

MV 37; BSA l.\2 ( 1947) 1(;


(1959) lj; cc fig. 10

370 N

c.

AH (1951-2)

E. Mylonas, Aghios Kosmas

LH vases are reported from here and EH II sherds, but no precise locations
are given~
F 16

AYIOS KOSMAS

*#

(Gfu'13 No. 353)

K. 10 Lavri on
EH II-III MH

l l (spot height) at 359 E


LH IIA-IIIC

351 N

G. E. Mylonas, Aghios Kosmas (1959), I11TS 18


A low promontory, originally more extensive on the S, where prehistoric remains are now under water. A settlement and cemetery of the :E:H III
phase have been excavated, the latter showing strong Cycladic connections
of KS date in tomb-types and grave-goods; the site appears to have been
quite substantial. It was destroyed by fire at the end of EH IL and only
some sherd-material in Area C indicates habitation in EH III-fiJHe There
are remains of lli IIA structures and graves of similar date at the .SVI end,
and extensive but frafp.entary remains of Ul III structures. A krater from
House T should be LH IIIAl, other pottery from this and House S LH IIIA2-B.
LH children's graves were widespread. A wall along the Sand E edge of the
site may be a fortification; two vases were found in its entrance-area, a
LH IIIB stirrup-jar and a surely UI IIIC deep bowl. The presence of whole
vases in the houses mig,ht suggest hasty desertion in LH IIIB, but the
solitary deep bowl is evidence for some later use of the site~
F 17

PYRNAHI

( GAJVIS No. 354)

K. 10 Lavrion
LH III(A-B)
MV 37;

in square 390 E

330 N

BSA 42 (1947) 4
Some LH vases are reported from here, but no location is knm.rn$

F 18 VOULA:

ALYKI

*I

( G.lc!'IIS No. 355)

K. 10 Lavrion
390 E I 300 N
EH? LH IIA-IIIC PG G
MV 37;

BSA 42 (191\7) 1e;

PAE (195 1e) 72, (1955) 78, (1957) 29

207

At least two chamber tomb cemeterles have been identified here, one
noted by Fu.rtwaengler as the source of vases on the market., and another
recently excavated on the E side of the road to Sounion. Some pit-graves

were found with the latter, one of which cut into the side of an earlier,
possibly EH pit-p:rave. Relatively large numbers of burials and vases,
predominantly LH IIIA-B, were found in the tombs, but few other goods;
further burials vrere often found in niches and pits in the dromoi
A LG
vase was found J.n one tomb, apparently a votive; two LPG vases are also
attributed to this area (CVA Heidelberg :3, Pl. 102:6, 8), said to be the
a

site of ancient Aixone.


F 19

11

V00~IAGMENI

(GAJVIS No. 356)

K. 10 Lavrion
390 E I 265 N (the promontory)
EH II f,1E LH IIB LE III (A-B) G
OpAth 6 (1950) 262 n. l;

Alin 106;

AA (1962) 212

LH IIB and LH III vases are recorded from Vouliagmeni, apparently


from separate tombs. The Vouliagmeni promontory was formerly strewn with
prehistoric sherds, including EH II, and obsidian throughout its length,
until the site was ruined by the enlargement of the resort. r;IH was found
at 11ikro Kavouri nearby, and LG is also reported there (Coldstream 1968, 403,
where the site is identified as Halai Aixonides).
F 20

V!\RI -'VI\RKIZA:

Ki\JVIINI

* Mm

AYIOS IOANNIS

(GAMS Nos. 357-8)

Las E I 280 N (approx. for Kamini)


122 (spot height) at lf26 E I 287 N (Ayios Ioannis)
LE II-IIIB G A c E

K. 10 Lavrion

EH I I

BSA 42 ( 1947) 4;
B
Alin 106;

BCE 78 (l95 1t) 110; Antiquity 24 (l96o) 266;


AM l (1968) 110, 7 (1974) 422, 9 (1976) 170

AD 16 (l96o)

A LH cemetery has been partly investigated on the lower NE slope of


Kamini hill at theN edge of Varkiza (cf. the map on AM 7 (1974) 1128-9).
Various chamber tombs and pit-graves have been excavated or robbed here.
The pottery on shoH in the National fljuseum has a LE IIA-IIIB range; the
goods include a IM II vase and a gilded seal-ring.
The Vari-Varkiza area is identified as the ancient Attic deme of
Anagyrous. At Ayios Ioannis, the ridge by the sea at the W end of the Vari
Plain, E!i II and LE III sherds were found together with later material (BSA
collection) which included LG (Coldstream 1968, 1+03). A LH site Has claimed
11
at Lathouresa" (1\_4 (1940) 178, cf. Alin 106), but the walls found there are
now assigned to the 5th or lith cent. B.c. (C\oi.J. Eliot, Coastal Demes of
Attica (1962) 115, cf. Eesperia Suppl. XI (1966) 28, fig. 6). Thus the Ayios
Ioannis site is the best candidate for the LE settlement in this area. The
LE IH. vase from "Vari" in the Robinson Collection (CVA USA i+ Pl. 8:2) and

208
the LH IIIA2 vase from "Vari 11 in the British Museum ( CVA BM IIIA Pl. 10:25
of. Alin 106) are probably also to be connected with the Kamini cemetery,
since the coastal suburb of Varkiza is a recent development, and was formerly
part of the territory of Vari.
Finds reported from the islet of Ay. Marina, once a promontory, 8 km.
from Varkiza (AAA 9 loc.cit. ), are largely N but include an EB "frying pan"
fragment.
(N.B. The locations shown on the map for F 19 and F 20 are only approximate.
The number F 21 is omitted, due to an error discovered late.)
F 22

VARI: KITSI AND

VOu~VATSI

*#

(GAMS No. 359)

K. 10 Lavrion
188 (spot height) at lf59 E / 302 N (Kitsi)
EH II MH LH IIIAl-C C H
AD ll (1927-8) Parartema

65:

BSA 42 (1947) 7

Kitsi is a prominent and rather pointed hill at the S end of the


plain, controlling the route to Vari. The small knoll on top
(c. 6o m. E-VI by 30 m.) and the upper VI and Nw terraces ( c. 150 m. NVI-:0
by lOO m.) are covered in sherds, mainly prehistoric, suggesting a total
area of settlement of c. 20,000 sq. m. MH is well represented, and some
EH II and LH III were found. Some thick wall foundations on the NV/ slope
are suggestive of fortifications. The site is o. 4 km. NE of Vari, and
about halfway between Koropi and Vari, so that it coincides with the
approximate position given for the LH cemetery at Vourvatsi, whose precise
location is unknown. This cemetery was large, and was found partly robbed.
The bulk of the pottery is LH IIIA2-B, but there is some ill IIIC (of. LMTS
112).

~1esogeia

F 23

ANAVYSSOS:

AYIOS NIKOLAOS

K. 10 Lavrion
flrH

H?

This site was discovered by i1r. R. J. Howell in 1963, and is well


represented in the BSA collection. It is a high rocky headland c. 1.5 km.
VI of the Anavyssos salt-pans, and on the S side of the Athens-Sounion road.
The chapel of Ayios Nikolaos is on the N slope. The headland is joined to
the mainland by a narrow neck of sand, and has fortifications (H?) on the N.
Good quality rm lfiatt-painted, Hinyan, and polychrome were found all over the
headland, especially on the N slope below the fortifications. Cist tombs
have been eroded by the sea both on the E and the VI sides of the neck, and
a mass of fine MH pottery is revealed near them. The ridge top measures
c. lOO m. SW-NE by 30 m. This area and the N slopes presumably comprised
the extent of the ~i settlement, perhaps 10,000 sq. m. There are no indications whatsoever that occupation continued into LH, and we may speculate

209

that the site was abandoned at the end of MH, perhaps due to its exposed
position.
SOUNION

F 21>

/1

K. 10 Lavri. on
EH II ill?
MV 39;

AA

(GAMS No. 362)


70 (spot hei&~t) at 613 E

(1912) 240;

Neon Athenaion l

059 N (The Temple)

(1955) 286

A figurine of Cycladic type was said to have been found near the Temple
of Poseidon, and cists, EH sherds, and obsidian were also reported (Neon
Athenaion loc.cit.). LH vases were reported from a site described as on the
way from Sounion to Lavrion (MV 39).

F 25

ANCIE~~

THORIKOS

( GAMS No. 361)

*/I

K. 10 Lavrion
145 ( 'Velatouri 1 ) at 644 E
N EH II MH lli I-IIIB PG G A C H

167 N

PAE (1893) 12; AE (1895) 229; MMA 383; Thorikos I 2'7, III 20, IV 53,
21; AR (1973-4) 5; H. Mussche, Thorikos, a Guide to the Excavations
(197!+)

y_

Ancient Thorikos has a high conical acropolis (Velatouri) with extensive slopes. Prehistoric remains are scattered over the hill and especially
on the S and E slopes. Transitional ME-lli I material is reported to be
particularly widespread (Thorikos IV 68 n. 7), and the settlement was
certainly large at this time. But little can be said of the pre-LH settlement except that, to judge from the discovery of litharge in a late ME layer,
silver was already being extracted from the Lavrion ores. In the same area,
on the saddle between the two surrmits of Velatouri, were three oval built
tombs. One was large (9.0 x 3.0 m.) and domed like a tholos; it may have
been built as early as LH I, and was certainly in use in LH IIA. Two smaller
tombs of similar type had been robbed but were surely LE; a LE IIA pyxis and
some jewellery survived in one. On the NE slope was found a tholos of more
normal type (d. 9.15 m.), built in LE IIA but also used later; this too had
been robbed. These tombs suggest that this was an important early U! centre,
but later LH remains are less impressive (although fine LE IIIA and lli IIIB
sherds are to be found on the surface), and it may have declined. There is
no material certainly dating between LH IIIB and LPG from the site; it may
have been abandoned for a period.

F 26

LAVRION:

KITSOS CAVE

K. 10 Lavrion
601 E I 158 N (approx. )
N EH MH LE III(A-B) C H

210

AD 26 (1971) B 1>2,

27 (1972) B 183;

BCH 97 (1973) 1>13;

AAA 7 (197 1>) 8

This cave is c 5 km. H of Lavrion, on the E slope of Mikro Ripari


near the village of Kamareza. The cave is important for its Palaeolithic
and N deposits; some EH-LH sherds vwre also found in the excavations.
e

F 27

MAKRONISOS:

LEONDARI

K. 10 Lavrion
N? EH II rm
Neon Athenaion l

703 E I 135 N
LH III (B-C) C

(1955) 287;

BCH 96 (1972) 873:

