Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 384

TURE

IN

R E A D IN G

S P E A K IN G ,
AN D

VE R

CON

D E S IG NE D

FOR T

HE

XT

ION

O F S C H OO LS C O LLE GE S
H O ME I N S T R UCT I O N
U SE

AND

BY

W IL L IAM S H
E RW

IV
E
A

V ST OIi Kh
V
5 1 do 5 3 J O H N S T R E E T

B AR N E S

CINCINN AT I : H

OOD

D ERB Y ; C H IC A GO : D
18 57

OOOK E

00.

19 80

'

'

IS 4 Q S
-

NT E R E D,

cco r

di g to A
n

ct o f

Co n g e s s, in t he y ea 1855, b y

A S B AR N E S
.

r s O f

h
e
l
k
in t
Ce

ce of

istri t C t
Di tri t f N

t he D

our

of

ew

t he U

ork

it d S t t s f
e

a e

or

t he

S o th r
u

e n

P R E FACE

HIS work i upo n a n ew pl an it a i m s t o draw th e a tt enti o n of p pil t o th e


p rop e r e stimate of th e ir own p owers and t o sh ow th em h ow th y c an b e st
improve t h m l
I t is de si gn d for sch ool s c oll g e s and g n ral rea ders
Kee pin g in i ew c o n ve n ti o n a l u sa g n a tu re a nd c ommo n s e ns e t h a u th o r
endeavore d t o strip el o cution a s a s tu dy of i t s re pul sive a rti cial
h
ch ar a c t er and t o mak e i t pl a in ea sy and a ttr a c tive It p r incip l s ar e
em b o di d and ill u str a t e d in a c ou rs e of rea ding le ss o ns and t o r ende r the s e
more i mpre ssive and pleasing the y are o cc a si on ally ari e d by mi ti
a nd di log
And t o gu ard a ga i st c o nc e i t a nd t t i
ti
h e h a s l ab or d t o imp re ss up o n th e s tud e nt t h at all righ t e xpre ssi on mu s t
n c ss arily sp ring from righ t th ough t s a nd feeling H h a s in tro du c ed
wh at h e c all s t h rising a nd fallin g c ur e s which i t is pre sume d will b
e s teeme d a valu able i mp roveme n t but in th e u s e of th e s a nd o th e r
n ot atio ns h e h a s p urp o sely avo ide d all did a c tic rule s T h e l e ssons c o ntain
ing s l e c te d pi e c e s ar e in te nde d for exercis e s b oth in r a ding and sp eaking ;
a nd
e qu ally a d apte d for b o th s e xe s They are int ersp er s e d wi th ma ny
am u sin ane cdo t e s with a i ew t o tr a i ing th e p upil t o a m or e c oll o qu i al
T

s e v es .

e,

as

con v er s a

ons ,

exa

ues .

na

o ns ,

'
ec a

on ,

a re

T he marks over the following vowels are designed


t o show t he d i ff erent ine c tions made i n rea din g and
the others to show the s light p auses not indi c ated b y
p unctuat i on

R isi n g

S l i de
6 F all i n g S l i de
a E l s l n g Cu rve
F all in g Curve
R i sing Circu m e x
a F allin g Oir cum ex
A B ar
.

88 9

p ag e

(5

(C

(C

to

23

(C

(K

(6

(t

(t

cc

(C

(C

(C

(C

(K

(C

IL L U S T R

19

16

A T ION

(C

(C

W as J ohn t h re P N o
N e i t her J ohm nor J ames n or Jbs eph
Ah it wa s J ames Ithat did it i I n eve r t h ought
co uld be you i
.

C ON T E N T S

I R emark s o n R ea ding
II
divisi ons b ars acc e n t qu antity
III P au se s unn o t d
IV Slide Curve Ci m
V P aragraphs a s e x am pl e s t o illu strat e p unct a ti on
VI E mph a sis a nd c ade nc e
VII E xam in ati on of cl a ss o n in c ti ons and mph asis
Vi ti a t d so u nds
VIII Art icul a ti on Vowe l s
f c o ns o n a n t s
C h an ge of sounds
IX D ist inc t e nu nci a ti o n O
X W or d c l a sse d und er vowe ls a nd c o ns o n a nt s
XI H ow vow l s o unds are ch an g d
L e tt r s sun k
X II E AMINATIO N o n in c tio ns and mpha sis
X III Mo dul a ti on T on e P i tch Qu anti tyQu ali ty of oi e
X IV P O ET R h ow to rea d and sp eak i t well
Cu ck oo Hym n t o G o d Rural Life H appine ss
Sprin g
n o t d e p e ndent o n F ortun e G r ee n Ri er
XVI E X AMINATIO N o f a cl ass o n VerseP o etic fee t Ce sur a
XVII T h e O rd er of N a t re T h e D aisy Th e Dyin g C hris ti an t o
his S oul Th e D e s tru ct io n of S e nn ach e rib Conj u g al
.

r cu

ex e s ,

GE .

Y,

15
2O

2 4;

31
37

46
51

59
63

67
7 4:
80

12

87
92

101
105

C ON T E N T S

XXVI CONVERSATI ON b tw n th e T ach er and his Pupils


XXVII CONVE SATION b e t w n M r G ordon his F amily D r
Burk and D r Abb ott
B h avior in Com p any Conversatio n M anners
XXVIII P rov rbs P aragraphs F abl s Mo d e sty O pp o sition
XXIX Virtue i ts own Rewar d Grat itud
C h ari ty Th e
G oo d G rea t Man L a d and his N ighb or Mercy
C learne ss P ower of Calm D el ivery S rmon T wic e
P r a ch e d Wh at L e t ter s sh oul d b P l ea s ant R
tort C heerful Music John Adam s and his F ather
P hillips Of M ss ach s e tt and his Fath r T h e M O
ee

ee

t her

L aw,

nrul y Ca ttl e Ab ou B A dh em T h e G reat


D istinction of a Na tion B revi ty in O ra tor de
irab l
Wi tty R tort John P hilp o t C urran Al
fre d and t h B eggar Convic tio ns of Na p ol eon
XXXII T h e F irs t H o spi t al Cop r icus C b b t t R turn t o
E ngland Mr Bushn e ll s S o ng Wa shington s Ap ol
Th e

en

e.

an

e n

2 00

19 8

189

183

e.

16 1

149

e.

GE.

3y,

X XX III T h e World Nat ion al B anner T urning th e Grind


tone L ive for S omethin g Th e Grave D aniel
We bst r s C le b ri ty
We bs te r and D avid C ro c ke tt B rk e a nd th e T ri al of
H a s t ings M ar i a Antoin e tt e T wo Ne i ghb ors a nd
the Hens Inc rease of P rinters O ri gin of W hig
P oe try a nd O rato ry
P ow r of a G oo d Ma n s L ife S inc e ri ty D r Fr anklin s
Colloq ial P owers Wa shington S wi ft a nd th e
L a dy s D inne r A S e nsibl e H o st Milt on s I t ll
.

2 14

22 1

ec

n e

C h ara c te r of Hamilto n Aut m n Sp ring Hen ry s


E loqu e nc e a nd Humor E ff c t of Henry s Sp e ch
u

Am eric a n Ve ssel s

T h e S abb ath

L or d

rough am s

2 37

C O N T EN T S
True T o day

D ath s Fin al Conqu st E ssay


M an Inc e ntiv s to T r s t D eath of Jo hn Quincy
Ad am s P ea c eab l e S c e ssi on Im po ssib l
Cato s S

XXXVIII T he
.

on

e.

m en

354

D eath of Ad am s and J

T h e Commo n Lo t H nry
N a ti on al C h aract er fr om

e r so n .

C l ay o n th e Comprom is
N a ti on al Re c oll cti ons
Industry Indisp e ns abl e to E loqu e nc e Lord U llin s D gh
ter A mu sing Ane cdot Il l i t t
Th e
T o a Wa te rfowl
S hip of S t a t e
Th e Americ an Fl ag D ath of J rem i a h M a s on A a ins t
R e pu di ati o n O ur Count ry s H o nor O ur O wn Th e
T ru S o urc e of R form
F rom L or d C h at h am s
XLII E n t rpr is e o f Amer i a n Col o nist s
T h e Vill age P r a ch er T h e D e s rte d Vill age
S p ch
M ar c o B o aris Buri al of Si
XL III Sp ee ch of Ca i u s M arius
J ohn Moore
XL IV In th e T r i al of Wi lliam s for pub lishing P a in e s Ag of R
T h e St ranger and his F ri e nd E xtra ct s fro m
H ayn e Sp ee ch E xtr a c ts from W bs t e r s R e p ly to
H ay e Love of Co un try
H aml e t s
S al a thi l t T i tu s
XL V Righ t s of th e P l b e i a s
In t uc tio n t o th e Players M arm io n T aking Leave o f
D ougla s D eath of M arm ion
XLVI E xtr c ts from We bs ter s Sp ee ch o n L ayin g th e Co rn e r
S to n e of th e N ew Win g of th e Capi t ol J uly 4 1851
Cardin al Wolse y M ar l lu s t o th e Roma n P opula c e
'
S a il o r B o y s D eam
Opp ositi o n to Misg ove rn me n t
S umme r M o rni g i th e
Co untry S S tt ing T h e Am eric n F ore st G irl
T oby T o ssp t A dr w Jo n e s
XLVIII Webst e r s S p ee ch a t a M ee tin g in F a n eui l H a ll 1852
E xt a c t from P re sid e n t P i erc e s I augural 1853
Fr om C ic e ro s O ra ti on ag ains t Ve rr e s Reply to t h D k
f G r aft o n
T h e O l d M an s F uner al R ob e rt o f Lin
e.

au

e,

ea n

n e

ver s aa n .

2 62

27 1

ee

z z

son .

2 86

294

ea

301

s r

311

27 9

un

318

32 7

336

CO N T EN T S

t o th e

Se

a so ns

E legy Wri tt e n in

R E A D IN G

LE SS ON I

READ WELL T A L L DESIRE T o D O O


EVE R
To
HY T HIS WORK A N E XPERIENCED RIEN D LEA D I N
RACE L N T T ER AN CE A D A CTIO N
A D T HE

n ow

To

FE W

FU

T HE

NATURAL

read w
ell is to read as if t h e words were su p p lied
by the act of p re s ent tho ught rat h er t han b y the p age
b efore us o r j us t a s we sho ul d Speak, if the l angu age
and sentiments were o u r o wn
Chil dren a n d a ll persons whil e engaged in earnest
conversation o r t ell ing an interesting stor y generally
speak in such t ones and with s uc h a de g ree of anima
t i on and force as are best suited t o giv e a c lear e x
p ression of their thought s and feelin gs J u st so we
sho ul d read ; and if we desire to e xc el we mu st refer
c onstant ly t o t he manner in wh i ch sensible and we ll
ed u cated p erson s t alk, a s t h e onl y s afe and correc t
model
W e m us t ada p t our s t yl e to t he nat u re of th e
com p o s ition we a re re adin g wh et h er it b e ligh t an d
T

R E A D I NG

10

hu morous o r serious and s olemn ; and endeavor t o


I f it be
represent n at u ra ll y ever y S hade o f emotion
a narrative we are reading o u r uttera n c e should be
the same as if we were re l ating it in o u r own lan
gua g e if a c onversation we should refer with j u st dis
crimination to the persons engaged in it and try t o
represent by our tones and m anner the distinct p ecu
if an essay a sermon an oration we
l ia rit ie s o f ea c h
should put o u rselves as nearly as we can in t he place
of the au t hor and read just as if the thou g hts and words
c ame warm and fresh from their origi nal founta i n and
s o of every other k i nd o f writing
H en c e the ne c essity of a q ui ck eye to mark t h e
s en se for no o n e c an r ead or speak well whose thou ght s
do not go some way before his utteran c e H e must
u nderstand the subje c t
and the e xact impor t of all
the words his pronunc i ation m u st always be in critica l
ac c ordance with the bes t usage his vo ic e must be c ul
t iv a t e d so as to be e x ible full forcible and mellow
his ear so instru c ted as readily to d ete c t the l east devi
ation from stric t propriety of tone and all his e xternal
m ovements such as to appear nat u ral eas y and dig
,

n i e d.

T akin g these brie f ou t lines for the only correct


s tandard how rarely do we meet with a tr ul y g ood
reader ! and yet how seldom do we listen to a p erson
who really think s himself a poor on e ! W e are in
general the last to discover o u r own faults and when
they are shown to u s b y the friendly hints a n d criticisms
o f others we are naturall y slow to apprehend and often
s t i l l slower t o acknowledge and to Correct the m
,

R E A D I NG

11

B ut how h app ens it that wh i l e few are insensible


t o the charms O f a good elocution we nd s o many bad
readers and speakers even among those who are esteemed
well ed u cated
NO doubt in the maj orit y of cases the
cau se c an be traced t o a defective mode of early instr uo
tion o r p erhap s t o the misfort u ne of falling at a l ater
p eriod into the hands of a conceited eloc u tionist
Children in their rst attem p ts to read nd g rea t
dif cult y in making ou t t h e right p ron u n c iation of the
separate words the y are necessaril y so intent up on this,
as almost wholly to l ose si ght of conne c tion sense and
sentiment and thus they c ontra c t a habit whic h i s apt
to abide long aft er the ca u se that produ c ed it has c eased
to operate H ence we ma y s ee how im p ortant it is to
k eep c hil dren to the s ame reading l esson til l it i s ren
dered s o familiar t h at the y can s p eak the word s with
ease , and connect t h em wit h the a pp ro p riat e coll o qui a l
u tterance and a l s o to lim it t h eir attention to subject s
su ited to their com p reh ension t h eir ta s te s and feeling s
T o p ut t h e m to l es s on s above t h eir com p re h ension is the
m o s t direct way to ind u ce h ab it s of reading wh oll y arti
cia l
e a c h s ep arat e word m ay h ave the right p ron u n
cia t ion
b u t the s p irit O f a j u st u tt eran c e will not be
there
T hese l e ssons t h e res ul t of m u ch e x perience muc h
s t u d y and care are intended t o meet what seem t o be
the s p ecial wants of the pu pil ; and like a k ind and
j udicious friend to ta k e him as it were b y t he hand
to help him t o correct whatever is found t o be faulty
t o gu ard him a g ainst whatever is fanciful or conceited
and to lead him on by a gent l e , p lain and nat ural
,

R E A D I NG

12

E loc u tion is simp ly an appropr i ate u tterance

As a

science its oice is to teach an easy corre c t and ex pres


sive manner of speaking ; whether in conversa t ion
Speakin g In publi c or in readin g aloud to others I t

c omes from two L atin words ex si gnifying f r om or


a n d l o qu or t o s ea k
o u t di s
it
means
to
speak
out q
p
t in ct ly and impressively from right thought s and fee l
in g s, in t h e most be c oming manner
s

LE SS ON II

READIN

G AN D P U

N CTU ATION

rst O bject of the reader or S peaker should be to


g radua t e the for c e of his utterance t o the spa c e n ece s
sary t o be rea ched s o as to make every word pla i nly
aud i ble to the persons a ddressed that is to speak just
loud enou gh to be heard w i th ease and n o louder unless
t o give prom i nen c e to s ome part ic ular thou ght and t o
prono u n c e wi t h su c h d i s t i n c t ness tha t no t a word c an
be m i sapprehended o r m i staken for any other than the
very word he d esig ns t o u tt er a n d at t he same t i me
s o as t o avoid all harshness o f tone or voc i feration a n d
T HE

I t is well ever to
as

well as talkin g an

m i nd

t hat

reading aloud

P U N CT U ATION

13

ness to the ea r of t he he arer as Ithe f airly written or


p rinted p age doe s to the e y e of the reader
P ains m u st b e taken also n o t on ly t o deliver t h e
words dis t in ct ly a nd a udibl y b u t wit h j u st Suc h p a us e
qu antit y i n e c tion tone em phasis a nd cadence ; and
t o vary t h em with just s u c h a degree of sl own ess or
qui ck ness as will b est conve y t h e sen s e) and be most
agreeable to the ca r A nd here again we m us t l o ok t o
c olloqu ial u tterance as t he b est ill u stration
I n the nat ural ow of c onversation we pe rceive
p a u se s of various l ength s some s c arcely p erce p tible
o ther s long enou g h to a fford the speaker time to breathe
nearl y all a c com p anied with differ
o thers m u ch lon g er
ent tones and ine c tions o f the voice and it i s need l ess
p erhaps t o s ay, that all these m u st b e ful ly Cop ied in
reading
T he p oint s u sed in p rinting are called pu nct u ation
T hey divide a p rinted o r written disco u rs e into distin c t
p art s just as they happen to be more or les s separated in
s ense and they aff ord to the reader a p artia l gu ide for
p auses T h ese are called the c omma
semicol on
col on
period
para graph
interrogation P
a nd parenthesis
e x clamation
dash
T he
is a cu rved do t ; the
is a do t wit h a
comma u nder it ; the
i s two dots on e over t h e
other the
is on e dot the paragrap h generall y ends
wi t h a period and is distingu ished from it b y a break in
t he line after it and the ne x t line beginnin g a little
far ther fro m the margin the
resembl e s the g ure
i
n
inverted
the
l
rese
m
b
l
e
s
t
h
e
l
etter
i
5
;
( )
( )
( )

'

'

14

RE A D I NG

verted the
is a h oriz ontal line lon ger than the
is two c urved lines pointin g towards
hy phen and the
each other
Of all the pauses indicated by these p oints the
comma is the shortest some x it at a second of time
the semi c olon
or while o n e syllable can be u ttered ;
do uble that O f the comma ; the c olon double that of
the semi c olon the period double that of the c ol on and
the para graph nearly double that Of the period T he
p ause of the interro gation and e xc lamat i on may be varie d
to e qual that of the c omma the sem ic olon c olon peri od
or paragraph : the paragraph may also be terminated
by the interro gation or e xc lamation T he dash re qu i res
a pause lon g er o r shorter a cc ord i n g to the sense, and the
p arenthes i s unattended by any other point needs but a
sli ght pause B u t the sense often re qu ire s inn u merable
vari ations from the above scale
T he interrogation is u sed at the end of a qu estion
as W hat are y ou reading
T h e e x cl amation after a
word or words e xp ressing some e m otion a s What folly 1
what wi c kedness for yo u th to waste so m uc h pr ecio u s
time
How eeting is life
T he dash i s u sed to indi c ate a sudden interru ption
it is used someti m es to
o r a sudden c hange O f thought
give a marked prom i nen c e to the word or c la u se that
follows ; also to Show an ellips i s o r blank ; or to inti
mat e that what follows is an e xplanation of what came
before and some writers use it for the parenthesis
T he p arenthesis includes a passage or phrase inserted
in the bod y of a sentence n o t ne c essary to the construe
tion , thou gh it may be to the sense as P ride (I u se t he
,

P A U S E S UN NO TE D
word s

15

a sacred writer) wa s not made for man : the


p assage s o inserted is also call ed a p arenthesis and in
rea ding should b e r u n thro ugh m ore qui ckl y and in a
modulated tone so th at its b eginning and its end ma y
b e d i stinctly mark ed
A paragra p h contain s on e distinct s u bj ect
and ma y
consist of o n e o r more sentence s I t begins a little
farther from t h e left margin, and generally ends wit h a
b reak in the line I n the old st yle of printing ever y
p ara g raph was denoted by a blotted P reversed
b u t this mark is retained now only in the B ible
A sentence is a simple enun c iation of thought : it
be gin s wit h a c apital letter and g enerally ends with a
peri od ; and the sentence itself is also c alled a p eriod
A simple senten c e contains b u t on e subject and on e
nite verb ; as J ohn reads A c ompo u nd sentence is
two o r more sim pl e sentences joined b y conjun c tio n s ,
adverbs or re lative p ronouns either e xp ress ed or u nder
s tood as , Wisdom s ways are t h e ways of p l eas a ntne ss,
a nd all h er p a t hs are p e a ce
of

LE SS ON III
r AU S E s

NN OTED

BY

P O I N TS
DIVISI O N S o r s E NS E BARs
s r L IAR IE s
A CCEN TSQU AN TITY

B E SI DE S those p a u se s denoted by grammati c al p u n ct u a


tion whi c h are always s tri c tly t o be regarded a g ood

e ader mak es nearly as man y others t h o u gh genera lly

RE AD I N G

16

more sl ight where there is nothin g to guide him but hi s


W
own taste and judgmen t e g , E arly rising
i ll add
many years to your l ife
T hi s senten c e is s o compact a s not to s uffer a comma
to separate any of the words and y et to read it prop
erly we must make where the faint lines are drawn
t wo slight suspensions of t he vo i ce
I n c opy i n g ou t c ollo quial utteran c e the words ow
forth somet i mes singly sometimes i n groups just as they
happen to be more or less separated or associated in
meanin g T O render th i s prin ci ple plai ner and more
easily applic able i n pra c t ic e I pre pose to name every
d i s t in c t por t i on of utteran c e that re qui res a suspens i on
a d iv i s i on ; and t he upright lines w i th
o f t he vo ic e
wh ic h they w ill be o cc asi o n ally separated t o show these
suspens i ons I shall c all bars and half bars T he half
bar
c om in g down only t o the li ne wi ll show the
sligh t es t suspension ; and a bar
c rossing the li ne
wi ll show on e twic e as great ; and t wo or more bars
t ogether will Show a suspens i o n still greater in propor
t i on e g H e who loves study Iwi ll be c ome wise
I
N ow i s the t ime to se c ure an edu c ation T ruth is
I
t he basi s of moral chara c ter T he e xperi ence Of want I
enhan c es the value of prosperity F rom the right e x er
ci sc of ou r i ntelle c t ual powers arises o n e of the c hief
sourc es of our happ i ness
A publ ic speaker ] may
I
have a voic e that i s mus i cal and of great compass but
i t re qu ires mu ch time and labor to attain i ts j u st
mod ulation and that variety of inection and tone
whi ch a pa t het ic dis c ourse re quires
I n these e xamples where the division s are m ark ed b y
,

D I VISI ON S

OF

S EN S E

17

b ars a n d h alf bars it may be p erceived t h at in Order to


read ea ch g ro u p wit h sprightliness o n e o f t he syllable s
in the group must be pronounced hi gher than any of
s ome l Ower a n d some witho ut a c cent ;
a n d to make the transition from o n e division to ano t her
with smoothness the last word of each must be s o dwelt
up on by the voice as to slide wit h ease into the rst
syllab l e O f the division whi ch foll ow s witho u t an y ab
r u p t n e s s or harshness o f tone
T hese divisions consist o f impulses and rem i ss i ons
and they follow each other as naturally as the e xhaling
and inhal i n g of the breath every i mpulse swells o r va n
is hes into the remitted syllable t hat follows : as i n t he
word comp r ehe n s ibilit y
T he rst impulse is on co m

the second o n hen the t hird t he pri ncipal o n e is o n


a n d eac h of these is followed by a rem i ss i on of o n e
I
n?
s y llable e x ce p t the prin c ipal whi c h is followed by two
I n th e word in co mp r ehen s iblen es s we notice the rst
im p ul s e to be fo ll owed by two syllable s o f remission an d
the second whi ch is the prin c ipal by three H ence it
is p er c eived that the nearer the prin c ipal im p ulse is t o
the rst p art o f a word the more forcible it be c omes
and the more syll ables of remission may follow it : in
this instan c e two syllables follow the rs t and three,
the second im puls e I n the word xp ia t or y we nd it
ne c essary t o give a sort of percussive or e x p los ive im
p ulse On the rst syll ab l e t h a t t he other fo u r may follow
in remission the sam e also in imit a t iv en es s
A syllabl e is an articulat e so u nd formed of on e or
more lette rs A word i s on e or m o re syllabl es e xp ress
ing a tho u ght A word of on e sy llab l e is call ed a m ono
,

'

'

'

RE AD I NG

18

a word of two a d i ssyllable a word of t h ree a


t ris s yll a b l e and a word of fo ur or more is cal l ed a p ol y
s yll able
A c c ent is t hat stress or distin c tne s s whl ch 1s gl v en
to on e syllable i n a word above the others as prom ote
justi c ation E very word of more than three syllables
has a primary and a se c ondary accent as co mp r ehen s i
ble
I n this word 726 77 has the pri m ary and co m the
se c ondary a cc ent and the rest are u nac c ented syllables
Very s imilar to the stress laid upon a lon g word,
di vi d i n g i t by pri mary and se c ondary accents and n u
a cc en t ed syllables is the stress naturally employed in
read in g words formed i nto d i s c ourse W e utter some
t i mes on e some t i mes several words at a s i n gle impulse
o f the vo ic e just or nearly as we do the syllables
of a
lon g word or as I would sa y b y impulses and remis
s i ons and i t i s this ever vary i ng chang e of pause stress
quan t i ty and i ne ction that renders them so easy to b e
u ttered and makes them s o distinct and agreeable to
the ear
A s i t re gards the number and th e len gth of the divi
t
h
e
s i ons
slower our utteran c e is the more divisions we
make and the more rapid our u tterance is t h e fewer
we make ; e g J ohn Iis a very diligent s c holar
T hi s senten c e as marked into ve divi s i ons i s u n n a t u
rally slow and monotonou s marked into four of c o u rse
i t would be less so bu t when bro ught into three i t is
uttered wit h the
spri ghtliness of ordinary c onversation
and the grouped division is p rono un c ed lik e t h e or
w d
syl lable

ve ry

dil igent

scholar

A c cE N T s Q

U A N TITY

19

B e s ide s the accen t as al read y de s crib ed t h ere a re


two mark s cal led by the same name the acute accent
and the grave accent
the a c ute pointing to
wards the left and the grave t owards the right T he
acute accent is u sed in the di c tionary over that s y ll ab l e
in a word whic h is ac c ented o r which tak e s the greates t
force in p ronouncin g it as invite int egrit y T he grave
accent i s n ot u sed in the E nglis h lang u age e x cept in
elocutionary e x ercises then the ac u te accent is applied
to Show the rising and the grave t o Show t h e falling
sl ide
uantity
is
the
l
ength
f
time
ta
k
en
in
prono
u
ncing
o
Q
T he macro n
a syllable whether it be long or short
7
r
is
u
sed
over
a
word
t
o
mar
k
a
l
ong
sy
ll
able
o
to
( )
Show the accen t in a p oetic foot as m ak er, n Obl e t he
b reve
i s us ed t o m ark a sh ort vowe l or sylla bl e a s,
b ett er b revit y :
,

wit s

a
: feat h er, an d a

An h n es t

m an s

chie f

a r6 d

t he n O
bles t wOrk

Of GOd

s ame for m a s t h e m a cron i s


us e d t o j oin com p ound words a s p en kn ife ink stand,
p enn y wise and i s em p loy ed also at the end of a l ine
wh en a p art of t h e word i s carried to the ne x t
A n a p ostro p he i s a comma us ed to sh ow t he p o s se ss
ive ca s e ; a s J ohn s b oo k : or to sh ow a n e m ission ; a s,
tis for it is ; he s gone ifor h e i s gen e ; or a s in the

lines of poetry above


wit s , for
an d
wit i s
m an s for man is
,
t h e

T he hyph en

L E SS ON IV
.

SLIDESCU RVES CIRCU M LEXESWALKER WR O NG


F

of
vocal
langua
g
e
we
per
c
eive
at
ever
y
impulse
IN
the voic e an upward or downward sl i de or turn T he
s i mplest of these movements have been called by Mr
Walker the ri si n g and fallin g ine c t i ons T hey are
bo t h made d i s t i n c t i n ask in g a quest i on havin g two
members c onnec t ed d i sjunctively by or : as W i ll yo u

a
or the rising
r
6
o
P
ride or wal lk
Will you g
st y
i s heard d i s t i nctly in askin g a den i te question and the
fall in g i n answerin g it as Did J ohn g o to the Of c e
T hey also appear d i s t i n c t in a de clarative senten c e
Y es
havi n g two members as H e went and ret urned Want
o f m de s t y is want o f s ense
T he o t her movements have been named by the same
author t he ri sin g and fallin g cir cu m ex e s T he ris i ng
ci r cume x i s a union of t he falli n g and rising sl i des on
y
T he fallingc ircume x is a union
t he same syllable (
o f the ri s i n g and falling sl i des on the same syllable
B oth w ill be made plai n on t h e w
ords wa lk and r ide in the
foll owin g e xample if we protract the voi c e a l i tt l e while
pronoun ci n g them : I t i s m y intention not to w alk but
,

i t was J ames that did it


u I
be yO

Ah,

F rom th e e xam pl e s

I never thou ght it coul d

given,

'

it is clear t h at th e

21

I shall ca ll

isin g
them carry the l

l ine

g,
.

he say a
id
h
e
s
a
y
b
o
y
o
r
e
and
D
,
that the circu m exe s c arry the voice ro u nd with a sort
of semi c ir c ular sweep
e g
I f y o u sai d
then I said
I can thin k of no better e x ample to Show the ri sing
SO
and falling eir cu m ex es than thi s if only t h e comic hu
mor be k ept in view
T here are also other t u rns of t h e voice which occ u p y
and for
t he spa c e between the slides and cir cu m e x e s
the wan t O f some kn owled g e o f wh ic h great c onfusion
ha s hitherto involved the whole system and rendered it
I have named them the
pf b u t little practical u se
risin g and falling cu rves T h e rising curve is b eg u n
with some of t h e fallin g slide and ends wit h the ri s ing
ap p ro ximating t o t h e rising circu me x T he fall
f
n
c
urve
b
egin
s
with
s
ome
o
the
risin
and
ends
with
g
ig
to t h e falling cir
t he falling sl i de (

Did

'

u m ex .

T he ri s i ng cu rve i s n at ur ally em p lo y ed on the l ast


of s everal p a rt iC
ul a r s wh en these are connected in the
in O
a
senten
ce
b
y
on e or more ce p ul a t iv e s :
p g: f
E x ercise and t emperance s trengthen t h e con s t it u
e
g
t ion Dilig en c e ind u st ry, and prop er im p rovement of
t ime are mat eria l d u tie s of the y oung And sometime s
om p arison thus I had rather
o n the last member of a C
ride than w alk W hen more than t wo partic ulars a re
disj un ct iv ely conn e ct e d the rising c u rve i s u sed o n the
on e p r ece din g t he last ; and
o n t h e la s t , t h e fa llin
g
'
I

RE A D I NG

22

curve : e g Did J6hn or J ame s, or Jbs eph get the


medal ? N either J O
hn nor J ame s nor Jbs eph got it
e
or
thr
e
W
as
your
n
u
mber
w
O
t
n
e
O
a
u
s
o
i
d
D
y
y
A well instru cted pupil would
n e t w thr ee or fbu r
O
re ci t e h i s grammar i n th i s mann er : P resent dr aw im
P resent g6
perf e c t drew perfe c t parti ciple drawn
i mperfe c t w ent perfect par t i ci ple gune P resent l v e
v ed
i mperfe c t lev ed perfe ct p a rti ci ple l O
N ominative
a
e
m
A
u
s
possessive
O
rs
obje
c
tive
am
re am avi
u
we
.

am

at u m

F rom t hese examples i t is seen that as words pre


sent su cc essive chan g es Of sense and form , there is some
th ing i n the turn of the voi c e to mark the m ; even to
the ni c est shade All s u ch turn s of voice in c onveying
thou ght are as i nvariably settled by the law s of con v en
T he more
t ion al usage , as the meani n g of the word s
o n e word resembles another in s ound but di ffers from it
in sign i c at i on and the more liable an y word is to be
taken for another not e xpressed ; and, in general, the
more con c ise lan guag e is, the greater i s the necess i t y to
make these changes i n the voi c e s o as to be rendered
d i stin c tly aud ible B ut any attempt to d i stin guish the m
by a system of annotat i ons , unless they be perfe c tly
clear to the mind O f the student , and liable to no mis
take or do ubt , will tend rather to embarras s than to aid
,

Walker has g iven t he two following e xamples as I


have marked them to illustrate his rules for reading sen
t e n ce s of sim ilar c onstruc tion in all case s
E x ercis e and
t emp eran c e strengthen the c onstitution Diligence in
dus t ry a n d p rop er im provement of t im e a re m aterial
,

W AL KE

du ties

R S I N F L E CTI O N S

23

b
u
n
y
g

H ere h e g ives to the words ex er


diligen ce and in dus t r y where there is imperfect
cis e
s ense the s ame inection s which he gives t o con s t it u t ion
and youn g where sense is full y formed contrary to the
established laws of utterance which re quire in all sim
il ar c ases a s u s p ension o f the voice wh ile the s ense i s
s us p ended or incom pl ete and a fallin g slide curve or
circume x w h en the sense is formed and complete Of
co u rse ex er cis e diligen ce and in du st r y sh o u ld be read
with rising slides and t emp er a n ce and t im e wit h rising
curves as I have marked them in the previo u s e x amples
F rom the rst prom ul g a t i on o f his system O f i ne c tions
to the present t ime his errors have been constantl y
copied as t he tr u e prin c iples I n a work but recen t l y
p ubl i shed I nd the following e xamples given to ill us
trate W alker s ru les Dep enden c e and Ob edien ce belong
to y o uth T h e young the he althy and the p rOs p erou s
should not pres u me o n their advantages T he same
corre c tions are needed here as in the former c ase T he
tr u e mode would be Dep endence and Ob edien ce bel ong
to youth T he yO
u n g the h ealthy and the p rO
s e rou s
p
sh ould not presume on their adv antages
T he mistakes of W alker and others probabl y arose
fr om the fact that in senten c es of this constru c t i on the
sense and the ear demand a di fferen t inection o n the
rst member fro m that on the second as in t h e rst e x
am p le and a diff erent inection on the third member
fro m that on the rst and s econd, as in the second e x am
p le and having discovered no modication ex c ept the
circ u me x they nat u rally fe ll into t h e error as I have
when t h e y
sh owed of t hus u sing t h e f alling in ectio n
of

the

R E A DI N G

24

t hemselves would very l ikely read t he same passage s a s


I have marked them N o wonder truly that so many
respe c table tea chers have thrown asi de all g u i des on this
subje c t as tendin g only to mislead and to confound
A s it re g ards rules for the employment of these in
ec t ion s i t i s e x ceedingly ques t ionable whether any s ys
tem would be attended with mu c h benet even i f it
c ould be made perfe c tly clear s i n c e it would necessarily
b e c umbered w i t h numerous e xc eptions a n d after all
a jud ici ous appl ic at i on of rules must mai nly depend upon
the quic k perc ep t i on and g ood sense of the reader
T he great fault h i therto in works of this sort has
been the mult i pl ic ity of rules ; and rules t oo for the
most part based upon false prin ciples T he best aid
that c an be afforded it is beli eved after lead in g the
student to the knowledg e of just principles i s to furnish
h i m w i t h vari ous well sele c ted e xamples f or pra c ti c e
An d when he shall have been well e x er c ised in these it
is presumed h i s taste and judgment wi ll be so well im
proved for a cc urate dis c rimi nation that little else will
be needed to enable him to apply the annotat i ons pro
perly ; or ra ther to e x press properly what the annota
tions would plainly represent
,

L E SS ON

EX AM LES
P

ILLU STRA TE

P U

N CTU ATIO N

XAM P L E S I N P U N CT U ATI O N

25

b e re ligio u sly o b ey ed N ever transgres s its limits


E very deviation from truth i s criminal A bhor a fal se
h ood L et you r word s b e ingenuou s S incerity p os
s esses the most p owerful c harm I t ac qu ires t he vene
ration of m ankind I t s p at h i s s ec u rit y and peace I t
is acceptable to t h e Deit y Bl e s sed a re the p ure in
h e art

r
h
s
o
n
e
e
i
o
I
nd
s
tr
y
i
s
t
h
e
g
u
ardian
d
P a r a gr ap
u
p
o f inno c ence
I t is a great accom pl ish ment t o b e ab l e to te ll a
s tor y wel l
T here i s a s m u ch t o b e gained by t hin king a s by
reading
I t is a great misfort u ne to be tired of home
S ecrec y has been call ed t h e s oul of all great de sign s
E xpress y our sentiment s wit h brevit y
A regular division of time prev ents on e h o u r fro m
encroa c hing on another

s
r
a
h
i
v
i
e
d
b
d
r
a
d
a
o
m
N
ever
take
a
P a g p
c
m
a
y
thing for granted when it i s in y our power t o reduce it
to abso l u t e certaint y
I f the idle man k ne w t h e va l u e of time h e wo ul d
n ot be de s iro u s o f kil ling it
I f yo u wou ld be revenged up on y o u r enemie s let
y o ur l ife be b lameles s
B e more read y to forgive t h an to ret urn an in j u r y
P rosperit y gains friend s and adversit y t rie s them
H e that would have good o fce s done to h im m us t
do them to others
B y the fa ul ts of ot h er s, wi s e m en c orrec t t h eir
ce p t s

'

o wn .

RE AD I NG

26
a r a gr a p hs

div ided by

s ev er a l co mm a s

E very p er

should obtai n if poss ible a dispos i tion to b e pleased


A s you value the approbation of H eaven or the e s
teem Of the world c ult i va t e t he love Of virt u e
E at and drink with moderation keep the body open
ri se early t ake moderate e x er c ise and you will hav e
l i tt le o cc as i on for the phys ici an
T he best preparat i on for all the un c ertainties Of fu tu
ri t y c ons i s t s i n a well ordered m ind a g ood cons c ien c e
and a cheerful subm i ssion to the w ill o f H eaven
H uman so ci ety re qu i res d i s t i n c t i ons of property di
vers i ty of c ond i t i ons subordi nation of rank s and a mul
t ip l icit y of o cc upations In order to advan c e the g eneral
g ood
Oratory say s J ohn son i s the power of beat i ng down
your adversary s arg ument s and putting bett er in their
pla c es
Grammar tra c es the O perations of thou ght in k nown
and re c eived c hara c ters and enables polished nations
amply to c onfer on posterity the plea sures of intelle c t
the i mprovements of s c i ence and the history of the
world
L ogi c converses with ideas adjusts them wit h pro
r ie t y and tru th and g ives the who l e an elev ation in the
p
m i nd consonant to the order of nat u re , or the i ght of

s on

R hetor ic ,

lendin g a spontaneo u s aid t o the defe c ts


o f lan g ua g e applies her warm and g lowing tints to the
portra i t and e xh ib i ts the grandeur of the u niverse the
p rodu c t ions of geniu s and a ll the work s of a rt a s copies
of the fair ori ginal
,

E X AM P L E S I N P U N CT U ATI O N

27

B etween gram
mar logi c and rhetoric there e xi sts a c lose and happy
conne xi on whi c h rei gns throu g h all scien c e and e x
tends to a ll the powers o f elo quence
M en s evil manners l ive in bras s ; their virt u e s we
write in water
P ri de g oeth before dest ru ction and a h au gh t y sp irit
before a fall
I nnocen c e c onfers ease and freedom on the mind ;
and leaves it open t o every pleas i ng sensat i on
S port not wi t h pain and d i s t ress nor use t h e mean
est i nse c t with wanton c r u elty

I s a denite question on e wh ic h
In t e r r oga t ion s
begins with a verb and may be answered by yes o r no
Do we use the rising slide to a denite question
I s an indenite qu estion on e which begins wi th an
interrogative pronoun or adverb and whi c h cannot be
answered b y sim p le yes or no
Do we use the fall ing slide in reading an indenite
qu estion
A re who which wha t int errogative prono u ns and
are why when when ce wher e how whit her and wher e
r e int erro g ative adverbs
o
f
S hould we answer all these question s with y es P and
in reading sho ul d we terminate ea ch with the rising
slide
S houl d we in the absence of emphasi s us e t h e risi n g
slide cu rve or cir c ume x in e very case while the sense
is not formed and of cou rse is s u spende d and should
we always use the fallin g slide c u rve or c irc ume x when
t h e s e n se is form ed ? An d does t his generally happe n
P

a r a gr a p hs

div ide d by

s e m ico l o n s

RE A D I NG

28

at a period a colon and sometimes at a s emicolon , or a

comma 2
Ca n we esteem that man prosperou s who is raised t o
a situation which a t t ers his pa s sions b ut whi c h c or
disorders his t emper and nally
r u p t s his prin ci ples
overset s h i s vir t ue
M ust we in read i n g the two last para g raphs termi
and why
n ate t hem with the ris i n g slides
W ha t ava ils t he Show O f e x ternal liberty to one who
has los t t he g overnment o f h i mself
Wha t d i re c t i on i s gi ven i n t he rst para graph o f the
rst lesson on t he subje c t O f read i n g well
Ho w c an any o n e read well who does not pay due
regard to the sense and arran ge what he reads int o
appropr i ate divi s i ons
W hy do mos t persons read in a voice s o very differ
ent from t he tones in wh ic h they talk
W hy should we read the fo ur last p aragraphs with
t he falli n g sl i de
E x cla m a t ion s H ow stran g ely are the O pinions O f
men altered by a chan g e in the i r c ond i tio n
W hat misery does the vi c ious man se c retly end ure
Adversity how blunt are all the arrows of thy quiver
in c omparison with those of g uilt
What a p i e c e of work i s man how noble in reason
how i nn i te i n fa c ult i es ! i n form ho w e x press and a d
m i rable i n a c tion how like an angel in a p prehens i on
how like a God
L ovely art tho u O P eace and l ove ly are thy chil
dren and l ovely are t h e pri nts of thy foot s te ps in t he
,

XAM P L E S I N P U N CT U ATI O N

29

com p etence is all we can enjo y


Oh, be content where H eaven can give no more

D
T he
a sh

empl re

T r u e we have l ost an
let i t
p asstrue we ma y than k the p er dy of F rance that
pl uc ked the j ewel ou t O f E nglan d s crown with all t he

o
f
c unning an envious shrew A nd let that pass twas
b ut a tri c k of state a brave man k nows no mal ic e but
at once forgets in peace the inj u ries of war and gives
hi s direst foe a friend s em b race

W hat will a man play tri cks wil l he indulge


A silly fond c onceit o f his fair form
A nd just proportions fashionable mien
A nd prett y fa c e In presen c e of his Go d
,

farmer c ame t o a neighbor ing l awyer e x pressin g


great concern for an ac ci dent wh ic h he sa i d had j u st

happened
has
On e of y o u r o x en continued he
been gored by an u nlu cky bull O f m ine and I should be
glad to know how I am to mak e you reparation
T ho u art a very honest fellow re p lied the lawyer
and wilt not th i nk it unreasonable that I e x pe c t on e
I t i s no more than justi c e
o f th y o x en i n return

quoth the farmer to be s u re b ut what d i d I s a y


I t is your bul l t hat has kill ed on e of m y o x en
In

deed
said the lawyer that alters the case : I must

in quire into the affair a n d if


A nd if
sa i d the

farmer the bus i ness I nd would have been c on c luded

w i t hout an if
had y ou been as ready to do just i ce t o
o thers , as to e x act it fr om them
A

RE A DI NG

30

S ei z e mor t als se i z e t he transient hou r


I mprove ea ch momen t as i t 1e s

L ife s a shor t su m mer man a ower


H e d i es alas how soon he d i es
,

t
therefore
the
L
ord
knew
tha
V
Vhen
P a r en t hes is
the P hari sees had heard that he made and bap t i z ed
z ed
d
i
s
ci
ples
t
han
J
ohn
t
hou
g
h
J
esus
h
i
mself
bapt
i
m or e
(
bu
t
dis
ci
ples
he
left
J
udea
and
went
again
i
h
s
t
no
)
i n t o Galilee

en t er on my l i st o f fri ends
T
hou
g
h
g
r
a c e d w i t h pol i shed manners and ne s en s e ,
(
Y e t wan t i n g s en s ib i l i t y ) t he man
T ha t n eedlessly se t s foo t upon a worm

I would

n ot

T he pulp i t (when the sat i ri st ha s at l ast


S pen t all h i s for c e and made n o proselyte
I s a y t he pulp i t (in t he sober use
Of i t s legi t i ma t e pe cul i ar powers)
M us t stand a cknowle dg ed whi le the world Shal l s tand ,
T he mos t i mportan t and e ffe c tual g uard
irtue s c ause
S uppor t and ornament of V
,

L e t us (s in c e life can l i ttle more suppl y

T han jus t t o look abou t us and to d i e )


E xpa t i a t e free o er all thi s s c ene o f man
A m ighty ma z e but not withou t a plan

R e m a r ks
In

s chool when a pup i l or a class has


made the above l esson familiar, an d is abl e to read it
,

E M P HA SI S

31

with ease , in the tr u e coll o qu i a l

s ty le l et each be re
qu i red to tell what he kno ws of pun c tua t ion and what
constit u tes a sentence T hen let him tell what he

understands about the d i visions of sense a c cent


grouped divisions
and t he analo g y there i s in utter
in g these to that of long words : also wha t h e knows
abo u t the bars half bars slides c u rves circu m ex e s :
and to p rove that he u n deis t a n ds them l e t him mark
with a pen c il a number of the paragraphs in this lesson
int o the proper divisions just as his j u d g ment may
g uide him : then go over the s ame and apply the in
ect ion s j u st as he thinks the y sh o ul d b e u sed in read
ing the diff erent p assages
,

VI

LE S S ON

EM HAS IS
P

A DENCE

AN D C

is well to k ee p these fact s constant ly in mind that


good reading consists in faithfully Co p ying out the best
spe c imens of e xtemporan eous address ; tha t its move

ments are graduated by divisions of on e o r more


words sometimes indicated b y p unctuation but oftener
left t o the good sense of the reader ; that t he g rouped
division is read with primary and s e c ondary accent lik e
the pronun c iation of a long word and that every divi
s ion is attended with o n e or more of the ine c tion s
called s lides c u rve s and circum ex es
E m pha s i s a n d ca de n ce n e x t c la i m t h e atte n tion
IT

32

E ADI N G

E mphasis, i n its ordinary import , is a stress l ai d upon


some s igni c ant word or words in a senten c e to S how i t s

pro p er mean i n g and c aden c e is si mply a falli ng or l o w


eri n g o f t he vo ic e
E mphasi s i s a word of Greek ori gin and i s u sed t o
represent t hat power i n e xpress i on wh ic h ser v es the most
c le a rly and forci bly to bri ng out the t rue s ign i c at i on o f
t he passag e T hi s i s generally e ffe c ted in ou r languag e
by usi ng a d i fferen t i ne c t ion on the emphat ic word or
by marking i t wi t h lon g er pause or quanti t y o r stress
t ha n i s c ommonly used at a word havin g only the simple

o r the proper emphasis may r e


a cc en t of a d i vi s i on
q ui re several of these appl i ances : and some t imes the
emphas i s i s made more e ffe c tively by a sudden lo weri n g
o r deep depress i on o f t he vo ic e
H en c e the following
den i t i on
E mph a si s i s the power whi c h marks out in a sen
ten c e some s igni c ant word o r words on whi c h the
mean in g depen ds by just su ch stress i ne c tion pa u se
quan t i t y and o ccasional depress i on as serve best t o e x
.

whatever i s done by t he voi c e and manner of a speaker


t o draw attention t o any word o r words u ttered by him
whe ther i t be p r ecis ion in enun c iating the whole word
stress of vo ic e on the a c cented syllable inect i on pro
l on ga t ion of a sound a pause before the
emphat i c word
or phrase or a pause a f t er t hem E mphasis m a be
y
s eu r e d
a
by n y on e o f these methods or by severa l of
t hem c ombi ned
,

'

E mphasi s i s, as it were, the pivot on whi ch the whole

N L E CT ION S AN D E M P H A S IS

I F

33

w
lace
it
and
to
execute
it
properly
is
q
uite
certain
h
o
,
,
p
to be right in other respects
Language that is merely narrative and without com
parison , passion o r emotion seldom de m ands what is
properly termed e m phasis e g John is a very dili
I
gent scholar
In this sentence no force is re quired but the ordi
because there is no emotion ,
n ary accent of a division
comparison or contrast But introduce a comparison
and a demand for emphasis is perceived at once e g ,
In
Jo hn is quite as diligent a scholar as J ames
reading the sentence n ow the emphasis see m s to be
formed by laying g r eater stress on the words co m pared
but in t r uth it is m ade by pronouncing J ohn and
J a m es with opposite curves increasing the pause a little
at J o hn , and quickening the move m ent of the middle
division Again I s a y John is a very diligent sch olar,
not James ! N o w the emphasis is made on the sa m e
words by opposite cir cu m e x es , and the middle divisio n
takes the fall ing slide
The sleep of the laboring man is s weet This is
s imple narrative and in reading re quires b ut the s im
ple accent o f a divi sion with the rising slides But ,
should the thought of an idle m a n enter the mind and

it could scarcely be otherwise nothi n g m ore is required


to show it in reading than t o give a s light emphasis to
la bor in g by changing the inection fro m a rising slide to
a rising curve pause a little m ore at s leep and quicken
the middle division ; thus, The sleep Io f the l aborin g
m an
is sw eet
But , in mere narrative, an important word in t rodu
.

'

RE AD IN G

34

i
s
emphasis
which
cing a n ew thought requires a slight
u s u ally m ade by a slight paus e after the word as after
d
in
the
passages
above
yet
such
wor
s
e
s
l
e
n
d
a
J o hn
p
emphatic
though
have not gene rally been considered
it is i m po s sible to read well without calling attention to
the m in thi s wa y
a
n
as
I
am
an
E
glishm
n
If I were an Am erican I
while a fo reign troop remained in my country , I N E V ER
would lay do wn m y arm s
n ever
n ever
n ever
In the last exam ple the emphasis is m ade o n Am er
ica n and E n glis hm a n by the rising slide and rising curve ,
atte n ded wi t h m or e for ce than or dina ry accent and on
the rs t a n d second ti m e use d by the falling
n ev er
s lide a n d s t r ong force p r opo r tioned to the degr ee of emo
tion i m plied in the language and the last n ev er by the

fall ing slide and a deep depressi on of the voice almos t


to a deep aspirated whisper drawn u p from the very
botto m of the che s t
The s e exa m ples show sufciently that emphasis, l n
its st re s s pause inection and quantity is as diversied
as the sense and feeling designed to be expressed by it
and that sense and feeling fur nish the only guides to its
p r oper u s e
S o m e write r s have divided emphasis into several
kind s called the inferior and the superior the secondary
and the pri m ary e m phatic stress compound st r ess
e m phasis o f cont rast and many m ore dis t ict io n s
which seem to m e more likely to confuse than to assist
,

N LE C T IO N S

I F

E M P H A S IS

AN D

35

student for, if he full y understand what he reads ,


a n d have ready facil ity in using the various appliances
as already taught he will very naturally , a n d p erha p s
unconsciously increase or diminish the force of his em
phasis as the language justly demands so that em pha
s is will inevit ably follow just as he appreciates the sense ,
and will naturally take the form which will express that
sense the best
In books where there is any c hange from a uniform
type the words p rinted in italics except in the Bible are
ordinarily intended for emphasis the words in capitals ,
for a higher and those in larger capitals for a still higher
e m pha s is In ma n uscript these deg rees of force a r e
marked by lin es drawn under the words intended for em
phasis one for i t alics two for capitals and three lines
and the same lines may be used to
fo r g r eater capitals
indicate these degrees of emphasis under words on the
printed page

The close of the last exam ple in emphasis


Ca den ce
illustrates also the cadence Cadence is a falling of the
voice on on e or more words in succession or on on e or
more syllables of the same word in some respects like
passing down irregular steps and is gene r ally made at
the close o f a period o r paragraph The word is of Latin
origin and co m es from e a der e, t o fall and is apt t o be
taken in contrast with emphasis, because there ca n in
fact , be no elevation o r turn of the voice amounting to
what is called emphasis without a correspondent de
pression
T he general fault in making the cadence, is a dull
un ifor mity at the close of successive period s and para

t he

RE A DING

35

graphs The following examples will show what a plea


sing variety can be thrown into cadence in a way to
gratify the ea r and give life to utterance and how con
s tant m ust be the exercise of good taste and j udgment
in orde r to m ake it prope rly
I have been young and now I am old ; yet have I
never seen the righteous forsaken, nor his
s eed
begging
bread
It was m eet that we should make merr y and be
glad for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again
and was lo st and
.

is

f o und

vent to my steadfast abhorrence of such enormous and


r
e
o
prin
p p s
ter
ci
u s
pl es
Blessed are they that mo urn : for they shall b e
c om
fo rt
.

ed

N L E C T IO N S

I F

AN D

L E SSO N

E A MINAT ON
X

OF

A CLASS

E M P H A SIS

V II

ON NFLECT ONS
I

37

AND

EM HASIS
P

T E A C H ER What inections are c a lled the ri sing and


what the falling slides and what marks would you u s e
t o show the m
A The rising slide carries the voice upward in a
straight line , as if up an inclined plane and the falling
slide down ward as if down an inclined plane The
rising is hear d in asking a denite question the falling,
in ans wering it as Do you love pl ay
Y es I d o
o r the rising is heard in the rst , and the falling in the
l ast member of a sentence disj unctively connected by
as Will you g6, or st ay
The rising slide is de
or ;
the falling, by the grave
s ign a t e d by the acute accent
accent
T What are circum ex es, and how are they desig
.

n a t ed

B The rising circume x is a union of the falling


and rising slides on the same syllable , and is shown by
the grave and acute accents j om ed at the bottom ; as
M ike in this ironical passage If Mike has a frmed
I
who can doubt it P the falling circumex is a
union of the r1s1n g and fallin g slides on the same syllable,
and is shown by the acute and grave accents, j oined at
the top as, on the word a ll, in this ironical passage :
If Mike says s o, then all Imust believe it of chu rs e
C I think s ir, both of the circum ex e s are brought
o u t clearly on is and be, in the secon d l ine of this coup
.

RE A D ING

38

HOpe springs eternal in the human breast


Man never is but always to b e Iblest
.

T What inectio n s are those which are named


cu rves a n d how m a y t hey be designated
D The ri s ing curve begins with som e of the falling,
and ends with t he r1s1n g slide approaching somewhat to
the ri sing circum ex a s is ge n e rally heard in the last of
s e v e ral par tic u lar s in the beginning of a sentence ; as
E xe rc is e and t em perance str engthen the constitution
It m ay be designated by the acute accen t turned at t he
botto m The falling cur ve begins with so m e of the
as on the last of
r isi n g a n d ends with the falling slide
three or m or e par ticular s di sjunctively connected a p
J
m
the
falling
circu
ex
as
N
either
o
hn
t
ro a chin
o
g
p

fault
and
it
may
be
w
a
e
s
i
n
r
m
n
r
J
b
h
s p
n o Ja e s I o
l
de signated by the gr ave accent turned at the top
T The next give an exam ple of the falling slide
E Ther e is a divinity that shapes ou r ends This
is a declarative sentence for m in g complete sense, and
end s with the falling slide
F Through the thick gloom of the pr sent I see
the brightness of the future This is also a declarative
sentence and ends with the falling slide ; but , as the
s ense is suspended on the last word o f the rst divi s i on
I have given it the rising slide
T D o sentences always end with the falling slide
falling curve or circumex when the sense is co m plete
G N o, s ir not of neces s ity : negatives generally
.

and emphasis in most cases requires a different inection

N LE C T IO N S

I F

f rom

AN D

E M P H A SIS

39

the s im p l e f orm or rather it is for the most part ,


a change of the inection that makes the emphasis ;
e g The quality o f mercy is not strained
H It is your place t o ob ey not t o comm and
I It is n t gri ef Ithat bids me moan it is tha t
I a m all al o ne
J Yo u were paid t o ght I against Ale x ander not
at him
t o rail
K He showed a countenance more in sorrbw than
in anger
L The man who is in daily u s e of ardent spirits if
he does not become a drunkard , is in dan ger of losing
his h eal t h and ch aracter That is he is in dan ger of
l osing his health and ch aracter is he n t
I
A The appreh ension of evil Iis many ti m es wrs e
than the evil itself and the ills a m a n fears he shall
s uffer he suff ers in the very fear of them
I
B W e should take a prudent care for the future
but s o as t o enjoy the present : It is no part of wis
dom t o be miserable to day because we may happen to
be so t o m o rrow
C A wise m a n , says S eneca , is provided for occur
he m anages the b ad
ren ce s o f an y kind : the g o od I
he v anquishes : in prosp erity Ihe bet rays no pre s um p
tion , in adversity he feels no desp o ndency
l
D It is not the height t o which men are a d
i
that
makes
them
g
ddy
it
is
the
look
n
i
v an ced
g
I
with contempt upon th ose bel o w them
dbwn
E W hich is the greater m a n , he who simply stri ke s
when the iro n is h t , or he who m akes the iron h6t

R E ADING

T What is the nature of emphasis in determin ing


the sense of a passage
F E m phasis is the pivot on which the whole sense
o f reading tu rns
I
T What is e m phasis P
a
E
phasis
is
the
power
which
marks
out
in
m
Gr
sentence some signicant word or words on which the
m eaning depends by just such stress , inection pause ,
quantity and occasional depression , as best serve t o ex
plain and enforce that m eaning
T Ver y well proceed with your examples
I
I
H Whatever p ri es f brt i es also the he art
The t wo words in this sente n ce are made emphatic by
Oppo s ite curves
I P atience by preserving com posur e within, resists
I
the i m pression which trouble m akes fr om wit hbu t Here
n ce is opposed to t r o u ble
a
t
i
e
and
t
o
h
u
w
t
h
w
i
t
o
t
i
i
n
p
each couple rendered e m phatic by opposite curves
J S inc erity I and truth I form the basis I of every
virtue
K Virtuous y o uth I gradually brings forward I a o
cbm l ishe d and ou
r
ish
ng
m
nhood
i
a
p
L He I who would act like a wise man I and buil d
his h o use on the rck, and not on the s and sho ul d con
t e m plate hum an l ife I not only in the s i mshin e but in
,
the shade
A W hen Ari s totle was asked what a man could

gain by telling a falsehood; he repl ied, Not t o be cred


I
it ed when he speaks the t rii t h
.

I
things he thought most proper I for boys to learn

an

N LE C T IO N S AN D E M P H A S IS

I F

4]

Those which they ought to p ractise


swere d,

when
I
I
i
they co m e to be m en
A w ser than Age sila u s has

I
I
r
inculcated the s ame sentiment
T ain u p a child
in the way he should g6, and when he is o ld , he w ill not
I
dep art fro m it
T W hy do you give an emphasis by the falling slide
to o ld 3 I believe that is not t he co m m on way of read
ing it
B T hat is the way D r P arker read it for his tex t
It means I su ppose he will not only not depar t fr om it
in the season of youth and middle life ; but not even
when he is bld
T V ery well Master B , D r P arker I t hink, has
given an im proved turn to the reading and you have
proved yours elf t o be a good hearer All these examples
have been well managed and I have but on e remark t o
make the words under emphasis were generall y brought
out with too much prominence as if you meant t o show
how well yo u understood them and they were n o t m a de
with a sufciently s m o oth and easy swell When these
principles become more familiar, and you surrender your
minds wholly to the sense, a ll such unnatural promi
n e n ce will cease
I
0 H o nor I is but a ctitious kind o f hbn es t y ; a
I
m ean but a n ecessary substitute fo r it in societies who
I
I
h ave none : it is a sort of paper credit , with which
men are obl iged to trade , who are decient in the ster
I
l ing cash of t r ue morality I and religion E very prom
in en t thought as it oc cu r s in this se n tence is distin
It
is
a
settled
principle
that
u ished by emphasis
g
e ve ry word conveyin g some n e w or importa n t thought in

RE AD ING

42

d iscour se ; and all wo rds in contrast compari son cor


respondence or Opposition should generally be marked
by e m pha s is
I
knowledge
as
t
o
w
h
b
s
not
much
to
o
s
D S tudy
,
I
pos s es s it
I
E It is not so easy to hide one s faults, as t o men d
the m
F Why beholdest thou the m bt e I that is in thy
b rothe r s eye but considerest not the be am I that is in
I
thi n e bwn eye
G As it is the pa r t of j ustice I neve r to do v ibl en ce
s o it is the pa r t of m o desty I never to com m it off ence
I
I
H Custom is the pl ague I of wise m en and the
idol of fobl s
I It is pleasant to grow bett er for that is to exc el I
o u r s elv es
it is pleasant to sub due s ins for this is VIC
T O R Y ; it is plea s ant to gove r n our appetites and p as
sions for thi s is E MP I RE This exam ple contains a
succe s s io n of particulars each rising in i m po r tance and
I have increa sed the e m pha sis accordi n gly I give v ict or y
the falling cu rve and emp ir e the falling slide and o ur
s elv es also the falling s lide
,
,

r.

What st r onge r breastplate I than a hear t un


tainted
T H R ICE I is he I ar m ed I that hath his quarrel j u st
And he but n aked , though locked u p in S T EE L
I
W hose conscience I with inj ii s t ice I is corrupted
.

Here

hea r t

is made emphatic by the rising slide

and

AN D E M P H A S IS

IN E L E c r ION s

43

by the falling slide and more increased stress,


making three degrees of emphasis
T Can any one relate what I told you the other day
about D r B u sh s mode of showing the keys of the voice ,
and the degrees of emphasis P
K I think they were considered as analogous t o cer
tain intervals on the scale o f music when the inter val
or skip was from o n e to t wo, o r from t wo to o n e, there
wa s no change o f the voice more than that of ordinary
accent when it was to three an e m phasis was formed
the second degree ;
o f the r st degree ; when t o ve
when to eight making a full octave the third or great
est degree ; and these are the s everal key notes of the
voice in speaking
T P lease to give an example : but rst illustrate
what you understand by the interval of o n e to t wo, and
on e to three
K I c am e, I s aw, I cbn que red From I t o ca me is
an ascending interval or skip from on e t o t wo o r what is
called on e tone fr om I to s a w an interval of from on e
t o three producing an e m phasis of the rst o r lowest
degree and from I to con qu er ed is a descending inter
v a l o f o n e t o three making also an e m phasis of the l o w
I will n ow give the illustration as nearly as
e s t degree
I can recollect
At ou r house in the country I see Mr White , who
has rode past I hail him for I wish to send to to wn

At r st I s ay Mr Wh ite Mr Whit e ! He does not


hear I s a y again with increased force Mr W hit e
S till he does not hear Again I call yet
M r W hit e

I
E
M r W H ITE 1 I have not yet
louder, M r W H T
s t eel,

RE AD ING

44

reached his ear And now I go to the very top of my

voice M r V
This car ries m y
M r W HIT E
E
VHIT
voice u p to the octave
T Very well sir ; these are st r iki n g analogies : we
refe rred to the m only to awaken attention to these natu
ral s tates of the voice in our colloquial habits a n d not
t o encou rage the p ractice of r eading in any way after
the articial note s of m usic Can any one describe the
se m itone as spoken of in the sam e connection
L The s e m itone occupies but half the space of a
ton e The i n te r val from se v en to eight on the diatonic
scale is a s e m itone It is di s tinguished for plaintiveness,
whethe r utte red on a high o r low pitch it is e m ployed
in exp re s s ing tender em otio n s as love pity com passi on
al s o com plaint a n d hu m ble supplication or any appeal
to sy m pa t hy It is the tone we often u s e t o child r e n ,
before they can ful l y co m pr ehend the m eaning of wo rds
T W ill you give an exa m ple
A The m othe r says in tones of en dear m ent
G eorge I is a go od b b
and
he
answe
s
His
r
a
h
y
br other a little olde r says playfully to show that
George unders tands little else than the lan guage of
tones in the sam e softened voice G eorge I is a n au gh

I
t y b by z
he again says ah
He then adopts the
ri s ing and fallin g slide of a tone
G eorge is a gbod
b oy
and he cries out n o
B I think we often hear the se m itone from little
beggars in the street
P lease I to give me I a penny I
to b uy my m other a l o af of bre ad 9
T GIv e so m e examples n ow, to show how emphasis
.