Leondari is a very eroded promontory on the


to S of Ayios Yeoryios village and opposite

AAA 6 (1973) l
~~~I

Lavrion~

coast of Makronisos,
Extensive but sporadic

traces of prehistoric settlement, including remains of walls and cists,


were discovered by surface exploration over an area c. 120 mo Hvi-SE
30 m.
They include EH II, ME, and LH IIIB or later (coated deep bowls). EH II and
stone vases of KS type were previously recorded (Neon Athenaion loc.cit. ).

The large quantity of obsidian artefacts further suggests that the site was
more important in EHG
F 28

KAKI THALASSA:

AYIOS PANDELED10N

K. 10 Lavrion

61+6 E

(GANS No.

273 N

EHII~1HLHGC

AA (1963) 1+58 and Pl. opp. 1+96;

CG fig. 14

The small and steep promontory of Kaki rrhalassa is c 5 km. E~E of


Keratea. The small chapel of .Ayios Pandeleimon on the top was the centre
of a small prehistoric settlement, perhaps mainly important in EH (represented in the BSA collection). Some MH is recorded (CG loo. cit.L and
&

LH both he:.;:oe and in a nearby cave (Fimmen 1921, 7).


F 29

KERATEA:

KEFALI

K. lO Lavrion
572 E I 253 N
EH II liffi LH III (A-B) LE IIIC

(GAI'iS

~o.

3Co)

AA (1916) 1;+2, (1926) IJOO; GV.4 Karlsruhe l Pl. 1:1-2, 3 Pl. 2:4;
(1947) 8, 23; AA ( 1963) 1>57-:-;nd pl. opp. 1f96

BSA

Surface traces of prehistoric settlement wer>e found


Tv1r. l/LS.F. Eood
in 1962 on Kefali hill, a lovJ saddle c. 1.:5 km. :\T\\f of Keratea, on the N side
of the road, opposite the church of .i\yia Triadha. EH II, l,1H, and LE III
were recognized. But the trvmhrscheinlich mykenische Burg 11 claimed on th9

high ridge to S (AA (1963) loc. cit.) bears no trace whatsoever of LE

211

settlement. Some LH IIIC vases ( CllA loc. ci t.) were recovered from a grave
and a cave near Keratea (AA (1916) and AA (1926) loc.cit. ). One of these
is an 11 0ctopus stirrup- jar H of Perati type.
F 30

iiJARKOPOULO:

KOVATSI ETC.

K. 10 Lavrion
EPIIGAC

51i8 E

Neon Athenaion l (1955) 285;


B 3B; BCH 96 (1972) 611

*#

332 N (l~arkopoulo village)

AA (1962) 225;

AAA l.i (1971) l 1i3;

AD 25 (1971)

Various cists and built graves of EH II date have been found near
Markopoulo, to which stray objects of EB, often Cycladic, type presumably
belong. One tomb was found at Kovatsi, l km. SE of Markopoulo, and obsidian

and EH sherds and G to C tombs in the area of the village itself. Obsidian
and BA coarse crare can also be seen on the ill tip of the long low hill of
t'JCofitis Ilias c. l km. ENE of Markopoulo, to SE of the road to Porta Rafti.
F 31

!1ARKOPOULO:

KOPREZA

K. 10 Lavrion
LH IIB-IIIC
AE ( lfl95) 210;

559 E

3a N (approx.)

BSA 42 ( l9i+n 6

Kopreza is c. 2 km~ SE of ll!arkopoulo. ~Phis is presumably the cemetery


to T,vhich belongs a LH IIB alabastron attributed to Markopoulo. The pottery
from the excavated Kopreza tombs includes much LH IIIC as well as LH IIIA2-B.
F 32

t0,ARKOPOULO:

LI OORI

JC 10 Lavrion

( GAIIJS No. 336)

in square 550 E

JlcO N

LE IIIB-C
AE ( 1895) 202;

BSA 42 ( 191+7) 6

A cemetery of rather small chamber tombs here held LH IIIB (and


possibly LE IIIA2) vases but more LH IIIC. This is apparently to be
distinguished :f-JCom F 32A, which appears to lie 2-3 km. distant.
F' 32A

!tARKOPOULO:

33rd km. STONE ETC.

K. 10 Lavrion
LH IIIC
AD ll (1927-8)

Chronika 59;

BSA 42 (191+7) '7

(GA11S, under No. 366)

212

A cemetery was described by Kyparissis as being near the 33rd km.


stone on the road from Athens to Porto Rafti, N of the road. He excavated
one chamber tomb here, whose contents were purely lJl IIIC. The exact location and the relationship to F 32 remain unclear. On Map F we mark only
F 32, approximately located c. 4 km. ENE of Markopoulo.

F 33 ROUSSI KALOGEROU
K. 10 Lavrion
592 E
N EH (II) C H
AM 71 (1956) 120 n. 26;

352 N

AA (1962) 172

A low hill immediately to N of the junction of the road from Markopoulo


to Brauron and the road from Porto Rafti, about 4.5 krn. NE of Markopou1o.
N and EH sherds and obsidian predominate.
F 34

PORTO RAFTI:

PERATI

K. 10 Lavrion

625 E

*#

(GAMS No. 367)

I 340 N

lli IIIB2-C

AE (1895) 149;

AD 19 (1964) B 87; AAA l (1968) 184;


to Nekrotapheion I-III (1969-70); OpAth 11 (1975) 129

s.

Iakovidis, Perati:

A large chamber tomb cemetery of over 220 tombs has been completely
excavated here, on the N side of Porto Rafti bay. It seems to have been
founded before the end of LH IIIB (cf. Iakovidis 1969 Pl. 136: ZT'), but
its main period of use was LH IIIC, and it is clear evidence for a very
important site in the neighbourhood with widespread overseas connections,
indicated by imports from Egypt and the Levant, a few iron objects, a number
of cremations, and "Octopus stirrup-jars". Some bronze fibulae have been
taken to suggest a chronological overlap with the period of the SMyc.
cemeteries in east Attica, although the most distinctive SMyc. vase-types
are not found; this may be disputed, but there can be no doubt that the
cemetery continued in use until late in LH IIIC (cf. BSA 66 (1971) 349).
F 35

PORTO RAFTI :

NISOS RAFTIS

K. 10 Lavrion
LH IIIC
J}~

70 (1950) 4;
1969, 4

643 E

326 N

Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae 20 (1966) 171;

Iakovidis

Some LH IIIC sherds "and nothing that need be earlier" were found on
Raftis island, the larger of the two islands at the mouth of the Porto Rafti
Bay, and it was assumed that the island was used at this time as a refuge in

213

the manner documented for the 6th and 7th centuries A.D. It was also
conjectured that it may have been the site of the settlement to which the
important Perati cemetery belonged. But the rich LH IIIC finds at Perati,
together with the duration of use of the cemetery (N.B. traces of a road
leading to the tombs, PAE (1954) 91) seem sufficient refutation. The
settlement indicated must s1xrely have been on the mainland, with a settled
(agricultural?) basis for its economy.
F 35A

PORTO RAFII:

RAFIOPOULA

K. 10 Lavrion
EH (II) LH

635 E

I 332 N (approx.)

Neon Athenaion l (1955) 287;

Hesperia 31 (1962) 81;

Iakovidis 1969, 4

Stone vases, presumably from an EH cemetery, and LH sherds are reported


from this, the smaller of the two islands at the mouth of the Porto Rafti Bay.
Perhaps both islands served as guard posts in LH.
F 36

PORTO RAFII:

POUNDA

K. 10 Lavrion
EH II

620 E

329 N

70 ( 1950) 1+; Epeteris Hetaireias Byzantinon Spoudon 23 ( 1953) 628;


Iakovidis 1969, 4
JP3

EH II sherds and obsidian were found on the denuded peninsula on the


E side of Porto Rafti village.
F 37

MARKOPOULO:

PYRGOS VRAONAS

K. 10 Lavrion
N EH I-II MH

572 E

I 36o N

Geras Antoniou Keramopoullou (1953) 140;

CG fig. 14

About 3 km. NE of Markopoulo, on the NW side of the road to Brauron,


is a mediaeval tower on a low hill with a sharp N slope. There was evidence
of quite a substantial settlement here, although no good building-remains
were found. MH material is reported as on show in Brauron Museum (CG loc.
cit.).
F 38

ANCIENT E1"lAURON ( AYIOS YEORYIOS)


K. 10 Lavrion
6oo E 1 374 N
N EH I-II EH III? MH LH I-IIIB

*I

(GAMS No. 368)

G A C H

214
AE (1895) 196; PAE (1948) 83, (1950) 188, (1955) 119, (1956) 77; Ergon
(1962) 34; AD 21(1966) B 98, 22 (1967) B 131; AAA l (1968) 184 (cf. also
AD 25 (1970) B Pl. 87j:l, which shows pottery displayed in the cases in
Brauron Museum)
Ancient Brauron is at the head of a small bay which gives easy assess
to the eastern part of the Mesogeia plain. It was presumably a port town
(of. the sketch in Fimmen 1921, 7). The acropolis is a fairly low hill,
with a ridge on the N side above the spring and the chapel of Ayios Yeoryios.
Most of the prehistoric site was on the broad S and E slopes, which extend
c. 16o m. E-W by So m. An excavation at the NE end (preparatory to the
construction of the museum) revealed massive retaining walls; and there
were remains of a large house near the summit, attributed to MH. The
reported "fortification" (PAE (1956) 79), however, may in reality be terracing. It is attributed to late MH or early LH. The excavations revealed
very little LH IIIB and no LH IIIC, but there is no lack of LH IIIA-B sherds
on the slopes, and one LH IIIB house was found (Ergon (1962) 34). Surface
sherds indeed appear to indicate that the whole available space on the
acropolis was in use throughout the BA periods indicated, i.e. an estimated
c. 16,000 sq. m. The excavated material has not been published in detail,
but indicates a substantial centre; finds of interest include a figurine
of Cycladic type and a duck-vase of Phyl I type.
Chamber tombs have been excavated at "Lapoutsi", on the slopes of the
adjacent hill of Chamolia c. 200 m. E of the acropolis (AE loc,cit., AAA
loc.cit.); and a vase from here (AA (1974) 3 fig. 2) should be no later
than LH IIA. The tombs at "chamolia" (further toE along the same hill)
include some large and relatively rich examples; their pottery seems to be
no later than LH IIIB (contra BSA ~2 ( 1947) 72). Nothing is known about
Brauron after LH IIIB until G times, and it may have been abandoned for a
period.
F

39 POUSSI CHAMOLIA (OR VROMOPOUSSI)


K. 10 Lavrion
EH II

AM

71 (1956)

2;

626 E I 370 N (approx.)

AA (1962) 190;

CG fig. 10

This site, which must be distinguished from the 11 Chamolia" of F 38,


lies on a promontory on the S side of the Brauron bay, c. 2.5 km. E of
Ancient Brauron. EH II was found, but no details are given.
F lJo

KOROPI:

AYIOS CHRISTOS

/1

( GAMS No.

K. 10 Lavrion
254 ( "Yenissis Khristou") at 461 E
MH LH IIII LH IIIA -B G C

369)

I 36o N

215

AM 16 (1891) 220;
106; CG fig. 14

Fimmen 1921, 7;

AR (1935-6) ll[;

PAE (1950) 165;

Alin

The site (also known as "Kastro tou Christou 11 ) lies c. 3 km. WNW of
Koropi. The new "Bethlehem" monastery is on the E side of the hill just
above Ayios Christos chapel. The hill is a natural acropolis. The flat
upper part o. 200 m. E-W by 90 m. was surrounded by 11 Cyolopean" walls (AM
and Fimmen loo.cit.) and mediaeval. Prehistoric and later sherds cover this
area and a further c. 200 m. E-W by 90 m. on the terraced S slopes. Sherds
in the BSA collection include MH Minyan Ware (CG loo.oit.), and a LH IIII
jug was reported (AR loo.oit.). Robbed chamber tombs were noted on the NW
slope (PAE loo.oit.), and sherds beside plundered tombs on the NE slope
include one kylix fragment attributed to LH IIIIIIA. In a cave o. 200 m.
to l'M of the site, between the site and Profi tis Ilias on the E slope of
Mt. Hymettos, some LH sherds were found ( PAE ( 1950) 159 fig. 12 and 165
fig. 18).
F 41

PAIANIA (FORJVJERLY LIOPESI):


K. 10 Lavrion
LH

AA (1916) 142;

~85 E

KARELIA

(GAMS No. 3'70)

39~ N (Karelia)

BSA 1[2 (191+7) 8;

Alin 106

A poor LH grave was found to S of Paiania, and some LH sherds at

Karelia, between Paiania and Koropi.


F IJ2

SPATA:

MAGOULA

K. lO Lavrion
N? EH II JV'J-!

(GAMS No. 371)

163 ( 'Magoula Spatha 1 ) at 530 E


LH IIIAl-B ill IIIC? G

f\thenaion 6 (l8TT) 167;


xli; BC~ 2 (1878) 185;
22 fig. l (sketch plan)

417 N

AM 2 (1877) 82, 261; H. Schliemann, !::l.ycena'!_ (1878)


AA (1926) 400; BCH 89 (1965) 21, especially

~DJ 35;

Remains of a prehistoric settlement have been found on the low rounded


hill of ~lagoula on the S side of Spata village. EH II, MH, and LH III
sherds are thinly spread over its surface for an extent of c. 200 m. NW-SE
by lOO m. At least two chamber tombs were out into the SW foot of the hill,
and others were reported. The more important of the excavated tombs was
made up of three chambers, leading off one another, and approached by a
long dromos; it had been robbed, but some rich finds survived, mostly in
front of the doorway, including jewellery, ivories, boar 1 s tusk helmetplates, stone vase fragments, and an agate stamp-seal. The pottery has
a wide range: a piriform jar is LH IIIAl or possible LH IIB, other vases
are LH IIIA2-B, and one or two are probably LH IIIC (of. CMP 70, 76; MV Pl.

216

17:115 need not be an early as LH IIA). Some of this material may have
come from the smaller tomb excavated nearby or be washed down from the

settlement above, so that the tomb's precise period of use remains obscure;
its goods bear comparison with those of the Menidi tholos (F 1>), and it may
well be a local princely tomb.
11agoula is thOUfpt to be the "Polis" or old town of the deme of
Erchia (BCH 89 (1965) 21). A smaller hill named Tsoumba Sideri, c. 150 m.
to SVI of t!Iagoula, may have been the 11 Pagos ll of Erchia. On its surface
(c. So m. E-VI by 30 m. ) some coarse ware sherds occur sporadically,
including burnished fragments resembling N ''variegated ware 11
F 113

CHJIRVATI

(Q.AMS No. 372)

K. 10 Lavrion
LH IIIB

530 E

41fO N (approx.)

BCH 73 (1949) 521 fig. 3 and Pl. 39:2; Studies Presented to David M.
Robins on I (1951) 108 Pl. 1J-5; Alin 110
Some LH IIIB figurines (now in the Stathatos collection) were found
in a gcave c. 3 km. S of Charvati.
F 43A PALLINT:

PROKALISI

](. 10 Lavrion
EH I l

527 E

lfL>6 N

CG fig. 10 (under nProkalisin)

This site, discovered by Jv}r. t!i. S. F. Hood in 1961, is a large plateau


at the E end of a long rocky ridge, to S of the Atfl.ens-Raphina road, and a
little to E o' Pallene. EH II sherds (in the BSA collection) 01ere found on
the upper part.
F

v2LANIDEZA:
K. 10 Lavrion

( GAMS No. 373)

AYIOS SOTIROS
Ay. Sotir.

at 595 E /

L~35

7;

Alin 110

LF IIIB-C
!ID 11 ( 1927-8) Parartema 61>;

BSI\

IQ

( 1947)

Five robbed chamber tombs vrere cleared here, on a slope to N of the


chapel of Ayios Sotiros near Velanideza, a small village c. 6 km. SE of
Pikermi. The vases cover IJ--l: IIIB and early LH IIIC.

217

F 45

RAPHINA

(under GAMS No. 374)

623 E I 486 N
I. 10 Nea Psara
EH II EH III? MH LH II-III(A-B)
PAE (1951) 77, (1952) 129, (1953) 105, (1955) 116;
(1955) 287

Neon Athenaion 1

The centre of this site seems to have been a low hill on the N side
of the bay and to W of the harbour, but house-remains have also been found
along the shore. Its most important period seems to have been EH II, to
which a likely fortification-wall on the hill and most of the settlementremains belong; there are widespread traces of bronze-working activity at
this stage, and it was clearly a site of some importance. There are traces
of a destruction by fire at the shore, but it is not clear if this was
universal; bothroi dug into a house on the hill contained pottery likely to
be EH III or early MH, and later settlement is represented by sherd-material
only, the structural remains having apparently been entirely eroded.
F 46

RAPHINA:

ASKITARIO

*#

I. 10 Ne a Psara
627 E
EH I-II LH II-IIIA2
PAE (1954) 104, (1955) 109;

I lf70 N

AE (1953-4) III 59

A high promontory roughly triangular in shape, and c. 5000 sq. m. in


extent, c. 2 km. S of F 45, which seems to have been largely if not entirely

built over in EH II, when it was protected by a wall along the SW side.
Traces of earlier occupation were noted. An isolated EH II house has been
noted at Skalopati, c. 500 m. to theW, and the cemetery may have lain on a
low promontory to the E, where bones and sherds of "frying-pans" were found
on the surface. This was clearly an important settlement, but it appears
to have been abandoned at the end of EH II, and some LH sherds are the only
traces of later occupation.
F 47

PIKERMI

(GAMS No. 375)

I. 10 Nea Psara

555 E

473 N

LH IIIA2-B
AD ll ( 1927-8) Parartema 70;

BSA 42 ( l9lf7) 7

Three small chamber tombs were excavated on a small hill to N of the


road c. 1 km. E of Pikermi. They contained pottery and steatite whorls.

218

F 48

NEA !I!AKRI

I. 10 Nea Psara
N EH 1-II
PAE ( 1954) 1111 ;

fJJ7 E

547 N (approx.)

A!l! 71 ( 1956) l

A largely N site on a low mound by the sea c. l km. SE of Nea MakrL


EH I-II was found in one area.
F 49

MARATHON:

VRANA:

AGRILIKI

*#

(GA!I!S Nos. 376-7)

572 E I 599 N (Vrana)


558 ( 'Agriliki' ) at 575 E
LH IIII-IIIB PG G

I. 10 Nea Psara
EH II

MH

5'78 N

PAE (1933) 35, (l93lf) 35, (1935) 92, (1936) 42, (1958) 15, (1970) 9; A~
(1934) 194; BSA 42 (19~7) 7, 51 (1956) 88 n. 7; AAA 3 (1970) 68, 155, 3 1c9
The high Agriliki acropolis on the W edge of the ]Viarathos plain appears
to have produced evidence of EH-LH occupation (the crucial reference is PAE
(1936) 1e2; cf. A!l! 71 (1956) l for EH) as well as later material. Belov" it,
at the head of the Vrana valley, is a group of tumuli. The earliest, T.l,
contains a central burial in an inner circle and an apparently associated
horse-burial, both in built graves, datable to middle or late MH, surrounded
by other MH burials in built graves or cists. The others, of LH date,
contained complex stone structures, resembling houses in plan, whose
compartments held many burials, provided with pottery and other goods; the
latest, T.4, continued in use until LH IIIA2 at least. About l km. to SE
is a tholos tomb, of medium size (d. 7.0 m.) but approached by a very long
(25 m.) unlined dromos, in which two horses had been buried in a pit.
Within the chamber, reported to be found intact, were two cists; one held
a gold cup placed upon the body, but the report that as well as bronze
fragments another gold cup was found in the other but stolen seems to be
mistaken. The floor was covered with a thin layer of ash and animal bones,
and there were only a few other finds, mostly pottery; a plain flat alabastron (BSA 42 (1947) 42) should be LH IIB-IIIAl, and pottery found during
cleaning activities is attributed to the end of LH II, a date which would
fit the parallels of the gold cup, but late LH III is also reported (BSA 42
( l9lf7) 7, 72; a fragment of a stemmed krater is cited on p. 39), which might
be connect\!)d with reuse of the tomb. Some DA tombs were found nearby.
F 50

MARATHON:

TSEPI

I. lO Nea Psara
EB (II?)

*#
588 E

AAA 3 (1970) 67, 154, 3 1f9;

fJJ2 N

PAE (1970)5, ( 1972) 5

219

On the N side of the entrance to the Vrana valley, beside the hamlet
of rrsepi, a large cemetery of rectangular built graves, arranged in orderly
rows, has been discovered. These were family-tombs, used for many burials;
grave-goods were not common, hut include objects of silver and vases of
stone and clay very close to Cycladic types (c. Doumas, in Early Bronze Age
Burial Habits in the Cyclades ( 1977) 66 attributes them to the KS phase).
It r;eems possible that this cemetery represents a settlement founded by
people from the Cyclades, but the first EB phase is too poorly known on the
mainland for this to be considered certain.

F 51

MARATHON:

I. 10 Nea Psara
EH II
AAA

ME

*#

PLASI (NEAR AYIOS PANDELEIMON

611 E

LH III(A-B)

590 N

G A

3 (1970) 14, 63, 153, 349;

PAE

(1970) 5

On the shore, on a low mound c. 1200 m. E of the Soros and c. 300 m.


NE of Ayios Pandeleimon, is a prehistoric site of clearly considerable
importance; a fortification-wall is reported and attributed to EH or MH,
also a large !fiH building with associated kiln. Much LH was also found. Very
little detail is available on this site as yet, but it may well have been the
centre of the Marathon complex, rather than Agriliki. For alleged LH finds
from the Soros itself of. A. R. Burn, Persia and the Greeks (1962) 2.54 n. '>2,
243 n. 15.
F 52

!1AJi.ATHON:

I. 10 Ne a Psara
N

EH II

KA'l'O SOULI

621i E

632 N (approx.)

AAA 7 (1974) 1
Near Kato Souli, on the S side of the road to modern Marathon, the

digging of a drainage trench revealed a prehistoric settlement on a low


rise c. 150 m. NE-il'll by lOO m. The sherds recovered were mainly EH II.
To

vi

of and above Kato Souli is the 'l'rikorythos hill where there are

extensive fortifications.

Obsidian and some coarse ware sherds_. possibly

BA, were observed here in 1970, but the fortifications are more likely to
be C or H: than fllyoenaean, despite the nCyclopean 11 aspect of one particular
section (RE Suppl. VI 6o8). Most of the diagnostic surface sherds are c
or H, and LG to C is recorded (Hesperia Suppl. XI (1966) 37).
F

53 !'"1\Ji.ATHON:

i'JINOI (THE CAVE OF PAN)

I. 10 Ne a Psara
550 E I 630 N
EH (I?- )II 11H LH IIII? LH III(A-B)

(GAMS No. 379)

*/I

220

Ergon (1958) 15
This cave in foothills to W of modern Marathos was occupied during N
times; material from all phases of the BA is reported from areas by the
entrances, including a copper/bronze chisel, but its identification as
evidence for cult remains to be substantiated.
F 54

ANCIENT APHIDNA

*If

( GAMS No. 38o)

I. lO Nea Psara
366 ( 1Kotroni Stamatas 1 ) at 519 E / 672 N
MH LH II-IIIB C
M1

21 (1896) 385;

BSA 42 (1947) 8

The fine and large acropolis of Kotroni on the NW edge of Marathon


Lake dominates a route from Attica to Boeotia; MH and LH sherd-material
was widespread on the surface. About 1.5 km. to SSW of the acropolis
disturbed remains of a MH tunulus were excavated, containing burials in
cists, pits, and huge pi thoi, surviving goods were relatively rich, including some unusual pottery and circlets of gold and silver. The pottery seems
earlier than that of the MH tumulus at Marathos (F 49). There i8 a similar
mound c. lOO m. NW of the tumulus and a series of smaller mounds to NE, on
lower slopes leading down to the lake. There is no doubt that Aphidna was
an important MH and LH settlement, and in view of the published evidence
the assertion that no LH has been found on the acropolis (Hesperia Suppl.
XI (1966) 82 n. 169) is erroneous.
F 55

DEKELEA:

TATOI

I. 10 Nea Psara
LH IIIA2-B
MV

( GAMS No. 383)


in square 420 E / 590 N

41
A stirrup-jar was found here.

F 56 MT. PARNES:

CAVE OF PAN NEAR CHASIA

(GAMS No. 384)

9 Khalkis 11 Spilaion Panos" at 330 E / 630 N


MH LH III(C?) C
I.

AE (1906) lOO;

Alin 111

In the Cave of Pan on Mt. Parnes, c. 4 km. N of Chasia MH Mattpainted and LH III sherds were found. It is deduced (Alin 112 n. 3) that
the sherds belong to LH IIIC.

221

F 57

SKJU,A OROPOU

(GAMS No. 430)

I. 10 Nea Psara
4Eo E
EH III MH LH III

824 N

AA (l9Ef>) 2ll;

(1968) 11;

B. H. Petrakos, Ho Oropos kai to Hieron tou Amphiaraou


CG figs. ll, 14

The site is a low mound on the E side of Nea Palatia near Skala Oropou,
c. 500 m. from the sea and near the edge of the coastal plain. A disused
mine railway runs by the N and E foot. MH Grey Minyan and Matt-painted were
found and a few EH III and LH III sherds.
NOTE
We have omitted the following sites in Attica, since they can not
be located.
l. KAZA (ELEUTHERAI), reported to be the source of an incised EB
stone vase of Cycladic type in the National Museum (Neon Athenaion
l ( 1955) 288).
2. KIPOI, cited as EH II (CG fig. 10, following AM 71 (1956) l).
3. LEFKA, cited as EH II (CG fig. 10, following AM 71 (1956) 29).
F 58

BATHIZA
I. 9 Khalkis

EH II

368 E

797 N

MH

CG fig. 19 (of. figs. lO and li!)


A site on a high isolated rock c. 6 km. N of Avlon, on the N side of
the river Asopos. EH II and MH were found here by D. H. French.
F 59

(GAMS No. 431)

SCHIMATARI:

AYIOS ILIAS

I. 9 Khalkis

"Profitis Ilias" at 308 E


MH LH IIIA2-B

N EH I-III
BSA 12 (1905-6) 94;

842 N

CG figs. 9-ll, 14

Ayios Ilias is c. 2 km. to NE of Schimatari and toE of the road to


Dilisi. Sherd-material of most BA phases has been found on the hill, where
remains of a house-foundation of worked blocks, apparently associated with
LH IIIA2-B pottery, and two cists were discovered. One of the latter is
reported to have contained two cups and two amber beads; its date is quite
uncertain, and could well be post-BA.

222

to

AYIOS THOMAS:

KOKKALI AND LIOUGO-KOKKALI

I. 9 Khalkis
277 E
N EH I EH III LH
CG fig. 19;

817 N (Kokkali)

AD 24 (1969) B 187

An EH site was reported by D. H. French at Kokkali, a low isolated


hill c. 750 m. NNW of the church of Ayios Thomas and 3.5 km. N of the
village of Ayios Thomas, and to N of the Asopos. This would appear to be
in the neighbourhood of the "Liougo or Kokkali" site reported in AD ( 1969),
described as to S of Schimatari, where LH sherds were found over an area of
c. 10,000 sq. m. At Kesseri nearby eight rock-cut tombs of EH type (cf.
G 30) were found robbed. But more than one prehistoric settlement may be
indicated, and the topography requires clarification.
F 61

KLIDHI

I. 9 Khalkis
LH III(A2-B)

258 E

781 N (village)

AD 19 (1964) B 199
LH chamber tombs were found at the SE edge of the village;

five

vases were recovered from one excavated tomb.

F 62

AYIOS THOMAS:
I. 9 Khalkis
N EH II MH

AYIOS KONSTANDINOS
262 E I 799 N
LH III(A2-B) A C H

AD 2lf ( 1969) B 186


A prehistoric settlement was found here c. 1.5 km. NN of Ayios Thomas
on a high hill, steep on all sides except the NN where stands the chapel of
Ayios Konstandinos. The sherds on the flat top include most phases of the
BA, and tall-stemmed kylikes were noted.
F 63

TANAGRA:

GEPHYRA, DENDRON

I. 9 Khalkis
234 E
LH IIIAl-B LH IIIC?

(GAMS No. lf29)

841 N (approx. for GEPHYRA)


C

Alin 120; JHS 85 (1965) 125; AAA 2 (1969) 20, 3 (1970) 61, 184; PAE (1969)
5, (1970) 29, (1971) 7, (1973) 11, (1974) 9; Ergon (1975) 17, (1976) 8
Two large chamber tomb cemeteries are being excavated at Gephyra (or
Ledheza) c. 400 m. E of modern Tanagra, and Dendron, 700 m. SE of Gephyra;
LH habitation-sites have been identified near each cemetery and have been

223

tested by excavation. Of the two cemeteries, Dendron may be the older,


extending back to LH IIIAl, and richer, its goods including bronzes and
sealstones; figurines and pottery were common in both, and larnakes, often
decorated with scenes of mourners or other representations that may have
funerary or religious significance, were quite frequently found. Although
these were originally attributed to LH IIIC, no distinctively LH IIIC
pottery has yet been published from the cemeteries, although one or two
vases from the Gephyra cemetery might be (e.g. AAA 2 (1969) 23 fig. 6:
deep bowl, cup).
These cemeteries are evidence for a large population
whose custom of larnax-burial, though by ne means universal, is common
enough to be considered a local feature, unique on the mainland.
F 64

DRAMEST

(GAMS No. 432)

*/I

I. 9 Khalkis
309 E I 904 N
N EH I-III MH LH I-IIIC
PAE (1911) 142; AD 1 (1915) Parartema 55, 20 (1965) B 242;
Suppl. 8 (1949) 39; AE (1956) Chronika 26

Hesperia

A prominent 11 high mound" site, c. 200 m. N-S by lOO m., on the NW


edge of Dramesi (now renamed Paralia Avlidhos). Good EH-LH remains have
been found in various investigations here. A massive stone-built doorway
on theW slope has been thought to be that of a tholos tomb; it has now
largely disappeared (Kadmos 5 (1966) 142 n. 1). A cemetery, apparently of
cists, to 3 of this, produced MH-LH II pottery and weapons. Traces of a
probable fortification have been identified, and a four-sided stone stele,
decorated with incised representations of ships, was recovered from illicit
excavations; its significance is obscure.
F 64A PHAROS AVLIDHOS:

YERALI

306 E I 914 N (approx.)


EH LH (including IIIB)

I. 9 Khalkis

AD 26 (1971) B 218
An EH and LH IIIB settlement, and a cemetery of chamber tombs, whose
goods include much jewellery, are reported from here, on the coast c. 1 km.
to NW ofF 64. The site has not been marked on Map F.
F 65

VATHY:

NISI

I. 9 Khalkis
LH (III?)

PAE (1959) 32

*!I

(GAMS No. 433)

285 E

G A

I 955 N

224

Nisi (or Yeladovouni) is the long N~s ridge between the main Aulis
Bay (Megalo Vathy) on the Sand the smaller<bay<(Mikro Vathy) on theN<.
Trial excavations on the W slope (to E of <the Sanctuary of Artemis) revealed
a stretch of walling, which is assigned to LH on the basis of finds around:
it. Other traces of LH occupation were noted c. 50 m.< N of the chapel of
Ayia Paraskevi near the Sanctuary.
F 66

(GAMS No. 4)1>)

MIY.RO VATHY
I. 9 Khalkis
LH IIB-IIIB

286 E

967 N

PAE (1956) 95, 101, (l96o) 48


Pottery and weapons were recovered from chamber tombs destroyed
during building of the cement works on the N side of Mikro Vathy Bay. The
tombs may well be associated with F 65.
F 67

CHALKIS:

VLICHA

(GAMS No. 435)

I. 9 Khalkis
36 (spot height) at 264 E
EH I-II MH LH IIII-IIIC PG or G? C
Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1969) 309;
58 fig. 10 (map)

983 N

CG figs. 9, 10, 14, l6c;

Euboea

Vlicha (or Tseloneri) is an isolated hill near the shore, opposite


Chalkis and to N of the inlet crossed by the railway. This was an extens<ive
prehistoric site, perhaps c. 200 m. N-S by 120 m. Most of the sherds were
found on the seaward side. It was apparently occupied throU&~out LH (well
represented in the BSA collection, and N.B. Kadmos 5 (1966) 142 for a sherd
with a painted pot-mark).
F 68

POLITIKA:

M~UMA

T. 9 Psakhna
N EH II MH

(Euboea No. 25)

24o E I 126 N
LH III(A-B) C

BSA 47 (1952) 6o n. l4b;

Euboea 52

Sherds were found scattered over the slopes of the ridge between
Poli tika and Cape 11nima, with the greatest concentration c. 500 m. above
and NE of the Cape beacon.
POLITIKA:

KAFKALA

T. 9 Psakhna
EH (II?) MH

269 E I 122 N
LH IIII? LH III(A-B)

(Euboea No. 26)

2~?5

Euboea 53, 104


A low mound c. 200 m. from tbe shore and c. 3 km. 33E of Politika.
The mound and adjacent fields are scattered with BA and later sherds.

F 70

P3AKHNA:

AYI03 ILIAS AND PIRGOS

T. 9 Psakhna
N?

EH I-II

(Euboea Nos. 30-31)

342 E I 098 N (Ayios Ilias)


MH LH IIIA-C G? C

Euboea 54

Ayios Ilias is a prominent hill c. 2 km. SE of Psakhna dominating the


whole plain and with extensive views to V\T~ S, and E. tliH, IJ-1, and later
sherds were found over all TpJ and S slopes and concentrated on the SVJ opposite
the mediaeval tower (Pirgos) below. EH, t!lH, C, and later sher'ds were found
for more than 300 m. to 3 and lOO m. to 'd of Pirgos. In the MH period Ayios
Ilias and Pirgos may have formed one continuous settlement.

F 71

P3AKHNA:

AYIA PAl1.A3liliVI

T. 9 Psakhna
LH A c H

AD 19 (1964) B 213;

345 E

(Euboea No. 33)

o86 N

Euboea 33

The church of Ayia Parask.evi is c. 3 km. SSE of Psak~na~ c. 1200 m. to


3 of Ayios Ilias (F 70). On slopes above and to NE of the church were C and
H sherds and tiles. To W of the church on the opposite side of the road
three LH chamber tombs were cleared in an already robbed cemetery.
F 72

P3AKHNA:

GLIFA3

T. 9 Psakhna
EH? ~1H? ill

329 E
G C

(-'-"uboea No.

077 N

Euboea 56

A small round hill c. 4 km. S of Psak"1na, c. 500 m. to E of the road


from Chalkis, on the 3 edge of the plain and above the marshes. A few LH,
G and C sherds were found and traces of walling (fortifications?) on the
S and E sides~ Sherds possibly EH and f.JiH are reported.
F 73

KATHENI:

KRASAS

T. 10 Kimi
N~

' .

EH I

]V'lD
TT

le2o E I oBo N
ti III (A-B)
L~~

(Fuboea l\o, 29)

226
Euboea 9l;

CG fig. 9

A high flat-topped ridge c. 4 km. 3'11 of Katheni, on the W side of


the road to Chalkis. Sherds were found over an area c. 200 m. by 70 m.
on the hilltop. EH I was recognized and one sherd of MH Grey Minyan and
part of a LH kylix.

F 74

MISTROS
T. 10 Kimi
LH IIIA2-C

506 E I 043 N (approx.)


PG or later?

AAA 2 (1969) 30
During construction of a road from Mistros to Mavropoulon (NE of
Mistros) six chamber tombs were found and partly plundered. They are part
of an extensive LH cemetery on a slope. A variety of goods and a wide range
of pottery was recovered; a bronze vessel and iron spearhead are reported
(the latter a DA or later intrusion?).
F 75

MANIKA (CAPE)
I. 9 Khalkis

EH I-III

MH

*I

( GAMS No. 556, Euboea No. 35)

315 E I 028 N
LH I-IIIB G C

G. A. Papavasileiou, Peri ton en Euboiai archaion taphon (1910); Arkheion


Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 292; Euboea 56; AD 24 (1969) B 202, 25 (1970)
B 248, 26 (1971) B 267
A low promontory, c. 500 m. long, inhabited without apparent break
from EH I to lli IIIB. Part of the settlement is now underwater. The EH II
settlement was clearly of importance, being fortified; a large cemetery of
rock-cut tombs to the SW was used in both this and the following phase, and
has produced material resembling that from Cycladic tombs. The phase following EH II has strong "Anatolian" connections, as at F 81 (cf. AS 16 (1966)
49). Later remains on the site are not remarkable, although the pottery is
of good quality, but a chamber tomb near Panayitsa produced a fine Type C
sword and two cylinder-seals, along with LH IIIAl-B pottery.
F 76

CHALKIS :

TRYPA

I. 9 Khalkis
MH LB I-IIIC

( GA!I!S No. 553, Euboea No. 37)

330 E I 999 N
PG G C H

Papavasileiou 1910, 21;


Euboea 57

PI\E (1910) 266, (1911) 237;

BSA 47 (1952) 49,

227

Two small groups of chamber tombs have been excavated here, to E of


modern Cha1kis on slopes SW and N of Ayia E1eousa; stray MH sherds and
later material were also found. The tombst contents were not very impressive, consisting largely of pottery, mainly LH II-IIIA2, also some figurines,
Jewellery, and bronzes.
F 77

CHALKIS :

I. 9 Khalkis
EH

NlH

(GAMS No. 555, Euboea No. 38)

KAKI KEFALI

I.H

298 E
H

001 N

Arkheion Euboikon !1eleton 6 (1959) 282, 308;

Euboea 58

A promontory with a li.ghthouse, on the N side of Chalkis. EH, MH,


and LE surface sherds were found. It has a small harbour to S and beaches
to ~'E.
F 78

CHALKIS:

( Euboea No. !.JQ)

VA'rHROVOUNI

I. 9 Khalkis
N EH C H

308 E

982 N (approx.)

Ark'1eion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 282, 308;

Euboea 59

N and EH sherds were found at the N foot of the acropolis of


ancient Chalkis.
F 79

CHALKIS :

ARETHOUSA

I. 9 Khalkis
N

EH

t1H?

(Euboea No. lf3)

303 E I 980 N
LH? PG C

Ark>J.eion Euboikon Me le ton 6 (1959) 282, 308;

Euboea 59

N and EH sherds were found near the spring of Arethousa at the NW


foot of the acropolis of ancient Chalkis. MH and LH have been claimed, but
the report is not confirmed. A group of PG vases from here is described
by V. R. Des borough ( Protogeometric Pottery ( 1952) 199).

F8o

DHOKOS:

AYIA THIADHA

I. 9 Khalkis
l'lH Le'! c
Euboea

341 E

(Euboea No. 47)

992 N

6J

Some surface sherds of ~0H and LH type were found in the field above
and S of the village, between the church of Ayia Triadha and the school.

228

F 81

LEFKANDI:

XEROPOLIS

I. 9 Khalkis
N EH II-III

*#

(Q_~

No. 554, Euboea Nos. 48-50)

19 (spot height) at 353 E I 930 N (Xeropolis)


MH LH I-IIIC SMyc. PG G C

AR (1964-5) 16, (1965-6) 10, (1966-7) 12, (1967-8) 12, (1969-70) 8, (1970-l)
7; Euboea 6o; SA 66 (1971) 333; AJA 72 (1968) 41; ?:f::A 2 (1969) 98; AD
25 (1970) B 250, 258, 26 (1971) B 267; M. R. Popham and L. H. Sackett,
Excavations at Lefkandi, Euboea 1964-66 (1968); cf. also V. R. Desborough,
The Greek Dark Ages (1972) 188
A long steep-sided low hill of "high mound" type projecting into the
sea, c. 500 m. E-W by 120 m., severely eroded in parts but with deep deposits,
especially in the NV/. A sounding to bedrock showed continuity of occupation
from a phase equivalent to EH III but having an 11 Anatolian" pottery-tradition;
sherds attributable to Final N and EH II were found in the first stratum
(AR (1969-70) 8, cf. also CG figs. 8, 10). The most important remains on
the site are the deep LH IIIC deposits, representing three major phases;
they indicate that the settlement, which appears to have covered the entire
hill early in LH IIIC, was completely destroyed by fire at the end of the
first phase and at least partially in the course of the second, after which
it seems to decline. It may well have been wholly abandoned at the end of
LH IIIC and only reoccupied late in PG, but continuity of occupation in the
area is assured by the DA cemeteries to the NW. Of these the Skoubris
cemetery began in the SMyc. phase, the other two (Palaia Perivolia and
Toumba) in PG; all share a unique burial-rite blending features of inhumation and cremation, and their contents, although not spectacular, complement
those of the Athens cemeteries over the same period, being closely comparable
except in the quality of the pottery. Traces of settlement and scattered
tombs have been found at various points around the site, one of which may
have been the main centre of habitation in the earlier DA. This site
provides information of the first importance on the DA, and may well have
been the original Eretria, abandoned for F 83 during the G period.
F 82

VASILIKON:
I. 9 Khalkis

AYIOS ANDREAS
375 E

(Euboea No. 52)

930 N

EH I-II
Euboea 61;

CG figs. 9-10

A low rocky hill by the sea, immediately W of Ayios Andreas church


and S of the Chalkis-Eretria road. A thin scatter of worn EH sherds was
:found on much of the top and part of the seaward slopes.

229

F 83

ANCIENI EREI'RIA (THE ACROPOLIS, ETC.)


I. 10 Nea Psara
EHII(-III?) MH

Euboea 62;

*#

(GAMS No. 562,


Euboea Nos. 56-8)

125 ( 'Kasteli') at 46o E I 914 N (the acropolis)


LHIIIA2-B PG G A CH

AAA 2 (1969) 26;

AE (1969) 143

A lofty and extensive acropolis some 1.5 km. from the sea, from
which it is separated by the modern town, which lies on a slight rise.
Prehistoric material has been found at various points on the acropolis and
in the town, where EH is commonest, but never in great quantity, and nothing
datable between LH IIIB and the end of PG has been reported. The site's
importance may not date from before MG II, when it apparently took over from
F 82 the chief position in the eastern Lelantine plain.
F 84

ERETRIA:

MAGOULA

I. 10 Nea Psara
N EH I-III MH

(Euboea No. 59)

493 E I 914 N
LH I-IIIC C H

Euboea 63
A low mound on the shore c. 5 km. E of Eretria on the road to
Amarynthos. The top is of small area, but forms part of a larger hillock,
and the site has been eroded on the seaward side. The site was not
extensive, but EH of good quality was especially noted, Robbed chamber
tombs were found on a ridge to N. PG tombs were found midway between
Eretria and Magoula (cf. BSA 52 (1957) l~).
F 85

AMARYNTHOS:

PALAIOCHORIA

-X-

I. 10 Nea Psara
561 E I 889 N
N EH I-II EH III? MH LH I-IIIC
PAE (1898) 15, 95, lOO;
Papavasileiou 1910, 86;
CG figs. 8-10, 13

(GAMS No. 56~,


Euboea No. 62 )
PG

G?

C H

AE (1900) 5, (1902) 121; PAE (1902) 65, (1903) 18;


BSA 47 (1952) 6o n. llfb, 52 (1957) 23; Euboea 64;

This is a prominent low hill, whose cliffs project slightly into


the sea, c. 2.5 km. E of Amarynthos and at the E end of the Eretrian plain.
The hill is surmounted by two Byzantine churches and the remains of a third,
which are set on ancient foundations. The upper surface of the hill
(c. l6o m. NE-SW by 85 m.) is flat and cultivated. Prehistoric sherds are
abundant here and on the lower slopes on the NW side, indicating a total
extent of c. 200 m. NW-SE by l6o m. (pace Euboea 65). There is a fine
beach on the E side. A possible destruction-level was noted c. 20 m. W of
the cliffs, associated with EH II sherds and several good wall foundations.

230

MH and LH material of excellent quality and variety was found on the top
and on the E and W slopes, and LH seemed more heavily concentrated on the
inland upper slopes on the NW side, where two LH IIIC pictorial sherds
were found (Euboea 65). The settlement was important throughout LH, and
the quantity of good LH IIIC surface sherds is particularly striking
(Euboea 104). A small excavation (PAE (1898) loc.cit.) on the top was
unsuccessful, but C, H, and later remains have been found in the area.
Only one PG sherd was found, and some scraps which may be G.
F 86

ALIVERI:

(Euboea Nos. 63-64)

MAGOULA AND LIVADHI

I. 10 Nea Psara
68o E
EH II MH LH IIIA -C C

I 893

N (Magoula)

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 311, 313;


Euboea 68 and fig. ll

AE (1945-7) ll and fig. 12;

The low mound of Magoula is c. 2 km. SSE of Aliveri. Sherds and


building material litter an area c. 150 m. by lOO m. There was a little
EH II and a wealth of MH and LH, which shows that this was the principal
MH and LH settlement in the area. No other comparable site has yet been
found further S in Euboea. A chamber tomb containing LH vases was found
at Livadhi, on the S outskirts of Aliveri, and is to be connected with the
Magoula settlement.
F

87

ALIVERI :

(Euboea No.

MYLAKI

I. lO Nea Psara
N EH C H

686 E

65)

882 N (approx. for Mylaki)

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 283, AE (1941) 44, ll, figs. 13-14;
Euboea 69 and fig. ll
Various finds of N and EH sherds and obsidian are reported from the
vicinity of Mylaki.
F

88

ALIVERI :

(Euboea No. 66)

MESONISI

I. 10 Nea Psara
EH

662 E I 898 N (approx.)

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 285, 309;


(1945-7) Chronika 9; Euboea 69 and fig. ll

AE (1941) 44, 11, figs. 13-14,

Nand EH sherds and stone implements (especially of obsidian) were


spread on the slopes and at the foot of the broad rounded hill Mesonisi,
immediately toW of Karavos near Aliveri.

231
F 89

VELOUSIA

(GAMS No. 566, Euboea No. 67)

I. 10 Nea Psara
LH (IIIA-B) C
PAE (1907) 114;
and fig. ll

716 E

894 N

Papavasileiou 1910, 42;

BSA 47 (1952) 49;

Euboea

69

A small built tomb of tholos type (d. 4.2 m.) was excavated here
c. 500 m. NE of the village. The tomb is presumably LH, but the only finds
reported from it are bones and a steatite whorl. Some kylix sherds were
apparently also found at the site (BSA loc.cit.), but search in the
immediate neighbourhood has produced no sign of a LH settlement site, and
the nearest known LH settlement is F 90 (at Lepoura c. 2 km. to NE).
F 90

LEPOURA :

(Euboea No.

MAGOULA

I. 10 Nea Psara
EH LH III(A-B)

722 E

69)

890 N (approx.)

Euboea 71
A low mound c. lOO m. by 50 m., c. 500 m. SW of Lepoura, cut through
by the road to Aliveri. Among a thin scatter of prehistoric sherds one EH
and one LH sherd were recognized. But the site is much eroded.
F 91

KATAKALOU:

AYIO PARASKEVI

I. 10 Nea Psara
714 E
LH IIIA2(-B?) G C
Papavasileiou 1910, 39;

( GAMS No. 567, Euboea No. 68)

929 N

Euboea 70

The site is a spur c. 2 km. N of Katakalou and 250 m. SW of the


church of Ayia Paraskevi. A small tholos tomb (d. 5.6 m.) with a "relieving
triangle" was excavated on the SW slope; its contents may have included a
kylix in grey ware, probably LH IIIA2. On the spur above is a thin spread
of worn sherds including LH and G.
F 92

AVLONARION:

PALAIOKASTRI AND ANTIRES

(Euboea Nos. 72-73)

I. 10 Nea Psara
729 E I 003 N (Palaiokastri)
N? EH II MH LH G? C H?
PAE (1902) 71, (1941-4) 37;
Euboea 71 and fig. 12

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 309;

232

Palaiokastri is a high conical hill c. 2.5 km. WSW of Avlonarion


with remains of much destroyed C or H fortifications. EH pottery and
obsidian were found in trials and LH chamber tombs are reported from the
Avlonarian area, although the exact location is unknown. MH and earlier
sherds were found on the upper slopes, especially on the NE side, and on the
summit.
Antires is a long low hill c. 3CO m. NNW-SSE by 75 m., on the NE side
of Palaiokastri (Euboea fig. 12), and nearer to Avlonari. A thick spread of
N, EH, and MH sherds was found here, with the greatest concentration on the
NE slopes, This is said to be the principal early settlement of the region.
Palaiokastri and Antires are only c. 500 m. apart, and surely formed one
community in EH and MH.
F 93

OXYLITHOS:

PALAIOKASTRO, EVRIMA AND PARALIA

*
(GAMS Nos. 569-70,
~ea Nos. 75-6, 78)

T. 10 Kimi
76o E
EH MH LH IIIAl-B
PAE (1907) ll4;

090 N (Palaiokastro)
LH IIIC? C H

Papavasileiou 1910, 2lf, 29;

Euboea 73 and fig. 13

Palaiokastro is a prominent hill in the valley c. 1.5 km. S of


Oxylithos. Sherds of EH, MH, and LH type were found mainly on the SW
slopes above the church of Ayia Triadha. It appears to have been the
principal early settlement in the valley.
A small built tomb of tholos type (d. 4.6 m.) at Evrima c. l km. to
ENE produced LH IIIAl-2 vases and LH IIIB(-C?) sherds. A find Type El
dagger, of LH IIIAl (even possibly LH IIB) date, may have come from a
destroyed tomb of this type at Paralia, near the shore c. l km. NE of
Evrima. These tombs are probably to be associated with the Palaiokastro
settlement.

F 94

OXYLITHOS:

MONI MANTZARI

(Euboea No. 77)

T. 10 Kimi
790 E I 094 N (approx.)
LH IIIAl LH III(A2-B) C
Euboea 71f and fig. 13
A robbed 11 chamber tomb 11 (perhaps a built tomb like those of F 93) was
found in 1939 on the top of the hill c. 500 m. E of the monastery. Three
vases were saved: one is definitely and one probably LH IIIAl (Euboea Pl.
20 f-g), while a double pyxis (Euboea Pl. 20e) is surely later.

F 95

ANDRONIANI

T. lO Kimi
LH IIIA

700 E

( GAMS No. 571,


Euboea No. SO)

138 N (village)

233

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 313;


Euboea 75

BSA 1+7 (1952) Eo n. lllb;

LH IIIA sherds and fine bronzes are reported from a tomb here,

variously called a shaft grave or chamber tomb.

F 96

DYSTOS:

(Euboea No. 811.)

THE ACROPOLIS

I. 10 Nea Psara
7Eo E
N MH LH III(A-B) C

I 845

Euboea 76 and fig. l


The acropolis of ancient Dystos is an isolated conical hill on the
E side of Lake Dystos, and commanding the Dystos plain. Obsidian and N
sherds are abundant, especially on the S side and the E foot, where LH
sherds were also found. A few MH Grey Minyan fragments were also recorded.
F 97

(Euboea No. 85)

KOSKINO
I. 10 Nea Psara
EH

796 E I 855 N (village)

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 309; Euboea 76


EH sherds and obsidian are reported from near Koskino, a village on

the E edge of the Dystos plain.


F

98

STYRA:

(Euboea No. 88)

NEA STYRA

I. lO Nea Psara
8o5 E
N? EH II MH LH IIIC?
AM

16 (1891) 54;

I 64o

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 309;

Euboea 78, 104

Prehistoric remains were found on the S outskirts of Nea Styra in


fields at Lefka. It is likely that the three marble figurines of EC type
(AM loc.cit.) were found here. The sherds include N, EH II, and MH.
Obsidian and undiagnostic prehistoric sherds were also found to N and E
of Nea Styra. One possibly LH IIIC sherd (Euboea 104) is not sufficient
to establish occupation in LH. The settlement seems to have been substantial in EH and MH, and remains the only significant prehistoric settlement
yet found in the southernm ost region of Euboea.

F 99

(Euboea No. 89)

PHILAGRA (CAPE)

IlK ll Karistos
I,H

967 E I 619 N

234

BSA 47 (1952) 89;

Euboea 8o

On Gape Philagra is a fortified hill site c. 2 km. N of the village


Yiannitsi, commanding the small beach which is the only landfall for miles
on a forbidding rocky coastline. A few LH sherds were found here, and
some C material.
F lOO

(Euboea No. 90)

MARMARI
IlK. ll Karistos
EH?

888 E

498 N (approx.)

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 310;

Euboea 8o

EH sherds and obsidian were reported, but the only located finds
are of obsidian on a knoll W of the village.
F 101

KARYSTOS

(Euboea No. 91)

IlK. ll Karistos
N?EH?ACH

965 E I 450 N (approx.)

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 284, 310;

Euboea 8o

Obsidian and sherds apparently N and EH have been noted in the


Karystos area at a number of sites, and there are some celts in Athens NM
reported to have come from Karystos. But the prehistoric material can not
be dated with certainty, and there is as yet no evidence of MH or LH
occupation in the neighbourhood.
F 102

GERAISTOS :

PORTO KASTRI

IlK. ll Karistos
EH? C

090 E

(Euboea No. 92)

4o3 N

Euboea 81
The Bay of Porta Kastri is on the coast ESE of Karystos, near the
SE tip of Euboea. Near the tip of the N promontory of the bay some crude
sherds, probably including EH, and obsidian were found. But later remains
predominate in the area.

235
MAP G:

BOEOTIA, PHOCIS, EASTERN LOCRIS, MALIS AND NORTHERN EUBOEA

The ancient provinces of Boeotis, Phocis, and Locris, which comprise


the greater part of this map, have never been properly surveyed, and while
a large number of sites is known, it is unlikely to reflect their importance and the size of their population adequately. Ranges of mountains
break up this large stretch of territory and create barriers between the
interior and the coast, inducing a tendency to the growth of numerous
local centres. The greatest concentration of sites is around Lake Copais,
from which they extend E to the coast and the lesser lakes Hyliki and
Paralimni, W up the Kephisos valley; Thebes seems relatively isolated at
the edge of the east Boeotian plain, with a spread of sites behind it on
the foothills of Mt. Kithairon. Other sites are spread along the coasts,
generally widely spaced, in central Greece, northern Euboea, and Malis
(where they are more often removed from the sea); there is a small concentration in south Phocis.
Many of the known settlements were already occupied in EH if not
earlier; Thebes (G 23) and Orchomenos (G 1) were certainly prominent, but
both the EH and the MH periods are best known from the fully published but
relatively minor sites Eutresis (G 33) and Kirrha (G 58). The planned town
of Lithares (G 30) provides evidence that EH II was as flourishing a period
as in Attica and the north-east Peloponnese, but there are indications that
the course of events was different; only one site was certainly destroyed
at the end of EH II, Kirrha, and only a few of little importance were
abandoned, while almost as many EH III as EH II sites are known, and it is
clear that both Thebes and Orchomenos were very substantial centres in this
phase. The transition may not have been as abrupt, although the difference
between EH II and III is strongly marked at Eutresis, which was destroyed
at the end of EH III; this seems likely to have been a local event of no
great significance.
The MH period is remarkably poorly known in the area, although
represented at a large number of sites. The pottery is very similar to
that of Attica, central Euboea, and the north-east Peloponnese, and there is
no very obvious local peculiarity; the burial tumulus of Drachmani (G 62)
is interesting but isolated. There are indications from the excavated sites
of increasing prosperity towards the end of MH, here as elsewhere forming
the background to the emergence of the dynastic LH centres, but there is
very little evidence pertinent to this development. It can only be stated
that Thebes and Orchomenos are likely to have been established as dominant
in their neighbourhoods at an early stage in LH, and that there were
probably smaller centres; the best documented are Kirrha and Ay. Theodoros
(G 51), which is clearly important by LH IIIAl.
The new picture is only a little clearer in late LH, when on the basis
of the finds Thebes and Orchomenos may be considered rivals to Mycenae and
Pylos; the enigmatic site of Gla (G 9) provides an added complication, for
it seems never to have been an ordinary habitation-site and its purpose is
obscure. Its existence presupposes that part of Lake Copais had been
drained, and it may have been established by one of the two great centres

236

to ensure control of the drained land, Orchomenos being the more likely.
The destruction of the successive palaces at Thebes in LH IIIA2 and IIIB
might be attributed to the traditional rivalry between the two or to trouble
with other states, of which the "Seven against Thebes" legends might be an
echo. The fortifications of Eutresis and Krisa (G 56), which include large
open areas, have been thought to provide refuge from raiders for the local
population and thei.r livestock and would thus indicate another source of
instability, but this must remain conjectural, although it is perfectly
possible that the inhabitants of the rougher areas in theW gave trouble
to the richer districts and were less "civilised", as their Classical
counterparts seem to have been. An interesting feature is the survival of
cists and rectangular built tombs at various sites, particularly in south
Phocis, but chamber tomb cemeteries are common enough in Boeotia.
There is evidence for destruction and abandonment in LH IIIB: the
destruction of the second palace at Thebes may have fallen at the end of
LH IIIBl, that of Gla, Eutresis, and Krisa at a similar time, and a number
of sites have produced no clearly LH IIIC material. But LH IIIC is well
represented in the western part of the area (cf. G 51, 55, 66, 74, 78), and
there is clear evidence for survival j_nto the DA at some of these sites
and also at Thebes, although finds of PG date are extraordinarily rare.
The LH IIIC survival in south Phocis may be linked with the evident prosperity of areas further W at this time; in Boeotia the picture is more
traditional, with survival at only a few centres. Developments at this
time were clearly complicated, and more evidence is required.
G 1

ANCIENT ORCHOMENOS

*!I

I. 8 Levadhia
745 E I o6o N
N EH I-III MH LH I-IIIB LH IIIC?

( GAMS No. 396)

SMyc.

PG

G A C H

2 (1882) 122; BCH 19 (1895) 177; AM 30 (1905) 130; PT 193;


Orchomenos I-III; AD 1 (1915) Parartem;-51, 23 (1968) B 223, 24 (1969)
B 179, 26 (1971) B 218; AAA 3 (1970) 263, 6 (1973) 392, 7 (1974) 313;
CG 41
JHS

The centre of the ancient site appears to have been the E spur of
Mt. Dourdouvana (the ancient Akontion), covering an area at least 500 m.
E-W by 200 m. An important sequence of N-MH strata was found here, but the
LH remains had been completely eroded; however, a building containing
pottery and fine goods has been discovered in another part of the acropolis,
and fresco-fragments were found on the summit. Others were found below the
acropolis, mixed with burnt brick and lead, and it is here, in front of the
Skripou church, that large buildings suggested to be part of the LH III
palace have been found on earlier settlement-material; many fresco-fragments
and some plain whole vases of LH III type were found in and around them.
Some late MH tombs, at least one of which contained goods of Shaft Grave
type, seem to be in the same area, N of the "Treasury of Minyas" (Nestor

237

111111972 and the Greek newspaper reports there quoted refer to these,
.erroneously attributed to Thebes). The "Treasury of Minyas" (d. 14 m.),
the finest tholos tomb outside Mycenae and almost identical both in size
and style with the "Treasury of .Atreus", was set into the SE slope of the
spur; its contents, apart from the stone slabs carved in relief decorating
the roof of the side chamber, had long been removed when Schliemann investigated (JHS 2 (1882) 122). An extensive chamber tomb cemetery is reported
from the neighbourhood, and a tumulus-like structure of apparently LH III
date was excavated to the S (AM 30 (1905) 130). Although Orchomenos was
clearly a centre of the first importance, it remains poorly known, and
the LH pottery is mostly unpublished; there is no certain LH IIIC material,
but a vase attributed to SMyc. is reported (AM 35 (1910) 35) and there are
PG graves. The site may have suffered destruction in LH IIIB and have been
abandoned temporarily; a hoard of bronzes found in a well (AAA 3 (1970) 263)
may be attributed to this period and could be a sign of trouble.
G 2

POLIYIRA

( GAMS No. 397)

*#

T. 8 Atalandi
738 E I 103 N
N EH I MH LH IIII? LH III(A- )B
Orchomenos I 116, PT 196;

LH IIIC?

CG figs. 9, l6a-d

A small settlement on a low spur, on the N edge of Lake Copais. The


hilltop is c. 120 m. in diameter and surrounded by a circuit wall c. 2.5 m.
thick. The site was tested by excavation; the material from excavation
and survey has a wide range, including (in the BSA collection) one sherd
from the LH IIIB-C transition (CG fig. l6d: the piece marked 11Tegyra").
G3

KOLAKA:

AYIOS IOANNIS

T. 8 Atalandi
LH

8o9 E

107 N (approx.)

AD 23 (1968) B 223
On the hill of Ayios Ioannis on the N edge of Lake Copais, 18 LH
chamber tombs were discovered, and another group of 17 robbed chamber tombs
on a hill to SE.
G

( GAMS No. 399)

PYRGOS

T. 8 Atalandi
8o3 E I 07'7 N
EH? MH LH IIIA -B A C
Orchomenos I 119;

PT 196;

AA (1940) 187;

CG figs. l6c-d

238

A fine hill site on a spur projecting into Lake Copais from the N,
and on the SE edge of Pyrgos village. The settlement was large, c. 250 m.
N-S by 150 m., and LH occupation appears to have extended further, over
wide E terraces. The site was tested by excavation which revealed a slabbuilt cist grave with contracted burial; and MH and LH surface sherds are
of high quality. There are remains of circuit walls in Cyclopean style on
the lower S slope, and there appears to have been an inner ring also round
the mediaeval tower at the top. This was probably one of the LH fortresses
that seem to have been deliberately placed round Lake Copais, probably
controlled from Gla (G 9) and/or Orchomenos.
G

PYRGOS:

MAGOULA

*I

(GAMS No. 398)

T. 8 Atalandi
797 E I 085 N
N EHII MH LH I/II? LH III(A-B)
Orchomenos I 121;

FT 197;

CG figs. 10, 14, l6a-d

An isolated rocky hill, c. 120 m. N-S by 6o m., in the Copais plain


c. 1.5 km. S of Pyrgos. Trial excavations revealed N habitation and surface
sherds include EH II, MH, and LH. At Pyrgos the excavators purchased a
stone figurine of apparently KS type (Orchomenos I 121 fig. 35), which may
have come from G 4 or G 5.
G6

STROVIKI

11

( GAMS No. 4oo)

I. 8 Levadhia
870 E / 030 N
N EH II-III MH LH III(A-B) C H
Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 22 (1935) 202;
186; AD 24 (1969) B 179; CG figs. 10-ll, 14, l6a-d

AA (l9leo)

On the low rounded hillock to S of Stroviki, on the N edge of the


Copais plain, there was a substantial prehistoric and later settlement.
The inhabited area appears to have been c. 200 m. N-S by 150 m., indicated
by the spread of EH, MH, and LH sherds of good quality and some later
material. There are remains of the foundations of inner and outer rings of
circuit walls, preserved mainly on the N side, and slab-built cist graves
on the summit which may be MH. The remains at Tourloyanni, the much higher
hill to NE of the above Stroviki, and remains of polygonal walls in the
plain to SE of Stroviki, are probably C or H.

G7

KASTRO (FDRMERLY TOPOLIA)

11

I. 8 Levadhia
911 E I o48 N
N EH II LH III(A-B) G A C H
AD 22 (1967) B 243;

CG figs. 10, l6b, l6d

(GAMS No. 4ol)

239

The low rounded hill of Topolia village was a prehistoric and later
site. The sherds were found only on the E flank, however, and it is not
possible to ascertain whether the settlement extended over the whole hill.
G8

KASTRO:

JVIAGOULA

T. 8 Atalandi
N EH I-II

918 E

CG fjgs. l6a-b, 19 etc.;

074 N

AD 26 ( 1971) B 241

This is a small low mound in the plain c. 2 km. N of Kastro (Topolia)


and c. 150 m. W of the new highway. A prehistoric settlement was discovered
here by D. H. French.
G9

GLA

*#

( GAJVIS No. 402)

I. 8 Levadhia 134 ('Palaiokastro') at 931 E


JVIH LH IIIA2 -B C or H

038 N

BCH 18 (1894) 271, 448; AJVI 19 (1894) 405; PT 193; PAE (1955) 121, (1956)
90, (1957) 48, (1958) 38,--(1959) 21, (1960) 23, (1961) 28; CG figs. l6c-d
The fortress of Gla occupies an extensive rock outcrop which has the
appearance of a low island, towards the NE end of the main Copais plain.
Apart from a report of Grey JVIinyan, the earliest material published from
the site is LH IIIA. A massive fortification-wall, with four elaborate
gateways (and traces of roads leading to them), completely surrounds the
site, whose area is estimated as c. 235,000 square metres. A walled-off
inner area, c. 31,000 square metres, in the upper central part of the site
comprises the "palace", an L-shaped building (whose N wall forms part of
the outer fortification), and the 11 agora 11 to S, within which are tw(}.long
rows of rectangular structures, oriented N-S; these are of very similar
plan, but that toW is more elaborate, containing some stone column-bases.
The thinness of the earth-cover has meant that finds were relatively few,
and those from the recent excavations remain largely unpublished; they
include fresco-fragments (especially in the "palace"), fragments of bronze,
lead, and stone objects, part of a "horns of consecration", and pottery.
The earliest pottery seems LH IIIA2, the latest LH IIIBll2 (PAE (1960) Pl.
7 (3 seems to include LH IIIA2 kylikes, 7y part of a LH IIIBll2 stemmed bowl
or krater; these certainly cannot be contemporary). There are traces of
destruction by fire at the S and SE entrances and in the "palace", where
such traces were found not only on the final floors but under the surviving
plaster layer on the walls (PAE (1960) 37), suggesting an earlier fire.
The site seems to have been abandoned after LH IIIB. It remains enigmatic,
but a possible explanation (suggested above) of its purpose is to guard
that part of Lake Copais which had already been drained, The roads leading

240
to the gates presuppose some measure of success; and the system of dykes
may have been partly completed in the LH III period. ( c.f. Liverpool Annals
of Archaeology and Anthropology 22 (1935) 189). Gla is also probably to
be linked with the other LH fortresses (smaller) around Lake Copais,
especially those in the NE extension of the Lake (Nos. G 10-12). If Gla
was the centre of a defensive network of this nature, this would not
preclude the explanation that it was also intended as an artificial capital
like Tell el-Amarna (Akhetaten) in Egypt, but perhaps never finished.
G 10

AYIA MARINA

(GAMS No. 4o3)

I. 8 Levadhia
950 E
MH LH III(A- )B

I 052

AM 19 (1894) 442, 445 fig. 9;

PT 12;

AA (1940) 185;

CG figs. l6c-d

This was apparently a key site in the system of fortresses in the


NE sector of Lake Copais. It lies on the spur at the corner between
the main Copais plain and the NE bay. The small summit, c. 150 m. E-W by
50 m., is surrounded by circuit walls 2 m. to 3 m. thick. Ruined cist
graves were found beside the walls on the S side. The LH settlement also
extended to the lower CM slopas, towards the "Turkish Bridge" where the
two major ancient canals joined, from the N and E borders of the Lake
respectively. They subsequently flowed eastward to the Katavothras at
the E end of the NE bay.
G ll

CHANTSA

(GAMS No. 404)

T. 9 Psakhna
970 E
MH? LH III(A-B)

I 070

AM 19 (1894) 440, Taf. XIII;

AA (1940) 185

The two western promontories among the three which project from the
N side of the NE bay of Copais were also fortified. Some LH III sherds and
obsidian were found close to the circuit walls of the westernmost promontory
(Chantsa) on the S side. The walls enclose only the S tip of the promontory,
an area c. 120 m. in diameter. Apsidal houses and a cemetery of cist graves
recorded here may be MH.
G 12

AYIOS IOANNIS

/1

(GAMS No. 405)

T. 9 Psakhna
979 E I 068 N
EH III? MH LH IIB-IIIB (Sub)PG
AM 19 (1894) 44o, Taf. XIII;

Pr 12;

AA (194{))

185;

CG figs. 11, l6c-d

241

Ayios Ioannis is a LH fortress whose walls enclose an area c. 250 m.


NNE-SSW by lOO m., on the central promontory of the three on the N side of
the NE bay of Copais. It overlooks the exit of the canal system into the
Katovothras. MH Grey Minyan and LH IIIA-B are common, and one sherd with
linked concentric semicircles at the rim is LPG or EG.

G 13 MEGALI KATAVOTHRA

T. 9 Psalchna
999 E
N? IJ{ IIIB C

(GAMS No. 4o6)

I 053 N

AA ( l94o) 185

There was a small settlement on the rock ledge above the 11Megali
Katavothra", the main "swallow-hole 11 at the E end of the NE bay of Copais.
Some LH IIIB and C sherds were found here. There was apparently N occupation at Spilia Tsoutso nearby to the S (AA loc. ci t.).
G 14

DAVLOSIS:

KASTRAKI

(GAMS No, 4o7)

I. 8 Levadhia
920EI945N
EH II MH LH III(A-B) C H
AM 63-64 (1938-9) 177;

CG figs. 11, 14, l6b-d

A small acropolis on a spur, overlooking the drainage canals and dykes


in the Davlos bay on the E side of the Copais plain. MH Grey Minyan and
Matt-painted and IJ{ III surface sherds are common and later sherds are
widespread on the saddle to E. A LH cemetery was noted on the W slope of
Mt. Sphingion nearby.
G

15

DAVLOSIS:

KALIMPAKI

(under GAMS No. 4o7)

I. 8 Levadhia in square 920 E


LH?
AM 63-4 (1938-9) 183, Taf. 72, l;

I 94o N

Alin 121

A hill c. 50 m. high, on the NW side of Mt. Sphingion. Polygonal walls


appear to indicate a H fort. IJ{ is claimed (Alin 121) but only obsidian and
11
frilhe scherben" are recorded in the field report (AM loc.cit. ). The site
is close to G 14, and may be subsidiary to it.
G 16 ANCIENI ONCHESTOS

*#

I. 8 Levadhia
890 E I 906 N
EH I-III MH LH III(A-B) C

(GAMS No. 4o8)

242

AD 19 (1964) B 200, 21 (1966) B 203;


(1973) Yf9

CG figs. 9-11, 13-14, 16b-d;

AAA 6

A ruined building named Kasarma stands on the top of a low rounded


hill on the N side of the road from Thebes where it enters the SE end of
the Copais plain. On the top of the hill and for a radius of c. 50 m.
in all directions, especially to the SE, EH, MH and LH sherds were found.
On the S side of the road, opposite Kasarma, remains of two C buildings
have been excavated, tentatively identified as the Temple of Poseidon and
the Bouleuterion of the Amphictyonic and Boeotian leagues.
G 17 KASTRI (ANCIENT HALIARTOS)

(GAMS No, 4o9)

*11

I. 8 Levadhia
836 E I 924 N
N EH II MH LH IIII? LH IIIA-B

G?

A C H

Fimmen 1921, 6, 78; BSA 27 (1925-6) 82, 26 (1926-7) 129, 139, 32 (1931-2)
190; CG figs. 11, 14, 16
The LH acropolis lay at the W end of the long ridge of ancient
Haliartos, where there is a higher knoll, c. 250 m. E-W by 150 m. This
knoll was originally surrounded by a circuit wall in Cyclopean style, of
which remains are well preserved on the S side (a LH III sherd found in the
wall provides a terminus post quem). EH II, MH and LH IIIA-B sherds were
found on the acropolis and the N slopes; and a "Mycenaean area" at the E
end of the sanctuary produced sherds said to range from LH II to Ikl IIIB.
It is thus apparent that the LH site continued to E along the ridge for a
considerable extent (and in 1959 some LH III sherds were found c. 300 m.
from the W end). This was therefore a large, and presumably important, LH
settlement, although no pure prehistoric strata or structures were revealed
in the excavations.
G 18 KATO AGORIANI

/1

( GAMS No. 410)

I. 8 Levadhia
763 E
N EH I MH LH IIIB

941 N

CG figs. 9 (under "Alalkomenai"), 14;


Agoriani)

Euphrosyne 6 (1973-4) 9 (under

A stte on a spur above the main road, to E of the hamlet of Kato


Agoriani. The prehistoric sherds were found mostly on the tip of the spur,
over an area c. 120 m. in diameter.
G 19 ANCIENT KORONEIA

11

I. 8 Levadhia
244 (spot height) at 728 E
NMHLHACH

948 N

243

w.

K. Pritchett, Studies in Ancient Greek Topography 2 (1969) Pl. 56;


Euphrosyne 6 (1973-4) 9
The acropolis of ancient Koroneia is a large steep-sided hill c. 2 km.
E of Ayios Yeoryios village, not far from the S side of the Copais plain.
Prehistoric sherds have been found recently on the surface (Euphrosyne
loc.cit.), but the structures observed, including the remains of a circuit
wall, appear to be C or later.
G 20

KALAMI

11

( GAMS No. 411)

I. 8 Levadhia
722 E 1975 N
N EH I-III MH LH IIII-IIIB
BSA 26 (1923-4) 42;
6 (1973-4) 9

AA (1940) 184;

LH IIIC?

CG figs. 9-ll, 14, 16a-d;

Euphrosyne

Kalami is a large mound on a low hill near the S side of the Copais
plain. Surface sherds of all prehistoric periods are plentiful and may
include LH IIIC (CG fig. 16d, but there are no certain LH IIIC pieces from
Kalami in the BSA collection). The LH settlement was large and probably
important.
G 21

LARYMNA:

11

BAZARAKI

T. 9 Psakhna
023 E
EH LH III(A-B) C

096 N

AJA 20 (1916) 44; R Hope Simpson and J. F. Lazenby, The Catalogue of the
Ships in Homer's Iliad (1970) 37 n. 67
The small spur at Bazaraki c. 3 km. S of Larymna was the site of a
LH and earlier settlement. Only a few EH sherds were found, but the LH
were spread thinly on the top (c. lOO m. in diameter) and the upper N
terraces. The ancient road (AJA loc.cit.) passes by on theW side, before
descending to Larymna. The road can not be closely dated, but Bazaraki has
been identified as "Upper Larymna" and some C sherds and tiles found suggest
that there may have been a guard post here at this time.
G 22

LARYMNA:

KASTRI

11

T. 9 Psakhna
027 E I 123 N
MH LH IIIB LH IIIC? (Sub?)PG
AJA 20 (1916) 32;

AR'

( GAMS No. 413)

G C H

(1967) 527

Ancient Larymna occupied the small headland between the two bays of
the harbour. The area enclosed by ancient walls is c. 150 m. NE-SW by 8o m.

244

The remains of circuit walls preserved on the S side are isodomic and
presumably C or H. But a 50 m. or longer stretch preserved on the NW
side is of true "Cyclopean 11 style (cf. AJA 20 (1916) 38 fig. l) and
some LH IIIB sherds found within the wall give a terminus post quem for
its construction. Other sherds in this vicinity include a few LH III (including one krater fragment possibly LH IIIC), part of the rim of a MH Mattpainted jar, a LPG or EG sherd with concentric circles, and part of a G
jug handle. But C and H are predominant. The walls have recently been
studied in detail (AA loc.cit.).
G 23

THESES

(GAMS No. 416)

*!I

I. 9 Khalkis
N EH II-III

035 E / 847 N
MH LH I-IIIC SMyc.

PG

G A C H

I. Habitation

AE (1907) 205, (1909) 57, (1930) 29; /ID 3 (1917) 2, 19


(1964) B 192, 20 (1965) B 230, 21 (1966) B 177, 22 (1967) B 226, 23 (1968)
B 207, 24 (1969) B 177, 25 (1970) B 211, 26 (1971) B 195; AAA l (1968) 9,
241, 3 (1970) 62, 322, 4 (1971) 32, 7 (1974) 162, 8 (1975) 25, 86, 192;
Kadmos 3 (1964) 25; ILN 28/11, 5/12/1964; S. Symeonoglou, Kadmeia I
(SIMA 35, 1973); AA (1971) 394 summarises EH, 413 MH, (1974) 16 early LH.
Special topics: H. Reusch, Die zeichnerische Rekonstruktion der Frauenfrieses im b8otischen Theben (1956), AD 25 (1970) .A 104 (frescoes);
Archaeometry 8 (1965) 3 (analysis of inscribed stirrup-jars); Minos 10
(1970) 115, Supplement 5 (1975) (tablets)
Thebes is on an extensive hill on the S edge of the Theban plain.
The centre of prehistoric Thebes, the Kadmeia, is an oval plateau,
c. Boo m. N-S by 6oo m. The prehistoric strata lie under the remains of
Greek, Roman, mediaeval, and modern Thebes, and have had to be investigated
as opportunity arose in many different areas; few excavations have been
fully published, and the amount of detailed information available is
therefore small. The earliest structures are EH, and those of theEH III
phase appear to be particularly important, including a massive apsidal
megaron in the centre of the Kadmeia, with which a jar containing several
bronzes was associated. The MH strata are deep; there are indications of
Thebes' continued or regained importance at a late stage, including a large
megaron and some well-provided graves (AD 20 (1965) B 183), Its importance
in early LH times may be surmised from the rich tombs of the period, and
the large MH megaron may still have been in use; the important LH structures
belong to the LH III phases.
The sequence and date of the LH III palatial buildings on the Kadmeia
are still subjects of controversy (see most recently Spyropoulos in Minos
Supplement 5 (1975) 58 ff., and reviews of Kadmeia I in AJA 78 (1974) 88
and RA (1977) 79). It is frequently argued that there were two successive
palaces, the first oriented NE-SW, the second N-S, but Spyropoulos has
argued (op. cit. 61) that there was a single complex, in which differences
of orientation were due to the topography and perhaps to "administrative

2'!5

hierarchy", and which underwent local destructions and reconstructions as


well as more general ones. It is certainly the case that only on the
Kordatzis site are two buildings of different orientations directly superimposed (Kadmeia I) and these are workshops, not administrative or state
buildings; moreover, as Spyropoulos has pointed out, the central block of
state buildings that one would expect has not been found, and may be under
the modern square (AAA 4 (1971) 32). The problem is complicated further by
the uncertainty over the relative date of the various buildings found, very
little of whose pottery has been published fully, and must remain open
pending further excavation and publication.
The foundation-date of the original palace is unclear; parallels
between the Women's Procession Fresco and frescoes from Knossos are unlikely
to give any close indication, since certainly late frescoes from Mycenae
and Pylos have equally good parallels at Knossos. It was undoubtedly in
being in LH IIIA2, and there are indications of a fairly general destruction
at the end of the phase (cf. AJA 78 (1974) 89, CG 4c, which might even
suggest a date at the beginning of LH IIIB). Evidence from the Kordatzis
site and the newly excavated Koropoulis site furtherS (AAA 7 (1974) 162)
would suggest a further destruction in LH IIIBl, but material from the
"Archive Room" closer to the centre has been. put at the end of LH IIIB
(Spyropoulos, op.cit. 55; but there are no true "Type B" deep bowls, though
these are represented in the material from the Koropoulis site, only completely coated examples, a type whose range is not entirely clear). lli
buildings thought posterior to the LH IIIB palace have been found on the
Stavris site (AD 25 (1970) B 214), and it seems possible that the second
destruction was only partial, and was followed by a phase of contraction
and decline.
The area of the Kadmeia over which remains attributed to the palace
or its dependencies have been found is sufficiently large, taking up the
whole centre. The workshop on the Koropoulis site, however, is some 4050 m. SW of the Kordatzis site, which has been thought to mark the palace's