N LE C T IO N S AN D E M P H A S IS

I F

45

I
0 He shall increa s e but I shall decrease
I
D There is a di fference between giving I and f br
giving
E In this Species of composition , pl a ii sib ilit y I is
I
much mor e essential than prbb a b ilit y
F What is d o ne cannot be iin do n e
I
G He that d escended I is the same that ascended
I
H S o m e I a ppear to m ake very little diff erence
I
between d ecency I and indecency m orality and im mo
r al it
rel
gion
i
and
i
r
r eligion
y
I
I The conduct of Antoninus I was marked by j u s
I
tice and hu m anity ; that of N ero by injustice I and
inhuman ity
J There is a p s s ib ilit y I of such an occurrence
though there is no prbb ab ilit y
K This corruptible I must put on incorruption and
this m o rtal I must put on im mortality
T N ow give som e examples where only on e part of
a comparison is expressed and the other is t o be made
clear b y e m phasis
L I give on e fro m the 84 t h P salm
I had rather
than t o
be a dobrkeep e r I in the house of m y d
That is I had
d wll I in the tents o f w ickedness
I
rather be not only a c om mon In m ate but even a do br

keeper
and this meaning is plainly suggested by lay
ing e m phasis o n door keep er by the falling slide

A I give on e from the 19 t h chapter of Luke : I


tell you that if these should hold their peace the
st o nes I woul d immediately cry o ut
Here the emphasis
on st on es , by the falling slide plainly indicates that if
.

B I have one fro m the Lo rd s prayer : Give i s


I
I
That is As thou hast fed
this day our daily bre ad
I
I
day ou r daily bre ad : or,
u s h it he r to s o give u s th is
I
As thou hast supplied us the p as t day, s o give u s this
I
day our daily bread

I
E nter not
0 I have one from the 4 3d P s alm :
I
I
I
into judg m ent with thy servant for in thy sight I
I
shall no esh l iving I be justied
D I give one fro m the speech of S atan , in M ilton s
P aradise Lost
.

To re ign I is worth a m bition though in H ell


I
Better to reign in H ell I than s erve in He aven
,

To supply the comparison in the last line it might


I
r
be rende ed : Better to reign not only in the lowest
place u n crs ed but even in H ell
,

V III
RT CULAT ON V OWELS N D S T NCT A N D V T ATED S O UND S
L E SSO N

I I

IT

has already been remarked that it is the special


characteristic of good reading to present the words with
,

A RT

ULAT

IC

O N V OW

EL S

47

each voc al l etter of e very syllable must be distinctly


enunciated with its app ropriat e sound and accent
This is articulation and lies at the very foundation of a
good delivery
Whoever aim s at excellence in his
delive r y , must labor at rst principles and n o t remit his
labor till he has completely mastered all the elementary
sounds of the language , s o that he may be able to utter
them with perfect ease in all their varied combinations
O ur language contains about forty t wo elementary
sounds made by t he t wenty six letters of the alphabet
Five of the letters a e i o u are called vowels the
re s t consonants, except w and y whe n they end a syl
lable and then they become vowels When two vowels
unite t o form a syllable they a r e called a diphthong as,
When three vowels unite to form a
a im , cle a n v o ice
syllable , they are called a t riphthong as, beaut y, v iew
For the sound of the vowels the scale of W alker is
adopted here with the single exception of a , as heard in
ca r e, d a r e r a r e which is placed as the 5t h sound o f a
i
thus f dt e fa r, f aill f it c are m b m at p ine, pin n b,
i
m bv e n 3r , n 6t ; rat e , t ab b r ll ; 8E1, p bn d ; t hin, T H IS
T H, a s
T h, as heard in t hin is called sharp or acute
heard in t his , is called obtuse
O ne of the highest beauties o f delivery is a full
round mellow pronunciation of the O pen vowels and
diphthongs as heard in father, noble tone voice choice ,
point , joint , authority, aurora ; and the too feeble and
indistinct utterance of the unaccented syllables and
consonants is among the mos t prevailing faults
But there is another defect which claims attentio n
It is a vitiated s ound of the vowels a n d diphthon gs n ot
an d

RE A D ING

48

a
hen
they
are
This
is
w
m
m
unde r accent and so eti es
r
s
pe
haps
in
the
E
a
te
n
S
tates
r
ble m i sh m ore observable
but it pervade s m ore or less t he whole country The
t he
p
incipally
t
o
W
hat
should
be
r
s ound is conned
r
b
t
sound of the shor t i) as hear d in n
the long b oad b

w
l
a
l
3
heard
in
the
b
oad
as
heard
in
hich
is
r
f
r
o
as
f
i
b
and
i
i
b
t

and the diph hongs


s i m ilar to the last
4
4
4
4
4
4
01
m
c
Thus the vowel sounds In col, com con
, on
and dv a re compressed and attened intoo the second
4
o
4
2
on
n
c
I
e
c
n
e
I
v
d
r
o
sound of a as heard In f a r s o that p
o 2
t
n
a
t
n
s
c
a
n
I
s t ant a n d words of thi s sort a r e pronounced
4
4
2
o
2
2
and
frog
log
n
i
o
t
a
rv
e
a
s
b
n
o
ca n s t i t u t l
Ide n ce
ra V
p
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
hog ock lock clock long song wrong are pronounced
2
2
g
g
2
r
e
o
m
s
n
a
b
t
d
5
a
a
s
ng
wr
ng
an
e
a
n
a
l
k
c
a

a
1
1
fI g
g
g
g
2

a
d, Lard
G

r
the D eity G od and Lo d are pronounced
a n d sometimes with a drawl superadded
o
3
The s ound of a as hear d In f a ll i s often changed to
3
the second sound as heard In f a r s o that a n o311, t 311,
2
2
2
2
and ball are p ronounced a ll , c all t all b all ; and t bn e ,
3
3
1
stone & c are pronounced t on ston or s t un ; and
5
3
3
3
3
3
3
co u n t cow, how, o u t coward are pr onounced ca ou n t ,
2
3
2
3
2
3
5
5
5
p
;a
i
r
h
o
ce
r
c
a
out
and
vo
ce
re
o
w
r
d
a
o
c
j ce ,
c o w, hd ow, a
;
32
2
2
3
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
il
O
d
r
m
o
n
t
o
m
t
a
annoy
po
son
bro
o
m
t
,
b o y j o y,
,
,
,
,
p
j
,
ag
s o rl are robbed of that open broad full sound s o agree
2
able to the ear and pronounced v a iee , b ziy j in t p int ,
l
P e rsons who pronounce In thi s way a re
&c
a n in t
unconscious of the fac t and , of course have no con cep
tion how greatly it mars the style of their delivery
o
l
l
The l O g open s un d of o as heard In force , cbu rs e,
q
1 o
1
1
p
divorce, p o rt ra1t glory, lori ous story, i s often short
3
o
g
3
3
3
3
ened t o force , corse, div orce , p or t raIt , glory, glori ous,
.

VIT IA TE D

S O U NDS

49

ry a n d the l ong i a s in m ine thine m ild child is


i
i
changed into a sort of drawl as m a in e t ha in e m iril d,

st

The l on g so u nd of and d, an d the diphthong au ,


forming an unaccented syllable at the beginning of a
word, as event, bmit , b nough, emotion , dhey, bp in ion ,
i
dmit , b clock, bp a qu e, z u t horit y, duda ciou s & c are
2
l iable to be sunk or perv erted to the sound of Short 11,
and pronounced u vv en t , u mmit , u b b ey, u ppin ion utho
rity, & c Much pains should be take n t o give distinct
ness to these syllables , and to do it with the proper
s ounds of the vowels
l
Also the long sounds of (a and b in the inseparable
propositions p r e and p r o, when n ot under accent , are
apt to be sunk into p er or p r in the words prevent pre
dict, priv a il prtend p r bdom in a t e, p r bm ot e pr bn ou n ce,
and
pronounced

r bce e d, p r bfa n e pr bp os e & c


rv
e
n
t
p
p
,
rf a n e
r do m in a t e
and
or p r v en t , p r v a il, p r m o t e
;
p
p
in other words these letters are liable to be sunk as in
b elief p olite, several, every deliverer traveller, hist o ry,
memo rable , melody, philos ophy socie ty, variety, & c ,
and pronounced b lief p lit e, ev ry, & c
1
The long sound of 11 , n ot under accent , as in the
words v ir t Iie v irt Iious , n it lire , nat Iira l m ea srire,
i
t r eaS Iire, crea t iir e l e iS Iir e , s t ru ct l r e p Op Iil a r s in giila r
i
ril a r r e i l a r s ecril a r is often robbed o f its mell ow
i
a
r
t
c
,
,
,
g
p
and musical sound , by being pronounced virtu , natur or

n a t chiir,

t rea s iir ,

crea t iir o r cr e a t chiir,

l eis iir,

s t r u ct iir or

popeler s in gela r, p a r t icel a r, s e cel a r, regelar


In all such words the sound of u Should be distinctly
audible , as v irt u e nat ure, & c

s t ru ct shiir,

RE A D ING

5o

S hort o: in the beginn ing of words such as e rror


t error c ellar l eathe r is liable to ru n into the obscure
sound of ii as u rr or t u rror suller & c and so m eti m es
thi s fault occurs in the m iddle of a word as gov urn m un t
for govern m ent
S ho rt 6 in the nal syllables en em and on ce as in
con t entm ent i m p r ovement provid ence contin gence
silence evidence inuence i mpertin ence moment mo
m en t a iy in s ol ent gen t le m en and in all words of this
class s hould be sounded so as j u s t to be perceptible to
the e a r and n o mor e ; a n d never be pronounced con
,

t en t m un t ,

S il u n ce ,

850

S hor t a befor e l

in the nal syllables of med a l, musi


ca l m ent a l festiva l n a l re a l should never be sunk s o
as to be pronounced n l, m ed l m u sic l and when
these letters co m e after 1 as in roya l loya l the sound
s hould not be repeated as if the words were written
of 3
;
roy yal loy yal
E befor e n when they make a nal syllable not u n
der accent shoul d always be sounded in the words
sudden kitchen hyphen chicken asp en mart en l at
t en
platt en sloven ch ildren, and also before d in
hundred ; but in all other words ending in en the 6
should be Silent , as hea v n elev n ga rd n giv n driv n ,
tak u wak n e a t n b ea t n oa t n e v n of t n s of t n , o p u ,
s p ok n
and the 0 Should be sil en t also in p a rd n ,
,

wea p

b a c n , b ea c n , de a c n , p ers n , rea s n , t r ea s n
I before 2, in the nal unaccented syll able is silent

n,

in e v l and dev l but in all other words it should be


s ounded as civil, penc il anvil
also before n , as matin ,
,
S a t in and a i before n in t he wo rds c e r t a in mount ain
,

VIT IA T E D

S OU ND S

51

fountain , captain again Should be pronounced as if


wri tten m ou n t in , fo un t in ca p t in and agen
A befo r e n t a n d 38 in a nal unaccented syllable as
in dor m a nt infa nt reluct a nt , comp a ss tresp a ss Should
never have the obscure sound o f ii, as dorm u n t , t res
pus s
I, in all cases when n o t u nder accent , forms a syllable
by itself like the rst sound of e thus sensible should
be pronounced as if wri t ten s en s eb l e and s o of plausi
ble pos s ible justify, diligent gratitude con s titution ,
and should never be pronounced s en s iible , j ust i fy 850
But care must be observed not t o d well t oo much upon
the 6 sound since this would be a g reater faul t than
the other It Should differ b u t slightly fro m the sound
of i I , also in the word in , and words beginning with
in and im , is liable t o be sunk or chan g ed into n and
um , as u m p r ov e, or m p rov e ; u n s t ru ct , o r n s t r u ct
is
he n town for im prove , instruct, is he in town
S uch critical and nice distinctions in the vowe l
sounds mark the accurate and accom pl ished scholar
,

L E SSO N

IS TIN CT ENUN CIATION O F

BU

IX

CONSONAN TSCHAN E OF VOWEL SOUNDS


G

consonants in some positions claim attention quite


as much as the vowels If the lofty dignity and m usi
cal s w e e t n ess of s pe e ch depend u pon a full, soft , a n d
T

RE AD ING

52

liquid ow of the vowels its energy and strength depend


f
o
no less upon a full and distinct enunciation
the con
sonants
d
r
d
d
n
a
d
bol ly wo l ly fon ly
D is liable to be sunk in
col dly into an or n u b o ly wor ly fon l y, co ly
v
should
ever
lose
its
sound
of
as
The
want
n
F in of
men
It
should
be
0
o
ey
occasioned
the
want
,
0 m n
u
v
occasioned
the
want
men
m
The want u v oney I
I
I
I
N eve r The want of m oney occasioned the want of
men
G befo r e t h is liable to be sunk, as lenth , strenth for
length s t rength
H is liable to be sunk except at the beginning of a
e g How as kind caven adorned the appy
s entence
land And scattered blessin gs with a wasteful and !
,

r
l
r
R
a
o
e
e
d
(
p p
y)
.

S he evinced not the least gratitude for the OSp it alit y


afforded er ; which m ade im suspect e r to ave a d a
bad e a rt (R ea d p r op er ly )
H after w in the words whet when why white ,
what wheat who whithe r whether whisper is liable to
be sunk s o as to be p r onounced wet wen wite & c
The best way to correct the habit is to divide the syl
lable and pronounce hoo e t hoo en hoo it e & c H
befor e r is very liable to be sunk in the words Shrunk
Shrub Shroud Shrive and pronounced srun k sr uh srou d
su ve
R has two sounds according to its position in a
word called the rough and the smooth The rough

S T IN CT N E SS

DI

or

CO N

SONA N T S

53

in the l ast part of a word and after a vowel, as hard,


card, r egard We , who speak the E nglish as o ur na tive
tongue , seldom fail to make the smooth r properly but
we rarely enunciate the rough r with the strength it re
qu ires This rough sound, which some call the rolling
o r vibrant r , is m a de by vibrating the tip of the tongue
against the roof of the m on t h near the teeth It can
scarcely be made by natives with t oo much distinctness
Man y foreigners sound the rough r bet t er than we b u t
the difculty with them is, not t o be able t o make the
sm ooth on e where it ought to be made Many of u s ,
ho wever in ou r attempts to soun d the roll ing r prope rly,

w
ake
nearly
t
syllables
o
f
it
as
e
r
wretch
e
rage
r
o
m
a
fault still worse than the use of the s m ooth on e
8 in the end of a word is liable t o be sunk when t he

following word begins with an s , as For righteousness


The steadfast s tranger in the fore s t s s trayed
s ake
In p r onouncing s , pain s Should be taken t o avoid as
much as possible its hissing quality The same may be
said also of the other aspirates f , h, wh t h, s h and oh
They Should be uttered with distinctness but , as there
is nothing in them which is grateful t o the ear they
cannot be dwelt upon without a violation o f taste
Many persons in pronouncing som e plurals, have the
disagreeable habit of using the s instead of the z so u nd
of s , as in the words follies, paths, they would s a y follis
path s not f olliz p a t hz
but in pronouncing you t hs
and trut hs , we should always give t he sharp sound of t h,
as if
as hav ing more force , and never the sound o f z
written you t hz , t ru t hz
T s after 8 , in the end of words , is apt to be entirel y
,

RE A D ING

54

lost a s in the words host s coast s , boast s , post s , cost s ,


ma s t s s t s m ist s , p riest s feas ts and pronounced h6 s, 0OS,
,

b os , p OS , e ns, m a s , 850
W in t he end of the
.

wo rds law aw s aw jaw , is by


so m e chan ged to r as l or, or sor, j or
In pronouncing the consonants the mean ing of
words is liable s o m etim es to be confounded by runnin g

the m into each other ; as an ice hou s e a n ice hous e

the c ulp rits ou ght to m ake amends the culpri t s s ought

to m ake a m ends his cry m oved me his c rime moved


me he co u ld pay nobody he could pain nobody
It is a good r ule always to be mo r e pa r ticular in dis
t in ct l y p ronouncing those words where the r e is the least
app rehension that one word m ay be mistaken for another,
o r whe r e t wo of si m ilar sound are apt to coalesce a n d
cau s e confusion of sense or in any way give rise to a v ul
gar or ludicrous thought
,

V O W EL S O U N D S

OF

S OM E

W O R D S C H ANG E D

A few words of frequent u s e r equire vowel sounds


som etim es quite diff e rent from what are set forth in the
spelling book and dictionary They are the articles a
and t he the pronouns my yo u you r and t heir t he
prepo s i t ions of f or f r o m and by and the conjunctions
a n d n or and so m eti m es or
but it Should be borne in
mind that none of them while under emphasis ever
change their vowel sound
A is not used except before a word beginning with
a
consonant sound, and then only with its short or fourth
sound as a man a union never a man, a u n l on , with
-

H ANG E

V O W EL S O U N DS

or

55

T he

before a word beginning with a v owel always


retains the rst sound of e as, The evenin g is mild, the
air is soft T he before a consonant sound is always pro
n oun ce d with the second sound of e, as , T he man , t he

union not t he man , t he union


M y in most cases should have the second sound of

i never that of e long as, My pen is as bad as m y p a


m
i
m
i
er
very
much
as
if
written
pen
is
as
bad
as
,
p
p
p
aper
I
cannot
spare
m
knife
for
I
am
using
it
p
y
mysel f
Yo u , when it does n o t begin a sentence is gene r ally
changed into the o b scure sound of yii or ye as He
bla m es yii for t he very things he ought to p r aise ye
Yo ur is often shortened into yiir a n d t heir into th er
as, Yiir brothers health, I understand is good when
will yo u look for th er return
0f , f or , f r om and by, are generally softened into iiv ,
f ur f riim, and bi, except before unemphasi z ed personal
pronouns placed in the middle or end of a sentence, or
when f or is a co njunction e g T he fear i v t he Lord
is t he beginning tiv wisdom F or t he want iiv a: nail, t he
shoe was lost ; f ur t he want iiv a Shoe , t he horse wa s
l os t and itit t he want tiv a horse , t he man was lost
Keep thy tongue friim evil , and thy lips f r iim speaking
guile By t he blessing iiv the upright t he city is exalt
ed ; but it is overthrown b i t he mouth iiv the wicked
It is said a man is known b i t he company he keeps
T he mind is i m proved by reection , as well as b i reading
Blessed are t he merciful for they shall obtain mercy
An d can a lways be pronounced without harshness
b ut
an d it m a y s omet imes be s oftened into n d or n d
,

RE AD ING

56

'

it never should lose the sound of d and be pronounced


an o r u n : e g John an d Jam es u n d I were there ;

never John , an
n d I were the r e
o r John u n d Ja m e s

a
e
I
e
e
the
e
nor
which would be a fault
r
w r
J m s nu
still greater John D Jam es n I were there
N or and so m eti m es or may be changed to nur and
e g It was neither I , nor John ,
u r without det r i m ent
Who shall separat e us frum t he
n u r Ja m es that did it
love u v Christ shall tribulation or distress o r perse
o r swo r d P
u r fa m i n e
u r nakedness
u r pe r il
c u t io n
F or I I a m pe r s u aded that neither death nor life nur
angel s n u r p rincipalities n u r po we r s nor things p r esent
nur thin gs to co m e nor height nur depth , nor any
othe r c reature shall be able to separate u s fr om t he love
u v G od which is in Chri s t Jesus our Lo r d
These words whenever they are opposed to each
othe r or to o t he r wo rds or r ende red in any wa y e m p ha
tic continue of cour se their vowel sounds unchanged
e g I did not say a m an but t he man
I said it was
my fault not his
They went out f r om u s because they
were not of us
S ho w m e t hy faith wit hou t thy works
and I will show thee m y faith by m y works For m y
thought s a re not your thoughts neither are your ways
my ways saith the Lor d
For as the heavens a r e higher
than the earth s o a re m y ways higher than your ways,
and m y thoughts than your thoughts
The p r eposition t o should never lose its distinctive
sound of c o, and be changed to t o or t oe
F r om the p r eceding exam ples no on e can fail to
observe the natural tendency of the words noticed , to
s often o r change the vowel sound when the same word
,

S T IN CT A R T ICU L A T IO N

DI

57

is repeated, or whenever it is placed close to on e under


emphasis
The sounds of the wo r ds, as thus varied in the pre
ceding examples , are after the best style of easy and f a
miliar conversation : and it is wonderful t o s ee what a
mar ked di ff erence is made in the whole character of
reading and speaking by so varying them , compared
with the f ull sound o f the words as when pronounced
separately In the on e case , we closely j oin with fe w
exceptions , the prepositions and conj unctions with the
words that fo ll ow the m ; and s o throw what we utter
into easy and appropriate divisions of speech : while in
the other we are apt to join the prepositions and con
junctions with t he words co m ing before ; and so render
the whole unnatural and harsh
But language is often marred by suffering two vowel s
t o coalesce
When on e word ending wit h a vowel, pre
cedes a word begin ning with a vowel that in the rst or
the second , is liable t o be sunk ; as , I m for I am ;
we re for we are he s fo r he is he ss is t e d for he as
sisted ; I nsist upon it fo r I insist upon it ; I pp ea l t o
any o n e who knows t h a ff air, for I appeal to any o n e

who knows the affair Sh O peneth her mouth with wis


dom ; an in e r tongue is the l a w of kindness ; for , she
O peneth her mouth with wisdom a n d in her t ongue is
t he l a w u v kin dness
Sometimes also lan guage is weakened and obscured
by sinking the vowel in the rst word when it ends with
a consonant : e g Instead of saying, For I a m per
s ua de d, we sa y, F r I m persuaded ; If I on the mor
,
row, f I , on the morrow
F or I, on t he day appointed,
.

'

58

E ADIN G

F
r e n I
the
day
appointed
For
he
and
I
on
Fr
In all these and sim ilar cases the form er s yllable
s
ust
be
elled
and
d
elt
upon
so
as
to
ow
di
tinctly
w
sw
m
into the nex t , without s topping the stream o f sound
In all these examples it may be observed that when
is
a
conjunction
it
does
not
change
the
vowel
sound
r
o
f
and it m a y be kno wn to be one , when be ca u s e can be
s ubstituted f or it without destroying the sense
As a rticles prepositions and conj u nctions have no
mean ing in the m selves except as they relate to other
wo rd s or s erve to con nect other words together good
taste and good s ense require u s t o utter the m with no
mo re force than is sufcient clearly to Show such relation
for the more fo rce we give to uni m portant
o r connection
word s t he less a r e we able to bestow on those that are
i m por tant How oft en do we hear the conclusion o f the
Lord s Prayer expressed in this m anner Fur thine is
the kingdom a n d I the po wer a n d I the glory for ever
E xp re s s ed pr operly it would be For I thine is t he king
I
dom a n d t he po wer und t he glo ry forever
S om e p ers on s ha v e contracted the disagreeable habi t
of stopping upon the a r ticle preposition or conjunction
till they can think of words to put with them and
when the words co m e they pour them for t h in a sort of
spas m and thi s m ake s their talking a constant succes
sion of nervou s t witches ; and it m akes others nervous
to hear t hem This habit so m eti m es pr evails in reading,
irrespective of e m phas is and te n ds to give an u n n a t u
ral p rominence to most of those little words What a d
vantage it is both t o the talker and the reader al ways
to keep his mind suf ciently in advance to embra ce lan

I,

'

O R D S C L A SSE D

U NDER

vo

wa

59

ge enough for a full measure of speech, before any of


the words escape his lips ! For in no other way can
they b e naturally adjusted to each other, and uttered
a greeab l y t o their re l ative importance
ua
g

L E S SO N X

WORDS CLASSED UN D ER VO WELS AN D

O NSON AN T S OUNDS

T HE

following classes of words ranged under their re


s p e ct iv e sounds are designed to help the student the
better to x in his mind their true pronunciation and
t o train his organs to utter with ease the most di fcult
f the languag e He shoul d
elements, and combina t ions O
rst express the element by itself ; and then in words
till the organs obey every demand of the will
5 Fate , ale , day, freight obe y, dgj iger, gaol , chasten ,
iiga p af f on , patriot
a
patriarch
patriotism
pastry
g
,
ere prey, alien , convey, stranger, feign , feint, det ail
zi Far
m
ar
y
alms
calm
a
h
aye
master
martin
,
,
,
,
,
guard , art are calf, aunt , haunt heart , hearken
father era America, command, laughter
b Fall, all , awful , water daughter, brought , sought ,
ought naughty, appall, o rb lord, for, laud, l a w, sa w,
ra w, a w draw, straw, author, autograph , morn , adorn ,
warn , forlorn , ball , call, tall hall, fall , pall, caught,
fought, wrought , inthral, saucy, s auce , ward, sward,
e x orbi t ant , lawn , gone, al so , albeit, al mos t , wa s, war,
co l u mn (collum )
,

'

60

E ADING

a Fat , at , alley, alt ernate , advance , chance , dance , hat ,


i
ff
f
canal
bade
had
plaister
passion
a
ict
a
ect
on
,
,
a
t
,
s
,
,
,
s
cra
ent
sacrilege
pat
m
a
,
s
,
ascent, after pa s, sacrice ,
a
m
a
pat
onage
patronize
patent
ro
nce
n
nce
,
,
r
,
i
c
riot
,
,
,
scath, jubilant arrogant, m etal, musical, circum
stance
a D are , bar e , care, their, scare , fair, pear, air, rare ,
r
r
r
ta
e
tea
the
e
wea
epai
parent
prayer
r
r
r
,
s
,
,
,
,
,
l
(a E el keel receive , believe m achine , police , ravine , rear,
cl ean beard either, neither, mien, liege , besiege, leis
u re a n tiqu e deb ris (deb r e )
e Met , yet yes err, e rror, te r ror, recreant , heroine , ter
a
r
d
l
e
a
id
e0
l
r
s
syste
te
eotype
heife
says
r
m
s
r
rit o y,
,
,
p
,
,
er guess goodnes s , m atchless novel , g r ovel the r efore
p
we r e whe refor e ate , deaf weapon p relude p r elate
p relacy, again But 6 ea or i followed by r and
another con s onan t has a sound app r oaching to the
second s oun d of u , v iz : m ercy, i m pe r fect , inrm ity,
pearl, m ir th girl s er m on , vir tue, conr m per son ,
virgin learn earn fern , term ge r m , earth stern, earl ,
ete rnal te rse heard pe rpendicular, te r m ination
l P ine m ine , thine, p rim e ti m e i sle while nd kind ,
eye, wry thym e ti m e rhym e , buy ally, choir, ai s le
height , m ic roscope oblige m ild child behind, r ened ,
m i d sac r ice
,
n
2
m
l P 1n

l
l
s
p
iri t , m a s cuhn e
ge
n u i ne
fe
in i n e ri gid
,
,
lithograph been, cir cuit s ubject s ieve , live ce r tain
fountain , m ountain, cur t ain , m i racle , m inute , (m init , )
s ensible a s pir ate

b N o, no t e, old, own , oak, whole , Sloth, yolk yeo m an ,


s ow, Sho w, pour, court , course
di
orce
fo
ce
po
ch
v
r
r
,
,
,
,
,

OR D

S CL A SS E D U N DER

V O W EL S

61

horde, sword bourn shorn , source , port forte, host ,


ghost, ford , oath , control, revolt , exp ert im p brt eff or t ,
engross, morose, porter, portrait, trophy deport m ent ,
glory, glorious, sonorous, notable , portable potentate,
moan stone , more, home, only forge p rorbgu e, t wa rd

3 Move, lose, Shoes soon , moon poor, food , hoof, your,


youth , yout hs, truth , truths , ca noe , uncouth , bruise
recruit, fr uit , pr une ru m or, am bur, soot , to, r ule

O Not , sot , forehead, wat ch , what warrant, docile,


swan , laurel quantity trough , quandary, hog log
frog ock lock, clock, providence , proverb novel, pros
peet , sophist, t orrent , demonstrate , constitution, ob s er
vation in con s t a n t , p roiga t e authority, anonymous,
monastery, doct rine longitude dollar, collar, solemn2
colum n (collum) , volu m e (vol um e ) onerous
ii Tube
puny
hue
beauty
junior
feudal
view
,
,
,
,
adieu cure , juice, a gu e, nuisance , blew, n ew, news2
particular virtue vol ume
2
11 Tub nut ru n her heard, bird , s ir turn , come some
,
,
doth , s on done, none, d oes, sovereign , worth colander
front shove dove, love, atto rney, slough (slu ) ,
nothing covenant
3
11 Bull full
pulpit
book
look
crook
would
co
d
u
l
,
,
,
,
,
,
should foot , put ,
bi O il soil , j oin , loin, purloin , poison , j oist , hoist,
b oy t oy, decoy, annoy destroy, choice rej oice j oy,
point, appoint , broil, coil toil, coy, cloy void, poise,
spoil exploit, oyster, Cloister, voyage , loyal royal
bui P ound , astound, couch , avouch slough , plough
crouch without gout , cow, n ow how b ow,
s louch
power, drown , crown , s cowl, count, counter, loud,
,

RE AD ING

62

crowd, mow, coward doubt drought , council, a v ow,


endo w found, gro und, renounce , lower, tower, sour,
cower ower
,

It has been thought that consonant s


C
cannot be sounded without the help of a vowel but it
is not s o The names of the consonants cannot ; but
their elem ents can though imperfectly The stu dent
will nd it a good exe rcise to sound them separately,
and then In combination with the vowels
o N S ON A N T s

b But , ribbon ,

able abbey benefaction

d D ay a id and deed , dandle di m ple , deacon


'
f Fife , o calf sphere geography phys io drought
G et gave go give gr owth indignant again goal
,
g
h High huge hu m ble withhold enhance homage
Jail jewel gem gibe ginge r j udge suggest gaol
,
j

k K ey clai m club clock succinct tocsin acme


l Lam e lot link call all ay alley allies
allot

m Mark met co m m on incommode manly


n Ne w not mountain anger angel
n g Long
song singer language length strength

P
in
pen
point
appoint
pewter
preposition
p
,
,
Quart quince queen quality liquefy re quire
q
,
,

s
r ( mooth) Army mercy barbarity guard, regard

r (rough) R egal, wretch rural rough roar ruptur e


s Cent cease cigar fascinate precipice false
,
,
sh S hall crash ocean issue chaise nation
,
t T rie , t rust contrite but cut commit
,

tch Change, discharge achieve franchise, stretch


or b ,

W O R D S C L A S S E D U ND E R

63

c oN S ON A NT s .

T hen swathe , blithe , beneath, paths,


T H (obtuse )
baths, wrea t h (a v erb )

Van , vine of venison vivify , velvet vine gar


v
w Wise woe , wave , way ward, o n e, wonder awake
wh When , while, who , which what , when , wh en ce,
whet

Box axe , tax, parall ax, politics, mathemati cs


x

E
xist
examine
e
x
ile
l
u
x
urious
eggs
s
,
g
,
,

yet
youth
beyond
year
christian
e
Y
s
,
,
y
,
,
,
z Z enith su fce sac rice , discern , dismay, presid e
z h S ei z ure , leisure , usury , crosier, pleasure , treas ure
,

L E SSO N

XI

E AMP LES TO SHOW IN READ N HO S OME VOWEL SOUN S ARE CHAN


ALSO H LE ERS A RE LI A LE TO
SUN O VIT ATED I N OUN
X

I G

OW

BE

TT

K,

B.

GE D

D.

W H E N an y of the pronouns pre po sitions or conj un c


tion s are softened down to a different sound in r eading
this lesson their orthography is changed to Show it T he
article a is al ways short and is marked with a breve
The art icle t he before a consonant Sound is shor t and
marked with a breve before a vowel it is l o n g and n u
marked When e or 0 before n , or 6 before d should b e
silent the vowel s place has an apostrophe The letters
liable to be i m properly sunk or perverted in sound a re
,

I
T he fear u v the L ord I is t he be ginning u v kn o w
I
I
ledge ; but fools desp ise wisdom a n d inst r uction

R E ADIN G

64

I
I
f
o
the
L
rd
is
the
beginning

a
f
o
No t The fear
I
I
t
i
n
o
t
r
u
c
n
s
wisdom
and
a
i
e
s
e
d
S
kn awl e dge but fools
p
I
My son hear the instr uction uv thy father a n d
I
I
forsake n ot t he law u v thy mother : for they shall be
I
I
n
a
d chains
grace
unto
thy
head
v
u
e
an ornam nt
ab ou t thy neck
I
I
W isdo m cr ieth with out she uttereth her voice
I
in t he st r eets ; she c r ieth in t he chief place u v con
I
c our se ; in the opening u v t he gates ; in t he city she
uttereth her words saying how l ong ye si m ple ones
I
will ye love si m plicity a n d fools hate kn owledge
I
M i son if th ou wilt r e ceive my words a n d hide
mi c om m a ndments with thee ; s o that th ou incline
I
I
unto wisdo m a n d a pply thine heart t o u n
t hine ea r
de r st an din g ; yea if th ou c r i est a fter kn o wledge a n d
I
lifte s t up thy voice fur understanding if th ou s eekest
I
her as silver a n d sear chest for her I as f ur hid t r eas
I
u re
then sh a lt th ou u nder stand t he fear u v God
I
He that hath n o rle over his own sp irit IS like a
city that is br oken d own a n d with ou t w a lls
B oast n ot thyself u v to m orrow ; for th ou kn owest
I
I
a
n ot
wh a t day m ay bring forth
He that being of t n reprov d ha rdn et h his neck I
Shall suddenly b e destroyed a n d that with ou t remedy
When t he righteous I a re in a u tho rity t he people
r ej oice
but when the wicked I beareth rle t he people
m ourn
R e m ove I far from me I van ity u n d lies feed m e
;
with food convenient for me ; lest I be full a n d deny
thee a n d s ay W ho is t he L ord or lest I be poor I a n d
steal, u n d take t he name uv my God I in vain

'

V OW

EL S AN D

Co N S ON AN T s

N OTE D

65

K eep thy heart with a ll diligence : for o ut of it I


a re the issues u v l ife
I
H e that gathereth in summer I is a: wise s on but
I
he that Sleepeth in harvest I is a s on t hat c a u seth
Shame
H onorable age I is n ot that which standeth in length
I
which is measured by number u v
n or that
uv time
years ; but wisdom I is t he gray h air t o m a n a n d a n
unspotted life I is ol d age
I
That every day ha s its pains a n d s orrows is univer
I
sally e x p erien c d a n d a lmost unive r sally con fes s d
I
But let us attend n o t only to m ournful t rt hs : if we
I
w
e
l ook im partially abo u t u s
sh a ll find t ha t ev ery day
I
ha s likewise its plea sures a n d its j oys
R eason s wh ole pleas u re a l l t he j oys u v sense lie in
three words health p eace n d compet ence : but health
I consi s t s with temperance I alone a n d p eace, 0 v ir
I
I
p eace is a ll thy own
t ue
I
An d wh ere t he fin est s t r e ams I through t a n gl d
I
forest s s tray ev n there I t he wildest beast s s teal forth
I upon ther p r ey
I
I
T he Lord ha s b et r ot h d his church in eter n a l cov
His quick n in g sp irit I sh a ll never
e n a n t t o hi m sel f
depart from her Ar m d With d ivine virt u e his go sp el,
secre t silent, u n ob s e rv d enters t he he a rts u v men , a n d
I
sets up an eve rla sting kingdom
S tan d in a we I a n d s in not : c ommune with yer
I
upon yiir bed a n d be still Offer t he s a cri
o wn heart
I
i
i
n
ces u v righteousness a d put y r trust in t he L ord
0 L ord th ou hast s ea r ch d me a n d kn own me Tho u
I
kn gwes t mi downsittin g, a n d min e uprising, thou n u
.

'

RE AD ING

65

I
afar
Thou
compassest
my
f
f
o
i
m
thought
t
es
n
a
d
t
r
s
e
d
I
l
with
l
a
r
t
a
n
d
a
path a n d m i lying d own
acquainted
ut
b
I
n
i
a
there
is
word
my
tongue
t
n
o
F or
mi ways
I
ltogether
a
o
10, 0 L ord thou kn west it
I
m
t
h
e
a
a
these
words
s
ing
I
l
l
a
y
An d God spake
I o u t u v t he
L ord thy God which ha ve brought thee
land uv E gypt o ut uv t he house uv b ondage
I
Tho u sh a lt h a ve n o other gods before me
I
Th ou sha lt n ot make unto thee any graven image ,
n
a
v
h
e
n
that
is
above
i
n
h
n
a
v
u
likeness
t
i
g
n
a
r
o
y
I
y
I
e
w
a
n
t
h
i
that
is
r
T
H
o
n
a
e
e
t
b
o r that is in the ear h
I
f
w
b
o
w
under
the
ea
th
thou
sh
a
lt
not
do
n
thysel
r
ters
I
I
to the m n or Se r ve them : f or I t he Lord thy G od am
a jealous G od vi s iting the iniquity u v t he fathers upon
t he child ren I unto t he third a n d fourth generation uv
I
them that hate me ; a n d showing mercy unto th ou s
a nds u v them that love me an d keep my comm a n d
m ents
I
Th ou sh a lt n ot take t he name uv t he Lord thy God
in vain f or t he Lord will not hold him guiltl ess I that
taketh his nam e in vain
I
S ix
R emember t he S abbath day to keep it h oly
days shalt thou labor a n d do a ll thy work : b u t t he
I
seventh day is the S abbath u v t he Lor d thy God : in
I
it th ou sh a lt not do any work t hou nor thy s on n ur
thy d a u ghter thy man se rvant nor thy m aid servant ,
nur thy cattle nur thy stranger that is within thy gates
I
f or in six days t he Lord made heav n a n d earth t he
s ea an d a ll that in them is a n d r ested t he s ev n t h day
wher fore t he L ord bles s d t he S abbath day, a n d hal
.

E A
X

I
E
E
s
N
L
C
T
I
O
N
NA T O N
E M P H A SIS

MI

67

I
H onor thy father a n d thy mother ; that thy day s
I
ma y be long upon t he land I which t he L ord thy G od
I giveth the e Thou shalt n o t kill Thou sh a lt n o t
c ommit adultery Thou sh a lt n o t s t eal Th ou shalt
I
n o t bear false witness
a ge n s t thy neighbor
Th ou sh a lt n o t covet thy neighbor s house thou
sh a lt n o t covet thy neighbor s wife n or his man servant ,
n o r his maid servant, n o r his e x nur his a s s n or any thing
,
,
I that is thy neighbor s
-

L E SSO N XII

E AM NAT ON
X

0N

INFLECTION S AN D EMPHAS IS

It is an e x cellent way t o instruct a class in reading, t o


ask each pupil when he has read a passage t o state how
he read it, and then t o give his reasons why he read it
as he did This method was suggested by the practic e
I long pursued in teaching Latin and G reek When a
pupil had translated a passage, I never could depend
upon his really understanding it til l he gave me the
analysis And if I neglected this process for awhile for
the purpose o f going over more ground I found that the
class soon made their calculations accordingly : and
rarely prepared themselves to go beyond what they e x
be
examined
upon
e
t
e
t
o
c
d
p
The practice o f re q uiring pupils t o give reasons for
what they say and do in their scholastic e x ercises is
productive of many advantages : it tends to give the m
greater facility in e xpression gr eater a ccuracy in study
,

RE A D ING

68

and observation and establishes a habit m ost favorabl e


to the gro wth of the thinking and rea s oning faculties
Thus trained they will not be a p t to think they know a
thing unless they a re able clearly to expr ess it
If the pupil com m it his par t of the lesson to me
m ory and be required to Speak it , and then illustrate it
to the eye on the black board or slate or if he come
with it plainly written out he will be likely t o i m prove
fa s ter than by merely rea ding from the book W hat he
utters will be likely to have a m ore colloquial cast and
the exam pl es t r ea s ured in his m e m o ry after careful cor
rection will ser ve as landm arks to aid him to r e m e m ber
and apply jus t p rinciples Take the following plan for
exam inin g a class of t welve pupils as the general outline
o f what I mean
.

Teacher On this occasion as on the last each of


the class wa s required t o bring exam ples to illustrate
the inection s divi s ion s e m phasis and cadence I will
call upon Master A to give the lead
I

A
Ther e is a t ide in the affairs of m en ,
Which t aken at the eod leads on to f ert un c
O m itted all t he voyage of their l ife I
Is bound in sh allows and in m is eries
,

In the rst two lines all the divi s ions exc ept the last
end with rising slides becau s e som ething m or e wa s need
ed to form the sense and the last with the fallin g slide ,
because the sense was form ed : in the two last I have
used the sam e slides for the sam e reasons Had the
sentence closed at s ha llows sense would have been COIIl
plote, and I should have used the falling slide to Sho w
,

E X A M INA T IO N D IVISIO N S E M P H A SIS

69

it but as it did not, I gave it the rising slide to inti


mate that m ore was yet to com e

r
Teache
What a r e the divisions you speak of P

The rst line has two distinct thought s which


A
I have indicated by t wo distinct divisions
The r e is a

tide form s one, and, in the aff air s o f men , the othe r
separated from each by a Slight suspension, and marked
The t hird line has a lso t wo distinct
and divisions and the last on e is all the voy
which I have separated from the next
of their life
line by a bar : all the other divisions are separated by
punctuation

Teacher A very good example and well managed,


if it is right t o read the passage without emphasis
Who can Show a better way to read it P
B It seemed to me rather ta m e as it wa s read
I
should change the rising Slide on t ide to the fa lling which
would make it emphatic and the rising slide on f lo od
to the rising cu rve , which wo ul d make that emphatic
I would also give a rising curve to om itt ed, which would
make that s o and the falling Slide t o lif e to emphasize
tha t and a rising curve to s ha llows , for the same reason
and I think all would be m uch i m proved by the change
The cadence was good but I wil l mark the whole , a s I
think it would be best to read it
.

T here is a t ide I in the aff airs of m en


Which taken at the eod, leads on to
O m tted all the voyage of their life I
I
Is bound in sh allows and in m is
,

f ert un e

1 s.

RE ADING

7o

Teacher
A marked change indeed , and much for
2
l
e
bu t why do you give an emphasis to if
t he better

Because it m eans their who le life in contrast


B
with what it m ight have been if taken at the ood
Teacher The next give his example
I
I

C Then Agrippa said unto P aul a l m es t thou


I
to be a Christian And P aul said, I
e
persuadest m
would to Gad, that not only t hen , but also all I that hear
me this day were both a lm es t I and altogether I such
as I am except these b ends Here the rst period is

separated into ve divisions t wo by punctuation and


three by half bars all have the rising Slide or rising curve
but the last and that has the falling because there the
sense is for m ed ; and the third has the rising curve to
give it e m phasis The second period has nine divisions
Six by punctuation , and three by bars T hou has the
rising ci rcum ex and a ll the falling a lm os t the r ising,
and a lt ogether the falling and a m has the falling Slide
because sense is form ed and bon ds has the rising cir
eu m ex because it is a negative clause
The last two
divis ions were read as if the construction were thus :
and except these b ends were altog ther
e
as I
such
,
I
am
The words marked by circumex es, and that with
a curv e are under emphasis
T D oes e m phasis always attend these inections
C N ot o f necessity : the circum e x and c rve ma y
u
be used without producing e m phasis, as well as the
slides b u t when brought out prominently, I think they
al ways produce it

T
Who can give a reason for layin g emphasis upon
.

EXA

I
E
I
N
s
NA T O N N FL CT O
E M P H A SIS

MI

71

D Because they are p u t in strong contrast , or o p


.

position t o each other W ords so placed generally r e


'
quir e emphasis by dieren t slides curves o r circum ex
the same reason also applies to a lmos t and a lt oget her
es
T And what reason for emphasizing bon ds 3

D
Because o f its sign i can cy : plainly sugge stin g
by it that he greatly desired that all might be such as
he wa s n o t , o f course, in bonds suc h as he wer e In p ri
but in those of Christian love and fellowship and
s on
becau s e it is a clause of e x ception or negatio n Where
sentences terminate with an exception , or a clause n o
a t iv e
or
conditional
they
generally
require
a
risin
g
,
g
curve circu m ex, o r Slide : as I sa id fame, not bl ame
I shall ride Ou t unless it rain
E I should read that passa ge from the 2 6 t h chap
ter of Acts in this manner : Then Agrippa said unt o
P aul almost thou pers u adest m e I t o be a Christian
And P aul said, I wo ul d to Go d that n o t only thou, b u t
also all that hear me this day, were both al most and
a ltogether such as I I am , e x cept these b ends
C S uch , I think, with slight variations IS the gen
e ra l mode : but it ha s little force compared with t he
other, and it is still worse In regard to meaning By
putting emphasis on me with the falling slide, we make
it imply,
al most thou persuadest m e, as well a s
others but we have not heard that any w ere persu ad ed
'
If we emphasi z e da y with the f alling Slide , we give a
wrong meaning for that was the only time t hrough t he
day, I suppose, that any body heard him : of course it
means simply to day or on this occ asion An emphasis
by t he fallin g slide on I, is n ot ca lle d for a s a ll kn e w
.

RE ADING

72

wa s
and
for
that
very
thing
he
P aul to be a Christian
obj e c
bond
The
falling
slide
on
bonds
is
equally

s
in
o
f
with
the
est
S
o
this
manner
reading
robs
r
t ion a l
the pas s age of all its strong points of sense , and most of
its vivacity
Your
remarks
Master
are
sensible
and
perti

T
nent ; and I did not s ee how your manner of reading
the passage could well be i m pr oved except in two par
t
I
would
put
a
instead
of
a
half
bar
af
er
r
a
b
r
u
l
a
s
i
t c
r
i
A
s
a
i
d
and
a
half
after
thus
Then
a
r
b
g p
A gr ip p a
I
m
unto
P
ul
As
this
breaks
up
the
onot
a
pa I said
ony and gives less p r ominence to the word P aul : f or
Sin ce the nam e had bee n spoken before it should be r e
I
to
him
said
ea t e d as if it were the p r onoun
p

S ir I cannot see but that the principles and


G
the il lustrations are all correct yet my father think s
He thinks it is
m y reading is far fr o m being natur al
not even so good as it was befor e I began these e xercises

Master G ordon please to give us your e x ample


T

P rosp erity I gains friends I and adversity I tri es


G
the m I have marked this sentence into four divisions
by thr ee bars each ending with the rising slide except
the last and to this I have given t he f alling slide, b e
cause it completes the sense

I a m not sur pr ised Master G ordon that your


T
father thought your reading far fr om being natural if
you read to him as you have just read : nor th a t you
should think you were following ou t the principles taught
in the book Many have deceived themselves in the
sam e way, and then charged the system as false because
of their misapprehension
Who will point out the place s
where Master G was wron g P
.

I
E X AM IN A T IO N IN F L E CT O N S E MP H A SIS
B

73

He did not make the inections he named

He
read p r osp er it y, ga in s and a dv er s it y with rising cir cum
ex e s n o t rising slides as he supposed and t r ies with
a falling ci rcumex for the falling slide The divisions
were bad
He made a full bar at prosperity, and a j og,
instead of which, it Should be a
o r hiatus in his voice
half bar and the stream of sound should be kept up till
lost in ga in s The same might be said of a dv er s it y, t he
l as t syllable of which Should be swelled into t r ies I
I
should read it in this wa y P rosp erity gains friends I
I
a n d adv ersity
tries th em
G I s e e very well where the fault l ay, and how I
happened t o make it By aim in g at great distinctness,
I made cir cu m ex es when I intended t o make slides
T Ye s Sir and your case is by no means a singu
lar on e in changing ol d habits, while guarding against
on e e rror we a r e liable to ru n into another in an O pposite
,
direction Whatever the change m a y be in utterance
o r manner ti m e is needed t o prepare u s to exhibit either
with ease and grace A person who has been well cd
I
ica t e d, and brought int o correct and wel l settled habits
never thinks of his tones inections o r other things con
nor of his
n ect ed with a good utterance while readi n g
man n ers , his gram m ar and rhetoric, while conversing :
nor of his attitude s and gestures in public speaking if
he does he is very likely t o be constrained and unnatural
H And it appears to me whe n a person has over
come all his ba d habits, and has become settled in good
ones , he is s o intent all the time , upon the matter he is
uttering, that it is his mind that talks, that reads a n d
s peaks
.

RE AD ING

74

An ex cellent idea

n
Yes
all
other
things
spo
T
,
adjust
themselves
to
his
thoughts
and
feelings
u
s
l
n
eo
a
t
y
And so will it soon be with Master G ordon and his fa
ther then will not think his performance s o far from
being natural
.

L E SSON XIII

MOD ULATION T ONE PITCH QUANTITY QUALITY O F V OICE

T H A T agr eeable var iety of changes through which the


voice passes in reading and speaking Is called modula
tion a term der ived fr om the word m o du lar , which s ig
n i e d am ong the R o m ans to measure sounds , to sing , to
warble to t rill to play on an instrument
While listening to a good Speaker we perceive the
syllables and words constantly on the change upward and
downward in some respects like the notes in music, and
no t wo succeeding exactly in the same line of sound
S ometim es the voice sweeps through the scale like t he
rise and fall of the eight notes sometimes it skips
through an interval of several n otes from l ow t o high ,
from high t o l ow and rarely approaches monotony, and
n ever to what is called sing song
O f cour se modul a
tion is Inseparably connected with pause and inection ,
accent, e m phasis and cadence and all the modications
arising from tone , pitch, quantity, rate of utterance and
quality of voice It adapts its changes to every s u c
ceedin g senti m ent and emotion , and adjusts them to t he
l aws of an ever varying harmony
,

U L A T IO N

M D

'
75

T he tones which indicate the various kind s Of thou ht


iliar t o all We all are alive to the
a n d feeling are fam
softened tone o f affection and t o the harsh tone o f s e
verity We have a tone for cheerful ness and j oy for sor
r o w and grief fb r anger and rage for fear and terror
reverence and awe and for almost every thing we feel
T ones have been justly called the language o f nature :
the true language of the passions It is the rst n u
ders t o od by children and e ven in the absence of words
it is the quickest t o waken sensibility and impel to a o
tion Wor ds m a y be chosen and arranged ever so skil
fu lly and expressed ever so well in other respects yet
if not exp ressed in natur e s p re pe r tones they are sure
t o com e Short of their intended eff ect Hence m any a
well wr itten discourse comes powerless from the lips of
the speaker mainly from this defect in his delivery
In ou r collo quial habits we are all ve r y sure t o give
the right tones of meaning though we m a y n o t always
hit upon the right words b u t the moment we attemp t
the language of another or even ou r o wn from m anu
script we are almost as certai n t o give it an articial a f
fe ct e d air
S o difcult it is to throw the same vivid
freshness into language a lready prepared as we do into
that which is form ed at the tim e of utterance

r
o
P itch key in the language of music is that par
t icul a r note in the scale whence all the other notes pro
oecd
The principal key notes are generally reckoned

three the high the middle and t he l ow key


We u s e the high key in calling to a person at a dis
tance the middl e in ordinary conversation the l ow,
when we wish no one t o hear e x cept the person to who m
g

RE AD ING

76

we speak : or it is that deep grave undertone which is


so m etim es used in the solemn parts of a p u blic discour se
The m iddle one we s hould adopt in public because
it is a point from which we m ay have the broade s t scope
t o rise and fall as the case may requir e and in this key
the o rgans of the voice are st ronge r and m ore pliable
fro m constant u s e and we can also with greater ease to
ou rselves Speak louder or softer in accordance with the
Space we have to ll or the senti m ents we wish to e u
fo r ce and we can the bette r s hift it to the highe s t or
lo we s t or any in t e rm ediate pitch we choo s e It m a y be
well to inte rpo s e a caution he re le s t high be con s idered
the s a m e as loud or l o w the sa m e as soft We can
speak louder and soft e r and still continue the sam e pitch
or key ; but we cannot Speak higher or lower without
shif t ing the key
ua
tity
it
already
been
observed
is
the
term
h
a
s
n
,
Q
applied to the utte rance of long and shor t syllables as
p ap er c ap er l ett er b et t er W hen a p plied to language,
lo n g qu antity is an increase d swell and fulness of the
wo rds and is of cou r se a slower m ove m ent short quan
ti t y is just the reverse or the one consists of a full and
the other a Short and quick utte rance
810W
Long quantity is used in dignied and deliberate dis
cour s e to exp ress reverence and a we doubt grief or de
s on de n ce or whe r e gr eat p r eci s ion is r equir ed
p
S hor t quantity is u s ed to expr ess gayety s pright li
ne s s eager argu m ent i m patience condence and cour
age ; or to separate as in parenthetic clauses the less
i m po rtant from the m ore im portant parts of a discourse
R a t e of utterance is s o similar to quantity , as jus t
.

OD U L A T O N QU A N TIT Y
I

77

e xp l ained that I thi n k any farther notice of it is n u


necessary
The following extract from the parable of
The
P rodigal S on if read properly will Show in some de
gree what is meant by lon g and Short quantity
And the s on said unto him
I have
sinned against heaven and in thy sight, and am no more
worthy to be called thy s on
sq
But
the
father
said
unto
his
se
vants
brin
g
r
( )
forth the best robe and pu t it on him and put a rin g
and bring forth the
o n his hand and shoes on his feet
fatted calf and kill it and let u s eat and be me rry for
thi s my son was dead and is alive again ; he was lost
and is found
The Lor d s P rayer the Co m mand m ents and most
par ts of the Bible afford good exa m ples of long quan tity
r father who art in heaven hallo wed be thy
u
l
O
( q)
,
name Thy kingdom come Thy will be done on earth ,
as it is in heaven
l
Then
J
esus
answering
said
unto
the
G
o
m
( q)
your way and tell John what things ye have seen and
hea rd ho w that the blind s e e the lame wal k the lepe r s
are cleansed the deaf hear, the dead are raised t o the
poo r the gospel is preached And blessed is he whoso
ever Shall not be o ffended in m e
The other m odications which are of any i m por tance
to notice he re are plainti veness tre m o r, increa s e de
crea s e explo s ive force supp ressed force and the qual
ities of the voice called the orotund , the s m ooth the
harsh , the aspirated the guttural and the pectoral
What they are may be sufciently inf erred from their
,

RE A DING

78

l
a
es
they
need
little
else
than
suitab
e examples of
n m
ill u s t ration to m ake the m clearly understood and thei r
initials fu rnis h the bes t annotations
The o rotund is de rived fro m the phrase , ore r ot u n
do with a round mouth or with a full, clear and dis
tinct a r ticulation P ectoral is from p ect u s the chest l n
the utte rance of deep e m otion , we draw or heave the
voice fro m the botto m of the chest G uttur al is fro m
the
th
aspi
r ated is from a sp ir e to breathe
r oat
ur
u
t
t
g
for cibly and tre m or is the sam e in Latin as in E nglish,
and m eans a t re m bling o r shaking For using all these
m odi fication s of the voice p r ope rly no ce r tain r eliance
can be placed upon any thing but the p rOp er feeling and
good sense of the schola r : S o m e of them belong almos t
exclu s ively to the d ram a and the employm ent of them
any whe re else except in a fain t degree woul d be thought
rathe r theatrical
Let any one read the following words of Joseph t o
his b rethren in tones as soft and tender as the scene was
aff ecti n g and he will give a good illust ration of plain

t iv e n e s s
I a m Joseph : does m y father yet live
Or let him read with the t rue touch of nature, E ve s
lament in Milton s P aradise Lost :
.

O unexpected stroke worse than of death


Mus t I then leave thee P aradise
,

O r the last line from the S ailor Boy s D ream carrying


u p the thr ee r st divisions high and soft with increasing
move m ent and bringing do wn the three last l ow and
soft with decreasing and he will give a tolerably goo d

U L A TIO N QU A LIT Y

M D

or

V O ICE

79

I
O I sa il or boy sail or boy ! peace I to thy soul
O r the lines from Wordsworth s S hepherd G irl with a
shake or tre m ulous movement on lov ely and p a ir and
he wil l somewhat illustrate the tremor the rest will a f
ford a fair e x ample of Short q uantity

Twas little Barbary L e t hwa it e, a child of beauty rare


I watched them with delight : they were a (t ) l ov ely

O r the following line from M a rullu s s speech , with a


shake and full swell of voice and he will illustrate the
tremor and l ong q uantity

I:

u
o
0
(0 , y

r
t
h
a
() d

t
h
( ) eart s, you

e
t
cru
l
()

men of

R ome
O r let him read the stan z a from the D estruction of S en
n a cherib s Host with voice depressed almost to a whis
per and nearly guttural and monotonous but full, and
heaved u p from the lo west part of the chest a n d he will
illustrate in some degree the aspirate
For the angel of death Spread his Wing s on the bl ast

And breathed in the face of the fo e a s he passed


And the eyes of the sleepers wa xed deadly and chill
And their hearts but once heaved, and foreve r grew still
S peak the two lines from Marmion takin g leave of
D ouglas, high and loud, with short, quick, percussive
force , much like the explodin g of crackers or the crack
of a pistol , and you will Show a very good examp l e of
e xplosive force , and high and l oud
,

U p dra wbridge groom s lwha t , wa rder, ho


L et t he port cullis fall
,

RE AD ING

80

The shor t quick utterance of an order, as Up O ut


Away illu s t rates explo s ive force so doe s the rst s yl
lable of a long wo rd when the accent is on the rst as
,

d s

i
a b l e , ex
c
p

i
a t ory, l eg is la t u re
p
-

The m anner of r eading a ll the preceding exa m ples


will be better u nderstood by turning to the pieces whence
they are ext racted
.

L E SSO N XI V
POETR Y IIO\V
.

REA D AN D SPEAK

IT

WELL

The sense, in eve ry in s tance is to be taken as the only


guide to exp res s ion and that m ode which b rings out the
s ense the m o s t clearly and fo r cibly and aff ords at the
sam e tim e the highest graticatio n to the ear must be
decidedly the best
To this set t led r ule poetry fo rm s no exception All
the appliances therefore of pause division , inection
e m phasis and quantity which would naturally be em
ployed to exhibit the m eaning in prose must , with some
Slight m odications be used to exp r ess the sam e in p o
e t ry
And this can generall y be done with all needful
regar d t o the m etre and the rhym e E ven in cases where
the m eaning so closely unites different lines , as not to
suffe r a point bet ween the m and the grouped division
is fo rm ed of wo rd s taken from each the ending o f the
line can be sufciently indicated by d welling at littl e
upon the last syllabl e of it, as denoted by the half bar,
,

O N T H E RE A D ING

or

P OET RY

81

Without

stopping the s t ream of sound , and s o wi t hout


detriment t o the sense
S till when lines occur so inharmonious in structure
as to make it imp ossible t o p reserve the sense without
neglect of the m elody it is ever the part of good taste
t o look well to the de m ands o f sense and never suffer it
to be sacriced to m ere sound T hough a nished read
e r wil l oftenti m es i m part a metrical s m oothness to lines
which their author has left rough and i m perfect and s o,
in some degree re m edy the fault of their c onstruction ,
without any appar ent in jury to the meaning : yet he is
not permitted to go s o far to eff ect this, as to alter the
sound of a vowel or to change the seat of an accent
But some words, by co m m on consent , are privileged
t o have a pron u nciation different in poetry from what
they have in prose W in d, when it signies a ir put in
motion and is made t o rhyme with m in d is on e a n d
woun d a hurt m ade t o rhyme with s ou n d is another
and the r e may be more Co m ic humor and satire may
als o j ustify other changes
In regard t o the nal pause that is a pause at the
end of every poetic lin ewa u t hors diff er in opinion so m e
insisting that it shoul d always be made others that it
should n ot , unless the sense requir e it And som e read
ers adopting the latter O pinion, are careful never to suf
fer the slightest suspension of the voice at the end of a
line unless they see a point there and, in their hurry
to reach the next they not unfrequently form a distinct
rhythmus , or division of speech , from the parts of two
lines to the complete destruction of all that is musical
either in the metre or the rhyme
.

RE A DING

32

From previous remarks it is clear that neither of


these modes is to be exclusively followed The true on e
lies between ; and aim s by a judic ious compromise to
secure the advantages of both It guards , on the on e
hand again s t t he too gene ral tendency to a distinct nal
pause ; and on the other against the vulgar, childish
move m ent of scanning
S om etim es the poetic feet and the divisions of sense
are nearly the sam e e g
,

I
I
I have found out a gift for my fair
I
I
I have found where the wood pigeons bree d
'
I
But let me that plun der forbear
'
I
twas a bar barous deed
She will say

If the two r st lines of this a nap aestic stan z a be read


ju s t as they are divided into metrical feet the injury
done to the sense will be but slightly perceptible but
if the sa m e m easur ed steps be cont inued through the
last two it becom es glaringly so N ow let the stanz a
be uttered in divisions such as the sense demands
,

I have found out a gift I for my fair


I
I have found where the woed pigeons bre ed 3
B u t I let me that plunder forbe ar
I
She will say twas a barbarous I de ed

When so read the meaning and the melody are both


reserved
p
,

the proper divisions of sense

ON T HE R E A DIN G o r

P O ET R Y

83

I
But error wounded, wr ithes with p ain,
And di es I amid his worshippers
,

In

this stan z a, a ga in is, very properly, made t o rhym e


with p a in though the best speakers pronounce it s o as
to rhyme with p en and s o it should be pronounced
here In the second line, the metre re quires that e in t he
should coalesce with the e in eternal but it shoul d be
clearly pronounced In the last line, the metrical foot
requires the last syllable in wor s hipp er s to have an a c
cent but it should be read Without any
I observe farther, that when the poet has s o formed
his metre as to require the last vowel of a word to coa
le sce with the next or a long word to drop on e of it s
middl e syllables, he does n ot apostrophis e either of
them as writers did formerly nor should it be done in
reading Much may be done by t he reader, however,
to favor the metre without detriment to the pronuncia
tion : but sometimes the poet makes a distinct syllable
of ed where it would n ot be in prose
and in that case
it must be made by the reader
O ne cannot read the following stan z a with due rs
gard to sense u nl ess he break u p the m e t ro almost en
t irel y ; and read the lines very nearly a s marked int o
divisions by the bars and half bars, thus
.

I
I
What blessings I thy free bo unty gives,
I
L e t me n et
c ast away :
I
F or God is p aid I when m an receives
I
n
To e j ey I is to ob ey
When a l ine ends Without a point, and t he last word
is insepara bly j oined in sense with the foll owin g, t he la s t
.

84

E ADING

syllable of the line needs to be suspended a little as de


noted by the hal f bar s and bar without stopping t he
s t r eam of s ound ; e g
,

And I have loved thee Ocea n and m y j o y


I
I
I

O f youthful sport s was on thy br east to be


I
r
m
B erne like t hy bubbles O
nwar d f o a boy

r
a
I wan ton ed with thy b re ke s they to me I
7
3
I
W e re a delight ;

I
But in readi n g the words to be borne in the second
and third line s unle s s the sus pension can be m ade on be
witho u t a n y pe r c eptible violence to the sense it should
not be at t e m pted ; a n d the rhy m ing wo rd be suff e red
to m e rge entirely in the divi sion of sen s e Hence it m a y
be s ee n how m uch is to be yielded to the de m and s of
po e t ry f or the s ake of t he m etre and the rhym e The
sam e i n s t ruc t ion with the exception of the rhyme applies
to bla n k ve rs e unle s s it be of the dr am atic kind and
then the readin g and acting is bette r Without any, or but
very little regard to the nal pause
I

"

To him I who in the love of na t ure holds I


I
Communion with her visible fo r m s s he speaks I
A various language for his gayer hour s I
She has a voice of gladn ess and a sm ile I
An d eloquence of beauty and she glides I
Int o his darker m u s ings with a m ild I
And healing s ympathy that steals away I
Their sharpne s s ere he is aware B r ya n t
,

I
O f Man s rst disobedience and the fruit I

ON

T H E RE A DING

P O E T RY

or

85

I
Brought death into the world and all ou r Woe,
I
With loss of E den till on e g reater Man
I
R estore u s and regain the blissful seat
I
S in g heavenly Muse that on the secret t op
O f O reb or o f S inai didst inspire I
I
That shepherd who r st t aught the chosen seed
I
I
In the beginning I how the Heavens and E arth

i
3
I
what in me is dark I
R ose ou t of chaos ;
I
Illu m ine what is l ow I raise and support
I
That to the height of this great argu m ent I
I
I may asse r t eternal P rovidence
I
And justify I the ways of God to m en M ilt on
O rdinary persons particularly children are fonder of
reading poetry than prose They com mit it t o m e m ory
more readily retain it better and it is easier for them t o
speak it They are taken with the metre and rhyme
and they make these stand ou t in bold relief in place of
sense sentiment and feeling O f course they never read
nor Speak it well because they n ever u s e the varied
modications which sense sentiment and feeling re quire
T his char m of numbers see m s to be a natural taste
It showed itself in the earliest times and among the
rudest nations It is said that some o f t he ancients ha d
their l aws written in verse and required their children
to commit them to memory and t o sing them They
had their hymns peans and heroics The negr oe s on the
plantations of the S outhern S tates Show the same delight

in the melody of sweet sound s It is often employed as


the best means to lodge in the mind important lessons
These are generally mere scraps of rhyme
of wisdom
and a s poetry, have no merit but in their adaptation e g
,

R E ADING

86

E arly to bed, and early to rise


Makes a man healthy wealthy and wise
The infant pr ayer N ow I lay me down t o sleep wa s
co m posed in com pliance with this n atural tendency The
divine W atts im proved it to instil early lessons of piety
The ea r is so pleased with the music of metre and rhyme
and the me m ory is so aided by them that it is not n u
com mon often to s ee children and persons uneducated
when they desire to reme m ber several particulars to r e
solve the m into numbers
I heard of a poor wom an not long since sitting on
the deck of a steam boat with her scanty baggage about
her and repeating to herself G reat box little box,

band box and bundle


words instinctively thrown into
poetic measure
It is well enough to indulge this natural tendency in
children as a means of instruction and gratication
but not for early lessons in reading certainly not unles s
they have a parent or teacher a t hand who will n ot suf
fer them to read a line i m properly
The true way is
rst t o beco m e good re aders of prose and speakers t oo
To read poetry of a high order so as t o do it full j ustice,
o n e m ust possess a highly discriminating mind delicat e
,
sensibility and a graceful elocution to read that of an
inferior order he must have still greater powers, that he
.

variety of tone needed to grat ify the ear

EX A MPL E S OF

P OE T R Y

87

ho uld begin with simple pr ose, and be able to manage


that of a high order before they a ttempt p oetry B ut
this is what they always select for themselves and it is
what is usually selected for t hem ; an d that t oo of t he
highest dramatic s tyle and this, to g ether with the most
imp a s sion ed p art s of dis t inguis hed orations, forms the
character of the books, in most general u s e, for teaching
boys to Speak N o wonder we have s o many articial
speakers ! s o much mou thing, fustian and b omba s t or
in solemn p laces s o much sanctimonious sin gs on g an d
s

L E SSO N XV

1 T HE S P
.

RING B a rry

Cor n wa l l

I
I
I
I
T he win d bl ows in the sweet rbse tree :
I
T he cow lows on the fragrant l ea
I
I
T he stream ows all bright a n d free

t
f
r
m
Tis n e o
e
t is n ot for thee
I
I
Tis not for an y (me I trew :
The gentle wind b l ewet h
The happy cow lewe t h
The merry stream ewet h Ii
I
F or all bel ew
I
0 t he Spring, the b on t if ul sprin g
:
S he Shineth and s milet h I on every thin g

I
I
F rom the rich man s m oer

R E ADING A ND

88

SP EAK IN G

I
Where cometh sle ep
I
To t he b d that s po er :
I
P e asants m ust w eep
And kings I en dIIre :
I
I
I
can
c
u
re
e
e
that
n
n
a
a
f
te
i
s
Th at
Yet spring doth all she can I I trew
I
She brings the bright h eurs
I
She weaves the sweet ewers
I
She d ecketh her b ewe rs I for an bel ew
I
I
i
spr
ng !
f
u
l
n
t
i
i
i
b
o
the
spring
the
O
I
S he Sh ineth and s m ilet h I on every thing

2 T HE
.

Co s im o L oga n

B or n , 17 4 8, died, 17 8 8

H ail beauteous st ranger of the weod,


I
Att endant on the sp ring
I
I
N ow heaven r epa irs thy rural s eat ,
And wee ds I thy welcome sing
,

I
as the dai s y decks the green
I
I
Thy certain v eice we h ear :
Ha st thou a st ar I t o guide thy p ath,
O r m ark I the rolling year
I
S e en

D elightful

visitant

I
with th ee

I hail the time of ewers ,


W hen heaven I is filled with music swee t
Of b irds I am ong the b ewers
.

I
To pull the owers

so

gay,

E X A M PLE S

P O ET R Y

OF

89

I
I
S oon as the pea puts o n the b leom
I
Thou yes t thy vocal vale
I
An annual guest in ether l ands
I
Another Spr ing t o b ail

I
S weet bird thy bower is ever green,
I
I
I
Thy sky is ever cl ear ;
I
I
Thou hast n a s errow in thy s eng,
I
Ne winter in thy y ear
.

I
I
O h could I y I d y with th ee
W e d m ake with social wing
I
O ur annual v isit o er the gl ebe
Comp anions I of the s pring

MN

3 HY
.

To

GOD L

ord

B ro ugha m.

I
all
n
ture
There is a Ged I
a
cries :
A thousand tongues procl aim I
I
I
His arm almighty, mind all wise,
I
And bid each voice in ch erus rise I
I
T o magn ify his n ame
.

I
T hy n ame great N ature s sire divine,
I
Assiduous we adere
R ejecting gedhea ds I at whose shrine
I
Benighted n ations b l od and wine,
I
In vain libat ions p eur

countless werlds , in boundless sp ac e


I
Myriads of miles each h eur,
Their m ighty orbs I as curious trace,
I
I
n
As the blue circlet o the fac e
I
O f that en amelled ewer
Yo n

RE AD ING AN D SPE A KING

90

I
I
But th en t oo madest the oweret gay
T o glitter I in the d awn
I
The hand that r ed the orb of day
I
The blazing comet launched away,
I
P a inted the velvet lawn
As falls a Sparrow I t o the gr eund
I
O bedient to thy will
I
I
By the same l aw these globes wheel r eun d
I
I
I
E ach drawing e ach yet all still f eun d
I
In the eternal system b enud
I
I
On e o rder to fulfil

URA L

LI

Ja mes T homs on

B 17 00, d 17 4 8
.

Oh knew he but his happiness of m en


The h appiest he who far from public r age
I
I
D eep in the vale with a choice few retired
I
D rinks the p ure pleasures of the rural life
,

I
He when young spring protrudes the bursting gems,
I
Marks the rs t b ud and sucks the healthful g ale I
I
I
Into his freshened S eul her genial hours
I
He full enj eys and not a beauty bl ews
I
And not an Opening b l essom breathes in vain
,

at

I
I
Here too dwells sim ple Tru th plai n Innoc enc e
Unsullied Be auty sound unb r oken Yeu t h,
,

Health

ever

b l eomin g

unambitious t ail

E X AM PL E S
A P P INE SS

5. H

N or

or

P OET R Y

E N D E T ON FORTUN

D PE

91

7 710mm

I care not, fer t un e, what you m e deny


I
I
You cannot rob me of free n ature s grac e
I
You cannot shut the windows of the sky,
I
T hrough which Aurora shows her brightenin g fac e
You cannot bar my constant feet to tr ace I
I
The w ee ds and l awns, by living streams at ev e ;
I
I
I
Let heal th my nerve s and rmer bres brace,
I
I
And I their t eys to the great children l eave
I
I
O f fancy, re ason , virtue n aught can me bereave

EEN

GR

R IV R

IV
.

B rya n t

I
When bree z es are s eft and skies are fair
I
I steal an hour from study and c are
I
And hie me away to the woo dl and sc ene
I
Where wanders the stream with waters o f green,
I
I
As if the bright fringe o f herbs o n its brink I
I
I
H ad given their stain to the w ave they drink
I
And they whose m eadows it m arm urs through ,
I
I
H ave n amed the stream from its own fair hue
,

I
I
O h l ev elies t there the spring days c eme
With b l essom s, and birds and wild bees hum
I
The owers of Sirm m er are f airest th ere ,
I
And freshest the breath of the summer a ir
I
And sweetest the golden a irt u m n day I
I
In silence and sunshine glides away
,

as

as

:3

I
T hough forced to drudge for the dregs of m en ,
I
An d s cra wl st ran ge words with t he bar ba rous pen ,

RE AD ING A N D SPE A K ING

92

I
And mingle among the jostling crewd
I
W here the son s of st rife are subtle and l an d
I
ften co m e to this quiet pl ace
IO
I
I
To breathe the air s that rufe thy face
I
I
And gaze up en thee in silent d re am I
I
F or in thy lonely and lovely st r ea m I
I
I
An i m age of that cal m life app ears
I
I
That w n my h eart in my greener y ears
,

L E S S ON x v r

E A NAT ON
X

MI

OF

A CLASS

ON VE SE POE C FEETSTRUCTURE OF VERSE


R

T I

CIE S U R A.

should al ways be on our guard against


the thought that we kno w a thing sim ply b e ea u se we
have studied it You all had studi e d E nglish G ra m mar
many of you Rheto ric and som e the Latin and G reek
poets but when que s tioned on the gur es of Speech the
st ructur e of ve rs e and poetic license none of you were
able to give clear and satisfactory ans wers I trust you
now com e p r epar ed to do full justice to these subjects
for it is ce rtain you never can unde rs t and clearly what
you read unle s s you can determ ine whether the words
are to be taken in a liter al or gurative sen s e n or can
o u read poet r y well unless you know in what kind of
y
measur e it is co mposed ; whether in Iam bic Trochaic
or Anap aestic ; and what words are exclusively p oetic,

T ea cher

E X AM IN A T IO N O N P O E T IC

EEET

93

you are to regard as a poetic license P lease to tell what


a ve r se is and ho w the te r m is derived
A A verse is a certain nu m ber of poetic feet form
in g a line and the term com es from t he Latin wo r d v er t o ,
to turn because when a line is nished there is a turn
At rst any line wa s called a verse but
t o the next
afterwards it becam e rest ricted t o poetry ; and so it is
n o w, with the exception o f the arbitrary divisions in the
Bible and when we u s e t he word v er s e without an ar
t icl e we m ean p o e t Iy in distinction from prose
W hat is a foot and why is it so called
T
B A foot is a measure of t wo or three syllables
s o called , because by the aid of feet the voice seems to
step along the line in a m easured pace
T What na m es have you for the half of a verse,
and for two o r more lines taken together P
A He m istich is half a verse a Couplet or D is
0
tich is t wo verses or t wo lines a triple t three a stan
z a or stave is four o r m ore verses co m bined , forming
regu lar divisions throughout the song or poem

What is R hyme
T
D R hyme is a similarity of soun d in the end ing of
diff erent verses as,
.

O n what foundation stands the warrior s p r ide 9


How just his hopes let S wedish Charles decide

What is Blank V erse


'
E Blank V erse is verse without rhyme, and form ed
of ve Iambic fee t as,
'
'
'
I
With sol emn ad ora tion down they cast
'
I
I
I
Their crowns inwove with ad aman t and g old
.

RE ADIN G

94

What other name s do

s
e
e
v

give
to
ver
of
T
Iambs or ten syllables, with or without rhyme

Heroic or E pic and D ramatic


E

r
e
What
name
is
given
to
verse
in
other
measu
sP
T

Lyric because original ly sung with the lyre


F
Lil What are the feet usually employed in E nglish
verse P
G The Iambus, the T rochee , the Anap aest and t he
D actyl ; and among these are occasionally mingled the
Pyrrhic and the S pondee The Iambus is a foo t formed
of an unaccented and accented syllable o r in prosodi al
language a short and a long as, c amp ese, b etray : the
T roche e o f a long and a short syllable as abl e, m anly
the Anap aest , of t wo short and on e long as, cen t rav en e,
in t he night the D actyl , of o n e long and t wo short as
e
i
b
l
n
e
s
s
e
c
n
l
t
t
e
s
the
P
yrrhic
w
short
as
the
o
f
t
o
p
y
'
rst foot in cen t ra riet y and the S pondee, of two long
syllables as sweet S eun ds , high aims A Single Sylla
ble added to the regul ar feet is called a Hypermeter
line or a R edundant syllable as

I
I
Vital sp ark of h eavenly ame : in this versea me
is a R edundant added to three Trochees

T
Give an example of Iambic verse
'
I

H T he sp a cieus f i r mament I en high


I
I
I
i
W th all t he bl iie et he rea l sky
I
'
I
And s p an gl ed he avens, a shi ning frame,
I
Their great erii n al I preclaim
.

u
o
y

'

Here each line has four Iambs : and, to read them


in dis tin ct feet a s I have expressed them, is call ed
,

V A R IO

US

O R M S OF

VE R

SE

95

Are any of the words in you r e x ample contract


T
ed

in order t o form the feet


II Yes, S ir, et her ea l a word of four syll abl es, is
contracted to three, a n d hea v en , to on e

Ar e we to regard such contractions in re a din g


T
and recitin g s o that we Shoul d al ways make the feet
distinct P
I N o S ir, n o more than we are to substitute scan
ning for divisions o f sense : e er, ne er and o er I think,
are the o n ly exceptions Spoken of but , in ou r attempt s
to preserve the melody of verse, the syllables need not b e
brought ou t s o full as in prose
T N o w, Master H write your e x ample in proper
divisions of sense, separated by bars, where it is n eeded,
and marked with the inections
,

I
The spacious rm a m en t on high
I
With all the blue ethereal sky,
I
And spangled heavens a shinin g frame
I
Their great original I proclaim
.

{l l What other kin ds

of

verse

are

written in this

meas ure

From that of one Iambus up to seven or eight


J

I
I
I
I
I
des cen ded fr em ab eve , an d hewed
a s T he L ard
'
t he h eav ens high but this kind , though formerl y writte n
in one line, is n ow broke n into t wo e g ,
,

I
I
0 b lin d to each indul gent
'
I
O f power supreme l y wise,
T he

I
I
hand of heaven

ai m

deie s !

RE A D ING

96

ha s

of

The E pic or heroic as it


been said compos d
s
w
w
Ia
bs
to
a
line
ith
or
ithout
rhyme
sometime
m
v e
takes a syllable over or a R edundant as

I
I
I a n d wa n t
the
fel
low
f
it
o
I
;
m
th
o
an
W orth makes
'
'
I
prunel
lo
I
I
but
leath
er
or
The rest is all
m
D
oes
the
He
oic
ever
ad
it
an
additional
foot

r
T
and what is the line c alled when formed of s ix Iam bs P
f
o
Ale
x
an
ine
as
in
the
second
line
this

r
d
An
K
,

couplet

I
'
'
'
the
song
Al
exan
drine
ends
,
A need less
I
I
'
I
h
n
t
slow
e
l
I
drags
its
g
That like a wound ed snake,
along
.

e
t
h
an
exa
ple
of
the
Trochaic
and
tell
m
,
T
varieties of that kind of verse

I
I
sl
ep
is
a
good
e
x
e

e
t
w
n
e
a
d
e
m
l
e
N wI
L
y
ample of the Troc haic with a R edundant The vari
e t ie s of this verse a r e the same as those of the Iambic
e g
'
I
I
e
w
I
l
l
w
i
ary
b
e
a
e
str
tched
b
n
ath
e
e
On e m eun t ain
I
I
I
I
li
n
l
r
e
e
h
v
ewed
t
i
n
d
sw
in
a
a
a
Sh
ph
e
rd
e
a
L y
g
,
.

G ive

b ill ew

T
.

V erses

Give an example

of

the Anap aestic verse

in this measure include o n e t wo, three or four


feet and sometimes take a R edundant as,
,

E X AM IN A TIO N O N

V AR IO U

S VE R S E

97

B yr on s S ennacherib is An ap aestic verse


G ive an example of the D actylic
T
'
I
I

B eys will an ticip ate , l avish an d dissip ate


0
I
I
I
All th at y aur b fisy p ate b eard ed with c are
I
I
I
And in th eir feolishn es s p assionan d m l ishn es s

Ch arge yeu with


prayer

ch rlis hn ess ,

'

Sp iirn in g

ur
e
y

The feet in this s tan z a are a ll D act yls ; and on e of


the rhymes is formed of t wo R edu n dan t s This meas
u re in the E nglish is very di fc ult and ra r e
T Can you give some exa m ples in which the P yr
rhic and S pondee are mingled in the sa me verse and the
Ia m bus is changed for the T r ochee and the Trochee for
the Iambus
'
I
I
I

And t e t he d ead my wil ling fe w sh all 6


D
.

In this verse, the rst foot is a P yrrhic, the rest are


Iambs
I
I
I
I
F erb ea r
great m an , in arms ren ewn ed f erb ear
.

Here the second foot is a S pondee the rest are Iambs


I
I
I
I
Tyr ant an d sl a ve , th ese n a mes (if h ate an d fear
.

In this the rst is a Trochee , the rest are Iambs


,

Give an example of the Anap aestic


'
I
I

E
I h ave fOu n d en t a gift f er my fair
I
I
a
I h ve f eun d wh ere t he w eed pig eons breed
'
I
B iit l et m e th at pl n der f 6 rb e ar
'
I
t was a b ar b areu s d ee d
She w ill s ay
I
I
F er he n e e r ceu l d b e t r e she av erred
I
I
w
r
W he eul d eb a p ee r bird ef It s yeun g
.

REA D ING

98

wh en I he ard
t he m ere
And I l oved
'
I
r
t
ngue
m
h
e
e
f
r
e
f
e
e
e
t
n
d
rn
ss
all
h

c
S
I

I her

In the s e two stanzas all are An ap aests except the r st


foot in the third line which is an Iam bus and the rst
in the last which is a S pondee

n
m
u
co
a
S
uch
changes
in
Anap
estic
verse
are
not
T
m on ; n or is it u n com m on in Ia m bic and Trochaic to
nor t o mingle as you have
u s e one foot f or the othe r
shown the P yrrhic a n d the S pondee they ser ve t o
m ake a plea s ing va riety and so to enliven the verse D o
you r ecollect any other distinction in the structure of
E pic ve rse and that of reading it P

Yes Sir I rem em ber you told us that a good poet


G
al ways gave to his lines a pleasing var iety by the skil
ful di s t ribution of lon g and Short syllables and varying
the p lace of the c aesur al pause so as to make it d ifferent
on al mo s t every succeeding line The C aesura is a Latin
word derived fro m cce do to cut and it cuts the line int o
t wo par ts : this pause in good poetry is sufciently in
dica t e d by the sense but if not no attempt should be
made to e m belli sh the reading with that kind of melody

T
Very well S ir I am gratied to s ee my remarks
have found s o good a lodgm ent Can you repeat the
lines I then used to illustrate what you have j ust said P
G They we r e the beginni n g of P ope s E ssay on
Man I wr ote them down and I have applied the marks
of quantity I think just as you e xhibited them , a n d
so m e of the principal accents also
,

CE S U

3 L et iis

I (since life

R A AN D A C C E N T
I c an

lit

99

I
t l e m er e

I iis

s iip p l y,

t e die )
an d
Th an j s t
e 16 0k ahen t
'
I
I
I
5 E xp a t i ate free o er all this sc ene or m an
I
I
I
b lit n et wit heu t a pl an
6 A m igh ty m aze
'
I
I
7 A wild wh er e w eeds an d ewe rs p rem is cu eus
sh ee t
'
'
'
I
8 Or gar d en t em pt ing wit h f e rb id den frait
'
'
I
I
thi s am pl e eld
fis b eat
9 T eget h er l et
'
'
I
I
10 T ry wh at
t he ep en wh at
t he cev ert yield
'
'
I
I
1 1 T he l a t ent t r act s
ex pl ere
t he gid dy he igh t s

'
I
I
o r S igh t ly s ear
12 O f all whe blind ly c r eep
'
'
I
I
i t ies
s h ee t F el ly as
13 E ye N a t iir e s wal ks
'
'
I
I
th ey rise :
14 And c atch t he m an n er s l iv ing as
'
I
I
I
we m fis t
b e c an did wh ere we can
15 L augh wh er e
I
I
I
i
16 B iit v in d cat e t he ways (if Ged I t e m an

Ve ry well again you are right a s f a r as I can


T
Here is perfection in fo rm i n g
s e e in every particular
poetic line s both as it regards the mingling of long and
sho r t syllables and varying the place of the c ae s u r a s o
that in r eading the sen s e and the m elody are both p r e
served W e obse r ve the sa m e va rying change o f t he
c aesu ral pause in Latin and G reek Hexamete r s and
none can read the m well unless t hey give t he c aesu ra a
constant and ma rked attention But why do you pu t
an accent with long quantity on S t o r S a in t in the rs t
line rather than J ohn the c o m m on way of reading it P
G Because the rst wa y prese rves the m easure and
the sense ; and the other destroys the m both If we
u t the accent on J o hn we make it m ean the S t
ohn
J
p
of the G ospel ; but it is the fa m ily nam e of his friend
It

wa s

so

R E ADIN G

100

pronounced at that day I t hink you tol d u s you could


recollect when the name in this count ry was generally
call ed S ension
of
Heroic
verse
it
has
been
said
is
composed

T
ve Iambs or a continued succession of t he unaccented
and accented syllable : are there any exceptions to be
found in the lines read by Master G
H Yes S ir the rst foot on the tenth the rst
and the thi rd foot in the thirteenth and the rst in the
ft eenth line have on each syllable a strong accent :
a n d the fourth fo o t in the rst line and the second in
the ft h are nearl y similar

Are any of the words contracted to form the


T
regular foot

H Yes ; exp a t ia t e in the fth and ower s and


r o m is cu ous in the seventh line
p

P oint out in each line where the poet has indi


ll
I
ca t e d the c aesural pause
in the
I In the rst line aft er the fth syllable

2
the
the
the
d
the
4
t
h
the 7 t h the
3d
2d
5t h

5t h the 4 t h the 6 t h the 4 t h the 7 t h the 2 d the

the
the
t
h
the
t
h
the
l
0
t
h
the
t
h
the
3d
8t h
9
6
5
;
11t h the 4 t h the 12 t h the 6 t h the 13t h the 4 t h
the 14 th the 7 t h and the 15th and l 6 t h the 4 t h

E very one of the changes noticed in these six


T
teen lines adds something to heighten the pleasing
e ffect of the whole And a l l can see that the reading
which gives o u t the sense the best gives the fullest gra
t i ca t ion to the ear : and that mode which resolves the

whole into divisions of sense as the book has taught u s,


s er v es best to secure all which sense and melody demand
.

r.

O R D ER

or

N ATU

RE

L E SSO N X V II
OR D

1 T HE
.

E O F N AT
R

101

RE P

op e

I
I
All are but p arts of on e stupendous wh ole
I
I
W hose body n a ture is and God the soul
I
That cha nged through all and yet in all the s ame,
I
I
G reat in the e a rth as in the ethereal fra me I
I
I
W arms in the s un refr eshes in the breeze
I
I
Gl ows in the st a rs and bl o ssoms in the tr ees I
I
I
Lives through all l ife extends through all ext ent
I
I
S preads undivide d o perates u n sp ent
I
I
Breathes in our soul informs ou r mortal p a rt
I
As full as p erfect in a hair as h eart
As full as p erfect in vile m a n that m ourns
I
As the rapt s eraph I that ad ores and b u rn s
I
To Him no h igh no l ow no great no sm al l
I
He fills He bo u nds conn ects and equals all
I
I
Ce a se t hen nor O rder Imp erfection n a me
I
O ur proper bl iss dep ends o n what we bl ame
I
I
I
K now t hy own p oint : This k ind this due degree
I
I
O f bl indness we akness He aven bestows on thee
S ubmit in th is or any o ther sph ere
S ecure to be as b l s t Ias thou canst be ar
I
S afe in the hand o f o n e Disposing P ower
I
O r in the n a tal or the m br t a l h our
I
All N a ture is but Art unkn own to thee
All Ch a nce D irection , which thou canst not s e
,

RE AD IN G

102

A ND

S P E AK IN G

o
underst
od
All D iscord H armo y I
I
I
All p ar t ial E vil universal G ood
I
And spite of P ride i n erring R e a son s spite ,
O ne tr uth is cl ear whatever is is right
n

n ot

2 T HE DArs r
.

Jo! m M a son Good

17 6 4 , d 18 2 8.
.

I
N ot worlds on worlds I in phalanx d eep
I
I
Need we to prove I a G o d is h re
I
The daisy fresh from N ature s sl eep
I
T ells of his n ame I in lines a s cle a r :
I
For wh o but H who arched the skies
I
I
And pours the dayspring s living ood,
I
I
W ondrous al ike in all he tri s
I
Could raise the d aisy s purple b u d
I
M ould its green c u p its W iry stem
I
Its fringed border nicely spin
I
And c ut the gold embossed gem
That set in s ilver glea m s within
,

And ing it unrestrained and fr ee I


O er hill and d ale and d sert s od,
That m a n I wheree e r I he walks I may
In every st ep , the st a mp I of God
,

3 T HE DYI
.

V ital sp ark

CH RISTIA

HIS S

OU L

P op e

of heavenly a me,

O the p ain the bliss


,

TO

of dying

s e,

O E T IC E X A M P L E S

103

H a rk they whisper angels s a y,


I
S ister spirit come aw ay
I
I
I
W h a t is th is absorbs me q u ite
S te als my s enses sh u ts my sight I
D rowns my spirits
dr aws my bre a th
I
can this be de a th
T ell me my sb ul
,

e
it
rec des ,

world
disappears
I
Heaven opens on my eyes my ears
I
W ith sounds ser a phic r ing
L end l end your wings I m ount I y
I
I
O G rave ! wh ere is thy victory P
I
I
O De a th ! where is thy sting P
T he

ES T

4 T HE D
.

RU

CT IO N O F

ENNACHER

IB .

L or d Byr on

17 88, d 18 24
.

Assyrian came d own I like a wolf on the fold,


I
I
And his c ohorts were gleaming in p u rple and g old ;
I
I
And the sheen of their spears was like st ars on the s ea,
I
I
W hen the blue w a ve rolls n ightly o n deep Galil ee
T he

'

Like the leaves of the forest when s ummer is green ,


That host with their b a nners at sunset were se en
I
Like the leaves of the forest when Autumn hath bl own
I
That host , on the morro w lay withered and str own
,

For the An gel of D eath I spread his wings on the blast ,


I
I
I
And bre athed in the fa ce of the foe as he p a ssed
I
I
And the eyes of the sleepers waxed d eadly I and
And their hea rts

but o nce

he aved ,

and for ever

grew

RE A D I NG A ND S PE AKI NG

104

I
r
with
his
nost
ils all w ide
e
lay
the
st
ed
And there
I
I
But through the m there rolled n ot the breath of his
pride
I
I
I
And the foam of his gasping lay wh ite o n the t urf
I
I
And c old as the spray of the rock beating s urf
I
And there lay the rider I distorted and p ale I
I
With the dew on his brow and the rust on his m a il
I
I
And the t ents were all s ilent the b anners al one I
I
The lances unlift ed the trumpets unbl own
I
And the widows of As hiIr are loud in their w a il
I
And the idols are broke in the temple o f B a al
I
And the might of the G entile unsm o te b y the sword
I
I
Hath melted like sn ow I in the gl ance o f the L ord
I

CO

N A

JU G L

Fremon

T hom s on

I
But happy they the h appiest of their kind
I
W hom gentler stars unite and in one fa te I
I
Their hearts their fortunes and their beings bl end
,

22
:

I
M e antime a smiling o ff spring rises r ound
I
And mingles bo th their gra ces By degrees
The human blossom blows and every d a y
I
S oft as it rolls along shows some new ch arm
The f ather s l ustre and the mother s blo om
I
Then infant r eason grows ap a ce and calls I
I
For the kind h and of an assiduous c a re
D elightful t a sk to rear the tender th ought
To t e ach the young idea I h ow to Sh oot
I
To pour the fresh instruction I o er the m ind,
I
To breathe the enlivening Spirit and t o x I
,

E X AM IN A T IO N O N

F IGU

RE S

OF

SP EE CH

105

I
T he generous purpose in the glowing breast
I
Oh spe ak the j oy y whom the sudden te a r
I
S urprises often while you look aro und
I
I
And no t hing strikes your eye but sights of blis s
I
I
All various N ature pressing o n the he art
An elegant sufciency co n t ent
R etirement rural quiet fri endship bo oks
I
E a se and alternate l a bor useful life
P ro gr es s rv e virtue and approving He a ven
I
I
T h ese are the matchless joys of virtuous love
I
And thus their moments y The seasons thu s
I
As ceaseless round a Jaru ng world they r oll
S till nd them h appy and cons entin g spring I
I
I
Sheds her own rosy g a rland o n their he a ds
Till evening comes at last serene and m ild
I
I
W h en aft er the long vernal day of l ife
I
n
a
m
E
o r e d m bre
as
more
remembrance
sw
e
lls
I
I
W ith many a proof of recollected l ove
I
T ogether down they sink in social sl eep
T ogether fr eed , their gentle Spirits y I
I
T o scenes where l ove I and bliss I imm ortal re ign
.

'

'

L E SSO N X V III
E XAMIN

AT O N O N FIG
I

T ea cher W

R S

0F

SP EEC H

A N D P OET C L IC
I

E N E.

hat is a gure of speech P

A
A mod e of speaking, in whi ch a word or s en
tence is to be understood in a s ense different from it s
most literal mean ing
.

RE A D I NG

106

(l l E xplain the gure called

er s on i ca t ion .

B It is a gure by which we ascribe personality


and intelligence to unintelligent be ings or abstract qual

ities ; as The s ea s a w it and ed


The W or m
aware of his intent harangued him thus right eloquent
W hat is a S imile
T
O A gure by which we express the resemblance
of one thing to another and generally introduce it b y
e g
like a s or s o
P

v in e,

supported lives ;
The strength he gains is from the embrace he gives
He shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of waters
M a n , like t he gen er o u s

W hat is a M etaphor
D It is a S im ile without the Sign of likeness or

comparison ; as
He shall be a t r ee planted by the
rivers of water
His eye was morning s brightest
ray

W hat is an Allegory
T
E A con t l n u a t ion of several M etaphors so con
as i n the
n e ct e d in sense as to form a kind of parable

Thou hast brought a vine out o f E gypt


8 0t h P salm
thou hast cast out the heathen a n d planted it Thou
preparedst room before it and didst cause it to take deep
root and it lled the land The hills were covered
with the Shadow of it and the boughs thereof were like
t he goodly cedars
meaning the Israelites M ost of
the similitudes in the S cript ures called parables a nd the
better sort of fabl es may be considered Al legories
.

2)

F I G U RE S

or

S PE E C H

re re sen

107

p
ts things as greater or less be tter or worse than
they really are as when David says of S aul and J ona
than T hey were Swifter than eagles they were s tronger
than lions
T W hat is Irony

That gure by which the speaker says on e thing


G
and means another directly contrary or in which he
sneeringly utters the direct reverse of what he intends

shall be understood : 6 g 1 K ings xviii 2 7 And


it came to pass at noon that E lijah mocked the m and
said Cry al oud for he is a gIid either he is t a lking,
o r he is p u rsuing or he is on a j o urney , or peradventure
he Sle ep eth I and must be aw aked

W hat is M etonymy P
T
H A change of names in which the cause is
named f or the e ff ect , the effect for the cause t he su b
jcet for the adj unct the place for the inhabitant , the
container for the thing cont ained and the Sign for t he
thing signied as, He reads Mil ton
that is, his
works
G od is ou r salvation
that is S aviour
He
was the s igh of her secret soul
that is the youth She
M y s on give me thy heart
loved
that is affectio n
The sceptre shall not depart from Judah
that is ,
kingly power
G ray hairs shall be respected
that is,
ol d age
S wifter than a whirlwind, ies the leade n
death
T
W hat is S ynecdoche P
It is the naming of a part f or the whole a de
I
as, the hea d for the p er
n ite number for an indenite
s on , t en t ho us a n d for any great number
T his r oof pr o
t ee ts you
that is , thi s house protects you
,

RE AD I NG

108

Blossoms, and fruits and owers together rise


And the whole yea r in gay confusion lies
,

describing Italy the poet uses whole year

Here , In
for the productions of the year
T What is Antithesis
J Antithesis or contrast is a gure In which differ
ent or contrary o bjects are contrasted to make them Show

one another to advantage ; as The wicked ee when


no man pursue t h b u t the r ight eou s are bold as a lion

What is a Climax a n d an Anti Climax P


T

K
A Climax is a gure in which we rise by regular
steps to what is more important and interesting so as to
heighten all the circumstances of an object or action ,

which we wish t o place in a strong light e g


And
besides this giving all diligence add t o your faith v ir
tue and to v irtue knowledge and to knowledge tem
e ra n ce
and
to
temperance
patience
and
t
o
patience
,
p
godliness and to godliness brotherly kindness and to
brotherly kindness charity
An Anti climax 1s a g
ur e in which we descend to what is more and more minute

T
W hat is Apostrophe
L It is a turning off from the subject t o addres s
some other person or thing as D eath is swallowed u p
in v ictory 0 D eath where is thy sting P 0 Grave
where is thy victory
T W hat is the gure Interrogation
A Interrogation when it is a gure is a form of
,
interrogative which the speaker adopts, not t o express a
doubt b u t condently to assert the reverse o f what is
,

'

F IGU

RE S O F S P E E C H

109

thunder with a voice like him


He that planted the
ear shall he not hear He that formed the eye shall he
,

n o t s ee

T W

hat is the gu re E xclamation

E xclamation , whe n a gure is an outburst of


B
some deep and violent emotion as O h the depth of the
riches both of the wisdom and the kn owledge of G od
O that my head were waters, and mine eyes a foun
tain of tears that I might weep day and night for the
slain of the daughter of my people
W hat is V ision , or Imagery
T

It is a gure by which t he speaker represent s


0
the objects of his imagination as act ually before his eyes

as in Cicero s fourth oration aga inst Catiline : For I


behold this city the light of the universe and t he cita
del of all nations suddenly involved in ames I gure
to myself my cou ntry in ruins, and the miserable bodies
o f slaughtered citizens , lying in heaps without burial
T he image o f Ceth egus furiously revell ing in your blood,
is n ow before m y eyes
T Can any o n e tell what other general name is
given t o some of these gures

G W hen words are used to signify something


different from their original meaning they are called
T r op es In that case if the word be changed , the gure

is destroyed e g , light ariseth t o the upright in da r k

Here the T rope c onsists in light a n d darkness


n es s
not being taken literally , but substituted for comfort in
adversity t o which conditions of life they are supposed
to bear some resemblance W ithout a gure it wo ul d
be , co mf or t ariseth to the upright in a dv er s ity
.

R E A D I NG

110

It
T

seems t o m e desirable, in m ost ca ses where it


can be done to trace back words to their origin it gives
a clearer conception of their meaning and addit ional
association for holding them in the memory : and to
m e it is full of interest like tracing back the hist ory of
a noted personage M aster G you are in the G reek
class please t o tell me what T r op e is derived from
G The G reek word t r op e comes from t r ep o to
turn ; and means turning the word from a literal to a
gurative meaning
{l l W ho can tell what the G reek word Clim ax
means
H It means a ladder and comes from clin o t o lean

V ery well who can give the derivation of Ap os


T
.

t r op he 9
.

From ap o and s t r ep ho t o turn away from and

is a turning off from the subject as it has been dened

W ho can tell what M et ap hor is fro m P


T

T he G reek word M et a p hor a is from m et ap her o,


J
to transfer and it means the transfer fro m a literal t o
a gurative sense

W ho can tell what A llegor y comes from


T

K
The G reek word A llegor ia comes from a llos ,
other or different, and a yor eo to harangue and means
a use of language which conveys a meaning diff eren t
f ro m the Literal on e
T
W ho can give the deri vative and meaning o f
Hyp er bole 9
L T he Geeek word hup er bole, comes from hup er ,
,

beyond

FI G U RE S
A

CF

SP EE C H

111

Greek word m et on um ia comes from m et a


a name and means a change
o pposite to , and o n o m a
of name

How is Ir on y derived P
T

G From the G reek word eir on a dissembler

Yo u have all answered so readily and acquitted


T
yourselves s o well in this revie w that I Shall o mit the
gures pertaining t o etymology an d syntax : and when
we shall have examined P er s on ica t ion a little more in
detail I shall pass on to P o et ic L icen s e
P e r s on i ca t io n is on e o f the class of gures which
lie wholly in the thought the words be ing taken in their
common and literal sense All poetry abounds in this
gur e it often occurs in prose and in common conver
sation we make frequent approaches t o it as when we
s a y the earth t hir s t s for ra in or the elds s m ile with
beauty ambition is r es t les s or a disease is deceitf u l we
attribute to things In amm a t e or abstract conceptions
the properties of living creatures A thousan d such e x
pressions , from constant u s e have b ecome so fam iliar as
to cause their gurative character to disappear W ho
will give an example where i nanimate objects exhibit the
e motions and a ctions of sentient beings P
I

I think M ilton gives a ne on e upon E ve s e at


G
mg the forbidden fruit
S o saying, her rash hand in evil hour
Forth reaching t o the fruit She plucked She ate
E arth felt the wound, and N ature fro m her seat,
S ighin g thr ough all her works gave Signs of W C,
That all wa s lost
-

T he

'

RE A D I NG

112

I have
0

S ir from the same, where E ve makes


that moving and tender address to P aradise j ust before
she leaves it
O unexpected stroke worse than o f death
M ust I thus leave thee P aradise P Thus leave
Thee native soil these happy walks and shades
Fit haunt of gods where I had hope to spend
uiet
tho
gh
sad
the
respite
of
that
day
u
Q
Which must be mortal to u s both P 0 owers
That n ever will in other climate grow
My early visitation and my last
At even which I bred U p with tender hand
From your rst O pening buds and gave you names
W ho n o w will rear you to the sun or rank
Your tribes and water from the ambrosial fount P
.

on e,

O E T IC

EN SE

L IC

What is P oetic License


B It is a privilege granted to poetry both in words
and arrangement which is not allowed to prose It often
places the adjective after its noun , wh ere in prose it
would be place d before it as
.

Come nymph
,

demur e,

with mantle

blue

O The objective often comes before, and


n ative after their respective verbs
as,

His lis t less

len gt h at

t he

nomi

noontide would he stretch

Snatched in shor t eddies plays the withered


D P

repositions are ofte n placed afte r

leaf

t he

words

O E T IC L IC EN S E

113

W here echo walks still hills

a m n g.

E
W ords, idioms and phrase s are often used which
,

would be inadmissible in prose as,


By fountains clear,
Thy voice

we

or

spangled star light


-

hear and thy


,

Ou the rst fr iendly bank

s heen ,

obey

behes t s

he t hr o ws him

down

I ll seek the solitude he sought ,


And s t r et ch m e where he lay
.

F A

more violent ellipsis is allowable in poetry


than in prose e g ,
.

F or

is there aught in sleep ca n charm the wise


W ho never fasts, no banquet e er enj oys

(l A

syllable in poetry may be omitted or added


as wail for bewail wilder for be wilder, plaint for com
plaint , amaze for a mazement , eve or even for eve n ing
helm for helmet , m om for morning, lone for lonely drea d
for dreadful list for liste n , op e for open lure for allure,
e er for ever ne er for never, and o e r for over

Adjectives are oft en t imes elegantly connected


E
with nouns which they do not strictly qualify as
a

The ploughman homeward plods his wea r y way


The tenants of the wa r blin g shade
And dr o ws y tinklings lull the distant folds

lated ;

The ordinary rules


e g,

of

grammar are ofte n

ceased, the m elan choly s ou n d


M y ba n ks they are furnished with b ees
It

vio

RE AD IN G

n e it her

The u se
; e g,

o f or

and

of eit her

instead

n or

an d

And rs t
Or on the listed plain or stormy sea
N or grief nor fear sh a ll break my rest
.

Greek Latin and other idioms are allo wable


though not allowed in prose as
K

He

kn ew t o

s in g,

and

bu ild

the lofty rhyme

me to seize rich N estor s shield

Giv e

of

gold

who deaf to mad ambition s call


W o uld shrink to hear the o bstreperous trump of fame

T her e

a r e,

L E SSO N XIX

O
N
A
O
N
B
T
I
R
E
S
V
A C

ET EEN M
TH E
H
W

AR B CT ,

M r Gor don
.

you

GCR DCN

T E AC E R CF

THEI

AND
R

HIS

S O NS

FAM IL Y AND

D r Abbot we are very happy to


.

DB

s ee

G W
.

have often wanted you here, S ir, as

of your society
Dr A Had I known that I think I Shoul d scarce
.

to have frequent intercourse with those who h


a

Mrs
u re

R.

congenial spiri t

ONVE R SATI ON A T

MR

GORDON S

115

he t her you nd u s such or not , on e thing


V
Mr G
V
I can ass u re you we shall be most happy to cultivate
.

your acquaintance and t o listen t o a n y suggestions you


may be pleased to make to aid u s as coworkers with
ou
u
in
d
ties
responsibl
a
nd
so
a
du
us
I
was
not
a
so
e
r
o
y
little mortied the other day , that my s on in his honest
bluntness shoul d report to you what I said of his read
ing and yet I cannot s a y I am s o rry for it since it put
him in the wa y of being correct ed and ourselve s t oo
M r s G I hope ou r childre n con d uct thems elves to
please you S ir They see m to like their school very
well and t o t ake much interest in their studies
Dr A I had already inferred as much : hence we
m a y expect some improvement : for nothing aff ords a
better pro m ise of it than the very things you have men
t ion e d
S ometimes children like their school because
more pains are taken to win their attachment than to
improve their minds but in that case I think it is rare
t o see them take much interest in study
W here the
teacher s o conducts the lessons of his pupils as to enable
them clearly to understand every step as they advance
o n t heir course ; though his exactions gr a dually rise t o
the ful l limit o f their capacities they naturally like their
studies all the better ; they like their school their in
o f course
s t r u ct e r and are genera lly found t o b e happy
able to accomplish more and with much greater ease
M r G It is natural t o suppose any one executes
with more ease whatever pleases him but that he has
more power t o do it is a n e w idea to me ; and yet it
l ooks reasonable enough that it should be so
,

RE AD I NG

116

dren appear to be makin g especially in their el o cu

department
branch in which they never
a
t ion a ry
showed any interest before

a
n
o
d
And
because
we
never
before
had
b
y
G
m
W
y
to teach u s so as to make it interesting If we had had
the same instruction we n o w have I think we Should a l
ways ha v e liked it

W ell my son we will s a y nothing more


G
Mrs
of that But Sir do you think I am going t o oriti
cise some of your instructions P or rather I should say,
the system you fol low S ince o u r children have been
upon this study we have all become elocutionists : and
were you to look in upon us while engaged you might
fancy your school transferred to this place and our
W illiam its instructer
Dr A I am very glad to nd that the works of
the sc hool room are so well sustained and encouraged at
home and that you all take so much interest in this
pleasing accomplishment It augurs well for the pros
peets of your children : for depend upon it they will
measure the importance of every study by the interest
taken in it by their parents : but, no doubt you have
already anticipated a ll I might say You spoke of crit
icis in g I have not the vanity to suppose but that I
often give occasion for this friendly o fce a n d I certainly
shall think my self fortunate if I never fall into worse
hands

M r s G Is there not a proverb like this S ir


He
that would share the benet of another 8 opinions must
freely express his own P

Dr A
I cannot s a y it has yet become a proverb ;
,

C ONVER SATI ON A T

MR

GORDON S

117

but it certainly deserves to be and placed to the credit


of M rs G ordon
M r s G W ell I am not disposed to lose the bene
t of my proverb since it is s o well approved we think
S ir the full sound of e in words ending in en t and e n ce
and that of gen t lem en is rather affe cted and pedantic
Yes and s o do I to ju dge from your pro
n u n cia t ion o f the word gen t lem en
The direction is to
raise the e in such words just enough to be perceptible
to the ear rather than to suffer it to fall into the o b
sc ure sound of u of cours e to follo w o u t the direction ,
we should s ay sil ence provid ence omnipot ence content
m ent improvid ent gentlem en ; and not S ilu n ce provi
du nce o m n ip o t u n ce co n t e n t m u n t im pr ov idu n t
W m G I s e e M other we ran into the same dif
culty in pronunciation by overdoing the m atter as we did
in the inections and divisions o f speech : in ou r a t
tempts to avoid the obscure sound of u in such words,
we brought ou t the 6 too pro m inently
M r s G You pronounced the words, S ir just as I
like to hear them pronounced and I presume in a ccor
dance with the principles we were trying to follo w but
fa iled as my s on says I was going to mention some
others that seemed to me unnatural and a e ct e d as
W illiam read them such as giving i the lo n g sound of
as s en
e and it its long sound when not under accent
s eb il it y, pop u larity pleas u re
and others of this class ;
but I am sa t is ed that whatever seemed unnatural a n d
aff ected was made so by ourselves not by the system
Attempting to avoid on e fault , we ran into a greater I
a ppre he n d there is no danger of givin g too marked dis
,

RE AD I NG

118

i
t
s
o mak e
a
to
and
so
long
we
cont
nue
u
e
t in ct n es s
them really unaccented syllables and give them t he
same softness we do the Obscure sound we u se in the ir
stead W e may dispose of m e for m y perhaps in the
same way It was not intended I presume t hat we
should say m e shawl m e gloves but m i shawl m i gloves
Dr A N o indeed it was not intended nor did
I think it possible that the book, or my instructions
could lead to such a mistake The direction , I think is
to change the sound of y to short e or the second sound
of i when changed at all, and pronounce it as we do 6
in the article t he before a consonant

M r G W hile on the subject I Should like to pro


pose a question Ho w are we t o sound those consonants
which are paraded Single and double and treble unless
we put some vowels among them P I was taught , that
consonants could not be sounded without the help of
vowels
Dr A I know it was so thought and they cannot
be fully ; but still they can be sounded and very nearly
without vowels as with and an excellent exercise I nd
it N othing has ever been hit upon which so well pre
pares the organs for distinct articulation as t his I
make on e pupil at a ti m e p ractise upon these elements
rst separate then in the word ; and when they have
become familiar to each I take the whole class together
This tends to remove embarrassment , and gives t o the
pupils condence and strength of utterance ! Her e Dr
A bbo t t a kes t he book a n d iv es s ev er a l illus t r a t io n s
g
r s t en u n cia t in
h
t
e s in le co n s on a n t s
h
o
t
en
t
w
o
r

g
g
,
,

C ONVER S ATI ON A T
a mu s emen t

a ll :

bu t

comp let e

u s t s t a t ed

Mr s

MR

GORD O N S

119

w
h
a t he ha d
f of
p oo
r

Your tact and courtesy, S ir in removing


di fculties encourage me to trouble you farther thou gh
still at the risk of exposing my dul ness
Dr A I should s a y rather, the dulness of the a u
thor : for if you nd any difculty in understanding him,
he certainly shows great want of perspicuity of style
M r s 0 1 do not s e e S ir that such conclusion n e
ce ss a ril y follows
for the subjects treated o f may be of
such a nature as to preclude the possibility of using
written language s o denitely as to convey the full mean
in g o f it
unless aided , as it has been j ust n ow, by oral
example
M r G S o my dear you would recommend I s u p
po se that before we pronounce s o decidedly against
other, we should bestow some l ittle criticism upon our
.

M rs G

How well you anticipate me I t hink S ir,


I shall proceed no farther in the wa y of O bjection it is
always far more agreeable to commend than to nd
fault and in re gard to the work you have p u t into the
hands of ou r chil dren , we n dyes I bel ieve we ca n
n ow s a y we n d n othing but what we heartily approve
W e are pl eased t o s ee corrected the pronunciation of
all that class o f words which are arranged un der what
the author has called t he fth sound of a as heard in
which W alke r includes n u
ca r e da r e p r a yer p a r en t
der the rs t , a s in f a t e

A
I am glad to hear you speak so decidedly :
Dr
it shows m e tha t all m ust feel t he sa me when the y sha ll

'

RE A D I NG

12 0

have bestowed the same attention Though we still


knowle dge W alker as the general standard of pronun cia
tion y e t in certain words where a difference seems t o be

n
or rather
permanently settled I see no reaso
I see a
ood
reason
why
we
should
not
blindly
continue
to
fol
g
l o w him in theory when our practice is decidedly against
An d if we occasionally meet with one breaking
him
over custo m and trying to follow him throughou t from
the impression that it is more polite by saying c ai re
i
i
hiir p a re n t and p re yer we generally look upon him as
aff ected To my ear it sounds very disagreeable to have
the words p r a yer a petition and p r a y er a petitioner,
pronounced precisely the same ; and ha ir and p r a yer ,
with the same vowel sound as p la yer
M r G Another word I am glad to nd has been
taken u p and ha s got again its own aspirate I mean
the word humble It took me a long time I remember,
to become settled in pronouncing it u m ble after W alker s
mode and I think it will take me some time to get
b a ck to the old h abit
Dr A I well recollect when ou r great L ex ico
grapher D r W ebster had just returned from a visit to
E ngland he said Walker s pron unciation of that word
among the higher classes was entirely discarded It cer
t a in l y has become the practice of all good writers to u s e
the article a before hu mble and hosp it a l, as well as all
other words beginning with a consonant sound : it is
therefore in bad taste to s ay a n hu m ble m a n , a n hosp i
ta l
W e ought to be exceedingl y cautious, while en
de av orin g to render our language soft and smooth that
,
we d o not rob it of its manliness and strength
ao~

'

C O NVER SATI ON A T

MR

ORDON S

12 1

M r s G Another thing I am glad to

"

corr ected
the obtuse sound of t h in the words o u t hs and t r u t hs
y
M any no doubt have been led to pronounce them with
the obtuse T H as heard in t his , rather t han the acute t h
as heard in t hin because it made them softer, from the
m istaken notion that the softening process in all cases
is an i mprovement a sentiment perhaps borrowed from
the French who, in banishing s o many consonant sounds
from their language have done it an irreparable inj ury,
s o far as regards dignity and stre n gth
Dr A S heridan I remember very justly remarks

that if the vowels be considered as the bl o od the con


sonant s are the nerves and sinews of a language ; and
the strength of syllables formed of single consonants ,
like single threads must be vastly inferior t o such as
have several as it were twisted together
M r s G I see also another improvement m gl v mg
m ore of the short it sound to e before r , as in p er s on ,
er ect and all that class where W alker gives the second
p f
sound of e I took m uch pains to conform to it but I
n ever succeeded very well
it always seemed to me t oo
precise or painstaking and indeed , affected
Dr A The r is found t o have the same inuence
upon e as it has upon 0 1n givi ng fullness t o the vowel
but W alker has considered this in the case of o and
ran ged f or and n or under the third sound and n ot on
and of under the fourth sound and has improperly left
6 the same before r as before any other consonant
M r G I looked to s e e if any thing was said o f
lee in d ge ir l and be ea u t if ul, as I have heard som
e pro
nounce them , carrying out, as they suppos e, I presum e,
.

s ee


W
alker
mistaken
of

o f course

the principles
for he ,
if I mistake not only intended to soften the rst vowel s

a little to the words kin d gir l and bea u t yu l and not


to give them the mawkish prolongation which makes
them nearly two syllables

The attempt at the present day, to pro


Dr A
nounce these words with that delicate softened tone
which W alker seems to aim at , is certainly apt to x
Upon one the unenviable mark of a mawkish affected
sensibility
I presume ou r author thought that good
sense would be a sufcient guide and t o that he seems
to have left it
M r s G Charles come give the D octor your illus
It is quite original , and, I
t ra t ion of the cir cu m ex e s
think v ery clever for a little boy
Dr A O riginal ! and clever ! I shall be gratied
M ore credit is due for on e such , than a
to hear it
dozen brought from books though these when original
in applicatio n are by no means without credit

a
s
er
M t
W hen I returned from school that day
0
we had the exerci s e on the inections ; I met my little

sister at the door ; and she exclaimed, Ah Charley, it


was you I that lled my stockin gs with the pretty things !
I did not think it was ybu !
Dr A A ne illustration M aster Charles, true t o
nature and well expresse d And n ow M rs G ordon ,
suffer m e to make a criticism D o you know we teach
ou r children t o deceive and tell untruths when we least
suspect it P P ardon me for breathing a suspicion upon
a time honored custom that most j oyous Christ m as
deception which has bee n practised upon the little inno
,

C ONVER SATI ON A T M R GORDON S

12 3

cents for generations past and will be , no doubt for


many yet to come
M r s G O D r Abbot ! You would not deprive our
little pets of all the gra t i ca t ion s clustering about the
us !
early
V
isit
f
that
dear
old
S
anta
Cla
o
y
D r A Yes I would M adam so far as the fable is
concern ed ; and every other example of deception and
lying yes that is the proper n ame for it and would
deal towards ou r children ever in simplicity and truth
half of the nursery tales should go by the board too ;
all bugbears , and every thing in the least tending t o
romance
M r G I like your views S ir on this subject T hey
are right : and I wonder the same ideas had n o t occurred
to ours elves ! Dr A bbot r is es t o go ] M ust you go P
S ir, this has been t o u s a very pleasant Visit and I hope
it will not be long before we have it repeated
M r s G And I must reserve my defence of S ant a
Claus and M other G oose for another occasion
I do n ot
Dr A I hOp e you will not mistake me
make war upon all stories of imaginatio n for that
would be to deny these pets as you call them a great
source of instruction and innocent amusement I object
only to such as really deceive them and they nd ou t
afterwards to be impositions as in the case of M aster
Charles
M r s A I think the D octor Improves upon acquaint
ance His Visit has certainly be en very agreeable and
very instructive It is no wonder ou r children are s o
taken with him
,

RE A D I NG

12 4

as you see him al ways courteous I n ever saw him sho w


an ger nor impatience nor did I ever see him sneer at a
a n d this I
pupil for real dull n ess nor call him st upid
could not say of all I have been to school t o

I feel th a nkful my son we have found a


l lIr G
man at last in whose faithfulness and ability, we can
repose full condence

You cannot feel it more I think than


m
Ia s t er l V
ZI
we do It seems like a change from slavery to freedom
A ll who have the privilege to be wit h him feel them
selves a t ease a n d yet there is perfect order
He
inspires you with condence in yourself : you are always
rea dy to do your best and yo u can do a great deal bet

ter when you are not all the time afraid and if you
fail you are sure that u nder him you r very mistakes
will act as means to facilitate your improvement
ZlIr G
Under such a dvantages none can fail I
t hink to go on rapidly in their education : if they do
not one thing is certain : it will n o t be from the want
of judicious and faithful instruction ; but the want of
capaci t y, or desire t o learn
.

L E SSO N XX

A C T I O N I

ACTI ON

in discourse comprehends all signicant move


,

ACTI ON

12 5

accompani m ents of speech


W hen these are
appropriate easy and graceful they form the crowning
nish to elocution
But the attempt t o render them so by means of train
ing with the hope to change awkward habits to those
o f manly dignity is often met by the objection that for
any one to be appropriate easy and graceful in expres
sion attitude and gesture he must be entirely free ;
and to be s o he must be left entirel y t o nat ure : of
course unfettered by rules of discipline the direct ten
de n cy o f which is to produce a ff ectation an d constraint ;
and even to defeat the very obj ect aimed to be secured
by it S o if any happen unfortunately not to be easy
and graceful in manner they mus t continue s o : there
is no help for them training will only make the matter
worse since the most o ff e nsive pec uliarities that nature
gives are m uch more easy to be endured than a ff ectation
and formality S uch is the amount of t he argument
if argument it can be calle d which in truth is O pposed
as much to every other part o f elocution and even to
grammar and rhetoric as to this
The fac t is those public speakers who in action and
utterance appear to us the most natural and at the
same time faultless have been rendered so by careful
training P e rfection in this as in every other a ccom
li
s hm e n t is the price of labor
p
O rator t (one makes himself an orator) is as true
now as it was in t he time of Cicero He is said to have
been indefatigable in his early training ; a n d when he
had become distinguished as the prince of R oman ora
tors, he confessed he often spent whole nights upon t he
n eou s

RE AD I NG

12 6

speeches he had carefully composed before he ven t ured


to speak them in public
Those orations of D emosthenes in which he failed so
:
com pletely before the people were it is thought as elo
quent in style as any he aft erwards delivered with the
most decided applause He hi m self seems to have been
entirely unconscious where the di fculty lay till it was
very kindly and very courteously Shown to him by his
friend S at yr u s O n one occasion says P lutarch when
his speeches had been ill received and he was going
home with his head covered and in the greatest distress,
And when
S a t yr u s followe d on and went in with him
he complained that others of but little industry and
learning were heard and kept the rostrum while he ,
the most laborious of all the orators could gain no favor
with the people and was entirely disregarded the answer

was
You say t he truth ; but I will soon provide a
remedy if you will repeat some Speeches from E uripides
or S ophocles
W hen D emosthenes had done Sa t yru s
pronounced the same and he did it with such propriety
of action and s o much in character that it appeared to
the orator quite a different passage He now understood
s o well how much grace and dignity action adds to t he
best oration that he thought it a small matter t o p r e
meditate and compose though with the utmost care , if
the pronunciation and gesture were not attended to
Upon this he looked solely to his delivery He bent his
attention to overcome a ll the obstacles in his way even
those interposed by nature : for he is said to have had
weak lungs the habit of stammering and a stoop in his
shoulders It is truly astonishing to t hink of the e x pe
,

ACTI ON

12 7

he devised ; in what varied modes of discipline


he persevered till all the embarrassing obstacles dis a p
u n wea
and
he
became
from
these
zealous
and
e ar e d
,
p
ried e fforts perfect in his voice and action , and the rst
orator in the world
These examples and remarks are given here as a
guard against the too general notion that all instruction
on this subject is but o f little use ; and as encourage
ment to self discipline and self reliance
N o matter
under what favoring circumstances the s tudent m a y be
placed ; he m a y attend the best schools the best lec
tures and have the aid of the best teachers ; yet his
real improvement is never e ff ected and never can be ,
unless he do the work himself : and he never can become
a nished speaker unless he feel an interest that shall
induce him t o exercise himself in a faithful course of
practice in privat e and to cultivate his taste and judg
ment by careful study and critical observation
W here children can have the right instruction , the
earlier they begin to declaim the better Had D emos
t he n e s been early tutored in his elocut ion n o doubt he
would have succeede d in his public e ffort the rst time
And what an amount of m or t i ca t ion and trouble wo ul d
have been avoided
But who is expected t o Show the
courage self denial and perseverance he practised to
repair early neglects correct bad habits and triumph
over the defects of n ature P N o on e indeed can a ppre
ciate sufciently, the value of good habits especially
those pertaining to the arts of address formed in early
youth nor estimate the disadvantages of bad one s nor
t he imm ense difculty o f subduing them when strength
dien t s

RE AD I NG

128

ened and conrmed by years In either case they b e


com e a sort of second n ature they form the character ;
and entail upon life lasting good or evil
These are but a fe w of the reasons why elocution in
all its parts should be incl uded in a regular course of
study a n d be made a prominent subject of early an d
continued attention
,

L E SSO N XXI

A CT I O

II

T H E S E lessons commenced by saying that ,

read
well is to read as if the words were supplied by the a ct
o f present thought rather than by the page before u s
o r jus t as we should speak if the language and senti
ments were o u r o wn
S o to sp ea k well I wou ld say
is t o speak as if the words came at the call of present
thought and feeling and N ature supplied the tones,
looks and gestures
The rst excellence in speaking from memory or
otherwise is an unstudied extemporaneous manner it
Is Important therefore to know what kind of instruction
and discipline the pupil needs that such may become
his xed and settled habit E very teacher s experi ence
m us t show there is nothing he needs so much at r s t
as s ome friendly hints or directions how to select his
o

ACTI ON

12 9

a mistake or failure in either is very likely to cause a


failure in the delivery and with it m o r t i ca t ion and
discouragement
Any such di fculty at the outset t o a se n sitive
m ind often becomes a complete bar t o all future

attempts and so a vast many get the impression and


L

it is very easy to get it that they have not the requi


site talents that nature never designed them for speak
ers who otherwise might have become the W ebsters
the C l ays o r the Calhouns o f their country S u ch was
our noble W ebster himself in his early life and such
no doubt he would have continued had not his migh t y
intellect subdued at length all in his way
A wise instructor does not p u t his pupils in their
rs t attempts at composition to a moral essay an ora
tion a poem ; but to subjects the most familiar and
easy upon which they can talk with uency so let it
be with speaking Instead of poems and impassioned
extrac t s from oratio n s and the drama let the beginner
make his selections entirely fro m prose ; such as are
easy and familiar ; pure in sentiment and style and s o
interesting that he can fully enter into their Spirit
An d if he is ol d enough let him write o ff his piece in a
plain f air hand and read it over till the language b e
comes in a manner his own and let him listen to the
tones o f his voice and decide, as well as his understand
ing and taste can aid him whether they are natural
and con y ey the exact meaning and they do it in the
best manner ) Then , having comm itted it to memory ,
let him repeat it aloud till he can enunciate with clear
ness all the words with right t one pause and emphasis
,

'

'

RE AD ING

130

and can do it with the greatest ease Then in imagi


n ation let him assemble his audience before him and
speak it with all the appliances o f action , just as he
thinks the most natural and appropriate and repeat it
in this way till his action become as easy and familiar
as the words Thus prepare d let him present himself
before his teacher and companions in the school room
or the college
It is well to bear in mind that in making gestures
no room is afforded for the indulgence of fancy : they
are all signicant and have their meanings as in v a r ia
bly settled by the l aws of nature as words and tones of
voice have by conventio n al usage and t o know how t o
make and use them properly the safest and best way is
to refer constantly to social life ; and take for models
the best examples of unrestrained sensible and rened
conversation
If the pupil do according to t he directions he will
soon nd the labor of committing and preparing his
piece for speaking an easy matter And as his mem
o ry taste and judgme n t improve and they certainly

will under such discipline he will be able at length to


take in the whole range of language suitable for de cl a

mation from easy prose and poetry to what is the


mos t di fcult impassioned and su blime The sooner he
begins of course the easier it will be for him to reform
bad habits and to form good ones : but whe ther he
begin early or late if he strictly and faithfully follow
ou t the plan as thus recommended he will insensibl y
become as much at home in speaking as in reading ;
and he will nd that his gestures , though constrained,
.