S boundary (AAA 4 (1971) 33 fig. 1), and fine frescoes suggesting the
presence of important structures have been found outside the suggested
area as well as inside, both to theN (cf. AD 25 (1970) A lOll, the Dagdelenis site) and S (AD 24 (1969) B 18o, the D~ros site). These might
belong to separate buildings, counterparts of the important buildings on
, and below the acropolis at Mycenae. There is evidence, not very good as
yet, for a fortification-wall surrounding the Kadmeia (AD 3 (1917) 111, 20
(1965) B 237, 25 (1970) B 217), presumably of L!o III date.
The chamber tombs provide the only published evidence for the continued occupation of Thebes in LH IIIC. Cists found in the SE part of the
Kadmeia may be attributed to late SMyc. and EPG (AD 3 (1917) 25, 20 (1965)
B 239, AAA 8 (1975) 86), and thus continuity of occupation is likely, but
the history of Thebes between LH IIIB and the end of the DA is most obscure.
II. Tombs
Kolonaki
AE (1910) 209;
26 ( 1971) B 207

AD 3 (1917) 123, 22 (1967) B 227, 23 (1968) B 219,

246

Ismeniou
AE (1910) 209; AD 3 (1917) So, 22 (1967) B 227
Megalo and Mikro Kastelli
AD 3 (1917) 108, 22 (1967) B 227, 23 (1968)
B 213, 24 (1969) B 177, 25 (1970) B 218; AAA 4 (1971) 161
AE (1910) 209; AD 22 (1967) B 240
To the West of the Kadmeia
The Ampheion
AD 22 (1967) B 229; AAA 5 (1972) 16
Chamber tomb cemeteries have been found on all sides of the Kadmeia,
but especially on the E and SE, where there are many of size and wealth.
Of particular importance are those at the Gerokomeion site on Megalo
Kastelli, including one of remarkable size (10.52 x 6.24 m.), provided with
two dromoi and preserving traces of frescoes inside, which may originally
have covered the whole tomb. It had been robbed (surviving finds include
a fine ivory pyxis, AR (1970-71) 14 fig. 14), but may well have been a
royal tomb. At leastone other tomb has preserved remains of fresco (AA
(1974) 16, dated early). The Kolonaki tombs often proved to have been
robbed or disturbed, but some contained the remains of rich goods,
especially T. 26.
A remarkable structure on the top of the Ampheion hill, apparently a
cist built of upright slabs and covered by a mound of brick, is thought
to be an EH II royal tomb. It had apparently been robbed in LH times and
also disturbed in mediaeval times, and MH pottery is reported; thus its
date is not certain, although much EH pottery is reported and the three
surviving gold beads have an EB appearance. The hill itself is thought
to have been landscaped into three successive terraces, but the vague
resemblance thus presented to the "Stepped Pyramid" is hardly sufficient
to certify Egyptian influence, let alone colonisation of Boeotia.
G 24

SOULES
I. 9 Khalkis
LH

( GAMS No. 425)


274 (spot height) at 118 E

866 N

C H

A Philippson, Die Griechischen Landschaften I (1950) 207


A small LH settlement was found on this low hill on the S side of
the Theban plain, near ancient Teumesos.
i;,

G 25

HARMA (FORMERLY DRITSA): ANCIENT ELEON


I. 9 Khalkis
EH I-III MH

RE Suppl. VI 6o9;

173 E I 877 N
LH IIII-IIIC A c
Fimmen 1921, 6;

(GAMS No. 427)

CG figs. 9-14, l6b-d

The prehistoric settlement occupied the flat top (c. 200 m. NW-SE by
120 m.) and extensive N slopes of a steep-sided hill on the NW side of
Harma village, overlooking the E part of the Theban plain. The site has
been identified as ancient Eleon, and there are remains of a fine A defence

247
wall of Lesbian masonry on the E side. The MH and LH sherds are abundant
and of excellent quality. This was undoubtedly a large and important LH
settlement, probably second only to Thebes in the Theban plain.
G 26 KALLITHEA (FORMERLY MOUSTAPHADHES):
I. 9 Khalkis

LH IIB-IIIB

llf5 E

PYRGARI

829 N

AD 19 (1964) B 199, 20 (1965) B 242, 23 (1968) B 224, 26 (1971) B 213;


AAA 3 (1970) 328
A large cemetery of chamber tombs at Voros, on the hill of Pyrgari
at the N edge of the village, has produced a fine range of pottery and
other goods, including a Type E dagger.
G 27

KASTRI (LYKOVOUNO)
I. 9 Khalkis

LH III(A-B)

( GAMS No. 428)

298 ( "Kastro Likovouno") at 190 E


C H

I 913 N

J. G. Frazer, Pausanias' Description of Greece (1898) V 62;


and Lazenby 1970, 3

Hope Simpson

This site, which has been identified as ancient Harma, is a high


barren scrub-covered hill to N of the Thebes-Chalkis road where the road
begins to ascend towards the Anephorites pass. The extensive summit
(c. 300 m. N-S by 200 m.) is covered in wall foundations. Most of the
sherds are C or H, but near the top some LH III sherds and obsidian chips
were found. It is likely that the LH site was small in extent, perhaps
only c. 150 m. N-S by lOO m., at the higher S end of the hill.
G 28

HYPATON (FORMERLY SYRTZI):


I. 9 Khalkis
N EHII MH

llO E I 919 N
LH III(A-B) G A

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 29;

TOURLEZA

(GAMS No. 426)

AD 25 (1970) B 224

The small acropolis named Tcurleza to NE of and above Hypaton, was


probably the centre of ancient Glisas. The remains on the summit (c. So m.
NW-SE by 50 m.), including a circuit wall of polygonal masonry, are mainly
C or H, but on the extensive SW slopes some LH III sherds were found, and
obsidian both here and on the summit, where only one LH sherd was found.
Excavation has recently produced evidence of an EH settlement and rock-cut
tombs; and a G to C cemetery and MH sherds were noted in surface investigations (AD loc.cit.).

248

G 29

VOULIAGMA
I. 9 Khalkis
LH

050 E

935 N (approx.)

AD 22 (1967) B 242
Near the road from Thebes and Mouriki, and to N of the national
highway from Athens to Thessaloniki, some robbed LH chamber tombs were
noted, and a possible tholos tomb.
G 30

LITHARES

I. 9 Khalkis
EH I-III MH

991 E

I 916 N

LH III(A2-B)

AAA l (1968) 11~, 2 (1969) 97, 5 (1972) 467, 6 (1973) 371;


A 28

AD 24 (1969)

This site is a broad tongue of land cut off by a ravine, between two
hills, near the S side of Lake Hyliki. An important EH settlement of ordered plan and at least 70 m. by 45 m. in extent has been uncovered here; it
seems to have flourished most in EH II, but a small shrine containing bullfigurines is dated to EH III, of which diagnostic types are reported. The
cemetery, made up of small roundish rock-cut chamber tombs, was situated
on a slope to theW; one tomb contained much MH pottery. LH kylix-stems
are also reported from the area.
G

31 MAVROMATI:

I. 8 Levadhia

MH

PANAYIA

908EI90lN

LH

CG figs. 14, l6d, 19


The site, discovered by D. H. French, is on the end of a spur jutting
S from the low hills which form a saddle between the Copais and the Theban
plain. It lies c. 2 km. ESE of G 16 and c. l km. N of the Thebes-Livadhia
road.
G 32

AKRAIPHNION:
I. 9 Khalkis
N EH MH

AAA 6 (1973) 203

SPILIA SARAKENOU
950 E

998 N

Deposits in this vast cave c. l km. SW of Akraiphnion are reported to


range from aceramic Neolithic to MH.
G 33

ANCIENT EUTRESIS

(GAMS No. 417)

I. 8 Levadhia
335 (spot height) at 936 E
N EH I-III MH Ul I-IIIB C H

8c4 N

H. Goldman, Excavations at Eutresis in Boeotia (1931);


126

Hesperia 31 (1962)

The site is a plateau c. 500 m. long rising to a small summit on the


N. Habitation appears to have been continuous here from a late stage of N
to LH IIIB. The pre-LH levels are the best preserved, providing one of the
few continuous sequences from later N into EH; surface indications suggested to the excavator that the site had been most extensive in EH I and
dwindled thereafter. It was destroyed by fire at the end of EH III, and
certainly early MH material is difficult to identify; the three MH strata
are of advanced date, and suggest a site of some importance. These include
vases similar to Phyl I types in appearance, which pose something of a
problem once it is recognised that they are in a mature-to-late MH context.
LH structures are rare; a fortification wall appears to have been built in
LH IIIB around the site (c. 35,000 sq. m.) and much open country, enclosing
an area of c. 213,000 sq. m. A floor deposit (Eutresis fig. 263) belongs
to this phase, perhaps to LH IIIBl (CG 39), and may relate to the abandonment of the site. The absence of later remains earlier than C poses another
problem, for the site's status as a polis would presuppose reoccupation in
G or A at the latest.
G 34

THESPIAI :

MAGOULA

*11

(GAMS No. lfl8)

I. 8 Levadhia
895 E I 828 N
N EH II-III MH LH III(A- )B C H
Hesperia 20 (1951) 289; BCH 76 (1952) 219, 79 (1955) 257;
119; CG figs. 10-ll, l6a-d

JHS

73 (1953)

The low ridge to S of Thespiai was the centre of historic Thespiai.


The prehistoric material was found at Kastro or Magoula, near the E end
of the ridge. Trial excavations here have partly revealed a N settlement,
and several LH III sherds have been found. EH and MH are less numerous,
and the extent of the BA settlement is hard to determine.
G 35

THISBE:

PALAIOKASTRO

I. 8 Levadhia
MH LH IIIA-B

11

725 E I 8c4 N
A C H

(GAMS No. 419)

250

BSA 26 (1923-5) 41, 41,t;

JHS 45 (1925) l;

AD 25 (1970) B 232

The hill of Palaiokastro is on the ~N side of modern Thisbe, below


Mt. Helikon. It measures c. 300 m. ~W-SE by lOO m., tapering down to SE.
On the ~W end are remains of a wall corner of massive blocks, apparently
the inner face of a Cyclopean circuit wall. The top surface of the hill
and the extensive slopes are strewn with fine LH IIIA-B sherds, and few
later. The historic Thisbe was mainly centred on the lower plateau
called Neokastro on the S side of the village (cf. AM 73 (1958) 17). At
the S foot of Neokastro, and in other nearby slopes, remains of chamber
tombs are evident, some of which were LH (BSA loc.cit.). Other tombs were
noted to NW of the village, near Palaiokastro, and it is perhaps from one
of these that the genuine elements of the famous "Thisbe Treasure" (JHS loo.
cit.) were looted (and cf. AD loc.cit. for further chamber tombs). The
goods in the "Treasure", apart from the rings, appear genuine, and likely
to be of LH IIIA-B date.
G 36

CHORSIAI

( GAMS No. 420)

I. 8 Levadhia
MH LH IIIA-B

I 794 N

655 E
H

BSA 26 (1923-5) 42, 44


MH and LH III sherds were found on the hill of the later fortress
of Chorsiai, whose harbour would have formed a useful link with the
Peloponnese.
G 37

HALIKE

(GAMS No. 421)

11
I. S Levadhia
Aliki"
MH LH IIII? LH IIIA -B

in square 790 E
C H

720 N

BSA 26 (1923-5) 40, 44


An acropolis towards the S end of the small coastal plain of modern
Aliki. The top has C or H fortifications, which end in a mole projecting
c. 30 m. into the sea. MH and LH sherds were found on the S slopes, and
just below the summit was a wall of big blocks considered probably LH.
G 3S

LIVADOSTRO:

KASTRO

(GAMS No, 422)

S Levadhia
S5o El 734 N
EH II MH LH II-IIIB

I.

BSA 26 (1923-5)

:ss,

Pl. VII;

AD 24 (1969) B 1S5;

CG figs. 10, 14, 16b-d

251

The Kastro lies at the E end of the small coastal plain at the mouth
of the Livadostro river valley. The Kastro hill is small (c. lOO m. NW-SE
by 70 m.) and low, but the quality of the BA surface sherds, including
fine EH II, MH, and early LH, was striking. Remains of two cist graves
were observed at the top, and traces of a possible circuit wall on the
SW flank. The remains of an ancient road leading inland along the N~
side of the Livadostro valley further testify to the probable importance
of this site as a link between S Boeotia and the N Peloponnese. The
I!
!!
masonry of the supporting terraces of this road resembles Cyclopean
G 39

ANCIENT PLATAEA
I. 9 Khalkis
N or EH MH?

PAE (1899) 42;

((}AMS No. 423)

*!I

988 E I 735 N
LH III(A-B) G A C H

AD 24 (1969) B 186

On the uppermost part of the protruding NW spur of ancient Plataea


trial excavations produced a range of material from pre-LcB to A, including
part of a LH III horse figurine. A likely N or EH site is reported on a
low hill in the plain to N of the ancient city.
G 40

ERYTHRAI:

PANTANASSA

I. 9 Khalkis
050 E
LH III(A-B) C H
Fimmen 1921, 6;

/1

I 736 N

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 21+

The site is a ridge c. 130 m. N-S by 80 m., about 2 km. E of modern


Erythrai, overlooking the Asopos plain to the N. In 1961 some LH III
sherds and part of a LH III animal figurine were found, although later
sherds are in the majority.
G 40A DAPHNI :

AYIOS MELETIOS

I. 9 Khalkis
107 E
LH III(A-B) C H

/1

I 757 N

AJA 61 (1957) 9; w. K. Pritchett, Studies in Ancient Greek Topography 1


(1965) 103; Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 21
The ruined Metochi of Ayios Meletios is c. 800 m. W of Daphni
(formerly Darimari) on the road to modern Erythrai. The site is a small
plateau at the foot of a spur of Mt. Kithairon. C and H sherds predominate,
but Professor Vanderpool has found here "the stem of a Mycenaean kylix".

252

G ill

MOURIKI:

KAMELOVRYSI

*#

9 Khalkis
86 (spot height) at 054 E
MH? LH G A
I.

979 N

AD 21 (1966) B 199, 26 (1971) B 215


A low hill on the S shore of Lake Paralimni c. 5 km. NW of Mouriki.
Traces of a possible MH settlement are reported on the hill and LH chamber
tombs in the E slope. This is the site of a rich LG tumulus and later
cemetery.
G 42

LOUKISIA :

ANCIENT ISOS

I. 9 Khalkis
121 E I 021 N
EH !YJH LH IIB LH III(A-B)? PG

G A

C H

AD 21 (1966) B 198, 22 (1967) B 243, 24 (1969) B 174, 26 (1971) B 219;


AAA l (1968) 139, 2 (1969) 96, 4 (1971) 319
At the NE end of Lake Paralimni the recession of the water has
revealed structures of many periods at different points. Many rock-cut
tombs that are probably EH and EH pottery are reported from the N corner,
and a "polis 11 on the W, on the slope of Mt. Fto8n. The main prehistoric
finds reported are two rectangular enclosures containing cist-graves,
reported to be of lYJH, LH, and PG date; good LH IIB and PG vases have been
published, but a belly-handled amphora assigned to SMyc. (AAA 4 (1971)
330 fig. 16) is not easy to date, and might be much later. LH IIB vases
were also found in an isolated cist. LH, A, and C remains are reported
from the high hill Chelonokastro N of this area. I t should be noted that
nothing identifiably LH III has been published, although its presence is
inherently likely.
G le3

LOUKISIA:

ANCIENT AN'-rHEDON

'"

I. 9 Khalkis
24 (spot height) at 163 E
EH II MH LH IIIB-C LG A C H
AJA 6 (l89C) 99:
figs. 14, 16c-d

AM 19 (1894) 457;

(GAMS No. '+37)

I 037 N

LMTS 48 n. 6;

AA (1968) 21;

CG

1Tian excavations (AJA loc.cit.) on the acropolis of ancient Anthedon


were disappointing, but surface sherds were abundant and include several
phases of the BA (cf. AA (1968) 25 n. 25). The acropolis is large, c. 180 m.
NW-SE by l6o m. on top with extensive terraces, and corr~ands a small
sheltered harbour. The only certain prehistoric find made in the excavation
was a hoard of bronze tools and other objects, now lost; it seems likely

253

to belong to the end of lli IIIB, like other such hoards. There is as yet
no indication of settlement in the early part of the DA. An important
recent study of the site and its environs is given in AA (loc.oit. ).
G lf4 DROSIA (FORMERLY CHALIA):

SOROS

( GAMS No. lf36)

*#

24 (spot height) at 221 E I 013 N


9 Khalkis
N EH I-III MH LH IIII? lli IIIA-B LH IIIC?

r.

AD l ( 1915) 2lf6, 25 ( 1970) B 222; S. C. Bakhui zen, Salganeus and the


Fortifications on its Mountains: Chaloidian Studies 2 (1970) 6; AJA
73 (1969) 246; BCH 96 (1972) 709; CG figs. 9-l':l, l6b-d
A low ridge, on the S side of a small bay c. 3.5 km. W of Drosia.
The small mound-like knoll at the~~ end of the ridge measures only c. 95 m.
NW-SE by SOm. It is almost certainly the "Tomb of Salganeus" mentioned
by Pausanias as being on the way to Anthedon. A smaller mound lies
c. 250 m. to SE, at the end of the ridge. The earlier excavations (AD l
(1915) loo.cit.) were not published. In the recent test excavations-rAD
25 (1970) loc.cit.) EH remains were most prominent, and a destruction at
the end of EH is reported. According to the excavator, the site was
abandoned at the end of LH IIIB or in the immediately following phase;
surface sherds in the BSA collection include late LH IIIB, but nothing
certainly later (pace CG fig. l6d).
G 45

RffiTSONA:

ANCIENT MYKALESSOS

*#

I. 9 Khalkis
195 (spot height) at 218 E
LHGACH

935 N

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 22


The site is a low knoll c. 120 m. N-S by 80 m., about 400 m. SW of
Rhitsona and 300 m. W of the Thebes-Chalkis road. There are traces of
circuit walls and other ancient foundations including C houses (of. AD 20
(1965) B 243). The excavations in the nearby G and later cemetery (BSA 14
(1907-8) 216) provide support for the identification as ancient Mykalessos,
and the site is now known to have been occupied in LH (surface sherds discovered by J. M. Fossey). The LH site would presumably have been confined
to the knoll, whereas the historic site was certainly more extensive.
G lf6

CHAffiONEIA:

THE ACROPOLIS

I. 8 Levadhia
635 E
NEHlliACH
~'IV

84;

Fimmen 1921, 5;

(GAl'VJS No. 438)

I o66 N (approx.)

AD 2lf (1969) B 179;

Euphrosyne 6 (1973-4) lO

The village of Chaironeia (formerly Kapraina) lies at theE foot of


the acropolis of ancient Chaironeia. Sherds both on the acropolis and in
the lower city to N and E of it include N, EH, LH, and A. Two LH chamber
tombs and signs of probable others were observed on the E slope (AD loc.
cit.).
G 47

CHAIRONEIA:

T. 8 Atalandi
N MH LH IIID
AE (1908) 63;

650 E

o84 N

PAE (1909) 123;

the S bank of the Kephisos river, and


excavation here produced purely N
the BSA collection, cf. CG fig. lle) and
the Chaironeia Museum marked as from this

AYIOS VLASIS:

ANCIENT PANOPEUS

I. 8 Levadhia
MH LH IIIA-B

598 E
C H

CG fig. 1 1e

PT 197;

This is a large mound near


c. 2 km. NNE of Chaironeia. The
material, but MH is reported (in
there are five LH IIIB sherds in
site.
G 48

(GAMS No. 439)

MAGOULA BALOMENOU

( GAMS No. 44o)

071 N

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 42, Pl. 3;

CG figs. 16c-d

The acropolis of Panopeus towers above the hamlet of Ayios Vlasis


which lies at its N foot, on the S side of a broad valley bounded on the
W by the foothills of Mt. Parnassos. The Hellenic fortifications are well
preserved, especially on the S side, and there are remains of Cyclopean
masonry preserved for a considerable extent on the SE slope about 4o m.
lower down, enclosing a larger extent, and indeed probably the whole summit
(c. 250 m. E-W by 80 m.) and much of the upper slopes on theE side. MH
and LH III sherds were found near the Cyclopean wall and remains of small
cist graves, apparently associated with LH sherds. The indications suggest
a large LH settlement.
G 49

DAVLEIA:

ANCIENT DAULIS

T. 8 Atalandi
539 E I o86 N
EH I MH LH IIII? LH III(A- )B
MV 43; PT 201;

( GAMS No. 441)

C H

Alin 134; Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 42;

CG figs. 16c-d

The acropolis of ancient Daulis is a massive rounded hill (top surface


c. 250 m. N-S by 200 m.), one of the foothills of Mt. Parnassos. It lies
c. 1 km. to S of Davleia, and commands a pass to the N into the Kephisos
valley. In 1881 a well was cleared on the acropolis, containing mainly MH

255

Matt-painted pottery, but also some LH III sherds (including LH IIIB,


according to Alin 134), together with obsidian blades and small stone
whorls. In 1959 some worn LH III sherds were found on the surface and a
rim fragment of a stemmed bowl of Yellow Minyan ware (MH or LH IIII).
G 50

DISTCMON:

THE ANCIENT SCHISTE ODOS

I. 7 Xilokastron ''Mnima Daveli 11 at 494 E

EH II

MH?

(GAMS No. 442)

059 N

LH or PG or G

PAE (1907) 110; AE (1897) 110 fig. 1, (19C8) 65, 91;


PI 202; CG figs. 10, l6d

REG 25 (1912) 262;

The small rocky hill (c. 6 km. N of Distomon) at the famous Schiste
Odos (the "Cleft Way" where the road from Daulis to Delphi met the road
from Thebes) is now marked by the monument of Megas (died July 1856). EH II
remains were found in excavation, and other objects considered contemporary
with Orchomenos III (PI 202). A sword of the 11 Naue II" type found here has
most recently been considered of G date despite being of bronze (A. M. Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour and Weapons (1964) 97); it can hardly be earlier
than late LH IIIB.
G 51

ANCIENT MEDEON

(GAMS No. 443)

I. 7 Xilokastron "Ay. Theodoroi 11 at 487 E

EH III MH
Hunter 27, 236;

LH IIIAl-C

PG

937 N

G A C H

AD 19 (1964) B 223;

c.

Vatin, Medeon de Phocide (1969)

The low hill of Ayios Theodhoros is near the shore c. 3 km. SE of


Paralia Distomon and opposite Antikyra. Excavations on the hill and in its
neighbourhood have produced evidence of a substantial settlement, a-pparently
founded in EH III. Of particular interest are the LH III graves: these
included pits and cists, and also built graves with entrances, mostly rectangular but one tholes-shaped, which were used as family tombs from LH IIIAl
to LH IIIC in some cases. Two whole late JVJH vases (Hunter Nos. 247-8) may
come from earlier tombs, but there is no diagnostic early LH material,
although it seems unlikely that the site was abandoned during this phase.
Several of the LH III tombs contained rich goods, indicating that this was
an important site. A few pit-graves are attributed to the end of LH IIIC,
perhaps contemporary with SMyc.; cremation-pits of PG-G date were also
found, and there is an unbroken sequence of burials to H times thereafter,
but it is not yet clear if there was complete continuity of occupation at
the site, although it seems plausible.

G 52

ANTIKYRA:

( GAMS No. 444)

KASTRO TOU STENOU

I. 7 Xilokastron 220 (spot height) at 433 E


LH IIIB IJl IIIC? PG C H
AE (1956) Parartema 24;

IMTS 126;

945 N

Alin 132

The Kastro is a low acropolis hill, steep on all sides except the N,
about 1.5 km. SW of Antikyra, near Stenon, a group of houses belonging to
the village of Desphina. LH IIIB and other LH sherds were found on the W
slopes of the hill (AE loc.cit.), and LH cist graves were found a short
distance to SW, near the chapel of Ayios Sotiros, in the plain between the
acropolis and the sea. At least one PG sherd has been found (AE (1956)
Parartema 25 fig. 6 j3).
G 53

KALYVIA OF ARACHOVA:
T. 7 Lamia
38lf E
MH (or LH IIII?)

KOUMOULA -*
107 N (Kalyvia village)

BCH 96 (1972) 912


Trial excavations at a hill on the Livadhi plateau, W of Kalyvia,
uncovered remains of a settlement attributable to a late phase of MH, or
possibly to early LH, though there is no diagnostic IJ1 material.
G 54

KASTROULI

I. 7 Kilokastron
MH IJl III (A-B)

( GAMS No.
373 E

~45)

051 N

L. Dor et al., Kirrha ( 196o) 20


The site is described as a prominent hill, on the escarpment above
the N bank of the Pleistos river. It is c. 3 km. SW of Arachova. Some
MH cists and late LH buildings are reported here, but the finds are
unpublished, and described as rather poor.
G 55

DELPHI

*#

I. 7 Xilokastron
N MH IJl IIIA2-C

(GAMS No. 446)


338 E I 076 N
PG G A C H

Fouilles de Delphes II:5 5, V 1; RA (1938) 187; BCH 59 (1935) 275, 329,


61 (1937) 1f4, 81 (1957) 70c{,-85 (1961) 352, 365, 96(1972) 997
Corycian Cave: BCH 95 (1971) 776, 96 (1972) 899

257
Palaeolithic and N deposits have been found in the Corycian Cave,
where there is also some LH III material. The main area of prehistoric
settlement seems to have been on the slopes to N and E of the Temple of
Apollo, toW of which is a cemetery; most remains are of LH III date. The
settlement apparently lasted into LH IIIC, when it may have been abandoned
because of a flood; the contents of the tombs, rock-cut, roughly circular
chamber tombs generally lacking a dromos, belong mainly to LH IIIC, but one
of a group behind the Museum held two burials of early PG and LG date.
It is quite uncertain whether Delphi was already a site of religious
importance in the LEA. The well-known stone lion's head rhyton is a stray
find, which could have been brought to Delphi after the BA (BCH 73 (1949)
735): but deposits of late figurines beneath the Temple of Apollo and in the
Marmaria area may have votive significance (BSA 66 ( 1971) 1110); from the
pottery, however, the latter appears to have been laid down in G times (BCH
81 (1957) 707), when Delphi's importance as a sanctuary was clearly rising.
It seems quite plausible that the site was occupied with little or no
break throughout LH III and the DA.
G 56

CHRYSO:

ANCIENT KRISA

*!I

(GAMS No. 447)

I. 7 Xilokastron
310 E I 061 N
MH LH IIII LH IIIAl-B C H
RA (1936) 129;

BCH 61 (1937) 299, 62 (1938) 110

The acropolis of Krisa, at Ayios Yeoryios on the S side of Chryso


village, occupies the extremity of a long rocky spur projecting S from
Mt. Parnassos, dominating the Amphissa plain and the Gulf of Krisa. It
was probably inhabited continuously from MH to LH IIIB (Kirrha Pl. 34b
is probably LH IIB); of four excavated building-strata, two are attributable to late MH, the second covered by a burnt layer, the third to LH IIIAl,
the fourth to LH IIIB (BSA 59 (l961f) 242, LMTS 125). The LH III buildings
are substantial, some containing column-bases. In LH IIIB a large fortification wall of huge blocks in Cyclopean style was built along the Nand W
sides, enclosing the site and a considerable area of open ground (c. 350 m.
N-S by 300 m. in all). This is the first indication that the site was of
real importance, but it appears to have been destroyed and abandoned by the
end of LH IIIB.
G 57

ITEA :

GLA

/1

(GAMS No. 448)

I. 7 Xilokastron
278 E I 046 N
LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC? "PG"
AD 6 (1920-21) 147; L. Lerat, Les Locriens de l 1 0uest (1952) 164;
Parartema 24; LMTS 126

AE (1956)

258

The rocky hill of Gla lies at the cross-roads of the roads from Itea
to Amphissa and to Chryso and Delphi. It forms a spur (accessible only
from the W) f'!'Ojecting from the hills on the W edge of the Amphissa plain,
about l km. N of Itea. Surface material from the hill includes certain
LH IIIA2-B and probable LH IIIC. A probable LH cemetery was noted nearby
at Keramos W of.the district called Gonia. This adjoins the hill of Moulki,
where tombs were found, reported to be of the Delphi type but larger. Vases
from these are perhaps best dated to EPG, although both have clear LH IIIC
links (Lerat 1952, Pl. 52: l-2); a trefoil-lipped oinochoe (Lerat 1952,
Pl. 52:3b) is certainly DA. A probable LH IIIC stirrup-jar is also
mentioned, and a certainly LH IIIA-B vase, presumably from a tomb, was
found in the Museum store-room (Lerat 1952, Pl. 51).
G 58 KIRRHA:

MAGCULA XEROPIGADO

I. 7 Xilokastron
288 E
EH II-III MH LH I-IIIB

( GAMS No. 41f9)

023 N
G?

L. Dor et al., Kirrha, Etude de prehistoire phocidienne (196o); JHS 49


(1929) 89; Antiquity 38 (1964) 138; AAA 1 (1968) 144, 6 (1973) 70; BCH
99 (1975) 35; CG figs. 10-12, 14, 16b-d
This is a large mound site, near the coast on the E side of the
mouth of the Pleistos river, less than 2 km. E of Itea. Remains of
habitation have been identified up to 200 m. toE of the main site and
along the shore, The settlement appears to have been founded in EH II
and was destroyed by fire in that phase, but continued in occupation. An
important series of MH strata and substantial late MH buildings and graves
ranging from late MH to LH IIB are the most important finds; the graves
included large cists holding several burials, sometimes provided with
weapons or jewellery. There is now better evidence for LH III occupation
than was found in the original excavation, but the site does not seem to
have survived LH IIIB. An elaborate pin-head found in T.2 (Kirrha 104)
and a stone mould-fragment found on the surface in Sector C (Kirrha Pl.
61:16) are most easily related to DA parallels, but the roll-top pins from
T.l (Kirrha 116) appear to be in context with burials that can hardly be
later than LH II.
Traces of mining are reported in the neighbourhood of the site, but
the material sought was certainly not tin (Antiquity loc.cit. ).
G 59

ANTHOCHORION:

LEVENDI

T. 8 Atalandi
6o9 E
LH IIIA2-B C H

/1

(GAMS No. 454)

134 N

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 44;

CG fig. l6d

259
The broad hill of Levendi (c. 250 m. N-S by 200 m.) ~s connected on
the E to the ridge which bounds the plain of Chaironeia on the N, and
extends E to Orchomenos. The hill dominates the defile named Stena between
the plain of Chaironeia and the broader plain of the main Kephisos valley
on thew. The hill is only c. 4o m. higher than the plain, but well defended
by steep escarpments on all sides. To NW below, on the other side of the
Kephisos river is the junction of the modern roads to Amphikleia and
Atalandi. In 1959 walling resembling Cyclopean was noted on the E side,
and some BA sherds including one from a LH IIIB kylix; but most of the
surface sherds were C or H.
G Eo

EXARCHOS :

ANCIENT HYAMPOLIS

T. 8 Atalandi
EHI LHIIIB

JHS 16 (1896) 291;

698 E
CH

(GAMS No. 455)

176 N

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 43;

CG figs. 9, 16d

The little valley of Exarchos is enclosed on all sides by rugged


hills. In the middle of the valley, c. 2 km. W of Exarchos, is a flat
table-land, the site of ancient Hyampolis. This was fortified in historic
times by walls of excellent isodomic masonry, enclosing an area c. 200 m.
NE-SW by 150 m. On the eroded slope outside the walls some BA sherds,
including EH I and LH IIIB, and obsidian chips were found; but C and H
predominate elsewhere. The site lies on the easiest route between
Orchomenos and the sea.
G 61

AYIA PARASKEVI:

AYIA MARINA

(GAMS No. 456)

*#

T. 8 Atalandi
570 E I 177 N
N EH I-III MH LH IIIA-B LH IIIC?
PAE (1910) 163, (1911) 205; REG 25 (1912) 211, 270;
CG throughout, especially 20 and fig. ll

PT 12;

Hunter 108;

The low mound (c. 120 m. E-W by lOO m.) of Ayia Marina lies on theN
side of the Kephisos river, c. 1.5 km. NE of Ayia Paraskevi (formerly the
Kalyvia of Ayia Marina). Trial excavations established a long history of
occupation, perhaps continuous from N; interest has centred on the deep
pre~H strata, but there was also MH and LH III habitation.
Some objects
found at separate spots on virgin soil, including copper implements and a
steatite stamp-seal, seem likely to be EH despite being apparently in the
N stratum.
G 62

ELATEIA (FORMERLY DRACHMANI):

PIPERIS

T. 8 Atalandi
570 E I 228 N
N EH I-III MH LH IIA-III(A2-B)

(GAMS No. 457)

26o
AM 31 (1906) 402; AE (1908) 93; PAE (1909) 127, (1910) 161; REG 25
(1912) 256, 269; JHS 35 (1915) 196; PI' 204; Hunter 108; CG throughout
especially ll and fig. 7
A low mound, c. 1.5 km. NW of Drachmani. Most of the mound consists
of N deposits; the top metre contains BA material. A large deposit of
late MH whole vases was found, also fragmentary remains of the LH settlement,
a wall, pavement, and "tower" built of undressed blocks. A group of plain
LH III whole vases may represent a destruction or abandonment; they
resemble the material from the "House of Kadmos" at Thebes, but no absolutely
certain LH IIIB is represented among the sherd-material (there are no deep
bowls, for example). ToN of the site a tumulus held a single burial of
early MH date, provided with unusually rich grave-goods; there is plausible
evidence for sacrifices at the time of burial, and an elaborately decorated
vase was placed on top of the mound, perhaps for later offerings or as a
marker.

G 63

ANCIENT ELATEIA

((JAMS No. 458)

T. 8 Atalandi in square 610 E


LH IIIB G A C
MP 647;

I 230 N

Alin 134

One or more LH sherds were found during excavation of the Temple of


Athena Kranaia c. 3 km. NE of modern Elateia. The sherd illustrated
(P. Paris, Elatee (1892) 283, fig. 21) is assigned to LH IIIB (Alin loo.
ci t.).
G 64 MODION:

AVLAKI POURI

T. 7 Lamia
500 E
Lil III(A2-B)

263 N (village)

RE 20 (1941) 478
Three LH chamber tombs were reported at Avlaki Pouri near Modion.
Three stirrup-jars were among the contents.
G

65 AMPHIKLEIA:

PALAIOKASTRO (ANCIENT TITHRONION)

T. 7 Lamia
434 E
LH III(A2-B) c
AE (1956) Parartema 25;

/1

(GAMS

No. 461)

I 284 N (approx.)
Alin 133

Ancient Tithronion (cf. BSA 17 (1910-ll) 54) was centred on a broad


low hill (c. 180 m. NE-SW by 120 m.) c. 4.5 km. NNE of Amphikleia. The

Kephisos river runs past the S foot and there is a tributary stream below
the steep NW flank, where some LH III sherds (said to include LH IIIB) were
found. The hill was fortified in the C period. Although the site is not
large, its position is strategic.
G 66

AMPillKLEIA:

AYIOI ANARGYROI

*#

T. 7 Lamia
456 E I 209 N
LH III(A-C)? SMyc.
AD 25 (1970) B 237, 26 (1971) B 231
A row of chamber tombs was found c. 400 m. SSE of the chapel of Ayioi
Anargyroi, which is c. 4 km. SE of Amphikleia. The site overlooks the main
Kephisos valley, and is in fact separated from Amphikleia by hills. The
tombs, of which eleven were excavated, are on the NE edge of the pine forest
on the lower slopes of Mt. Parnassos, overlooking the cultivated terraces
above the chapel, which is on a gently sloping spur above the valley. Coarse
ware in the vicinity of the chapel may include BA. The use of the tombs,
to judge from the description of pottery and objects, may well fall largely
in the SMyc. phase, although likely to have begun earlier. The dromoi have
the usual inward inclination at the top. Some had a slab blocking the
entrance instead of a wall, and many contained pits in which earlier
burials were placed; long pins and fibulae were prominent among the gravegoods, and there were other small objects of bronze.
G 67

(GAMS No. 462)

DRYMAIA (FORMERLY GLUNISTA)


T. 7 Lamia
418 E
EH? MH? LH?

I 323 N (village)

PAE (1909) 130, (1910) 166;

REG 25 (1912) 259

The coarse BA pottery from this settlement (near the historic Drymaia)
may include LBA of non-Mycenaean type (cf. G 68).
G 68

LILAIA (FORMERLY KATO AGORIANI)


T. 7 Lamia
349 E
MH LH IIIB?

(GAMS No. 463)

I 243 N

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 44


The historic Lilaia occupied a long thin ridge above and to SE of the
village. A small pointed hill c. 200 m. N-S by 130 m. not far to W, and
only 400 m. SE of the village, was a prehistoric settlement. On the broad
terraces, mainly to N and E of the small conical peak in the centre, many
fragments from coarse BA vessels were found, with some Grey and Yellow Minyan

262

sherds and a fragment which seemed to be from a LH IIIB deep-bowl. The


predominance of coarse ware suggests that this site (like G 67) was remote
and ltprovincial 11 e

G ff9

THEOLOGOS :

ANCIENr HALAI

T. 8 Atalandi
N LH C H
AJA 19 (1915) 436;
BCH 80 (1956) 223
The
on the SE
SE of the
turned up
G 70

954 E

( GAMS No. 464)

225 N

Hesperia 9 (194o) 381, 11 (1942) 315;

AM 71 (1956) 8;

main excavations here revealed traces of an acropolis and a harbour,


side of the bay of Ayios Ioannis Theologos (which is a little to
site). Besides the C and H finds, some N was found. LH sherds
much later (AM and BCH loc.cit.).

KYPARISSI:

AYIOS IOANNIS

11

(GAMS No. 465)

T. 8 Atalandi
851 E I 204 N
LH III(B?)
G A C H
AJA 30 (1926) 4ol;

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 47

The c.itadel of Kastraki or Kokkinovrachos to SE of Kyparissi may have


been the acropolis of the historic Opous. But investigations (AJA loc.cit.)
have not revealed evidence for prehistoric settlement here. On the lower
N slopes, however, c. 1 km. to NW of the summit and c. 1.5 km. S of
Kyparissi, there are signs of considerable ancient settlement, mainly to
S of the chapel of Ayios Ioannis. To S of a small ravine and c. 300 m. W
of the chapel, erosion revealed a deposit of LH III, G, A and C sherds.
The post-BA remains presumably are part of the "lower town" belonging#to
the acropolis (AJA loc.cit.).
G 71

ATALANDI:

SKALA

11

T. 8 Atalandi
839 E
EH III MH LH IIIB

251 N

CG figs. 12, 14, l6b-d, 19


This site, discovered by D. H. French, is a low mound c. 150 m. E-W
by 6o m., to NW of the intersection of the National highway and the road
from Atalandi to the Skala of Atalandi, and c. 750 m. W of Skala.

G 72

LIVANATES:

PYRGOS

T. 8 Atalandi
MH LH IIIA-C

843 E

(GAMS No. 466)

G A C

311 N
H

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 47, Pl. 4a;

CG figs. 14, 16c-d

The low hill of Pyrgos lies c. 2 km. NE of Livanates, and only 30 m.


from the shore. It is a conspicuous "high mound" site (c. 130 m. N-S by
90 m.) with steep slopes. The fields inland toW and S are, like the hill,
covered in ancient sherds, amongst which fine LH III and C predominate. On