ACTI ON

131

awkward at rst , will gradually assume a manly


dignity and ease
It wo ul d be well to pursue much the same course as
here recommended with females b u t in a modied form
suited to the delicacy and renement of the s ex : not
with a V iew to make them orators ; but t o train them
t o commit t he more readily to converse with gre a ter
ease and animation and to quote or recite whatever
they have stored in the memory with elegance and
r ace
g
I commend to the pupil the following extract de
scribing the manner of the late M r Clay of the S enat e
as a tolerably good model for the delivery of a forensic
Speech :
Last week I had the pleasure , for the rst time of
hearing M r C His world wide reputation as a debater
made me V iew him with marked attention As he rose
to address the S enate there was nothing peculiar in his
appearance to distinguish him from others abou t him
He O pened his speech with great simplicity, calmness
and self possession There was an absence of all ou r
ish and a ffectation of eloq uence His words came forth
distinct and clear without the least apparent e ffort no
action except a sl ight movement O f the head and body,
as he looked toward the chair and around upon his
audience : but when he had got fairly into his subject,

i
t
and begun to be warme d by
and his hearers too
his cou n tenance became beautifully animated the tones
o f his voice deeper : his hands began to lend their aid ,
as if unconsciously ; a n d as if not to do it would be a
V iolence done to nature one at rst and low ; an d
an d

'

RE A D I NG

132

resently
the
other
was
seen
to
move
till
at
length
;
p
from kindled emotion and the force of truth the right

n
arm was brough t down like the lightni g s ash
his
entire form was changed : every feature was radiant
with thought and feeling : the whole man spoke
There was nothing to o ff en d the eye : no distorted
look no grimace ; no mouthi n g ; n othing for mere

e ffect : no poet s eye in a ne phre nsy rollin g


no
st a rt theatric
no
exuberance
nor
apparent
violence
;
of gestures : but when these became the boldest they
always seemed in perfect keeping and as spontaneous
and unstu died as the lan guage which they were de
signed to expl a in a n d to enforce All without seemed
nature s promptings from the force within
I afterwards had the pleasure of mee t ing him at a
social evening party : and I there found him equally
distinguished for his graceful ease his urbanity the
charms of his conversatio n and the dignity of his man
ners
He n ce the pupil may see if he would become an
a cco m plished Speaker he must also become an a ccom
l
i
s
h
e
d
gentleman
p
,

L E SSO N XXII

A C T I O N II I

T H E highest attainment of art is the best imitation of

nature As t he sculptor and painter study nature a n d


the be st specimens of their art s o the speaker studies
.

ACTI ON

133

as it exists in the manners of the living age


n ature
and gathers his models from the best society and the
best orators ; and aims so to appropriate and improve
them to his o wn benet as to embody in his style the
perfections of all without b ecoming himself the servile
imitator o f any
It is the lot o f a favored few t o ha v e in the examples
o f their parents and companions the be st models con
from which they become s o natu
s t a n t ly before them
rally moulded t o graceful symme t ry of manners and of
language , as to need little else to render them good
speakers than a successful transfer o f these qu a li ca
tion s from the domestic circle to the rostrum
O f the children however who enter a public school ,
not on e in a hundred but brings with him many habits
that need to be corrected And he is liable every day
to contract others either from bad examples from dif
dence or slavis h fear : and it is the design o f this de
a r t m e n t to meet them all with proper correctives and
p
to establish good ones In their place
W e rarely meet with any one in social life, who ha s
not some singularity o f manner which ought to have
been corrected while at school : and would have been,
had the subject of elocution been properly attended to
If a person , while talking keeps fumbling at some
t hing with his hands and knows not what to do with
or is moving on e t o his head his face , or some
t hem
where else or gi ves t oo much motion to his head or a
wriggle to his body, or an uncouth expression to his
countenance he is very likely to e xhibi t the same sin
l
a r it ies whe n he com e s t o s peak in public
u
g
-

RE A D I NG

134

W hile the ton gue is employed there will naturally


be symptomatic movements of the external organs and
these to be appropriate must be signicant and in har
mony wi t h the sentiment and language and free from
all peculiarity : just as it is in regard to dress : that
which appears sin gular and ou t of the usual style is
never considered in good taste
The real gentleman
studies neatness and symmetry and may be richness
but carefully avoid s all singularity
But one m a y be corrected in what is uncouth and
vulgar ; and become easy and even graceful s o far as
the movement of his limbs is concerned and still fail
in propriety of gesture by empl oying it too frequently
and without j u st discrimination It is so both in talk
ing and speaking whenever he employs it merely for
embellishment and it is not needed either to explain
o r to enforce what he says
It is so when used much
at t he introductory part of a discourse ; and through
out when every occasion is improved for raising up the
eyes and perhaps the hand with them as any thing
above is spoken of or down as any thing below or if
the right arm is invariably extended to the right when
any thing in tha t direction is mentioned or to the left
when any thing on the left or if both arms are brought
forward apart when the speaker says
You my fellow
citizens
and raised u p when he says
These rolling
Spheres above u s
or when the heart or soul is alluded
t o he always brings his hand to his breast : or if in
quick succession he multiplies other gestures also as a
pupil once did at an exhibition I attended as he spoke
,

AC TI ON

135

My soul is Sick with every day s

eport O f wrongs and


outrage wit h w hich earth is lled
At the word ea r ,
his nger was brought near this organ ; and his right
hand was upon his hear t at the word s ou l ; upon wr o n gs ,
it was brought down with force and repeated on o u t
and upon the word
r a ge attended also with the left
and he drew
e a r t h they were both spread wide apart

from the audience a thundering applaus e a n audience


not the best judges of course N ow stripped of the

poetry and put into plai n prose it means


I am
pained I am sick at hear t from hearing of the wrongs
B u t poetry and
and outrage which eve ry where prevail
passion go together ; and the latter is very liable to be
torn into tatters
especially by yout hful orators
And further if the pupil p u t forth his gestures with
much force and frequency before the importance of the
subject and the forc e of his eloquence have really awa
ken e d his o wn feelings and red his auditors
s o tha t
it would seem a restraint upon nature t o withhold thes e
out ward signs he may consider them as wholly uncalled
for a n d his Speech all the b etter without them
T he pupil must not suppose however from these
remarks that his countenance for a single moment after
he begins t o speak may lack expression o r his body and
limbs some degree of motion T his would be a fault
greater than the others : yet it is on e t o which very
yo ung Speakers are greatly liabl e If he hold his head
and bo dy bol t upright, or t oo still ; and his eyes xed
o n vacancy ; or , if moved at all , they are so without
the correspondent movements of the head and body ;
and his arms are suffered to hang lifeless by his sides,

RE AD I NG

135

during

the intervals of prominent gesture he cannot but


aff ord a ludicrous o r a painful spectacle t o all that look
at him
S t P aul s example before K ing Agrippa may per
haps encourage some to a freer use of gesture when
they begin to speak : Then P aul stretched for t h the
hand and answered for himself : or to a general excess
of it fro m the noted answers of D emosthenes when he
was asked what he though t the rst requisite in an ora

tor he said actio n ; what the second ; he replied


action
what
the
third
and
still
the
reply
was
;
;
action !
In the case of S t P aul it appears t o me tha t the
phrase Should be considered merely as referring to a
mode of salutation s t ill preserved among the inha bitants
o f the E ast and means no more than what we express
by a slight bow Any other V ie w of it would be p r ep os
t er ou s and wholly unsuited to the high dignity and
character of the inspired apostle
,

L E SSO N XXIII

A CT I O N IV

NO

doubt a great many have been misled by that


count of D e m osthenes and it is likely that he himsel f
attached an undue impor t ance to action from the cir
,

AC T I ON

137

admit the account to be true it doe s not follo w that he


meant merely external action There is every reason to
suppose he was understood at the time to use the term
in its broadest sense the action withi n as well as with

V iz feeling earnestness tone emphasis expression ,


ou t
in thoughts that breathe and words that burn
S uch
seems to be the true import : any other is obviously
absurd A blind man would have been overpowered by
the eloquence o f D emosthenes o r Cicero Hence though
gesture is an indispensable accompaniment t o a nished
style of delivery, it is not t o be esteemed the rst requi
site nor the second nor even the third S ince language
has become s o improved and so universally read and
written and therefore so generally understood , the move
ment s of the body and limbs add but a small share t o
what makes u p the s u m of true eloquence
T he Indian orator from the want of a copious lan
guage to convey his thoughts and feelings , has recourse
to gesticulations and t o bold and striking gures and ,
accustomed to roam the forests fearless and free from
all the restraints of civilized life his action IS easy for
cible and commanding : and he is eloquent in his rude
way because every word and motion carries with it some
prominent thought Here it may not be ou t of plac e
t o relate a short anecdote o f on e possessed of native
eloquence in another condition of life
S ome years ago says a Ne w York gentleman , I wa s
in the habit of attending ward meetings called to dis
cuss the merits of p ublic men then u p for O fce and the
character o f public measures and I was sometimes
induced to take a par t m yself Am ong the favorit e
,

RE A D I NG

138

speakers accustomed to be invited to the stand , was a


man without the advantage of a n y but a very commo n

education
He was a carman one of
the hard

a man
s t e d an honest sober and in dustrious class
h
u
strong
practical
common
sense
some
wit
and
f
o
m or and pretty well versed in the politics of t he day
S ome who addressed the m eeting were distin guished in
forensic debate and eloquent but not on e of t hem
produced a deeper sensation nor received greater a p
t impulse just
He
evidently
Spoke
from
presen
a u se
l
p
as subjects upon which he had doubtless thought much
happened to prese n t themselves t o his mind His looks
were al ways t rue to his thoughts and feelings if his
words sometimes were n ot : his gestures were always
well timed easy and forcible ; though n ot the most
graceful : and never really awkward ; for he was eu
AS he had no reputation
t irel y free from all constraint
to sustain for accuracy and elegan ce of diction he was
fearless and without embarrassment and if he used a
wrong word o r a wrong pronunciation which raised a
laugh he could laugh too and it oft en seemed to bring
to him the occasion of put t ing forth more power than he
could have done had no mistake occurred
W hat object in t he whole range of our observat i o n
is more lovely or is more beautiful in all its movements,
than a little child especially when kept from bad ex
amples and blessed with parents more anxious t o m ake
him vigorous and happy than prematurely wise P E ver
treated with kindness and a ffection he loves every body,
and never suspects but that every body loves him W hat
he does and says is without t he fear of making mistakes,
,

ACTI ON
off

139

ending others or disgracing himself He has not yet


learned the factitious distinctions of the world : he a p
roa che s the P resident o f the United S tates and talks
p
with him as freely and with as much familiarity as with
his uncle G eorge : he is happy in his blameless ign o
rance and as free as the air he breathes
How happens it that he is so graceful, s o easy and
true in all his motions P Because he acts without con
straint , and with perfectly guileless simplicity that is
just as he feels T he time for tasks for school cor re c
tions and criticisms has not yet come ; and he is free
from all servile fear All his knowledge has been gath
ered fro m t he open book of nature T he whole system
o f education is a system of art
It produces constraint ,
both because it interferes with ou r previous habits and
it reveals t o u s ou r ignorance and errors and this con
straint will in a measure continue till education again
in completing its o fce leads u s back to nature , and
gives to all ou r improvements the perfect type of nature s
handiwork And this is t he case when by a faithfu l
and skilful course o f discipline ou r every word look and
gesture becomes from habit perfectly natural and a p
ro ria t e
and
we
e
x
hibit
the
gracef
u l ease and artless
p p
simplicity o f the little child
O ur moral perfection is also brought to the same
test W hen ou r S aviour was asked by his disciples
he
W ho is the greatest in the kingdom o f heaven P
called a little child and se t him in the midst of them
and said V erily I s a y unto you except ye be convert
e d, and become as little children ye shall n o t enter into
the kingdom of heaven
Hence it is safe t o infer that
.

RE AD I NG

14 0

he chose the bes t model t o be had of the qualities which


t m e n for happi n ess and for heaven
The student may ga t her from the remarks and illus
t r a t ion s thus far that the principles of elocution as
well as eloquence are founded in nature and truth :
that he must have an honest conviction o f the truth and
importance of what he utters ; or a V ivid imagination
must so supply the place as to make him feel for the
time the full force of their reality and if he would be
self possessed and free he must train himself s o well in
gesture and every thing else connected with a graceful
elocution as to be free from a ll embarrassing restraint
as in the case of the Indian t he honest carman , and the
little child
.

L E SSO N XXI V

A T O
C

N V

I H A VE alluded to the best examples found in conversa


tion a n d public speaking as the best guide for gestures
and other things pert a ining t o elocution : but in all
that speaks to the eye I have ventured upon no illustra
tions ; and it may be vain to attempt them here b u t
It seems to me that something can be done to render the
subject plainer and more practical o r at least to lead
the student to mark more accurately and with more
prot, the rich eld of improvement almost constantly
,

ACTI ON

E x E M P L IF IE D

14 1

before his eyes I will n ow o ffer him so m e familiar ex


amples
A gentleman calls to see me ; and after the rst

greetings I say P lease take a seat


W hile saying
this I bend my eyes from him to a chair ; and nearly
at t he same time gently bendi ng my head and body, I
extend my hand towards it N ow mark the order of
movement rst the eyes then the head body and
hand All these movements are called forth a s natural
accompaniments to that simple expression and I make
the m unconsciously from habit ; and were they in any
other order they would appear unnatural, and con
strained
I pass a friend in Broadway as ou r eyes me et we
greet each other with a smile slightly incline ou r heads
perhaps raise our hats and pass on
I pass a female
friend : and I do the same as before ; but incline my
head ye t lower and raise my hat entirel y and pass on
M y friend and I are walking into the country : I
behold a tree in ful l bloom which my companion did
and I exclaim
S ee that beau
n o t happen to O bserve
tiful t ree
And as I s a y it my eyes glance from him
t o the object followed by my hand , with the fore n ger
pointing towards it
S oon as we are mo v ing o n he breaks ou t o n a sud

den S ee ! that eagle soaring away above the height


of the mountain !
His eyes are direct ed from me to
the eagle and instantly his hand is stretched forth and
waved towards him
W e reach the summit of the mountain and as we
look far Off and around , we inwardly ex claim , W hat a
.

'

RE A D I NG

142

boundless prospect
and if we do so outwardly, we u n
consciously a t the same time extend both hands as if t o
take it in
M y eye falls u pon a beautiful stream winding its
way in the distance along the valley I point it ou t to
my companion and , in doing s o my hand naturally
moves along with a curvilinear motion
AS I now look down upon the rich Scene Spread ou t
far and wide and u p to the heavens and think of the
almighty Architect were I to e x clai m in the ardo r of
a devout spirit
,

hese are thy gloriou s works parent of good,


Almighty thine this universal frame
Thus wondrous fair thyself how wondrous the n
Unspeakable who s it s t above these heavens,
To u s invisible or dimly seen
In these thy lower works
T

it would be V ery natural for me to extend both hands


over the landscape and while uttering the words gently
to raise them with the palms upturned to the heavens
P atrick Henry, while u t tering the memorable words
G ive me liberty or give me death is said to have
raised himself to his utmost height , with both hands
extended towards heaven in the a ct of supplication on
t he word liber t y
and with the most thrilling e ff ect :
and it is likely they were suff ered to fall as if lifeless ,
in perfect resignation , on the word dea t h, with a n e ffec t
not less thrilling
P itt , while uttering this passage in P arliam ent,
You
,

ACTI ON E X E M P L IFIE D

14 3

in v a in for you t o attempt it m u st have brought


d own his arm with tremendous force on the word n ot
the second time repeated nor with much less on v a in
Cicero in his invective against Catiline Ho w long

u
r
Catiline
will
you
abuse
patience
most likely
o
P
0
raised his right hand, and shook it in a threatening atti
tude against the conspirator and fastened his eyes upon
him with ste m indignation ; and he continued t o u s e
his right arm with proper variations through the suc
ce e din g questions till he came t o the exclamations
O
the public morals ! O the degeneracy o f the times !
when he raised both hands with the palms towards the
senators In uttering the rst member and brought the m
down with energy by his sides, with them clenched , in
uttering the second
In speaking these lines from the S ailor Boy,

He sp r in gs from his hammock, he ies t o the deck


Amazement confronts him with images dire
it would be natural for the speaker in uttering the rst
member to ing himself forth with hands outstretched
towards the right or the left and in a di eren t dire c
tion whil e uttering the second : and t o stop suddenly,
with his feet braced , his head and body brought back,
both hands raised, in the attitude o f keeping off some
thing horrid , the O pen palms towards it with ngers
apart terror depicted in his countenance , and his voic e
hurried , trem ul ous and e x plosive , while uttering the last
,

T he

word s t r ike, in speakin g the following lines from


Hal le ck s Bo z z aris, re quires a strong e mphasis a n d t he

RE AD I NG

144

right a r m brought down wi t h force and at every r epe


tition of the word the emphasis a little increased and
the arm raised together with the eyes in uttering the
word Go d
S trike I till the l a st armed foe expires
I
S trike I for your altars and your fires
I
I
S trike I for the gr een graves of your sires,
d and your native land
GO
,

It may be well to remark again that the e yes natu


rally precede every gesture ; and are constantly em
ployed In the above lines they ash with the same
earnestness upon the audience as if the words were
really addressed to soldiers in furious conict upon the
battle el d
,

L E SSO N XX V

A C T I O N VI

T H E preceding examples exhibit b u t f ew of the numer

and ever varying accompaniments of oral language


As we look to colloquial hab its we discover a natural
tendency to imitate by gesture whatever movement we
describe by words : and that the more excited we b e
come , the more forcible and the more frequent become
o u r gestures
W e nd likewise in the tones of ou r
ou s

AC T I ON , How GOVERNED

14 5

and written lan guage often shows the same tendencies


as the prancing horse in V irgil s E neid and Apollo , in
Homer s Iliad , moving in anger and unnumbered in
stances are found in ou r own language
It is not unusual for a person t o know very well
where and what gestures he should employ, and not to
be able to make the m s o as t o answer his own co n cep
tions and it may often happen , that he thinks he
m akes them very well when he makes them very badly
In these he is liable to be deceived, as he Is In p ron u n
cia t io n , and whatever else pertains t o a good utterance
D emosthenes is said to have trained himself before a
mirror and students in elocution need n ot think it u n
becoming in them to do the same
And to know
whether they are successful , they Should not be reluct
ant as they too often are t o avail themselves of t he
j udgment and criticism of instructers and friends ; for

we never can s ee ourselves as others s ee u s


nor in
deed c an we hear ourselves as others hear u s
All ease and grace in attitude and motion , depend
upon obedience t o on e simple l a w the l a w of gravita
tion W hile my feet remain unmoved, if I stretch out
m y arm , my body naturally recedes a little in an oppo
site direction , to favor the change in the centre of gravity
caused by the outstretched arm If my body moves for
ward or backward, my feet naturally move to recover the
centre of gr avity ; else I am constrained, and appear a wk
ward and whil e I act entirely fr ee fro m constraint, this
harmo n ious action of the body and its members is always
preserved , even unconsciousl y to myself Any violatio n
of this l a w in regard to the feet when the body m o ves
,
,

'

RE AD I NG

14 6

is perceptible though the lower limbs may be wholly out


of sight
Hogarth remarks that right lines and angles are for
utility a n d strength curved lines for beauty and orna
ment O f course gestures in right lines and angles are
never graceful and are never to be made, except in ex
pressing strong passion and then they may not be ou t
of place In every other case they are unnatural : for
a ll living creatures naturally move in the lines of beauty :
and the inanimate world from the mote that swims in
air to the globe that moves in innite space obeys the
same law of curvilinear motion
It seems to me that something can be done also t o
aid the pupil in another thing which is generally left for
him to nd o u t as he best can and to execute in his

way
a wa y, for the most part extremely awkward :
w
n
o
it is how to make a b ow P erhaps some may think this
should be left t o nature as well as gesture And what
is a good natural bow P It is a clo wnish nod of the
head or, may be a stiff bend of the body with the
head in a straight line with it the toes turned in and

legs wide apart S ince it is the custom when on e pre


s ents himself to speak in public , to greet the assembly
with a slight inclination of the head and body and in
the school room or college with a l ow bow ; he woul d
l ike to do it in a becoming style
And t his he never can ,
without some previous training E legance and ca s e ca n
come to him only from practice the same here as in
every thing else If he have no instructer to teach him,
let him try to Instruct himself, after t he foll owin g direc
tions
,

'

ACTI O N

Ro

w GE ST U RE S

147

Having proceeded n early t o the front of the rostrum


o r stage o n which he is to speak and taken the last step
in advance with his right foot , let him rest upon it till
he has brought his left foot a step to the left with the
toe o u t then rest his body upon it till the right foot ,
without scraping the oor, is brought near t o the left

ankle or rather is su ff ered to settle there formi n g a


right angle while the body is brought erect : but the
instant the angle is formed and even before the right
foot ceases t o move let him begin to make his bow in
cl in in
his
head
rst
next
his
shoulders
then
his
chest
g
down t o his waist, with a gentle curve meanwhile his
arms hang lifeless and naturally incline towards each
other as he be n ds then let him bring him self u p again
in a reversed order o f movement and the instant this
is done inclining his body let him advance his right
foot a Short step to the right , with the toe ou t and move
the left a little towards it , t o gain an easy position ;
then let him rest upon his right foot and lean a little
towards the audience He is now in the right attitude
t o commence
Yonder is a straight yo ung tree in full leaf, with
branches rising to a point N ow comes a swell of wind
and bends it on e quarter or a third of the way to the
ground : the wind has passed , and it gently returns
to it s upright position S uch is a graceful b ow, for an
exhibition or commencement
At the close of the rst sentence he moves a little,
and never remains xed but for a moment in the sam e
position just as it is natural for on e that feels himself
entirely at ease His m o ve m en t s are to t he left , t he
,

RE AD I NG

14 8

right or back sometimes with one step Often t wo


or three ; and nothing like measured preciseness ; but
as feeling and change of subject naturally prompt In
those parts of his speech where he becomes more earnest
and forcible he advances as he becomes less s o he s e t
tles back His eyes cover the whole space towards which
he advances and with an earnestness that seems to take
in every individual in it and often the whole assembly
at a glance
While addressing the right if a gesture is needed
to enforce what he says he uses the right hand while
the left he employs the left hand ; but in general he
accompanies it with the right t o avo id any apparent
awkwardness fro m his using the left hand alone He
never thrusts out his arm in a straight line from his
side but gives it a curvilinear motion raising the
hand on a line with the middle of the body, and thence
bent t o the right or raised aloft if t he right hand
is used and if the left he brings it up and extends it
in like manner He takes care not to make his gestures
too high or too far from his body for that gives them
an air of feebleness and constraint He rarely lift s his
hand higher than his head and never but under e x
cit e m en t
W hile the hand is rising it becomes relaxed
and the ngers a little bent together the elbo w out the
arm crooked towards the head, with the hand nearly b e
fore it ; and when he brings it down t o make an em

phatic stroke as in the words you can n ot conquer


America he brings the whole arm down stiff even to
the ends of the ngers, the instant he speaks the word
n ot
and then suffers it to fall as if lif eless W hen he
,

C ONVE R SATI O N

OF

T E AC H E R A N D P U P I L S

14 9

has occasion t o raise both hands as in the words thine


this universal frame he brings them in a bend nearly
t ogether in front , and carries them up as high as the
t Op o f the head , curved apart , with the palms spread
upwards
Yonder is a blacksmith at the anvil S ee how the
hammer, in his right hand is brought down upon the
bar of steel How he gives the blow in a way t o pro
duce the greatest centrifugal force That is the down
ward emphatic stroke of the impassioned orator
,

L E SS ON
E R S AT IO N R E T W
CO N V

EE N

XX VI

TH E TEACHER AN D

HIS

PUPILS

M O S T of the practical knowledge possessed amo n g men ,

is gained by intercourse with each other Lord Bacon

says reading makes a full man , writing an exact man ,


and conversation a ready man
Conversation is the
most agreeable and easy way of gaining knowledge and
contributes more perhaps to human happiness than all
things else How important it is then that this great
ins t rument of kn owledge and happiness should be pro
perly attended t o that all necessary means should be
employed t o render it as perfect as possible W hy,
therefore since education IS designed to t men for the
practical operations of life and to make them happy,
should n ot conversation be m a de one of its particular
.

RE A D I NG

150

subjects and be cultivated with as much assiduity as


any other branch P It seems to be justly associated
with elocuti on : and as I have made conversation the
Special guide for reading and speaking I have thought
it not inappropriate here to add some examples as a
Specimen to show how free and familiar conversations
can be improved for the benet and the gratication of
a school It includes ten of the best scholars, in conver
sation an hour with their teacher

S ir I should like to ask a qu estion


u
A
s
I
I
s
t
r
t
i
n
J a e
on a subject that came u p last evening at our house
is it not wrong to call any thing natural which has been
prod uced by art P

Certainly if produced entirely by art


h
r
T ea c e
A W hy then Should reading and Speaking when
executed in the best style be called very natural since
they are produced by education and my book says that
education is wholly a system of art P
T Yonder clock is the entire product of art the
house in which you live and your picture on the wall
but so far as the picture resembles you it is natural if
it is a perfect Copy, we say it is perfectly natural Those
white mealy potatoes you have every day upon your
table are natural for they are produced by nature but
without the hand of art to cultivate and to render the m
what they are a ric h nutritious food they would still
be only wild poisonous plants of the desert

A
All this Sir is very plain but I do not fully
understand the analogy

You will perhaps before I get through E du


T
It
cati on , as your book says is wholly a system of art
,

C ONVER SATI ON ON S PE A K I NG

151

is a skilful application of means in perfect accordance


with nature s laws to accomplish what unassisted nature
never does and never will accomplish for any on e when
those means are therefore properly directed to improve
ment in elocution it is not improper to say when the
re ading and speaking of a person is free from a ff ectation
and awkwardness and of a high order of excellence he
is very natural : for they are just what nature would
produce, could she do it without the aid of art
Art take s the wild savage , civilizes, trains and
moulds him to an accomplished gentleman S he takes
the apple tree by nature a wild, worthless tree of the
forest and makes it on e o f the most valuable the most

useful the pride of the orchard Y ou were conne d


the other day with a severe ill ness D octor P arker gave
u
w
medicine
and
you
recovered
N
what
wrought
o
o
y
the cure and what loads the tree with it s rich , mellow
fruit P
A W e all know very well , nature , S ir ; n ature ,
assisted and guided by art

Ye s, young gentlemen , when applied to the


T
savage it is called education to the tree culture and
to the body, cure N ature did it all and yet without
the aid of art we shoul d still be in savage life, the apple
tree a useless wild tree of the forest , and you perhaps
in your grave S o education in curing us O
f our u n
n atural and awkward habits becomes a skilfu l physician
and in stren gthening and improving all ou r faculties in
just and harmonious proportions, it acts the part of a
wise and experienced cultivator
T a ke a perso n fro m the el d, o r t he workshop , and
,

RE A D I NG

152

begin to teach him graceful movements : he is wholly


constrained and awkward at rst ; but his limbs are
gradually brought into symmetry of action ; and when
educ a tion has nished its work with equal power upon
his mind we no longer see the stiffness and awkward
ness of the laborer but the accomplished gentleman
all his motions n ow are natural easy and graceful

S ir I see where the di fculty was with me the


A
word n a t u r e has n o t so limited a signication as I su p
posed I am glad I asked the question : for I shall be
able to a n swer him who rst proposed it All real im
provement is natural because it must be made in accord
ance with nature s laws All active improvement mus t
come from a skilful application of a r t a n d that is edu
cation And I know very well that without such a p pli
cation the world would have continued to be a wilder
ness It would seem that man was placed here by his
M aker in the wildness of nature entirely to himself t o
work out his own i m provement and to improve every
thing else : and all this he does by art ; or rather a r t
aids and directs nature to do it for him
T E ven s o ou r M aker has left us here to nd ou t ,
and to follo w the laws of our o wn being and of other
beings about u S for our own safety improvement and
happiness As we look into His word that higher dis
n s a t ion
w
e
e
see
an
extension
O
f
the
same
principle
in
p
regard to our higher nature and destiny There it is
said W ork out your o wn salvation with fear and trem
bling : for it is G od that worketh in you both to will
and to do of his good pleasure
S o you s ee it is im
i
li
c
t
di
obe
ence
to
the
laws
of
nature
and
of
revelatio
n,
p
,

C ONVER SATI ON T E AC H ER A N D P U P I L S

153

that forms the true the only reliable ground of ou r


improvement and happiness both for this life and for
that which is to come And our ever supporting en
that while faithful in t his obedience ,
cou ra ge m e n t is
G od works in u s in all that is agreeable to his wil l

M a s t er B ur ke
V
Ve had quite a discussion the other
day about gesture M y father thinks it is a subject that
may as well be left t o itself T here is D r W illiams,
who rarely lifts his hand to enforce a word he utters,
and yet every body count s him an eloquent man and
all ock to hear him when he is expected to preach

It is S O , M aster B
but he always appears natu
T
ral and even graceful except his making the head per
form the movements which properly belong to the arms
yet sometimes when fully roused by the nature of the
subject and the warmth of his feelings I have observed
him as forcible in gesture as it is becoming to any man
in that sacred place

M a s t er 0 I should never think O f naming D r


W illiams as an eloquent man for his preaching amou n ts
to nothing more than merely talking to us and in lan
guage t oo so familiar and plain that a simple child can
scarcely fail to understand every thing he says and it
always seems to me I could preach just s o if I only had
his knowledge and his warm and deep feelings

D r W illiams no doubt were he to hear you,


T
would feel himself highly complimented though you
give him no credit for being a ne orator The pul pit
is not the place for oratorical display, in the proper sense
of that term : every thing there , however impassioned
and sublime , shoul d comport with the simplicity of t he
,

RE A D I NG

154

gospel and the manner you speak o f his deep feelings


and plainness of language shows conclusively how much
he excels in his calling how closely he follows his
divine M aster
When I gure to myself the blessed S aviour deliv
ering his sermon on the mount I behold Heaven s love
a n d mercy beaming from his countenance and all his
features radiant with the light of truth : but I see no
rhetorical ourish from his arms no vengeful withering
look from his eyes : the bare thou ght gives a shock to
the feelings
He simply
O pened his mouth and
taught t hem
There was min gled in his simplicity and
love the calm dignity of O mnipotence as when t he a t

went forth L e t there be light and there was light


He spake and it was done He commanded and it
;
,
stood fast

M a s t er D r a ke
And I nd that many think of ges
ture just as M aster Burke has expressed himsel f I
have labored a good deal at it and still I feel my awk
wa r dn e s s
If I ever do improve in it I think it must
be from losing sight of it altogether : as it is I nd I
succeed the best in pieces where the least of it is re
quired If we attend well to other things would it not
be well to let action take care of itself or be left entirely
t o the guidance of nature P

0
Yes truly and left free ! for all at t empts to
change our natural habits all criticisms upon o ur a o
customed attitudes and gestures must tend t o rob us of
o u r self possession and con den ce t wo supports indi s
pensable to the successful accomplishment of any thing
especially that of public speaking
,

C ON VE R SATI ON ON E L O C U TI ON
E mmet Ah,

M a st er

155

S ir I can full y testify to the


truth of what M aster C says No on e could well have
greater self possession and condence than I when I rst
presented myself here to Speak I came off with t he
rst honors for speaking at my former schoo l of course
I expected to produce a sensation But think O f the
surprise and disappointment I felt , at the looks o f my
teacher and companions At rst I thought them void
o f all correct taste and astonishingly dull not t o be able
t o s ee and t o appreciate t he merit of my performance
b u t afterwards S ir when you very gently and delicately
remarked upo n some of my defects no on e could well
judge of my m or t i ca t ion for it was then clearly
revealed t o myself as well as the rest what a ludicrous
Spec t acle I had presented a ll my full blown condence
was dashed to the ground : and though I have some
what recovered it since I a m very certain I shall never
fu lly regain what I then lost

And yet I think you would be far from wishing


T
t o recover back what produced that full blown con
dence
E Yes S ir indeed for that would be to wish to
unl earn all I have gained since I set little value upon
that condence which springs only from ignorance W e
come here to get rid of it and the sooner the better :
for the sooner Shall we be upon a course to acquire
that condence which springs fro m knowledge a con
dence always sa fe and likely t o be associated with t rue
modesty
T Yes, t ruly, t hat is the kind of condence and
self po ssession y o ung gentle m en , I wish you all to h a v e
,

R E A D I NG

156

M aster

I presume would have no objection t o Share


them too if they cost no l abor and were of a spontane
But M aster E ha s very pleasantly and
o u s growth
quite facetiously exposed any such absurd notion It has

been remarked that a ll improvement is the price of


labor except what Springs from correct example If
we retained as we grew up all the simplici t y and ease
most of u s would need but little
o f early childhood
training t o give to u s ease of manners and elegance of
gesture they might be safely left t o themselves but
unfortunately it so happens that nearly all depart from
that graceful simplicity and become awkward and we
must be brought back to our origi n al condition in these
respects by the force of instruction or we can never
hope to have the address of a gentleman , or that of a
good speaker
M a s t er F As M aster E has amused us with some
o f his early experience here
I will give a page from
mine I would not say that I wa s just like him in my
verdant condence but I think I had nearly the same
foundation for it M y chagrin commenced in the recita
tion room at the rst line of the E neid which I read
Arm a v iru m u e for Arm a v irum u & c
And
I
q
q

remember saying oni b On O for ki bon e and Sine


die
for sin e die, on other occasions ; but my being
shown u p in such mistakes of quantity produced slight
twinges compared with my rst trial in declamation
T his scene mus t have been diverting especially to those
having a kee n sense of the ludicrous I was not sensi
ble at rst of the e ffects I produced for m y compau
ions were restrained by politeness and kind feelings from
,

CONVER SAT I O N

ON E

L O C U TI ON

157

O pen e xpression and I had not su fcient penetration


then t o s ee what wa s passing in their minds I remem
ber in making my b ow I stood u p square my feet
a part and toes pointing towards the front o f the audi
ence : I then threw my head forward , and spread ou t
both hands In the rst school I went to we were re
quired to give a sweep with the right hand but in the
l ast on e b o th hands were required and I thought it a
very sensible improvement By the time however I
had got through the rst line in my piece M y name I
is N orval on the G rampian hills ; including all after
name in a grouped division , and shooting forth my right
hand in a straight line from the Side it became t oo
much for esh and blood to bear any longer and eve n
you S ir were driven from your propriety your gravity
for a moment gave place t o a gentle smile then a roar
burst forth fro m all my diverted auditory ; and nature

had the rein till your stern but parental look restored
I
cahn to the rufed elements Vul t u qu o coelum t em
a t s qu e s er en a t (By which look he calms heaven and
e
t
s
p
tempests)
T Young gentlemen , I am gratied t o witness the
very respe ctful and a ff ectionate consideration with which
o u al ways regard me joined to a freedo m of expression
y
and I may s a y so indispensable to pleasant
s o happy
companionship and mutual advantage
T he e xposure of our ignora n ce , e specially in what
nourishes o ur pride and condence mus t be attende d
with some degree of m ort i ca t ion whether we make t he
exposure ourselves or it is ever s o delicately made t o u s
by others : and yet, h o wever painful it m ay be it is a
an

RE A D I NG

158

o
f
preliminary
in
every
case
improvement
necessary
But you and M aster E exaggerated and I think cari
ca t u r e d the scenes you have described s o graphically ,
with a V iew no doubt t o add some life to ou r conversa
tion as well as argument for industry and rigid criticism
How much m or t ica t ion expense and loss of time
would be saved if children were always properly in
structed and kept on a steady course but f e w enj oy
that fortune : in general very much o f the business of
succeeding years consists in getting rid of the bad
habits errors and prejudices contracted in pre v ious ones
It is my wish that our conversation while here should
take a range wide enough to a fford each an O pportunity
to ask questions and to contribute from his own r e ec
tions or from books, whatever he may think i n teresting
o n the subject of elocution

The author o f Telemachus I cann ot n ow call


G
his name
A Fenelon , Bishop of Cambray

In some of his writings, he says,


G Thank yo u
a speaker s body must betray action , when there is mo v e
ment in his words and his body must remai n In repose
when what he utters is of a level, Simple unimpassioned
character N othing seems to me s o shocking and absurd
as the sight of a man lashing himself to a fury in t he
utterance o f tame things The more he sweats t he
m ore he freezes my very blood

T
Yes, truly nothing could be more just , nor more
pertinent
It is what every body feels but what few
could s o well ex p ress
A I have been t rying to call U p an an ecdote , which
.

C ONVER SATI ON F EN E L ON NE W T ON

159

the same author, I think, tells of himself ; as a pra ct i


cal illustration of making t oo much of a character and
drawing t o o deeply upon the sympathies of an audience
It occurred while he was preaching the funeral sermo n
of the D uchess who, I believe was not known to be the
most distinguished for the purity of her life After , he
s ays , I had given a long list o f her virtues and graces
and swept the whole catalogue of ancient and modern
heroines and nding among them all n o parallel I e x
claimed with increased warmth, W here shall we place
thee P the beau t iful the lovely the sainted on e where
shall we place thee P At that moment, a gentleman
rising, looked u p with provoking gravity and pointing
to the place where he had been sitting, e x claimed,

Here S ir, in my seat I a m l eaving it

An excellent anecdote , and well told ! b u t in


T
o u r places of worship at the present da y, to Show u p
such a piece of affectation in the same way, would be a
great outrage it wo uld be far better to forego the wit ,
than t o desecrate the place I have seen the anecdote
before I cannot say where but you have dressed it u p
in your own style ; and, I think, with some embellish
ment
H W hile reading a passage in the life of S ir Isaac
N ewton , the other day, I was forcibly reminded of t he
instruction which is s o repeate dly urged here , that all
improvement In our manners gestures and every t hing
else depends on attention Being asked how he had
discovered the true system of the universe he replied,
By continually thinking upon it If I have done the
world any service it wa s due to nothing but industry
,

RE A D I NG

16 0

and patient thought I kept the subject under con s id


t
ration
constantly
before
me
and
waited
till
the
rs
c
dawning opened graduall y by little and little, into a
full and clear light

S ince we are upon quotations, I will o ff er o n e


J
from Austin s Chironomia o n Articulation
In just
articulation the words are not hurried over nor p recip
They are delivered o u t
it a t e d syllable over syllable
from the lips as beautiful coins newly issued from the
mint , deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly nished ,
nea t ly struck by the proper orga n s, distinct sharp , in
due succession and of due weight

These are beautiful gems and it is beautiful to


T
s e e youth treasuring them U p for future ornament and
use t o see them putting their ngers as it were upon
the very mainsprings o f knowledge and going on under
the strong conviction that upon themselves they depend
mainly for all their future improvement

J
S o we are to suppose that whatever means we
employ to perfect ourselves in the art of reading and
Speaking when the work is fully accomplished we shall
do just as if nature directed and controlled the whole
T Yes
and if you ever become distinguished

Speakers and I have no doubt many of you will all


will be ready t o exclaim, that do not understand t he
true secret W hat wonderful gif ts nature has bestowe d
u pon these young gentleme n
,

C ONVE R SATI ON A T M R GORDON S

L E SSO N XX V II
E R S AT IO NB
CON V

16 1

ET EEN GORDON H AMILY DR


ASTOR AN D DR AR OTT
MR.

IS

B U R KE ,

THEIR

M y s on W illiam has bee n looking over


o
o
Mr G r d n
Austin s Chironomia and some other works on clo on
tion and has become quite interested in the plates

And what opinion have you formed


Dr A bbot t
from studying the m , M aster G ordon P

W m G T hat the work we u s e is s o far defective


Dr A And did n ot the thought occur to you that
the author might have good reason for omitting such
gures P

W m G If he had I Shou ld like to know what


they are for I have been m uch grati ed in looking a t
them, and I think proted

And I feel a curiosity to hear, t oo ,


Dr B ur ke
what can be urged against a practice that has n ow b e
come all the rage
D r A As it regards illustrations in other works ,
I have nothing to s a y, only that it appears at the pr es
ent time t o be carried t o a ridiculous extent ; for poet s
and novelists need but to u se the word t r ee, cow, ca t or
as if this woul d
cott a ge and there stands the picture
help u s to a clearer notion O f them than what has bee n
imp a rte d by seeing every day t he o bj ects themselve s I
.

R E AD I NG

16 2

think I can see very plainly why pictorial displays of


passions and gestures should have no place in such a
work

M r s G How could ou r children ever gain s o clear


V iews of the strong passions that agitate the soul as from
these pictures P And then the outlines of gesture and
attitudes why S ir by means of these diagrams, they
come to know an orator from all other gures as readily
as they know a pump from a common post

An d these are among the strong reasons


Dr A
why I would reject them Children are led away from
the eld of their own experience and observation into
that of imagination ; and so , robbed of a most attrae
tive charm the simplicity of nature S he furnishes
looks attitudes and motions for every strong passion,
better far than any art can Supply let the real passion
be felt and all these concomitants are sure t o be associ
ated where it is not all means to show it effect but the

counterfeit a mere picture display


Dr B But if all these pictures that represent the
passio n s are true to nature what special harm ca n there
be in studyin g them P they cannot tend to what is u n
natural and may tend to a better imitation of nature
Dr A Yes they may I grant you if those who
u s e them have the requisite knowledge and experience
just as an artist may attain to the highest nish by
studying the best specime ns of his art But admit they

although in general they are not


a r e true t o nature
they are false guides for they Sho w only the most prom
in en t cases ; and such are very rarely required
T hey
.


C ONV R SATI O N D IAG R AM S
E

16 3

they a re design ed and the passion or sentiment is


P upils study these
t herefore very liable t o be overacted
striking v iews of passions positions, and all that while

taking their rst lessons in the art of speaking a n art


t o their imagin in gs wonderful ! a phase in the ar t of
address entirely different from any type they have yet
found and taking their notions from these representa
tions, and n ot fro m living e xamples within their o wn
lim ited experience , it is n ot s urprising they should b e
'
come from such training complete models of a e ct a t io n
M r G If such is the tendency and I fear it is
we have been all wrong
But pray explain what you
mean by children going beyond their experience do not
all go beyond their experience, in learning any thing new
which they are required t o learn P
D r A I mean by the limited eld of their e x p eri
e nce , the wo r ld, as they know it
.

S ay rst of God a bove o r man below


W hat can we reason but from what we know P
O f man what see we but his station here
Fro m which to reason and to which refer P
,

P op e lays down the true doctrine , and o u r s is t o fol


l ow nature , when we go beyond what we know of nature,

If

we enter the eld of fancy In the ordin ary experience


o f life , few cases o f high wrought excitement ever occur
Hence writers on elocution invariably go to the drama,
and select from it examples the most imp assioned for
m odels in declamation and usually illustrate them with
whole pages of at titudes and faces , at which ou r youth
ma y look, as into a mirror, to adj ust the ms elves for t he
.

no objection to perfect representations of this sort only


let nature come rst ; and afterwards call them an d
whatever you please , to aid you : they may then do n o
harm and m a y do good
You are right I have no doubt and it is
Dr B
strange I never saw the subject in the same light before

M r G And I was a Simpleton when I supposed I


was furnishin g a remedy for the very evils you speak of,
by recommending and insisting that t he boys in the
Wa rd schools should also have the benet of these
guides and yesterday I saw they had got them hung
Upon the walls of the school I visite d, representing speak
ers in all possible passions and postures I will now s a y
as Cromwell said pointin g to the ensigns of royalty,
Take away these baubles
I go for plain common
sense ; and if these gures have the least tendency to

deprive our children of the genuine article to rob


them of the grace and truth of nature ; so we are n o t
to kno w them as the same persons when they come to
speak in public ; I s ay let them all go by the board
and the sooner the better
W m G I remember Cromwell in ou r illustrated
history There he sits with his open pal m towards the
off ered crown as if pushing it off as a loathsome thing
and his face averted with an expression of disgust such
as never comes but from truth and honesty
Dr A And now try to Show the same feeling M a s
ter G ordon without that same truth and honesty and
how would you succeed P Not at all And why P B e
cause truth and honesty, in your case, would prevent it
,

C ONVER SATI ON D IA G R AMS


Mr s O

16 5

Upon my word Dr Abbot you have a


very delicate and winning wa y o f telling my son he is
an honest boy

Dr A
But s o are all these young hearts till
It was only recognizing a great
t aught to be otherwise
that n o on e can be successful in deceit till he
rinciple
p
is practised in it and even then he must feel the con
vict ion at length that simple honesty would have a n
S implicity is like
s we re d his turn a great deal better
the delicate ower whose freshness, once lost is lost for
e ver

Dr B
Aye and ho w careful Should we be to guard
against every thing in the training of youth that wo uld ,
in the least tend to destroy it
G od made man u p
but he has sought ou t many inventions
right

m
G A thought has struck me
W
M is s J u lia W ell, W illiam , don t hesitate : let it
s trike the rest o f u s : I am sure it will n ot hurt any
body ! T his s he s a id in a lo w v o ice ]

m
W
G Y ou remember father when we were at
the S outh a b out P om pey Colonel Brown s waiter He
went by the name of Colonel P omp because he r ep re
sented the colonel s o full y in every look and action , in
language and t one of voice N ow we kno w C ol Brown
is a perfect model of a S outhern gentleman : and when
we s a w him completely copied out in P ompey, do you
remember what a la U gh we all s et u p P it wa s s o per
f ect l y ludicrous

M r G Yes my s on a n d I see the argument to be


drawn from it but go on

W m G W ell, S ir, P ompey wa s but a poor S im m


e
.

'

R E AD I NG

16 6

negro with him it wa s all imitation he wa s the


o f his master : and such , I am inclined to think ,
case ever, where there is not a soul within t o give
acter to the signs without whether we imitate perso
or pictures

Hence we trace the m ock oratory we


Dr A
often meet with E very distinguished Speaker has
imitators If he is the P resident of a college atten
commencement see how his copies are multiplied
he has defects s ee how they are magnied , as spec
beauties and as for his excellencies you may look
vain to nd them : still you may s ee the P resident
all who speak ; e x cept a few distinguished ones
genius and sel f respect never suffer them t o yi
their personal identity for any thing Conform if
s o mind to strict etiquette in dress and address in p r o
n u n cia t ion and s t yle of language
b u t be natural : b e

yourself yourself the only safe model in the whol e


world You look different you laugh , cry speak, a n d
move in a manner different from all others and so you
Should : still you may be sensible easy and graceful
without any marked peculiarity, or close conform ity to a
known pattern N ature abhors monotony no less than
s he does a vacuum
s he delights in ever changing vari
ety : and s o She Spreads o ut t o our admiring gaze a
world of beauty
Dr B I would n ot s ay, Dr Abbot , M uch learn
ing hath made thee m a d ; but, on the contrary, muc h
study of nature hath m ade thee t ruly eloquent in he]
cause
Dr A
An d wha t is tha t but t he cau se of t ruth ?
,

C ONV E R SATI O N O N E L O C U TI ON

16 7

yours is the text book t o make m en wise : and th ough


we all draw from it as the fountain of light , t o you is
assigned the special o fce t o expound and t o enforce it ,
as G od s ambassador W ith on e hand o n the volume of
inspiration , and with the other p ointing t o the volum e
of nature , what can hinder from becoming eloquent and
wise even unto salvation P
M r s G Yes , trul y an d you , in the school room ,
draw from both the sources Of which you n ow speak :
and this is the m ighty secret of your power as a success
ful educator
D r A S uch no doubt is the fact so far as I m a y
atter myself that I a m on e I would ask M aster G or
don something more about the Chironomia
'

Indeed S ir you have settled for m e that,


Wm G
and eve ry thing else about diagrams I go for nature,
and I begin to s us
as my father says of common sense
peot it is not the very best way t o study her through
means furnished by the scale and dividers or the pencil
and brush when her broad eld lies outspread before us
Dr A Just the result I anticipated : but that work
is full of important matter

Yes, S ir but the principles had becom e


Wm G
familiar from your easier and more practical mode o f
imparting them I was struck with the Similarity of the
directions you had repeatedly given u s he says the
graceful ness of motion consists in the facility and secu
rity with which it is executed ; a n d the grace of any
position consists in the facility with which it can be
varied In t he standing gure, the position is gra ceful
when the weight of t he b od y is prin cipally supp o rted o n
-

RE A D I NG

16 8

one leg while the other is so placed as t o be ready t o


relieve it promptly and wi t hou t e ffort The foot which
sustains the pri n cipal weight must be s o placed that a
perpe n dicular line let fall from the pit of the neck shall
pass through the heel of that foot O f course the cen
tre of gravity of the body is for the ti m e in that line
whilst the other foot assis t s merely for the purpose of
keeping the body balanced in the position , and of pre
venting it from tottering In every position of the feet ,
we must take care that the grace at which we aim,
shall be attended with S implicity But I am becoming
prolix

M aster W illiam , go on , if you


NO, no
B
Dr
please we are much interested

W m G The position of the orator is equally re


m oved from the awkwardness of the rustic with t oe s
turned in and knees bent and the affectation of the
dancing master, wh o se position runs to the opposite ex
treme T he toes are to be moderately turned outward,
but not constrained ; the limbs s o disposed as to s up
port the body with ease and admit of owing and grace
ful movement The sustaining foot is to be planted
rmly ; the leg braced, b u t not contracted ; the other
foot and limb pressed lightly, and held relaxed, s o as to
be ready for immediate change and action In changin g
the positions of the feet , the motions are to be made
with the utmost simpl icity, and free from the parade and
sweep O f dancing T he Speaker must advance, retire
or change almost imperceptibly ; and it is particul arly
remarked that changes should n o t be t oo frequent Fre
quent changes Show an xiety or instability, and always
p roduce un favo rable impressi on s
,

C ONVE R SATI O N T E A C H I NG F E MAL E S


Dr

16 9

All this is very good and you have read


it to good purpose : but wha t would you think o f de

Art of S peaking which


s cr ip t ion s like these fro m the

M irth or laughter
I treasure d u p as real oracles ?
opens the mouth , crisps the nose lessens the aperture of

the eyes, and shakes the whole frame


Love lights
U p a s mile upon the countenance the forehead is
smoothed the eyebrows arched , the mouth a little O pe n
and smiling the eyes lan gm shin g the countenance
assumes an eager, wishful look, mixed with an air of
satisfaction
N o w how much more easily a n d naturally, do you
think one could laugh o r express love after than befor e
such instr uctions P W hen either emotion is felt , nature
is al ways faithful to give it expression when it is not ,
who wants to be taught to practise the disguise , any
m ore than to tell an untruth or t o p ractise with success
any other deception P
M r s G I have often wished to get your opinio n
U pon the education o f ou r daughters ; what course in
elocution would you recommend to the m P

Dr A
E xcuse me there if you please I lack t he
experience t o give a sound O pinion M y little kingdom,
you know , embraces only male subj ects W hat cour s e
does M iss J ulia pursue P
M r s G Julia tell the D octor
J u lia I think o u rs is very si milar to the course
W e u s e the same book
W illiam is U pon
W e used

to have the
Female R eader and Young Ladies
Co m panion ; but M rs S mith says there is no gender
t o in tellect W e go thro ugh with on e reading less on
.

RE A D I NG

17 0

every day and a short exercise U pon the principles :


and as we reach the lessons which include pieces adapt
ed to recitation we commit and recite them

That mus t be a very severe task


Dr A

N o S ir it is usually a very light task for


u
l
J ia
we are al ways careful the day before t o divide the les
w
n
o
o
ff
among
the
whole
class
each
marking
her
s on
proper share but before we get through with the read
ing and the recitations a pretty good number of U S can
s a y the whole nearly as well as our o wn part

And do you do all this every day P


Dr A

N ot daily we read the same lesson two or


J u lia
three times with a new portion t o each of U S , every
time and on Friday we omit the reading , and attend
only to reciting, and the principles

And when you recite , do you come ou t on


A
Dr
the stage and express every thing with appropriate ges
tures as our youn g gen t lemen do P

O no, S ir ! far from it W e have no stage


J u lia
and all that is required of us is,
W e keep our seats
to preserve a natural easy and graceful p osture with
an occasio n al but gentle movement of the head and
hands but little attention however is paid t o this, or
the expression of the countenance , unless to correct a
bad habit a n v farther than feeling naturally prompts
sometimes we stand U p to recite and then we are taught
to shift ou r position with ease and grace , and to u s e our
hands with some degree of condence in cases where it
would seem to be a real constraint not to do it I think
they have a i med to follow out D r Abbot s method in all
b u t oratorical attitudes and gestures such as are pra o
t is ed by gentlem en
,

C ONV ER SATI ON F E MA L E S

IN

E L O C U TI ON

17 1

And very compl imentary truly t o D r Ab


Dr
bot M iss Julia , I thank you for your prompt , polite
and very intelligent answers M rs G ordon , I am happy
.

all which your daughter has stated I hear t ily


approve ; and I feel gratied to learn there is such
growing attention to this hitherto much n eglected a o
Let
it
have
a
tithe
f
the
time
and
care
co m lis hm e n t
o
p

bestowed upon music a n acqu isition I would be the

last to discourage and every one endowe d with the


requisite faculties may possess it and where means are
wanting to acquire both , give me rather the one which
enables me to talk, t o read a n d to Speak in an easy and
becoming style ; and Supplies a constant source of e n
o ym e n t to myself and my friends
j
P erhaps you might be interested with a short sketch
M ore than twenty years a go
of my early experience
before I came to Ne w York I taught the academy in a
beautiful country V illage It was customary then as I
believe it is still to have a large proportion of misses
oft en occupying a separate part O f the sam e room and
Sitting in t he same classes at recitations and taking
rank among the young gentlemen according t o merit
M any instances o f this kind occurred in my classes in
E nglish , and in Latin and G reek : French , we did not
study s o much then I took great pains t o teach a ll to
read and speak well and I ever succeeded the bes t with
the young ladies and I had the mos t pleasure and s a t
I was as particular to direct
is fa e t ion in teaching them
them in their manners and how to make a graceful
cour t esy as I was to direct the young gentlemen in
theirs , a n d ho w to make a good ho w a n d at our publi c
to

s a y,

RE AD I NG

17 2

examinations those were prepared to step forward and


Speak their pieces of poetry as these were their orations
and to do it too with all the accompan iments of appro
At
the
close
of
r ia t e gesture ; and it was beautifu l
p
the year before I left we had a grand exhibition in the
public hall and it concluded with the enactment of an
entire play in which the young ladies took a part and
acqui t ted themselves to admiration And that was the
last play I ever had any agency in getting u p
M r s G And do you approve of bringing young
l a dies U pon the stage to Speak the same as young gen
,

t l e m en P

Dr

N o certainly not : I have no pleasure in


seeing the m u pon the stage either as Speakers or a c
tresses S uch displays seem rather to detract from that
delicacy and renement which to my mind give to
the sex t heir crowning charm The wise saying of
Age s ila u s oft en comes to mind when asked what things
he thought most proper for boys to learn he ans wered
Those which they o u ght to practise when they come to
be men
And S O I would s a y of yo ung ladies ; let
them be carefully instructed in whatever it is certain ,
they will be required to practise especially in all that
wil l most contribute to render the m agreeable useful
and happy And what can contribute more than a well
culti vated colloquial utterance s o that it may be said
of her voice she dis cour s e t h sweet m usic as well as
S he Openeth her mout h with wisdom and in her
tongue is the l a w of kindness
O f course her educa
tion t o make her agreeable useful and happy must be
a dapted to private not to publi c life
,
.

'

E HA V IO U R HOW

C ONV E R S E

T o

L E SSO N XX V II
B

EHAVO R
I

IN

17 3

COM P ANYCON VER S ATIO N M AN NE R

CONVER SATI ON does not consist in merel y talking,

though ever so well ; but in so talking as to admit a


regular interchange o f thoughts and feelings All can
talk : f e w know how to converse A person m a y have
the faculty to talk learnedly elegantl y and even elo
quently and yet be a complete bore in a social circle
W herever he comes the life spring of conversation is
broken u p it is n o longer dialo g
ue but monologue he
takes it all to himself of co urse it ceases to be conver
sation If any one starts an idea he instantly gives
chase and pursues it through all its windings to the
very death
2 M any years since I heard a lady f acetiously re
mark of the truly great and learned head of a literary
institution who was widely dis t inguished f o r his elo
ue n ce that one could not even mention m ilk in his
q
presence but o u t would come a learned dissertation on

the diffe rent properties of milk goat s m ilk cow s m ilk


mare s and ass s and would neve r end til l he had de
scri bed all the different breeds of cattle the Shor t horn ,
broad horn no horn the D evonshire and the D urham
and traced the history of each a ll the way back to the
great hull of Bashan
.

There are some who disturb the pleasant ow of


conversation by a disag ree a ble habit of opposin g every
thing that another happens to say not by a at contra
diction for that would be a rudeness to be found only

among the lowest vulgar b u t by undertaki n g to prov e


it could not be that it was s o or so : this they often
do not so much to correct an error and to show their
love of truth and right as to Show off their knowledge
and importance ; or to indulge a naturally unamiable
But if in any instance one should have
disposition
just occasion to O ppose an other s statement or op inion ,
he Should do it in the most gen t le and courteous man
ner a n d with great modesty
4 N o one m a y obtrude u pon a social party his p e cu
liar notions and sentiments and indeed any thing likely
to provoke discussion his chief a im Should be to please ;
not himself but others a n d in t he clash of argument
little pleasure is ever felt except by those immediately

engaged in it All narratives what sailors call long

yarns and even anecdotes u nless very short and used


for illustration should be carefully avoided W hen per
sons come into mixed assemblies every thing if possi
ble pertaining to their professions and occupat ions
should be left at home : even the clergy may not be
ranked as entire exceptions
5 It was said in the rst lesson of the present work
that children and all persons while engaged in earnest
conversation or telling an interesting story generally
Speak in such tones and with such a degree of an i ma
tion and force as are best suited to give a clear expres
s ion of their thoughts and feelings
S till a person is
3

B E H AV I OR I M POR TA N T H I N TS

17 5

arely listened to with pleasure who has a rough harsh


ho speaks
voice a squeaking on e or a nasal twang or w
upon a key raised to vociferation or sunk to feeble in
distinctness W hoever in his utterance has any one o f
these defects should make unceasing e fforts to cure him
self of it for this he can do in almost every instance
by care and proper culture S ome it is true have the
power to awaken and to chain a t t e n t l on , In spite of s uch
defects : but that is no reason why youth should carry
them into mature years O ne thin g is very certain :
however much the head may be a ff ected the heart is
seldom reached but through a different medium
6 How Often it happens that a young lady by her
beauty wins the admirat i on of all beholders but to lose
it the instant s he opens her mouth
And how ofte n
it is, that a lady whose face and g u re are any thing but
att ractive almost imperceptibly takes the heart captive
by the clear Sweet tones of her voice and the charms of
her conversation
7 IM POR TA N T H IN T S N ever venture to relat e an
incident or tell a story with which you are n ot wel l a c
i
n t e d ; nor tire the patience of your auditors with
u
a
q
little triing details ; nor keep them upon the torture
after raising expectation of something thrilling by
withholding it to the very last words G o straight for
ward with whatever you have t o communicat e without
repetition state the principal points with clearness and
precision and unless the matter itsel f is void of inter
es t
you will be heard with pleasure And if there
s hould happen to be any thing diverting o r witty in
what you s a y, let the laughing be for others : for in
r

RE A D I NG

17 6

general the less of it you do yourself the better you


will appear
and if a
8 S ome dash o ff rapidly upon a thou ght
n e w one happen to strike t hem away t hey go in a p a

resume go on and when all is told repeat


re n t he s is
once or twice to m ake all clear S uch heedlessness and
waste of words may be cured by the practice of a little
deliberation and reect i on
9 Avoid all hackneyed expressions and frequent

repetitions of says he and says she ; and what

is far worse
I said said I
he said said he ; or
beginning a phrase with well
as , well I think so

or well I must go
or well to make a long story

short ; or repeatedly following a phrase with , you

know ; as I love children you kno w


I was ver y

ti red you know : to which it might be replied , no


S ir I knew neither till you told me
and you see is
oft en used very nearly in the same way Avoid also

the u s e of as for that , particularly after, I do

not kno w
as I do not know as I shall go for that
I Shall ; I guess for I think I suppose, I pre

sume
ugly for rude and for V icious
right

a way for directly


aways for a distance
I

can t for I cannot


I wasn t for I was not
I don t know for I do

I
hain
t
for
n t know
p
I have n o t
it aint and taint for it is not

we ar n t a n t
aint for are not
S ome say

D o tell !
I want t o know
as a wondermen t in

rep ly t o what has just been related :


I didn t hear
nothing about it
I expect he arri ved yesterday
a great big house
a monstrous little house
a
.

B E H A V I OR L A NG U A GE TIM C R AFT
.

17 7

dreadful sight o f peaches


S ome , from the force of

early habit s a y them boys the m girls


this here,

that there or rather this ere ; that air


All such
improprieties in language if early attention is called to
them can be corrected by a little care but if su ff ered
t o go into maturity are generally xed for life
10 Ti m othy Craft of London from the lo west con
dition of life , rose , b yhis industry prudence and skill
in business, t o great wealth , and nally t o be Lord M ayor
o f the city : b u t with all his riches and honors there
still cl un g to him his early vernacular a n d among other

vulgarities the habi t o f saying this here and that


are
After his death a proud monument , with a beau
tiful inscription was erected to his memory A wag
having read the epitaph wrote under it
Here lies T im Craft our late Lord M ayor
He s left this here world here , and gone to that are
world there
11 S ome are never listened to with pleasure from a
habit they have of a fxing to many words , a sor t of in
articul ate echo as, and ah for and
b u t ah for

but
ah
for
he
the
ah
for
the
ah
h
e
f
o
,

for o f,
a ah
for a
T hey hang upon these echoes
till they think of the word which they want N obody
is ever conscious that he makes them and f e w, I pre
sume notice them in others though they are common
in conversation and even in public addresses
12 N ever suff er your mind to be absent in company
Command and direc t your attention to present O bjects
s e e and hear all that is going on , without appearing to
scrutiniz e particularly any thing

RE AD I NG

17 8

N ever whisper in company nor talk while an


other is t alking conversation is common stock and all
present have a right t o claim their Share however in a
large company many separate groups m a y have this in:
t e r cha n ge going on at the same time
and
14 Always listen when you are Spoken to
never interrupt a Speaker nor Supply him with words if
he happen to hesitate give a direct answer to a direct
question and avoid all circumlocution and indirectness
as artful and rude Be frank and ingenuous and always
look a person modestly in the face when you speak t o
him
15 Be not forward in leading the conversation this
ge n erally belongs to the ol des t persons in company If
you have learning display it only on occasions when you
ostentation and on all occasions
ca n do it without
avoid speaking of yourself if possible N othing which
we can say ourselves will varnish our defects or add lus
tre to our virtues b u t will often on the contrary make
the former more glaring and the latter obscure Ho w
ever among very intimate friends a strict observance of
this rul e would sometimes make us appear fastidious
16 G ood breeding does not consist in formal cere
mony but in an easy civil and respectful behavior A
well bred man Is polite t o every person but particularly
to strangers In mixed compan i es every person who Is
admitted is supposed to b e on a foot i ng of e quality wi t h
the rest and consequently claims very justly every mark
It is wise to avoid remarks condemnatory of
o f civility
classes and professions doctors lawyers or clergymen :
and it is prudent to learn enough of the immediate con
n ect ion s of those present to avoid giving pa i n
13

B E H A VI O R
17

L A U G H T ER

M ODE STY

17 9

Frequent and loud l aughter is the characteristi c


of folly and bad manners : it is the way in which silly
people express their j oy at Silly things A wise man
may be often seen t o smile but he is not s o often heard
to laugh
18 Hum ming a tune t o yourself, whistling drum
ming with your ngers, making a noise with your feet
and a ll such habits are breaches o f goo d manners and
from those who know better indicate indifference or
contempt for the persons present
19 M imicry is a common and favorite amusement
o f l ow minds but is carefully avoided by all great ones
W e should n either practise it ourselves nor encourage
it in others It is always an insult to the individual s o
imitated
T hough it may
2 0 Avoid the habit of punning
often serve to amuse and may Sho w some wit yet it is
of a low order and should rarely be resorted to by o n e
who has the talent for som ething higher : be cautious
also in playful jesting : it is pleasing but is liable t o
be misapprehended by stupid people , and s o may get you
into dif culty
2 1 M odesty is O ften confounded with bashfulness ;
but there is a marked difference between them M odesty
is the characteristic of an amiable mind bashfulness is
rather the want of a becoming self respect N othing
tends t o Sink, or to drive a young man into low com
pany more than bashfulness : to get rid of this painful
weakness, he will nd nothing more e ff ectual than a per
s evering determination to improve all occasions t o Vis i t
that which is good the company he most dr ead s t o
.

,
,

'

RE A D I NG

180

enter V ice and ignorance are the only things of which


we ough t t o be ashamed while we keep clear of them
3
we may venture any where without fear or con cern
22 P erso n al introd u ctions to be made with an easy
address and according to established etiquette require
much attention The custom is to introduce the inferior
to the superior : the gentleman to the lady : and u nl es s
it may be presumed that one of the parties is already
known to the other the name of each should be dis
There is apt to be much careless
t inctly pronou n ced
ness in this a n d also In remembering the name S ome
Speak it so low so hurriedly or m a r t icul a t e ly that it is
impossible for the ear to catch it S ome accompany the

name w ith , Allow me to introduce


Let me
or
make you acquainted with Mr Brown : but this ex
cept where great ceremony is required is considered
ra ther formal The Simple name is all that is needed
S till if the person be a foreigner, or just from his trav
els or bear any other distinc t ion desirable to be known
it should be added as M r Field of London
Mr
Bryant late from P alestine
R ev D r S pring
P rofessor Anthon of Columbia College
M y father
M r J ones
M y sister M iss J ones or m ore famil
M y sister M ar y
ia rl y
2 3 S haking hands is another ceremony that requires
attention to do it properly one should approach near
extend his right hand in a waving motion and make a t
the same time a slight bow gi vi ng the hand presented
to him a sof t pressure and a gentle Shake
.

'

T he
an d s

it wil l b e p e r ce iv ed, ha s t a ke n m a n y o f his t h ug


ht s
o f his l a n gua ge f r m t he we l l kn wn l e t t er s o n t his s u b ect
j

a u t h r,

om e


B E H A VI OR

C H R ISTIA N PR I N CI P L E

181

S TT N
M any persons o ffend against elegance
and good manners by the positions they oft en allow them
selves in Sitting The best place for the fee t is upon
the o or not close together n or much apart with the
toes t u rn e d a little ou t The knees should also be kept
Slightly apar t t o cross them one over the other though
much practised is not becoming and t o embrace them
with the hands j oined is considered vulgar T o stretch
ou t the limbs while sitting shows conceit and pride
and
to bend them u p gives an air of timidity To Spread
the hands apart upon the knees ; to lean forward and
place the arms upon the thighs o r to cross them s o as
t o place the elbows in O pposite hands ; to sit bolt u p
right and st iff with on e arm perhaps thrown over the
back of the chair ; to lean s o as t o t ip the chair back
or to s it just upo n the edge o f it or t o lean the head
a gainst the wall o r t o loll back upon a sofa with the

these are all considered breaches


limbs stretched o u t
o f good manners
2 5 It is not uncommon in this country for persons

to rise fro m a low condition t o eminence


and bear
their blushin g honors thick Upon them and still retain
the early marks of their origin Hence the necessity of
having the elements of good manners enter largely into
a course of education If the children and youth that
crowd o u r schools and colleges were all from families in
polished life the case woul d be different for home in
u e n ces might well Supply the defec t but they are not
many of t hem bring habits that need to be corrected ;
and unless they are and others a r e implante d and ren
dere d easy and n atural by careful training they never
24

I G

'

R E AD I NG

182

can attain the pleasing manner and address o f ae com


l
i
s hed gentlemen
p
2 6 If you desire good conversational powers im
prove your mind by reading by thinking by observa
tion and account no a c ISit ion unworthy of your
attention which m a y qualify you better for social life
2 7 Aim to be faultless in your language expression
and general appearance and for t his end avail your
self of the eyes ears and good taste of experienced
friends for withou t such aid no on e can clearly see his
o wn faults any more than he can s e e his o wn face with
o u t a mirror
2 8 You desire of course t o be self possessed and
at ease then whatever amiable qualities you would
have adorn you in society be careful to practise at home
and render familiar in your daily intercourse they will
thus acquire the strength and force of a habi t ; else
depend upon it the attempt t o exhibit them will always
be attended with e ffort , and will never rise higher than
mere aff ectation
2 9 W hat gives to politeness its highest grace it s
sweetest charm, is the entire forgetfulness of self, in t he
desire to please and to benet others Having its seat
in the heart and leading ever to do to others what we
would that they should do to u s , it reects the courtesy,
the kindness, simp licity and purity o f Christian prin
.

cip l e .

R E A D IN G A N D

S P E A K IN G

L E SSO N XX V II I
.

PROVERBS O F D IFFERENT NATIONS

W hat is n ot n eedfu l
L a t in

I is

T here is no worse
It a lia n
.

boo k

dear
dbb er

I at a

f a r t hin g

tha
n
I

bad

Sp

a n is h
of

T he robes of l awyers are line d with t he


I

suitors
O ne f ather I can support ten childre n : t en childre n
cannot
support
o n e father
I

T ur kis h It is easy to go afoot , when on e l e a ds


n e s horse by the bridle
Curses like chickens, a lways come h o m e t o ro o st
I

Charity gives itself rich ; cevet ou sn ess


Ger m a n
hoards
itself
o
O
r
p
I
I

E n glis h He who says what he likes, Shall h ea r I


hat he does n et like
N o p ains, no g a ins no sw eat , n o sweet
b s t in a cy

IT Y
2. B R V

An

woman , that showed a house an d pictures a t


I
ex pressed he rse l f in the se words
T his is

old

owes t er,

AN D CLEARNESS

RE A D I NG A N D S PE AKI NG

184

S ir R ichard Farmer he lived in the country took care


o f his estate built this house and paid for it m anaged
it well saved money and died rich That I is his s on
he was made a lord took a place at court spent h is
estate and died a beggar
Here clearness and brevity
are both united qual ities in language the most im
portant and the most difcult
,

POLIT ENESS

I
He that is truly polite knows how to c ontradict
with respect and to ple ase without adulation ; and is
Squally remote from an insipid c omplaisance and a l ow
familiarity
,

ASIE

To

KNo w

THAN

Do

T o

I
If to d o were as easy as to know what were g ood
I
t o do ; chapels had been churches and poor men s
I
cottages I princes palaces He is a good div m e I who
follows his o wn instructions : I can more easily teach
I
tw enty I what were good to be done than be O
ne
of
I
I
the twenty to follow my own teaching
,

PLEASING DESCRIPTION

poet s eye I in a ne phrensy rolling


I
D oth glance from heave n to earth, fro m e arth
he aven
I
I
And as imagination bodies forth
I
The form o f things unknown , the poet s p en I
Turns the m to sh a pe and gives to airy n o thing I
I
A local habitation and a name
T he

to

P A R AGR AP

SU

s
H

FA R L E S

BLIM E DESCRIPTION

185

The cloud capt t owers, the gorgeous p a laces,


I
T he solemn t emples the great globe its elf
Yea, all which it inherits , Shall dis s cv e,
And like the baseless fabric o f a vision
I
Leave not a wreck behind we are such stuff
I
As dreams I are m ade o f, and our little life
I
Is rounded with a sleep
-

VAL

UE

OF

COMMON SENSE

I
I
Fine sense and exalted sense are not half so
valuable as cemm on sense T here are fer t y m en of
I
n e man o f wit
and he that will carry noth
sense for O
ing about with him but geld, will be every day at a loss
for ready change
.

T HE

W OLF AN D CRANE

I
A wolf with t eo much eagerness swallowed a b ene ;
which unfortunat ely stuck in his throat In the v iO
lence O f his pain he applied to several animals earnestly
entreating them to extract it N one of them dared
ha z ard the dangerous experiment but the crane who
persuad ed by his solemn promises of a compensation
v entured to thrust her e normous length o f neck down
his throat and having successfully performed the
O peration cl aim ed the recompense
I
I
I
S ee how unre asonable s eme creatures are

I
I
said the w elf
have I not suff ered thee safely to
draw thy neck ou t of my j aws and hast thou the cen
I
reward P
s cience I to demand a fr t her
,

R E AD I NG A N D S PE AKI NG

18 6

By this fable it is Shown t hat the ut m ost e xtent of


seme m en s gratitude is barely to refrain from Oppress
I
I
ing and i njuring their benefactors
,

T HE FOX

A ND

AVEN

A fox I observing a raven perched on the branch of


a tree with a ne piece of ch eese in his mouth , imme
I
dia t ely began to consider how he might possess I s o
delicate a morsel
I
I
I am extremely glad
D ear m adam said he
I
to have the pleasure of seeing you this morning your
beautiful shape Iand shining feathers I are the delight
W ould you condescend to favor me
o f my eyes
with a so n g P I doubt not but your v eice I is equal t o
I
the rest of your accomplishments
D eluded by this attering Speech , the transporte d
I
raven O pened her mouth to give him a specimen of
her pipe when down dropped the cheese , which the fox
instantly snatched u p and bore away in triumph ;
I
leaving the raven to lament her credulous vanity at
her leisure
The moral of the fable appears to be this wherever
I
attery gains admission , it seems t o banish common
sense
,

10

D OMESTIC

N O ENT
J YM

I
W hat a smiling aspect I does the love of parent s
and children of brothers and sisters of friends and rel a
I
tions give to every surroundi n g object and every r e
turning day ! W ith what a lustre I does it
I
t he sm all
habitati on, where this placid
,

S E LE CT P A R AG R A P H S
dwells ! where such scenes
I
succeed uninterrupte dl y t o

of

heartfelt
on e another

s a t is f a ct ion

O D S B ENEVOLENT DESIGNS

11 G
.

187

I
I
How m any clear m arks of benevolent intention
appear every where around U s ! W hat a profusion of
I
I
beauty and ornament is poured forth on the f ace of
I
n a ture ! W hat a magn icent spec t acle prese n ted to
I
the vie w of m a n ! W hat a supply contrived for his
wants ! W hat a variety of obj ects s e t before him t o
gratify his senses t o employ his underst a nding t o enter
tain his imagin a tion, t o ch eer and gladde n I his he a rt
,

12

IME

AN

STATE

I
An Italian philosopher e x pressed in his motto that
time I was his est a te
An estate , indeed which will
I
produce n et hin g without cul t ivation but which will
always a b ii n dan t ly repay the labors of industry and
satisfy the most extensive desires if no par t of it be
suff ered to lie waste by negligence to be overrun with
noxious pl ants or laid ou t for sh ew rather than us e
,

13

PE O F FUTURE HAPPINESS

HO

I
T he hOp e of future happiness is a perpetual sourc e
I
of consol a tion to good m en Under tro u ble it soothes
their m inds
amidst temptation it Supports their
Virtue ; and in their dying moments enables them to

I
I
I
O gra ve !
s ay
0 de a th ! where is thy sting ?
I
wher e is thy Vict ory P
.

R E A D I NG A N D S PE AK I N G

188

14

M OD

EST

Y.

It is a s ure indication of geod S ense to be dif den t


W e then and not till th en are growing wis e
of it
I
when we begin to discern how weak a n d U nwise we
I
I
are
An a bsolute p er f ect ion of understanding is
im p es s ible he makes the nearest a ppr ea che s t o it who
I
has the sense to discern and the humility t o ackn ew
I
le dge, its imperfections M odesty always sits grace
I
fully U pon yeu t h it covers a m u ltitude of fa ults and
I
doubles the lustre of every virtue which it seems to
I
I
hide the perfections of men being like those owers
I
which appear m ere beautiful when their leaves are a
little contracted and folded U p than when they are full
bl awn and display themselves without any reserve, to
the V iew
.

15

PPOSITION

A certain amount of Opposition says John N eal is


I
I
a great h elp to a man K ites rise against and not
I
I
with the wind E ven a h ead wind is better than
D en e
N o man ever worked his passage any where in a
dead calm L e t n o m a n wax pale therefore because
o f O pposition
O pposition is what he w a nts and must
I
I
h a ve to be good for any th ing
Hardship is the
I
native soil of manhood and self reliance
He that
cannot abide the storm without in chin g or qu ailing ,
strips himself in the sunshine and lays down by the
wayside t o be overlooked and forgotten He who bu t
braces himself to the struggle when the win ds blew
gives up when they have d ime, and falls asleep I In the
stillness that follows
,

VI R T U E GR ATIT U D E

L E SSO N XXIX
1

VIRTUE

IT S

OW N

E AR
W

18 9

Hom e Jou r n a l

E ve ry man under G od has his destiny in his o wn


I
hands If he will be v irtuous he may be If he is
Vir t uous he cannot but be happy Like the su ff ering
I
R edeemer he may and will be a man o f sorrows and
acquainted with grief
but his consolation shall o w
I
like a river and his righteousness and happiness shall
roll like the waves of a peaceful S ea following one after
another until they bear him to the bright and beautiful
land beyond the tomb Art thou poor P art thou tried
by thine in rmit ies ? art thou persecuted by enemies P

S till hOp e on hope ev er be t he motto of thy life


I
S till be virtuous and thy trium p h Shall be certain
I do not kno w a single youn g man
says Harry

who started with me in life guided by a


W oodland
vir t uous intent who has failed of success M any o f that
I
class are scattered t o and fro in the earth Fierc e
blasts and pelting storms beat U pon many of them to
this day but every on e of th e m n ow living I who has
been virtuous has won for himself a good degree in his
I
Sphere ; and many shall rise u p and bless the hour
when these young men were born
,

GR AT rrU DE

Jo s ep h A ddis on

16 7 2, d 17 19
.

I
T here is not a more pl easing exercise of the mind ,
than gratitude It is accompanied with s o great inward
I
by
sa tisfactio n that t he d uty is su f cient l y rewarded
.

RE AD I NG

19 0

S P E A KI NG

AND

I
the performance It is not like the practice of m any
ether virtues diff icult and p a inful but attended with
s o much pleasure I that were there no positive com m aiid
I which enjoined it nor any recompense laid U p for it
here after a generous mind wo uld in dii lge in it for the
natural gratication it affords
If gratitude is due from man to m an how much
I
I
The S upreme Being
m ore from man to his M aker
does not only confer upon u s those bounties which pro
nd but even thos e
cee d more immediately from his h a
benets which are conveyed to u s by ethers E very
blessing we e nj oy by what means soever it may be de
I
rived U pon u s is the gift of him who is the grea t
Author of good and the Father of mercies
If gratitude when exerted towards on e another,
I
naturally produces a very pleasing sensation in the
mind of a grateful m an it e xalts the soul into rapture
when it is employed on this great obj ect of gratitude
o n this b e n e ce n t Being who has given u s every thing
we already possess and from whom we exp ect every
thing we yet hepe for
,

CHAR IT v Hugh Bl a ir
.

17 18, d 1800
.

I
T rue charity I attempts not to Shut ou r eyes t o
I
the distinction between good and b ad men ; nor to
I
warm ou r hearts equally to those who befriend and
to those who inj ure us It reserves o ur esteem for good
I
m en and o ur complacency for ou r friends
T owards
o u r enemies
i
it
inspires
forg
veness hum a nity and a
I
I
s olicitude
for their welfare
It breathes I universal
,

ARIT Y GOO D GRE AT MA N

CH

19 1

and dictates a ff ability of m anners


I
It prompts corresponding sympathies with them who
rej oice, and them who weep It teaches us t o Slight
I
I
Charity is the comforter of
and despise n e man
the aficted , the protector o f the oppressed the recon
ciler of d ifferences the interc essor for o ff enders It is
I
I
faithfulness in the friend public sp irit in the m a gis
trate , equity and p atience in the j udge, m oderation in
the sovereign , and l dya l t y in the subject In parents,
I
I
it is care and attention in children, it is reverence
and submission In a word, it is the S eul of social life
I
I
It is the s u n that enlivens and ch eers the abodes of

It is
like the dew of Herm on , says t he
m en
I
and the de w that descended on the moun
P salmist
tains of Z i en , where the Lord c ommanded the blessing,
I
for everm ore
e ven life
t l en e s s

of

t emper,

T HE GOO D

G REAT

M AN

17 7 0, d 18 34

I
How seldom friend a good gre at man inherits I
I
Honor and wealth with all his worth and pains l
I
It seems a story from the world of Spirits I
W hen any man O btains I that which he me rits,
I
I
I
O r any m erits that which he obt ains
I

renounce this idle strain


Fo r shame my fri end
I
I
W hat would st thou have a good great m an obtain ?
W ealth , title dignity a golden chain
I
O r heap of cer s es which his sword hath slain P
I
I
G oodness and greatness are not me a ns but ends
I
Hath he not alwa ys tre a sures always friends
I
I

I
T he good great man P Thre e tre a sures , love a n d
light
,

RE A D I NG A N D S PE AKI NG

19 2

I
And calm tho ughts equa ble as infant s bre a th
I
I
I
than
day
e
ast
fri
nds
m
re
sure
e
f
And three
night
I
Himself his M aker and the An gel D eath

01

5 L AD

AND

I had
,

HIS

NEIG H B O R

said W illiam Lad the apostle of peace,


a ne eld of grain growing upon an o ut farm at
,
some distance from the homestead W henever I rode
I
I
by I s a w my neighbor P ulcifer s sheep in the lot,
destroying my hopes of a harvest These Sheep were
they
o f t he gaunt , long legged kind active as Spaniels
would spri n g over the highest fence and no partition
I
wal l could keep them out I complained to neighbor
I
P ulcifer about th em sent him frequent m essages, but
all withou t avail P erhaps they would be kept o u t for
I
a day or t we ; but the legs of his sheep were long,
I
and my grain more tempting than the adj oining pas
ture
I rode by again the S heep were s t ill there ;
I
I became angry and told my men to s e t the dogs on
I
them and, if th at would not do, I would pay them
I
if they w ould s hoot the sheep
I rod e away much agitated for I was not s o much
I
o f a peace man then
as I am n dw, and I felt literally
I
I
I
full of ght All at once a light ashed in upon me
I
I asked myself W ould it n o t be well for yo u to t ry
I
in your ewu conduct the peace principle you are
I
e
teaching to thers P
I thought it all O
ver, and s et
I
t l e d down in my mind
as to the bes t course t o b e
I
pursued The next day I rode over to s ee neighbor
P ul cifer
I found him chopp ing wood I at his door

'

A N D HI S N E I GH B O R

L AD

19 3

G ood m orning neighbor


N 0 an swer
G ood mern
I
ing ! I repeated He gave a kind of grunt without
looking up
I came continued I, t o see about t he
I
sheep At this he threw down his axe and exclaimed

I
I
N ow aren t you a pretty
in an angry manner :
I
neighbor to tell your men to kill my Sh eep P I he ard
I of it ; a rich I m an , like ybu t o shdot I a poor I
m an s sheep
I was wren g n eighbor said I but it won t do
I t o let your sheep eat up a ll I that gra in s o I came
I
I
over to s ay that I would take your sheep to my
I
homestead pasture and put them in with mine ; a n d
I
in the fall you Shall take them b a ck I and if any on e
I
I
IS m i s sm g yo u may take your pick ou t of my whale
ock
he did not know how
P u lcifer looked confounded
I
t o take me At last he stammered OIIt
Now S quire
are you in e arnest P
Certainly I am I answered ;
I
it is better for me to feed your sheep in my pasture
I o n gras s than to feed them here on grain and I see
I
the fence can t keep them o u t
After a moment s Silence
T he Sheep shan t
I
any more exclaimed P ulcifer
I will
t r eu b l e you
I
I
fetter t hem all But I ll let you know that when
any man talks of shao t in g I can shoot t eo and when
I
I
they are kind and neighborly I I can be kind t oo
The Sheep ne v er again trespassed on my lot And
my fr iends he would continue addressing the audience
I
remember that when yau talk of Inj u rm g your neigh
I
bors they will talk o f inj uring yeu
W hen nations
I
threaten to ght et her nations will be ready, t eo
.

R E A D I NG A N D S PE A K I NG

19 4

I
I
I
I
Love will beget love ; a wish to be at peace will
I
keep you in pe a ce You can overcome evil with good
There is no ether way

6 M
.

CY S h

a k8

ea r e.

156 4, d 16 16
.

The quality of mercy is not strained


It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven I
Upon the place beneath it is twice blessed
It blesseth him that gives a n d him that t akes
I
Tis mightiest in the mightiest it becomes I
I
The throned monarch bette r than his crawn
I
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,
The attribute to a we and m ajesty
I
I
W herein doth s it the dread and fear of kings
I
But m ercy is above this sceptred sway,
I
I
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings
I
And e arthly power doth then Show likest G ad s,
I
W hen m ercy seasons justice
,

L E S S O N XXX
1

CL EARNES S

says of Hen chcliffe, bishop


borough, that in the pulpit he Spoke with the accent of
a man of sense , such as he really wa s , In a super ior
degree but it was remarkable , and , to those who did
not know the cause mysterious, that there was not a
corner of the church in which
distinctly
The reason which
M r Jones
.

PO WE R O F DE L I VER Y

19 5

consona n t knowing that the vowels would speak for


themselves And thus he became the surest and clear
est o f speakers : his elocution was perfect, and never
disappointed his audience
,

P OW ER O F CAL M D ELIVERY

A celebrated divine who was remarkable in the rst


period of his ministry for a boisterous mode of preaching
suddenly changed his whole manner in the pulpit and
adopted a mild a n d dispassionate mode of delivery
O ne of his brethren observing it inquired of him what
had induced him to make the cha n ge He answered :
W hen I was young I thought it was the thun d er that
killed the people but when I grew wiser I discovered
that it was the lightning so I determined, in future ,
to thunder less and lighten more
,

ERM ON

I CE P REAC HED

A young man in N e w E ngland had pursued a regu


lar course of preparation for the ministry But he had
passed through the college and theological seminary,
deeply absorbed in the pursuit of the regular routine of
studies and th ough destined for a public s peaker he
paid little attention to elocution
And thus at the
close of his studies though possessed of a m ind copiously
furnished well disciplined , and wielding an able pen
yet he la b ored under the great deciency of an awkward
and uninteresting d elive ry
S ome time after leaving the semin ary he married
the daughter o f an able and eloquent clergyman in on e
of the ea stern cities
.

RE AD I NG A N D S P E AKI NG

19 6

O n a certain occasion his father in law invited him


to O ccupy his pulpit a part of the S abbath He a c
in law was
but
though
his
father
ce t e d the invitation
p
delighted with the great excellen ces of the discourse
and
t he congregation soon gre w dull and listless
seemed glad when the preacher had done This the
senior clergyman s a w ; a n d sundry hints from t he
he a rers convinced him that his son in law had made a
perfect fa ill ir e He solicited of the young man the loan
of his sermon and several weeks after wards deli v ered
it wi t h all his elocutionary excellences to the same
congregation They did not recognize it ; and they
listened with the highest interest and gratication
T hey pronounced it one of the best sermons t heir pastor
had ever preached
~

M any

WHAT LETTERS SHOULD

BE

people and well informed people too S it down


to write a le t ter as if they were about to construct a
P recision
legal documen t or government dispatch
formality and carefully worded and rounded periods are
considered all essential even though the epistle be
inte n ded for a familiar friend
O thers appear to be
writing for publication or for posterity instead of making
epistol ary communication a simple converse between
friends Away with such labored productions A lett er
on business should be brief to a friend familiar and
easy I like Hannah M ore s ideas Upon the subject

She used to say


If I want wisdom sentiment or in
formation , I can nd them better in books
W hat
I want in a letter is the picture o f my fri end s mind,
-

OF

A NE C DO TE S

P O R S ON A N D

HA YDY N

19 7

and the common sense o f his life I want to know


what he is saying and doing ; I want him to turn o u t
the inside o f his heart to me without disguise without
appearing better than he is without writing for char
acter I have the same feeling in writing to him M y
let t er is therefore worth nothing to an indi fferen t person ,
Let
b u t it is of value to the friend who cares for me
ters among near relations are family newspapers meant
to convey paragraphs o f intelligence and advertisement s
o f projects , and not sentimental essays
.

P LEAS ANT RETO RT

rofessor P e r s on being once at a dinner party


where the conversation turned U pon Captain Cook and
his celebrated voyages round the world an ignorant
person in order to contribute his mite towards the

P ray was Cook killed


social intercourse asked him
o n his rst voyage P
I believe he was answered

P e rs on
though he did not mind it much but imme
dia t ely entered on a second
P

C HEER F UL MUSI C

The poet Carpan i once asked his friend Haydn how


it happened that his church music was al ways of an
anima t ing cheerful and a gay description
T o t his

Haydn s answer was :


I canno t make it otherwise
I write according t o the thoughts which I feel W hen
I think U pon G od my heart is s o full of j oy t hat the
no t es dance and leap as it were from my pen ; and
since G od has given me a cheerful heart it will be
easily forgive n me that I serve him with a cheerful
S p irit
.

RE A D I NG A N D S PE AKI NG

19 8

OHN ADAMS AN D

HIS

FATHER

Ada m s father of John Quincy Adams says :


When I was a boy I had to study the Latin gram
w
a
s
M
t
e
h
a
d
I
but
it
was
dull
n
d
it
father
a
a
r
m
y
an x ious to se n d me t o college and therefore I studied
the gra m mar till I could bear it no longer and going
to my fa t her I told him I did not l ike study and asked
for some other employment It was Op p OS In g his wishes
and he wa s quick in his a n swer
W ell John said b e ,
if Latin g rammar does not suit yo u you may try
ditching pe rhaps that will m y meadow yonder needs
a ditch and y ou may p u t by Latin and dig !
This
seemed a delightful change and to the meadow I went
b u t soon found ditch ing harder than Latin and the rs t
forenoon was the longest I ever experienced That day
I eat the bread of labor and glad was I when night
c a me on That n ight I made some comparison between
Latin grammar and ditching but s aid not a word about
it
I dug t he next forenoon and wanted to return to
Latin at din ner ; but it was humiliating I could not
do it At night toil conquered pride, and I told my

father one of the severest trials o f my life that if he


chose I would go back to Latin grammar He was
glad of it and if I have since gained any distinction ,
it has been owing to my two days labor in that abom
in able ditch
John

M any

years since when the late Lieutenant governor


,

A N E C DO T E S

OF

A D AM S A N D P H I L L I P S

19 9

owing t o some boyish freak, he left the university, and


went home His father was a very grave m an , of sound
strict judgment and of f ew words He inquired into
the busin ess , but deferred expressing an y O pinion until
the next day At breakfast he said, speaking to his
M y dear have you any cloth in the house suit
wife
able to make S am a frock and t rowsers P
S he replied,

Yes
W ell, said the ol d gentleman , foll ow me,
S amuel kept pace with his father, as he
m y s on
leisurely walked near the common and at length v en

W hat are you go ing t o do with me,


t u re d to ask

father P
I am going t o bind you an apprentice t o

that blacksmith replied M r P hill ips


Take your
choice return t o college o r you must work
I ha d
rather return , said the s on He did return , confessed
his fault wa s a good scholar and became a respectable
m an
If all parents were like M r P hillips the students
at ou r colleges would prove better students, or the na
tion woul d have a plentiful supply of blacksmiths
.

T HE

MOT HER S

L AW

Forsake not the l a w of thy mother is the text of


a sermon preached by the R ev C R obbins , and occa
s io n ed by the death of the mother of the late Judge
S t ory
It is told t o the honor of the great Lord Bacon ,
that he felt he could never repay his obligations t o her
who had directed his studies as well as nourished his
V irt ues that he delighted to speak of her through life ,

and in his will , left the injunctio n : Bury me in


St Michae l s Chur ch, for there wa s my mother burie d
.

RE AD I NG A N D S PE A KI NG

2 00

Let it also be told o f t he great Am erican jurist ,


whose fame is as pure and will be as enduring as that
of E ngland s renown ed Chancellor that it was his re
m
o f his mother should be
uest
also
hat
the
re
ains
t
q
laid close to his own at Mount Aubu rn that their dust
might mi n gle in the grave whose hearts ha d been so
tenderly united on earth and whose Spirits sho u ld be as
one in heaven
Happy m other who enjoyed the faithful obedience
Happy son who e n
a n d abiding love of such a s on
joyed the discipline and received the blessing of such a
mother
L ike the good and the great of every age he
kept his mother s law and it l e d him to honor She
by her delity through the quiet years of his domestic
education helped t o weave t he crown of his mature and
public life ; and he by his manly virtues twined a
perennial wreath to adorn her memory ?
,

"

L E S S O N XXXI
1

UN RULY CAT T LE

T HE

The horse of a pious man l iv m g in M assachusetts


happening to stray i n to the road a neighbor of the man
who owned the horse put him into the pound M eet
ing the owner soon after he told him what he had don e

and if I catch him In the road again , said he


Ill
,

AB O U

BE N

AD HEM

2 01

n ot
do it again
N eighbor replied the other
l o n g Since I looked ou t of my windo w in the night
and s a w your cattle in my me a do w and I drove them
and I ll do it again
o u t and shut them in your yard
S truck with the reply the man liberated the horse from

the pound , and paid the charges himsel f


A soft
answer turneth away wrath

Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase


Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace
And s a w within the moonlight of his room ,
M aking it rich , and like a lily in bloom
An angel writing in a book of gold
E xceeding peace had m ade Ben Adhem bold
And to the presence in the room he said
W hat writest t he n P
The vision raised its head,
An d, with a look full of all sweet accord ,
Answered , The names o f those who love the Lord
And is mine on e P asked Abou
N ay, not s o
R eplied the angel Abou spake more low
B ut cl ieerly still ; and said ,
I pray thee then
W rite me as on e that loves his fellow men
The angel wrote and v a nished The next night
It came again with a great wakening light
An d showed the names whom love of G od had blessed
And lo Ben Adhem s name led all the rest
,

3 T HE
.

G REAT D STIN CTION O F A


I

ATION

d 1842
.

Cha rming

17 80,

gr eat distinction of a nation the only on e


worth pos s e s sin g and which brings after it all other
T he

RE A D I NG A N D S PE A K I NG

202

blessings is the prevalence o f pure principle among the


citizens I wish to belong to a S tate in the character
and institutions of which I may nd a Spring of im
provement which I can speak of with an ho n est pride
in whose records I m a y meet great and honored names ,
and which is fast making the world its debtor by its
discoveries of tr uth and by an example of virtuous
freedom 0 sav e me from a country which worships
weal t h a n d cares not for true glory in which intrigue
bears rule ; in which patriotism borro ws its zeal from
the pro s pec t of o f ce ; in which hungry sycophants
throng wi t h supplications all the departments of S tat e
in which public men bear t he brand of private vice and
the seat of government is a noisome sink of private
licentiousness and public corruption
Tell m e not of the honor of belon ging to a free
country I ask does our liberty bear generous fruits P
D oes it exalt us in manly Spirit in public virtue above
countries trodden under foot by despotis m ? Tell me
not of the extent of our country I care not how large
it is if it multiply degenerate men S peak not o f ou r
r o s er it
Better
be
one
a
poor
people
plain
in
f
o
p
p
y
manners reverencing G od and respecting themselves
than belong to a rich country which knows no higher
good than riches E arnestly do I desire for this country
that instead of copying E urope with an undiscerning
servility it may have a character Of its own , correspo n d
,

O ne E urope 18 enough O ne P aris is enough How


much to be desired is it tha t separated as we are from
t he E astern continent by an ocean we Should be still
.

D ISTI N CT I ON O F A N ATI ON

2 03

m ore

widely separated by simplicity of manners by


domestic purity, by inward piety by reverence for hu
m a n nature by moral independence , by withstanding
the subjection t o fashion and that debilitating sensu
ality which characterize the most civilized portions of
the O ld W orld
O f this country I may s ay, with p e
cul ia r emphasis , that its happiness is bound U
in
its
p
Virtue
4 B REVIT Y IN AN ORAT O R D ES IRAB LE
,

The mayor of a to wn in Burgundy, hearing that t he


prince was to pass that way, and thinking himself t o b e
a great orator determined to display his abili t ies on this
occasion W hen the prince approached, the burghers
were put under arms ; whilst the mayor at the head
o f the corporation pul ling o u t a long piece o f parch
ment , began t o harangue as follows
O f all the towns
that have the honor of being within the compass of
your most serene highness s government, the very least
would be overj o yed to make you sensible that none has
s o great a zeal for your service o r aff ection for you r
person , as ours W e very well know that the certain
way of pleasing the greatest warrior O f the present age
is t o receive him with the thunderings o f numerous
artillery ; b u t for us, alas ! it is impossible to re on e
cannon, for eighteen reasons T he rst is that there
never was any such thing as a cannon in this place sinc e

it wa s built T he second
Hold hold, said
I am s o well satised with your rst rea
t he prince
s on , that I shall e x cuse all the rest
,

RE A D I NG A N D S PE A K I NG

2 04

WITT Y RETORT

R ice who presided in a county court was


fond of indulging him self occasionally in a joke at
the expense of Counsellor Brooks a practising attorney
in the same court with whom he was very intimate
and for whom he had a high regard O n a certain o c
casio n when pleading a cau s e at the bar M r Brooks
observed that he would conclude his remarks on the
following day u n less the court would consent to s et late
enough for him to nish them that evening
S it sir

s aid the judge


not s et : hens s e t
I sta n d cor
sir said the counsellor bowing
N ot long
re ct e d
after while giving an O pinion the judge remarked t hat
under such circumstances an action would not la y
L ie may it please your honor said the counsellor
not la
hens
lay
y
Judge

I was
,

OHN PHILP OT C URR AN

says Curran
a little ragged apprentice
to every kind of idleness and mischief all day studying
whatever was eccentric in those older and half t he n ight
prac t ising it for the amusement of those who were
younger than myself
Heaven only knows where it
would have ended But, as my mother said I was
born to be a great man
O ne morning I was playing at marbles in the Vil
lage ball alley with a light hear t and a lighter pocket
when suddenly appeared a stra n ger of a very venerable
a n d very cheerful as ect
His intrusion was not the
p
least restraint U pon our merry little assemblage ; on
,

WITT Y RE T O R T C U RR A N

2 05

the contrary, he seemed pleased, and even delighted


he was a benevolent creature and the days of infancy

e
after all the happiest we Shall ever s e
perhaps rose
upon his memory God bless him ! I s e e his ne form
at the distance of half a century just as he stood before
me in the little ball alley, in the days of my childho od
His name was Boyce he wa s the rector of N ewmarket
I was winning and
T o me he took a particular fancy
was full o f waggery, thinking every thing that was c c
centric and by no means a miser o f my eccentricities
every on e was welcome to share the m and I had plenty
t o Spare after having freighted the company S ome
sweetmeats easily bribed me home with him I learned
from poor Boyce my alphabet and my g ra mmar and
the rudiments of the classics ; he taught me all he
could and then he sent me to the school at M iddleton
in short , he made a man O f me I recollect it was
about ve and thirty years afterwards when I had risen
to some eminence at the bar and when I had a seat in
P arliame n t and a good house in E ly P lace on my
return o n e day from court I found an ol d gentleman
sea t e d alone in the drawing room his feet familiarly
placed on each Side of the Italian marble chimney
piece and his whole air bespeaking t he consciousness of
o n e quite at home
He turned round it was my friend
I rushed instinctively into his arms
o f the ball alley
I could not help bursti n g into tears W ords cannot
d escribe the scene which fo llowed
Yo u are right s ir
you are right the chimney piece is yours the pictures
are yours the house is yours : yo u gave me all I have

my f riend m y father !
He dined with me and in
,

RE AD I NG A N D S PE A K I NG

2 06

the evening I caught the tear glistening in his n e blue


eye when he s a w his poor Jo cky the creature of his
bounty rising in the House of Commons to reply to a
right honorable P oor Boyce he is now gone and no
suitor had a larger deposit of practical benevolence in
the court above
,

Alfred the G reat who died in the year 9 00 was of


a most amiable disposition and we would hope of gen
D uring his retreat at Athelney in S omer
n ine piety
s e t s hir e after his defeat by the D anes a beggar came
to his little castle and requested alms His queen in
formed Alfred that they had but on e small loaf remain
in g which was insuf cient for themselves and their
friends who were gone in search of food though with

little hOp e of success The king replied : G ive the


poor Christian one half of the l e a f
He that could
feed ve thousand men with ve l e a v es and two shes ,
can certainly m ake the half loaf sufce for more than
our necessity
T he poor man was accordin gly relieved ,
and Alfred s people Sh ortly aft er r eturn e d with a st o re
of fresh provisions
,

C ONVI CT I ONS O F NAP O LEON

I know men said N a poleon at S t Helena, to


Count de M on t hol on
I know men and I tell you that
Jesus is not a man
The religion of Christ is a m ys
t e ry, which subsists by its o wn force and proceeds from
,
a mind which is not a huma n mind W e nd in it a
.

HE

HOS T IT

FI R ST

AL

2 07

actions unknown before Jesus is not a philosopher,


f or his proofs are m iracles, and , from the rst, his dis
cip l e s adored him
Alexander C aesar, Charlemagne , and myself
founded empires but on W hat did we rest the creations
Upon force Jesus Christ founded an
o f o ur genius ?
empire upon love ; and, at t his hour, m i llions of m en
would die for him
I die before my time, and m y body will be given
back to the earth to become food for worms S uch is
the fate o f him who ha s been called the great N apoleon
W hat an abyss between my deep mystery and the e ter
n a l kingdo m o f Christ , which is proclaimed loved , an d
ii
adored, and is extending over the whole earth
an d

'

L E SSO N XXXII
1 T HE
.

F IRST HOSPIT AL

rst hospital for the reception of t he disease d


and the inrm was founded at E dessa, in S yria, by t he
sagacious and provident humanity of a Christian father
The history of this memorable foundation is give n by
S oz om en in his account o f E phrem Cyr u s
A grievous famine, with all it s inseparable evils,
having be fall en the city of E dessa its venerable deacon,
at the call of suff erin g humanity, came forth from t he
T he

L et t he whol e l ess o n b e

e x amin ed

in

regar d

t o pause , in ect ion , and

RE A D I NG A N D S PE A KI NG

2 08

studious retirement of his cell whither he ha d long


withdrawn that he might devote his latter days to
meditation on the deep things of G od
Filled with
emotion at the sight of the misery which surrounded
him with the warmth of Christian charity he reproved
the rich men of E dessa who suff ered their fellow citizens
t o perish from want and sickness ; and who pre ferred
their wealth at once t o the lives of others and to the
safety of their own souls S tung by his reproaches and
awed by his revered charac t er the citizens replied that
they cared not for their wealth but that in an age of
selshness and corruption they kne w not whom to in

trust with its distribution


W hat exclaimed the

holy man
is your O pinion of me ?
The an s wer was
instant and unanimous E phrem was every thing that

was holy and good and just


Then he resumed
I will be your almoner For your sakes I will under
A n d receiving their n e w willing
take this burden
contrib utions he caused about three hundred beds to
be placed in the public porticoes of the city for the r e
he
relieved
also
the
famish
ce t io n of fever patients
p
ing multitude s who ocked int o E dessa from the a d
j oining country and rested not from his labor of love
until the famine was arrested, and the plague wa s
stayed
Christianity therefore has the honor o f erecting
the rst hospital ; and wherever true Christianity has
prevailed her e fforts to relieve the wret ched, and add
to the amount of hum an happiness have accomplished
more in one generation than paganis m and indelity in
,

D E AT H O F C OPERN IC U S
2

C OPERNICUS

14 7 3, d 154 3 E d wa r d E
.

2 09

v er ett .

Copernicus after harbo ring in his boso m for long,


l o n g years that pernicious heresy the solar system ,
died o n the day of the appearance of his book from the
press T he closing scene of his life would furnish a
noble subject for an artist F or thirty v e years he has
revolved and matured his system of the heavens A
natural mildness of disposition bordering on timidity,
a reluctance to encounter controversy and a dread of
persecution have led him to withhold his work from the
press and to make known his system but t o a f e w con
de n t ia l friends and disciples
At length he draws
near his end he is seventy three years o f age and he

yields his work o n the revolutions of the heavenly


orbs t o his friends for publication The d ay at las t
has come on which it is to be ushered into the world

1
4
3
It is the 2 4 t h of M a y 5
O n that day the e ff ect,
no doubt , of the intense excitement of his mind oper
ating U pon an exhausted frame a n e ffusion of b l ood
brings him t o the gates of the grave His last hour is
come ; he lies stretched U pon the couch from which he
will never rise in his apartment at Frauenberg in E ast
The beams o f the setting s u n glance through
P russia
the G othic windows of his chamber ; near his bedside
is the armillary Sphere , which he has contrived to rep re
sent his theory o f the heavens his p icture, painted by
himself the a musement of his earlier years, hangs b e
fore him beneath it his astrolabe and other imperfect
astronomical instruments and around him are gathered
T he door of the apar t m en t
his sorrowing disciples
,

'

2 10

A DIN G

RE

S P E A K IN G

AND

opens ; t he eye of the departing sage is turned to s e e


who enters ; it is a friend who brings him the rst
p r inted copy of his im m ortal treatise He kn o ws that
in that book he contradicts all that had ever been dis
t in ct ly taught by former p hil o s ouhe rs ; he knows that
he has rebelled against the sway of P tolemy which the
s cientic world had acknowledged for a thousand years
he knows that the popular mind will be shocked by his
innovations ; he knows that the attempt will be made
t o press even religion into the service against him but
he knows that his book is true He is dyi n g but he
leaves a glorious truth as his dying bequest, to the
world He bids the friend who has brought it place
himself between the wi n dow and his bedside that the
sun s rays may fall upon the precious volume and he
may b ehold it once before his eyes gro w dim He looks
u pon it t akes it in his hands, presses it to his breast,
and expires But no he is not whol ly gone
A smile
lights u p his dying countenance a beam of returning
intelligence kindles in his eye his lips move and the
friend who leans over him can hear him faintly murmur
the beaut iful senti m ents , which the Christian lyrist of
a later age has s o nely expressed in verse
Y g l d l a m
fa w ll wi t h a ll y f b l ligh t ;
f h a
p
F a w ll t h
ha gi g m p al mp
igh t ;
f th
A d th
f lg t b f d y i b ig ht t am a ay d
My
l wh i h p i g b y d t hy p h
m
d m d thy id
ta
Y
b t th
h i i g d t f m y d i i ab d
T h pa m t f t h
h a ly
ig wi t h G d
I ha l l
t wh
,

re

s o

en

e s
e

ou e v e r c

rs a r e

ve

en

en

or

r n

e s

os e

re

v en ,
n

ou , re u

sou

So

n n
e

o ur

on

us

v en

es

es

r es s o

e e

oo n ,

er e , n o

cou r s ,

died the great Columbus

ee

v ne

e re

of

e n

rr

o re

an

e.

re

t he heave n s

Co B B E r r s

RE TURN

COR R E r r s R E T U R N

2 11

17 6 2 ;

1835

Whe n I return ed t o E ngland, says William Cob


bett after an absence of sixteen years in America the
trees the hedges even the parks and woods seemed s o
small ! It m ade me laugh to hear little gutters that
I could j ump over called rivers The Thames was but
a creek
But when about a month a fter my arrival
in London I went to Farnham the place o f my birth ,
what was my surprise
E very thing was become s o pit
if ul l y small l I had to cross in my post chaise the long
dreary heath of Bagshot then at the end of it to
mount a hill called Hungry Hill and from that hill I
kne w that I should look down into the beautiful and fer
tile vale of Farnham My heart uttered with impa
t ie n ce mi x ed with a sort of fear, to s e e all the scenes of
my childhood ; for I had learn ed before the death of
my father and mother There is a hill not far fro m the
town called Crocksb u ry Hill which rises up ou t o f a at
in t he form of a cone and is planted with S cotch r
t rees Here I used to take the eggs and young ones of
crows and magpies This b il l wa s a famous object in
the neighborhood It served as the superlative degre e

As high a s Cro cksb u ry Hill mean t with u s


o f height
the utmost degree o f height Therefore the rst obj ect
my eyes sought , was this hill I could not believe my
eyes
Li t erally speaking I for a moment thought the
famo us hill removed and a little heap put in its stead
for I had seen in N e w Brunswick, a single rock o r hill
of solid rock , t e n t imes as big and four or ve times a s
high ! T he postboy, going down hill, an d n o t a bad
,

RE AD I NG

2 12

AN D

S PE AKI NG

ro a d whisked me in a fe w minutes to the Bush Inn


fro m t he garden of which I could see the p rodl giou s sand
hill wh e re I began my gardening w orks What a no
thing But n o w came rushing into my mind all at once ,
m y pretty little garden my little blue smock frock my
little nailed shoes m y pretty pigeons that I used to feed
out of my hands the last kind words and tones of my
ge n tle and tender hearted and a ffectionate m other I
h a stened back into the room If I had looked a mo m ent
longer I should have drOp p e d ! Whe n I came to r e
e ct wh at a change 1 What scenes I had gone through
Ho w alt e red my state i I had dined the day b efore at
a se cretary of state s in company with Mr P itt and had
be e n waited upon by men in gaudy liveries
I had had
nobody to assis t m e in the world ; no teachers of any
so rt nobody to shelter me from the consequence of bad
and nob ody t o counsel me to good behavior I felt proud
The di s tinc t i o n s of rank birth and wealth all became
nothi n g in m y eyes and from that mo m ent I resolved
never to bend t o the m
,

MR

B U S HN E L

ON G

Mr B u shn el of Utica having business in a neigh


bor ing town was obliged in con sequence to see the land
lord of the village in n ; so he stopped at his house
Wh e n he ente r ed the bar room he s a w about twenty
m e n in it m ost of whom were in a state of intoxicatio n
After a while o n e of the co m pany said som ething to Mr
B u s hn e l who replied in a courteous manner and s poke
o f the s u bject of te m p e rance
The attention of the as;
s e m b ly was arrested a n d t he cau e was denounced as
s
t he work of priests and politicians
.

W A S HIN GT

A P O L O GY

ON s

2 13

'

M r B u shn e l, nding

impossible to stem the cur


rent of abuse by an appeal to their reason, proposed sing
ing a temp e rance song and accord in gly commenced the
S t aunch Teetotaller
O n glancing around the room
after he had concluded he observed the tear trickling
down the cheek of almost every m a n T he sentiment
o f the song
and the melodious t ouching manner in
which it was sung had awakened thei r p urest sensibili
tie s ; had carried their thoughts back t o their families
and re side s surrounded as they once were with plenty
happiness and affection ; and then the contra st of a
drunkard s home its dark wretchedness and misery, were
wisely presented to their minds and those hardened men
could not resist the appeal but acknowledged its truth
by tears
S oon after the landlord came in and he was request
ed to repeat it for his special benet After t he song
was concluded b e grasped Mr B u shn el by the hand and
exclai m ed I will never sell another glass of liquor as
lo ng as I live
.

1t

WAS HINGTON S

AP O L OG Y

17 32 ,

17 9 9

Washington , when stationed in early life at Alexan


dria with a regiment under his command gre w warm at
a n election and said something o ffensive to a Mr P ayne
who with one blow of his cane brought him to the
ground O n hearing of the insult the regiment , burn
ing for revenge started for the city ; but Washington
m e t them and begged them by their regard f o r him t o
return peaceably to their barracks Finding himself in
t he wrong he n obly resolved t o make an honorable rep
,

RE A D I NG

2 14

AN D

S P E AK IN G

aration and next morning sent a polite note , requesting


P ayne took it for a
P ayne to meet him at t he tavern
challenge and went in expectation of a duel but what
was his surprise to nd instead of pistols, a decanter of
wine on the table Washington rose t o meet him an d
said with a smile , Mr P ayne t o err is human b u t to
correct ou r errors is always honorable I believe I was
wrong yesterday you have had I think some s a t isfa c

f
tion and if you deem that su cient here Is my han d let
us be friends
S uch an act fe w could resist and P ayne
became from that moment through life, an e n thusiastic
friend and admirer of Washington
Many years after when he ha d returned to his family
at Mount Vernon at the close of the war Mr P ayne
called on him and he is said t o have introduced him to
Mrs Washington with a degree of pleasantry qu ite u n
usual to his character ; I have the pleasure , my dear
to introduce to you my ol d friend Mr P ayne who once
had the bravery to knock me down big as I am
,

L E S S O N XXX III

How beautiful the world is


The gree n earth cov
ered with owers the trees laden with rich blossoms the
blue sky a n d the bright water and the golden sunshine
,

N ATI ON A L BA NN E R

2 15

It is a happy world Hark ! how the merry birds


sing and t he young lambs s ee ! how they gambol on
t he hillside E ven the trees wave , and the brooks rippl e
in gladness Yon eagle Ah how j oy q y he soars u p
to the glorious heavens t he bird of l iber t y, t he bird of
America
.

His thron e is on t he m oun tai n t op


His elds t he b oun dless air
An d h oar y p e aks th at p r ou dly p r op
T he s ki es his dwellin gs a r e
-

He r is es like a th in g of li ght
Am id t he n o on tide b laz e :
T he m

It

idd y
a

can n o

s un 18 c e ar a n d

t dim his gaz e

bright

I t is happy I s ee it and hear i t all abou t m e n ay,

I feel it here in the glo w, the eloquent glow of my own


heart He who made it mus t be happy
It is a great world Look o ff to the mighty ocean
when the storm is upon it to the huge mountain , whe n
the thunder an d the lightnings play over it to the vas t
forest , t he interminable waste the s un , the moo n , and
t he myri a ds of fair stars , countless as the sands upon t he
seashore It is a great , a m agni ce nt world, and He
who m ade it , Oh He is the perfectio n of all lovelines s,
all goodn ess, all greatn ess, a ll gloriousness
.

2 . NATIONAL B ANNE R

verett .

All b a il to ou r glorious ensign courage to the heart


and strength to the hand , t o which, in all time, it shall
be intrusted
May it ever wave in honor, in unsullie d
on
t
e
f
t
h
e
o
n
lory
a
nd
p
t
rio
t
ic
d
o
c
a
pi
t
ol
a
O
e
h
m
e
o
h
,
p ,
g
,

R E A DI NG AN D SPE AKI NG

2 16

the country s stron ghold on the e n t e n t e d plai n on the


wav e rocked top m ast Where ver on the earth s surf ace
t he e ye of the American shall behold it may he have
re ason to ble ss it ! O n whatsoever Spot it is planted
th e r e may fre edom have a foothold humanity a brave
champion and religion an altar Though stained with
blood in a right e ous cause may it never, in any cause be
stained with shame
Alike when its gorgeous folds
shall wanton in laz y holiday triumphs on the sum mer
bre e z e and its tattered fragm ents be di m ly see n t hrough
the clouds of wa r m a y it be the joy and pride of the
Am e rican h e art First raised in the cause o f righ t and
lib e r ty in that cause alone may it for ever spread out its
str ea m ing bla z onry to the battle and the storm Having
been borne Victoriously across t he continent and on every
s e a may virtue and freedom a n d peace for ever follow
where it leads the way

TH

URNING

E G RINDSTONE

To ill ustrate the co m mon cunning o f men in turning


their fellows to account D r Franklin relates this amus
ing anecdote
When I was a little boy I remember
one cold winter s morning I was accosted by a smiling
man with an axe on his shoulder
My pretty boy said
he has your father a grindstone
Yes S ir, said I

You are a ne little fellow said he , will you let me


grind m y axe on it
P leased with his compliment of

ne little fellow 0 yes S ir, I answered , it is down

in the shop
And will you , my man , sai d he , p at
ting me on the head, get a little hot wate r ?
How
.

T U RN I N G
f ul

How

HE

G R I ND ST ON E

2 17

are you, an d what s your name


con
tinned he without waiting for a reply
I am sure you
are on e of the nest fellows that ever I have seen will
you just turn a f ew minut es for me
Tickled with
the attery, l ike a fool, I went to work, and bitterly did
I r u e the day
It was a n ew axe, and I toiled and
tugged till I was almost tired t o death The school bell
rang, and I co ul d not get away ; my hand s were blistered ,
and it was n ot half ground At lengt h , however, the axe
was sharpened and the man turned t o me with N o w,
ou
r
l
ttle
rascal
you
ve
played
the
truant
scud
f
i
o
;
y
school or you ll rue it
Alas thought I, it was hard
enough to turn a grind stone t his cold day, but n ow to
be called a li t tle rascal was too much It sank deep
into my mind, and often have I thought of it since
When I s ee a merchant over polite t o his customers,
begging them to take a little brandy and throwing his
goods o n the counter thinks I that ma n has an axe t o
grind When I s e e a man att ering the people, making
great professions O f att achment t o liberty, who is in pri
vate life a tyrant methinks , look out good people that
fellow would set you turning grindstones When I s e e
a man hoisted into o fce by party spirit without a single
qualication to render him respectable or useful alas !
methinks deluded people you are doomed for a season
t o turn the grindstone for a booby
.

ol d

L IVE

FOR

S OM ETHING DV Chalmers

17 80,

184 7

Thousands of men breathe, move, and live, pas s o ff

the stage of life and are heard of no more Why 1


T hey did no t par t ake of good in t he world, and n o n e
,

10

RE A D I NG AN D S PE A K I N G

2 18

were blessed by them none could point to them as t he


m eans of their redemption not a line they wrote not a
word they spoke could be recalled and s o they perished
th e ir light went ou t in darkness and they were not r e
Will you
m e m be r ed m ore than insects of yesterday
thus li v e and die 0 man immortal ? Live for some
thing
Do good and leave behind you a monument of
virtue that the storms of time can never destroy Write
yo u r name by kindness love and mercy on the hearts of
thousands with whom you come in contact year by year,
and you will never be forgotten N O your name your
deed s will be as legible o n the hearts you leave behind
as the stars on the brow o f the evening Good deeds will
shine as brightly on the earth as the stars of heaven
,

G RAVE

5 T HE
.

W ash ngt on Irv ng

O h the grave ! the grave ! It buries every error ;


covers every defect extinguishes every resentment
Fro m its peaceful bosom spring none but fond regret
and tender recollections Who can look down upon t he
grave even of an enemy and not feel a compunctious
throb that ever he should have warred with the poor
handful of earth that lies moul dering before him
But
the grave of those he loved what a place for me ditation
Then it is we call up in long review the whole history
of virtue and gentleness and the thousand endearme n t s
lavished upon u s almost unheeded in the daily inter
course of intimacy ; then it is we dwell upon the ten
derness the solemn and awful tenderness of the parting
scene the bed of death with all the stied grief ; it s
n oiseless attendant s its mu t e watchful a ssiduit ies t he
,

W E BST E R S C E L E B R ITY

2 19

l ast t estimonies o f e x piring love the feeble utte ring

hrill
ng
O h how thrilling the pressure of the hand
i
t
the last fond look o f the glazed eye turning upon u s
even from the threshold of existence the faint faltering
accents struggling in death to give o n e more assurance of
affection
Aye go to the grave o f buried love and med
There settle the account with thy conscience
it a t e !
for every past endearment unregarded of that departed
being who never never never can return to be soo thed
by contrition
If thou art a child and hast ever added
a sorro w t o the sou l or a furrow to the silvered brow of
an a ffectionate parent if thou art a husband and hast
ever caused the fond bosom that ventured its whole hap
i
n e s s in thy arms to doubt on e moment of thy kind
p
ness or thy truth ; if thou art a friend and hast ever
wronged in thought or word or deed the spirit that
generously conded in thee ; if thou art a lover and
hast ever given one unmerited pang t o the true hear t that
n o w lies cold and still beneath thy feet ; then be sure
that every unkind look every ungracious word every
ungenteel action will come thronging back upon thy
memory and knocking dolefully at thy so ul ; then be
sure thou wilt be down, sorrowing and repentant on the
grave and utter the unheard groan and pour the u n
availing tear more deep, more bitter because unheard
and unavailin g
,

DANIE L WEB STER S C ELEBRITY

says a Bostonian , I wa s at t ending the

In
circuit court in P ortland, and boarded a t the same hotel
with J u dge S tory, and s ome of th e bar On e day after
.

RE AD I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

22 0

dinner a s we sat listening to his rich conversation , some


on e sp oke of the D artmouth Co l lege question when the
judge d e sc ribed to us the rst appearance of the power
of Mr Webster as evinced in that celebrated case He
Spoke of him as a stranger but little known at that time
The t rial cam e on in 18 18 The court room was
crowded Many distingu ished spectators were present
T he case was of no co m mon kind it touched the hap
n e s s the p r eservation the glory of o u r com m on coun
i
p
t ry ; fo r eve r y colleg e and se m inary of learning in the
Union was inte re sted in the r e s u lt Mr Webster felt
the m agnitud e of his cause and the great responsibility
resting upon his shoulders He rose u p to add ress the
court E very eye was xed upon him , every ear was
O pen He began slowly and in a low voice His nerves
wer e slightly tremul ous and the papers shock in his
hand His face looked troubled the deep anxiety por
t ra ye d in his feat u res excited the sympathy of the kindest
feelings of the court for one who stood before the m as a
modest unassum ing m a n a stranger and with an over
whel m ing brow and look of no common care But he
went on step by step with arguments with authorities
with appeals to the supreme tribunal before him each
step his voice rose into energy and power his face
brightened up his eye kindl ed and ere long the atten
tion beca m e so profound and the interest o f the whole
assembly s o great from the magnitude of the question,
and the manner in which he presented it, that n ot merely
a breathless silence prevailed but even tears started in
many an eye, and some were seen to fall from members
of the bench
He won his cause It was his dbut
,

W E BST ER AN D

CR OOK E T T S H ER I D A N

22 1

a nd from that moment D aniel Webster stood invincible


and took a stand in eloquence which has seldom been
surpassed
S uch is a feeble and impotent Sketch of a most im
pressive anecdote t o which I li stened with interest as it
fe ll from the lips of a man who was himself a model o f
elegance and a gu ide t o elo quence in his judicial life
,

L E SSO N XXX I V
.

WEBSTER AND DAVID C ROC KET T

It is relate d of D avid Crockett that on his arrival at


Washington he heard Mr Webster ; and afterwards
meeting him somewhere in the ca pitol accosted him

thus : Is this Mr Webster


Yes S ir
The

great M r Webster of Massachusetts


I am Mr

Webster o f Massachusetts
Well S ir continued
Mr Crockett I had heard that you were a great man
but I don t think so I heard your speech and understood
every word you said
There never was any difculty in
understanding Mr Webster N either is there any dif
culty in understanding D r Wayland
Mr Webster
addressed his auditors almost coll oquially : thinking
clearly his words came forth the most pe rfect expo n ent s
o f his thoughts
and when he rose t o the regions of im
pressive grandeur that grandeur was but the sim ple
unpretending expression of the grandeur which wa s in
,

RE A D I NG AN D S P E A K I NG

222

SHE R ID AN s

G REAT

SP

EECH R B
.

S her

ida n

17 51,

18 16

Mr B u rke in speaking of Mr S heridan s celebrated


Speech on the Begum charge , on the trial of Warren
Hastings said
He has this day su rpri sed the thousands who hung
with rapture on his accents by such an array of talents
such an e xhibition of capacity, s uch a display o f powers
as are unpa r alleled in the annals o f oratory a display
that reected the highest honor on himself, lustre upo n
l e tte r s renown upon parliament glory upon the country
O f all species of rhetoric , of every kind of eloquence that
has been witnessed or recorded either in ancient or mod

ern ti m es whatever the dignity of the senate , the


acuteness of the bar the solidity of the judgment seat ,
and the sacred morality of the pul pit have hitherto fur
nothing has equalled
n is he d nothing has surpassed
what we have heard this day in Westminster Hall N O
holy see r of religion no orator no man o f any literary
description whatever has come u p in the on e instance ,
to the pure sentiments of morality ; or in the other, to
that va riety of knowledge force of imagination propriety
and vivacity of allusion , b e auty and elegance of diction,
strength and Oopiousness of style pathos and sublimity
o f conception to which we have this day listen e d with
,
ardor and admiration From poetry u p to eloquence,
there is not a species of co m position o f which a complete
and perfect specim en might not from that single speech
he culled and collated

3 BU
.

RE
K

AN D T

HE T

T R IA L

OF H A S TI NG S

R LO

HAS T INGS

IA

17 9 7

22 3

dm d B

ur ke.

un

17 30,

When the trial of Mr Hastings commence d , in


Westminster Hall , the rst two days were taken u p in
reading the articles of impeachment against him ; and
four more were occupied by Mr Burke in opening the
case and stating the grounds of the accusatio n N ever
were the powers of that grea t man displayed to such a d
vantage as on this occasion The contrast which he
drew between the ancient and the modern state of Hin
'
dostan was sketched with the hand of a master, and
wrought u p in a manner that could not fail t o x the
attention , and t o comman d admiration
W hen , a t
length , he came t o spea k of Mr Hastings, n o terms ca n
describe t he more than mortal vehemence with which he
uttered his man ifold accusa tio n s against him
He
seemed for the moment , as if armed to destroy wi t h al l
the lightning of the passions The whole a nn als of
judicial oratory contain n othin g n er tha n his conclu
sion
I impeach Warren Hastings in the name of the
Commons of G reat Britain , in P arliament assembled,
whose parliamentary trust he has abused
I impeach him in the name of the Commons of
G reat Britain, whose n ational chara cter he has dishon
ored
I impeach him i n t he n ame of t he people of I ndia,
whose laws, rights and liberties he has subverted ;
whose properties he has destroye d wh ose coun try he ha s
lai d w a ste and d esol at e
.