the hill itself good MH Grey Minyan and Matt-painted, copious LH (including
a LH IIIC krater fragment with panel-style pattern), and several later
sherds were found. A small cist grave was noted near the SE end, and
traces of probable others; and there are remains of a circuit wall (C?) on
the W and NW upper slopes.
G 73 MELIDONI :

KASTRO

(GAMS No. 467)

T. 8 Atalandi
736 E I 343 N
EH I EH III MH LH IIIA-B C
CG figs. 9, 11, 14, 16c-d
The site is a rocky spur c. l km. NW of the hamlet of Melidoni,
towering above the sea, and commanding the E exit of the coastal plain of
Longos. The hill is sheer on all sides except the S, where it is joined to
a higher ridge by a low neck. The top surface (c. 150 m. N-S by lOO m.) is
covered in loose stones, tiles, and sherds, which are mainly C, but include
also several prehistoric, especially some good Grey Minyan and LH IIIA-B.
G 74

AGNANDI;

KASTRI AND KRITHARIA

* 1/

T. 8 Atalandi
692 E I 322 N (Kastri)
EH MH LH IIIA -C SMyc. or PG? C H
AD 25 (1970) B 235
The prehistoric site is an acropolis on the steep spur of Kastri o. l km.
NE of Agnandi village, overlooking broken hill country separated from the
coastal plain by high ridges. There is abundant evidence of EH-LH and later
occupation. The chamber tomb cemetery at Kritharia on a slope at the SW edge
of Agnandi was in use from LH IIIA until LH IIIC or even later, to judge from
described material, including a jar with semicircles on the shoulder, pins
and fibulae, and iron rings. The site is the first to be discovered in the
remote inland region of E Locris.

264

G 75

THERMOPYLAI (MODERN):

ANCIENT ALPENOI

528 E I 1>27 N
T. 7 Lamia
MH LH IIII? LH III(A-B) A

AR (1961-2) 31
The site is a low spur, projecting N into the marsh at the S side
of the mouth of the Spercheios river, c. 2 km. E of the modern Thermopylai
monument. The new National highway has cut through the S side of the site.
What remains is of moderate size, c. 110 m. E-W by 55 m. Sherds included
MH Grey and Yellow Minyan and LH III stemmed bowl and kylix fragments,
and one base appears to be of a LH I or LH II goblet. Some A and C sherds
and many tile fragments, together with the indications in ancient literature,
suggest that this is the site of ancient Alpenoi (cf. AJA 20 (1916) 47, with
Herodotus VIIl76, 5 and 229, 1).
G 76

ANCIEN"T HERAKLEIA
T. 7 Lamia
LH III(B?)

307 E
C H

( GAMS No. 470)


426 N

y, Bequignon, La Vallee du Spercheios (1937) 243);

Antiquity 33 (1959) lOe;


K. Pritchett, Studies in Ancient Greek Topography l (1965) 81; Hope
Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 128

w.

On the lowest terraces of the site of ancient Herakleia (which supplanted Trachis in 426 B.C.) three LH III sherds were found. There are no
signs of prehistoric habitation on the upper citadel.
G 77

RAKHITA

(GAMS No. 471)

T. 7 Lamia
302 E I 432 N
MH LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC?
Antiquity 33 (1959) 103, and Pl. XVa
About l km. to WNW of the lower slopes of ancient Herakleia (G 76) are
similar terraces at the foot of the Trachinian cliff. Here, on a small
projecting tongue of land c. 6o m. E-W by 50 m., and on its N slopes MH
(including Grey Minyan and 6 113 ware) and LH III sherds were found. In the
plain below the site two small streams, fed by springs issuing from the foot
of the cliffs, unite to flow into the Xerias river. Between Rakhita and
ancient Herakleia, on both sides of the Skliphomeli ravine, are remains of
rock-cut tombs. Most are H or later (B~quignon 1937, 243), but some have
a superficial resemblance to LH chamber tombs.

265

G 78 VARDHATES

(GAMS No. 472)

*
287 E

T. 7 Lamia
LH IIIB-C

443 N (village)

BCH 63 (1939) 311; s. Marinatos in Bericht fiber die VI. Internationale


K;;gress rlir ArchMologie (1939) 334; Hunter 117; IMTS 126
A rectangular built grave was excavated near Vardhates before World
War II. According to local information (1958) this lay to SE of Vardhates
in the direction of Rakhita (G 77), with which it may in fact be associated.
The grave contained several burials, a bronze spearhead, and some vases;

these are normally attributed to LH IIIC, but include several surely earlier
(cf. BCH 63 (1939) 310 fig. 21, left). The mound c. l km. to NE of Vardhates,
on the track to Moschochori, has recently been described (AD 25 (1970) B 243)
as probably prehistoric. But it more closely resembles a Thessalian/Macedonian tumulus of the historical period. It is c. 30 m. by 25 m. and c. 5 m.
high.
N.B. On the map we have grouped G 77 and G 78 together, since it does not
appear likely that two separate settlements are indicated.
G 79 MEGALI VRYSI:
T. 7 Lamia
N EH? MH

PLATANIA
36o E

(GAMS No. 474)

I 535 N

lli IIIB

lli IIIC?

Antiquity 33 (1959) 102, Pl. XT\Tb;

G
AD 19 (1961+) B 242

A large "low mound" site c. 170 m.


road at the spring of Platania, c. 4 km.
ware, and many LH III sherds were found,
decoration of maeander hooks. N is also
G 80

STYLIS:

PROFITIS ILIAS

NW-SE by 150 m. to S of the main


E of Lamia. MH Grey Minyan, 61~
and part of a G skyphos with a
recorded (AD loc.cit.).
( GAMS No. 475)

T. 7 Lamia
479 E I 553 N
EH? MH? lli? C H
Bequignon 1937, 293
The remains of a small ancient fort were found on the rocky conical
hill of Profitis Ilias NE of Stylis. In 1958 worn BA sherds and many
obsidian chips were found here.

266

G 81

AKHINOS :

ANCIENT ECHINOUS

T. 8 Atalandi
MH LH IIIA2-B
Bequignon 1937, 299;

564 E
C H

(GAMS No. 476)

520 N

AJA 46 (1942) 500;

Antiquity 33 (1959) 102, Pl. XIVa

The acropolis of ancient Echinous is on the N side of Akhinos village,


commanding a fertile coastal plain. The hill is c. 200 m. NW-SE by 150 m.
in extent, surrounded by C fortifications. Most of the sherds were C or H,
but a few LH III sherds and a piece of MH Grey Minyan ware were also found.
The plundered chamber tombs near the hill (AJA loc.cit.) are almost certainly
LH.
G 82 R AKRES:

FOURNI

(GAMS No. 477)

T. 8 Atalandi
630 E I 507 N
N EH I-III MH LH IIIAl-B LH IIIC?
AR (1961-2) 31;

CG figs. 9-11, 14, l6a-d

The site is a low promontory c. 120 m. N-S by lOO m. (maximum width)


on the edge of a small plain c. 1.5 km. E of Rakhes in a district called
Alopeka. Sherds were widespread over the promontory and slopes, and
include EH I-III, MH Grey Minyan, f:ll[3 ware, and fine LH !II. One sherd
must be LH IIIAl at latest.
G 83

PELASGIA:

ANCIENT LARISA CREMASTE

(GAMS No. 478)

T. 8 Atalandi
666 E/ 589 N
MH LH IIIB C H
Bequignon 1937, l4o;
AAA 5 ( 1972 ) 470

Antiquity 33 (1959) 102;

AD 25 (1970) B 243;

The citadel of Larisa Cremaste is c. 2 km. N of Pelasgia. Among the


plethora of C and H sherds on this fortified acropolis two LH IIIB deep
bowl fragments were found. Two Matt-painted jugs are reported from a
tumulus nearby (AD and AAA loc.cit. ).
G 84

LIKHAS :

KASTRI

( GAMS No. 56o, Euboea No. 2)

T. 8 Atalandi
668 E I 470 N
EH I-III MH LH (Sub)PG G C
PAE (1912) 14o;

BSA 47 (1952) 6o n. l4b;

Euboea 37

267

A low hill c. 3 km. W of Likhas on the coast. The top area is only
c. 30 m. by 20 m. C and H sherds were found on the lower slopes, EH to G
widely scattered on higher slopes. The size and position are said to
suggest an important settlement, perhaps to be equated with ancient Dion
(Iliad I I .538).
G 85

YIALTRA :

KASTETLI

(GAMS No. 559, Euboea No. 3)

T. 8 Atalandi
772 E I 449 N
N EH I-III MH LH I-IIIB(-C?)

(Sub)PG

G A?

C H

PAE 1912, 140; BSA 47 (1952) 6o n. l4b (as "Athinai Dhiadhes");


Euboea 37, 103
The site is c. l km. WSW of Loutra Yialtron, to N of the road to
Lichas. It is a fine natural acropolis with a small summit (c. 70 m. N-S
by 50 m.) and extensive seaward slopes, thickly scattered with sherds. The
prehistoric pottery is of particularly good quality, and the LH is said
to compare well with pottery from Chalkis (F 76). The total extent of the
prehistoric settlement appears to have been c. 250 m. NNW-SSE by 150 m.
(under Euboea No. 4)

G 86 AYIOS AIDHEPSOS
T. 8 Atalandi in square 770 E
EH

510 N

Euboea 39
On a cliff site near the anchorage of Ayios Aidhepsos on the NW
coast of Euboea, some EH sherds were found.
G 87

AIDHEPSOS :

(Euboea No. 5)

KOUMBI

T. 8 Atalandi
N MH

834 E

470 N

Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 281, 311;

Euboea 39

In an olive grove near the beach c. 500 m. N of Loutra Aidhepsou


some coarse ware (possibly N) and MH Grey Minyan and Matt-painted were found.
G 88

OREOI :

KASTRO

*I

(GAMS No. 561, Euboea No. 6)

T. 8 Atalandi 4o (spot height) at 889 E I 558 N


EH II MH LH IIIB LH IIIC? PG G C H
ASAtene 3 (1921) 276; BSA 47 (1952) 6o n. l4b, 93; Arkheion Euboikon
Meleton 6 (1959) 307, 310, 313; AD 16 (l96o) B 152; Euboea 39

268

The Kastro stands out conspicuously on the E side of the modern town.
The mound is about 30 m. high and c. 135 m. NE-SW by 100 m. on top, ringed
by a mediaeval fortification. Trial excavations reveal EH II pottery, and
a curved wall and rock-cut cist grave, both probably MH. EH II, MH Grey
Minyan and LH IIIB have been found on the surface, particularly on the N
slope, and there are indications that the S and SE may also have been part
of the prehistoric settlement, although G and later sherds predominate here.
The total extent of the prehistoric site may have been c. 200 m. NW-SE by
lCo m. The acropolis is identified as that of ancient Histiaia and of (the
later) ancient Oreoi.
G 89

HISTIAIA:

VISTRITSA:

T. 8 Atalandi
N? EH C H

AYIA PARASKEVI

(Euboea No. 8)

955 E I 575 N

Euboea 41
On the hill of Ayia Paraskevi c. l km. E of Vistritsa (which is c. 3 km.
NNE of Histiaia), on the E side of the road to Agri.ovotana, EH sherds and
obsidian and C to H were found. Further on, to W of the road, EH was found
on a small mound on the ridge which runs down to the coastal plain.
G 90

GCUVAI:

(Euboea No. 10)

PALAIOKASTRO

H. 9 Skiathos
o4o E I 635 N
EH II MH LH III(A-B) C
Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 307;
A
Kastri.
S and E
sherds,

Euboea 41

prominent headland c. 5 km. NE of Gouvai, but only 2 km. NNE of


The headland is almost sheer on N and W, but slopes gently en the
where there are Cremains. On the NE side were a few prehistoric
which thinly represent the periods indicated.

G 91 VASILIKA:

PALAIOKASTRO

(Euboea No. 12)

T. 9 Psakhna
124 E I 566 N
N? EH II LH III(A-B)? C H
Euboea 42
EH II and other prehistoric sherds, including some possibly N and one
apparently from a LH III kylix, were found on a high hill c. 1.5 km. NE of
Vasilika, which dominates the long beach between Mt. Spalathrias and Cape
Lefka. Most of the remains, however, are C and H, and appear to represent
the centre of the ancient deme of Poseidion.

269

G 92

KERINTHOS:

KRIA VRISI

*I!

(GAMS No. 558, Euboea Nos. 13-14)

T. 9 Psakhna
208 E I 4o8 N (Kastri)
N? EH MH LH III(A-B) PG G A C H
ASAtene 3 (1921) 276; Arkheion Euboikon Meleton 6 (1959) 281, 307, 312;
BSA 52 (1957) 2 n.8; Euboea 43; AAA 8 (1975) 28
Kastri is a long narrow ridge (c. 800 m. W~~-ESE by 150 m.) rising
abruptly from the shore on the SE side of the Voudhoros stream, opposite
the hamlet of Kria Vrisi. The site is c. 4 km. NNW of Mantoudhi and
c. 4 km. NE of Kerinthos. The ancient settlement was mainly confined to
the W part of the ridge and the gentler W and SW slopes on the landward
side. Prehistoric sherds and obsidian are sparse, but on the W slope,
near some rough masonry resembling Cyclopean, were LH III sherds, and
higher up a hand-axe (N?) and some EH and MH scraps and obsidian. On the
E and NE sides of the hill of Ayios Ilias adjacent to the SW MH Grey Minyan,
Yellow Minyan, and Matt-painted were found, and it is possible that this
hill was the main centre of prehistoric habitation; MH levels have been
found in trial excavations. But the PG, G and later remains on Kastri may
have largely removed or obscured the prehistoric traces there; trial
excavations produced much PG - C material but little prehistoric and no
certain LH.
G 93

(Euboea No. 17)

STROFILIA
T. 9 Psakhna
EH C

145 E

387 N

Euboea 46
On the S side of the road from Kerinthos to Limni, and c. 1 km. W of
Strofilia, is a fortified hill site, with C walls on the E and W sides. A
few EH sherds were found here.
G 94

DHAFNI:

MOURTIES, ETC.

T. 9 Psakhna
EH PG? G C

079 E

(Euboea Nos. 18 and l8a)


371 N (Mourties)

Euboea 46
Signs of prehistoric habitation were noted both to S of Dhafni and in
the vicinity of Myrties, on the N side of the Misipetri mountain. Finds
from the Dhafni area include EH sherds, obsidian, two sherds possibly PG,
and definite G and c. The main centre may be at Kastro, immediately S of
the road on the W edge of Dhafni.

270

G 95

ROVIES:

(Euboea No. 19)

AYIOS ILIAS, ErC.

T. 9 Psakhna
992 E I 403 N (Ayios Ilias)
EH II MH LH? (Sub)PG G A C
Euboea 46
Some EH II, MH Grey and Yellow Minyan ware, and later sherds were
found near the tower in Rovies village, but the main site was at Ayios
Ilias c. 8oO m. to NW. This is a long hill c. 300 m. E-W at right angles
to the shore. A few prehistoric sherds, (Sub)PG, G, and A were found with
the C and later remains here.
G 96 ROVIES:

(Euboea No. 20)

PALAIOKHORI

T. 9 Psakhna
008 E I 398 N
N EHII MH LH IIII-III(A-B)

Euboea 48
The site is c. 1.5 km. ENE of Rovies, on the track to Palaiokhori.
Slopes on both sides of the track are strewn with sherds. Settlement was
concentrated in two main areas. The S area was principally BA. The N area,
c. 4oo m. distant, seems to have been abandoned at the end of EH (II?). At
the latter site good N and EH II sherds were found. At the former, EH II,
MH Grey and Yellow Minyan ware, and some LH (including LH IIII) indicate a
substantial BA settlement. Further to E, C and later sherds predominate,
and on the SE are remains of chamber tombs, some of which have been opened.
G 97

LIMNI :

(Euboea No. 21)

KASTRIA

T. 9 Psakhna
N EHII MH

073 E I 352 N
LH III(A-B) G

ASAtene 3 (1921) 283;

AE (l96o) 53;

BCH 85 (1961) 758;

Euboea 49

The two hills known as Kastria c. 8oo m. NNd of Limni were inhabited LD
most periods from N to Turkish times, with a possible gap in PG. The prehistoric
centre was on the N hill, particularly on its N slope. ill! II and MH Grey and
Yellow Minyan ware were noted and a few LH and G.
G 98

LIMNI:

PANAYIA, ErC.

T. 9 Psakhna
069 E I 364 N
N EH? MH LH IIIAl(-2?) C
Euboea 50, 108, Pl. 22

(Euboea No. 22)

271

In the vicinity of the Panayia chapel a small N settlement, a MH Grey


Minyan sherd, and coarse sherds and obsidian have been found in three
separate places. At Phasoula to NW of Panayia a LH IIIA tomb was found in
the hillside facing the sea. Of the vases, Euboea Pl. 22:o and e might be
LH IIIA2. The rest are LH IIIAl, apart from the coarse handmade cup, which
probably does not belong with the group and may well be EH.
APPENDIX TO MAP G
A IJ1 IIIA2 rhyton (MV 42, Pl. 19: l3lf) is said to have come from
Livadhia (of. MP 618, Alin 121). But there is no known LH site near the
town (of. Euphrosyne 6 (1973-4) 10 n.l9).

272

MAPS H AND J:

THESSALY, THE SPERCHEIOS VALLEY, EURYTANIA

The importance of Neolithic Thessaly has led to a certain neglect of


study of the Bronze Age, and the present pattern of site-distribution is
bound to be changed considerably by the publication of D. H. French's survey;
conclusions drawn here must therefore be more than usually tentative. It
does seem that from N times onwards western Thessaly was less heavily populated, and presumably less important, than the east. Sites are particularly
concentrated in a zone between Volos and Larisa, along the best route to
the interior of Thessaly; some substantial sites have been found in other
areas, notably the plain of Almyros and around Pharsala and Karditsa, but
this zone seems always to have contained some of the most significant sites,
and in particular to have been the heart of LH Thessaly.
In the N period Thessaly seems to have been in advance of areas further
S, but thereafter it falls behind; the local cultural phases are not always
easy to relate to the Helladic sequence, though the evidence of Pefkakia
(H 2) will clarify many problems when published in more detail (Argissa III
includes a valuable discussion of the EBA). There are considerable dislocations in the settlement-pattern during the EBA, and many sites only appear
to have been occupied continuously from EB III or later; the number of
occupied sites appears to increase in MH and again in LH. Those at and
near the head of the Bay of Volos have produced the best evidence for
contacts with areas further S, the Cyclades, and Crete, but the distribution
of "Lianokladhi Matt-painted" ( tll[:l Ware) indicates overland contact as well,
involving comparatively remote sites.
Volos (H l) emerges as the most important site at the head of the Bay
if not in all Thessaly, in LH times, and probably supported a palace
comparable with those further S if not as sophisticated. The two tholoi at
Dhimini (H 3) should surely be associated with Volos, only a short distance
away, and its influence may have reached far inland. But excavated material
in Thessaly is not copious enough to allow the certain identification of
many other centres: the cluster of small tholoi at Pteleon (H 13-14) should
indicate one such centre, but most tholos tombs in Thessaly are too small
and poor to be attributed to ruling families, and seem rather to be the
local equivalent of chamber tombs, of which there is only one group known
in Thessaly (at H 16). The spread of LH features may have been more protracted than further S, although LH IIB-IIIAl pottery types are quite
widespread in central Thessaly, and local MB characteristics may have
sur~ived for a long time (e.g. the use of cists).
There is no indication
of a large expansion of settlement in LH III; only a few sites have
produced certain LH IIIC, but there is no clear trace of a catastrophe in
late IIIB. Some sites were abandoned (e.g. Pefkakia), but Volos and the
centre represented by the Pteleon tombs both survived, and a piece of an
"Octopus stirrup-jar" of Aegean type found its way as far inland as the
Pharsalos area (LMTS 272, in the BSA Coll.). Developments in LH IIIC and
later are nevertheless most obscure; so little is known that the significance of the Hexalophos tumulus (J 13) cannot be properly judged, for it
cannot be considered a new, intrusive feature when hardly a tomb of LH date

273
has been excavated in that part of Thessaly. The same may be said of the
painted pottery of a northern Greek tradition, which appears commonly in
the DA tombs of eastern Thessaly; the date of its development is still
unclear, as is the process by which the tombs themselves developed from
the LH tholoi which they so closely imitate. In all, our knowledge of
Thessaly at any stage of the BA and DA must still be considered most
unsatisfactory.
H1

VOLOS: KASTRO (ANCIENr IOLKOS)


H. 8 Volos
EB I-III

*I

(GAMS Nos. 480-81)

773 E / 029 N
MH

LH I-IIIC

PG

G A C H

PAE (1900) 72, (1901) 42, (1956) 118, (1957) 54, (1960) 49, (1961) 45; D & S
15, 21; BCH 45 (1921) 530; JHS 1+9 (1929) 95. Nearby tombs: AE (1906) 211
(Kapakli); AAA 3 (1970) 198 (Nea Ionia)
A high mound c. l~O m. by 270 m. at theW end of the modern town. The
site seems to have been continuously occupied since EB I, with little significant break except perhaps in LH IIIC. Little can be said of the pre-LH
phases except that they are represented by a considerable depth of deposit.
The LH strata have been partly removed by later terracing, but remains of
two successive large buildings, taken to be palaces, have been found. The
earlier includes stucco and slab floors, and is attributed to LH IIIA; the
later, also having stucco floors, was built on a timber frame, and fragments
of fresco and two large groups of plain kylikes were found associated with
it. This building is attributed to LH IIIB and stated to have been burnt in
early LH IIIC, but no conclusive dating evidence has been published. There
are certainly LH IIIC strata on the site, which show close links with the
earlier LH IIIC phases at Lefkandi (F 81) (cf. BSA 66 (1971) 348); deep PG
strata have also been found, but it is not clear if there is continuity from
LH IIIC to PG. The site appears to have retained some importance in PG, to
which are attributed some remains of fine architecture.
Cist-graves have been found both on the mound and at Nea Ionia to the
~N;
the latter are definitely LH IIB-IIIAl, some containing fine bronze
weapons. A tholos tomb at Kapakli, to theN, is large (c. 10 m.) but not
especially well-built; it contained at least twenty burials and much
jewellery, but little dating-evidence in the form of pottery. The few
published vases are LH IIB-IIIAl in date, but stirrup-jar fragments are also
referred to in the report. This should be distinguished from the DA tholos
in the same area, in use from PG to A or later (AE (1914) 141; v. R. Desborough, Protogeometric Pottery (1952) 132; the bulk of the PG pottery is
catalogued in N. M. Verdelis, Ho Protogeometrikos Rhythmos tes Thessalias
( 1958) 3 ff. )

27'+

H2

VOLOO:

PEFKAKIA (ANCIENr NELEIA?)

H. 8 Volos
N EB I III

782 E / 007 N
MH LH I-IIIB PG

*If

(GAMS No. 482)

A C H (A & C Temple of Apollo)

AM 14 (1889) 262; PAE (1908) 212, (1912) 173, (1916) 31, (1957) 55; AD 23
(1968) B 263, 24 (1969) B 221; BCH 95 (1971) 711, 97 (1973) 331; AR (196869) 20, (1970-71) 16, (1971-2) 1~(1972-3) 20, (1973-4) 21; AAA 7
(1974) 45
A promontory at the NW end of the later site of Demetrias, upon which
there is a considerable depth of prehistoric deposit. Occupation seems to
have been continuous from at least the Dhimini phase of LN. From an early
stage, the site had widespread connections to N and S: pottery of Balkan,
Trojan, EH II, and quite probably KS types (cf. AAA 7 (1974) Pl. l3b, lower)
has been identified in levels of the final "Rachmani 11 N phase. All three
phases of the Thessalian EB sequence were identified above the 11Rachmani 11
stratum, the first including a probable fortification-wall; 11 depata" and
plates of Trojan type were found in deposits of the third phase, suggesting
a link with the "Anatolian" phase at Lefkandi and Ay. Irini on Kea. In the
succeeding MH strata, imports continue to occur, including MM I-II (AAA 7
(1974) Pl. l3b, upper); Trojan and Cycladic types are reported (AJA 75
(1971) 705), and Matt-painted pieces may include imports, though none are
of the characteristic "Aeginetan" type (BCH 97 (1973) 333 figs. 165-6).
Cord-decorated and incised types are thought to be of Balkan origin (op.cit.
334 figs. 168-9).
The later phases of settlement are best preserved at the S end of the
site, where MH houses were succeeded by a cist-cemetery, enclosed within a
wall, that continued in use into LH II. Over this were LH III structures,
including a large LH IIIB house. LH houses have also been reported W of
the promontory, and an extensive cemetery, perhaps an extension of the one
already mentioned, has been found on the face of the hill. This included
rectangular built tombs with an entrance (not chamber tombs, as in Alin 144),
and a tholos has been reported; a group of LH IIA-IIIAl vases is reported
to come from these tombs (AM 14 (1889) 262, cf. also F. stMhlin et al.,
Pagasai und Demetrias (1934) 162). The SMyc. date suggested for~ of
these vases (Verdelis 1958, 52) is unacceptable, but two PG vases come from
the area (Desborough 1952, 133, 153).
The evidence of Pefkakia will be crucial in establishing the Thessalian
sequence and its links with other sequences. The site was clearly an important centre, but the reason for its widespread connections is not clear. It
may be connected with the evidence found here and at Volos for bronzesmelting; Thessalian copper-sources may have been exploited, though none
is known nearer than the Othrys mountains.

275

DHIMINI :

TOUMBA

H. 8 Volos
N EB I-III

* /1

(.QilMS. No. 483)

746 E I 025 N
LH IIA-IIIB

MH

AM 11 (1886) 435, 12 (1887) 136; PAE (1901) 37;


125, 147; PT 82; Hunter 23, 36, 38

D & S, especially 65,

A mound-site, c. 110 m. NE-SW by 90 m., about 500 m. NE of Dhimini.


Most of the remains on this site belong to the LN phase, probably its
period of greatest importance, and only a long defensive trench, some walls,
and graves are assigned to the BA. Sherd-material, however, especially
on the lower terraces, suggests that it was inhabited in all BA phases to
LH IIIB. The graves include cists, mostly late MH but in two cases LH IIIA2,
a burial-deposit assignable to LH IIIA, and two tholos tombs. One of these,
set into theN side of the mound, was quite large (c. 8.3 m.) and finely
built, with a "relieving triangle"; the other, at Laminospito 300 m.
further N, was s.Lightly bigger (d. 8.5 m.) and also had a "relieving triangle'
Both contained structures set against the chamber wall. They had been robbed,
but remains of gold and glass jewellery were found, and LH IIIA2-B is
reported from the dromos of the Laminospito tomb; the other is unlikely to
be much earlier.

H4

SESKW :

KASTRAKI

(GAMS No. 484)

*!I

H. 8 Volos
704 E I 028 N
N EB I-III MH LH III(A2-B)

PG

G?

D & S, especially 107, 115, 125; Hunter 23, 142, 151; Thessalika 1 (1958)
74; PAE (1911) 294, (1965) 7, (1971) 18; Ergon (1976) 99
A high mound c. 1.5 km. NE of Sesklo, on a natural rise betweeh two
stream-beds, now c. lOO m. NE-SW by 45 m. but considerably eroded. This
may be one of the oldest settled sites in Greece, extending back to a
"preceramic" N phase. By MN it was an extensive town, and like H 3 it was
probably most important in the N period, but quite a depth of deposit is
attributed to the BA, and to judge from the numerous and often well-provided
later MH graves it was also important at this time. The goods include faiencE
beads that may well be imports and a relatively large number of copper and
bronze objects; taken with the evidence for bronze-working on the site,
including a number of stone moulds, this may also be connected with the
exploitation of local copper. LH material is rare; a small LH III tomb
of tholos type was excavated in the neighbourhood, possibly the source of
a LH IIIB pyxis noted as from "T.5" by Hunter (151; cf. also 142 for
another whole vase, presumably from a tomb). But this tomb, like the
numerous DA tombs of similar type reported in the neighbourhood (presumably
the source of nos. 23, 73 in the catalogue in Verdelis 1958) need have no
connection with occupation on the site. MH tombs and a LH III sherd have
recently been found in Sesklo village.

276

ARGALI\STI :

( GAMS No. 486)

KHORTOS

H. 8 Volos in square 010 E


IJl III(A2-B) PG?
PI 6 n. 1;

PAE (1914) 221;

820 N

Hunter 159

An alabastron marked "Khortokastron Argalastes" was noted by Hunter


in the Almyros Museum. It is probably LH IIIA2 rather than LH IIIB. A
DA tholos was noted near Argalasti (PAE loc.cit.), and the head of a bronze
doubleaxe from Khortos was seen in the Volos Museum (PI loc.cit.).
H 6

NEA ANKHIALOS :

ANCIENr PYRASOS

(GAMS No. 489)

*#

H. 8 Volos
29 (spot height) at 676 E I 936 N
N EB (including I) MH LH II-IIIB PG G C H
PI 10;
B 170;

Hunter 182; Thessalika 2 (1959) especially 59 ff.;


PAE (1968) 31, (1969) 16

AD 16 (196o)

A "high mound" site above Nea Ankhialos harbour, measuring c. ll.O m.


N-S by 8o m. on top. Rich N deposits were found on the S and W slopes, and
sporadic N, IJl, and G on the surface of the hill. MH and good stratified
LH were found on flat ground near the S foot of the hill, and IJl was found
in two other areas c. 100 m. apart and c. lOO m. from the acropolis,
demonstrating a fairly extensive IJl "lower town".
H7

MIKROTHIVAI:

H. 8 Volos
187 (spot height) at 627 E
N MH IJl III(A2-B) PG G A c
AM 31 (1906) 5;

*#

ANCIENT PHTHIOTIC THEBES

PAE (1907) 166, (1908) 163;

(GAMS No. 490)

934 N

PT 166

A few IJl and G sherds were found in a mixed deposit in excavations


here, above better stratified N remains; and some MH and LH III sherds
have been found on the surface. The LH settlement appears to have been
confined mainly to the E end of the rocky spur where it projects into the
N edge of the Krokian plain.
H 7A PERSOUPHLI :

KASTRO

H. 8 Volos (no precise location)


N MH C H
PT 9 no. 37;

AD 18 (1963) B 143

277
N and a considerable amount of MH Grey Minyan have been found at the
Kastro to S of Persouphli, on the route between ancient Pherai (H 15) and
ancient Pl"Jthiotic Thebes (H 7). We have not been able to verify the location
or identify the modern name for Persouphli, and the site is therefore
omitted from Map H.
H8

AIDHIJ~,'IOTIKI

H. 8 Voles
N EB I-II
PAE (1907) 171;

MAGOULA

(GAMS No. 491)

*#

32 (spot height) at 644 E


MH LH III(A-B)
PI 169;

900 N

Thessalika 2 (1959) 60;

AA (1971) 395

A large high mound c 3 km. from the present shore, and c 7 km. NE
of Almyros. Abundant prehistoric material, especially MH, has been found
in various excavations here.

H9

AIMYRIOTIKI MAGOULA

H. 8 Voles
33 ( "Domousi") at 635 E
N MH LH III(A-B)
PI 10, 208;

( GAMS No. 492)

847 N

Alin 145

A low mound c. 2.5 km. E of Almyros. LH III sherds in the Almyros


Museum are from the vicinity of Almyros, probably from Magoula, and a
LH Psi figurine in the museum is marked as from the site.
H 10

ZERFLIA:

KASTRAKI

( GAMS No. 493)

H. 7 Farsala
159 (spot height) at 573 E I 817 N
N EB I( -III?) MH LH I-III(A2-Bl) "PG"?
PI 150;

Hunter 33, 35

A high mound, c. 110 m. NNW-SSE by 70 m., on a hill between two lakes


c. 5 km. WSW of Almyros. Of the eight strata distinguished, six are certainly N, and most of the BA material was found in the top layer. It included
much MH, some LH I-II, and at least one decorated kylix-fragrnent, and also
eig_ht cist-graves, all probably MH. Sherds of Lllfi ware (local Matt-painted,
in this case possibly DA?) were also found, and a bronze double axe comes
from this area (PI 166, Hunter catalogue no. 288).
H 11

ANCIENI HALOS

*#

H. 8 Voles 667 E I 791 N


LH IIIA? PG G C H

( GAMS No. 494)

278

BSA 18 (1911-12) l
A LH IIIA(l?) piriform jar described as being from Halos was on show
in Volos Museum in 1967. A hilt-fragment resembling that of a Type C sword
but unflanged is reported to come from a tomb at Halos (Hunter 230). But
the site is most important for its series of DA graves, found at the foot
of the acropolis.
H 12

SOURPI:

MAGOULA

H. 8 Volos
N MH

( GAMS No. 495)

35 (spot height) at 720 E

714 N

PT lO No. 71
The high mound of Magoula c. 2 km. S of Sourpi resembles Zerelia both
in form and in situation. MH Minyan ware was reported to be abundant here,
and LH habitation appears likely.
H 13

PTELEON:

GRITSA

(GAMS No. 496)

*11

H. 8 Volos
769 E I 645 N
N MH LH IIIAl-C PG c
~ (1951) 129, (1952) 164, (1953) 120; Hunter ll;

IMTS 130; AD 23 (1968)

B 269
A rocky hill, c. 300 m. N-S by 18o m. on top, at the head of the Bay of
Pteleon, and c. 3 km. to S of the village. On the NW slopes are remains of
a MH settlement, and LH material is also reported. A little to the E are
four MH cists and a small LH IIIC tomb of tholos type but irregular (T. 2,
1.93 x 1.87 m.); along the ridge which runs toW below the site are three
MH cists and three small tholoi, T. l(d. 4.02 m.), in use from LH IIIAl to
IIIC, T. 3 (d. 5.2 m.), which contained at least one probably LH IIIA vase
but mostly LH IIIC and also three PG (Verdelis 1958, nos. 26-7, 62), and
T. 4 (d. 4.2 m.), badly preserved, which contained vases that may be LH IIIA-B
and LH IIIC. The tombs were not very rich in goods (T. l was disturbed in C
times), but contained some jewellery and other objects. At Ay. Vasilios,
a wheelmade grey goblet (MH?) was found in a well.
H 14

PTELEON:

AYIOS THEODOROS

H. 8 Volos
754 E
LH III(A2-B) H

PAE (1951) 150, (1952) 181

633 N

* 11

( GAMS No. 497)

279

A small tholos tomb (d. 3.51> m.) was excavated here, c. 2 km. NE of
Ayios Theodoros, and to N of the road. It contained pottery, bronzes,.
seals tones, and some jewellery; it should probably be associated with
H 13. A H vase was found in the fill.
H 15 VELESTINO:

MAGOULA (ANCIENT PHERAI)

H. 8 Volos
612 E I 052 N
N MH LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC?
~AE (1907) 16o;

PG

BCH 45 (1921) 529;

(GAMS No. 498)

*!I

G A C H

Y. Bequignon, Recherches archeologiques

'a Pheres ( 1937)


The main acropolis of ancient Pherai, at Magoula on the W side of
Velestino village, is a high mound c. 4oo m. NE-SW by lOG m., on which N,
MH, LH III, G and C sherds have been found. LH finds are recorded from
the area of the temple (to N of Magoula), and continuity of cult here from
LH onwards has been argued (AA (1926) 429). Some whole vases, presumably
from tombs, are good LH IIIA2-B (Hunter, catalogue nos. 2-3, 31, 4o, 78,
cf. also p. 215), but very late LH types are also reported (Voles Museum
Cat. No. 61>6, cf. IMTS 132). Hunter also cites LH figurines (cf. BSA 66
(1971) 184) and at least one vase probably EPG (no. 225), while two vases
(Verdelis 1958, nos. 19-20) presumably from here, are PG, and may be from
the cist-cemetery reported (Desborough 1952, 133).
H 16 MEGA MONASTIRION:

MAGOULA

H. 7 Farsala 112 (spot height) at 58o E


LH IIIAl-B PG
AD 19 (196~) B 255;

AR (1964-5) 20;

132 N

BCH 91 (1957) 708

Magoula is c. 1.5 km. ENE of Mega Monastirion. In the NW bank of the


torrent which flanks Magoula, five large and rich rock-cut chamber tombs
(the first to be discovered in Thessaly) have been excavated, which contained much pottery (including a painted toy chariot and two yoked horses),
gold and glass jewellery, and fine sealstones. Not far toW, at Livadhi,
were traces of a LH settlement and a largely destroyed LH IIIA2 chamber tomb,
and a PG vase was also found near Livadhi.
H 16A AHMENION:

THANI MAGOULA

H. 7 Farsala
N LH?
PT 8 no. 10;

86 ( "Trani Magoula") at 582 E

AD 19 (1964) B 255

156 N

28o

This large N mound c. 2 km. S of Armenian .was also apparently


inhabited in LH. Both because confirmation is required, and because it is
close to H 16, it has been omitted from the map.
H 17

STEPHANOVTKEION:
H. 8 Volos
N EB I MH

PETRA

(GAMS No. 499)

*!I

119 (spot height) at 630 E


LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC? C

181 N

AM 62 (1937) 6o n. l; AA (1955) 221, (l96o) 150; BCH 8o (1956) 311, 81


(1957) 597, 84 (l96o) 764; AD 16 (l96o) B Pls. 164[:3, 165, AD 18 (1963)
B 144
The promontory of Petra, c. 3 km. NE of Stephanovikeion, projects
into Lake Boibe (now drained) from the SE, opposite the islet of Petra.
The extensive "Cyclopean" circuit walls (nearly 5 km. in circumference
and up to 5 m. thick) enclosed an area c. 1,000,000 sq. m. around three
low hills, two of which are also ringed with circuit walls. Good MH and
LH III material has been found in many and widely separated parts of the
hills and the flatter areas between and around them (cf. the plan AA (1955)
227, Abb.22), often associated with cists and the remains of structures.
The trial trenches in the hollow area between the hills demonstrated
occupation in EB also. The LH III material is particularly extensive, and
seems to indicate an important site. If the circuit walls are LH, as is
claimed, they would represent the largest fortified site of the period yet
known. About l km. to SE is a small rock outcrop named Petra Magoula, on
whose W flank EB I sherds have been found (BSA collection). This site is
insignificant and presumably an outlier of the main EB settlement at Petra.
H 18

PLATIKAMBOS:

z.

KAVAKI f'IIJWOULA

7 Larisa
472 E
NEBIMHC

313 N

A fairly small mound on the S side of the Volos-Larisa road, c. 3 km.


SE of Platikambos. There are N, EB I, and MH sherds from here in the BSA
collection.
H 19

PLATIKAMBOS:

z.

KARAGATS MAGOULA

7 Larisa "Magoula Karagash" at 455 E


NEBILHG

(GAMS No. 500)

I 353 N

PT 8 no. 21
A large double mound c. l km. N of Platikambos.
indicated are in the BSA collection.

Sherds of the periods

281

H 20 MELISSOCHORI:

z. 7 Larisa
LH III(A-B)
Pr 8 no. 24;

PALIAMBELA

( GAMS No. 501)

71 ("Paliambela") at 431 E

365 N

Alin 140 s .v. "Metiseli"

A mound c. 2 km. N of Melissochori (formerly Metiseli), where LH III


is reported.
H 21 MESIANI MAGOULA
Z. 7 Larisa

(GAMS No. 502)

85 ("Karli 11 ) at 406 E

366 N

NEBMHLH
Pr 8 no. 26, 55

A tall conical hillock described as "between the fourth and fifth


kilometre stones" on the N side of the Larisa-Ayia road. Trial excavations
revealed mainly N material, but some BA was also found, and there are LH
sherds from here in the National Museum at Athens.
H 22

LARISA:

GEDIKI

(GAMS No. 503)

Z. 7 Larisa
in square 38o E
MH? LH IIIA2 ( -B? )