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

22 4

I impeach him in the name of human nature itself,


which he has so c ruelly o u traged , injured and O ppressed
And I i m peach him in the nam e and by the virtue of
those eternal laws of justice , which ought equally to pre
vail in both sexes, in eve ry age , rank, situation, and
condition of life
The agitation produced by this speech was such that
the whole audience appeared to have felt one convulsive
emotion and when it was over, it was some time before
Mr F ox could obtain a hearing Amidst the assem
blage of concurring praises which his Speech excited ,
none was more remarkable t han the tribute of Mr Hast
For half an hour, said that gentleman ,
ings himself
I looked up at the orator in a reverie Of wonder and
during that space, I actually felt myself the most culpa
ble man on earth But I recurred to my own bosom ,
and t here found a consciousness which consoled me unde r
all I heard, and all I suffered
.

MARIA ANTOIN ET T E

ur k
e.

It is now sixteen or seventeen years since I s a w the


queen of France then the D auphiness of Versailles and
surely never lighted on this orb which she hardly
see m e d to touch a more delightful vision I saw her
j u st above the hori z on decorating and cheering the ele
y ated sphere she just began to move in glittering like
the m orning star full of life, and splendor, and j oy O h 1
what a revolution ! and what a heart must I have , to
contemplate without emotion, that elevation and that
fall
Little did I dream when she added titles of v en
era t ion to those of enthus iastic distan t respectful lov e
,
,
,

HE

NE I G H B OR S A N D

HE N S

225

that She should ever be obliged to car ry the sharp anti


do te against disgrace concealed in that bosom ; little
did I dream that I should have lived to s e e such disas
t ers fallen upon her in a nation o f gallant men in a
nation o f men of honor and Of cavaliers
I thought ten
thousand swords must have leaped from their scabbards ,
to avenge even a look that threatened her with insult
But the age of chival ry is gone that of Sophisters
economists and calculators has succeeded and the glory
N ever never m ore
o f E urope is extinguished for ever
shall we behold that generous loyalty to rank and s ex
that proud submission that dignied obedience that
subordination of the heart which kept alive even in
servitude itself the spirit of an exalted freedom
The
unbought grace of life t he che ap defence of nations the
n urse o f manly se n timent and heroic enterprise is gone
It is gone that sensibility of principle that chastity of
honor which fel t a stain like a wound which inspire d
courage whilst it mitiga t ed ferocity which ennoble d
whatever it touched an d un der whic h vice itself lost
h alf its evil, by losing a ll its grossness
,

In a conversatio n I had with a ma n i n N ew J ersey,

he told me this anecdot e


I once owned a large
I generally kept the m shut u p ; but
ock of hens
o n e spr i ng I concluded to let them ru n in my yard ,
after I had clippe d their wings so t hat they could
n ot y
O ne day, when I came home t o dinner I
learned that on e of my n eighbors had been there full
of wrath to let me know my h ens ha d bee n in his gar
.

10

RE A D I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

22 6

den and that he had killed several of them , and throw n


the m over into my yard I wa s greatly enraged, because he
had killed my beautiful hens that I valued s o much I

deter m ined at once to be revenged to su e him, or in


some way get redress I s a t down and eat my dinner
as cal m ly as I could By the time I had nished my
meal I became more cool , and thought that perhaps it
was not best to ght with my n eighbor about hens and
thereby make him my bitter lasting enemy I co n
cluded to try another way, being sure it would do better
After dinner I went to my neighbor s He was in
his garden I went ou t and found him in pursuit of on e
trying to kill it I a ccos t ed
o f my hens with a club
him He turned upon me his face inamed with wrath,
and he broke out in a great fury
You have abused me I will kill all your hens,
if I can get at them I never wa s s o abused My gar
den is ruined
I am very sorry for it said I I did n ot wish to
inj ure you and now see that I have made a great mis
take in letting ou t my hens I ask your forgiveness,
and a m willing to pay you s ix times the damage
The man seemed confounded
He did n ot kn ow
what to make of it He looke d up t o the s ky the n
down to the earth then at his neighbor then at his
club and then at the hen he had been pursuing an d
s aid nothing

Tell me, n ow , said I what is t he damage and


I will pay you s ix fold and m y hens shall trouble you
no more I will leave it entirely t o yo u to s ay what I
,

I NC R E AS E

0F

PRIN TE RS

2 27

my n eighb ors, and q u a rre l wit h th em, for h e n s, or


a ny thing else
I am a grea t fool , sai d t he n eighbor
T he d am
age is n ot worth t alking abou t and I have more n ee d
t o compe n sat e you , t han you me , a nd t o a sk your fo r
i
e
n e s s , tha n you mine
v
g
of

IN CREASE

OF P

R INT

ER S

he n D r Fra nklin s mo t her in la w rs t discovere d


that t he youn g ma n had a hankering f or h er d aught er,
t he good ol d lady sai d she di d n ot know s o well abou t
giving her daughter t o a prin t er there were a lready t wo
p rinting o fces in the United S tate s, and she wa s n ot
certain the country would support them It was plai n
young Franklin woul d depe n d for the support of his
family on the prot s of t he t hird, and this was ra th er a
d oubtful cha n ce
If such an objectio n was urged t o a woul d b e s on in
la w when t here were but t wo printi n g ofces i n t he
U nited St a t es how ca n a printer ge t a wife n ow, wh e n
the census of 18 50 s h ows the n umber t o be over t wo
t housa n d
W

ORIGIN

OP

HIG

In the si xt eenth century, there arose i n E n gla nd a


party O ppose d t o the king, and in favor of a re publica n
form of governme n t , i n which the people could h ave a
voice This party adop t ed a s t heir mot t o , W e hope
in God
The initials, or rst letter of each word com
b in e d, read W hig and were used to n ame or designat e
T hus t he word W hig origin ally m e ant Op
t he part y
.

R E AD I NG A N D S P E A K I NG

228

position to kings and monarchies , and friendship for t he


very form of government under which we ex i st
It
originated in E ngland a century and a half before ou r
revolution
.

P OE TRY

AN D

o et

M onthly Ant hology

ORA

TORY .

n as citu r ,

O at
r

or

oetry is the frolic of invention , the dance of word s,


and the harmony of sounds O ratory consists In a j udi
cio n s disposition of arguments a happy selection and a
pleasing elocution
The obj ect of poetry is to delight
that of oratory t o persuade P oetry is truth b u t it is
truth in her gayest and loveliest robes and wit attery
hyperbole an d fable are marshalled in her train O ra
tory has a grave and more majestic port and gains by
Slo w a dvances a n d perseverance, what the poet takes b v
suddenness of inspi r ation and by surprise P oe t ry r e
quires genius eloquence is within the reach of t alent
S e riousness becomes one sprightliness the other
The
wittiest poets have been the shortest writers but he is
often the best orator who has the strongest lungs and
rm e s t legs
The poet sings for the approbation of the
wise and the pleasure of the in genious the orator a d
dresses the multitude and the larger the number of ears
t he better for his purpose and he who can get the most
v otes most thoro u ghly u n derstands his art
Bad verse s
are always abominable ; b u t he is a good Speaker who
gains his cause Bards are generally r emarkable for
generosity of nature orators are as o ft en notorious for
their ambition These enjoy most inuence while alive
those live longest after death
P oets are n o t n eces
P

P OE T RY A N D

'
OR AI OR Y

22 9

s a ril y

poor, for Theocrit u s and An acreon Horace


and Lucian R a cin e and Boileau , P ope and Addison ,
roll ed in their carriages, and slept in palaces : yet it
must be con fessed, that most of the poetical tribe have
rather feared the tap of the sheriff, than the judgments
The poverty of a poet takes nothing from
o f critics
the richness and sweetness of his lines ; while an ora t or s
success is n ot unfrequently promoted by his wealth
N evertheless were I poor, I would study eloquence , that
I might be rich ; had I riches, I would study poetry,
that I might give a por t ion of immortality to both
Could I write no better than Blacks t one I wo ul d some
times versify ; but were I privileged to soar upon the
daring wing of D ryden s muse, I woul d not keep my
pinions continually spread
,

L E S S ON XXX V
1.

P OW ER

OR

G O O D MAN S

C'
ha hnem

L IFE

The beauty of a holy life constitutes the mos t


e loquent an d e ffective persuasive to religion , w hich on e
huma n being can address t o another W e have many
ways o f doing good to our fellow creatures but non e
s o e fcacious as leading a virtuous , upright , a nd well
ordered life T here is a n energy of moral suasion in a
good man s life , passing the highest e ff orts of the
orator s genius The seen but silent beauty of holiness,
speaks more elo quently of God and duty, than the
tongues of me n and an gels Let pare nts remember this
1

R E AD I N G

2 30

AN D

S P E A K I NG

The best inherita n ce a parent can b equ ea t he to a child,


is a virtuous example a legacy of hallowed remem
The beauty of holiness beam
b ra n ce s and associations
ing through the life of a loved relative or friend, is more
e ffectual to strengthen such as do stand in virtue s ways,
and raise up those that are bowed down , than precept
co m mand entreaty, o r warning Christianity itself I
believe , owes by far the greater part of its moral power ,
not to the precepts or parables of Christ , but t o his own
character The beauty of that holiness which is eu
shrined in the four brief biographies O f the man of
N az areth has done more to regenerate the world and
bring it an everlasting righteousness than a ll t he other
agencies put together It has done more t o Spre a d His
religion in the world than all that has ever bee n wri t
t en on the evidences of Christianity
,

S INC RITY

Ir v ng

S etting aside the moral obligation of Sincerity and


truth they Should be followed on the principle of e x
,

i
en cy.
e
d
p

The single min de d man , what ever may be t he mut a


tions and calamit ies of this life, is happier tha n t he
double dealer in the midst o f prosperity He has n o
detections t o dread, n o exposures to fear and he sleep s
more calmly on a matted couch, than the hypocrite o n
his do wny pillow S trange perverseness in man , t o pre
fer the devious path of deception to the arrowy straigh t
n ess of truth
Herein the savage surpasses social m a n t he former
-

D R

SINGE R IT Y

FR

A NKL IN

2 31

th e la t ter s e ducation D eception walks in every stree t ,


and enters every dwelling The heart of friendship is
hollow and the tongue o f love is untrue Ho w much
happier would the world he were each man t o follow t he
excellent advice o f the excelle nt Langhorne

y
tf d

Kn e e

Coun

onl

re e

at

h rin e of Tr uth ;

wealth an d virtu e fam e

t he

om

I n the b us m e ss of life , a s Well as in t he social circle,


Sincerity is the best policy it may save a shaken house
from the involution of ruin with o n e which is falling
it may break the links of t hat chain of disaster, which
s ometimes clanks over the commercial world , t o its as
t on is hm e n t and dismay : and if at times , it leads t o
the loss o f fortune, it ensures the preservatio n of
character
He who preserves t hi s, can begin the world a n e w,
with hope and condence he who has lost it , may bi d
farewell to hope He is on the Shore of life , motionles s
and abj ec t, whilst others are o n its b illows From the
planks far sca t tered over the rocks he can n ever buil d
a little bark of hope t o bear him agai n o n the s t rea m
,

DR FRANKLIN S CO LLOQUIAL P OW E B 8 W m

Wm

B 17 7 2 , d 1835
.

N ever have I known such a reside companio n a s


D r Franklin Great as he was both as a statesma n
and a philosopher h e n ever shone in a ligh t more win
ning than when he wa s seen in a d omestic circle It
wa s once my good fortune t o pass t wo o r three weeks
with him at the house o f a private gentleman in the
back par t of P e nn sylvan i a ; a n d we were co nn e d t o
,

R E A D I NG

2 32

AN D

S PE A K I N G

the house during the whole of that time, by the u n in t er


mitting constancy and depth of the snow But con n e
ment could never be felt where Franklin was an inmate
His cheerfulness and his colloquial p owers Spread around
There was no ambition of elo
him a pe r petual spring
u en ce no e ffort to shine in any thing that came from
q
him There was nothing which made any demand either
upon your allegiance or your admiration
Il is m anner was as unaff ected as infancy It was
nature s self
He talked like an old patriarch and his
plainness and Simplicity put you at once at your ease
and gave you the full and free possession and u se of all
your faculties
His thoughts were of a character to shine by their
They required
o wn light without any adventitious aid
only a mediu m of vision like his pure and simple style
to exhibit t o the highest advantage their n ative ra
His cheerfulness was unremitting
dia n ce and beauty
It seemed t o be as much the e ffect of the systematic and
salutary exe rcise of the mind , as of its superior organi
His wit was of the rst order It did not Show
z a t io n
itself merely in occasional corruscations but , wit hout
any e ffort or force on his part, it Shed a constant s t ream
o f the purest light over t he whole of his dis course
Whether in the company of commons or n obles he
was always the same plain man always most perf ectly
at his ease his faculties in full play, and the full orbit
And the n
of his genius for ever clear a n d unclouded
the s tores of his mind were inexhaustible He had com
m en ced life with an attention s o vigila n t, that nothing
had escaped his observation, and a j udgment s o solid,
.

H
I
G
A S N T O N SW

IF

2 33

that every incident was turned to advantage His youth


had n o t been wasted in idleness n or overcast by in t em
e ra n ce
He
had
been
all
h
i
s l ife a close and deep read
p
er as well as t hinker and by the force o f his own
powers ha d wrought u p the raw materials which he had
gathered from books with such exquisite skill and feli
city, that he had added a hundred fol d t o their origin al
value and justly m ad e the m his own
.

WASHINGTO N

F sher Ames B

17 58,

1808

Washington was uniformly great , pursuing righ t


conduct from right maxims
His t alents were such as
assist a sound ju dgment , and ripen with it
His pru
dence was consummate and seemed to take the direction
for a s a soldier he wa s more
of his powers and passions
solicitous t o avoid mistakes that might be fatal, than t o
perform exploits that are brilliant and as a statesman,
to adhere t o just principles however ol d than to pursue
n ovelties ; and therefore, in both characters, his q ual
ities were singularly adapted to the interest , and were
3
3
7
t ried in the greatest perils o f the coun try
However his military fame m ay e x cite the won d er
O f mankind it is c hiey by his civil m agis t ry that his
example will inst ruct them G reat ge n erals have a risen
in all ages of the world, an d perhaps most i n t hose of
despotis m and darkness In times of violence a nd co n
v ul s ion , they rise , by the force of t h e W hirlwind , high
enough t o ride in it and direct the storm Like meteors,
they glare on the black clouds with Splendor, that,
whil e it dazzles and t erri es makes nothing visible bu t
T he fa me of heroes is i nde ed grow
t he d arkn ess
.

R E A D I NG AN D S P E AKI NG

2 34

ing vulgar they multiply in every long war they st a n d


in history and thicken in their ranks, almost as undis
t in gu is hed as their own soldiers
But such a chief magistrat e a s W ashington, appears
like t he pole star in a clear sky, to direct the skilful
statesman His presidency will form an epoch, and be
distinguished as the age of Washington
Already it
assumes its high place in the political region Like the
milky way it whitens along its allotted portion of the
he m isphere The latest generation s of m en will survey,
through the telescope of history the space where s o
many virtues blend their rays and delight to separate
them into groups and distinct virtues As the best
illustration of them , the livi n g monument to which the
rst of patriots would have chosen to consign his fame
it is my earnest prayer to Heave n that our count ry may
subsist even to that late day in the plenitude of its
liberty and happiness and mingle its mild glory W ith
Washi n gton s
5 S IF T AND T H L AD s D INNER
A lady invited D ean S wift t o a most sumptuous
dinner S he said, D ear D ean , this sh is n ot as good
as I could wish, though I sent for it half across the
kingdom, and it cost me s o much , naming an in credi
b le price
And this thing is n ot such as I ought to
have for s uch a guest though it ca m e from such a place ,
and cost such a s u m
Thus she went o n decrying and
underrating every ar t icle of her e xpensive and ostenta
tious dinner, and teasing her distinguished guest with
apologies only to nd a chance to display her vanity
in brin ging her t ro ubl e and exp ens e int o view, un til sh e
,

A S EN SIB L E

H O ST MI L T O N

235

e xh a us t ed his patience He is reporte d t o have rise n


in a passion and to have said, T rue, madam , it is a
m iserable dinner ; and I wil l n ot eat it , bu t go home
and dine upon Sixpence worth of herring
.

A SEN SIB

LE

HOS

Lord Cart eret went on e day un a tten d ed to D r


D elany, and told him he was come t o dine with him
He thanked his exce llency for the ho n or conferred on
him The dinner was soon in readiness It was a s im
ple meal such as was s uitable for D r D elany and his
mother The old lady did the honors of the table The
host made no apology for the entertai n men t, but s aid t o
.

h l ye d with co stly far e


S imp licity al on e is r ar e
t

s om a c s c o

To

His Lordship was much pleased ; for though a cour


t ier he hated ceremony when he sought pleasure At
the close of the meal he told the D octor t h at he had always
thought him a well bred man but had n ever had s o good
a proof before
O thers, sa id he , on whom I have
tried the same experiment, have met me with a s much
confusion, a s if I had come t o arrest them for high trea
nay, deprived me of their conversat i on, by undue
s on
attention to the dinner, and the n S poiled my me al by
fulsome apolo gies or n ee dl ess profusion
.

MILTON S INTELLECTUAL

u
A
L
I
T
I
E
s
Cha nning
Q

17 80,

184 2

In S peaking of the intellec t ual qualities of Milto n,


we may begin by Observin g t ha t t he very sple nd or of his

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

236

poetic fame has tended to obscure or conceal the extent


of his m ind and the variety of its energies and attain
ments To many he se e m s only a poet when in tru t h
he was a p r ofound scholar a m a n of vast compass of
thought i m bued thoroughly with all ancient a n d mo
de rn learning and able to master to mould, to impreg
nate with his own in tellectual power his great and
va r ious acquisitions
He had not learned the super
cia l doctrine of a later day that poetry ourishes m ost
in an uncultivated soil and that imagination shapes its
brightest visions from the mists of a super cial age and
he had no dread of accumulat ing knowledge lest he
should Oppress and smother his genius He was con
scious of that within him which could quicken all kno w
ledge and wield it with ease and might which could
give freshness to all truths and harmony t o discordant
thoughts whic h could bind together by living ties and
mysterious afnities t he most remote discoveries and
rear fabrics of glory and beauty f rom the rude materials
which other minds had colle cted Milton had that u n i
the highest order of intellect
v e rs a lit y which marks
Though accustomed almost fro m in fancy to drink at
the fountains of classical literature he had nothing of
the pedantry and fastidiousness which di sdain all other
draughts His healthy mind delighted in genius in
whatever soil or in whatever age it has burst fo r th and
poured out its fulness He understood too well the
right and dignity and pride of creative imagination to
lay on it the lovers of the Greek or R oman school P a r
He
n a ss u s was not to him the only hol y ground of genius
felt th at poe t ry wa s a universal p resen ce G reat min ds
,

C H A R ACT ER

H AMI L T ON

OF

2 37

were every where his kindred He felt the enchantment


of oriental ction S t irr e n de r e d himself t o the stra n ge crea

tions of Araby the blest and delighted still more in


the romantic spirit of chivalry and in the tales of won
der in which it wa s embodied Accordingl y , his poetry
reminds u s of the ocean which adds t o its o wn bound
lessness, contributions from all regi ons under heaven
.

-e

L E SSO N XXXV I
1

C HARACT ER

OF

HAM IL T ON Arms

It is rare that a ma n who owes s o much t o nat ure,


descends to seek more from indus t ry but he seemed to
depend on indust ry as if nature ha d done nothing for
him His habits o f investigation were very remarkable
his mind seemed t o cling to his subject till he had ex
hansted it Hence the uncommon superiority of his

reasoning powers a superiority that seemed t o be a ug


m e n t e d from every source and to be fortied by every
a u xil iary learning taste wit , imagination and el o
These
were
embellished
and
enforced
by
his
u e n ce
q
temper and manner by his fame and his virtues It is dif
cul t , in the midst o f such various e x cellence , to s a y i n
what particular the e ffect of his greatness wa s most
manifest N o man more promptly discerned trut h ; n o
man more clearly displayed it it wa s not merely made
visible it seemed to come bright with illumination fro m

as
lips
But
prompt
a
n
d
cle
a
r
he
ferv
d
i
s
w
a
s
i
a
s
h
,
.

R E A D I NG

2 38

AND

S PE A K I N G

resource , he wa s

D emosthenes like Cicero ful l of


not less remarkable for the copiousness and complete
ness of his argument that left little for cavil and
n othing for doubt
S ome men take their stronges t
argument as a weapon and use n o other ; but he
left nothing to be inquired for nothin g t o be a n
He not only disarmed his adversaries of their
s we r ed
pretexts and objections but he stripped them of all ex
cuse for having urged them : he confounded and sub
dued as well as convinced He indemnied them how
ever by making his discussion a complete map of his
subjec t so that his O pponents might i n deed feel ashame d
but they could not repeat them
of their mistakes
The most substantial glory of a country is in its vir
tuons great men its prosperity will depend on its do
That nation is fated
cil it y to learn from their example
to ignominy and servitude for which such men have
lived in vain P ower may be seized by a nation that is
yet barbarous and wealth may be enj oyed by on e that it
nds or renders sordid the o n e is the gift and the sport
o f accident and the other is the s o rt o f power
Both
p
are mutable and have passed away without leaving
behind the m any other memorial than ruins that offend
tast e and traditions that ba fe conj ecture But the
glory of G reece is imperishable or will last as long as
learning itself which is its monument : it strikes an
everlasting root and bears pere n nial blossoms on its
grave The n ame of Hamilto n would have h o n ored
G reece in the age of Aristides May Heaven , the guar
dian o f ou r liberty grant tha t o u r cou n try may be fruit
f ul of Hamilt o n s and faithf ul to t heir glory
,


A U T UM N S P RI N G

2 39

T he summer passed away and Au t umn bega n t o


hang ou t his many colored a g upon the trees that
smitten by the nightly frosts e very morning exhibite d
less o f the green a n d more O f the gau d y hues that mark
the wa ning year in o ur western climate
The farmers
of E l s in gb urgh were ou t in their elds bright and early
gathering in the frui t s o f their Spring and summer s
labors or busily em ployed in making their cider while
the urchins passed their holidays in gathering nuts to
crack by the winter s re
The little quails began to
whistle their autumn al notes t he grasshopper having
had his season of idle Sport and chirping j ollity b ega n
now to pay the pen alty of his thoughtless improvidence ,
and might be seen sunning him self a t mid day in me
l a n chol y Silence , as if anticipating the period when his
short and merry race woul d be run
Fl o cks of robins
were passing to the south to seek a more genial air ;
the sober cattle began to assume t heir rough wintry
coat and t o put o n that desperate appearance o f ennui,
with which all nature salutes the approach of winter
The little blue bird alone the last to leave u s, and t he
rst to re t urn in the spring s ometimes poured out his
pensive no t e as if bid din g farewell to t he n est where i t
had reare d its young
,

N ow

the laughing, j olly spring bega n some t im es to


Show her buxom face in the bright morning but ever
an d a n o n , m ee t in g t h e an gry frown of Wint er, loat h t o

RE A D I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

24 0

re sign his rough sway over the wide real m of nature , s he


wo u ld retire again into her southern bower Yet tho ugh
he r visits we r e but short, he r very look seemed to ex er
cis e a m agic inuence
The birds began Slowly to ex
pand their close winter folds the dark and melancholy
woods to assume an almost imperceptible purple tint
and here and there a little chirping blue bird hopped
about the orchard of E ls in gb u rgh S trips of fresh green
appear ed along the brooks now released from their icy
fetters and nests of little variegated owers nameless
yet richly deserving a name spring U p in the Sheltered
recesses of the leaess woods By and by the Shad, the
harbinger at once of spring and plenty, came u p t he
river before the mild southern breeze the ruddy blos
soms of the peach tree exhibited their gorgeous pageant
the little lambs appeared friskin g and gambolling
ry
about the sedate mother youn g innocent calves began
their rst bleatings ; the cackling hen announced her
daily feat in the barn yard with clamorous astonishment
every day added to the appearance of t hat active v ege
table and ani mal life which n ature present s in the pro
gress of the genial Spring and, nally the owers, t he
zephyrs, and the warblers an d the maiden s rosy cheeks,
a nnounced to the eye , the ear the senses the fancy, a nd
t he h eart , t he return and the stay of the vernal year
.

PATR ICK HENRY S

Hook

wa s

E L O QU

ENCE

AN D

HU M OR W m

a S co t chman , an d a ma n

of

wealth , an d

P AT R I C K

HE N RY S E L OQU E N CE

H U M OR

AND

24 1

t he u s e o f the troops T he act had n o t been strictly


legal and on the estab lishment of peace Hook on t he
advice of Mr Cowan a gentleman of some distinction i n
the l aw thought proper t o bring an action of trespas s
against the commissary in the d istric t court o f N ew
London Mr Henry appeared for t he defen d ant an d
is said t o have disported himself in this cause t o the in
nite enjoyment of his hearers, t he unfortuna t e Hook
always e x cepted After M r Henry became anima t ed i n
the cause says a correspondent he appeared to have
complete control over the passions of his audience ; a t
o n e time he excited their in d ignation against Hook
v en
ea n ce was visible in every countenance ; again whe n
g
he chose t o rela x and ridicule him t he whole au d ienc e
was in a roar of l aughter He painted the distresses of
the American army exposed almost naked to the rigor s
o f a winter s s ky and marking the frozen ground over
which they trod with the blood O f their unsh od feet
Where was the m an he said who had an American
heart in his bosom who would not have thrown open his
elds his barns his cellars the doors of his house t he
portals of his breast t o re ceive with ope n arms the mea n

e s t soldier in that little band of famished patrio t s 3

T
h
r
e
e
he stands bu t whethe r
W here is the man P
the heart of an American beats in his bosom , you ge n
He the n carried the jury by t he
t l e m e n , are to judge
powers of his imaginatio n t o the plains around York t he
surrender of whic h ha d followed Shortly aft er the act
compl ain ed of ; he depicte d the surrender in the most
glowing and noble colors of his elo quence the audienc e
s aw before t h eir e yes t he h umiliat io n a n d d ejec tio n of
for

11

RE A D I NG AN D S P E AK IN G

2 42

the British a s they marched ou t of their tre n ches t h ey


s a w the triumph which lighted u p every patriot face
,
heard the shouts of vict ory a n d the cry o f Was hington
and Liber t y as it rung and echoed through the Am eri
can ranks and was reverberated from the hills and
shores of the neighboring river
but , ha rk what notes
of discord are these which disturb the general j oy and
silence the acclam ation o f vic t ory they a re the n otes o f
J ohn Hook hoarsely bawling through the American
camp Beef beef ! beef !
,

'

5 E
.

FF

ECTS

HEN RY S

OF

PEECH

irt

The whole audience were convulsed a particular in


cide n t will give a better idea o f the e ffect than any gen
eral description
The clerk of the court , unable to
command himself and unwilling to commit any breach
of decorum in his place rush ed ou t of the court house ,
and threw himself on the grass in the most violent par
o x ys m s o f laughter where he was rolling, when Hook
,
with very diff ere n t feelings came ou t for relief into the
yard also
J immy S teptoe , said he to the clerk,
what the devil ails ye mon
Mr S teptoe was only
able to say that he could not help it
N ever mind ye

said Hook, wait till Billy Cowan gets u p he ll Show


him la
Mr Cowan however wa s s o completely ov er
whelmed by the torrent which bore upon his client , that ,
when he rose t o reply to Mr Henry he wa s scarcely able
to make an intelligible o r audible remark T he cause
was decided almost by acclamation The jury retired
for form s sake , and instantly ret urned with a verdict for
N or did t he e ff ec t of M r H en ry s Spe e ch
t he defendant
.

W AS H I NG T O N S PO L ICY

243

stop here The people were s o highly excited by the


tory audacity of such a suit that Hook began t o hear
around him a cry more terrible than that of beef it was
the cry of t a r a n d f ea t her s from the application o f
which , it is said , that nothing sa ved him but a precip
it a t e ight, and t he s p e e d of his horse ;
.

17 4 8,

1806

How innitely superior must appear the Spirit an d


principles o f G eneral W ashing t on in his l ate a ddress t o
Con gress, compared W ith t he policy of m odern E uropea n
Courts
Illustrious man l deriving honor less from
the splendor o f his s ituatio n t han from the dignity of
his mind ! G rateful t o Fran ce for the assi s t ance re
c e iv e d f r om her, in that great con t est which secured t h e
i n dependence of America, he yet di d n ot choose t o give
Havin g o n c e
u p t he syst em o f n eutrality i n her favor
la id down the line of conduc t most pro per to be pursu ed ,
n ot all the insults and provoc a tions of the French
minister G enet , cou l d a t all put him out o f his way, or
bend him fro m his purpos e It must, indeed creat e a s
t o n is hm en t , that , pl a ced i n circumstance s s o crit ical ,
and lling a station s o conspicuous the character of
Wash ington S hould n ever once have been called in ques

tion
that he should, i n no on e inst ance, have been a o
cuse d either of improper insolence , o r o f mean s u b m is
sion in his transaction s wit h foreign n ations It ha s
been reserved for him to run the race of glory without
experiencing the smallest in terruption to the brill iancy
T he bre a t h of cen s ure ha s n o t d a red t o
of his c a reer
,

RE AD I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

2 44

impeach the purity of his conduct nor the eye of envy


to raise its malignant glance to the elevation of his v ir
t u es S uch has been the transcendent merit and the
unparalleled fate of this i llustrious ma n
Ho w did he a ct when he was insulted by G enet
D id he consider it as necessary to avenge himself for the
m isconduct or madness of an in dividual , by involving a
N o ; he Con
whole conti n ent in the horrors of war ?
tented hi m self with procuring satisf action for the insult
by causing G enet to be recalled and thus at once
cons u lted his own dignity and the interest of his country
Happy Ame ricans ! while the whirl wind ies over one
qua rter of the gl o be and Spreads every where desolation ,
u remain protected fro m its baneful e ffects by your
o
y
own virtues and the wisdom of your G overn m ent
S eparated from E urope by an immense ocean you feel
not the e ffect of those prejudices and passions which
convert the boasted seats of civilization into scenes of
horror and bloodshed You prot by the folly and mad
ness of the contendin g nations and a ff ord, in your more
congenial cli m e an asylum to those blessings and virtues
which they wantonly contemn or wickedly exclude fro m
their bosom ! Cultivating the arts of peace under the
inuence of freedom , you advance by rapid st rides t o
O pulence and distinction and if by any accident you
Should be compelled to take part in the present unhappy

contest if you should nd it necessary to avenge in


Sult or repel injury, the worl d will bear witness to the
equity of your sentiments a n d the moderation of your
views and the success of your arms will, n o doubt , b e
p roport io n e d t o t he j us t ic e of your cau s e
,

'

AM E R I C A N VE SS E L S

L E SSO N XXX V II

MERICAN VESSELS

1 A
.

1850 R
.

icha r d Cobden

24 5

in the

B it i h P li m
r

ar a

en t .

sometimes quote the United S tates of America ;


and, I think, in this matter of national reference they
D oes any body dare to a t
s e t u s a very goo d example
t ack that nation
There is not a more formidabl e

p ower in every se n se of the word although yo u talk

O f France an d R ussia than the United S tates of


America and there is n o t a statesman with a head o n
his Shoulders who does not kno w it and yet the policy
o f the United S tates ha s been to keep a very sma ll
amount of armed f orce in existence
At the present
moment they have not a line of battle ship aoat n o t
withstan ding the vast e x t e n sion of their commercial
m arine
Last year She recalled the last ship o f war from
t he P acic
and I shall be very much astonished if you
The people are well employed , and her
s e e another
taxation is light which countries cannot have if they
burden themselves with the expense of these enormous
armaments
N o w many persons appeal t o the E nglish nation
under the impressio n that they are a very pugnacious
people I am n ot q uit e sure that we are not I am
n o t q uite sure that my opponents do not sometimes have
the advantage over me in appeal ing t o the ready prim e d
pugnacity of ou r fellow countrymen
I bel ieve I a m
pugnacious myself ; but what I want is, to persuade my
countrymen t o preserve their pugnaciousness until some
body comes to a tt ack them Be a ss ured, if you wa n t
I

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

246

to b e p r epared for future war you will be better pre


pared in t he way t hat the United S tates is prepared
b y the enormo u s nu m b e r of me r chant ships Of large ton
in the vast number of steam
n age cons t antly building
ers turning out of the building yards at N e w York
those eno r m ous stea m ers ner than a n y t o be found in
the royal navies of any country on the continent of E u
r Op e co m m only extendin gfrom fteen hundred to Six
teen hundred tons If the spirit of America were once
aroused , and her resen t ment exci t e d her mercantile

marine alone the growth of commerce the resul t Of a

low taxation and a prosperous people her mercantile


marine would be more than a match for any war navy
that exist s on the c ontinent of E urope
,

It was a pleasant morning in the time


W he n the leaves fall and the bright sun shone
AS when the m Orn in g St a r s rst s ang together
S O quietly and calmly fell his l ight
Upo n a world at res t There was no leaf
In motion and the loud winds Slept , and all
W a s still
T he laboring h erd was grazing
Upon the hill side quietly uncalle d
By the harsh voi ce of ma n, and distant soun d,
S a v e f rom the mu rmuri ng W at erfall came n ot
,

'

'

'

And then another of the mor ni ng cal m


And still a s E de n ere the birth of man ,
And then broke in the S abbath ch i me o f bells
,

ou t

HE

SABBAT H

L ORD B R O U G H AM S OR AT OR Y

2 47

Together t o the house of God I j oined


The well apparelled crowd The holy man
B ose solem n ly and breathed the prayer O f faith
And the gray saint , j ust on the wing of heaven
An d the fair maid , and t he bright haired young man
And child of curling l o oks, just taugh t to cl ose
The lash of its blue eye the while all knel t
In attitude O f prayer and then the hymn ,
S incere in i t s l ow melody, wen t u p
To worship G od
T he white haired pastor rose
And l ooked upon his o ck and wit h a n eye
That t ol d his inte re st, an d voice that spok e
In tre mul ous accen t s, elo que n t like P aul s,
He lent Isaiah s re t o the truths
Of revelat ion , and persu a sion came
Like gushing waters fro m his lips, t ill heart s
Unused to ben d were softened , an d the eye
Unwon t t o W eep sent forth the W illing t ear
I wen t my wa y but as I wen t , I thought
How holy was the S abbath day of G od
.

LORD B ROUGHAM S ORATORY

184 8

Lord Brougham s rst sentences like those of most


great orators are ex ceedin gly ordinary, a nd delivere d i n
a style that any school boy migh t equ al He t urns to
the bun dle of small slips of paper besid e him takes u p
o n e of them and , afte r holding it close to his eyes for a
moment , thro ws it behind him and goes for ward The
His manner is becoming eve ry momen t
s torm is rising
more anim at e d ; his voice , n eve r ple a sing, is growin g

RE A D I NG A N D S PE AKI NG

248

more loud and shrill his arms swing back an d fort h in


uncouth but most e f cient gestures the House is per
fe ct ly stilled and by the time he arrives at the second
head of his argument it is apparent that he has gained
a co m plete command of his auditors The second note
adds fuel to the ame ; and o n he goes like a re on
the prairies burning bla z ing scorching and consuming
all before him His opponent quakes with terror as he
beholds the strong cords of his logic snapped asunder,
like tow in the ame and shrivelled into thin air a n d
at last blistered with sarcasm and galled with vindictive
irony he falls down dis co m t e d beneath the ery tem
pest that overwhel ms him
The orator s voice and
manner grow more feeble and he Sits down , perfectly
overco m e with the gigantic e ff o rt while his victim lies
before him ayed alive and quivering at every nerve
The audience caring to hear no more take their hats
and disperse and o u r American friend walks away with
the r m conviction that if D aniel Webster is not the
greatest man in the world, that man is Lord Brougham
,

Like to the f alling of a star,


O r as the ights of eagles are
O r like the fresh Spring s gaudy hue,
O r silver drops of morning de w
O r like a wind that chafes the ood
O r bubbles which on water stood
E ven such is man whose borrowed ligh t,
Is straight call ed in, and paid to night
,

ST U A R T ,

HE

P AI N T ER

249

The wind blows out , the bubble dies


The spring ento m bed in ocean lies
T he de w dries u p the star is Shot
T he ight is past and man forgot

ST

ART

P AINTER

HE

B 17 57
.

182 8

O f S tuart the painter this amusing anecdote is


related He had p u t u p at an inn a n d his compa n ions
were desirous by putting roundabout questions to nd
o u t his calling or profession
S tuart answered with a
grave face and serious tone that he sometimes dressed
gentlemen s and ladies hair At tha t time high cropped
m
a t u m e d hair was all the fashion
You
are
a
hair
o
p
dresser then
What said he
do I look like a
barber P
I beg your pardon sir but I inferred it fro m
what you said If I mistook you may I take the liberty
t o a s k what you are then
Why I someti m es brush
a gentleman s coat or hat and sometimes adj ust a cravat
ou are a valet
then
to
some
nobleman
P
y
A valet
Indeed Sir, I am n ot I am n ot a servant
To be sure I make coats and waistcoat s for gentlemen

A tailor do I look like a


0 you are a tailor
tailor P I assure you, I n ever handled a goose other
t ha n a roasted on e
By this time they were a ll in a
roar
What are you t hen
said on e
I ll tell you
said S tuart
Be assured all I have said is literall y
true I dress hair brush hats and coats adjust a cravat
and make coa t s waistcoats and breeches and likewise
boots and shoes at your service
O h ho a boot and

shoemaker after all !


G uess again gentlemen I
n ever handl ed boot or Shoe, but for my own fee t a n d
,

11

R E A D I NG AN D S P E AKI NG

2 50

e may a s
legs yet all I have tol d you is true
well give u p guessing
Well then I will tell you,
upon my honor as a gentleman my bon a de profession
I get my bread by m aking faces
He then screwed his countenance an d twisted the
lineaments of his visage in a manner such as S amuel
F oo t or Charles Mathews might hav e e n v ie d His com
panions after lo u d peals of laughter each took credit to
hi m self for having susp e cted that the ge n t l em an b el on ge d
to the theatre a n d t hey all knew he must be a come
dian by profession When to their ut ter astonishment ,
he assured them that b e was n eVe r on the stage, and
very rarely s a w the inside Of a playhouse or any Similar
plac e of amuse m ent They al l n o w looked a t each other
in utter ama z e ment Before parting S tuart said to his

companion s 4 G entlemen you will nd that all I have


said of my various employments is comprised in these
f e w words
I a m a p o r t r a it p a in t er
If you will call
a t J ohn P almer s
York Build ings London I shall be
re ady a n d willin
to
brush
ou
a
coat
r
hat
dress
your
o
g
y
hair a l a m o de supply you if in n eed wit h a wig of
a n y fashion or dimensio n s accommodate you with boot s
o r Shoes
give you ruEles or cravat and m ake face s
for you
2

'

'

'

'

'

Against the insidious wiles of f oreign in uen ce (I


conjure you to believe m e, fellow citizens) the jealousy
of a free people ought t o be constantly a wake S inc e
u

F O R E IG

N TA N G LE M E N TS

2 51

But th a t jealousy, t o be useful, must be imp a rtial els e


it becomes the instrumen t of the very inuence t o
be avoided, ins t ead of a defence against it E xcessive
partiality of on e nation , and e x cessive dislike for another,
cause those whom they actuate t o s ee danger only on
o n e Side , and serve to veil , and even second the art s o f
inuence on the other R e a l patriots , who may resist
t he intrigues of t he favorite are liable to become sus
e ct ed and odious
while
its
tools
and
dupes
usurp
the
p
applause and condence of the people to surrender
their interests The great rule o f cond uct f or us in re
gard t o foreign nations is in extending o u r commercial
relatio n s to have wit h t he m a s l it t l e political connectio n
as possible S o far as we have alre a dy formed engage
ments let them b e fulll ed with pe rf ect good fait h
Here let us stop
E uro p e has a Set of primar y interests which t o us
have none or a very remote relation Hence she must
be engaged in frequent controversies the causes o f which
are essentially foreign t o our concerns Hence there
fore , it must be unwise for us t o implica t e ourselves by
articial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her poli t ics,
o r the ordinary combinatio n s and collisions of her friend
Ou r detached a n d dis tant s itu a tio n
Ships o r enmities
invites and enable s u s t o pursue a differen t course If
we remain on e people und er an eicien t govern ment ,
t he period is not fo r Off when we may defy material in
jury from external annoyance when we may t ake suc h
a n attitude as w i
ll cause the neutrality we may at a n y
time resolve u p on to be scrupulously respected wh e n
belligerent na t ions u nder t he imp ossibility of makin g a o
.

R E A D I N G A N D S P E A K I NG

252

upon
u s will not lightly ha z ard the giving u s
q
provocation when we may choose peace or war as our
interest guided by justice shall counsel Why forego
the advantages of so peculiar a Situation
Why quit
Why , by inter
o u r o wn t o stand o n foreign ground
weaving our destiny with that of any part of E urope,
entangle our peace and prosperity in the toil s of E uro
pean ambition rivalship interest humor o r caprice P
u is it ion s

T HE

LIT TLE

B OY

THAT D IED D

Cha lme rs

r.

I am all alone in my cha mber n ow,


And the midnight hour is near
And the fagot s crack and the clock s dull click
Are the only sounds I hear
And over m y soul in its solitude,
S weet feelin gs of sadness glide
And my heart and my eyes are full, whe n I
O f the little boy that died

I went one night to my father s house


Ven t home to the loved ones all
V
And softly I O p ened the garden gate
And softly the door o f the hall
My mother came out to meet her s on
S he kissed me and then She sighed
Her head fell on my neck and She wep t
For the little boy that died

I shall miss him when the owers com e


In t he garden where he played
I shall miss him more by the re side,
o

L ITT L E B O Y T H AT D I ED A SK E TC H

HE

2 53

I Shall see his toys, and his empty chair,


And the horse he used to ride
And they will speak with a silen t speech
O f the little boy that died
.

We shall a ll go h ome to ou r Father s house


To o u r Father s house in the skies
Where the hope of ou r souls shall hav e n o bligh t,
O ur love no broken ties
We shall roam on the banks of the river of pe a ce,
And bathe in its blissful tide
And on e of the j oys of our heave n will b e
The li t tle boy that die d

8 A
.

S KE T CH

W as hhz gton Irv ng

The d epopula t ing pestilence that walke t h at n oon


d ay, the carn age of cruel an d devastating war, ca n
scarcely e xhibit their victims in a more terri ble a rray,
than e xterminating drunke nness I have seen a promis
ing family spring from a pare n t trunk, and s tretch
abroad its populous limbs like a owin gtree covered with
a green and healthy foliage I have seen the unnatura l
decay beginning upo n the yet tender leaves, and gnawing
like a worm in an unopened bud , while they droppe d off ,
on e by on e , and the scathe d an d ruined shaft stood
alone, until t he winds and rains of many a sorrow laid

t
oo
i
n
n
that ,
the
dus
those
holy
days
whe
n
t
n
o
e
o
f
O
,
,
the patriarch , rich in virt ue a s in years, gathered abou t
him the great and the little ones o f the ock his son s
with their sons, and his daughters with their daughters
I, t oo , sa t at t he fest ive bo a rd
I, t oo, pledged the m
.

R E A D I NG AN D S P E A K I N G

2 54

in the social wine cu p and rejoiced with them aroun d


the hospitable hearth, and expatiated with delight upon
the eventful future ; while the good old man warmed
in the genial glow of youthful e n t hu s ra s m , wiped t he

tear of j oy from his glistening eye He was happy


I met with them again when the rolling year brought
the festive season round But they were not all there
The kin d ol d man sighed when his s u f s ed eye dwelt
upon the then unoccupied seat But j oy yet came to

his relief and he was h a p p y A parent s love knows no


diminution time distance p overty Shame , but give
intensity and strength to that passion before which a ll
others dissol v e and melt away Another elapse d T he
board was spread , b u t the guests came not The old
man cried
where a re my children
and echo a n

His heart broke for they were n ot


s we r ed
Could not Heaven have spared his gray hairs this al ic
Ala s ! t he de mon of drun ke n nes s h a d bee n
ther e They had fallen v icti ms of his S pell And on e
shor t month su fced t o cast t he veil of O blivion over t he
o ld man s sorrow, and the young on e S S h am e T h ey are
al l d e a d
,

'

'

..

D E AT H S FI N A L C ON QU E ST

2 55

t hou have the j oy o f the present let T hought s in v is


ible shuttle weave full in the loom of Time the mo
ment s passing thre ads T o think is t o live but with
how many are these passin g hours as s o many loose
laments n ever woven together n or gathered but scat
S O many yin g ends con fused and
t ere d ravelling
worthless ! Time a n d li fe u n lle d wit h t hough t are
useless unenjoyed bringing no pleasure f or t he prese n t
storing no good for future need To day is the golde n
chance wherewith t o snatch Thou ght s bless ed fruition
the j oy of the P res ent , the hOp e of the Future
Thought make s t he t im e th at is a n d T hought is t he

e t ern it y

to

com e . :

'

The glories O f our b lood a n d state


Are shadows, n ot substantial things
T here is no a rmor against Fa t e
D eath lays his icy hand on kings
S ceptre , a nd Crown , must tumble down ,
And in t he d us t be e qual made
W ith t he poor crooked scyt he a n d spade

S ome m en 'with swords may re ap t he el d,


And plant fresh laurels where t hey kill
But the ir stron g n e rves a t last mus t y iel d,
They t am e b ut on e a n ot her s t ill
E arly 0 1 late they st oop t o f a t e ,
And must give u p their m n querin g breath,
W hen t hey, p al e c a ptives , creep t o D ea t h
r

RE A D I NG A N D SP E A K I NG

2 56

T he garlands wither on your brow


Then boast no more your m ighty deeds
Upon D eath s purpl e altar n ow
S ee where the victor victim bleeds
All heads must come t o the cold tomb
O nly the ac t ions of the just
S mell sweet and blossom in the d ust

3 E SS AY
.

ON

MAN P op e

leave all meaner things


Awake my S T JO H N
To lbw ambition and the pride o f kings
Let u s , (since life can little more supply
Than just to look about u s and t o d ie , )
E xpatiate free o e r all this scene of man
A mighty maze but not without a pl an
A wild where weeds and owers promiscuous shoo t,
O r garden tempting with forbidde n fruit
Together let us beat this ample eld
Try what the open what the covert yield
The latent tracts, the giddy heights explore 1
O f all who blindly cree p or sightly soar
E ye N ature s walks, Shoot Folly a s it ies,
And catch the mann ers livin g as t hey rise
Laugh where we must , be candid where we c an,
But vindicat e the ways of God t o Man
S ay rst, of G od above, or Man below,
Wha t ca n we reason, but from what we kn ow ?
O f Man , what s ee we but his station here,
From which to reason or to which refer
Through worlds unnumbered , though t he God b e known,
.

I N C EN TI VE S

T R U ST

To

2 57

He who through vast immensity can pierce


S ee worlds on worlds compose one universe
O bserve how system into system runs ,
What other planets circle other suns
What varied being peoples every star ,
May tell why Heaven made all things as t hey
,

INCENT IVES

To

T RU S T P 0p e s E ss ay

a re .

Heaven from all creatures hides the boo k of fa t e,


All but the page prescribed , their present state ,
Fro m brutes what m en from men , what Spirits kn ow,
O r who co ul d suffer being here below ?
T he lamb thy rio t dooms to bleed to day
Ha d he thy reason would he skip and play P
P lea sed to the last he cr0 ps the owery food,
And licks the han d j ust raised to Shed his bloo d
O h blindness to the future kindly given
T h at each may ll the circle marke d by heave n
W ho sees with equal eye as God o f all,
A hero perish , or a Sparrow fall ,
Atoms or syst ems into ruin hurle d ,
An d n o w a bubbl e burst , and n ow a worl d
Hope humbly t hen, with t rembling pinion s s o ar
W ai t the grea t t eacher, d eath , a n d God adore
W hat future bliss he gives n o t t hee to kn ow,
B ut gives that hope t o be thy blessin g n ow
Hope springs eternal i n the huma n breas t
M an never is b u t always t o b e blest
T he soul uneasy and con n ed a t home,
B es t s, and ex pat i ates , in a life t o come
,

R E A D I NG AN D S PE A KIN G

2 58

5 P R ID E
.

P cme s

ssay.

Ask for what end the heavenly bodies shine


E arth for whose use P P ride answers,
tis for min e
For me kind nature wakes her genial power,
S uckles each herb and Sprea ds ou t every ower
Annual for me the grape , the rose renew
The j uice nectareous and the balmy dew
For me the mine a thousand treasure s brings
For me health gushes f rom a thousa n d Spr ing s ;
S eas roll to wa ft me s u m to light me rise
My footstool earth my canopy the skies

DEATH

OHN QUIN CY

OF J

AD AM S

IE Holmes
.

Mr S peaker The mingled tones of sorrow, like


voice of many waters have come to u s from a sister
state Massachusetts wee ping for her honored s on T he
state I have the honor in part to represent, once endured,
with you rs y a common suffering battled for a commo n
cause and rejoiced in a c ommon triumph S urely then,
it is meet that in this t he da y of your a fiction , we
Should mingle ou r griefs
W he n a great man f alls, t he n a t ion mourn s whe n
a patrio t is removed , the people weep O urs my asso
ciates, is n o com mon b ereavement The chain which
linked ou r hearts with the gif t ed spirits of former times
has been suddenly snapped T he lips from which owed
those living and glorious t ru ths that ou r fathers uttered ,
are closed in death Yes , my friends, D eath has bee n
.

P E AC E AB L E S E C E SSI O N I M PO SSI B L E

2 59

bly a t the palace of a n atio n ! His foots t ep has bee n


he ard in t he halls of sta t e ! He has cloven down his
He has
Victim in the midst of the councils o f a people
borne in triumph from among you the gravest , wisest ,
most reverend head Ah he ha s taken him as a trophy
who was once chief over many sta t esmen , adorned with
Virtue and learning, and t ruth ; he has borne a t his
chariot wheels, a renowned on e of the earth
How ofte n we h a ve crowd ed int o t h at aisle and clus
t e r e d around that now vacant de s k, t o lis t en to the coun
sels of wisdom as they fell from the lips of the venerable
sage we can all remember, for it wa s bu t o f yesterday
How wondrous how su dden
But wha t a change
Tis like a Vision of the night That form which we
b ehel d b u t a f ew days since , is n ow cold in dea t h
But the last S abbath , an d in this h all he worshippe d
with others
N ow his Spirit m ingles with the noble
a rmy o f martyrs and the just m a de perfec t , in the eter

nal adoratio n of the living G od W ith him this is t h e


He sleeps the Sleep tha t knows no wa k
e n d o f earth
i ngu He iS goneL and for ever
The s un t h at ushers
in the m om o f that next holy day while it gilds t he
lofty dome of the capitol , Shall res t with soft and mellow
light upon the consecrated spot beneath whose t urf for
e ver lies the P A T R I O T F A T HE R a n d the P AT R I O T S A GE
.

. .

'

S ir he who se es these S tates n ow r evolving in b a r


mony around a common centre a n d expect s to s ee them
quit their places an d y Off without convulsions may
l ook the n e x t hour t o s ee t h e heave nly bodies rus h fr om
!

RE A D I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

260

their spheres and j ostle against each other in the realms


without causing the crash of the universe
o f Space
There can be no such thing as a peaceable secession
Is t he great
P eaceable secession is an utter impossibility
covering this whole
constitution under which we live
country is it t o be thawed and melted away by secession ,
as the snows on the mountain melt under the inuence
dis a ppear almost unobserved and ru n
o f a vernal s un
N o Sir ! N O sir ! I will n ot state what m ight
off ?
produce the disruption of the Union b u t S ir I s e e as
plainly as I s ee the s u n in heaven what that disru ption
itself must produce I see that it mus t pro duce war and
such a war as I will not describe in it s t wo f o ld cha r a ct er
peaceable secession
P eaceable secession
The
concurre n t agreement of all the members of this great
"
3
3
3
R epublic to separate
S ir, we could not
Sit down here to day and draw a line of s eparation that
would satisfy any ve men in the country There are
na t ural causes that woul d keep and tie u s together and
there are social and domestic relations which we coul d
not break if we would and which we should not, if we
could
,

'

"

CATO S S OL IL OQU Y

ON IM OR T AL IT Y

Add7:80n

16 7 2 ,

It must be s o P lato t hou rea s on es t we ll


E lse whence t his pleasing hope this fond desire,
This longing after immortality
O r whence this secret dread and inward horror
O f falling into naught
Why shrinks the soul
Back on hersel f, and startles at destructio n P
T is t he divi n ity th at s tirs withi n us,
-

17 19 .

CAT o s

S O L IL O QU

ON

IM M O R

T A LIT Y

26 1

Tis Heaven itself that point s out an hereafter,


And inti m ates eternity to man

E ternity
thou ple a sing, dreadful thought
Through what variety of u ntried being,
Through what new scenes and changes mus t we pass I
The wide the unbounded prospect lies before me
But shadows clouds and darkness rest upon it
Here will I hold If there s a P ower above u s
And that there is all N ature cries aloud
Through all her works He must delight in Virt u e
And that which he delights in must be happy
But when or where
This world was made for C aesar
I m weary of conjectures this must end them
T hus am I doubly armed My life and death,
My bane and antidote are both before me
This in a moment brings me t o my end
But this informs me I Shall never die
T he soul secure in her existence smile s
At the drawn dagger and dees its point
T he stars shal l fade away the sun himself
G row dim with age , and N ature sink in years
But thou shalt ourish in immortal youth,
Unhurt amid the war of elements,
T he wreck of matter, a nd the cra sh of world s

R E A D I NG A N D S P E A K I NG

262

L E S S ON XXXIX

T ime In It s course has produce d a striking epoch in


the history of ou r favored country ; and as if t o mark
with peculiar emphasis this interesting stage of our n a
t ion a l existence it com es to us accompanie d with inc i
dents calculated t o make a powerful a n d l ast in g impres
sion The dawn of the ftieth ann iversary of indepe n dence
beame d upon t wo ven era ble and il lu strious citi z ens to
whom und er P rovide n ce a n ation acknowledged itself
greatly indeb ted for the event which t he day was s e t
apart to commemorat e The on e was the author, t he
other was the ablest advocate of t hat solemn as sertion
in
o f right that heroic deance of unjust power which
the midst of difculty and danger proclaimed the deter
ru ination to assume a separate and equal station among
the powers o f the earth and declared to t h e world the
causes which i m pelled t o this decision Both had stood
by their country with unabated ardor and unwavering
fortitude through every vicissitude of her fortune until
the glorious day of her nal triumph crowned their
labors and sacrices with complete success With equal
solicitude and with equal warmth of patriotic a ffection
they devoted their great faculties which had bee n em
ploye d in Vindicating the right s of their country to con
struct for her upo n d e ep a nd stron g foundations t he
solid edice of social order and of civil and religio us
free d om T hey h a d bo th h el d t he high est public em
,

HE COMM ON L O T

263

ployme n t , a n d were d is tin guished by t he highest ho n or s


the n atio n could confer Arrived at an age when n ature
seems t o dem and repose each had retire d t o the spo t
from which the public exige n cies had rst called him
his public labors ended his work accomplished his coun
try prosperous and happy, there to indulge In the bles
sed retrospect of a Well Sp en t life and await that pe riod
which comes to all ; but n o t t o awai t it in idleness or
indifference
The J ubilee came, the great n ational com m em o
ration of a nat ion s bir t h the ftieth y ear o f deliveranc e
from a foreign rule wrought o u t by exertions and suffer
ings and sacrices of the p a t rio t s of the revolution It
found these illustrious and venerable men full o f honors,
and ful l of years a nimated with the proud recollectio n
o f the times in which they had born e s o distin guished a
p art , and cheered by t he b en e cen t a n d expanding in u
ence of their pa t riotic labors
The eyes of a natio n
were turned towards them with aff ec t ion and reverence
T hey heard the rst song of triumph on that memorable
day As the voice of million s of freemen rose in grati
tude and j oy, they bot h Sunk gently to rest, and their
S piri t s departed i n the mid s t of t he swe llin g c h orus of
i
n atio n al e nt husiasm
.

On ce in t he igh t of ages pas t


There lived a ma n and who wa s
M ortal ! howe er t hy lot b e c a s t
T hat ma n r ese mble d t hee
,

he

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

264

bwn

the region of his b irth ,


The land in which he died I unknown
His na m e has perished from the earth
This truth survives alone

n kn

That joy and grief and hOp e and fear,


Alternat e triumphed in his breast
His bliss and woe a smile a t ear
O blivion hides the rest
,

The bounding pulse the languid limb


The changing sp irits ris e 1 and f all
I
W e know that these were felt by him,
F o r these ar e felt, by all
,

He Suffered, bu t his pangs are o er


E nj oyed but his delights are ed
Had fri ends, his friends are n ow n o m 6re

b
And f eS, his foes are dead

He

m he loved, the gra ve


but whO
Hath lost in its unconscious womb

but naught could s av e


0 , She was fair
Her beauty from the tomb

l bv e d,

He s aw whatever t hbu has t see n


E ncountered all that troubles the e
He was whatever t hbu hast bee n

He is what thou sh alt be


.

T he rolling seasons day and ni ght,


,

H E N RY

CL A Y O N

HE C O M PRO MI S E

2 65

T h e clouds a nd sunbeams o er his eye


Tha t once t heir Shades a n d glory t hre w,
Have left in yonder silent Sky
Nb vestige where they e w

The annals o f the human r ace ,


'
T heir ririns since the world began ,
O f him afford no other t race,
Than this there lived a m a n
HE NR Y

C LAY

E C OMP ROMIS E

ON TH

1850

S ir wha t vicissitu d es do we n ot pass through in this


E ight years or nearly
S hort mortal career of ours
e ight years ago I took my leave nally and as I s u p
posed for ever from this body A t that time I d id n ot
conceive of the possibility of ever again return ing to it
And if m y private wishes and particular inclinations
and the desire during the short remnant of m y days to
remain in repose and quiet coul d have prevailed you
would never have seen m e occupying the seat which I
n o w occupy upon this oor
The Legislature of the
S tate to which I belong unsolicited by me chose to de
signate me fo r this station and I have come here sir i n
obedience to a sense of ster n duty with n o person al Oh
e ct s no private views n ow or hereafter t o gratify
I
j
kno w s ir the jealousies the fe ars the apprehension s
which a re e n gen dered by the e xistence of that party
Spirit to which I have re ferred ; but if there b e in my
hearing n ow in or ou t of this Capitol, any on e who
hOp e S in his race for honors and elevation , for highe r
h on ors a n d hi her eleva tio n t ha n tha t which he may
,

12

RE A D I NG AN D SP E A K I NG

266

occupy I beg him to believe that I , at least will never


jostle him in the pursuit of those honors or that eleva
tion I beg him to be perfectly persuaded that if my
wishes prevail m y name shall never be used in compe
tition with his I beg to assure him that, when my
ser vice is terminated in t his body my mission S O far as
respects the public a ff airs of this world and upon this
ea r th is closed and closed if my wishes prevail for ever
B u t sir it is impossible for u s to be blind to the facts
which are daily transpiring before u S It is impossible
for u s not to p e rceive that party spirit and future el eva
tion mix more or less in all ou r affairs in all our deliber
At a moment when the White House itself is
a t io n s
in danger of con a gra t ion instead of all hands uniting
to extinguish the ames , we are contending about who
shall be it s next occupant Whe n a dreadful cr ev a s s e
ha s occurred which threatens inundation and de s t ru c
tion to all around it we are contesting and disputing
about the prots of an estat e which is threatened with
total submersion

Mr P resident it is passion passion party party,

and intemperance that is all I dread in the adjustment


o f the great questions which unhappily at this time di
vide ou r distrac t ed country S ir at this moment we
have in the legislative bodies of this Capitol an d in the
S tates twenty odd furnaces in full blast emitting heat
,

'

throughout the whole extent of this broad land T wo


mon t hs ago all was calm in comparison t o the present
moment All n ow Is uproar, confusion and menace t o
the existence o f the Union and to the happiness and
.

'

H ENR Y C L AY

ON

HE

C O M PRO M IS E

267

safety of this peopl e S ir I implore S enators I ent r ea t


them by all that they expect hereafter and by all that is
dear to them here below, to repress the ardor of these
passions to look to their country , to its interests t o lis
ten to the voice of reason not as it Shal l be attem pted
to be uttered by me for I am not so presumptuous as
to indulge the hope that any thing I may say will av e rt
the e ffects which I have described but t o listen to their
own reason their own judgment their own good sense
in dete r m ining upon what is best to be done for our
country in the actual posture in which we nd her
S ir to this great object have my e fforts been dire cted
during this whole session I have ou t myself o ff from
all the usual enjoyments of social life I have conned
myself almost entirely with very few exceptions to my
own cha m ber and from the beginning of the session to
the present time my thoughts h ave been anxiously di
r e ct e d to the object o f nding some plan o f proposing
,
some mode of accommodation , which should once more
restore the blessings of concord harmony and peace t o
this great cou rit ry I am not vain enough to suppose
that I have been succe ssful in the ac c omplishment of
this obj ect but I have presented a scheme a nd allow
me to s ay t o honorable S enators that , if they nd in
that plan any thing t hat is defective if they nd in it
any thing that is worthy of acceptance but is susceptible
of improvement by amendment , it S eems to m e t ha t the
true and patriotic course is not t o denounce it but to

i
t
improve
not t o reject withoutg ex amination any pro
e ct O f accom m odation having for its object the r e s t or a
j
tion of harmony in this country, but t o l ook at it t o s ee
if it be susce ptible of elabora t io n or i mp rovement , 80 a s
.

'

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

268

to a cco m plish t he object which I indul ge the hope rs


co m mon to all and eve r y one of u s t o restore peace and
33
{
quiet a n d ha r m ony and happiness to this count ry

Mr P resident I have said what I solemnly believe


that the dissolution of the Union an d wa r are ide n t i
cal and inseparable that they are convertible ter m s
S uch a war too as that would be following the dis
solution of the Union
S ir we may search the pages
of history and none so fu rious so bloody so i m placable
so exter m inating from the war s of G r eece down includ
ing those of the Com m onw e alth of E ngland and the re

u
vol tion of France none none of the m raged with such
violence or was eve r conducted with such bloodshed and
enormities as will that war which shall follo w that

i
f
disastrous event
that event ever happen the disso
l u t ion of the Union
And what would be its ter m i n ation
S tanding ar
mies and navies t o a n extent d raining the revenues of
each portion of the dissevered empire would be created
exte rminating war would foll ow not a war of two or
three years, but of interminable d u ration a n e x t er m i

nating war would follow until so m e P h ilip or Alexan


der som e C aesar or N apoleon would rise t o cu t the
G ordian knot and solve the problem of the capacity of
man for self government and crush the libe r ties of
both the dissevered portions of this Union Can you
doubt it
Look at history consult the pages of all his
t ory ancient or modern : look at human nature look
at the character of the contest in which you would be
engaged in the supposition of a wa r following the disso

o
f
the Union such as I have S uggested and I
lution
ask yo u if it is possible for you to doubt tha t t he n al
,

,
-

N ATI ON A L C H A R ACT E R

269

but perhaps distant termination of the whole will be some


despot treading down the liberties of the people P tha t
the nal result will be the extinc t ion o f this last and
gl orious light which is leading all m an kin d who are
ga z ing upon it to cherish hope and anxious expectation
that the li be rty which prevails here will sooner or later
be a dvanced throughout the civilized world P Can you
M r P resident lightly contemplate the con sequences P
Can you yield yourself to a torrent of passion, a midst
dangers which I have depicted in colors far short o f what
would be the reality if the event Should ever happen P
I implore gentlemen I adjure them from the S outh or
the N orth by all they hold dear in this world b y all

their love of liberty b y all t heir veneration for their

ncestors
all
their
regard
for
posterity
by all their
by
a
gratitude to Him who has bestowed upon them such u n
n umbered blessings b y all the duties which they owe
to mankind and all the duties they o we to themselves
by all these considerations I implore upon them to

pause solemnly to pause a t the edge of the precipice


before the fearful and disastrous leap is taken in the
yawning abyss below fro m whic h none who take it will
ever return in safety
And , nal ly Mr P resident I implore as the bes t
blessin g which Heaven can bestow upon me upo n e arth ,
that if the direful and s a d eve n t o f the dissolution of the
Union shall h a ppen I may not survive to behold the sad
and heart rending spectacle
,

ATIONA L C HARA ER ROM NATION

CT

How is the Spirit


animated

an d

R E COL L E

CT ION s

vens

a free p eople to be formed, and


cheered bu t out of the s torehous e of it s
of
,

27 0

R E A D I NG AN D S P E AKI NG

historic recollections P Are we to be eternally ringing


the changes upon Marathon and Thermopyl ae and
going back to read in obscure texts of G reek and La t in ,
of the exemplars of patriotic virtue
I thank G od that
we ca n nd them nearer home in our own country, on

own
soil
that strains o f the noblest senti m ent
ou r
that ever swelled in the breast Of man are breathing to
u s out of every page of our country s hist ory in the na
tive eloquence of our mother ton gue that the colo n ial
and provincial councils of America exhibit to us models
of the Spirit and character which gave G reece and R ome
their name and their praise among the nations Here

we ought to go for our instruction the lesson is plain


3
3
How many prudent
it is clear it is applicable
counsels conceived in perplexed ti mes how many heart
stirring words uttered when liberty was treason ; how
many brave and heroic deeds, performed when the halter,
n o t the laurel was the promised meed of patriotic dar

ing are already lost and forgotten in the graves of


their authors ! How little do we although we have
been permitted to hold converse with the venerable rem
nants of that day, how little do we know of their dark
and anxious hours ; of their secret meditations ; of the
hurried and perilous events of the momentous struggles
And while they are dropping around us like the leaves
o f autumn while scarce a week passes that does not call
away some member of the veteran ranks already s o sadly
thinned Shall we make no effort to hand down the tra
dit ion s o f their day to our children ; to pass the torch

which we received in all the sple n dor o f its


o f liberty

rst e n kindling, bright and a ming t o t hose who sta nd


'

'

I ND U ST R Y I N D IS PEN SAB L E

T o E

L O QU E N CE

27 1

n ext u s or; t he line so that when we shall come t o be


gathere d t o the dust where ou r fathers are laid we may
s a y to o u r sons a n d o u r grandsons
if we did not amass
we have n o t squan d ered your inheritance of gl orv
,

L E S S ON XL
1

IND USTRY IND IS PEN SAB LE

T o

E L O QU E N CE

W a re

The history of the world is full of testimony to prove


ho w much depends upon industry
n ot an eminen t
orator has lived but is an example o f it Yet in con
t r a dict ion to all this , the almost universal feeling appears
t o be that indus t r y can a ff ect not hing that eminence
is the result o f accident and that every on e must be
content to remain just what he may happe n t o be
Thus multitudes who came forward as teachers and
u rde s
f
su
fer
themselves
to
be
satised
with
the
mos
t
g
indiff erent attainments and a miserable m ediocrity,
without s o much as inquiring ho w they may rise higher,
much less making any attempt t o rise F or any o t he r
art they would have served an apprenticeship , and w o uld
be ashamed t o practise it in public before they had
learned it If any on e would sing, he a t t ends a master ,
and is drilled in the very elementary principles ; an d
only after the most laborious process, dares t o exercise
his voice in public This he does though he has scarce
any thing t o learn but the mechanical execution of what
lies in sensible f orm
But the extempore
S before t he eye
S peaker, w h o is t o in ve nt a s well a s to utter, to ca rry
.

'

27 2

RE A D I NG A N D S PE AKI NG

an O peration of the mind as well as to produce sound ,


enters upon the work without preparatory discipline
and then wonders that he fails ! If he were learn ing
t o play on the ute for public exhibition what hours
a n d days would he Spend in giving facility to his ngers
and attain ing the power o f the sweetest and most ex
pr e ssive ex e cution
If he were devoting himself to the
organ what months and years would he labor that he
might know its compass and be master o f its keys and
be able to draw out at will all its various combinations
o f harmonious sounds and its ful l richness and delicacy
An d yet he will f ancy the grandest
of expression
and the most various and most expressive of all in s t ru
ments which the innite Creator has fashioned by the
union of an intellectual soul with the powers of speech
may be played upon without study o r practice he comes
to it a m ere u ninstru cted tyro and thinks to manage all
its stops and command the whole compass of its varied
and comprehensive power
He nds himself a bungler
in the attempt , is mortied at his failure and settles it
in his mind for ever that the attempt is vain
on

L ORD ULLIN S D AUGHTE R T hom s

Ca mp bel l

17 7 7

A Chieftain to t he highlands bound,


Cries
Boatman dO not t arry
And I ll grv e thee a silver poun d
T O row u S o e r the ferry
,

N ow who be ye would cross L o chgyl e,


T his dark and stormy water P
,

(t

1844.

L ORD ULL I N S D A U G H T E R

27 3

And fast be fore her father s men


Three days we ve e d together,
F o r Should he nd us in the glen
My blood woul d stain the heather

His horsemen hard behind us ride


S hould they our step s discover
I
Then whO will cheer my bonny bri d e
When they have slain her lover P
,

O ut Spoke the hardy Highland W igh t,


I ll gO my chief I m ready
I
I t is n ot for your silver brigh t
B ut for your W insome lady

And, by my word, the bon n y bird


In danger Shall not t arry
S o, though the waves are raging w hit e,
I ll r ow you o er the ferry

By

this, the storm grew loud apace,


The water wraith wa s shrieking
A n d in the scowl of heaven each fac e
G re w dark a s they were S peaking
-

B ut

s t ill , a s wilder blew the win d


And as the night grew drearer,
A d own the gle n rode armed men,
T heir t rampling sounded near er

O h ast e thee haste


the lady crie s,
Though tempest round u s gather
,

R E A D I NG AN D S P E A K I NG

27 4

The boat has left the s t ormy land


A s t ormy sea before her
I
When, oh t ho strong for huma n hand,
The tempest gathered o er her
,

And still they rowed amidst the roar


O f waters fast prevailing :
Lord Ullin reached that fatal shore,
His wrath was changed to wailing

For sore dismayed through storm and Shade,


His child he did discover
I
I
O ne lovely hand s he stretche d for aid,
And on e I was round her lover
,

Come back come back I he crie d in grief,


I
Across this stormy water
I
And I ll forgive your Highlan d chief ;
I
My daughter
O h my daughter

Twas vain the loud waves lashed t he shore,


R eturn or aid preventing
The waters wild went o er his child ,
I
And he was left l am en t rn g

A young P arisian , going t o Amsterdam, was a t


tracted by the remarkable beauty of a house situated
n ear the canal He addressed a D ut chman in French,
who stood n ear him in the vessel, with,
I a sk who that house belongs to P
.

'

AM U SI N G A N E C D O T E

27 5

I
do
n
underst
a
nd
ou
The
P
arisian
o
t
(
y )
,
n ot doubting but that he und erstood t ook the D utch
m an s answer for the n ame of the proprietor
O O
said he
it belongs t o Mr K a n ifers t an e Well , I am
sure he must be very agreeably Si t uated ; the house is
most charming and the garden ap pears delicious I
don t know that ever I s a w a better ; A fr ien d of mine
has on e much like it, near the river at Chaise but I
certainly give this t he preference
He added m any
other observations of the same kind, t o which the D utch
man not understanding them , made no reply
Whe n he arrived a t Amster dam , he s a w a most
beautiful woman on the quays walking arm in arm with
a gentleman He asked a person that passed him who
that charming lady was but t he man , not understand

Iis lea n n iet v er s t a a h


ing French , repli ed
What

Sir replied ou r traveller is that Mr K an ifers t a n e s


wife whose house is near the canal P Indeed , this gen
t o possess such a n oble house ,
t l e m a n s l o t is enviable
an d s o lovely a companion
The next day, when he wa s walking o u t he s a w
some trumpeters playing at a gentleman s door, who ha d
got the largest prize in the D utch lottery O ur P ari
sian , wishin g t o be informed of the gentleman s name

he was still answered, Ik lea n n iet c er s t a a n

said he this is too great an accession of good fortune


Mr K a n ife rst a n e proprietor of such a ne house , hus
band of such a beautif ul woman , and t o get t he largest
prize in the lottery
It must be allowed that there a re
s ome fortunate men in the world
About a week after this, our t ra veller, walking a bout,

v er st a a n

'

'

'

"

'

R E AD I N G AN D S PE A K I NG

27 6

a very superb burying He asked whose it was


replied the person of whom he
II: lea n n iet v er s t a a n
asked the question
O m y G od
exclai m ed he
poor Mr K a n ifer s t a n e who had such a noble house
such an angelic wife and the largest prize in the lottery
He must have quitted this world with great regret but
I thought his happiness was t oo complete to be of long
duration
He then went home reecting all the way
o n the instability of human a ff airs
s aw

T HE S

HI P

OF

S TAT R
E

ev.

Wm P
.

unt .

Break u p the union of these S tates because there


are acknowledged evils in ou r system P IS it so easy a
matter then t o make every thing in the actual world
conform exactly to the ideal pattern we have con cerv e d
in our minds of absolute r ight P S uppose the fatal
blo w were struck and the bonds which fasten together
these S tates were severed ; would the evils and mischiefs
that would be experienced by those who are actually mem
bers of this vast R epublican Community be all that would
ensue P Certainly not We are connected with the
several N ations and R aces of the world as no other
P eople has ever been connected
W e have O p en e d our
doors and invited emigration to o u r soil from a l l l a nds
T housands have
Our invitation has bee n accepted
come at o u r bidding Thousands more are on the way
O ther thousands still are standing a tiptoe o n the shoie s
o f the O ld World eager to nd a passage t o the land
,

A W AT E RF O WL

27 7

here subj ecte d t o a social fusion , ou t of which P rovi


d ence designs to form a n ew man
We are in this wa y teaching the world a great les
namely that men o f di ff erent language s habits
s on
,
manners and creeds, ca n live t ogether and vote toge
ther and, if not pray and worship t ogether yet in near
vicinity and do all in peace, an d be for certain pur
poses a t least on e people And is n ot this lesson of
some value to the world , especially if we can teach it
not by theory merely but through a successful example P
Has not this lesson , thus conveyed , some connectio n
'
with the world s progress towards that far o period t o
which the human mind looks for the fullment o f its
vision o f a perfect social state ? It may be sa fely as
s er t e d th a t th is Union could no t be dissolved without
disarranging and convu lsing every part of the globe
N ot in the indulgence of a vain cond ence did o ur
fathers build the S hip of S tate, an d launch i t upon the
waters We will exclaim, in the words o f one of our
p oets
s ail on 0 S h i p o f S ta te !
S ail o n 0 U n i on s tr on g a n d grea t !
Hum an ity with all it s fear s
W ith all t he h op es o f futur e ye ars
Is h an gi n g b r e ath l ess o n th y fate !
a re

hither, mids t falling de w,


While glo w the heavens wi th t he l as t s t ep s of day,
Far through their rosy dep ths, d os t thou pursue
Thy solit ar y wa y P
W

278

R E A D I NG

S PE A K ING

AND

Vainly the fowler s eye

Might mark thy dis t ant igh t to do thee wron g,


As darkly painted on the crimson Sky
Thy gure oats along
,

S e ek s t

thou the plashy brink


O f weedy lake or marge of riv e r wide
O r where the r ckin g billows rise and sink
O n the chafed ocean side P

There is a P ower whose care


Teaches thy way along that pathless coast ,
The desert and illimitab l e air
Lone wandering b u t not lost
,

All day thy wrn gs have fanned


At that far height the cold, thi n atmosphere,
Yet stoop not , weary to the welcome land
Though the dark n ight is near
,

And soo n that toil Shall end


S oon shal t t ho u nd a summer home and rest ,
And screa m among thy fellows reeds Shall be nd
S oon o er thy sheltered n est
,

T hou r t

gone, the abyss of heaven


Hath swallowed up thy form yet , on my h e a rt
D eepl y hath sunk the le sson thou hast given,
And Shall not soon depart

HE

A M E R ICA N

AG

FL

L E S SO N X LI

M ERI CAN FLAG J

1 T HE A
.

R Dra ke

27 9

17 9 5 ;

1820.

hen Freedom , from her mountain heigh t,


Unfurled her standard t o the air,
S he tore the a z ure robe of light
An d s et the stars of glory there
S he mingled with its gorgeous dyes
The milky baldric of the ski e s
And striped its pure celestial whit e,
W ith streakings of the morning light
Then from his mansion in the s un ,
S he called her eagle bearer down ,
An d gave into his mighty hand
The symbol of her chosen land
M ajestic monarch of the cloud,
W ho r ea r s t aloft thy regal form
T o hear the tempes t t rumpings loud,
And see the lightn ing lances driven ,
When strive the warriors of the storm,
And rolls the thun der drum of Heaven ,
C hild of the S un to thee t is give n
T o guard the banner of the free
T o hover In the sulphur smoke
T o war d a wa y t he ba tt le s t roke
And bid i t s blendin gs shine afar,
Like rainbows on the clouds of wa r,
T he harbingers of victory
.

I!

Flag of the free hear t s hope an d home


By an gel hand s t o valor give n

2 80

R E A D ING AN D S PE A KI NG

T hy st ars have lit the welki n dome


An d all thy hues were born in heave n
For ever oat that standard Sheet
Where breathes the foe but falls before u s
With Freedom s soil beneath ou r feet
An d Freedom s banner s t re a ming o er u s P
,

DEATH

EREMIAH MASON

OF J

1849

W ebst er

S ir political eminence and professional fame fade


and die with all things earthly N othing of character is
really permanent but virtue and personal worth They
re m ain Whatever of excellence is wrought into the
soul itself belongs to both world s R eal goodness does
not attach itself merely to this lif e it points to another
world P olitical or professional fame cannot last for
ever but a conscience void of o ff ence before G od and
man is an inheritance for eternity R eligion t he refo re
is a necessary an indispensable element in any grea t hu
man character There is n o living without it R eligi on
is the t ie t hat connects man with his Creator and holds
If that tie be all sundered all bro
him to his throne
ke n he oats away a wort hless a t o m In t he universe
its proper a ttractions all gone its destiny thwarted an d
its whole fu t u re n ot hin g b u t darkness d esolation and
death A man with n o sense of religious dut y is he
whom the S cript ures describe in s o terse but terric a

manner as l iving without G od in the world


S uch a
m an is ou t of his prop er being ou t of t he circle of all
,

'

of

his cre a tion

DE AT H

OF J ERE MIA H

MAS ON

281

t ra t in g,

sedate , could not but meditate deeply on the


condition o f man below and feel its responsibilities He
could not look on this wondrous frame
.

Th i s

un

iv

lf

er s a

m e, thu s

ra

won dr ous fair

without feeling that it was created and uphel d by an In


t el ligen ce to which all other intelligence must be r e s pon
sible I a m bound t o s a y that in the course of my life
I never met with an individual in any profession o r con
dition of life who al ways Spoke and always thou ght with
such awful reverence of the power and presence of G od
N o irreverence no lightness, even no t oo familiar allu
sion t o G od and his attributes ever esc a ped his lips
The very notion of a S upre m e Being was with him made
It lled t h e whole of his
u p o f a we and solemnity
great mind with the stro n gest emotions A man , like
him with all his proper sentiments and sensibilities
alive in him , must in this state of existence have some
thing t o believe and something to hope for ; or else as
life is advancing to its close and parting all is heart

Sinking and O ppression Depend U pon it whatever

l
o
f
o
d
else may be the mind
an
man old age is only
reall y happy when , o n feeling the enj oyments of this
world pass away, it begin s t o lay a stron ger hold o n
those of an other
Mr Mason s religious sentime nt s a nd feelin gs were
t he crowning glories of his character
He died In ol d age : b u t n ot by a viole n t stroke
from the hand of death , n o t by the sudden rupt ure of
t he t ree of nature , b u t by the gradual we aring ou t of
lif e He e njoyed t hrough life, i nd ee d, remarka bl e h eal th
~

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AK I NG

2 82

He took competent exercise loved the open air , an d


avoided all extreme theories and practice he controlled
his conduct and practice of life by the rules of prudence
and moderation His death was, therefore, n ot unlike
that described by the Angel admonishing Adam
,

yi ld it j
e

us

id Ad

sa

bm it ;

am , an d s u

th er e yet n o oth er way b esides


T h es e p ai n ful p a s sag es ho w we m ay com e
T o d eat h an d m ix with o ur con n atur al d ust ?

B ut is

well ob s er v e
n o t t oo m u ch b y t em p er a n ce t a ugh t
T he r u l e o f
In wh at th o u e at s t a n d dr in k s t ; s eekin g fr om th en ce
Due n ou r i sh m e n t n o t glutton ou s d e light ;
T ill m an y y e ar s o ver th y h ea d r etur n :
S o m ay s t th o u live ; till like rip e fr uit th ou dr op
In to t hy m o t h er s l ap ; o r b e with ease
Gat her d n o t h ar sh ly pl u ck d f o r d eath m atur e :
Thi s is o l d a ge
Th er e

is ,

sa

id Mi h
c

a el ,

if t h

ou

GAINST REP UD IATION

3 A
.

184 3

W ebs t er

at

R ochest er )

What ca n be the debt of a S tate like P ennsylvania ,


that She should not be able to pay it that She canno t
pay it if she will but take from her pocket the money

that she has in it P E ngland s debt is engrafted upon


her verysoil ; She is bound down to the very earth by
it ; and it will affect E ngland and E nglishm en , to the
ftieth gene ration But the debt of P ennsylvania the
debt of Illinois the debt of any S tate in the Union ,
Le t u s be
a m o irn t s not to a s rx p e n ce In comparison

b u t let u s avoid, as we despise the charac


M
ER
ICA
N
S
A
,

COUN TRY S

OU R

H O N OR OU

OWN

2 83

what they think of u s if they can nevertheless say


u don t pay your debts P
N
ow gentlemen I belong
o
y
t o Massachuse t ts but if I belonged to a deeply indebted
S tate I d work these te n ngers to their stumps I d hold
plo u gh I d drive plough , I d do both before it should be
said of the S tate to which I belonged that She did not
pay her debts That s the true principle let u s act
upon it , let u s go it t o its full exten t
If it costs
u s ou r comforts l e t us sacrice ou r co m forts
if
it
costs
,
u s our farms let u s mortgage o u r farms
But don t let
it be said by the proud cap italists o f E ngland you
don t pay your debts
Yo u , R epublican G overn
ments don t pay your debts
Let u s say t o them

W E W I LL pay them
we wil l pay them t o the u t ter
most farthing
That s my rm conviction of what we
ought t o do That s my opinion, and water can t drown
re can t burn it ou t of me
If Ameri ca owes a debt
What I have is ready
l e t her pay it let her P A Y IT
for the sacrice What you have I kno w would be
ready for the sacrice At any rate and at any sacrice,
d on t let it be said on the exchanges of London or P aris
don t let it be said in any on e of the proud monarchies
of E u rope
America owes and can t , or won t pay
I
I

Le t u s pay let u s P AY
God forbid

or

O UR C O UNTRY S HONOR

G entlemen

OU R

OW N

(W ebs t er

at

""

M a r sheld)

I came here t o confer with you as


friends and countrymen , to speak my own mind , but if
we all should Speak,and occupy as much tim e as I have
we should make a late mee t ing ; I Shall detai n you n o

lo nger I h ave been long in public life far longer far


.

2 84

R E A D I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

longer than I shall remain there I have ha d some par


t icip a t ion for m ore than thir t y years in the councils of
the country ; I p r ofess to feel a strong attachment t o
the liberty of the United S tates to the constitution a n d
free institutions of the United S tates to the honor and
I may say the glory of this great G overnment and
great Country I feel every injury inicted U pon this
country almost as a personal injury I blush for every
f ault which I think I see committed in its public co u n
cils , as if they were faults or mistakes of my own I
know that at this moment there is no object upon
earth so attracting the ga z e of the intelligent and civi
liz e d nations of the earth as this great R e public
All
men look at u s all men examine ou r course all good
m e n are anxious for a f avorable resul t to t h i s great ex
e rim e n t of R epublican liberty
We
are
n a hill and
o
p
cannot be hid We cannot withdraw ourselves either
from the com m endation or the reproaches of the cm
They s e e u s as t hat star of e m pire which
liz e d world
half a century ago was predicted as m aking its way
westward I wish they may s ee it as a m ild placid ,
though brilliant o rb making its way athwart the
whole heavens, t o the enlightening and cheering of m
kind a nd not a meteor of re and blood, terrifying the
n ations
.

T HE T

RUE S O CE
UR

OF R

EF ORM

R ev E
.

H Chop in
.

T he great element o f reform is n ot born of human


wisdo m : it does not draw its life from hum an organi
I nd it only in CH R ISTIA N ITY
Thy king
z a t ion s
.

HE

T R U E S O U R C E O F RE F OR M

2 85

in this prayer It is the aspiration o f every soul that


goes fort h in the spirit of R eform
For what is the
It is a petition that a l l
s ignicance o f this prayer ?
holy inuences would penetrate and subdue and dwell
in the heart of man until he shall t hink and Speak
and do good from the very necessity of his being S o
would the institutions of error and wrong crumble and
pass away S o would sin die o ut from the earth and
the human soul living in harmony with the D ivine
Will this earth would become like Heaven It is too
late for the R eform ers to sneer at Christi a nity it is
foolishness for them to reject it In it are enshrined
o u r faith in hu m an progress our condence in R eform
It is indissolubly conn ected with all that is hopeful Spir
it u al , capable in man
That men have misunderstood
it and perverted it , is true But it is also true, that
the noblest e fforts for h uman melioration have come o u t
o f it have been based upon it
IS it not s o P Come ,
ye remembered on es who sleep t he Sleep o f the just
who took yo ur conduct from the l in e o f Christian P hi
l OS0phy, come from your tombs and answer
.

Come Howard , from the gloom of the prison and


the taint of the lazar house , and Show u s what P hilan
t hr0p hy can do when imbued with the spirit o f J esus
Come, E liot , from the t hick forest where the red ma n
listens to the Word of Life come P e n n , from thy
sweet counsel and weaponless victo ry and Show u s
what C h ristian Z eal and Christian L ove can accomplish
with the rudest barbarians o r the ercest hearts Come ,
R aikes , from thy labors with t he ign ora n t and the poor,
,

R E A D I NG

2 86

AN D

S PE A K I N G

and Show us with what an eye this Faith regards the


lowest and the least of ou r race and how diligently it
labors not for the body , not for the rank b u t for the
plastic soul that is to course the ages of immortality

And ye, who are a great number ye nameless ones,


who have done good in your narrow Spheres content to
forego renown on earth, and seeking your reward in the
R ecord on High come and tell us how kindly a spirit,
how lofty a purpose , or how strong a courage the R eli
gion ye professed can breathe into the poor the humble,
and the weak G o forth then S pirit of Christian ity
to thy great work o f R E F OR M
The P ast bears witness
to thee In the blood Of thy martyrs and the ashes o f
thy saints and heroes : the P rese nt is hopeful because
thee ; the Future shall acknowledge thy om n ip o
of
te n ce
,

L E S S O N X LII
l

N TERPRISE O

M RICAN C

E dmund Burke,

o L ON IST s .

17 7 5

some time past , Mr S peaker, has t he Ol d


World been f e d from the N ew The scarcity whic h
u
m
i
have
felt
would
have
been
a
desolating
fa
ne
if
o
y

this chil d of your ol d age if America , wi t h a t ru e


l ial piety , with a R oman charity, had not put the full
breast of youthfu l ex 1ib era n ce t o t he mou t h of it s ex
ha u s t e d parent
Turn ing from t he agri cul tural r e
source of the Colonies, co n sider the weal t h which they
h ave d rawn from t he s ea by t heir sheries The Spirit
F or

N T ERPR IS E

OF

AM ER ICA N C O L ON ISTS

2 87

in

which tha t ent erp rising employment has bee n e x


e r cis ed ought t o raise your e st eem and admiration
P ray , s ir, what in t he world is equal t o i t ? P ass by
the other and look at the manner in which the P eople
of N ew E ngland have of lat e carried o n the whale sh
e ry
While we follow them among the tumblin g
mountains of ice and b ehold them pene t rating int o the
deepest frozen recesses of Hudso n Bay, and D avis s
S traits while we a r e looking f or them beneath the
Arctic Circle we hear t hat they have pierced into the
O pposit e region of P olar cold that they are at the an
t ip od e s , and engaged under the fro z en serpent of the
S outh Falkland Island , which seemed too remot e and
rom a ntic an obj ect f or the grasp of national ambition ,
is bu t a stage and rest ing place in the progress of their
Victorious industry
N or is the e quinoctial heat more
d iscouraging t o them than t he ac cumul ated wint er of
both the P oles We know t ha t whilst some of t hem
draw the line and strike the h a rpoon on t he coast of
Africa , others ru n t he lo ngitude an d pursue their gi
a n t ic game along the coast of Brazil
N
o
but
e
a
s
,
g
that is vexed by their sheries N o climate that is n ot
witness t o their t oils N ei t her the perseverance of
Holla n d , n or the act ivity of Fra n ce n or t he dext erous
an d rm s a gacity of E nglish ent erprise , ever carried
t his most perilous mode of hardy industry t o the ex
t ent t o which it has been pushed by t his recen t P eople
a P eople who are st ill , a s i t were , but in t he gristle ,
a n d not yet hardened int o the bone of manhood
When I con templat e t hese t hings , when I know
t h a t t he C olo n ies in general owe li t tle or n ot hin g t o
.

'

RE AD I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

288

care of ours and that t hey are not squeeze d int o


this happy form by t he constraint s of a wat chful and
suspicious G overnment but that , through a wise a n d
salutary neglect a generous nature has been s n e r e d
t o t ake her own way t o perfection whe n I reect upon
these e ffort s when I s e e how protable they have be en
t o u s I feel all the pride of power Sink and all pre
sumption in the wisdom of human contrivances melt ,
and die away within me My rigor relent s I pardon
something t o the Spirit of liberty

an y

FROM LORD C HAT HAM S S PEECH

Jan ua ry 2 0th, 17 7 5

I attended says J osiah Quincy J un the de


bat es in the House of Lords G ood fortune gave me
o n e of the best places for hearing and t aking minu t es
Lord Chatham rose like Marcellus
His lan guage ,
voice and gesture were more pathetic tha n I ever s aw
o r heard before at the Bar o r the S enate
He seemed
like an old R oman S enator rising with t he dign it y of
age yet speaking with the re of youth
D r Frank
lin who wa s also present at the debat e , said of it , I
had seen in the course of my life , sometimes elo quence
t hout wisdom , a n d often wisdom without eloquence
in the presen t instance I have see n both u nite d, and
both as I t hink, in the highest degree possible
America , my Lords , cann ot be reconciled t o t his
coun t ry they ought n ot t o be reconciled till the
troops of Britain are withdrawn How c a n Ameri c a
t rust you , with the bayone t a t her breast ?
How ca n
She suppose that you me a n le ss tha n bondage or death ?
I t herefore move t h a t a n a dd ress b e prese nt e d t o his
,

'

S P E E C H O F L OR D C H A T H A M

ON

AM ER I CA

2 89

M aj es t y, advising t ha t imme diat e orders be despa t che d


t o G eneral G age for removin g his Majes t y s forces from
t he t own of Bos t on The w ay mus t be immediately
Opened for reconcilia t ion
I t will soon be t oo late
An hour n ow lost in allaying ferment s in America may
produce years of calami t y N ever will I desert for a
moment the conduc t of t his weighty business Unless
n ailed t o my bed by t he ex t remi t y of sickness I will
pursue it t o t he en d I will knock at the door of t his
sleeping and conf ounded Minis t ry a n d will if i t be
p ossible rouse them t o a sense of their danger
I cont end n ot for in dul gence but for j ustice t o
America W hat is ou r right t o persis t in such cruel
and vin di ctive act s against a loyal , resp ec t abl e people ?
They s ay you have n o right t o t ax them without thei r
consent They s ay t ruly

T HE

S AME conti

n ue

R epresentatio n a nd taxation mus t go t ogether ;


I therefore urge and conjure
t hey are inseparable
your Lordships t o adopt the conciliating meas ure If
illegal violence has been as it is said com mit ted in
America prepare the wa y O pe n t he door of possibility
f or ackno wledgmen t a nd sat isfactio n ; bu t proceed

n ot t o such coercion such proscrip t ion : cease your


in discriminat e in ict ion s a merce n ot t hirty thousand
oppress n ot t hree millions ; irrit a t e t hem n ot t o u n
appeasable rancor for the faul t of fort y or fty S uch
s everity of injustice m ust for ever render incur a ble the
wounds you have in icted Wha t t hough you m arch
from t ow n t o t own from p rovin ce t o provin ce P W ha t
.

13

R E A D I NG A N D S P E A K I N G

2 90

t hough you enforce a t emporary a n d local submissio n

how Shall you secure the obedience of t he country


you leave behind you in your progre ss P How gr a s p
the dominion of eight een hundred mile s of con tinent ,
pop ul ous in numbers stron g in valor liber t y, and the
mean s of resist ance P
The spirit which n ow resist s your t a x ation i n
America is the same which formerly opposed loans
benevolences and ship money in E ngland the same
Spirit which called all E ngland on it s legs and by the
Bill of R ight s vindicat ed the E nglish Constitution
the same spirit which e stablished the great f u n da m en
t al essential ma x im of your liberties t ha t n o s u bj ect of
E n gla n d s ha ll be t a x ed bu t by his own con s en t
This
glorious W hig s p irit a n imates three millions in Amer
ica who prefe r pover t y with liberty t o gilded chain s
and sordid afuence and who will die in defence of
t heir right s as men as freemen What Shall oppose
this s pirit aided by t he cong enial ame glowing in t he
"
breast of every W hig in E ngland P
Tis liberty t o
liberty engaged that they will d efe n d themselves
their families and t h eir country In t his gre a t c ause
t hey are immov ably allied : i t is the alli an ce of G od
a n d n ature immu t able , e t erna l, x e d as t he rma
men t of Heave n
,

T HE

VILLAGE P REA C H R Oli


E

ver

ldsmith B

Go

17 31 ;

17 7 4

N ear yonder Cop se where once t he gar d e n smiled ,


A n d s t ill where many a gar d e n ower grows wil d
There where a f ew t orn Shrubs t he place disclose ,
,

HE VIL EAGE

PR E A C H ER

A man he wa s t o all the country dear,

And passing rich with forty pounds a year


R emot e from t owns he ran his godly race ,
N or e er had changed , nor wished t o change his place
Unskilful he t o fawn or seek for power,
By doctrine s fas hione d t o the varying hour
Far other aims his heart had learne d t o prize ,
More bent t o raise the wret ched , than t o rise
His house wa s known t o all the vagr ant t rain ,
He chid their wande r ings but relieved their pain
The long reme m bered beggar was his guest
W hose beard descending swe pt his aged breast
The ruined spendthrift now no longer proud
Claim ed kin dred t here , and had his claims allowed
The broken sol dier , kindly bade t o stay,
S at by his re and talked the night away
Wept o e r his wounds , or tales of sorrow done ,
S houldered his crut ch , and showed how eld s were won
P leased with his guest s , the good man learned t o glow,
And quite forgot their vices in their woe
Careless , their merit s o r their fault s t o scan ,
His pity gave , ere charity began
.

T hus t o relieve the wretched wa s his p ride ,


And e en his failings leaned t o virtue s side
But in his duty prompt at every call
He wat ched and wept he prayed and felt for all
And as a bird each fond endearment t rie s
T o t empt it s n ew edge d off s pring t o the skies,
He tried each art reprove d each du ll del ay
All ured to bright er wor l ds and l e d t he wa y

RE A D ING AN D S PE AK ING

2 92

Beside the bed whe r e p ar ting life wa s laid ,


And sor row , guilt and pain by t u r ns dism ayed ,
The reve r end cha m pion stood At his cont r ol
D espair and anguish ed the struggling soul
Co m fo r t ca m e down the tre m bling wretch t o raise ,
And his last falte ring accent s whispe r ed praise
At church with m eek and unaff ected grace ,
His look s a dor ned t he venerable place
T r uth fr om his lips prevailed with double sway
And fools who cam e t o scoff r e m ained t o pray
The se r vice pa s t a r ound the pious man ,
W ith ready zeal each honest r ustic ran
I
w
E en ch ild r en follo ed with endearing wile
And plucked his gown to share the good man s smile
His ready s m ile a parent s warmth expressed
Their welfare pleased him and their cares distressed
T o the m his hea r t his love his griefs were given
But all his serious t ho ught s had r est in Heaven
As som e tall cliff that lifts it s awful for m ,
S wells fr o m the vale and midway leaves the st orm ,
Though round it s breast the rolling clouds are spread ,
E ternal sunshine s ettles on it s head
,

ES RT E D

T HE D

VILL A GE Goldsmith

S weet Auburn 1 parent of the blissful hour


Thy glades forlorn confe ss the ty r ant s power
Here as I take my solitary rounds
Amid thy tangling walks and ruined grounds
And many a year elapsed return t o view
Where once the co t t age st ood , the hawthorn gre w,
R emembrance wakes with all her busy train
,

E S ER T E D

HE

VILL A G E

293

In all my wanderings round t his world of care ,


In all my griefs and God has given my share ,
I still had hope s my latest hours t o crown ,
Amid these hu m ble bowers t o lay m e down
T o husband ou t life s t aper at t he close
And keep the ame from wasting by repose
I still had hopes , for pride att ends u s still ,
Amid the swains t o show my book l earned skill ,
Around my re an evening group t o draw ,
And t ell of all I felt , and all I s aw
And as a hare whom hounds and horn s pursue ,
P ant s t o the place from whence at rst she ew,
I still had hopes my long vexations past ,
He r e t o return and die at home at last
0 blest reti r e m ent 1 friend t o lif e s decline ,
R etreat s from care that never must be m ine
How blest is he who crowns , in shades like these ,
A youth of labor with an a ge of ease
W ho quit s a world where strong t empt ations t ry,
And , sin ce tis hard t o combat , learns t o y 1
F or him , n o wret ches born t o work and weep ,
E xplo r e the mine or t empt t he dangerous deep
N 0 surly port er stands in guilty sta t e ,
T o spurn imploring famine from his gat e
But on he moves t o mee t his latter end ,
Ange ls around befriending v irtue s friend
S inks t o the grave with unperceived decay ,
While resignation gently s10 pe s the way
And all his prospect s brightening t o the l ast ,
His heaven co m m ences ere the worl d be pa s t

A N D s P E A HIN G

R E A D I NG

2 94

L E SS O N XLIII
1

PEECH O F

CAIus MAR Ius S allust


.

D 35 B 0
.

It is b u t too com mo n my count rymen to observe a


mate rial diffe rence between the behavior of those who
stand candidates for places of power and trust befor e
and after their obtaining them They solicit the m in
one m anner and execute the m in another They s e t
ou t with a g r eat appea rance of activity hu m ility and
m ode ration ; and they quickly fall into sloth p r ide
and avarice It is undoubtedly no easy matter to dis
cha r ge to the gene ral satisfaction the duty of a s u
p r e m e co m m ande r in t r oublesome ti m es I am I hOp e,
duly sensible of the importance of the ofce I propose
to take upon m e for the service of my count ry T o
carry on with e ff ect an expensive war and yet be
frugal of the public money ; to oblige those to serve
'
who m it may be delicate t o o en d to conduct at the
same ti m e a complicated variety of O perations to con
ce r t measures at home answerable t o the state of things
abroad ; and t o gain eve r y valuable end in spite of
O pposition from the envious the fa ct ion s and the dis a f
f e ct e d to do all this , my countrymen is more di fcult
than is generally thought And besides the d is a dv a n
tages common to me with all ot hers in e m inent stations,
,

t he

anti quity

of

his family, the important services

of

SP E E CH

US

OF CAIu s M A R I

his ancestors and the multitudes he has by power en


gaged in his intere st to scr een him from C ondign pun
my whole s afety depends upon myself : which
ishm en t
renders it the mo r e indispensably necessary for me to
take care that my conduct be clear and u n ex cep t ion
able
I am well aware , my countrymen that the eyes of
the public are upon me ; and though all who pre fer
the real advantage of the co m monwealth t o every other
conside r ation favor m y pretensions, the P atricians de
si r e nothing so much as an occasion a gains t me It is
therefore my xed resolution t o u se m y best endeavors
that you be not disappointed in me, and that their in
direct designs against me may be defeated I have ,
from my youth been familiar with toil s and with dan
gers I was faithful to your interests my countrymen
when I served you for no reward but that of honor It
is not my design to betray you, n ow that you have con
You hav e committed
ferred upon me a place o f prot
The P atri
t o mv conduct the war again s t J u gu r t ha
But where would be the
cia n s are o ff ended at this
wisdom of giving s uch a command t o on e of their hon

orable b ody, a person of illustrious birth, o f ancient

m
family, o f inn u erable statues , but of n o experience ?
What good would his long line of ancestors, or his mul
t it u de o f statues do his c ountry in the day of battle ?
W hat could such a general do , but, In his trepidation
and inexperience , have recourse t o some inferior com
m ander for direction In difculties t o which he was not
himse lf e qual ? T hus your P atrician general would ,
in fact , ha ve a general ove r him ; so that the actin g
,

R E A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

296

com m ander would still be a P lebeian S o true is t his,


my countrymen that I have myself known those who,
having been Chosen consuls be gan then to read the
hi s tory of their o wn country of which till that tim e ,
they were totally ignora n t that is, they rst obtain ed
the e m ployment and then bethought the m selves of the
qualications necessary for the proper discharge of it
.

T HE

S AME

cont in ued.

I submit to you r judgm ent , R omans, on which side


t he advantage lie s , when a co m pa r ison is made between
P at rician hau ghtiness and P lebeian expe rience The
very actions which they have only read I have partly
Seen and par tl y m yself achieved What they know by
reading I know by a ction They a re pleased t o slight
I despise their mean characte rs
m y m ean birth
W ant of bir th and for tune is t he objection against m e
w a nt of personal worth against the m But are not all
men of the same species ? W hat can make a di ffer
ence bet ween o n e man and another, but the endo wm ents
For my par t , I shall always look upon
o f the m ind
the b r avest m a n as the noblest man S uppose it were
inqui red of the fathe r s of such P at ricians as Albinus and
Bestia whether, if they had their choice, they would
desire sons of their character, or of m ine ; what would
be their answer but that they would wi s h t he worthiest
to be their sons ? If the P at r icians have reason to
despise me l e t them likewise despise their ancestors,
who s e nobili t y wa s the fr uit of their virtue D o they
envy the honors bestowed upon me ? Let them envy
likewise m y l abors , my abstinence , and the dangers
.

S PEE C H

OF

CAI U S MA R I U S

2 97

I have undergone for m y country, by which I have a c


quired the m But those worthless men lead such a li fe
of inactivity , as if they despised any honors you can
besto w ; whilst they aspir e to honors , as if they had
They
dese r ved them by the most industrious virtue
Claim to the m selves the rewards of activity for having
enj oyed the pleasures of lu xury
Yet none can be
m ore lavish than they are in praise of their ancestors
and they imagine they honor themselves by celebrating
their fo r efathers : whe r eas they do the very contra r y
F or, as much as their ancestors were distingui s hed for
their vi rtue s , s o much are they disgr aced by their vices
The glory o f ancestors casts a light, indeed upon their
poste rity but it only serves t o show what the descend
an t s a r e I t alike exhibit s to public vie w their degen
I own I cannot boast of the
e ra cy and their worth
deeds done by my fo r efathers but I hOp e I may ans we r
the cavils of the P at r icians by standin g up in defence of
what I have myself done O bserve n o w, m y country
men the inju s tice of the P atricians They ar rogate t o
themselves honors on account of the exploits done by their
forefathers, whilst they will not allow me due praise for
performing the very same sor t of actions in my o wn
person He has no statues they cry, of his fam il y
He can trace no venerable line of an cestors What
then ! Is it matter of more praise to disgrace one s
illustrious ancestors t han t o become ill ustrious by his
o wn good behavior ?
What if I can show no statues
o f my fa m ily
I can show the standar ds, the armo r,
and the trappings , which I have myself taken fro m the
van quis hed
I can show the scars of those wo unds which
.

13

R E A D I NG

2 98

AN D s P E Ax ING

I have re ceived by facing the enemies of my country


These are my statues These are the honors I boast
not left m e by inheritance as theirs but earned by
of
t oil by abstinence by valor amidst clouds of dust and
seas of blood : scenes of action, where those eem ma t e
P atricians who endeavor by indirect means , to depre
ciate me in your esteem , have never dared t o show their
face s
.

3 M
.

AR CO

B oz

z AR Is ,

die d 182 3 Fit z Gr ea m Hall eclc


-

At m idnight in his guarded tent


The Tu r k was drea m ing of the hour
When Gr eece her knee in suppliance bent,
S hould t r e m ble at his power :
I n d r eams through camp and court he bore
The t rophies of a conque r or
I n d r ea m s his song of trium ph heard
Then wore his monarch s Signet ring
Then pressed that monarch s throne a king
As wild his thoughts , and gay of wing,
As E den s garden bird
,

An hour passed on , the Turk awoke


That bright drea m was his last
He woke t o hear his s en t rIes shriek,
To arms they come the G reek 1 the G reek

And death shots falling thick and fast


-

M A R CO B Z Z

AR IS

2 99

S trike till the l ast armed foe e xpires


S trike 1 for your altars and your res 1
S trike for the gree n graves of your sires
God and your native land I
-

They fought like brave men , long and well


They piled that ground with Moslem slain
They con quered b u t Bo z zaris fell,
Bleeding at every vein
His few surviving comrades sa w
His smile , when rang the proud hurrah,
And the red eld was won
Then s a w in death his eyelids close,
Calmly as t o a night s repose ,
Like owers at s et of s un
,

Come to the bridal chamber D eath ,


Come to the mother, when she feels
For the rst time , her r s t born s breath
Come when the blessed seals
Which close the pestilence are broke
And crowded cities wail the stroke
Come , in Consumption s ghastly form ,
The earthquake shock, the ocean storm
Come, when the heart beats high and warm,
With ban quet song, and dance , and wine,
And thou art terrible the tear,
The groan , the knell , the pall, the bier,
And a ll we know, or dream or fear,
O f agony, are thine
-

But to the hero, when his sword


Ha s won t he battle for t he free,

RE A DIN G

SP E AK IN G

AN D

Thy voice sounds like a prophet s word


And in its ho llow tones are heard
The thanks of millions yet t o be
Bozzaris with the storied brave
G reece nurt ur ed in her glory s tim e ,
R e s t thee there is no prouder grave,
E ven in her own proud cli m e
We tell thy doo m without a sigh
F o r thou art Freedo m s n ow, and Fame s
O ne of the few the immortal names
That were n ot born to die I

5 B
.

UR IAL

OF S IR JO HN M OO RE

1809

R ev Cha rles W olf e

17 9 1 ; d 182 3

N ot a d r um was heard nor a funeral note


As his co r se to the ra m part we hurried
N ot a s oldie r d ischarged his fare well shot
O er the grave whe re our hero we buried
,

We buried him da r kly at dead of night ,


The sods with ou r bayonets tu r ning
By the st ruggling m oonbeams m isty light ,
And a lante r n dimly bur ning
,

u s eless cofn enclosed his breast ,


N or in sheet nor in shroud we wound him
But he lay like a war rior taking his rest
With his martial cloak around him

No

Few and sho r t were the prayers we said ,


And we spoke not a wo r d of sorrow

BU

R IA L

0F

SI R J O H N M OORE

301

thought as we hollowed his narrow bed ,


And smoothed down his lonely pillow,
T hat the foe and the stranger woul d tread o er his head,
And we far away on the billow
e

L ightly

they ll talk of the spirit that s gone ,


And o e r his cold ashes upbraid him
But little he ll reck if they let him sleep on
In the grave where a B riton has laid him !

But half of ou r heavy task was done ,


When the clock tolled the hour for retiring
An d we hear d by the distant random gun,
That the foe wa s suddenly ring
.

S lowly and sa dl y we laid him down


Fro m the eld of his fame fresh and gory
We carved not a line we raised not a stone
But we left him alone with his glory
,

L E S S O N XLI V
1 IN
.

TH

RIAL OF W ILLIAMSF O R P UB LIS HIN G


B 17 50 ; d
R EAS ON T homas E ki

rs

n e.

P AINE

AGE OE

182 3

In running the mind along the long list of sincere


and devout Christians , I cannot help lam enting that
N ewton had not lived t o this day , t o have had his
shallowness l led up with t his n ew ood of light
poured upon the world by Mr Thomas P aine But the
I will speak plainl y and
S ubj ect is t oo awful f or irony
N ewt on wa s a Christian ! N ewt on , whos e
directly
,

302

R E A D I NG

AN D

S PE A K I NG

m ind

burs t forth from the fetters cast by nature upon


ou r nit e conceptions N ewton , whose science wa s
t ruth and the foundations of whose knowledge of it
was philosophy not those visionary and arrogant pre
s u m p t io n s which t o o often usurp it s name , but
hil
o
so
p
phy resting upon the basis of mathematics , which like
gures , cannot lie N ewton , who carried the l ine and
rule t o the utt ermost barrier of creation , and explored
the principles by which no doubt all created matter
5
3
is held together and exist s
G entlemen in the place we n ow s it t o administer
the justice of t his great country , above a century ago ,
the never t o b e for gotten S ir Matthew Hale presided ,
whose faith in Christianity Is a n e x alted commentary
upon it s truth and reason , and whose life wa s a glorious
exam ple of it s fruit s in man administering human j u s
tice with wisdom and purity drawn fr om the pure
fountain of the Christian dispensation , which has been,
and will be in all ages , a subj ect of the highest rev
erence and admiration But it is said by the author
that the Christian fable is but the tale of the more
ancient superstitions of the world , and may be easily
detected by a proper understanding of the mythologies
D id Milton understand those m yt ho
of the heathens
l ogies ? Was he less versed than Mr P aine in the
superstitions of the world 2 N 0 ; they were the sub
ou t from
his
immortal
song
and
though
shut
f
ec
t
o
j
all recurrence t o them , he poured them f rom the stores
of a memory rich with all that man ever kn ew, and
l aid them In t heir order, a s the ill ustration of real and
,

T H E ST R A NGER

AN D

HI S

E R IE N D .

303

geniu s which cast a sort of shade upon all the other


works of man
But it was the light of the B O DY onl y
that wa s extingu i shed
the celestial l ight shone in
ward , and enabled him t o j ustify t he ways of God t o
man
Thus you nd a ll that is great , or wis e, or sp l en did ,

all the mind s


or illustrious , among creat ed beings ,
gifted beyond ordinary na ture , if n ot Inspired by it s
u niversal Author f or the advancement and dignity of
the world though divided by distant a g es , and by
clashing O pinions distinguishing them from on e ano
ther yet j oining, as it were in on e sublim e chorus t o
celebrat e the truths of Christianity, and l aying up on
it s holy altars the never failin g Offerings of their im
mortal wisdom
.

B . 17 7 1 ;

d 1855
.

Y e hav e don e it

un t o

me

M a tt

m m, 40

A poor wayfaring man of grief


Hath Often crossed me on my way ,
Who sued s o humbly for relief,
That I coul d never answer N ay
I had not p ower t o ask his n ame ,
W hither he went , or whence he came ,
Yet there wa s somethin g in his eye
T hat won my l ove , I knew not why
'

O nc e whe n my scanty m eal wa s sprea d,


He entered not a wor d he s p a k e
,

304

S PE A K IN G

R E A DIN G AN D

And at e but gave me part again


Mine was an Ange l s portion then ,
F or whil e I fed with eager hast e
That crust was manna t o my t ast e
-

I spied him , where a fount ain burst


Clear from the rock : his strength was gone :
The heedless wat er mocked his t hirst ,
He heard it , s a w it hurrying on
I ran t o raise the su ff erer u p
Thrice from the stream b e drained my cup ,
D ipped and returned it running o er
I drank , and never thirst ed more

T was night the oods were ou t ; it b l ew


A winter hurricane aloof
I heard his v 01ce abroad and ew
T o bid him welcom e t o m y roof :
I warm ed I clothed I cheered my guest
Laid him on my own couch t o re st
Then made the hearth my bed and seemed
In E den s garden while I dreamed

S tript wounded beaten nigh t o death


I found him by the highway side
I roused his pulse brou ght back his breath,
R evived his spirit s a n d supplied
Wine oil , refreshment he was hea l ed
,

But from that hour forgot the smart ,

E x T R A CT S

ROM

MR

HAY N E

S PEE C H

305

In prison I s aw him ne x t , condemne d


T o me et a trait or s doom at morn
T he tide of lying tongues I s t emme d
And honored him midst shame and scorn
My friendship s utmost zeal t o try ,
He asked if I for him would die
The esh was weak my blood ran chi ll
But the free spirit cried, I wil l

Then in a moment t o my view,


The stran ger dart ed from disguise
T he t okens in his hands I knew,
My S aviour st ood before my eyes
H e spake and my poor name he named
O f me thou hast not been ashamed
T hes e deeds shall thy mem orial be
F ear n ot , thou didst them unt o M e

EX TRACT S FR OM

MR

HAYN E S

PEECH

1830

The honorable gentleman from M assachusett s aft er


deliberating a whole night upon his course , comes int o
t his chamber t o vin dicat e N ew E ngl and and , instead
O f making up his issue with the gentleman from Mis
souri , on the charges which he ha d p r efer r ed, choose s
t o consider me as the author of those charges ; and ,
losing sight entirely of that gentleman , select s me a s
his adversary , and p ours ou t a ll the v ials of his mighty
wrath up on my devoted head Nor is he willin g t o
st op the r e He goes on t o assail the institutions and
policy of the S outh , and calls in question the princi
p l e s and conduct of the S tat e which I hav e t he honor
*
3

3
3
4
t o represent
,

RE A D I NG

306

S PE A K I NG

AN D

there be on e S tat e in the Union M r P resident


and
I
it
not
in
a
boastful
spirit
that
may
c
h
al
a
s
),
(
y
lenge com parisons with any other for a uniform , ze a l
ou s ardent and uncalculating devotion t o the U nion ,
that S tat e is S outh Carolina S ir, from the very
co m m encement of the R evolution , u p t o this hour ,
there is no sacrice , however great she has not cheer
fully made
no service she has ever hesitat ed t o per
form S he has a dhered t o you in y o ur prosperity ;
b u t in you r adversity she has clung t o you with more
than lial affection N o matter what was the condi
tion of her do m estic aff airs though deprived of her
resources divided by parties or surrounded with dif

l
i
the call of the country has been t o her as
cu t e s
the voice of God D omestic discord ceased at the
sound ; every man became at once reconciled t o his
brethren , and the S ons of Carolina were a ll seen crowd
ing t ogether t o the te m ple , bringing their gif t s t o t he
altar of their com mon country
What sir wa s the conduct of the S outh during
the R evolution ? S ir I honor N ew E ngland for her
conduct in that noble st ruggle But , great a s is the
praise which belongs t o her I think at least equa l
honor is due t o the S outh They espoused the quar
r e1 of their brethren , with a! generous z eal , which did
not suffer them t o st op t o calculat e their interest in
the dispute Favorites of the mother country, pos
sessed of neither sh ips nor seamen t o creat e a com
m er cial n v a l s hip , they might have found in their situ
If

MR

E BST ER S

EPL Y

MR

To

H AY N E

307

lin g on all considerations either of int erest or of safety ,


they rushed int o the conict , and ghting for princi
ple , peril ed all in the sacred cause of freedom N ever
wa s there exhibited in the history of the world higher
e x amples of noble darin g drea df ul suff erin g and heroic
endurance , than by the Whigs of Carolina , during the
R evolution The whole S tat e from the mountains t o
the s ea wa s overrun by an ove r whelming force of t he
e nemy
The fruit s of indust ry p erished on the spot
where they were produced or were consumed by the

foe The Pl ains of Caro lina drank u p the most


precious blood of her cit iz ens Black and s m okin g
ruins marked the place s which had been the habitations
of her chil dren
D riven from their homes int o the
gloomy and al most impenetrable swamps even there
the spirit of liberty survived ; and S outh Carolina
sustained by the example of her S umpters and her
M arions proved , by her conduct that though her soi l
might be overrun , the sp irit of he r people wa s in v in
cible
,

E TRACT S FR O M
X

MR

WEBSTER S

E P LY

T o

A YN E

1830

M r P resident I shall enter on n o encomium upon

M ass achusett s
T here she is b e
she needs none
hold her and j udge f or yourselves There is her his
t ory the world knows it by heart
The past , at
least is secure There is Boston and Concord and
Le xingt on and Bunker Hill and there they will r e
main for ever The bones of her sons fallen in the
w
reat
stru
g
g
l
e
for
Independence
lie
ngled
with
n
m
i
o
,
g
the soil of e very S tat e from New E n glan d t o G eorg ia ,
.

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

308

and there they will lie for ever And , Sir wh ere
Am erican liberty raised it s rst voice , and where its
youth was nurtured and sustained there it still lives
in the strength of it s manhood and full of it s original
Spirit If discord and disunion shall wound it , if
pa r ty strife and blind am bition shall hawk at and t ear
it if folly and m adness , if uneasine ss under salutary
and necessary rest r aint s shall succeed t o separat e it
from that Union by which alone it s exi st ence is made

sure it will stand in t he end by the side of that


cradle in which its infancy was rocked it wil l st r etch
forth it s arm with what ever v igor it may still retain
over the friends who gather round it and it will fall
at last , if f all it must , amidst the proudest monument s
of it s glory , and on the ve r y spot of its origin
-

I p r ofess s ir in my ca r eer hitherto t o have kept


steadily in view the p r osperity and honor of the whole
country and the preservation of ou r Federal Union
I t is t o that Union we owe ou r safety at ho m e , and
I t is t o that
ou r consideration and dignity abroad
Union we are chiey indebted for what ever m ake s u s
most proud of ou r country
That U nion we re a ched
onl y by the discipline of ou r virtues , in t he severe
school of adversity I t had it s origin in the n eces s i
t ie s of disordered nance prostrat e com m erce , and
ruined credit Under it s be nign inuences these great
interest s i mm ediately awoke , as from the dead , and
E very year of it s
S prang forth with newness of life
,

L IB ER TY AN D U N I ON

309

it s

blessings and though ou r t erritory has st ret ched


ou t wider and wider and ou r population spread further
and further, they have n ot outrun its prot ection or it s
benet s I t ha s been t o u s all a COp iou s fountain Of
national , social , p ersonal happiness I have n ot a l
lowed myself s ir t o look beyond the Union , t o s e e
what might lie hidden in t he dark recesses behind I
have not coolly weighed the chances of pre serv ing
liberty when the bonds that unit e u s t ogether shall be
b r oken asunder I have not accustom ed m yself t o hang
over the precipice of disunion , t o see whether , with m y
short sight , I can fathom the depth of the abyss b e
l ow nor C ould I regard him as a safe counselor in the
affairs of this Govern m ent whose thought s should b e
mainly bent on considering, not how the Union should
be best preserved but how t olerable might be the con
dition of the people when it shall b e broken u p and
destroyed
While the U nion last s , we h a ve high exciting
gratifying prosp ect s sp r ead ou t before u s , for u s and
Beyond t hat I seek not t o p enet r at e the
o u r c hildren
veil God g r ant that in m y day at least , that cu r
tain may not rise
God grant that on my vision
never may be O pened what lie s be hind ! W hen my
eyes shall be turned t o behold for the last time , th e
s u n in Heaven , may I not s e e him shining on the b r o
ken and dishonored frag m ent s of a once glorious Union ;
on S tat es severed , di scordant , belligerent
on a land
rent with civil feuds , or drenched , it may be , in frater
nal blood
Le t their last feeble and lin gering glance
rather, behold the g org eous E nsign of the R epublic,
,

RE A D I NG AN D S PE A K ING

310

kn own and honored throughout the earth , still full


high advanced it s arm s and trophie s streaming in their
original lustre not a stripe erased or polluted , nor a
single star obscured , bearing , for it s mott o, no such
miserable int errogat ory as W ha t is a ll t his wor t h 9
nor those other words of delusion and folly L iber t y

r y where
r s t a n d U n io n a t er wa r ds
but
eve
spread
,
f

all over in charact ers of living light , bla z ing on all it s


a m ple folds , as they oat over the s ea , and over t he
land and in every wind under t he whole Heavens, that
other sentim ent , dear t o every t rue American heart
Liberty a n d U nion, n ow and for ever , one and in s ep ar
n ow

LO VE

ON

C U TRY

OE

W al t er S cott

Breathes there a man with soul s o dead ,


W ho never t o himself hath said ,
T his is my own my native land ?
Whose heart hath ne er within him burne d,
As home his foot steps he hath turned ,
From wandering on a foreign strand ?
If such there breathe , go, mark him well
F or him n o minstrel rapture s swell
High though his titles , proud his name ,
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim
D espit e t hose titles , power, and pelf,
The wret ch , concentred all in self,
,

And , doubly dying, shall go down


T o the vile dust from whence he sp run g,

R I G H TS

OE

T H E P L E B E I AN S

L E S S O N XL V
1

RI GHT S O F

HE P

311

Camul ez us
'

L E B E IA Ns .

What I an insult upon u s is t his ? If we are n et


s o rich as t he P at ricians , are we n o t
citi z ens of
R om e a s well as they ? i nhabitant s of the same
1
c o untry ? members of t he same comm u nity ? The
nations bordering upon R ome a n d even stran gers mbre
remot e , are adm itted , not only t o m arriages with
u s , but t o what is of much gre ater
importance , the
freedom of the city Are we , because we are com
?
m on e r s , t o be worse t reated than strangers
And
when we demand that the people may be free t o
bestow their Ofces and dignities on whom they plaa s e ,
do we ask any thing unreasonable or n ew ? DO we
clai m more than their original inherent right
W hat
occasion then for all this uproar, as if the universe
were falling t o ruin ? They were just going to lay
1
violent h ands upon m e in the senate house
Wh at ! must this empire then , be unavoidably
overt u rned mus t R ome of necessity sink at once if a
P l ebeian worthy of the o fce, should be raised to the
consu ls hip ? The P atricians I am persu aded, if they
uI
It cer
cO
d, would deprive you of the common light
t a in ly o ffends them that you br eathe that you sp eak,
that you have the shapes of men N ay but to make a
m m on e r a consul would be s a y they, a most en br
cO
I
mous thing N uma P om piu s, however without being
o f R ome
so much as a R oman citiz en , wa s made king
T he e lder T arquin , b y b ir t h n ot even an It alian , wa s,
,

RE AD I NG AN D SPE AKI NG

312

neve r thele s s placed upon the t hrn e S ervius T ullius ,


I
I
w
bm a n O btained the kingdo m
t he s on of a captive
as the re war d of his ws idom a n d vi rtue In th o s e I
I
day s n b man in who m virtue shone conspicuou s wa s
I
I
I
rej ected o r despised on account of his r ace and
desc ent
.

SALAT HIE L

T o

T US 0roly

S on of V e spasian I a m at this hour a poor m an


as I may in the next be an exile or a slave : I hav e
t ies t o life as strong as ever were bound round the
hear t of a m a n : I stand here a suppliant for the life
of o n e whose loss would e m bitt e r mine
Yet not for
wealth unlim ited for the safety of my fa m ily for the
l ife of the noble victim that is n ow standing at the
place O f t o r ture dare I abandon dare I t hink the im
pious thought of abandoning the cause of the City of
Holiness
Titus ! in the nam e Of that Being t o whom the
wisdom of the earth is folly I adjure you t o beware
Her crimes have Often wrought
J erusalem is sac r ed
her misery often has she been t rampled by the arms
of the strang e r
But she is still the City of the Cm
n ip o t en t
and never was blow inicted on her by man
that was n ot terr ibly repaid
The Assyrian came the mightiest power O f the
world : he plundered her t emple and led her people
int o captivity How long was it before his empire wa s
his dynasty extinguished in blood and an
a dream

enemy on his throne


The P ersian came : from her
prot ect or, he t urned int o her oppres sor ; and his em
,

SA L AT H I E L

TIT U S

313

pire wa s swept away like the dust of the desert


T he S yrian smot e her the smit er died in a gon re s of

re m orse and where is his kingdom n ow


The E gyp
tian smot e her : and who n ow sit s on t he thr one of
the P tolemie s ?
P ompey came : the invincible , the c on queror of a
thousand cities , the light of R ome the lord of Asia ,
riding on the very wings of victory But he profaned

her t emple and from that hour he went down down ,


like a mill stone plunged int o the ocean ! Blind
cou nsel , rash a m bition , wo m anish fears were upon the
great states m an and warrior of R ome Where does
?
he sleep
W hat sands were colored with his blood ?
The universal con queror died a slave , by the hand of a
Slave
Crassus came at the he a d of the legions he
plundered the sacred vessels of the sanct u ary V en
a n ce followed him and he was cursed by the curse
e
g
o f G od
Where a r e the bones of the robber and his
host ? GO, tear them fr om the j aws of the lion and
the wolf of P arthia their tting t omb
You t oo s on of V e spasian may be commissioned
f or t he punishment of a stiff necked and rebellious
people You may scourge ou r nake d vice by force of
arm s : and then you may return t o your own land ,
exulting in the con quest of the ercest e nemy of R ome
But s hall you e scape the common fat e of the in s t ru
ment of evil ? S hall you s ee a peaceful Old age ? S hall
a s on of yours ever sit upon t he t hrone ? S hall not
rather som e monst er of y our blood efface the me m ory
of your virtues , and make R ome, in bitterness of s oul ,
c ur se the F lavian name ?
.