Thessalika 3 (196o) 47;

370 N

AR (1962-3) 24;

AD 23 (1968) B 269

Vases and bronzes from tombs accidentally discovered at Gediki, near


the Larisa aerodrome, include LH IIIA2. The "tholos tomb" mentioned in a
newspaper report (AR loc.cit.) may be an exaggerated description of a small
built tomb of tholes type. Five handmade vases (AD loc.cit.) found near
the aerodrome are probably contemporary with MH.
H 23

LARISA:

THE ACROPOLIS

( GAMS No. 504)

z.

7 Larisa
350 E I 350 N
N EB MH LH IIB-IIAl (Sub)PG

Fimmen 1921, 2; Hunter 33, 36; PAE (1910) 174;. Thessalika 3 (196o) 47;
AD 21 (1966) B 254, 26 (1971) B 300
Prehistoric sherds were found on the acropolis, and fine LH IIB-IIIAl
vases are reported, presumably from tombs in the area. A (Sub)PG vase was
also found (Verdelis 1958 catalogue no. 53). Traces of LH habitation were
also noted behind the hospital, near the right bank of the Peneios, to NE
of, and a considerable distance from, the acropolis.

282

H 24

SOUPHLI MAGOULA

z.

7 Larisa
N EBI MH
PT 9 no. 28;

(GAMS No. 505)

78 (spot height) at 388 E


LH IIBIIIIAl LH III(A-B)

AA (1957) 53, (1959) 59;

398 N

Thessalika 1 (1958) 78

The site is a low rise on theE bank of the Peneios river, c. l km.
SE of Kaulouri. Pottery found is mainly N, with some BA; that found in
trial excavations on the site of a remarkable stele of uncertain date
includes a few N, EB, MH and at least one LH IIBIIIIAl (AA (1959) 62 fig. 7).
A child's cist grave containing an askos and amber bead is presumably LH.
H 24A OMORPHOCHORI:

z.

7 Larisa
LH (III?)

KARAGATS MAGOULA
70 ( 11Karagach Magoula") at 418 E

404 N

Thessalika 3 (1960) 57 n. 1
LH sherds are reported from this mound, which is apparently PT no. 29,
on the N side of Omorphochori (formerly Nechali).
H 25

CHASAMBALI (KEPHALOVRYSO?)

z.
N

7 Larisa
EBI MH

(GAMS No. 506)

122 (spot height) at 446 E 11+16 N


LH IIBIIIIAl-B PG H

PAE (1910) 185; Thessalika 3 (1960) 50, 4 (1962) 35, 73;


198 (Kephalovryso material)

Hunter 10, 40,

An important and extensive settlement on either side of a spring


Kephalovryso, on the E edge of the Larisa plain l km. NE of the hamlet of
Chasambali (cf. the map, BSA 31 (1930-31) 2 fig. l) near the foot of
Mt. Mops ion. The site is probably to be identified with the 11Kephalovryso"
which is the source of sherds in the BSA collection (N.B. Hunter reports
LH IIIA2-B from both 11 Chasambali 11 and "Kephalovryso"). Arvanitopoullos (PAE
loc.cit.) claimed that prehistoric settlement was more or less continuous
from Chasambali to Eleutherion c. 4 km. to ESE; and the abundant springs
between Chasambali and Marmariani (H 27) further demonstrate that the whole
area could have supported a considerable prehistoric population. At Chasambali apsidal megara were excavated, and cists which are probably late MH.
LH vases, the earliest of which is LH IIBIIIIAl (Thessalika 4 (1962) 42
fig. 8) and PG vases have been handed in as from similar tombs.

H 26

BARA

( GAMS No. 507)

Z. 7 Larisa
LH III(A2-B)

482 E I 415 N
LH IIIC? PG?

GAMS 151
In 1958 a considerable LH settlement ( c. 150 m. N-S by lOO m.) was
located on slopes near a copious spring c. 2 km. SE of the mound of
Marmari ani ( H 27)

* /1

H 27 MARJVIARIANI

( GAMS No. 508)

z. 7

Larisa
510 E I 428 N
N MH Ul IIIAl-B Ul IIIC? PG

PT 53;

BSA 31 (1930-31) l;

Hunter ll, 39

The mound of Marmariani is c. 2 km. SW of the village of the same


name near the SW foot of Mt. Ossa. Originally a N site, it was also
occupied in MH and UI. LH III is plentiful on the lower terraces,
especially on the SE, and includes sherds probably LH IIIC. A tholes tomb
(d. not over 6 m.) on theW edge of the mound contained Ul III(A2-B)
pottery; six others, on its E part, smaller and rather irregular in shape,
held LPG~G burials, and some material of this date was found on the site.
H 28

DHOGANI:

AYIOS ILIAS

Z. 7 Larisa
EB or MH

6o7 E

( GAMS No, 509)


379 N

Ul III(A-B)

Hunter 8
A settlement was discovered by Hunter in the plain at the E foot of
the hill of Ayios Ilias, to S of Dhogani. LH and P) ware were found.
H 29

NESSONIS

z. 7 Larisa 420 E
N EB I-II MH Ul

(GAMS No. 510)

450 N (approx.)

BCH 82 (1958) 953


On three mounds in the area of the marsh of Nessonis all prehistoric
periods were represented.

284

H 30

SIKOURI :

BOUNARBASHI

z.

7 Larisa
168 (spot height) at 473 E
N EB MH LH IIIAl-B LH IIIC? (Sub)PG
AD 19 (1964) B 262, 22 (1967) B 296;
Magulen urn Larisa 1966 (1976) 65

498 N
G

AJA 74 (1970) 272;

V. Milocjic et al.,

A relatively flat-topped hill, c. 350 m. N-S x 250 m., at the N end


of a broad valley c. 3.5 km. NW of Sikouri. A wide range of material was
found in trial excavations, which produced a thick LH III occupation-layer;
the earliest pieces from this may be LH IIIAl, as is an alabastron handed in
(AD 19 (1964) B Pl. 30i+e ), the latest LH IIIC, but the bulk seem LH IIIB.
A cist containing two kantharoi on the SW is probably late MH. An unusual
feature of the site is the large quantity of material decorated in late PG
style, together with some early-looking G pieces, all of which might
represent a single phase of occupation in the ninth century B.C.
H 31

SPILIA:

KAVAKI

z. 7 Larisa
LH IIIA2-B
AAA 2 (1969) 165;

*#

553 E

512 N

AD 24 (1969) B 223

A small LH built tomb of tholes type (d. 2.3 m.) was excavated on the
NE brow of the ridge to SW of the spring Kavaki, which lies c. 2 km. SW of
Spilia, a village high up on theW flank of Mt. Ossa. The tomb contained
a single adult burial provided with two LH IIIA2-B vases, a knife, a sealstone, and other objects. A tholos, of similar type but much ruined, was
found at Kibourli, c. l km. toW along the same ridge; and, according to
local reports, two other tombs, also situated on the ridge and between
the two investigated, had been destroyed previously. No traces of. a LH
settlement were found in a search of the neighbourhood.
H 32

RACHMANI:

MAGOULA

z. 7 Larisa 86 (spot height) at 428 E


N EB I-II MH LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC?
PT 25;

( GAMS No. 512)

* #

496 N

Hunter 12, 41, 182, 198

A low mound, 112 m. by 95 m., to E of the road from Larisa to Tempe,


near the E edge of the Larisa plain. Excavations revealed a deep stratigraphic sequence. LH material was more abundant on the slopes, presumably
because of erosion of the centre. LH IIIC has been claimed but is not
certain. A tomb containing two burials, LH IIIA pottery, and some jewellery,
is apparently a small tomb of tholes type.

285
H 33

(GAMS No. 513)

GONNOS

z.

7 Larisa
44o E I 585 N
N EB MH LH IIIAl-B LH IIIC?

G C H

PAE (1910) 241, (1911) 315, (1914) 208; PT 207; F. Stllhlin, Die Hellenische Thessalien (1924) 32; Alin 139; MP 646; Hunter 8, 37
Hunter recorded sherds (in the BSA collection) of EB, MH and LH IIIA-C
from the small natural hill on the N side of the Peneios, at the S foot of
the acropolis of ancient Gonnos, c. 2 km. ESE of modern Gonnos (formerly
Dereli). There was a tholos tomb on the NW slope of the acropolis, and a
LH to G cemetery is reported near the prehistoric site. One grave here is
a cist within a tumulus, and contained a contracted burial, amber bead,
and sealstone.
Three vases from Gonnos were brought to the Almyros Museum (PT 207,
fig. 143, cf. AM (1909) 84, and Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology (1908) 133). They have been attributed (Alin loc.cit.) to the
vicinity of the neighbouring village of Baba (now re-named Tembi); and the
askos has been regarded as from elsewhere (MP 6le6), although a very old
label marked "Gonnos" (in Greek alphabet) was seen attached to the vase in
the museum in 1958. There seems indeed little doubt that the vases are in
fact from Gonnos, although they may have been brought to Baba subsequently.
They were classed as LH IIIB by Desborough (LMTS 133), but the high-handled
cup with stipple pattern is definitely LcB IIIAl.
H 34

PHALANNA:

z.

TATAR MAGOULA

7 Larisa

N EB I-III
PT 9 no. 36;

/1

(GAMS No. 514)

88 (spot height) at 336 E


MH LH III(A-B) C H

AA (1955) 221;

456 N

Historia 4 (1955) 471;

BCH 80 (1956) 311

This large hig)1 mound lies c. 1.5 km. W of Phalanna (formerly Tatar).
In 1958 the top knoll was being ploughed away by a bulldozer. Before
destruction this knoll must have measured c. 8o m. N-S by 6o m. and the
total dimensions of the mound were c. 300 m. N-S by 225 M. The abundant
C sherds in the cutting made by the bulldozer and inscriptions found here
previously show that this was probably the site of a Hellenic township,
probably ancient Phalanna. Prehistoric sherds noted in 1958 included N,
MH Grey Minyan, and several fine LH III pieces from kylikes etc. Their
distribution appeared to indicate that prehistoric settlement covered most
of the area of the mound.
H 35

VRYOTOPOS:

z.

TSAfRLI MAGOULA

7 Larisa
65 ("Cha!rli") at 335 E
N LHIII(A-)B

I 508 N

286

AD 21 (1966) B 254;

BCH 94 (1970) 1049

A low mound c. 1 km. N of Vryotopos. Nand LH were found on the


surface. A 11 Zygouries type" kylix fragment and a robbed tomb are mentioned.
H 36 RODHIA:

11

MAGOULA PERA MACHALA

(GAMS No. 516)

z.

7 Larisa
343 E I 534 N
N EB I-II LH III(A-B)
Hunter 9, 183;

AD 19 (1964) B 263

A large high mound site c. 200 m. N-S by lOO m., about 1.5 km. SE of
Rodhia, to N of the junction of the Titaresios and Peneios rivers. Fine
LH surface sherds are reported and robbed cist tombs (LH?). LH sherds
were also found in lower ground at the SE foot of the mound, where there is
an extension of the settlement reaching to theW bank of the Peneios.
H 36A RODHIA:

NEKROTAPHEION

z.

7 Larisa
N EB I-II

327 E

534 N

Hunter 9
A low mound, c. 300 m. S of Rodhia, on which stands the village
cemetery. The site is not marked on Map H, due to its proximity to H 36.
H 37

ARGYROPOULI :

KASTRI

11

(GAMS No. 517)

z.

PT 10 no. 81;

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 146, Pl. 11

11
7 Larisa
Moni 11 at 278 E
MH? LH IIIA2-C C H

581 N

Argyropouli (formerly Karatsoli) lies at the NW end of the Larisa


plain, beneath the foothills of Mt. Olympus, and at the S entrance to the
Melouna Pass which leads to the Elasson valley. Above the village on its
NW edge is the hill of Kastri, which bears the remains of a monastery and
a chapel of Ayia Paraskevi. It is clear that the main part of the settlement lay on the monastery hill, a spur c. 250 m. N-S by lOO m., but some
sherds were also found on the higher hill above to the NE, and this too
may have formed part of the citadel. Considerable quantities of fine
LH IIIA-C pottery were found in 1961, especially behind the chapel on the
neck of land joining the two hills. Here erosion has created a large pit,
in the sides of which LH deposits nearly three metres thick are revealed,
and in one side a LH house-wall standing to a height of nearly two metres.

Yellow Minyan (MH?) and some good C sherds were also found.
impressive and was probably important in the LH period.
H 38

TSARITSANI :

z.

7 Larisa
N EB I
AD 25 (1970) B 282;

The site is

HASAN MAGOULA
218 E

640 N (village)

AR (1973-4) 23

An important prehistoric settlement on a mound toW of Tsaritsani.


This is distinct from the N settlement on the hill of Mik:ros Profitis
Ilias (PI 12 no. 123) on theW side of the village, where LH and A sherds
and small tholos tombs were also claimed (PAE (1914) 16o, AE (1916) 92,
but GAMS 155, no. 518 contra, and cf. Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 147
n. 13).

/1

H 39 MAGOULA (NEAR ELASSON)


Z. 6 Trikkala 085 E
N? EB? MH? LH?
PI 12 no. 124, 207;

( GAMS No. 520)

575 N

AA (1959)

8~

The village of Magoula stands on a low hill in the Europos valley


c. 13 km. SW of Elasson. Monochrome hand-made coarse ware was found here
and a bored celt (of PI Type E). But this seems an unlikely provenance for
the "IM II" (i.e. LH IIB or LH IIIAl) vases seen by Wace and Thompson
(PI 207) in private possession in Larisa, and reputed to be from Magoula.
Occupation at some period in the BA appears likely, however, although the
site is not marked on Map H.
H 4o

ELASSON:

PANAYIA

Z. 6 Trikkala
"Moni" at 180 E
LH III(A- )B C H
AD 23 (1968) B 269;

(GAMS No. 519)

66o N

Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 147

Chance finds at Elasson of LH vases, including a LH IIIB deep bowl,


are thought to have been part of the contents of cist tombs. The pyxis
(no. 6o) in the Almyros Museum, marked 11 Elassona" (in Greek alphabet) is
either LH IIIA2 or LH IIIB. The LH settlement was presumably on the same
site as historic Elasson, i.e. the hill of the Panayia monastery on theW
side of the modern town (cf. AA (1959) 85).

288
H 41

GREMNOS (ANCIENT ARGISSA)

z.

7 Larisa
N El3 I-III

(GAMS No. 515)

*#

Aryissa 11 at 295 E I 388 N


tffi LH I-II LH IIIB (Sub )PG
11

G A

AA (1955) 192, (1956) 221; AD 16 (196o) B 186; v. Milocjic, Hauptergebnisse


der deutschen Ausgrabungen i~Thessalien 1953-58 (196o) 3, 21; v. Milocjic
~t al.,Argissa I (1962) 27; Hope Simpson and Lazenby 1970, 145 and Pl. lOb;
E. Hanscbmann and v. Milocjic, Argissa III (1976)
A large high mound c. 350 m. NE-SW by 120 m. on theN bank of the
river Peneios, which has partly eroded it. The site was first inhabited in
Palaeolithic times and again from a very early stage of N. Occupation is
continuous in the earlier BA, including a destruction by fire in El3 III;
LH I-II and LH IIIB are reported (cf. AD 16 (196o) B Pl. 165 for sherds
of the latter from here and from H 17), and there is stray material of
PG-G and later date on the surface. The sequence from this site will be
of great value when fully published.
H 42

KOUTSOCHEIRON:

MAGOULA VRASTERA

(GAMS No. 522)

Z. 7 Larisa
93 "Alifakiotiki Magoula" at 183 E
N EB LH IIIA2-B
Thessalika 2 (1959)

69:

ALIFAKA:

7 Larisa
LH III(A-B)
AA ( 196o)

by 150 m., about 2 km. SW of


of the right bank of the Peneios.
IIIA2-B are to be seen on the eroded
local name for the mound is apparently

ANCIENT ATRAX

z.

173;

318 N

AD 16 (196o)B 172

A large low mound c. 200 m. E-W


Koutsocheiron and only c. 150 m. toE
Fine painted N sherds and abundant LH
W flank and El3 is also recorded. The
Magoula Zariba.
H 1"3

(GAMS No. 524)

188 (spot height) at 182 E


PG A C

Stlihlin 192lf, 101;

I 296 N

Alin 138

The citadel of ancient Atrax is a conical hill c. 500 m. SW of Alifaka


(now re-named Kastro), near the S bank of the Peneios. Some LH III sherds
were found here, among more abundant later material.
H 4lf

CHABASLAR (NOW VOUVAINA)

z. 7 Larisa
LH II(B?)

199 E

I 221 N (village)

(GAMS No. 526)

289

Hunter 33, 36;

Alin 146

In the Almyros Museum are a squat alabastron and an askoid ,jug


(Hunter nos. 74 and 103), labelled "Tsiambaslar" (~Chabaslar). Both are
LH II, probably LH IIB but possibly LH IIA.
H 45

ANCIENT KRANNON

* /1

( GArJIS No. 525)

z. 7 Larisa 255 E I 229 N


N EB LH III(A-B) G A C H
StMhlin 1924, 111;

AD 16 (196o) B 177, 25 (1970) B 279

Ancient Krannon occupies a large irregular low plateau c. 400 m. in


diameter (cf. plan on AD 16 (1960)Bl78 fig. 2) c. 2 km. SW of modern Krannon.
The historic circuit walls follow the outer contours of this plateau, within
which are two mounds, at the SW angle and on the S side respectively. That
on the SW is higher (it measures c. 150 m. NW-SE by lOO m.), and appears to
have been the main prehistoric centre. N, MH Grey Minyan, and abundant
LH III have been found here. On the lower mound (c. 150 m. E-W by 120 m.)
the only prehistoric sherds seen in 1958 were N. Later material includes
G and A; and one of the three rounded tumuli at Sarmanitsa to the W
contained burials mostly c. 470 B.C. TheN and EB sherds found in the makeup of this tumulus were presumably in earth moved from the SW mound which is
adjacent to the tumuli.
H 46 AVEROF:

z.

MAGOULA

7 Larisa

( GArJ!S No. 529)

89 (spot height) at 369 E

I 322 N

LH
Thessalika 3 (1960) 47
LH sherds were found on the low mound c. 500 m. S of Averof, a village
c. 3 km. SSE of the outskirts of Larisa.
H 47

NEAI KARYAI:

SAHLIKI

z.

( GArJ!S No. 530)

7 Larisa
162 ("Argaslar") at
NEBLHCH

Thessalika 3 (1960) 47 n. 1;

38~

241 N

AD 16 (l96o) B 185

Sarliki is an acropolis with a steep N side, and surrounded by


ravines, c. 3 km. ~N of Neai Karyai. Surface sherds include N, EB, and LH.

290

H 48

PHARSALA :

FEriH -TSAMI

( GAMS No. 534)

*#

H. 7 Farsala
307 (spot height) at 288 E I 976 N
N EB? MH LH IIBIIIIAl-B LH IIIC? G A C !-!
PAE (1952) 195, (1953) 128, (1955) 145;

AD 16 (l96o) B 175, 19 (1964) B 26o

Trials on the NE slope of the Fetih-Tsami (Ayia Paraskevi) ridge, SW


of and above modernPharsala, produced material ranging from LN to LH III
and later. Some Boo m. to the W, at the foot of the ridge, is a group of
tombs beneath an A tholos-like structure, including two rectangular built
tombs with dromos and a tumulus-oovered cist; these had been disturbed,
but LH III pottery, including a monochrome deep bowl that may be LH IIIC,
faience beads, and other goods were found. On show in Volos Museum in
1967 as from Pharsala were three LH IIBIIIIAl squat jugs.
H 49

PHARSALA:

MYLOS

(GAMS No. 535)

H. 7 Farsala in square 300 E


N MH? LH III(A-B)

010 N

PI9 no. 44, 207


A low mound in the Pharsala plain, to N of Pharsala railway station
and near the S bank of the Enipeus.
!-!

50

TSINI

(GAMS No. 536)

H. 7 Farsala
258 E I 042 N
N EB? LH II or LH IIIAl
PI ll no. 88;

Hunter 19;

Alin liJl

A low mound on the S bank of the Enipeus, near the village of Tsini.
A fragment in the BSA collection is from the neck of an ewer of LH II or
LH IIIAl date. EB is claimed, but not certain (Alin loc.cit., but referring
to PT loc.cit. which does not contain any specific reference to EB).
!-!

51

KTOURI

( GAMS No. 537)

*#

H. 7 Farsala
211 ( 11Khtouri 11 ) at 222 E
Ll-I IIIB C or H
BCH 55 (1931) 493, 56 (1932) 122;

063 N

Alin 141

Trial excavations on the summit of this high and extensive hill


revealed several sherds of LH IIIB pottery in close association with the
walls of the inner enceinte of fortifications; and in 1958 a LH IIIB sherd

291

was found within the wall. The inner enceinte is built of smaller stones
than the outer, and is only c. 2.5 m. thick (except at the five small
towers or buttresses - cf. BCH 56 (1932) 127 fig. 24), enclosing an area
only c. 80 m. in diameter. The outer enceinte, however, which surrounds
an area c. 700 m. N-S by 350 m., is in rough polygonal style, constructed
partly of very large blocks, and is c. 3.8 m. thick (variable). Only one
diagnostic sherd (C or H black-glazed) was found in the trial associated
with this outer enceinte. No certain traces of permanent LH dwellings were
found, and (if the inner enceinte is indeed LH) the site may have been
merely a small fort at this time, serving as a lookout and refuge for the
main LH settlement at the Magoula (H 52) below.
H 52

KTOURI MAGOULA

*I

(GAMS No. 538)

H. 7 Farsala
213 E I 067 N
MH LH IIIA2 -B (Sub )PG G A
BCH 55 (1931) 493, 56 (1932) 137;

IMTS 131;

Alin 141

The Magoula lies c. 500 m. WNW of the foot of Ktouri hill. It is a


low mound c. 150 m. long, and a fairly large plateau toW of the mound
appears to have been an extension of the settlement. Excavation produced
prehistoric and later material; none of the LH III need be later than
LH IIIB.
H 53

AMBELIA (FORMERLY DERENGLI): PALAIOKASTRO

(~No. 533)

H. 7 Farsala
393 E I 008 N
EB MH LH IIIA2 -B PG G A
BCH 55 (1931) 492, 56 (1932) 82;

RA (1958:1) 95

An acropolis hill, c. 170 m. by 120 m. on top, to N of and below


Ambelia, on the S bank of the Enipeus river. Occupation extended also over
the slopes. Prehistoric material and at least one PG sherd come from a
deep sounding on the site and PG vases from graves to theW (cf. V. R. Desborough, Protogeometric Pottery (1952) 313).
H 54 TSANGLI :

" MAGOULA
KARAMAN TSAIIR

H. 7 Farsala
N MH LH?
~

486 E

(GAMS No. 532)

995 N

9 no. 38, 86, 114

A mound c. 200 m. square at the E end of the Enipeus valley. Most of


the strata are N, but MH Grey Minyan was found at the top. A LH III sherd
is supposed to have been found at the site (PT 114).

292

H 55

RINI:

MAGOULA

H. 7 Farsala
N EB II MH

(GAMS No. 531)

*
530 E

990 N

PT 10 no. 82, 130


This very small mound, c. 50 m. by 35 m., lies at the foot of the
hills on the S side of the Enipeus valley. The main period of habitation
seems to have been N. Very little MH and no LH was found; two cists are
probably MH.
H 56 AKfiTLLION
H. 7 Farsala
LH IIIAl (-B)

in square 38o E

910 N

AR ( 1961-2 ) 14
A deposit of vases was found near this village (c. 5 km. SE of
Pharsala); those on show in Volos Museum in 1967 included LH IIIAl jars
and later types.
H 57

AYIOS ANTONIOS (FORMERLY KOUTSELI):


H. 7 Farsala
LH IIIA2-B

38o E

HOLEVA TRYPA

875 N (village)

AD 19 (1964) B 261, 21 (1966) B 253


Two small built tombs with dromoi were excavated at Holeva Trypa
c. 1.5 km. NE of Ayios Antonios. One was rectangular and the other of
irregular shape; each contained several burials, LH III pottery, and other
goods, including a Type E dagger.
H 58

PHYLLOS:

GIOLI (ANCIENT PI-MU?)

H. 7 Farsala
LH (III?)
AD 16 (196o) B 186;

112 (spot height) at 186 E

139 N

Thessalika 3 (196o) 47 n. 1

At Gioli c. 4 km. E of Phyllos, at theN foot of Mt. Dogadzi, near


the railway and a marsh, is the site thought to be that of ancient Phylle
(StMhlin 1924, 133). A large LH settlement and cemetery is reported here,
but no details are given.

293

H 59

GYNAIKOKASTRO (ANCIENT PROERNA)

(GAMS No.

5~9)

H. 7 Farsala
181 (spot height) at 206 E / 933 N
N MH LH III(B) G A C H
PI 11 no. 104;

AD 21 (1966) B 252

Several MH Grey Minyan and one Yellow Minyan sherds were found on
the acropolis of ancient Proerna. Trials on the mound of Tapsi on the
acropolis are said to have produced LH IIIB sherds.
H 6o

DOMOKOS :

H. 7 Farsala
N MH "PG"?
PI 215;

( GAMS No. 550)

KASTRI
226 E
C H

792 N

Hunter 10

Kastri is a mound to SE of Domokos on the E side of the LamiaPharsala road. Hunter found N sherds here, and a beaked jug of 6la,
or 11)_ f3 ware was found near Domokos, and another of Ll. 2 a, ware (PI 215).
H 61

PANAYIA:

RA CHI OR PALIOKKLISI

H. 7 Farsala
151 E
N EB MH LH IIIA-B

769 N (village)

AD 25 (1970) B 244
A mound of elliptical shape near Panayia, c. 7 km. SW of Domokos.
Surface sherds of several prehistoric periods were found, including
several LH III tall-stemmed kylix fragments.
H 62 MELITAIA:

AYIOS YEORYIOS

H. 7 Farsala
334 E
N MH LH IIIA H

( GAMS No. 551)

693 N

PI 208; y, Bequignon, La Vall~e du Spercheios (1937) 135;


Thessalika 2 (1959) 8o

Hunter 10;

A prehistoric settlement was found by Hunter c. 1 km. SW of Melitaia


centre, revealed in the banks of a small ravine near the E bank of the
Avaritsorevma, and at the NE foot of an isolated hill. Both here and on a
small plateau nearby MH pottery was found on the surface, including Grey and
Yellow Minyan, Matt-painted and r3. The sites are not far to W of the walls
of ancient Melitaia (at Melitaia, formerly Avaritsa), and near the chapel of
Ayios Yeoryios. Bequignon mentions an alabastron said to have been found at

294

Avaritsa, and purchased by stHhlin at Lamia (published by stHhlin in~


schrift Th. Hampe (19) 101, fig. 43). I t appears to be of LH IIIA date.
A broken gem of red carnelian was seen by Wace and Thompson in the possession of a peasant at Avaritsa.
H 63

ANAVRA ( FORJ'fiERLY OOURA) :


H. 7 Farsala
LH (III?)

428 E

AM 21 (1896) 247;

PI' 208;

BADI

( GAMS No. 552)

724 N (village)

Hunter 16, 232;

Alin 145

A small built tomb of tholos type (d. 3.55 m. or larger) was found
in rough ground a short distance to N of Anavra, and destroyed by peasants
who converted it into a lime-kiln. The pottery within was lost, but Wace
and Thompson attributed the tomb to the "IM III" period, presumably on
the evidence of the conical steatite whorls and bronze tweezers. Hunter
comments on the possibility of copper mining in the vicinity in LH times,
and notes the presence of copper ore deposits and disused mine shafts on
slopes of Mt. Othrys, especially near Melitaia (H 62), Goura (H 63) and
Pteleon (H 13-14).
MAP J:
J 1

AMOURI II
T. 7 Lamia
N EB I-III

PI' 11 no. 107;

WESTERN THESSALY AND EURYTANIA

222 E
MH

545 N

GG figs. 9, 11, 14

A very low mound c. 100 m. long, toE of Amouri, and on the E side of
a larger mound (PI' no. 106). EB I-III and MH are well represented.
J 2

LIANOKLADHI :

PALAIOMYLOS

*#

(GAMS No. 473)

T. 7 Lamia
185 E I 566 N
N EB I-III MH LH? H
PI' 171;

AAA 6 (1973) 395;

GG 4o, figs. 11, 13-14

A low mound c. 200 m. N-S by 14o m. (maximum), about 2 km. E of


Lianokladhi, close to the N bank of the Spercheios river. An important
sequence of pre-Mycenaean phases has been distinguished here, falling into
three main strata (cf. GG 4o). In the uppermost are substantial buildings
of MH date including part of an early MH apsidal house, with superstructures
apparently of wattle-and-daub rather than the usual mud-brick; one was

295
destroyed by fire. As well as local wares of good quality, especially
the 11113 ware, much Grey Minyan that may have been imported was found. No
LH has been conclusively identified, although there is a sherd labelled
11
Paleomylos" among sherds from Lianokladhi in the BSA collection. In 1958
some H sherds and lumps of iron "scoriae" were found on the surface, and
it is possible that these signify later disturbances which may have removed
traces of LBA levels.
J 3

STIRFAKA :

KALANTZINA

T. 7 Lamia
LH

208 E

612 N

AD 19 (1964) B 242 n. 2
A few LH sherds were found on the surface of a site near Stirfaka,
c. 12 km. NW of Lamia.
J 4

KARPENISION:

AYIOS DEMETRIOS

T. 6 Karpenision
765 E
MH LH? "PG"? G? C

589 N

AAA 2 (1969) 358, 4 (1971) 196


At this remote site in Eurytania, on a hill c. 2 km. SW of Karpenision,
much prehistoric material has been found. Rough ware of Minyan type and
many stone tools indicate a MH settlement, which probably extended into LH;
some of the painted ware found may be of DA date, but none can definitely
be attributed to the Iron Age. A cist tomb, possibly G, was found in the
courtyard of the Karpenision high school.
J 5

TSANI MAGOULA
H. 6 Kardhitsa
N EB I-III MH

(GAMS No. 539)

119 ("Mag. Tzani") at 101 E


LH III (A2-B)

I o4o

A low mound c. 105 m. by 73 m., about 5 km. E of Sophadhes, on the


N side of the railway line. There is a deep sequence of N and EB strata;
MH material and a single kylix-stem were found near the surface.
J 6

SOPHADHES:

MAGOULA THEOPHANI

H. 6 Kardhitsa
N LH
AD 22 (1967) B 301

126 ( "Magoula Kara") at 111 E

972 N

296

Nand LH sherds were found on a mound c. 11 km. SE of Sophadhes, on


the N side of the road to Domokos,
J

6A

SOPF.ADHES AREA
H. 6 Kardhitsa
050 E I 96o N (approx. square)
LH IIB or LH IIIAl LcH III(A-B)

Hunter 19, 159;

Alin 141;

BSA 66 (1971) 183

A sherd in the BSA collection is recorded to have come from the


Sophadhes area. It is a fine alabastron fragment with Rook Pattern, and
is either LH IIB or LH IIIAl. A LH animal figurine has been found in the
same area (BSA loo.oit.). These finds are not marked on the map, since
the exact looation(s) is (are) uncertain.
J

PHILIA:

THE SANCTUARY OF ATHENA ITO!'HA

H. 6 Kardhitsa
013 E I 970 N
LH III(A2-B) G A C H
AD 18 (1963) B 138, 20 (1965) B 312, 22 (1967) B 295
The site is a low mound about l km. N of the centre of Philia village,
at Hamakia c. 400 m. E of the Sophadhitikon river. LH III (mainly LH IIIB?)
pottery and figurines have been found here on virgin soil. The earliest
material from the later sanctuary above is LG.
,J 8

PYRGOS KIERIOU:

ANCIENT ARNE-KIERION

H. 6 Kardhitsa
183 ("Ouglari") at 035
LH III(A-B) G A C H
AA (1955) 229;

BCH 80 (1956) 311;

11

El

(G!\MS No. 541)


081 N

Thessalika 2 (1959)

69

The citadel lies on the W side of the village of Pyrgos. A circuit


wall of very large blocks (one of which measures c. 2.6o m. by 1.35 m. by
1.10 m.) surrounds the summit, enclosing an area o. 200 m. N-S by 140 m.
The walls resemble those of the outer enceinte at Ktouri (H 51) and are
probably post-Mycenaean. But LH sherds have been found on the hill (BCH
and Thessalika loo.cit.), and there may have been a small LH fort here,
as at Ktouri; although in both oases the main Lrl settlement seems to have
been at the foot of the hill (H 52 and J 9 respectively).
J

PYRGOS KIEl'UOU:
H. 6 Kardhitsa
N? EB III MH

MAKRIA 111.1\GOULA
025 E

071 N

LH III(A-B)

11

(G!\MS No. 542)

297

PT 11 no. 95
A low mound c. 18o m. E-W by 70 m. at the SW foot of the citadel of
Arne-Kierion (J 8). Here in 1958 EB III, MH Grey Minyan, and a few sherds
from LH III stemmed bowls and kylikes were found, and some C fragments.
There are signs of (circuit?) walls on the S side.
J 10

( GAMS No. 543)

PALAMAS
H. 6 Kardhitsa in square 050 E
LH IIB

69;

Thessalika 2 (1959)

I 190

Alin 142

LH IIB vases from Palamas are in the Volos Museum. The site is
presumably to be associated with the settlement mound (PT ll no. 98)
"on which stands the southern part of Palamas".
J 11

KARDillTSA :

MAGOULA

H. 6 Kardhitsa
EB I-III MH

(GAMS No.

in square 88o E

I 090

54~)

Hunter 9
A mound c. 2 km. W of Kardhitsa, where Hunter recorded MH coarse ware
and D. H. French reports EB I-III. Two bronze swords in the Ashmolean
Museum (John Evans Collection nos. 1383-l+) were said to be from Kardhitsa,
but no LH site is known here. They were considered possibly G by
A. M. Snodgrass (Early Greek Armour and Weapons (1964) 98), but are placed
in his Group II by H. w. Catling (Most recently, BSA 63 (1968) 102).
J 12

GEORGIKON:

KOUPillA RACHI

H. 6 Kardhitsa
845 E
LH (III?) "PG"?
BCH lf4 ( 1920) 295;

I 052

*I

( GAMS No. 545)

BSA 31 ( 1930-31) 11;

AD 16 ( 196o) B 171

A large tholos tomb c. 700 m. WSW of Georgikon, and c. 1 km. s of


the Kardhitsa-Metropolis road. In the vicinity are three other mounds,
probably concealing other tholos tombs. The tholos investigated (d. 8.85 m.)
is often dated LH IIII, but the only evidence bearing on its date is "Mattpainted" pottery from a robbers 1 spoil-heap in the dromos, which could
easily be "PG". The stomion is c. 9 m. long, covered with five lintel blocks
so that, apart from its length, it is not unlike those of PG tholoi in
Thessaly. But the feature is also found in LH tholoi at E 2; and the size
of the tomb would better fit a LH date.

298

13

*#

HEXALOPHOS

z.

5 Kalabaka
LH IIIC
AAA l (1968) 289;

676 E

294 N

AD 23 (1968) B 263

The tumulus (d. 27 m.) is c. 200 m. SSE of Hexalophos on theN side


of the road to Eleftherochorion, on the W side of the Thessalian plain.
It contained at least two cists. One, in the centre, held a man; it had
been robbed, but the goods, a group of weapons and some kylikes, were
recovered. The other, on the periphery, was excavated intact; it was
provided with kylikes, plain vases of local type, and bronze ornaments.
The kyl.ikes are to be dated probably late in LH IIIC. This is a find of
considerable importance, but in the absence of comparative evidence need
not necessarily be considered an "intrusive" feature, indicating the
immigration of people from Epirus.
J

14

TRIKKALA:

z.
N?

AYIOS NIKOLAOS

6 Trikkala
798 E I 317 N
EB MH LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC?

PAE (1958) 62;

( GAMS No. 546)

*#
PG

G C H

AD 16 (l96o) B 169, 20 (1965) B 316, 21 (1966) B 247

One possibly N sherd is reported from the acropolis (Hunter 10). On


level ground to the SE a limited excavation within the modern town revealed
a wide range of prehistoric material in the lower levels, and a pithosburial attributable to PG.
J

15

AGRILIA:

z.
MH?

AYIOS ATHANASIOS

( GAMS No. 547)

6 Trikkala "Ay. Ath." at 967 E


LH (IIIC?) H

BCH 79 (1955) 272;

Verdelis 1958, 61;

468 N

L~TS

132;

AAA l (1968) 293

A cemetery of cists is reported near this village in the Chasian


mountains to N of the Thessalian plain. Some tombs contained LH vases,
some local handmade, and some both; two small spearheads of late LH type
are also presumably from these tombs, which are attributed to "c. 1200 B.C.".
An apsidal building was attributed to MH, but could be contemporary with
the tombs or even later (PG-G).

299

MAP K:

THESPROTIA AND EPIRUS

The area of this map falls more or less completely outside that of
the Helladic cultures. Some of the prehistoric wares show a family likeness
to MH wares, a connection which the prevalence of cist-burial might support;
but the local BA sequence is still not well-known, and finds are difficult
to date. There is an increasing amount of evidence for LH influence,
represented by finds of pottery and bronzes, including both imports and
apparently local imitations. A single tholos (K 2), the most remote example
of this type known, is presumably the tomb of a ruling family, either native
and ''Mycenaeanised", or possibly immigrant, from further S (since the site,
like K 1, is near the coast). The only sites shown on the map are those
where material of LH type has been found, usually in graves. Pottery is
the most reliable indicator of contemporaneity with LH III; of the bronzes,
swords of Types C, D and F may not have been current after LH IIIC, but
spears could well have survived later, and other types, such as jewellery,
are not closely datable at present. Only further work on the local
sequence or more finds in association with imported LH vases can make
dating more precise and reliable.
The sites which have produced material of LH type are mainly found in
the neighbourhood of modern Ioannina and ancient Dodona, especially the
group to NW of Ioannina (K 6-9). The present political boundary between
Greece and Albania is a somewhat artificial division, for types similar to
the native Epirot material and imported LH vases and bronzes are widely
found in Albania; but it does mark a line beyond which tumuli are common
(whereas they are not common in Epirus), but Type F swords are not found.
The significance of this is not clear, the new discoveries may in fact
nullify the division and the impression given by present distribution of
finds. But it does seem a fair conclusion that the Ioannina-Dodona area
was of particular significance in Epirus.
K l

MESOPOTAMOS:

XYLOKASTRO

*#

(GAMS No. 318)

H. 3 Parga
83 (spot height) at 705 E / 058 N
BA LH (IIIB-C?) C H
PAE (1958) 107, 111, (1963) 91; AD 18 (1963) B 153; Antike Kunst
Beiheft l (1963) 51; PPS 33 (1967) 32; N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus (1967)
314, 369; Ergon (1975~8, (1976) 84
Xylokastro is at the N end of the isolated ridge at whose SE foot is
the village of Mesopotamos, beside the Acheron river. At the S end of the
ridge, c. 6oo m. to SSE, is the site of the C and H Nekyomanteion, on the
spur around the chapel of Ayios Ioannis Prodromos. The conical hill of
Xylokastro is ringed by two main fortification-walls. The innermost
encloses a summit composed of jagged rocks, c. 150 m. N-S by 6o m. in
extent, and is in a polygonal style common in H; the outermost is in

300

"cyclopean" masonry, and encloses an area c. 450 m. N-3 by 150 m. (maximum).


This has been shown to support on its W side a burial-tumulus, which contains several burials (including the children's pithos burials found in
1958 and assigned to PG) and various goods, including objects of bronze and
iron and a Mycenaean "krateriskos" assigned to the 13th or 12th century B.C.,
which is considered to date the wall before the 12th century. Local BA
coarse ware and sherds of tall-stemmed kylikes are also reported from the
hill.
Burials have also been found on the site of the Nekyomanteion; these
are two children's cist graves, one surrounded by a small perimeter wall,
which may have been enclosed in a rectangular peribolos. They contained
beads but no closely datable pottery. At Likouresi, lOO m. further S, a
Type F sword was found by chance (PPS op.cit.). The presence of LH III
and G material here is specifically denied in Antike Kunst Beiheft l, 54,
but these burials are likely to fall in the late LH period or the DA. Full
publication is required to confirm the date and Mycenaean nature of the
Xylokastro material.
K 2

PARGA:

KIPERI

(GAMS No. 319)

*#

H. 3 Parga
627 E I 116 N
LH IIIAl? LH IIIA2-B LH IIIC?

C H

PAE ( l96o) 123


A small tholos tomb found here is the furthest to the NW of all such
tombs and one of the most remote (cf. H 31 on the slopes of Mt. Ossa in
Thessaly). The site is c. 3 km. E of Parga, about l km. inland from the
beach of the bay of Lignou, on a wooded slope above the main road, below a
rocky spur (on which C and H sherds were found), and c. 200 m. toW of, and
above, the Kiperi spring. The tomb (d. 4.5 m.) resembles those of Ayios
Ilias in Aetolia (E 2) in that it lacks a stomion and has a chamber of
coursed blocks, and was floored with pebbles in both dromos and chamber.
Remains of several burials and sherds of LH III and local black polished
vases were found. The LH sherds (see Antike Kunst Beiheft l Pl. 21:6 for
a poor photograph) certainly include LH IIIA2-B types and may extend
earlier and later. About 50 m. toE of the tholos is a wall, c. 2 m. thick
and running down the slope, which may be part of a circuit wall surrounding
a settlement on the slope and the spur above. But no certain traces of a
LH habitation site have been found here. Other LH finds reported from the
vicinity are a spearhead found in 1937 (cf. BSA 63 (1968) 107), supposedly
from the tholos, and another from Ayia Kyriaki near Parga (AD 23 (1968)
B 293 Pl. 2~3 a. ) .
K

ANCIENT DCDONA

*#

z. 4 Ioannina 955 E I 371 N


N BA LH IIIA2-C G A C H

(GAMS p. 171)

301

c.

Carapanos, Dodone et ses Ruines (1878); PAE (1930) 68, (1931) 85,
(1952) 280, (1959) 111!, (1967) 39, (1968) 56, (1969) 26, (1972) 97;
Epirotika Chronika (1935) 192; Hammond 1967, 299 (site), 318 ff. (bronzes,
cf. also AE (1956) 1311, 11f1). (These references are, except for Carapanos,
purely to prehistoric material; see Antike Kunst Beiheft 1, 35 ff. for a
modern discussion of Dodona which includes some consideration of the
prehistoric material)

Beneath most of the excavated area of the later sanctuary a "prehistoric" stratum has been revealed, of little thickness ( 0. 4o-O. 6o m.).
There is no trace of stone foundations, but post-holes, a hearth, and an
oven have been found. Nor is there any reported stratification, and the
best guide to dating is provided by imported pottery, which includes
LH IIIA2-C and LG (Corinthian). Bronzes, some of apparently MB or even
earlier type, some LH (including a Type C sword of a variety popular in
north Greece and neighbouring areas(AJA 67 (1963) 130) and a Type F sword),
and some rather doubtfully considered "European", have been found on the
site without clear context, and could be dedications made much later than
the time of manufacture and even brought from elsewhere; there is nothing
at present to suggest that the site had religious significance in the BA.
K 4

KASTRITSA

*I

(GAMS p. 171)

z.

4 Ioannina
076 E I 464 N
N BA LH III (B-C) 11 PG 11 ? C H
PAE (1951) 173, (1952) 268; AD 19 (1964) B 312, 20 (196?) B 348, 21 (1966)
B 288, 23 (1968) B 291; PPS 33 (1967) 26, 30; Hammond 1967, 314
The prehistoric material was revealed in a drainage ditch in the
plain on the SE edge of Lake Ioannina, at the NE foot of a long spur, on
which is an extensive C and H fortress. Excavation provided the best
sample of native Epirot wares to date. All but the first category of
"prehistoric" wares are thought to survive into the fourth century B.C.
(PPS 33 (1967) 31), to which some wheelmade stemmed cups are also
attributed, but this is difficult to accept. The stemmed cups are unlikely
to be later than a handmade Matt-painted example that can be related to the
"PG" kylikes of Ithaca (cf. E 18), and the association of the prehistoric
wares with fourth century material may be fortuitous. More certainly
prehistoric are finds from graves in the area, including a stirrup-jar of
LH IIIC appearance and a Type F sword, found with burials in a trial
excavation between the Asprochaliko cave and the lake shore.

K5

PERAMA:

MESOGEPHYRA

Z. 4 Ioannina
BA

LH III (A-B)?

020 E

( GAMS p. 171)

510 N

302

AE (1956) 131;

Hammond 1967, 321

BA coarse ware has been found here, and two swords, of the "local"
Type C variety found at Dodona, are reported to be from a grave.
K 6

KAIBAKI

(GAMS p. 172)

z.

3 Delvinakion
BA LH III(B-C)?
AE (1956) 114;

in square 850 E

7W N

AD 23 (1968) B 294

A group of cists was excavated here, about lOO m. W of the IoanninaKonitsa road near the 31.5 km. mark. One held a Type F sword and a spear,
both likely to be of late date (cf. ~ 63 (1968) 96, 107); other goods
and local pottery were also found. More recently another Type F sword
has been handed in from the area.
K 7

GRIBIANI

(GAMS P 172)

z. 3 Delvinakion
Ll-1 III(B-C)?

8o9 E

701 N (village)

AE ( 1956) 131
A spearhead of late type (BSA 63 (1968) 107) is stated to be from
a grave here (the attribution to Hallstatt A, by Hammond 1967, 340, is
unjustified).
K 8

MAZARAKI ZITSAS :

PALAIOKOULI

z.

3 Delvinakion
832 E I 676 N
BA LH III(A2-B) Ll-1 IIIC?
AE (1969) 191;

AD 24 (1969) B 252

Cists have been found here on the S slope of the hill Palaiokouli,
overlooking the river Thyamas. One recently excavated held a fine range
of goods, including an imported stirrup-jar, a local imitation of an alabastron, and bronzes, the best a Type D sword. A kylix-stem from this
grave's fill, coated with dull paint, is assigned to LH IIIC.
K9

ELAPHOTOPOS

z. 3 Delvinakion 908 E
LH III(B-C)? "PG"?
PPS 33 (1967) 30 n. 1;

762 N

AE (1969) 179

303

A Type F sword is reported from Kalyvia Elaphotopou. Four cists


were excavated at the foot of the hill of Konismata, on the E side of a
highland plateau, containing local pottery, a curved knife, and jewellery.
Traces of a probable settlement were found nearby. Although frequently
attributed to LH IIIB-C, on the basis of parallels with Kalbaki (K 6), these
could be of considerably later date (c. 1000 B.C. is suggested by Wardle).
K 10

PARAMYTHIA

H. 3 Parga

709 E

309 N

LH III(B-C )?

AD 20 (1965) B 348;

PPS 33 (1967) 30 n. 1

A pit-grave excavated on the N side of the town held a small spear


and a Type F short sword, which was evidently of some age, since the hilt
had been rebored for new rivets, and possibly of local manufacture, since
the hilt had flanges on only one side.
K 11 METSOVO:

z.
BA?

BETWEEN ANTHOCHORI AND VOTONOSI

4 Ioannina 268 E I 570 N (approx.)


LH III(B-C)? A C

AD 23 (1968) B 293;

AE (1969) 197

Local sherds of prehistoric type, an A fibula, and C pottery are


reported from Ayioi Apostoloi; and a spear has been handed in from a
cist at Pyrgos, which is to N of Anthochori, on the S bank of the river
Arachthos, c. 4 km. SW of Metsovo, and opposite Votonosi.

304

II .

THE AEGEAN ISLANDS

We list the island sites in a more abbreviated format, and without


map references (although some are to be found in Renfrew Appendix I and
in Dodecanese II-III). General area summaries are omitted, and readers
are referred for these to Renfrew (passim) and to Dodecanese III 170 for the
Cyclades and the Dodecanese respectively. Of the other islands, Lesbos and
Lemnos are omitted, and no full treatment of Samos and Chios is attempted.
We have also omitted references to GAMS for the islands, since the accounts
there are completely superseded by recent work; and many detailed references
given in Renfrew and Dodecanese I-III are omitted. It should be noted that
some of the references here to site numbers given in Renfrew Appendix I
refer only to the map of "Later bronze age sites in the Cycladic islands"
on Renfrew 52lf, The gazetteer in Renfrew Appendix I lists only N and EB
sites.

THE CYCLADES
KEA
Renfrew 509;

Hesperia 40 (1971) 396 (miscellaneous early finds)

Kea is a well-watered and productive island, but most of the agricultural land is on the high central plateau, whereas BA remains are mostly
found on the

KEPHALA
N

coast~

(Renfrew No. 1)

*
GP?

J, E. Coleman, Keos I: Kephala (1977)

A small settlement and cemetery representing a single phase closely


related to the Final N of Attica and central Greece and also having
connections with Thessaly. The presence of stone vases and metal objects
in the cemetery and the stone-built, slab-covered graves suggest an overlap
between this phase and GP.
AYIA IRINI
N EB II-III

(Renfrew No. 2)
lfffi

LB I-II

LH IIIAl-C

PG

G A C H

BSA 51 (1956) 11; Hesperia 31 (1962) 266, 33 (1964) 317, 35 (1966) 364, lfO
(1971) 359, 1el (1972) 357; AR (1972-3) 23, (1973-4) 28, (1974-5) 21
Special Studies: AD 24 (1969) A 95 (lead weights); Kadmos 9 (1970) 107
(inscribed material); Hesperia liO (1971) 113 (figurines), 42 ( 1973) 284
(frescoes)

305

This site is on a low promontory, now partly submerged, projecting


into the sheltered Vourkari Bay. The earliest traces of habitation,
represented by pockets of material in the rock, are N, including types
comparable to those of Kephala; the site was certainly occupied in EB II,
when its cultural links are closest with the mainland, and EB III, when it
is most closely related to Euboea (of. F 75, 81). It is not yet clear
whether it was occupied in the earliest part of the MEA; the next
identifiable phase evidently overlaps with MM II and mature MH. At this
time the site was already a fortified town with sophisticated architecture
and wide Aegean connections; the connection with Crete grew stronger
during the later MEA to reach its peak at the time of LM IB. New and more
extensive fortifications were built at a stage contemporary with MM III,
when other buildings surviving later may have been founded, while the
"Temple 111 s original form is even earlier (AR (1972-3) 24); the fortifications and other buildings suffered extensive damage before the end of
MM III, but were remodelled then and more than once later. The site's
connections with the mainland grew strong in the early LBA, when almost
as much LH I-II as LM IA-B was imported; it was at the peak of its
prosperity when, at a time probably to be placed late in IM IB, it was
completely destroyed by an earthquake. Thereafter it lost most of its
importance; the pottery is purely LH in type and is found in a progressively narrower area, certainly post-LH IIIA2 material occurring only in
the "Temple", and architectural remains of this period are unimpressive
where they survive. The "Temple" was apparently rebuilt after the earthquake and remained a major focus of activity until late in LH IIIC, when
another destruction preserved numerous whole pots very similar to types of
Lefkandi 1 s third major LH IIIC phase (F 81). A continuous series of
post-EA material, beginning in PG, was also found in the "Temple", including clear evidence of cult at an early stage; although there is a gap in
the pottery-sequence between the latest LH IIIC and the earliest. PG, this
might well suggest continued occupation at the site or in its immediate
neighbourhood which preserved a tradition of the sanctity of the "Temple"
area. The only tombs found, near the later fortification-wall, belong to
the later ME phases.
TROULLOS

EB ME

LB I-II

Hesperia 40 (1971) 392


A prominent hill-top c. 500 m. NW of Ayia Irini. Remains of early
occupation and building-foundations attributable to the early LBA have
been found.
SYKAMIAS
N EB

LH III(B-C) or "PG"

306

Hesperia 41 (1972) 358


Sherds found on this promontory on the NE coast included material of
Kephala type, probably EB pi thoi, and deep bowl fragments that are assignable to LH IIIB, LH IIIC, or even the early DA.
PLAKA

GP
Hesperia 41 (1972) 362
Two stone vases were found, presumably grave-goods, in the SW of the
island near Classical Poie~ssa.
KYTHNOS
Renfrew 511; AJA 61 (1967) 7 (hoard of KS metal objects);
B stirrup- jar)

MV 32 (LH IIIA2-

The island is generally poor agriculturally; the better land is on


the W, the best harbours on the E. Recent finds near Loutra on the NE
coast may be the earliest (Mesolithic?) discovered in the Cyclades (AJA 79
(1975) 277).
(Renfrew No. 1)

AYIA IRINI
ME

LH I/II

BSA 51 (1956) 12, 21, 30


A low conical hill on a promontory c. 200 m. W of Ayia Irini, on the
S side of Loutra Bay in the NE of the island. There is scanty evidence of
occupation; the single LH I/II Vapheio cup base is presumably an import.
ANDHOS
Henfrew 513 (GP "frying-pan")
The island has steep and rocky coasts and a mountainous interior,
but there are some fertile areas of land. Evidence of prehistoric occupation is surprisingly rare, but tombs and a site of the later DA have been
found at Zagora on the W coast, near which there is a probable EB site,
according to Barber's information.

307

(Renfrew No. l

PALAIOUPOLIS
LH III(A2-B)
BSA 51 (1956) 11, 31

Three vases in the Andros museum are given this provenance; they
presumably come from a tomb. The site is near the W coast in the central
part of the island.
EPISKOPIO
LH (III)
A complete alabastron in the Andros museum is given this provenance,
from the hills behind the bay of Korthi near the S end of Andros; it
presumably comes from a tomb.
TENOS
--Renfrew 513
The island is not particularly fertile; several bays in the SW
could serve as harbours. There are PG-G tombs at several sites.
(Renfrew No. l)

VRYOKASTRO (AKROTERION OURION)


EB III?

MB

LH III(A-B)

BSA 51 (1956) 13, 15, 21, 32;

G
AA (1972) 164

A high hill at the S tip of the island, at the end of a wide bay.
Occupation probably goes back to late EB (AS 16 (1966) 50), if no earlier,
and seems particularly intense in MB, to which the fortification identified
may belong (cf. BSA 69 (1974) 50); since there is relatively little postEA material, it seems likely to be prehistoric, and would indicate a site
of some importance.
KAMBOS
EB (III?)

PG

AR (1945-7) 28 fig. 4
The village is near the S end of the island, c. 6 km. NW of the town
of Tenos. A tomb here contained a handmade askos which looks EB. A PG
tomb-group is also given this provenance ( J. N. Coldstream, Greek Geometric Pottery (1968) 149).

308

MYKONOS
Renfrew 514
The island is now largely barren and waterless, but there is some
reasonably fertile land in the interior.
(Renfrew No. l)

MAVRISPILIA
N GP?
AJA 68 (1964) 395;

BCH 88 (1964) 555;

Renfrew 507

A site on the N side of the island, on the W side of Panormos Bay.


Material found here is mainly attributable to the N "Saliagos" phase, but
one apparently GP sherd is reported.
ANAVOLOUSA

(Renfrew No. 2)

Nor EB
AJA 68 (1964) 396
On the W coast, on the promontory opposite Mykonos town, a scatter
of N or EB pottery and obsidian is reported.
DIAKOFTIS ( ORMOS KORFQS)

(Renfrew No. 3)

KS

23 (1898) 362; BSA 51 (1956) 12; AJA 68 (1964) 398; BCH 88 (1964) 555;
and this may well be the site referred to in JHS 19 (1899) 321

AM

The site is on the SW side of the isthmus, c. 3.5 km. SW of Mykonos


town. Two rock-cut tombs found here contained KS goods, not, as generally
thought, LH.
(Renfrew No. 4)

BOUKA
EB
BCH 88 (1964) 555

On the W coast, not far to N of Mykonos town, a scatter of EB sherds


is reported; one may be GP.

309

(Renfrew No. 5)

DIVOUNIA
EB
BCH 88 (1964) 556

A scatter of EB sherds (? including GP) is reported from this site


in the SE, near the coast.
(Renfrew No. 6)

PALAIKASTRO
EB?

MB

LB?

PG

G A C

BSA 51 (1956) 12, 15, 21;

BCH 88 (l96le) 556

A small and high hill c. 1.5 km. inland from the Bay of Panormos,
with certain evidence of occupation in MB and probably in LB (Barber
reports almost certainly LH types), and indications of considerable postEA occupation.
RHENEIA
Renfrew 51!+ (EB figurine)
Its proximity to Delos is this infertile island's only claim to notice.
PG-G material from tombs on Delos was buried here in the "Purification
Trench", which also held one LH IIIA2( -B?) pyxis, likely to come from either
an original LH tomb on Delos or, if the fruit of grave-robbery or accidental
discovery, from a DA tomb (Delos XV Pl. IIB:l9).
DELOS
Renfrew 514 (GP figurine)
This tiny island, ringed by low cliffs but having a small harbour, is
largely infertile. Its importance in post-BA times must surely be related
to the cult of Apollo, and it is not impossible that the quite extensive
later BA finds may have a similar, i.e. religious, explanation.
MT. KYNTHOS
KS

(Renfrew No. 1)

EB III

MB?

LH

A. Plassart, Delos XI (1928) 11, Delos XV Pl. I:l;


AA ( 1972) 162

BSA 51 (1956) 11;

A small, rather steep hill 112 m. high, dominating the island. Remains of a settlement are attributed to the KS phase. EB III of "Anatolian11

310

type is also reported (AS 17 (1967) 36), but Barber does not consider that
MB occupation is proved. A small number of LH sherds indicates use but
not necessarily occupation in that period.
THE TEMENOS
MB?

(Renfrew No. 2)

*
LB I-II

LH IIIA-C

PG

G A C H

BCH 71-2 (1947-8) 148, 89 (1965) 225, 90 (1966) lOO; BSA 51 (1956) ll, 22,
27, 30, 31, 34; H. Gallet de Santerre, Delos primitiv;-;t archaique (1958);
LMTS 148
The rather scanty material from the site of the later sanctuary, on
flat ground NW of Mt. Kynthos, suggests that the settlement here may have
had a similar history to those of Ay. Irini and Phylakopi, at least in LB;
MB material is difficult to identify. The Theke, or "Tomb of the Hyperborean Maidens", appears to be a LB tomb, which has produced a wide range
of material, including a probably LM I hole-mouth jar; the Sema is more
doubtfully a tomb of this type. The only other structures of interest
assigned to the BA are the claimed LH sanctuaries, but considerable doubt
has been expressed about the date and nature of these (LMTS 44, A. M. Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece (1971) 395). The famous hoard of ivories and
other objects found beneath the Artemision may be considered a foundationdeposit, but was clearly laid down well after the LH period; there is no
guarantee that the ivories and other objects attributable to LH were
dedications at an earlier shrine or even found on the island originally
(cf. BCH Supplement l (1973) 415, where some of the ivories are argued
to be of Cypriot origin, and of the second half of the thirteenth century
B.C.), and the hoard is very mixed, including ordinary MB, LH, PG, and G
pottery. Nevertheless, the apparent importance of the settlement here
does require some special explanation. Likely LH IIIC material is reported,
but the next datable material is LPG of Attic type, so that continuity is
not assured.
SYROS
Renfrew 514
The W part of the island is rather mountainous and barren, but has
several likely harbours; the best, however, is Hermoupolis on the E. It
has been thought a likely site for an important MB-LB settlement, but
nothing has yet been found; indeed, nothing attributable to the LBA or DA
has been found anywhere on the island.

311

CHALANDRIANI ( KASTRI )
KS

(Renfrew No. 1)

EB III

Kykladika II 77, 115; AD 22 (1967) A 53; AA (1972) 158; c. Zervos,


L 1Art des Cyclades (1957) figs. 192-6; C. Doumas, Early Bronze Age Burial
Habits in the Cyclades (1977) 128
The site Kastri is a fortified hill-top, near the E coast, close to
which were four separated cemeteries. These contained goods of the KS
phase; a few graves and the fortress have produced pottery-types linked
with Troy III-IV and the "Anatolian" EB III of Ayia Irini and Euboea,
found with KS types. Traces of bronze-working were found in the fortress,
which may have been more of a refuge or castle than an ordinary settlementsite; it was destroyed by fire and thereafter deserted.
(Renfrew No. 2)

PIDHI!fJ\

EB
Kykladika I I 79
Two or three tombs, probably of the KS phase, are reported from this
site near the W coast, c. 4 km. W of Hermoupolis.
AYIOS LOUKAS
KS

(Renfrew No. 3)

MB

Kykladika I I 79, Renfrew 5llf


A relatively large cemetery of KS graves was found here near the
tip of Syros; one grave was clearly later, since it contained a MH
kantharos and a Phyl I-type pyxis.

~~

KROKIDAS
EB
RA (1862) 224;

BSA 2 (1895-6) 141

Tombs are reported here, of apparently EB (even GP?) date.


SERIPHOS
Renfrew 511 (EB figurines, Phyl I pyxis)
This is an unproductive island, with steep coasts and rare areas of

312

level ground; the most likely site for a settlement is on one of the S
bays. A single LH IIIA2 stirrup-jar is reported to come from the island
(BSA 51 (1956) 32).
SIPHNOS
Renfrew 511
The island has generally steep coasts; the more productive land is
in the N, E, and S. The deposits of gold do not appear to have been
discovered until the A period.
(Renfrew No. 1)

KASTRO
GP?

Phyl I

MB

LH III(A)

PG

G A C H

BSA 44 (1949) 15, 31, 51 (1956) 12, 15, 32


A small natural acropolis on the E coast, where sparse prehistoric
material has been found.
AYIOS ANDREAS
EB?

(Renfrew No. 2)

MB

LH IIIB

Kykladika II 130; AD 25 (1970) B 431;


Ergon (1975) 152, (1976) 141

AAA 4 (1971) 213, 6 (1973) 93;

A precipitous acropolis in the interior of the island, c. 2 km. S


of Apollona. It has well-preserved fortifications enclosing an area c. lOO m.
N-S by 90 m. Recent excavations indicate that these are of LH IIIB date,
but only one building of this phase and a few traces of earlier ~abitation
(MB sherds of advanced type) have been found; most of the excavated buildings are attributed to the LG phase.
AKROTIRAKI
GP

(Renfrew No. 3)

*
KS

AM 21 (1896) 210;

Kykladika II 73;

Doumas 1977, 25

There are traces of a GP settlement, near a cemetery that has


produced both GP and KS types.
VATHY

*
GP

(Renfrew No. 4)

313

Kykladika II 76;

Doumas 1977, 25

A small cemetery, on the S coast.


TO FROUDHI TOU KALAMITSIOU

(Renfrew No. 5)

LH III(A-B)
D. Fimmen, Die kretisch-mykenische Kultur (1921) 14;

BSA 51 (1956) 12, 32

On a lofty acropolis c. 1.5 km. N of Vathy harbour, on theW coast,


a single LH sherd was found; other material has been reported.
KIMOLOS
Renfrew 512 (probable EB at Kentro at the NE end of the island)
The island is only moderately productive, with cultivation mainly
in the s. It has little water.
(Renfrew No. 2)

ELLINIKA
LH IIIA2-C

G A C H

J. T. Bent, The Cyclades (1885) 55; AM 69-70 (1954-5) 154;


11, 29, 32; AD 20 (1965) B 514, 21 (1966) B 387

BSA 51 (1956)

The site is on a promontory on the SW coast, to which the present


islet of Ayios Andreas opposite was once joined; substantial buildingremains are to be seen on the islet and underwater, which are most likely
to be post-BA in date. A cemetery of rock-cut tombs appears to be of LH
date, and good LH III pottery is reported, but nothing has been excavated;
vases seen by Moustakas (AM loc.cit.) are clearly LH IIIC, according to
Barber. The next datable material is EG.

ME LOS
Renfrew 511
The island is best known as the only important source of obsidian
for tool-manufacture in the Aegean, which may have largely contributed to
its prosperity. The Sand E parts of the island are flat and cultivable,
and the Bay of Melos is an excellent harbour, a natural port of call for
traders in the Aegean. A few PG vases are reported from the island
(cf. LMTS 266), but the earliest material from the Classical city is EG.
Recent survey work under the auspices of Prof. c. Renfrew and
directed in the field by Mr. J. Cherry, soon to be published, has considerably increased the number of known EB sites but has added no new sites of

314

the later BA, evidence which gives strong support to the theory of a
synoikismos on Melos in the late EBA (see Summary).
PHYLAKOPI
GP

(Renfrew No. 4)

*#
KS

Phyl I

MB

LB I-II

LH IIIAl-C

T. D. Atkinson et al., The Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos (1904); BSA


17 (1910-11) 1, 51 (1956) 12, 69 (1974) 1; AD 20 (1965) B 513, 22 (1967)
B 465; AA (1972) 168; AR (1974-5) 23, (1975-6) 25; Ren~rew passim,
especially 138 ff., 186 ff.; Doumas 1977, 23, 49
The site, c. 18o m. long E-W, is on theN coast above steep cliffs,
and has been eroded on the N side; there is reason to believe that in the
BA it formed a promontory, with a bay to s. Recent excavations have
clarified its history considerably. It was first settled in (late?) GP
and was probably continuously occupied thereafter to the end of the BA.
The final phase of the EBA, Phyl I, is that of the "First City", which
seems to have consisted of substantial blocks of buildings; it may well
have continued, to overlap with MB phases elsewhere. During the MBA it
was largely rebuilt to form the "Second City". It now appears that this
was not fortified, but in other respects it was clearly a flourishing
settlement, in trading contact with Crete and the mainland; its fine
wares have been found on other islands, and it may well have exerted
considerable influence in the Cyclades. At the beginning of the LBA this
was again largely rebuilt to form the "Third City", and was fortified
with a strong wall of rather Cyclopean appearance. The LB I phase has
produced strong signs of Cretan influence, including pillar-rooms, frescoes,
the pottery, in which imitations of LM IA largely supersede the native
tradition, and a Linear A tablet plausibly to be associated with a large
building identified beneath the later "Megaron". This may have been a
centre of organisation comparable with the Cretan palaces and villas. It
is uncertain whether the site suffered really widespread destruction in a
phase corresponding to LM IB (cf. BSA 69 (1974) 51 for some apparent
destruction-deposits), but subsequently Cretan influence certainly
diminished and that of the mainland increased. In LE IIIAl the "Megaron",
a building closely resembling the LE III palaces, was built. Less is
known of the "Fourth City", to which this belongs, than of its predecessors,
but the site was evidently still of importance; it was refortified in
LH IIIB with a wall of less Cyolopean appearance than its predecessor.
The discovery of a pair of shrines in an area close to this fortification
is of the utmost importance for the study of Aegean religion, for many
offerings and a remarkable series of figurines have been recovered from
them. The earlier of the shrines was founded at some stage in LH IIIA,
the later in LH IIIBl; cult continued until an advanced stage of LH IIIC,
a phase not otherwise well represented on the site.
Cemeteries of rock-out tombs of very varied plan have been found
around the site. These have long been robbed, but pottery found in their

315

vicinity and occasionally in them suggest that the earliest are of Phyl I
date and that they were used in MB and possibly also LB times.
KAPARI

(Renfrew No. 5)
Phy1 I

Renfrew 511;

!fiB

LB

AD 21 (1966) B 387

Remains probably attributable to a small settlement have been found


here c. 1 km. SE of Phylakopi. A ship-model handed in suggests a cemetery
in the area.
(Renfrew No. 6)

ASPROCHORIO
Phyl I or MB
Renfrew 511

Vases from rock-cut tombs, dated no later than early MB by Barber,


come from a site c. 3 km. SE of Phylakopi, near the E coast.
(Renfrew No. 7)

PHIROPOTAMOS
KS?
AD 20 (1965) B 514;

AAA 2 (1969) 1f06;

Renfrew 512

Objects of likely KS type from a site c. 1.5 km. N of Plaka are


presumably from graves.
(Renfrew No. 8)

TRYPITI
KS
AD 20 (1965) B 513

A figurine of KS type is reported from a site c. 1 km. SE of Plaka.


PELOS

*
GP MB?

(Renfrew No. 10)


LB?

BSA 3 (1896-7) 35;

Renfrew 512

The type-cemetery of the GP phase was excavated here, near the centre
of theE part of Melos; 9 graves and the goods of some 10 more were found.
Mackenzie (BSA op. ci t. 73) reports seeing pottery in the neighbourhood

316

resembling that of the different stages at Phylakopi "including the


Mycenaean proper". This has not been confirmed by later survey, but
cannot be dismissed out of hand.

AYIOS PANDELEIMON
GP

Phyl I

(Renfrew No. 11)

MB?

AD 21 (1966) B 386;

Renfrew 512

A GP cemetery and remains of a settlement have been found here,


c. 1.75 km. SE of Zephyria; Rendrew attributes some of the material to
~~' but Barber does not consider this certain.
(Renfrew No. 12)

STAVROS
EB?

Renfrew 512
A probably EB settlement-site.
CAPE SPATHI (FOURNAKIA)

(Renfrew No. 13)

Phyl I or MB?
AD 20 (1966) B 513;

Renfrew 512, 524;

Doumas 1977, 49

Rock-cut tombs very close in appearance to those of Phylakopi have


been found on this cape at the SE tip of Melos. A prehistoric date is
made more likely by the discovery of a site (unpublished) whose material
includes Phyl I in the neighbourhood.
(Renfrew No. 14)

SAMARI
EB

BSA 3 (1896-7) 85;

Renfrew 512

Remains of an EB settlement are reported near the NW tip of Melos.


KALOGRIES

(Renfrew No. 15)

GP
AD 20 (1965) B 508;

Doumas 1977, 25

317

12 GP tombs were excavated here. This may be the cemetery reported


as Angathia (Phylakopi 229 n. 4) and is perhaps to be associated with
Samari nearby to the SW (see above).
(Renfrew No. 16)

AYIOS SPIRIDON
LH IIIA2-B2
Renfrew 524

A fine acropolis-site on the W side of the Bay of Melos, where much


LH III pottery has been found; further study and comparison with the
Phylakopi material has produced nothing certainly LH IIIC. This is almost
certainly the only other site of significance on Melos in LH III.
AYIOS ILIAS
MB?

(Renfrew No. 17)


LB?

G A C H

BSA 51 (1956) 12
A prominent acropolis near the E coast of the Bay of Melos, at the
SW edge of Plaka; reported traces of MB-LB occupation have not been
confirmed in more recent surveys.
LANGADA :
EB

SOTIRA
LH IIIA2(-B?)

AD 20 (1965) B 510
A robbed EB cemetery and largely destroyed LH chamber tomb are
reported from a site c. 1.5 km. E of Zephyria in SE Melos.
LANGADA:

TRYPITES

(Renfrew No. 18)

LH III(A-B)
AD 20 (1965) B 513, 22 (1967) B 465
Another LH chamber tomb has been found here, just upslope from Sotira.
KANAVA

(Renfrew No. 19)


LH III(A-B)

A pot in the Melos Museum is said to come from here, on the E side of
the Bay of Melos.

318

AYIASMATA
EB?

AD 20 (1965) B 514;

AAA 2 (1969) 406;

Renfrew 512

A stone house-model handed in from this region, E of Pelos, is


probably EB and from a grave.
ALYKI
LB?

AD 20 (1965) B 509

A bronze spearhead, 48 cm. long, reported from here

may be of LB date.

PAROS
--Renfrew 514
This is a productive island, especially in the plains around Paroikia
and Naoussa, which are sited at the best harbours, and in the E coastal
valleys.
PAROIKIA
GP?

(Renfrew No. l)

*
KS?

AM 42 (1917) l;

Phyl I

MB LH IIIA-C

PG

G H

BSA 51 (1956) 12, 14, 15, 20, 22, 32, 31>;

AA (1972) 165

A small low hill crowned by the church of Ayios Konstandinos in the


centre of the modern town of Paroikia, on the W coast, appears to have been
the main settlement of the island from late EB times; its material is very
similar to that of Phylakopi in this phase and in the ~ffiA. LB material is
rare, and certainly early types are lacking; a single deep bowl may be
attributed to LH IIIC, but there is a clear gap between this and the
earliest PG material, of Attic LPG type.
PLASTIRAS

(Renfrew No. 2)

GP
Doumas 1977, 25, 97
12 graves, mostly plundered, were excavated at Plastiras near Kamares,
on the W shore of Naoussa Gulf at the N end of the island. The site gives
its name to a particular form of figurine, considered to be of advanced GP
date.

319
POUNTA

(Renfrew No. 3)

EB

(KS?)

Renfrew 514
EB sherd-material and obsidian have been found at this site on the

SW coast, including a pyxis-lid which might be of KS type.


(Renfrew No. 4)

EPISKOPIANA
EB

Kykladika I 139
A cist-cemetery is reported close to and to E of Pounta, perhaps to
be associated with it.
AYIOS NIKOLAOS (KAMBOS)

(Renfrew No. 5)

GP

AE (1925-6) 98;

Doumas 1977, 25

A cist-cemetery excavated here, near the SW coast c. 2 km. S of


Pounta, is attributable to an advanced stage of GP.
AVYSSOS

(Renfrew No. 6)

GP
Kykladika I 139, 161, 175; AA (1972) 152, 157;
attributed to Naxos, see 26)

Doumas 1977, 25 (wrongly

A site not far from the S tip of Paros. This is probably the Akrotiri
of BSA 3 (1896-7) 87, 4 (1897-8) 22. Settlement-remains and 2 graves are
attributed to GP or a transitional GP-KS phase; evidence of copper-smelting
was observed on the site.
KAMARI

(Renfrew No. 7)

GP
Kykladika I 139, 161
4 cists of GP date were excavated.

The location is uncertain.

320

(Renfrew No. 8)

LEFKAIS
GP
Kykladika I 14o;

AJA 73 (1969) 6;

Renfrew 515

Cists and GP finds are reported

from this site near the centre of

Par os.
(Renfrew No. 9)

KOSTOS
EB?

Kykladika I li+O;

Renfrew 515

Kostos is c. 2.5 km. NNE of Lefkais towards the E side of Paros.


Cists here were reported to Tsountas but not located.
TSIPIDON (MARPESSA)

(Renfrew No. 10)

GP
Renfrew 515
This village near the E coast is given as the source of a GP stone
vase in the Ashmolean Museum, doubtless from a grave.
f>IESSADA

(Renfrew No. 11)

EB

Kykladika I 139;

Renfrew 515

Graves and figurines are reported at this village, of uncertain


location.
DRIOS

(Renfrew No. 12)

*
GP

Kykladika I 139;

AJA 73 (1969) 6

Finds from cists at this village on the SE coast included figurines


of a hybrid type that may be contemporary with KS elsewhere.
PYRGOS

*
GP

KS

(Renfrew No. 13)

321

Kykladika I 158, 168;

AA (1972) 151, 164;

Doumas 1977, 25

An important settlement here on the SE coast c. 1.5 km. SSW of


Drios, partly washed into the sea, is variously attributed to GP or KS;
there was evidence for two phases. A large cemetery nearby, of 58 cists,
includes GP and KS graves; lie of these graves were relatively rich in
goods.
MNIMORIA

(Renfrew No. 14)

EB
Kykladika I 139, 156
EB graves were excavated at a site c. 1 km. NW of Pyrgos.
PANAYIA

(Renfrew No. 15)

GP
Kykladika I 139, 156;

Doumas 1977, 25

A cemetery of 23 cists was excavated here c. 2 km. NW of Pyrgos,


of which one was notably rich in goods.
GALANA KRIMNA

(Renfrew No. 16)

(GP?)

EB

Kykladika I 139, 155


A cemetery of 28 cists was excavated near the S tip of the island.
GLYPHA

(Renfrew No. 17)

*
GP

Kykladika I 139, 155;

Doumas 1977, 25 (wrongly attributed to Naxos, see 26)

10 GP cists were excavated, at a site less than l km. sw of Galana


Krimna.
KOUKOUNARIES
EB

MB?

PAE (1974) 185;

*
LH III(A?-)B

PG

G A

Ergon (1975) 140, (1976) 146

322

A rocky hill on the Oikonomos headland in the NE part of the island,


on which a series of retaining walls has been identified. There are
reports of EB and "second millennium" material, LH III being predominant in
the latter. The summit appears to have been artificially levelled for a
large LH III Building, supported upon a massive wall which cuts across the
approach from below and may have served as a fortification-wall. Storagepithoi were found in a room identified as a cellar. A thick layer of ash
indicates destruction by fire; this is attributed to LH IIIC, but none
of the published pottery looks later than LH IIIB. A variety of objects,
including many bronzes, was found. Further evidence for a fortification
was found in another trench. A LH burial is reported from a cave on the
site and PG material from another nearby; later material is also reported
from the site, including much G.

ANTI PAR OS
Renfrew 516
This island has small but productive cultivable areas; it would
originally have been linked to Paros by an isthmus, of which the islet
Saliagos would have been a headland (J. D. Evans and A. c. Renfrew,
Excavations at Saliagos near Antiparos (1968) ). Remains on Saliagos are
purely N, but four probable EB sites, now underwater, are reported near it
(op. cit. 97).
(Renfrew No. 4)

PHI RA

EB
Renfrew 516
A robbed cemetery on the islet of Diplo, north of A.ntiparos.
VANOUNA

(Renfrew No. 5)

EB
Renfrew 516

8 robbed graves are reported, from a site on the N flank of the hill
range in the centre of Antiparos.
PSAROGA

(Renfrew No. 6)

EB?
Kykladika I 140
The existence of a cemetery here was reported to Tsountas.

323

(Renfrew No. 7)

GEORGOULAS
EB?

Kykladika I 140
The existence of a cemetery here was reported to Tsountas.
KRASSADES

(Renfrew No. 8)

GP
JHS 5 (1884) 47;

Kykladika I 161, 176;

Doumas 1977, 25

At least 50 graves, generally holding more than one burial, were


found here near the W coast of Antiparos; this cemetery is probably that
distinguished by Bent as the poorer of two. He also reported a site with
obsidian nearby, but Tsountas could not confirm this.
TSJlV1INDIRI

(Renfrew No. 9)

GP
J. T. Bent, The Cyclades (1885) 4o4;

Renfrew 516;

Doumas 1977, 25

At least one cist has been found on this islet between Antiparos and
Despotiko.
"SITE A"

(Renfrew No. 10)

EB

Kykladika I 14o
Two groups of cists were reported between Krassades and Apantima,
near the SW coast of Antiparos.
APANTrnA

(Renfrew No. 11)

GP KS
Kykladika I l4o;

Doumas 1977, 25-6

A cemetery reported here on the E coast of Antiparos was not visible


in 1963; it might have been the richer of Bent's two cemeteries, which
apparently produced finds of KS type, but this could equally have been Ayios
Sostis. Doumas attributes material of the Kampos and Amorgos phases to
this site.

324

(Renfrew No. 12)

SOROS
EB

Kykladika I llfo
A cemetery reported here may be the same as that of Ayios Sostis.
AYIOS SOSTIS

(Renfrew No. 13)

EB

Renfrew 517
Evidence of a cist-cemetery was seen here not far from the S tip of
Antiparos, which might have been Bent's richer cemetery (cf. under Apantima).
PETALIDHI

(Renfrew No. 14)

EB

Kykladika I llfo
A cemetery was reported here, at the S tip of Antiparos.
"NORTH-WEST PROMONTORY"

(Renfrew No. 15)

LBI
On a promontory on the NW coast of Antiparos, sherds found included
a ripple-decorated sherd.
DESPOTIKO
Renfrew 517
Bent described this small island as covered in tombs.
ZOUMBARIA
GP

(Renfrew No. 1)

KS?

Kykladika I 163;

AD 16 (l96o)

B 246;

Doumas 1977, 25

14 GP tombs were dug here, on the N coast, by Tsountas, a further 20


by Zafeiropoulos, who reports GP and probable KS sherds and traces of an
enclosure wall from a nearby settlement.

325

(Renfrew No. 2)

LEIVADHI
GP

KS

Kykladika I 162;

Doumas 1977, 25

3 groups of robbed graves were found here on the S coast, which


produced GP and KS finds.
(Renfrew No. 3)

CHEIROMYLOS
GP
Kykladika I 176;

Renfrew llf2

A settlement-site on the SE, where pottery and two lead-fragments


have been found.
(Renfrew No. 4)

PANAYIA
EB?
Kykladika I 141

A report of cists here is unconfirmed.


NAXOS
Renfrew 517
The most productive parts of the island now are in the centre and W;
the hilly E part has not been extensively settled in historic times and has
no good harbours. However, the map of EBA Naxos published by Doumas (1977,
13 fig. 2) shows a heavy concentration of sites in the SE quarter, mostly
close to the coast; almost half the 6o sites shown on this map are not
cited below, being so far unpublished. There are deposits of emery in the
NE, but hardly any sites are known in this region. (In cases of doubt over
the name or position of a site, Doumas has been followed).
GROITA (WITH PALATI, APLG'IATA, KAMINI)
GP

KS

EB III?

MB

LB I-II

LH IIIA-C

(Renfrew Nos. 2-3, and 37)


SMyc.

PG

G A C H

AA (1930) 132, (1968) 374, (1972) 152, 165, (1974) 27 fig. 47 (LH I/II sherds);
BSA 51 (1956) 12, 15, 27, 30, 32, 34; PAE (1949) 112, (1950) 269, (1951) 214,
(1958) 228, (1959) 185, (196o) 262, (1961) 191, (1963) 148, (1965) 168, (1967)
112, (1969) 139, (1970) 146, (1971) 172, (1972) 143; Ergon (1976) 154; AD
16 (196o) B 249; IMTS 249; Kadmos 4 (1965) 84 (inscribed sherds)

326

The finds in various districts on the N and NE environs of the modern


town seem to represent a single major site; the Palati promontory might have
served as an acropolis. There was clearly a large GP settlement, succeeded
by an equally important one of the KS phase to which richly provided graves
on Aplomata (c. 2.5 km. to the NE) presumably belong. There is nothing of
clear EB III date, although some plain pieces might have Phyl I links
according to Barber, and there 'is little MB-LB II material. But the site
flourished in LH III and DA times; chamber tombs on Aplomata (Renfrew No. 37)
were in use from LH IIIB to SMyc. and pit-graves in SMyc. and PG, a separate
cemetery at Kamini c. 1 km. to S (and c. 2 km. toE of Grotta) is of LH IIIC
date, and PG-G settlement-strata are reported from Grotta. The LH IIIC finds
from the tombs are particularly rich, and this was clearly one of the major
centres of the Aegean at that time. It is claimed that there was complete
continuity of settlement into the DA, but although this seems likely too
little has been published from the settlement for it to be considered
certain, and the PG-G buildings were certainly on a quite different alignment from their predecessors.
AKROTIRI

GP

KS

(Renfrew No.

4)

Doumas 1977, 25, 82


A cemetery of 24 cists was excavated here, on a promontory near the
centre of the NW coast; other graves had been destroyed before excavation.
The graves are considered to cover most of the GP phase, and one is
attributed to KS.
PHERENDAKI
EB

(Renfrew No. 5)

*
(GP?)

PAE (1908) 115

3 graves containing plain pyxides and others that had been robbed are
reported from a site in the interior, E of Akrotiri and near the centre of
the island.
ORMOS APOLLONOS (APOLLONAS)
GP

(Renfrew No. 6)

KS

PAE (1908) 115;

AD 17 (1961-2) A 144

Two grave-groups from this site near the N tip of Naxos are assigned
to GP and KS (Doumas 1977, 25 shows KS only).

327

AVDHELI (LIONAS)

(Renfrew No. 7)

KS
Doumas 1977, 122
A cemetery was robbed here, at a site in the NE of Naxos in the
neighbourhood of the emery mines. 3 graves discovered in excavation were
of unusual type, the upper part normal cists, the lower stone-lined pits
dug into the cist-floor to receive the remains of earlier burials. Part
of a structure likely to belong to a contemporary settlement was also
discovered nearby.
AYIOI ANARGYROI

GP

or H

KS

(Renfrew No. 8)

AD 17 (1961-2) A 272;

Doumas 1977, lOO, 126

In the interior of Naxos, c. 7 km. SE of Naxos town, a GP settlementsite and cemetery and a separate KS cemetery were found. A piece of arsenic
bronze from the site is a notable find. The GP cemetery, belonging to a
late stage, included large widely spaced graves and others crowded in one
corner against a retaining wall to SW, many "double-storeyed". This
distinction seems to coincide with a social one, indicated by the differences
in wealth of grave-goods. This cemetery also provided the best example of
a built platform attached to the cemetery, which appears to have had some
ceremonial function, a feature for which evidence has been found in other
cemeteries. Some 200 m. to theN, at Rodhinadhes, 4 KS graves were
excavated.

APHENDIKA
GP?

(Renfrew No. 9)

KS MB

PAE (1910) 270;

AD

17 (1961-2) A 148

170 graves were excavated here, c. 2 km. SW of Ayioi Anargyroi, over


an area lOO m. long, but only 1 KS grave-group has survived. The cemetery
may have been largely of this date, but could have extended back into GP
(Renfrew 178). One sherd of imitation Minyan ware has been found here.
MELANES

GP?
PAE (1909) 209

(Renfrew No. 10)

328

A small group of graves was found here, NW of Ayoi Anargyroi, most


provided with plain pyxides.
(Renfrew No. ll)

RIZOKASTELIA
KS?

MB LH III(A-B)

PAE (1910) 272;

BSA (1956) 12;

Renfrew 518;

AA (1972) 166

A rocky acropolis c. l km. SW of Byblos (formerly Tripodes), probably


once closer to the sea than it is now. KS occupation is claimed by Doumas
(AA loo. cit.); MB occupation is certain, and the site may have been one of
the most important in Naxos at this time (possible traces of fortifications
have been thought MB). But LH III is scanty (a LH IIIB/C deep bowl fragment
is reported by Barber), and the site was probably then overshadowed by
Grotta. Doumas (1977, 13 fig. 2) shows this as an EB cemetery site,
either a reference to unpublished material or a slip.
VIGLA
EB

MB LB/LH

AD 20 (1965) B 507 n. 4;

BSA 69 (1974) 50

A promontory site on the W coast c. 4 km. SW of Byblos, possibly of


importance; it may have been fortified. Among the surface finds are
sherds of decorated and plain wares of Minoan appearance, including conical
cups.
KAMENO MITATO PSARRA

(Renfrew No. 12)

EB

PAE (1904) 58
Graves are reported at this site c. 4 km. SE of Rozokastelia.
KASTRAKI

GP

KS

(Renfrew No. 13)

BSA 4 (1897-8) 21; PAE (1904) 6o, (1908) 117, (1909) 209, (1910) 272;
(1972) 152, 165; Doumas 1977, 25

AA

A GP (Renfrew 142) and KS settlement on theW coast, protected on the


W by a strong wall; a cemetery was also reported, but is unconfirmed.

329

POLICHNI:

MNIMORIA

(Renfrew No. 14)

GP
PAE (1904) 58;

AD 17 (1961-2) A 140

At least 6 graves have been excavated here, 2 definitely GP, close


to Kastraki.
LOUROS ATHALASSOU

(Renfrew No. 15)

GP
PAE ( 1901') 58;

AD 17 ( 1961-2) A 132;

Doumas 1977, 25

An important late GP cemetery, not far E of Kastraki and Polichni;


the goods of one grave include many silver beads.
PHYRROGHES:
GP

(Renfrew No, 16)

KS

PAE (1904) 57, (1905) 216, 224;

AD 17 (1961-2) A 138;

Doumas 1977, 25

Remains of a settlement with a possible fortification-wall are


reported, close to the coast S of Kastraki, and there is a cemetery of
120 graves; a gold bead from one is a unique find from a Cycladic cemetery.
Doumas attributes the cemetery to the Kampos stage, transitional between
GP and KS, and does not show the site as a settlement on his map (op .cit.
13 fig. 2).
LAKKOUDHES
GP

(Renfrew No. 17)

KS

Doumas 1977, 73, 120

25 graves were excavated here in a plundered cemetery, SE of Phyrroghes;


Doumas considers them to represent the earliest stage so far discovered of
GP. At a site 250 m. to SE 11 more graves were excavated, survivors of a
probably larger KS cemetery, A long retaining wall between the two cemeteries
cannot be dated. Near the KS graves rock-carvings were found.
AYIASOS (AYIOSO)
EB

AD 20 (1965) B 506

(Renfrew No. 18)

330

Robbed cists are reported here, at a site S of Lakkoudhes.

ROI'>N

(Renfrew No. 19)

KS
PAE (1908) 115 n. 2;

AD 17 (1961-2) A 147, 20 (1965) B 506

Graves were excavated here to SW of Lakkoudhes;


KS figurine.

KARVOUNOLAKKOI
GP

finds included a

(Renfrew No. 20)

KS

PAE (1903) 53, (1905) 216;

AD 17 (1961-2) A 109

A large cemetery, including more than 82 graves, has been excavated


here near the S tip of Naxos.
KELI

(Renfrew No. 21)

GP

Phyl I?

PAE (1903) 53;

AD 17 (1961-2) A 112;

Doumas 1977, 25

10 cists have been excavated here, N of Karvounolakkoi;


apparently Phyl I sherd has also been found.

SPEDOS
GP

an

(Renfrew No. 22)


KS

Phyl I?

PAE (1903) 53, (1906) 87;


Doumas 1977, 25

AD 17 (1961-2) A 114;

AA (1972) 163;

A fortified settlement has been found here, on a hill near the SE


coast, and an associated cemetery of 25 graves has been excavated. One
incised pyxis may be of Phyl I date.
PANORMOS (KORPHARI TON AMYGDALION)
GP?

(Renfrew No. 23)

KS

PAE (1906) 86; AD 17 (1961-2) A 144, 19 (1964) B 411,


Doumas 1977, 25

AA (1972) 156, 165;

331

On the summit of a low hill near the SE point of Naxos a small


fortified site of KS date, perhaps no more than a big farmhouse, has been
excavated; there are remains of a structure below which may be of
transitional GP/KS date. 5 tombs dug in a neighbouring cemetery are of
KS date.
KORPHI T 1 ARONIOU

(Renfrew No. 24)

KS?
AD 18 (1963) B 276, 20 (1965) A 41
A single house has been excavated here near the S end of the E coast;
rocks decorated with incised scenes have been found nearby, whose decoration is likely to be of the same date as the house, probably within the
KS phase.

(Renfrew No. 25)

GP MB
PAE (1903) 53;

AD 17 (1961-2) A 129;

Renfrew 142

At least 3 cists have been excavated here, near the E coast in its
S part, and GP sherds were picked up nearby. One cist is of GP date,
another contains bronzes that are probably MB, and a third contains cups
of MM III type
VARDAKI

(Renfrew No. 26)

EB

Renfrew 519
Robbed graves are reported close to A~la.
PHIONDA

(Renfrew No. 27)

KS?

Renfrew 519
Graves are reported here (and at Kamino), one reputedly containing
a "royal family" of figurines, which may be some fine KS figurines in the
Goulandris Collection. It is not clear which of Doumas's sites this is.

332

KLEIDOS
EB

(Renfrew No. 28)

(KS?)

PAE ( 1906) 86
Cists have been excavated here towards the 3 end of the E coast, and
more have recently been robbed; reports of metal daggers among the finds
should indicate a KS date. The site is apparently Doumas's Palioklidha.
(Renfrew No. 29)

BEBEKOU
EB

Renfrew 519
Robbed cists are reported, c. 2 km. N of Kleidos.
XERAKROTIRO

(Renfrew No. 30)

EB

Renfrew 519
Some 20 robbed cists are reported, on the coast close to Kleidos.
(Renfrew No. 31)

KANAKI
GP?
Renfrew 519

There are indications of a destroyed cemetery c. 1 km.~N of


Xerakrotiro, reported to be the source of 2 GP stone vases in the Ashmolean
Museum. Doumas shows an EB settlement at Tranos Kanakis, well N of
Xerakrotiro.
PETASI

(Renfrew No. 32)


KS

Phyl I or MB

Renfrew 519
This region, c. 1 km. NW of Kanaki, is probably the source of the fine
spiral-decorated footed stone pyxis in the National Museum, and certainly of
Phyl I or MB sherds in the Naxos Museum.

333

KAMBOS TIS MAKRIS

(Renfrew No. 33)

GP
PAE (1906) 6o;

AD 17 (1961-2) A

11~,

20 (1965) B 505; Doumas 1977, 25

56 graves with GP goods were excavated here near the E coast in the
N part, c. l km. SW of Moutsounas, and some 30 more have been robbed
recently.
LYGARIDIA (STENO)
EB

(Renfrew No. 34)

LH IIIC?

PAE (1906) 86;

AD 20 (1965) B 505

At least 5 EB graves have been excavated here, c. 2 km. SSW of


Moutsounas, and others robbed. A small built tomb and settlement are
assigned to LH IIIC, but in the absence of published evidence this date
must be considered provisional.
MOUTSOUNAS

(Renfrew No. 35)

EB

AD 20 (1965) B 505
A settlement has been excavated here on the E coast near a prominent
cape; there are traces of another to theW, near some 15 robbed graves.
The cemetery only is shown by Doumas.
SPILAIO TOU ZA

(Renfrew No. 36)

N GP?
Renfrew 509
Near the S peak of the mountain chain in the centre of Naxos a cave
containing Nand ?GP goods has been found.
CHOSTI

(Renfrew No. 38)

EB or MB?

PAE (1908) 116


Near the N end of Naxos, c. 1 km. W of Ormos Apollonos, a small
(d. 3.4 m.) tholos-shaped built tomb was found. It had been robbed, and

33'+

the only finds reported are sherds of plain unslipped cup-like vases,
perhaps belonging to MM-type conical cups or possibly earlier.
TRYMALIA
KS
BSA 3 (1896-7) 64;

Renfrew 520

Two KS stone objects are reported to be from here.


DHONOUSA
Renfrew 520
The island supports a small community.
AKHTIA TON AGRILION
KS

PG

(Renfrew No. 1)

AD 22 (1967) B 467, 24 (1969) B 390, 25 (1970) B 426;


4 (1971) 210, 6 (1973) 256

AAA 3 (1970) 49,

A KS figurine-head and obsidian have been found here, but more


important are the fortified settlement and cremation-pyres of the DA, whose
pottery is thought to show closer links with the Dodecanese than the other
Cyclades; "pendent semi-circle skyphoi" of Euboeo-Cycladic type have also
been found. A prehistoric settlement is reported at Myti tou Trachila,
lOO m. from the pyres (cf. AJA 75 (1971) 313).
KATO MYLOS PLATYVOLIAS

(Renfrew No. 2)

EB?

AD 22 (1967) B 467
A prehistoric settlement with good remains of walls is reported.
exact location is unknown.

The

HERAKLEIA
Renfrew 520 (cemetery with figurines)
The island has some agricultural land and several possible anchorages,
and supports a small community.

335

(Renfrew No. l)

KASTRO
EB?

AD 22 (1967) B 466;

Renfrew 520

Prehistoric sherds and obsidian are reported, from a site on the

NE coast of Herakleia.
AYIOS YEORYIOS

(Renfrew No. 2)

EB?

Renfrew 520
An obsidian blade of EB type was found here, on the N tip of the
island.

KAMBOS AYIOU ATHI\NASIOU

(Renfrew No. 3)

EB?

AD 22 (1967) B 465
A large prehistoric settlement is reported, also incised spirals
on rocks.

AYIOS MAMAS

(Renfrew No. 4)

EB

AD 22 (1967) B 465
Traces of a large settlement, cists of EB date, and incised slabs
are reported, at the SW tip of the island.

SCHINOUSA
Renfrew 520 (figurine)
The island supports a small community.

TSINGOURI
EB

AD 22 (1967) B 466

(Renfrew No. l)

336

A thick scatter of EB sherds is reported, at the S end of Schinousa.


KASTRO TOU PROPHITI ILIA

(Renfrew No. 2)

EB?
AD 22 (1967) B 466
A thick scatter of prehistoric sherds is reported, but Renfrew
found only two pieces of obsidian.
KATO KOUPHONISI
Renfrew 520
The island is quite fertile, and supports a small community.
PANAYIA

(Renfrew No. l)

EB?

AD 22 ( 1967) B 467
An EB settlement has been reported, but was not confirmed by Renfrew,
who reports only H.
(Renfrew No. 2)

NERO

EB
AD 22 (1967) B 1>67, 25 (1970) B 429
A small settlement is reported near the SE tip of the is'land, also
robbed tombs which may be the source of EB goods handed in.
ANO KOUPHONISI
Renfrew 521
The island is quite fertile, and supports a small community.
SIRMA

(Renfrew No. 3)
EB

(GP?)

Renfrew 142, 153, 521, cf. AS 14 (1964) 135


A scatter of EB sherds and obsidian was found here, near the S coast.

r
I
'

337

(Renfrew No. 4)

LOUTRA
KS
AD 22 (1967) B 466

A KS figurine was found on the beach here, at the SW tip of the


island.
ALONISTRIA CHOUSOURI

(Renfrew No. 5)

KS
AAA 3 (1970) 48;

AD 25 (1970) B 428

A settlement and largely robbed cemetery are reported here, near


the S coast.
AGRILIA
GP

(Renfrew No. 6)

*
KS

AAA 3 (19'70) 49, lf (1971) 214;

AD 25 (1970) B 429, 26 (1971) B 467

Cemeteries of GP and (early?) KS graves are reported from here, a


short distance to the NE of Loutra; one included at least 72 graves. They
are of unusual type, being trapezoidal or semioval rock-cut pits in which
slabs were placed upright against one side, apparently as grave-markers.
Goods were placed in the pit, and the bodies might be buried in a pit or
hollowed chamber behind the slab, with further goods upon them. A layer
of earth and mound of stones covered everything. The goods include bronze
and stone objects as well as pottery.
KEROS
Renfrew 521
The island presumably once supported a community, but is now virtually
deserted.
DHASKALIO
KS

(Renfrew No. l)

Phyl I?

AD 19 (1964) B 409, 23 (1968) B 381;


(1975) 76; Doumas 1977, 25

AA (1972) 163;

AAA l (1968) 97, 8

Here remains of a possibly fortified KS settlement were found on an


islet 50 m. offshore from the W coast, on top of a hill; goods that may
come from a contemporary cemetery were found on the shore of Keros facing
the islet, which was presumably once joined to the mainland. Some
probably Phyl I sherds have been found on the site (Renfrew l91f).
KONAKIA

(Renfrew No. 2)

EB
Renfrew 521
EB sherds have been found in a cliff on the NW coast of Keros, and
stone objects, including a bowl, at Gialada 400 m. to the W along the coast.
(Renfrew No. 3)

GERANI
GP

AD 22 (1967) B 466, 23 (1968) B 381


Remains that may belong to a settlement or a cemetery are reported
from a site a little to NE of Konakia on the KW coast.
MEGALO KASTRO

(Renfrew No. 4)

EB?

AD 22 ( 1967) B 1+66
An EB settlement has been reported on the hill at the centre of Keros,
but its date was not confirmed by Renfrew.
ANTIKEROS
Renfrew 521
This islet SE of Keros was presumably joined to it once.
PRASIA

(Renfrew No. 5)
EB?

AD 22 (1967) B 466
A scatter of prehistoric sherds and obsidian is reported from this
site on the N coast of Ano Antikeros, the northern of the two islands of
Antikeros.

339

AMORGOS
Renfrew 521
The best land on the island is at the heads of the three best
landing-places on the NW, the bays of Katapola, Aigiali, and Kaloteri.
The SW part of the island is high and generally unproductive, and
communications between the two are still easier by boat than by foot;
there are sites in this area, however. Two PG vases are reported to
come from the island (V. R. Desborough, Protogeometric Pottery (1951) 214).
(Renfrew No. l)

AYIA PARASKEVI
EB

Kykladika I 138
A single grave was reported at this site near the W coast at the
SW tip of Amorgos.
ARKESINE (KASTRI)
KS

Phyl I

(Renfrew No. 2)

*
MB?

LB/LH

AM ll (1886) 16; Kykladika I 208; E. M. Bossert, "zur Datierung der Grklber


von Arkesine auf Amorgos", in Festschrift fllr Peter Goessler (1954) 23;
BSA 51 (1956) ll; AJA 71 (1967) ll; Doumas 1977, 26
This steep acropolis c. 1.5 km. N of Vroutsi, on the N coast towards
the SW end of the island, may have been occupied in both MB and LB. Nearby
tombs include a double grave which contains Phyl I and MB types, and the
source of a group of weapons variously dated to a similar time or to LB.
DOKATHISMATA

(Renfrew No. 3)

KS
Kykladika I 138, 154, 165;

Doumas 1977, 25

A settlement and some 20 graves of KS date were excavated, at a site


c. 2 km. E of Vroutsi.
PHOINIKIES
EB

Kykladika I 138, 146

(Renfrew No. 4)

2 EB graves are reported, at this site c. 1.5 km. NE of Dokathismata.


KATO AKROTIRI
GP

(Renfrew No. 5)

KS

Kykladika I 138, 146;

Doumas 1977, 25

The site is on the headland on the S side of Amorgos harbour. Some


GP finds in pits probably present a settlement; 2 graves are of KS date.
(Renfrew No. 6)

XILOKERATIDI
EB

(KS)

LH (IIIA2-C?)

BSA 51 (1956) ll, 29, 31, 34;

LMTS 147

EB graves have been reported here c. l km. W of Katapola, at the N


end of the harbour bay, and vases with this provenance are in the Katapola
Museum. LH vases and sherds from Amorgos may well come from tombs in the
neighbourhood, one being purchased at the site; there is also a LH sherd
from the site in the BSA Collection, according toR. Barber.
KAPROS

(Renfrew No. 7)

*
KS

Kykladika I 138, 165


The site here, c. l km. NE of Xilokeratidi, is probably not prehistoric, but over 20 KS graves were excavated.
(Renfrew No. 8)

VOUNI
EB

(KS?)

AM ll (1886) 25
Graves reported from here, c. 2 km. NE of Xilokeratidi, were stated
to hold weapons, so should be of KS date.
NOTINA

(Renfrew No. 9)

*
GP?

KS

AM ll (1886) 24;

Kykladika I 138

Graves excavated and reported here on the S coast seem to be largely


of KS date, but may include GP goods (e.g. AM 11 (1886) Pl. 1:3).

STAVROS

(Renfrew No. 10)

KS
Kykladika I 138, 153;

Doumas 1977, 26

6 graves excavated here, on the S coast, near Notina, held goods


of late KS type.
(Renfrew No. ll)

KOKKINA CHOl'I'J\TA
EB
Kykladika I 138

One grave is reported from here, on the S coast c. 2 km. SSW of


Amorgos town.
KAPSALA
GP

(Renfrew No. 12)

*
KS

Kykladika I 138, 152;

Doumas 1977, 25

ll graves were excavated here, on the SE coast c. 4 km. NE of Amorgos


town; all are KS but one, attributed to the late GP or transitional
Kampos phase.
AYIOS GEORGIOS

(Renfrew No. 13)

EB
Kykladika I 138
Graves were reported here, c. l km. NE of the Kapsala site.
AIGIAIE
EB

(Renfrew No. 14)


(KS)

AM ll (1886)

1~;

MB

LB/LH?

A C

Kykladika I 138;

BSA 51 (1956) ll

Definitely MB and perhaps LB material is reported from the small


acropolis of Vigli here c. 500 m. NW of Tholaria, near the N tip of the
island; a grave reported nearby contained a probably KS figurine.

SOT IRA
EB?

AM ll (1886) Beil. l
This is shown as the site of EB graves by Dummler.
IOS
Renfrew 523
The island is hilly and largely infertile, the most productive area
being inland from the bay. A Protogeometric vase may come from this island
(V. R. d'A. Desborough, Protogeometric Pottery (1951) 216).
MANGANARI
GP

(Renfrew No. l)
KS

BCH 28 (1904) 309;

Le Musee Belge, Revue de Philologie Classique 25 (1921) 6

Goods from a cemetery here on the N side of the southernmost bay of


Ios include GP and KS stone objects. This may be the cemetery referred to
in BSA 3 (1896-7) 78.
CHORA
EB
BSA

MB

LB/LH

69 (1974) 50

Sherd-material from this site c. 1.5 km. NNE of Chora (the main town
of Ios) includes an EB rim, late MB piece, and LB/LH, according to Barber;
there is also obsidian. It is not clear if this is the KS site referred to
in BSA 64 ( 1969) 133 n. 21.
SIKINOS
Renfrew 523 (late GP "frying-pan")
An unproductive island with poor water-supplies, ringed by inaccessible
cliffs.
PALAIOKASTRO
EB?

~
I

AD 23 (1968) B 382
Much prehistoric pottery, perhaps EB, is reported.
not clear.

The location is

PHOLEGANDROS
Renfrew 523
The island is most productive around the modern village in the W,
which is well-watered; its coasts are rugged.
(Renfrew No. 1)

PANAYIA
KS
BSA 64 (1969) 133 n. 21;

Renfrew 523

A site of uncertain location, perhaps that mentioned in BSA 3


(1896-7) 86, which also reports cemeteries.
THERA
---

Renfrew 524
The present island is only a portion of the original one, destroyed
by volcanic eruption in the early LBA. The most fertile surviving areas
are in the NE and SE. Most discovered prehistoric remains belong to the
final phase of occupation before the eruption, but KS figurines are
reported to come from the island, there are other EB goods in Phira Museum,
and two later vases, a lM IB flask and Ul IIIA2-B pyxis, are recorded in
the photographic archive of the German Archaeological Institute in Athens
(cf. BICS 16 (1969) 150 for the former, also Alt-Rggis Pl. 948). There are
also bronzes of likely LB I date, a fragment of an inlaid blade and the hilt
of a Type B sword, in the Danish National Museum in Copenhagen (cf. J, V.Luce,
The End of Atlantis (1969) Pls. 43-4). A PG skyphos was found in a later
tomb (V. R. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages (1972) 223), but cannot on its
own prove occupation then, although the island was certainly flourishing
by MG II.
AKRariRI

KS

(Renfrew No. 3)

*
Phyl I

MB

LB I

H. Mamet, De Insula Thera (1874); F. Fouque, Santorin et ses Eruptions


(1879) 105; BSA 51 (1956) 13, 26, 27; BCH 96 (1972) 21 (early finds);
s. Marinates, Excavations at Thera I-VII (1968-71>); Ergon (1973) 92,
1 (1975) 145, (1976) 16o; PAE (1973) 119; cf. also AAA 7 (1974) 87 (the

342

SOTIRA
EB?

AM ll (1886) Beil. l
This is shown as the site of EB graves by D8mmler.
IOS
Renfrew 523
The island is hilly and largely infertile, the most productive area
being inland from the bay. A Protogeometric vase may come from this island
(V. R. d'A. Desborough, Protogeometric Pottery (1951) 216).
MANGANARI
GP

(Renfrew No. l)
KS

BCH 28 (1904) 309;

Le Musee Belge, Revue de Philologie Classique 25 (1921) 6

Goods from a cemetery here on the N side of the southernrnost bay of


Ios include GP and KS stone objects. This may be the cemetery referred to
in BSA 3 (1896-7) 78.
CHORA
EB
BSA

MB

LB/LH

69 (1974) 50

Sherd-material from this site c. 1.5 km. NNE of Chora (the main town
of Ios) includes an EB rim, late MB piece, and LB/LH, according to Barber;
there is also obsidian. It is not clear if this is the KS site referred to
in BSA 64 (1969) 133 n. 21.
SIKINOS
Renfrew 523 (late GP "frying-pan")
An unproductive island with poor water-supplies, ringed by inaccessible
cliffs.
PALAIOKASTRO
EB?

AD 23 (1968) B 382
Much prehistoric pottery, perhaps EB, is reported.
not clear.

The location is

PHOLEGANDROS
Renfrew 523
The island is most productive around the modern village in the W,
which is well-watered; its coasts are rugged.
(Renfrew No. 1)

PANAYIA
KS
BSA 64 (1969) 133 n. 21;

Renfrew 523

A site of uncertain location, perhaps that mentioned in BSA 3


(1896-7) 86, which also reports cemeteries.
THERA
Renfrew 524
The present island is only a portion of the original one, destroyed
by volcanic eruption in the early LBA. The most fertile surviving areas
are in the NE and SE. Most discovered prehistoric remains belong to the
final phase of occupation before the eruption, but KS figurines are
reported to come from the island, there are other EB goods in Phira Museum,
and two later vases, a IM IB flask and IJl IIIA2-B pyxis, are recorded in
the photographic archive of the German Archaeological Institute in Athens
(cf. BICS 16 (1969) 150 for the former, also Alt-ftgMis Pl. 948). There are
also bronzes of likely LB I date, a fragment of an inlaid blade and the hilt
of a Type B sword, in the Danish National Museum in Copenhagen (cf. J. V. Luce,
The End of Atlantis (1969) Pls. 43-4). A PG skyphos was found in a later
tomb (V. R. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages (1972) 223), but ca~not on its
own prove occupation then, although the island was certainly flourishing
byMGII.
AKROTIRI
KS

(Renfrew No. 3)

*
Phyl I

MB

LB I

H. Mamet, De Insula Thera (1874); F. Fouque, Santorin et ses Eruptions


(1879) 105; BSA 51 (1956) 13, 26, 27; BCH 96 (1972) 21 (early finds);
S. Marinates, Excavations at Thera I-VII (1968-74); Ergon (1973) 92,
1 (1975) 145, (1976) l6o; PAE (1973) 119; cf. also AAA 7 (1974) 87 (the

miniature frescoes), 416 (late MH vases);


Doumas 1977, 25

AE (1974) 119. (the architecture);

This extensive site on the SW promontory of Thera was probably the


most important on the island. Occupation apparently extends back to the
EBA (Thera III 8, Doumas, loc.cit.) and there is certain MB material (see
Thera VII 12 for early remains from Kalamia, near the Akrotiri lighthouse),
but the bulk comes from the final phase of occupation in LB I, which is to
a great degree preserved under the layer of volcanic ash. LM IA and LH I
pottery was imported at this time and late MB types were still current;
the absence of characteristic LM IB and LH IIA imports makes it difficult
to relate this material to that of the LM IB destruction-levels in Crete
and apparently contemporary deposits at Ay. Irini and Phylakopi, despite
continuing attempts (most recently AJA 8o (1976) 9). Much Cretan influence
is visible in the arts and crafts of this phase, but there are many individual features which indicate that this was not simply a Cretan "colony",
like Kastri on Kythera and Trianda on Rhodes. The site appears to have
been deserted suddenly and then partly reoccupied before the final eruption
(Thera III 7, Kadmos 9 (1970) 97). The length of time between desertion
and eruption is still disputed; at present most opinion seems to favour
placing the sequence of events within as little as a single year, but the
claimed existence of a humus-layer between the original ground-surface
and the volcanic ash (Antiquity 47 (1973) 50) would require a considerably
longer period.
BALOS

(Renfrew No. If)

*
LBI

Fouque, op.cit. 107


A farmhouse or similar establishment was excavated here, c.} km.
WNW of Akrotiri village.
(Renfrew No. 6)

EXOMITI
LBI

H. von Gaertringen, Thera III (1904) 42;

BSA 51 (1956) 13

Exomiti is the S point of the island of Thera.


bought here in 1879.
MESAVOUNO

(SELLADHA, ANCIENT THERA)

LBIGACH
BSA 51 (1956) 13

A complete vase was

(Renfrew No. 8)

345

Ancient Thera occupied a high ridge on the E tip of Thera. This is


the reported source of LB I vases, including a pithos said to come from a
tomb, but is more important as the site of cemeteries dating from MG II
onwards (cf. A. M. Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece (1971) 206, and AR
(1961-2) 22 and following years, to the present).
KAMARA

(Renfrew No. 9)

LBI
Von Gaertringen l9Qle, 39;

BSA 51 (1956) 13, 26

House-remains were excavated here, c. 500 m. S of Kamari, not far


to N of Mesavouno ..

PHTELLOS

LBI
AE (1973) 161
House-remains have been excavated here, c. l km. S of the modern town
of Thera. The site was destroyed in the same manner as Akrotiri.
PHIRA

(Renfrew No. l)
EB

(KS)

AA (1930) 135
Graves excavated here under the pumice in the quarries to S of Thera
town contained a KS figurine and apparently NVI II stone bowl.
AKROTIRI KOLOUMBON

(Renfrew No. 7)

LBI
BSA 51 (1956) 13
Vases are reported to be from tombs here, at the NE tip of the island.
THERASIA
This island represents the remnant of the W part of the original island
of Thera. LB I houses were found on the S coast (Renfrew No. 5: Fouque
1879, 96; BSA 51 (1956) 13, 26).

346

CHRISTIANA
(Renfrew No. 2)
KS

MB?

Renfrew 525;

AD 22 ( 1967) B 46lf

Vases from a well-like structure on this islet, 15 km. SW of Thera,


resemble late KS types found on Amorgos; some may be MB.
ANAPHE
The island has small but productive coastal plains and is wellwatered in thew.
GEORGANOU
MB?

S. Marinatos, Excavations at Thera V (1971) 47


Prehistoric coarse ware reported from here may be MB.
THE NORTHERN SPORADES
SKOPELOS
CAPE STAPHYLOS
LH IIA-III(A-B)
KC 3 ( 191+9) 534
On a hill near Cape Staphylos at the SE end of the island a partly
disturbed rectangular built tomb was excavated. It had contained at least
two burials, provided with much pottery, bronzes, a gold sword-hilt and
head-band very similar in their decoration to those of the Shaft Graves,
and other objects. One or two of the vases seem as early as LH IIA, but
the bulk are LH IIB-IIIAl, some perhaps imported, others locally made.
LH pottery was found with building-remains nearby, including both LH II
and III types (Hunter, 183, 198, 215, cat. no. 208). One of the vases
might be LM (the unusual bowl, llunte~ no. 207), also one or two of the
grave-goods, but there is little specifically Minoan about this burial
and thus no reason to connect it with the legendary Cretan colonisation
of the island. Such a rich grave does, however, indicate an early centre
of importance.

SKYROS
KASTRO

N EB

MH

LH IIIA-C

PG

G A C H

H. Hansen, "Prehistoric Skyros", in Studies Presented to D. M. Robins on


(ed. G. E. Mylonas) I (1951) 54; Arkheion Euboikon M.eleton 6 (1959) 313;
AD 22 ( 1967) B 287 (the latter reference is to EB, LH, PG, and A finds
~ranged in the new Skyros museum)
The acropolis of ancient Skyros was the Kastro on the S side of modern
Skyros town. N has been found at the foot of the Kastro and at Achilli
c. 5 km. to NW of Skyros town. EB and MH is reported at Kastro and at
Fourka immediately to S, and sherd material found at Magazia, to N of Kastro,
is reported to include pottery like Thessalian f3 and one LH sherd. Traces
of a chamber tomb cemetery have been noted on the lower NE slope of the
acropolis, which may be the source of several vases in the local museum
(Hunter cat. nos. 10-14, 64-6 (two reported to be respectively from Balitsa
and Themis), 203, 211), the most interesting a LH IIIC stirrup-jar
decorated with a ship (GBA fig. 34f).
Groups of PG-G cists have been
found in the plain N of the town (cf. PT 208); gold discs and glass beads
from one grave have often been thought-rH (AA (1936) 223, LMTS 139), but the
former differ in technique from those of the Shaft Graves, to which they are
often compared, and the latter can be found in DA contexts. The local PG
is not very early, and thus there is no certain continuity.

348

THE

DODECANESE
RHODES

(N.B. cf. Dodecanese III 127 for Select Bibliography and abbreviations used).
The sites on Rhodes are here listed in an anti-clockwise order, from
NW through W and SE to E. Few finds are earlier than LH, and the island
may not have been fully settled before LH III. Until LH IIIA2 expansion
was limited mainly to the fertile NW sector. By LH IIIB settlement has
spread over the whole island, and finds from Apollona and Ayios Isidhoros
indicate some penetration even into the interior. Rhodes would have
provided a balanced agricultural economy, although of limited potential.
Most, if not all, the settlements continued into LH IIIC. But there is
a complete lack of evidence for habitation in Rhodes in the SMyc.or EPG
periods. It is, however, difficult to believe that the island was totally
deserted at this time; and there is a considerable need for further
exploration in Rhodes, especially as regards the Dark Age.
TRIANDA:

POTAMYLO AND PARASKEVA

MM III?

LM IA-IIIAl

* 11

LH IIIA2

Memorie 3 (1938) 57; Clara Rhodos 10 ( l91ll) 43;


BICS 16 (1969) l n. 6; Dodecanese III 135, 173

Op Arch 6 (1950) 150;

A settlement of Minoan character was established at Trianda in MM III


or earlier, and flourished in LM IA-IIIAL The site was apparently a low
mound in the flat plain here. Three main strata were recognized, and labelled Trianda I, IIA, and IIB. The beginning of the last of these, Trianda IIB,
is marked by extensive rebuilding, apparently following an earthquake. The
site was only partly excavated, and was presumably of considerable size,
since it must be assumed that it consisted of at least the ~ea between
trial no. l at Paraskeva and trials 2-6 c. 200 m. distant at Potamylo.
During LM IIIAl the fine pottery at Trianda became increasingly more
Mycenaean in style. It was assumed (Op Arch loc,cit.) that the settlement
was abandoned at some time in this period. But some sherds from the
Paraskeva trial are LH IIIA2, and one may even be as late as LH IIIBL It
is not clear whether these represent continuity of occupation or a
re-occupation.

TRIANDA:

MOSCHOU VOUNARA AND MAKRIA VOUNARA

* 11

LH Iffi-IIIC
MV l; BV!Cat. A 139 nos. 801-970; ASAtene 2 (1916) 271, 6-7 (1923-4) 86,
13-14 (1930-31) 254, 344; Clara Rhodos l (1928) 56; Dodecanese III
135, 173

The two small low hills of Moschou Vounara and Makria Vounara
constitute the main cemetery in the Ialysos area from LH IIB to LH IIIC.
The LH chamber tombs excavated are numerous, large, and rich in finds.
It is also possible that Moschou Vounara in particular marks the centre
of a habitation site, occupied before and/or during the period of its use
as a cemetery, since there is a considerable amount of prehistoric coarse
pottery on the hill, and some traces of rough walls, including a corner.
Similar coarse sherds are spread over a wide area at the N foot and on
lower slopes, as well as on the flatter ground between Moschou Vounara and
Makria Vounara. The impression is that the coarse ware is mainly contemporary with IJI. The LH fine wares found in the same area may be either
from tombs or from a settlement here.
ANCIENT IAL