14

314

RE A D I NG AN D S P E A K I NG

MLET S INSTRU TION

HA

T o

T HE

S peak the speech I pray you as I pronounced t o


u
t
rippingly
on
t
he
t
ongue
but
if
you
mouth
it
o
y
as m any of ou r players do I had as lief the town crier
spoke my lines N or do not s a w the air t oo m uch with
your hand thus but u s e all gently for in the very
to r rent t emp es t and as I may s a y W H I R L WI ND of your
passion you m ust acquire and beget a t emperance that
m a y give it s m oothness O
it offends me t o the soul
t o hea r a robustious p eriwig pated fellow t ear a pas
sion t o tatt ers t o very T a gs t o split the ears of
the GRO U ND LI NG S who for the most part are capable
inexplicable dumb Show and noise
of nothing but
I would have such a fellow whipped for o e rdoin g Ter
it ou t Herods Herod P ray you avoid it
m a gan t
Be not t oo t a m e neither but let your own dis cr e
tion be your tut or suit the action t o the word the
word t o the action with this s pecial Observance , that
you o e r s t ep not t he modesty of nature for any thing

f
overdone
is
from
the
purpose
playing
whose
o
so
end both at the rst and now was and is t o hold as
twere the mirror u p t o nature ; t o Show virtue her
scorn her own image and the very age
own feature
and body of the time his form and pressure N ow
t his overdone or come tardy off, though it make the
unskilful laugh cannot but make the j udicious grieve ;
the censure of which on e must , in your allowance o e r
weigh a whole theatre of others 0 there be player s
that I have seen play and heard others praise and
that highly , not t o speak it profanely, that neithe r

MA R MI ON TAKI NG L E A V E

DO U G L AS

OF

315

having the accent of Christians nor the gait of Chris


tian pagan nor m a n have so strutted and bellowed ,
that I have thou ght som e of N ature s j ou r n eym en had
made men , and not made men well, they i mitated
humanity s o abomin ably
,

MARMIO N

TA ING LEAVE OF D OUGLAS


K

W alter S cot t

The train fr om o u t the ca s tle dre w


But Mar m ion stopped to bid adieu
Though so m e I m ight co m plain he said
O f cold re s pec t to st r ange r guest,
S ent hither by your king s behest
While in T a n t a l lo n s t owe r s I strayed,
P art we in friendship fro m your land,
And noble E arl receive my hand
But D ouglas round him drew his cloak,
Folded his arm s and thus he spoke
My m anors halls and bo wers shall still
B e O pen at m y sovereig n s will
T o each o n e who m he li s ts , howe er
Un m eet to be the o wne r s peer
M y castles are m y king s alone,
From turret to foundation stone
The ha n d of D ouglas is his o wn
And never shall, in friendly grasp
The hand of such as Marmio n clasp
Burned Marmion s s warthy cheek like re,
And shook his very fra m e for ire ,
And
This t o m e
he said
An twer e not for thy hoary beard,
S uch hand as Marmion s had n ot s pare d
T o cl eave t he D ouglas head 1

R E A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

316

And r st I tell thee haughty P eer


He who does E ngland s message here,
Al t hough the m eane s t in her state
May well p roud A n gus be thy mate
And D ouglas more I tell thee here,
E ven in thy pitch of p r ide
He re in thy hold thy v a s sals near,
N
ay
neve
r
look
upon
you
r
Lord
(
A n d lay your hands upon you r sword
I tell thee t hou r t deed
And if thou s aid st I a m n ot peer
To any lo r d in S cotland here ,
Lo wland or Highland fa r or near
Lord Angus thou h a st lied
O n the E arl s cheek the ush of rage
Oe rca m e the ashe n hue of age
Fie r ce he b roke forth
And dar st thou then,
To bea rd the lion in his den
The D ouglas in his hall ?
And hop st thou hence unscathed to go
N O by S ai n t B ride of Bothwell no

r
r
r
m
Up d awb idge g oo s l what , warder, ho
Let the portcullis fall
,

Marm ion t

Lord
urned , well was his need,
And dashed the rowels in his steed

To pass there was such scanty room ,


,

T H E D E AT H O F M A RM I O N

317

N ot lighter does the swallow skim


Along the s mooth lake s level bri m
And when Lord Marmion reached his band ,
He halts, and turns with clench ed hand,
A shout of loud dean ce pours,
And shake s his gauntlet at the towers

D EAT H OE

T HE

ON S

MAR MI

co tt .

And soon straight u p the hill there rode ,


T wo horse m en drenched with gore ,
And in thei r arm s a helpless load ,
A wounded knight they bore
His hand still strained the broken brand
His arm s were s m eared with blood and sand
D ragged fro m am ong the ho rses feet
With dinted shield and hel m et beat ,
The falcon crest and plum age gone ,
Can that be haughty Marm ion
Young Blount his ar m or did unlace,
And gazing o n his ghastly face
S aid ,
By S aint G eorge he s gone
The spear wound has ou r master sped
And s ee the deep cut on his head
G ood night to Marmion 1
Unnu r tured Blount thy brawling cease
He O pes his eyes said E ustace
peace I
'
W hen doe d his ca s que he felt free air,
Around gan Marmion wildly stare
W he re s Har r y Blount Fitz E u stace , whe re P
Linger ye he r e ye hearts of hare
R edeem my pennon charge a gain
,

RE AD I NG AN D S P E A K I NG

318

Marm ion to the rescue


Vain
La s t of m y r ace on bat t le plain
T hat s hout Shall ne er be hear d again
Must I bid t wice
hence varlets y
Leave Mar m ion here alone to die
W ith fruitle s s labor Clar a bound
And s t r ove to s taunch the gushing wound
The wa r t hat f or a space did fail
N ow t r ebly thunde ring swell ed the gale ,
And S tanley 1 was the cry
A light on Marm ion s vis age spread,
And red his glazing eye
W ith dying han d above his head
He shook the fragment o f his blade

V ictory 1
An d shouted
Charge Chester cha rge
O n S tanley,
Were the last wo rds of Marm ion

Cry,

on

L E S S O N XL V I
1 T HE
.

F OUR TH

OF JULY

ner s t on e

1851 Fr om

Sp eech
e ne w wing f t he C
ap itol
t
h
of
o
)
.

W ebst er

(on

laying the

cor

This is the day of the year which announ ced t o


mankind the great fact of American Independence !
This fr esh and brilliant morning blesses our vi s ion wit h
ano t he r beholding of the bir thday of our nation ; and
we s ee that nation , Of r ecen t origin now among the most
.

S PE ECH

W E BST ER A T W AS H I NG T O N

OF

W e s t war d t he
T he f o ur r s t

A f t h
T im e

yp

a ct s a r e a d

h all

s n ob e s t

em pir e

cou r se of

Off s p rin

g is

way,

t akes it s

as t ,

wit h t he day,

t he dr am a

c os e

319

t he

a st

O n the day o f the D eclaration of Independence ou r


illustrious fathers pe r formed the rst scene in the last
great act of this drama ; on e in real importance in
n it ely e x ceeding that for which the great E nglish poet
invoked
,

A kin gdo m f o r

m us e

of

re ,

ge p r in ces t o a ct

b eh ol d t he s wellin g s cen e

a st a

An d m on ar ch s t o

The muse inspiring o ur fathers was the G enius of


Liberty, all on re with a sense of oppression , and a r e
the whole world was the stage,
s olution t o throw it Off
and higher characters than princes trod it, and , instead

o f m onarchs
countries and nations and the age, b e
held the swellin g scene How well the characters were
cast and how wel l each acted his part and what em o
tions the whole perform ance e x cited , let history, n ow and
her eafte r tell
O n t he Fourth of July, 17 7 6 , the representatives of
the United S tates of America in Co n gress asse m bled
declared that these United Colonies are and o f right
ought to be free and independent S tates This de cl a
ration , m ade by most patriotic and resolute m e n trust
ing in the justice Of their cause and the protection of

Heaven and yet m ade not without deep solicitude and


an xiety, has n ow stood for seventy v e years and still
stands It was sealed in blood It has met dangers ,
a n d over come them
it has ha d enemies, and con quered
,

RE A D I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

320

the m ; it has had detractors and abashed them all ; it


has had doubting friends b u t it has cleared all doubts
a way and now to day raisi n g its august form higher
than the clouds t wenty millions o f people conte m plate
it with hallowed love and the worl d b ehol ds it and the
consequences which have followed from it , with profound
ad m iration
This a n niver sary animates and gladdens and unites,
all Am e rican hearts O n other days of the year we m a y
be par ty men indulging in controve r sies m ore o r l ess
i m po r tant to t he public good ; we m a y have likes and
di slikes and we m a y m aintain our political differences
often with warm and so m etimes with a n gry feelin gs
But to day we are Americans all and all nothing but
A m e ricans As the great lum inary over our heads dis
s ipating m ists and fogs n o w cheers the whole hemisphere
so do the as s ociations connected with this day disperse
all cloudy and sullen weather in the m inds and feelings
E very man s heart s wells withi n
o f t r ue Americans
him eve r y m an s por t and b eari ng beco m es some what
mo r e p r oud and l ofty and he reme m be r s that seventy
v e year s have rolled a way and that the gr eat inherit
ance of liberty is still his his u ndi m inished and uni m
paired his in all its original glory his t o enj oy, his to
protect, and his to transm it to fu ture generations
,

F E LL O W CITI Z E NS

what conte m plations are awak


ened in o u r m ind s , as we asse m ble here to re en act a scene
like t hat pe rf ormed b y Washington ! Methinks I s ee
his venerable form now before me as presented in the
:

WE BST ER A LLU D I NG

T o

W AS H I NG T ON

32 1

glorious statue by Houdon now in the Capitol O f V ir


ginia
He is dignied and grave ; but concern and
anxiety see m t o soften the lineam ents of his cou n t e
nance The govern m ent over which he presides 13 ye t
in the c risis of expe ri m ent N ot free fr om troubles at
ho m e he sees the wo rld in com m otion and arms all
around him He sees that i m posing foreign powe r s are
half disposed to t ry the str ength o f the recently estab
l is he d A m e rican government
Mighty thoughts m in
gled with fears as well as with hopes are struggling
within him He heads a short procession over these
then naked elds he c rosses yonder stream on a fallen
tree ; he ascends to the t op of this e m inence whose
original oaks of the forest stand a s thick around him as
if t he spot had been devoted to D ruidical worship , and
here he performs the appointed duty of the day
And n ow fellow citi z ens if this vision were a reality
if Washington actually we r e n o w a m ongst u s , and
if he could draw around him the shades of the grea t
public m en of his own days pat riots and war riors , o ra
t o rs and statesmen and were to addre s s u s in their

presence, would he not say t o u s : Ye men of this


generation I rej o ice and thank G od for being able t o
s e e that ou r labors and toi l s, and sacrices were not in
vain
Yo u are prosperous yo u are happy you are
grateful The re o f liberty burns b rightly and steadily
in your hearts , while duty and the law restrain it from
bu r sting for th in wild and de structive con a gra t ion
Cherish liberty , as you love it cherish its securities as
ou
r eserve it
wish
to
p
Maintain
the
constitution
,
y
which we labored so painfully to establish, and which
,

RE A D I NG

82 2

AN D

SPE A K I NG

ha s

been to you such a source of inestimable blessin gs


P r eserve the Union of the S tate s ce m ented as it was
by o u r prayers our tear s and ou r blood B e t rue to
G od to your country and to your duty S O shall the
whole eastern world follow the mo rning su n to con
te m plate you as a nation s o shal l all generations honor
u
m
o
as
they
honor
us
and
so
shal
l
that
Al
ighty
y
P o we r which s o gr aciou s ly p r otected u s and which n o w
u , s ho we r it s everlasting blessings upon you
r otect s
o
y
p
and your poste rity
G reat father of your country we heed your wor ds
we feel their force as if you now uttered the m with
lips o f e s h and blood Your exa m ple teaches u s your
aff ectionate add re s ses teach u s your public life teaches
u s you r sense o f the value o f the ble s sings of the Union
Tho s e bles s in gs ou r fathers have ta s ted and we have
tasted and s t ill taste N or do we intend that those
who co m e aft er u s shall be denied the sa m e high frui
tion Ou r honor as well as our happines s is concerned
W e cannot we dar e not we will not betray ou r sacred
trust W e will not l ch from posterity the t reasure
placed in ou r hands to be trans m itted to other genera
tions The bow t hat gilds the clouds in the heavens,
the pillar s that uphold the rm a m en t may disappear
and fall a way in the hour appointed by the will o f G od ;
but until that day com es, o r s o lon g as our lives m ay
last no ruthless hand shall undermine that bright arch
of Union and Liberty which spans the continent from
Washington to California
.

C A RD I N A L
8

CAR DINAL

W O L SEY A N D

OLS EY CAST OF F

BY

HE NR Y

EN RY

VIII ,

V III

152 9

323

S halcsp car e

F arewell a long farewell, to all my greatness


This is the state o f man t o day he puts forth
The tender leaves of hOp e t o morrow blossoms
And bears his blushing honors thick upon him
The third day comes a frost a killing frost

And when he thinks good easy man ful l surely


His greatness is a ripening nips his root
And the n he falls as I do I have ventured
Like little wanton boys that s wim on bladders
These many sum m ers in a sea of glory
But far beyond my depth my high blown pride
At length broke under me and now has left me
Weary and O ld with service to the mercy
O f a rude stream that must for ever hide me
V ain pomp and glory of this world I hate ye
I feel my heart new Opened 0 how wret ched
Is that poor man that hangs on princes favors
There is betwixt that s m ile he would aspire to
That sweet aspect of princes and his ruin
More pangs and fears than wars or women have
And when he falls he falls like Lucifer
N ever t o hope again
Cromwell I did n o t think t o shed a t ear
In all my miseries but thou hast forced me ,
O ut of thy honest tr uth to play the woman
L et s dry o ur eyes and thus far hear me Cromwe ll ;
And when I am forgotten as I Shall be
And sleep in dul l cold marble where no mention
O f me must m ore be heard say then , I taught thee ,
,

32 4

RE A D I NG

S P E AKI NG

AND

S ay Wolsey that once trod the ways of glory


And sounded all the depths and shoals Of honor
Found thee a way ou t Of his wreck to rise in
A sure and safe one though his m aste r m issed it
Ma rk but my fall and t hat which ruined me
C r o m well I charge thee ing away ambition
By that s in fell the an gel s how can m a n then
The i m age of his Make r hOp e to win by t
Love thy s elf last che ri s h those hearts that hate thee
Co rr uption wins not more than honesty
S till in thy right hand carry gentle peace
T o silence envio us tongues Be just a n d fear not
L e t all the ends thou a im s t at be thy country s
Thy G od s and t ruth s : then if thou fa ll s t O Cro m well
Thou f a ll s t a bles s ed m a r tyr
S erve the king
And
P rithee lead me in
The r e take an inventor y of all I have
To the la s t penny tis the K ing s m y robe
And m y integ rity to Heaven IS all
I dar e n ow call m ine own O C ro m well Cromwell
Had I b u t se r ved m y G od with half the zeal
I se rved m y king He would not In m i ne age
Have left m e naked to m ine ene m ies
,

W he refore r ej oice that C aesar co mes in triumph


What conque s t bri n gs b e ho m e
T o grace in capt ive bonds his chariot wheels
Yo u blocks , you stones you worse than Senseless things
-

T H E SAIL OR B O Y S DRE AM

32 5

Knew you

P ompey ? Many a time a n d of t


Have you climbed u p t o walls and battlements
T o towers and windows yea t o chimney tops
Your infants in your arms and there have s a t
The live long day wi t h patient expectation
To s e e great P o m pey pass the streets O f R ome
And when you s a w his chario t but appear
Have you not made a universal shout
That Tiber tre m bled underneath his banks
To hear the replication of your soun ds
Made in his concave shores
I
w
n
O
u
t
o
n your best attire
A d do you n
p
And do you n ow I cull ou t a holiday
I
And do you n tiw strew owers in his way
That comes in triumph over P ompey s blood
Begone
R un to your houses fall upon your kn ees,
P ray t o the gods t o intermit the plague
T hat needs must light on this ingratitude
n ot

5 T HE
.

SAI LO R B OY S DRE AM Dim

ond.

lum bers O f midnight the sailor boy lay,


His ha m m ock swung loose at the sport of the win d
But watch worn a n d weary , his cares e w away,
And visions of happiness danced o er his mind

In s

He dream t of his home, of his dear native bowers,


And pleasures that waited on life s merry morn
While memory stood sidewise, half covered with ower s
R estor ed every rose , but secreted it s thorn

The jessam ine cla m bers in ower o er the thatch


The s wallow sin gs sweet fro m her nest in the wall
All tre m blin g with transport he raises th e latch ,
And the voice s of loved ones reply to his call

RE A D I NG AN D S P E A K I NG

32 6

A father bends o e r him with looks o f delight ,


His cheek is i m pearled with a mother s war m t e ar
And the lips of the boy in a love kiss unite
W ith the kiss of the maid whom his bosom holds dear

The hear t o f the sleeper beats high in his b reast


Joy quickens his pul s e all ha r dships seem o er
And a m urmur of happiness steals th r ough his rest

O G od thou hast blessed me I ask f or no m ore


,

Ah whence is that am e which n ow bursts on his eye


Ah what is that sound that n ow l ar m s his ear ?
Tis t he lightning s red glare painting hell on t he s ky
Tis the crashi n g of thunder, the groan of the sphere

He springs from his ham m ock he ies to the de ck


A m aze m ent confronts him with im age s dir e
Wild winds and waves d r ive the vessel a wreck
The masts y in splinte r s the shrouds are on re
,

Like m ountains the billows tumultuously swell


In vain the lost wretch calls on mercy to save
Unseen hands o f spirits are ringing his knell
And the death angel aps his dark wings o e r the wav e
,

0 sailor boy 1 woe to thy dream o f delight


In darkness dissolves the gay frostwork of bliss
W here n ow is the picture that Fancy touched bright,
Thy parents fond pressur e and love s honeyed kiss ?
-

0 , sailor boy ! sailor boy ! never again


S hall love home or kind red thy wishes repay
U nblessed and unhonored, down d eep in the main
-

OPPO SITI ON T O MIS GOV E RN M EN T

32 7

NO tomb shall e er plead to remembrance of thee ,

O r redee m form or fra m e fro m the m e r ciless surge


Bu t the white foam of waves shall thy winding sheet be ,
And winds in the midnight of winter thy dirge
-

O n beds O f green sea owe r thy limbs shall be laid


Around thy white bones the red coral shall grow
O f thy fair yello w locks threads of amber be m ade,
And every part suit t o thy mansion belo w
-

D ays months year s and ages shall ci r cle away,


And still the vast wat ers shall over thee roll
E arth loses thy pattern for ever a n d aye
O sailor boy sail or boy peace to thy so ul
,

LE S S O N
1

XL V II

O P POSIT I ON T O MISGO VERNMENT

B IL Daniel W ebster

All the evils which af ict the country are Im puted


I t is said to be owing to O pposition that
t o O pposition
the war beca m e necessary and owing to O pposition
also that it has been prosecuted with no better success
This sir is no n e w str ain It ha s been sung a thousand
times I t is the constant tune of every weak and wicked
ad m inistration What minister ever yet ackno wledged
that the e vils which fell on his country were the n e ce s
sary consequences of his o wn incapacity, his o wn folly
o r his o wn
co rruption
W hat possessor of political
ower
ever
yet
failed
to
charge
the
mischiefs
resulting
p
from his own measures upon those who had uniformly
.

32 8

RE A D I NG

AN D

S P E A KI NG

O pposed those measures ? The people of the United


S tates may well re member the administr ation of Lord
N orth He lost Ame r ica t o his country yet he could
n d pretences for throwing the odium U pon his oppo
n en t s
He could throw it upon those who had fore
warned him of the consequences and who had O pposed
him at eve ry stage of his disastrous policy with all the
force of truth reason and talent I t was not his own
weakness his o wn love of a rbitrary powe r t hat dis a f
I t was n o t the Tea Act the S tamp
f e ct e d the colonies
Act the Bo s ton P ort Bill that severe d the empir e of
Britain 0 no
I t was owing to no fault of Admin
is t ra t ion
It was the work of O pposition I t was the
i m pe r tinent boldness of Chatham the idle declamation
These men
o f Fox the unseasonable sarcasm O f Ba r re
and men like the m would not j oin the minister in his
Am e rican wa r They would not give the name and
character of wisdo m t o what they believed to be the
ext r eme of folly
They would not pronounce t he s e
measures just and hono rable which their principles led
them to condemn They declared the minister s war
t o be wanton T hey for etold its end , and pointed it
ou t plainly both to the minister and to the country
He declared their opposition to be selsh and fa ct ion s
H e persi s ted in his course and the result 1s 1n history
Important as I dee m it s ir to discuss on all pr o
per occasions the policy o f the measures at present
.

of

such discussion

in

its full and just extent

S enti

A S U MM ER M ORN I NG I N T H E C O U N T R Y

32 9

the ancient and constitutional right of this people to


canvass public measures , and the m erits of public m en
I t is a ho m ebred right, a reside privilege
I t has
ever been e nj oyed in every house cottage , and c abin in
the nation I t is not to be drawn into controversy I t
is as undoubted as b r eathing t he air and walking on
the earth Belonging t o private life a s a right it b e
longs to public life as a duty and it is the last duty
which those whose representative I a m Shall nd me t o
abandon
T his high constitutional privilege, I shall
defend and exercise within this House , and in a ll places ;
in this ti m e of war in tim e of peace and at all times
Living I will a ssert it dying I will assert it and,
should I leave no other legacy to my Children , by the
blessing of G od I will leave them the inhe ritance o f free
principles and the exa m ple O f a manly, independent,
and constitutional defence Of them
.

SU MMER M ORNIN G

IN

TH

E C O N RY
U

T he S easons ,

T homson

M usic awakes
The native voice of undisse m bled j oy
And thick around the woodland hym ns arise
R oused by the co ok the soo n clad shepherd leaves
His mossy cottage where with P eace he dwells,
And from the crowded fold in orde r drive s
His ock to taste the verdure of the morn
Falsely luxurious will not man awake
And s pringing fro m the bed o f sloth e nj oy
The cool the fragr ant and the silent hour
T o meditation due and sac r ed song ?
F or is there aught in sleep ca n cha r m the wis e
.

RE A D I NG AN D S P E AK I NG

330

T o lie in dead O blivion losing half


The eeting moment s of too short a life
T otal extinction of the enlightened soul
O r else to feverish vanity alive
W ilder e d and tossing through distempered dreams
W ho would in such a gloomy state rem ain
L onger than N ature c r ave s when every muse
And eve ry bloo m ing pleasure wai t without
T o bless the wildly devious morning walk
But yonder comes the powerful K ing of D ay,
R ejoicing in the east The lessening cloud
The kindling azure and the mountain s brow
Illumed with uid gold his near approach
Betoken glad Lo now, apparent all
Aslant the dew bright earth and colored air,
He looks in boundless m aj esty abroad
And sheds the s hining day that burnished plays
O n rocks and hills and towers and wandering streams,
High gleaming fro m afar
,

3 SU N
.

SE TING
T

T he S eas ons ,

T homs on

Low walks the s u n , and b roadens by degrees,


The shifting clouds,
Just o er the verge of day
A s se m bled gay a richly gorgeous train
In all their pomp attend his setting throne
Air earth and ocean s m ile i m m ense And n ow,
As if his weary chariot sought the bowers
O f Amphitrite a n d her tending nym phs
r ecian fable sung
S
o
G
he
dip
his
s
o
r
b
)
(

T H E AM E R I C A N F O R E S T
4

MERICAN FOREST G IRL M

T HE A

rs .

GIR

331

Hema ne

D 1835.
.

Wildly and mournfully the Indian drum


O n the deep hush of moonlight forests broke
S ing u s a death song for thine hour is come
S O the red wa rriors to their captive spoke
S till and amidst those dusky for ms alone,
A youth a fair haired youth of E ngland stood,
Like a king s s on though from his cheek had own ,
The mantling crimson of the Islan d blood
Fiercely bright
An d his pressed lips looked marble
And high ar ound him blazed the res o f night,
R ocking beneath the cedars t o and fro
As the wind passed and with a t ful glow
Lighting the victim s face but who could tell
O f what within his secret heart befell
K no wn but to Heaven that hour Thick cypress bough s
Full of strange sound waved o er him darkly red
In the broad stormy rel ight savage brows ,
With tall pl um es crested and wild hues O e rs p rea d
G irt him like feverish phantoms and pale stars
Looked through the branches as through d ungeon bars ,
S hedding no hOpe He kne w, he felt his doom
O h what a tale to shadow wi t h its gloom

That happy hall in E ngland


Idle fear
Would the winds tell it W ho might dream or hear
The secret of the fo rests
To the stake
They bound him and that proud young soldier strove
His f ather s Spir it in his breast t o wake ,
T r usting to die in silence 1 He, the love
O f many hearts the fondly reared the fair,
-

332

R E A D I NG

S PE AKI NG

AN D

Gladdening all eyes to s ee


An d fettered there
He stood be s ide his death pyre and the brand
Fla m ed u p to light it in the chieftain s hand
He thought upon his God Hush hark a cry
B reaks on the stern and dread sole m n ity
A step hath pierced the ring l W ho dares intrude
O n the da r k hunters in thei r vengeful m ood
A girl a young slight girl a fawn like ch ild
O f gr een savannas and the leafy wild
S pringing un m arked t ill then as so m e lone ower,
Happy because the sunshine is its dower
Yet one who knew how ea rly tear s are Shed
F or he r s had mourned a play m ate brother dead
S he had sat gazing on the victim long
Un t il the pity O f her soul gre w str ong
And by its pas s ion s deepening fe rvor s wayed
E ven to t he stake s he rushed and gently laid
His bright head on her boso m and a r ound
His fo rm her s lender ar ms to shield it wound
Like close Liannes then raised her glitte ring eye
And clear toned voice that said
He shall not die I

He shall not die


the gloo m y fo r est th rille d
To that swee t sound A sudden wonder fell
O n the e r ce th rong and hear t and hand were stilled
S truck d um b as by the magic of a spell
They gazed their da rk s ouls bowed before the maid
S he Of the dancing s tep in wood and glade
And as her cheek u s hed through its olive hu e
A s her black tresses to the nigh t wind e w
S o m ething o erm a s t ere d them from that young mien
-

T O BY T O SS PO T

333

And seemi n g t o their childish faith a token


That the G reat S pir it by her voice had spoken
They loosed t he bonds that held the cap t ive s breath
F ro m his pale lips they took t he CU p of death
They quenched the b rand beneath the cypress tree
A way, they cried, young stra n ger thou art free
.

Alas what pity tis that regu larity,


Like Isaac S hove s is such a rarity
But there are swilling wights in London town
Term ed jolly dogs Choice spi rits alias swine,
Who pou r in midnight revel bu m pers do wn
Making their th r oats a thoroughfa r e for wine
These spendthrift s who life s pleasures thus run on,
D ozin g with headaches till the afternoon,
Lose half m en s regular estate of s u n
By borrowing too largely of the moon

O ne of this kidney Toby Tosspo t hight


Was coming fr om the Bedfo rd late at night
And being Bacchi p l en u s full o f wine ,
Although he had a tolerable notion
O f aiming at progressive motion
T wa s n t direct twas serpentine
He worked with s 1n u os1t ies along
Like Monsieur Corkscrew worming through a cork
N ot straight like Corkscrew s pro xy, stiff D on P rong
,

At length , with ne ar four b ot t l es in his pate ,


H e s a w the moon shin in g on S hove s brass p late,

RE A D I N G AN D S PE A K I N G

334

When reading
P lease to r ing the bell,
And being civil beyond measure
R ing it
says Toby
V ery well
I ll ring it with a deal o f pleasure
Toby the kindest soul in all the t own ,
G ave it a jerk that almost j erked it down
,

no
t wo minutes

He waited full
on e came
He waited full two minutes more and then ,
S ays Toby
If he s deaf, I m not to blame
I ll pull it for the gentleman again
But the rst peal woke Isaac in a fright
Who quick as lightning popping out his head,
S at on his head s antipodes in bed,

P ale as a parsnip bolt upright

At length , he wisely to himself doth s ay, calming his


fear s
Tush tis som e fool has rung and run away
W hen peal t he second rattled in his ears !
S hove jumped into the m iddle of the oor
An d, trembling at each breath of a ir that stirred,
He groped down stairs and opened the street door,
While T oby was performing peal the third
,

Isaac eyed Toby fearfully askan ce


And s a w he wa s a strapper stout and tall,

Then put this question : P ray S ir, what d ye want ?

S ays Toby
I want nothing, s ir, at all
,

A NDRE W

ONE S

335

uoth
T
oby
gravely
making
him
a
w
b
o
Q
,
I pull it sir, at your desi r e
At m ine
Yes yours ; I hope I ve done it well
H igh time for bed s ir I was hastening t o it
But if you write u p
P lease t o ring the bell

Common politeness makes me stop and do it

N D RE

Jo NE s

W ords wor th

I hate that Andre w Jones he ll breed


H is children u p to waste and pi llage
I wish the p r ess gang o r the drum ,
With its tantar a sounds would come,
And sweep him from the village

I said not this, because he l oves


T hrough the long day t o swear and tippl e ,
But for the poor dear sake of on e
T o whom a foul deed he had done,
A friendless m a n a travelling cripp l e
this poor crawling helpl ess wretch ,
S ome horseman who wa s passin g by,
A penny on the ground had thrown
But the poor cripple was alone

And co ul d not stoop no help was nigh

F or

Inch thick the dust lay on the ground,


F or it had long been droughty weather,
S O with his staff the cripple wrought
Am ong the dust , til l he ha d brought
The half pennies together
-

RE A D I NG

336

S PE AKI NG

AN D

chanced that And re w passed that way,


and the re he found
Ju s t at the ti m e
The c r ipple at the m id day heat
S t anding alone and at his feet
He s a w the penny on the g r ound

It

He st ooped and took the penny u p ,


And when the c ripple nea rer drew

r
uoth
An
ew
under
half
a
crown
d
Q
W hat a man nds is all his o wn
And so good friend good day to you
,

An d

hence I s a id that Andrew s boys


W ill all be t r ained to wa s te and pillage
An d wished the press gang or the d r um,
With its tantar a sounds would c ome ,
And sweep him from the vil lage

L E SSO N XL V III
WEBSTER S

PEECH

IN

F ANEUIL HALL

1852

Mr Mayor and Gentlemen of the City Council


the City of Boston I tender you my heart y thanks
1

of

pression

of

your regard towards me

as

on e

of

your

ents

W E BST E R S S PE E C H A T B O ST ON

337

once more before you and glad t o s ee every face that il


lu m ines and is illumined in this assembly
Fellow citizens, this occasion is equally agreeable and
unexpected I left the place of my appropriate duties
at the approach of S umm er for my home and to s e e
something after those personal aff airs that must n e ce s
s a rily occupy a certain portion of my time and attention
I came with no purpose or expectation of addressing any
popular assembly, or meeting any great mass o f m y fel
l o w citizens but I have been arrested by the vote o f the
City Council o f Boston , invitin g me , with a unanimity
which a ff ects my feelings, to meet the m and my fel low
citizens of Boston here not as a public man but as a

r
p ivate man not o n e who shares in the exercise of publi c
autho r ity, but as on e of themselves who has passed the
greate r part of his li fe in that association, in that ac quaint
ance and in the cultivation of the regard o f this genera
t ion and in some respects of the regard O f their p re de ces
so r s G entlemen , I have said and say n ow, that I come
he r e to day to discuss no political question , to enter upon
the consideration of no controverted point of ou r G overn
ment or any thing growing ou t of the present state of opin
ion in the community, about which men may honestly differ
2 Fe llow Citizens I abstai n from a ll that which
pertains t o a political character because this is not a t
occasion for such a discussion This is a friendly, social
neighborhood meetin g ; and a ll ow me to s a y, gentle m en
in the next place, that if it were a t occasion for me to
express political opinions, I humbly submit that I have
n o new opinions to e x press no n ew political character
to assume What I think o f the present emergencies
.

15

338

RE A D I NG AN D S P E AKI NG

of public policy has been so often Spoken of by me and


w ritten by m e with a full heart and an honest pu rpose,
that nothing as it appears to me re m ains to be said
I say to yo u to day, I have nothing t o add I have
nothing to retract I have neither explanation nor
qu alication to O ff e r I propose to you and to my fel
l o w citizens th r oughout all the country to day, no plat
for m b u t the pl atform of my life and character I have
no pro m ises with which to delude m y country I have
no a s surances t o give but the assurances of my reputa
tion I am known W hat I have been and what I am
is kno wn ; and upon that knowledge I stand t o day
with m y coun try and before my countrymen ; and the
rest is their s
N evertheless gentlemen although it be not an occa
sion for public discussion of controverted q uestions, it is
an oc ca sion on which , considering where we a re and the
ti m e in which we live we should take into con side r ation
the position which we occupy This is Faneuil Hall
O pen These i m ages which surround Fan e uil Hall are
the pictures of the great and glorious an d immortal
defenders of o ur li ber ty N o man of propriety and s en
N 0 man
t im e n t ca n stand here without revering them
with a p r oper regard for the past , with proper feelings
for the pr esent or with proper inspiration for the fut ur e
can stand here in Faneuil Hall surrounded by these

im ages o f our ancestors these pictures of revoluti onary


char acter s without considering that they are co u se
crated by early Sheddin g of blood, ennobled by early
efforts for liberty an d transmitted t o posterity by all the
s acred ties that can transmit important events to the
,

W E BST ER S S PEE C H A T B O ST ON

339

future G entle m en , here we a re in what we justly call

the C r adle of Am e r ican Libe rty


he r e we a r e on
the spot which gave interes t to the events m ilitary and
civil with which the revolution of ou r count ry com
m en ce d ; and , in all time past in the present ti m e
and until the love of liberty is extinc t in future genera
tions, this place and the events which consecrated it ,
will be held in the most grateful rememb rance F ellow
C itizens I hope it may not be irreverent for m e to s ay,
that as the J ews in the days of their captivity in
Babylon Off ered prayers to G od d a ily turning their
faces always towards Jerusalem s o the patriotic and
ing enuous youth of this and s u cce edl n g generations who
wish to ascertain and prove the early origin o f the
independence of their country, its early liberty and
wish to i m bi b e into their own hearts the fulness of its
Spirit , will tu rn their attention daily and hourly t o
this Spot where the early events of the r ev ol u t idn took
place , and which from that time to this has been the
theatre of co m m endation and enthusiastic reverence by
all the lovers of liberty throughout the world
3 G entle m en and Fellow Citizens, not t o pursue
even these general political remarks t oo far I may
s a y that the path o f politics is a thorny path
it is agree
able so m etimes to turn aside from it, and to walk along
by the pleasant verdure of a beautiful vale ado r ned with
owe r s a n d enriched with the fruits O
f friendship and
social regard It is from o n e of these walks that we are
asse m bled here t o day G entlemen , I propose to you to
leave the brie ry region of controver t ed politics and to
walk with me along that vale where we may b ow with
.

34 0

RE A D I NG AN D SP E AKI NG

g ratitude to P r ovidence for the blessings Of the past and


Speak to friends of the futu r e as they s hall a r ise G en
t le m e n we cannot shut our eyes and the intelligent part
of m ankind does not Shut it s eyes to the extraordinary
degree of prosperity to which this count r y has risen u n
d e r its p r ese n t popular form of govern m ent
And that
is the sec r et of it all
The count ry is unive r sally p r os
per ons Ther e m a y be som e things which we m ight wish

r
we e bette r the r e a r e m any thing s which m ight happen
f or t he wo rse ; b u t upon the who le du ring the cou rse
of the s u n fr o m its r i s i n g to its setting whe r e doe s it
th r ow its bea m s upon a m ore pro s perous m o r e enlight

m
r
ened and ore happy count y m ore gr o wi n g in the

fruits of peace and in renown than on these S tates,


thus united together
N ow gentle m en whence do these blessings ow ?
W hence co m es all this prospe r ity which we enj oy

l
w
is
it
that
on
this
who
e
continent
fr o m the fr ozen
Ho

zone to Cape Horn the r e is no happiness like the hap


r e is no
the
n e s s of the people of the United S tates
i
p
g rowth like t he gr owth of the United S tates the r e is
no gov ernment or people that stand u p before the world
like the govern m ent and peopl e of the United S tates
stand u p boldly and fea rlessly befo r e the whole world
How is it
like ou r own free and educated people
I n m y opinion gentlemen all this or the greater part
o f it is to be refe r r ed t o o u r ea rly acquaintance with the
p rinciples of public liberty and to o u r ea rly adoption of
those p rinciples in the establishment of a republican
,

W E BST ER S S PEE C H A T B O ST ON

34 1

well know whose labor it has always been to maintain


the supremacy of the upper Classes, and who have been
connected with the control of t he govern m e n t and have
maintained their shar e o f rule have labored to explain
t o m ankind that those above can govern better than
those below That is not ou r principle We hold that
the r e is nothing above and nothing below each m a n
participating in the public prosperity, and e a ch man
sharing in the formation an d in the adm inist ration of
the government D r Johnson , on e of the w riters of
that school, says
,

Ho w

s m al

o f al l

t ha t

T he p ar t wh ich kin gs

hum an h ear t s
or

e n dur e ,

aws can cau s e o r cu r e

W hy gentle m en kings and laws can cause or cure


m ost of the evils which belong to social or individual
life K ings or laws can establish despotism They can
re s train political O pinions They can prevent men fro m
the exer cise of fr ee thoughts and from the exp r ession of
those thoughts
K ings and laws can lay intole rable
taxe s K ings and la ws can take away fr o m the m asses
all par ticipation in the G ove r n m ent And king s a n d la ws
can b ring about a state o f things in which popular fr ee
dom and the popular will are repressed and trodden do wn
under the feet of power And is not that m uch
W ho
is the r e in society that does not feel that these political
institutions are for him
They a r e for good o r f or evil
and the ve r y ele m ents of his personal fr eedom It is
t rue it is ve r y t r ue that a man s pers onal condi t ion
m a y depend ve ry m uch upon his p ersonal cir cu m s t ances
his health, the state of his family his means of l iving,
,

RE A D I NG AN D S P E AKI NG

34 2

his

mean s of educatin g his childr en his fortune good or


e v il But all these things ar e inuenced deeply m ainly
e s s entially inuenced by the laws and con s titution of
And that I take it is
t he count r y in which he live s
the great solution the great solution o f the que s tion now
no longe r doubted but he r etofo r e existi n g all over E urope
of the t rue natur e of the prosperity and the happin es s
o f the people of the United S tates
I the refo r e s a y at
once you gentle m en kno w all my senti ments But I
say to m y whole country you know the m also And I
s a y m o r e espec i ally to all the crowned heads and all the
ari s toc ratic powe rs of all the feudal systems of E urope ,

m
that it is to self govern ent it is to the principle of
public r ep r esentation and ad m inistration it is t o a
system that let s in all to partake in the councils which
a r e to a ffect the good or evil of a l l that we owe what
we are under the sanction Of D ivine P rovidence , and
all we hope to be W hy gentle m en who does not s e e
t his
W ho is there am ong u s that supposes that any
thin g b u t the independence o f the count ry could have
m ade us what we are
S uppose that mother E ngland

m
had treated us with the ut ost indulgence suppose
that the counsels most favorable to the colonies had
prevailed suppose we had been t r eated even as a
Spoiled child I s a y, as I have said to my friend on
my left that it is not possible for any govern m ent , or
any count ry at a distance to raise a n ation by any line
of policy to the height to which this has attained It
is independence it is self govern m ent it is the liberty
that ha s
o f the people t o m ake laws for the m selves
raised us above the subdued feeling of colonial subjuga
,

E BST E R S

PEE C H A T B O ST ON

34 3

tion and placed u s where we are It is independence !


H ail, independence
Hail ! thou next best gift o f life
and imm ortal spirit
5 G ent l emen I have said that ou r blessings and ou r
prosperity ow essentially from o ur fo r m of government
fr om the satisfaction of the people with that form and
fro m their desire t o forward the general progr ess of t he
country There are but few Americans in the country
but what rej oice in the general prosperity of the country
Who does not take delight day and night In learning
that the progress of the country in general is onwar d
that the people are happy and that we grow m ore and
N o w this is
more successful and renowned every day
o f itself a source of particular happiness t o every honest
Am e rican heart The truth is that whatever a man s
pe rs onal condition may b e however prosperous or u n
prosperous however fortunate o r unfortunate in what
ever cir cumstances o f elevation or depression he may
nd hi m self he still participates in the general prosper
ity of the country He has in short a dividend if I
may be allowed to u se a commercial expression he ha s
a dividend, payable n o t quarterly, but daily ; not in
gold or Silver but in the general happiness and pros
e r it
w
that
he
enjoys
And
n
let
me
ask
what
o
o
n
y
p
portion of the globe in how many regions that are
called civilized does the same thing occur ? There
a r e some instances there are some nations a m ong the
people of whom a great respect and ardent attach m ent
for the honor of their government and the di ffusion o f
it s principles e xist but take the wh ole of them look
over the continent of E urope and amo n g t he millions
.

E A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

d m illio n s who

co n stitute the s ubjects of the despo t ic


gove rn m e n t s of E u r ope how m any are the r e that ca re
any thing f or their coun try it s p r osperity its honor or
it s r eno wn
b u t whose only hope it is that the gove rn
m ent of their country will cease to be s o O ppressive u pon

r
their indust y will cease to be s o burdensom e by their
taxation and instea d of conside ring t he m eans by which
one gove rn m ent m a y be the r ival Of another gove rn m ent
and by which their gove rn m ent may maintain its po s i
tion and power a m ong other govern m e n ts which is

m
s
done by eans of con tant taxation that it would con
side r so m e what the thoughts of those who a r e gove rned
maintain the m selves
a n d their strenuous exertions to
while they are obliged to sustain the go r geous a pp eh
dage s of m ilitary power in order to support their m o
Co m pare our position with that
n a r chical in s titutions
W hy the re a re m ore men in the U nited S tates I had
al m o s t s aid attached to their gove r n m ent loving their
gove rn m ent feeling keenly every thing that tends to
the dispar age m ent Of their gove rnm ent alive to every
thing that conduces to the inter est of their gove rn m ent
and r ejoicing that they live under this governm ent , than
you can nd in the thousand m illions o f acr es a m ong
nations called civilized in the O ld World but livin g u m
der their despotic govern m ents

6 No w gentle m en we are all Bostonians we live


here on this little peninsula l ittle in territo r y not little
in intelligence circum sc r ibed in acres not circum scribed
by any known boundary in t he r e sp ect of the civilized
wo rld but we as Bostonians live he r e on this peninsula
an

E BST E R S S PE E C H A T B O ST ON

345

coun t ry We are not exclusive W e desire that every


enj oym ent that we possess should be participated in by
others and we enj oy the r eputation o f our whole coun
try its renown and its honor We m a y consider ou r
selves co m m ercially as a nation constantly increasing
as a sovereign power g r o wing daily m ore po werful
W e m a y consider that the nat ional Spi rit and ent erprise
are gathering st r ength with it s growth ; and , further
than that we may consider that in those m ental and
intellectual e ff orts which mark the age we have m ade
respect a ble progress Thirty years ago it was a s ked
Who reads an American book
It may n ow be
asked W hat intelligent man in al l E urope does not
read an Am e rican book
Who is there
S a m R oge r s
reads the m Hen r y Hallam reads them M cCu llOCh
reads the m Lord Mahon reads them and so m eti m es
nds hi m self answered when he co m m ents o n the m
And the r e is not an intelligent m a n in all E urope
who does not read o ur Am erican authors and e S p e
And in France
cia lly ou r legal and historical works
Thie r s and G uizot read the m ; and througho u t the
va s t population of France there is no doub t that there
is a greater devotion paid to the study of ou r popular
institutions to the principles which have raised us to
t he point at which we n o w stand than there is paid
to the monarchical institutions and principles O f gov
e rn m en t of every other part O f E urope
Ame rica is no
longer undistinguished for letters for lite r atur e I will
not mention those authors of ou r own day, now living
who have s o much attracted the at tention of the world
by thei r literary productions
G entlemen a circu m stance o ccurred in the cit of
.

34 6

R E A D I NG

AN D

S PE A K I N G

M adrid which I ought not to forget There it was that


an event took place which raised m e to eminence in t he
lite rary wo rld of m y position in which I was not pre
v io u s l
w
a
are
Under
the
eye
the
inist
o
f
m
ry an a r ticle
y
appeared in the Mad rid Ga z et t e which was intended to
be r ather co m plim entar y to the S ecretary o f S tate o f the
United S tates and which said that he was the most dis
t in gu is he d man o f letters in his country ; that he was
the i m mo r tal author of the cel eb rated di ctionary of the
E ngli s h la n guage I the author of an E ngli s h diction
a ry
Shade of N oah W ebster what do you thi nk of
s u ch an intrusion upon your rights and your property
Is it said that the S ecretary O f S tate was the author
of N oah W eb s ter s dictionary of the E nglish language

W hy he could not write the rs t spelling book that


N oah \Ve b s t e r produced ; and that is true I am no
m a n of lette rs in the literary acceptation of that term
B u t it ha s so m eti m es happened in the cour se of my
O fcial du t ies that I have been called up on to write a

l
e
letter and that duty I ful
gentlemen this is
W
a friendly meeting we a re called upon t o meet each
other socially in a friendly Spirit to interchange personal
rega rds and to congratulate on e another upon the pros
Let
u s indul ge
e rit y and fair prospects of the country
p
in these agreeable feelings
.

h e d m elan choly ;
B ut com e t h o u g o ddes s f air an d f r ee
In Heav en y cl ep t E up h r os yn e
An d in t hy r ight h an d l ea d wit h t h ee
T he m o un t a in n y m p h S wee t L ib ert y
W e ll l iv e wit h her we ll liv e wi t h t h ee,
Hen ce

oa t

In

u n r ep r o v e d

e as ur es

fr ee

W E BS T ER S S P E E C H A T B O ST ON

347

7 G entlemen , the gro wth o f this place is somewhat


re markable It is very remarkable I cam e here to take
.

my residence among yo u in the year 18 16 The p op u


l ation of Boston was then
it is n ow
and its accumulation of wealth in commerce , the

u
arts and man factures has kept pace with the in
crease Of t he pop ul ation And n ow what is Boston
W hat is the character of Boston
W hat are the e S
Why it is un rival
s e n t ia l element s o f its prosperity
led On the face of the earth , for its i m portant e fforts in
behalf of, and extensive benet s for it s own citizens , and
What will you s ay
f or the improvement of mankind
which perhaps you all know when you are i n formed
that the amount of public t a x e s in this city, f or the
purpose of education a l one , amount s t o on e fourth of
?
the whole t ax laid by the city authorities
W here do
u nd another
nd
that
elsewhere
?
W
here
do
o
u
o
y
y
Boston ? W here do you nd on e quarter of the whole
t ax paid by individuals owing from the public , devoted
t o education ? N owhere else beside s in Boston And
this doe s not include the amount paid for privat e schools
The city of Bost on pays more than
a year for
the support of reli gious instruction Where do you nd
that elsewhere ? T ell me the place , the city , the spot ,
the country , the world over , where s o gre a t an amount ,
in proportion t o the p opul at l on Is paid for religious in
struction T hat is Bost on This principle which we
inherited from ou r ance stors , we cul tivat e W e seek
t o educat e the p eople
W e seek t o improve men s
moral and religious condition In Short , we seek t o
work upon mind a s wel l as on matt er and, in workin g
.

RE AD I NG AN D SPE AKI NG

34 8

it enlarges the human intellect a n d the hu


man heart W e know when we work upon m at erials
im m ortal and i m perishable , that they will bear t he im
p r ess which we place upon them throu gh endle ss days
t o com e If we work upon mar ble it will pe r ish If
we wor k upon brass tim e will efface it If we rear
te m ples they will c r u m ble t o the dust But if we

work on m en s i m m or tal m inds if we im bue them with


high p r inciples with the just fear of G od and of their
fellow m e n we engrave on tho s e tablets som ething
which no tim e can e fface and which will b r ight en and
b righten t o all eternity And, my friends that charity
which seeketh not for applause that cha r ity which
endu r eth a ll things beareth all things hopeth all

things is not m o r e distinguishedly noticed in any pa r t


of the glob e than a m ong our own people The pe r s onal
attendance on the poo r the bounties of all t hose who
have the m ean s t o p r om ote the happiness Of the poor
and adm inister t o their welfar e have been great
And above all that let m e say and let it be kno wn t o
those who wish t o know what Boston has been what
Boston is what Boston will b e what Boston has done

and will dO let m e s ay t o you that Boston has given


within the last twenty v e years bet ween ve and s ix
mil lions of dollar s for educational, religious and
charitable purposes , throughout the Unit ed S tate s an d
throughout the world
G entle m en m y heart warm s m y blood glo ws in
my veins when I conside r the m u n i cen t gift s , grants
and provi s ions m ade for the pur poses of education for
the morals enlightenment and religious instruction of

on

m ind ,

W E BST ER S S PEE C H A T B O ST ON

4
39

the citizens and f or the relief of the poor by the a fflu


e n c e Of Boston and I never consider the subj ect without
having my att e ntion att ract ed t o a vene r able citizen
on
n ow in my eye , H
H
P
erkins
Will
he
at
Thomas
my request , rise and Show his benevolent c ount enance
t o the people ?
God ble ss him ! He is an hon or t o
his city , an honor t o his S tate , and an honor t o his
country His memory wil l be perfu m ed with the glory
of his good deeds , and go down as sweet odor t o ou r
children s C hildren
8 G entlemen , the happine ss of mankind is n ot a l
ways in their own control , but somet hing a ccidental ,
o r rather t o speak more properly , providential in the
condition Of things which govern it We live in an age
SO innitely beyond the ages that preceded us , that we
consider ourselve s n ow, in this day and generation , as

e m erging from the dark ages as j ust getting int o the


light W e begin t o s ee where we are we begin t o s ee

r
a new wo ld a new rush of ideas come s ove r u s We
cannot remember t he past , because we cannot have
tim e t o inve stigat e full y the present or t o evolve the
future G entlemen when the great Humboldt stood
o n the mountains of equatorial regions amidst their
gorge ous foliage , t heir unsurpas se d owers , their genial
warmth , and under the brill iant constellations of the
S outh , his heart burst out in an e ff usion of sympathy
t owards the inhabitant s of the other parts of the earth
How unhappy, said he , are those members of the
hu m an race who are doomed t o live in those melancholy
regions , we call the t emperat e zone !
And so t his
generation , gentlemen , upraised t o this t emperat e z one ,
,

RE A D I NG AN D S PE A K I NG

350

culminating on these happy spot s look back with a sort


o f int erest upon the generations that have passed away
W e think them t orpid uninform ed , and unenterprising
And well we may think them s o in the midst of the
splendid achieve m ent s of science skill , invention en
t e rp ris e and knowledge that have been generat ed in
ou r day
G entlemen Mr Locke says that tim e is measured
by the passage of ideas through m en s m inds If that
be so we live a great while in a few revolutio n s of the
earth around the s u n If new ideas , new thought s ,
new conte m plations new hopes constitut e life , why,
then , we have lived much , whether we have lived many
or f e w years , according as they are usually estimated

The age is remarkable Thought s press upon u s in


v en t ion s crowd upon u s
W e used t o say p r ove r bially
that a t hing was done as quick as thought But that
is a linge r ing m ode of expression n ow a days A great
many think that things are done much quicker than
thought
Thought cannot keep up with electricity
While we are talking the thought s cannot travel as fast
as electricity can give t hem t o the world S o , gentle
men , we live much , though ou r years may be f ew
For my part I do n ot envy any of the patriarchs for
their great number of years They did not , any of
t hem , s e e half as much as we s e e They did n ot , any of
them enjoy half as much as we enj oy now And in
t ruth , I do not t hink very much of the years of Methu
There are many n ow living who can
s elah on earth
measure favorably t o themselves t heir lives with his ,
though they have n ot been Sixty years on earth We
,

'

W E BST ER S S PEE C H A T B O ST ON

351

ught to kn ow where we are We should conform in


all respect s t o ou r Christian duties , and enj oy our
privil eges thankfull y and chee rfu ll y , resolving t o per
form ou r duty as men , as Christians and as patriot s
9 G entlemen , I must s a y t o y ou every true Amer
ican heart feels that it has a count ry , n ot o nl y in B os
t on , not only in Massachu sett s , not only in N ew E ng
land , but formed by that great u nion of these S tate s
called the United S tat e s Of N orth America
We
rej oice in that Who wishe s t o cu t Off , right a nd left ,
any part of this great brotherhood ? We see here
t o day delegat e members from on e of the great est
Christian denominations in the U nited S tat es , coming
from the N orth , probably certainl y from the S outh
and West And who is n ot glad t o s e e them ? T hey
come as friends And who woul d wish t o s ee the m in
any other capacity ? And as for myself, gent l emen ,
I bid you welcome
me m bers of the M ethodist
Conference n ow rose in a body] I bid you welcome
t o Fane uil Hall , the birth place of American liberty
Welcome t o Boston , the seat of commerce , e n terprise ,
and literature Welcome t o Massachusett s , the home
We welcome you f o r your many
of public education
Christian virt ue s , and for the good you have aecom
In
the
course
of
she d in this count ry and abroad
li
p
my life , I have n ot been an unattentive spectat or of
your his tory I know somethin g O f Charles Wesley
dying at a great age , Shortly af t er our independence

was sec u red ; these were his last words


The work
men die , b u t the work goes on
The workmen who
framed the institutions and the Constitution of our

352

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

country, have passed away but their wor k lives aft er


the m Those sam e institutions , and that sam e Con
have been upheld by u s and I t rust will be
s t it u t ion
sustained by ou r children for ever I have read many
yea r s Since the biography of John W esley an extra
ordinary person , who died in 17 9 1 at the advanced age
of 8 3 years ; his last wo r ds were :
The best of all
is that G od is with u s , sentim ent s that have been
wonderfully illustrated in the subse quent history of
Methodism , of which S outhey said s o beautiful ly,
That it is religion in earnest
N ow, gentle m en ,
we must not hold too long a talk here with t he citizens
of Boston My friend , Mr Hilliard , has lat ely told
m e of an extract from a poet who m a y properly serve
m e as a guide on the pre sent O ccasion
.

Ye

so

lid m

en o f

B os t on , m ake

no

on

o r a t ion s .

I take that t o myself And then he adds a senti


ment which wil l undoubtedly m eet with the a p p r ob a
tion of the maj ority of those present
.

Ye

lid m

so

en o f

B o s t on , dr in k

n o s t r on

g p o t at ion s

S o that we will pay all respect to these


tions :
Ye
Ye

But

so
so

lid m
lid m

n ow,

en o f

B os t on , make

no

en o f

B o s t o n , dr in k

no

gentlemen all ow me
,

t wo

g or at io n s
s t r o n g p o t at ions
on

to

quota

speak cautiously

XT R ACT

R O M PRE SI D EN T P I E R C E S I N A U G U R A L

353

prising , com mercial m anufacturing rich metropolis ,


carrying , as you s ay, all before it What is t o be the
?
result
That will depend upon the character of those
who shall come after u s under the superintendence and
protection of D ivine P rovidenc e W hat are ou r hopes
then
W hat anticipation s do we ent ertain
For
m yself, gentlemen I must s a y that it beco m es u s t o
day, in the enj oyment of the privileges we possess here
a m idst the scenes of early sacrices f o r Am erican

liberty a m ids t the scenes which characteri z ed M assa


chu s e t t s as a great leader and martyr in the r e v ol u
t ion a ry contest it becom es us t o s a y that we entertain
high hopes exalted hopes , humbly and m eekly before
God, but fearlessly and dauntlessly before men that
t his , the p rosperity , and t his the renown , which we
Americans of this generation enj oy shall accompany
ou r country t o her late st post erity with t en t hous and
time s the brilliancy of yonder setting su n
,

10

EX

TRACT

0F

P RESIDEN T P IER CE S I NAUGU RAL

M a r ch 4th, 1853

With the Union my best and dearest eart hl y hopes


are entwined W ithout it , what are we , individually
or collectively what become s of the noblest eld eve r
O pened f or the a dvance ment of ou r race in religion , in
government , in the art s, and in all that dign i e s and
adorn s mankind
From that radiant constellation ,
which both il lumine s ou r own way and point s ou t t o
struggling nations t heir course , let but a Single star be
lost , and , if there be not ut ter darkness the lustre of
the whole is dim m ed DO m y countrymen need any as
s uranc e t hat such a catastrophe is not t o overtake the m
.

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

354

While

I possess the power t o stay it


It is with me
an earnest and vital belief, that as the Union has been
the source under P rovidence , of ou r prosperity t o this
tim e so it is the su r est pledge of a continuance of the
blessings we have enj oyed , and which we are s a credly
bound t o transm it undiminished t o ou r children The
eld of calm and fr ee discussion in ou r country is O pen ,
and will always be so but it never has been and never
can be t r ave r sed for good in a Spirit of sectionalism and
uncharitableness The founders of the republic dealt
with things as they were pre sented t o them , in a spirit
of self s a cri cin g patriotism , and , as ti m e has proved
,
with a com prehensive wisdom which it will always be
I
safe for u s t o consult
But let not the foundation of ou r hope rest upon
man s wisdom It wil l not be sufcient that sectional
p r ejudices nd no place in the public deliberations
It will not be s u i cie n t that the rash counsels of hu m an
passion are rej ected It m ust be felt that the r e i s no
national security but in the nation s hu m ble , acknow
ledged de pendence upon G od and his overruling provi
dence
We have been carried in safety through a perilous
crisis W ise counsels , like those which gave u s the
constitution , prevailed t o uphold it Let the period
be re m embered as an adm onition , and not as an e n
cou ra ge m en t
, in any section of the Union , t o make ex
e
r
i
m
e
n
t
s
where expe r iment s are fraught with such
p
fearful hazard Let it be impressed upon all heart s,
that beautif ul as ou r fabric is , no earthly power or
wisdom could ever re unite it s broke n fra g ment s
,

CIC ERO S OR ATI O N A G AI N ST VE RR E S

355

S tanding as I do almost within view Of t he green


slopes of Monticello and , as it were wit hin reach of
the t omb of Washington with all the cherished me m o
ries of the past gathering around m e like s o many elo
quent voice s O f e xhortation from H eaven I can expre ss
no bet t er hOp e for my coun try, than t hat the kind
P rovidence which smil ed upon ou r fathers may enable
their chi l dren t o preserve t he blessings they have in
,

herit ed

L E SSO N XLIX
1

F RO M CI CERO S O RATI O N AGAINST VERRES

I ask n o w, V erres , what have you t o ad v ance against


this cha rge
Will you pretend to deny it ? Will you
p retend that any thing false , that even any thing a g
r a v a t e d is alleged against you ?
or
Had
any
prince
g
,
any state committed the sa m e outrage against the
pri v ilege of R o m an citizens , should we not think we had
su fcient reason for declaring immedia t e war agains t
them ? What punishment o ught then t o be inicted
o n a tyr annical and wicked praetor, who dared , at no
greater distance than Sicily, within Sight of the Italian
co a st , t o put t o the infamous death of crucixion that
unfortunate and innocent citizen P ublius Ga v iu s Cosa
n u s , only for his having asserted his privilege of citizen
ship , and declared his intention of appealing to the jus
tice of his country against a cruel O ppressor, who had
unjustly conned him in prison at S yracuse , whence he
,

RE A D I NG AN D S PE AKI NG

356

had ju s t m ade his escape


The unhappy m a n arrested
a s he wa s going to e m ba r k f o r his native co u nt r y 1s
br o u ght befo r e the wicked p r aeto r W ith eyes dar ting
fur y and a countenance disto r ted with c r uelty he orde r s
the helpless victi m of his r age to be st rippe d and rods
to be b r ought ; accusing him but without the least
s hado w of evidence o r even of suspicion Of having co m e
to S icily as a Sp y It wa s in vain that t he unhappy

I a m a R o m an citizen I have se r ved


m a n c ried out
u n der Lucius P r e t iu s who is n o w at P ano rm us and will
attest m y innocence
The bloodthir s ty p r aeto r deaf
to a ll he could u rge in his o wn defence orde r ed the in
fam ous pu n ish m ent to be inicted Thus fathe r s wa s
an innocent R om an citizen publicly mangled with
sco u rgin g while the only words he utte r ed a m id s t his
c ruel s u ffe ri n g s we re I a m a R o m an ci t izen
W ith
t he s e he hop e d to defend him self from violence and In
fa m y B u t Of so lit t le s e rvice was thi s p rivilege t o him
that while he was asse rting his citizen s hip the o rde r
was giv en for his execution f or his execution upon the
cross
O liberty
0 sound once delightful to eve r y R o man
ear ! O sacr ed p rivilege o f R oman citizenship ! O nce
sacred now tram pled upon
But what then is it
com e to this
Shall an inferio r m agist r ate a gove rnor
who holds his power of the R om an people in a R o m an
province within sight of Italy, bind , scourge to r ture
with re and red hot plates o f iron , an d at last put t o
the infam ous death of the cross a R o m an citizen
Shall neithe r the cr ies of innocence ex pl rl n g In agony ,
,

L O RD T H U R L O W

T o

T H E D UK E

OF

GR AFT O N

357

the R om an co m m onwealth nor the fear of the j ustice of


his count ry r e s t rain the licentious and wanton c r uelty
of a m o n s te r who in condence o f his riche s st r ikes at
the root of liberty, and sets m ankind at deance
,

REP LY

T HE D UKE

T o

OF

GRAFT ON L o7 d

1806

T hur low

1 7 32 ;

I am a m a z ed at the attack which the noble D uke


Yes m y Lo rds I a m am azed at his
ha s m ade on m e
G race s speech The noble D uke canno t look before
him behind him o r o n either Side of him without s e e
ing so m e noble P eer who o wes his seat in this House t o
his successful exe r tions in the profe s sion to which I b e
long D oes he not feel that it is as honor able to owe it
to these as t o being the accident O f an accident
To
a ll these noble Lords the language o f the noble D uke is
as applicable and as insulting as it is to myself But
I do not fear to meet it single and alone
N O on e venerates the P eerage more than I do but
my Lords I m ust say that the P ee rage solicited m e

n o t I the P eerage
m
N ay
ore I can say and will
s a y that as a P eer of P a rliament a s S peaker of this
right honorable House as keeper O f the gIIea t seal as
guardian O f his Majesty s conscience as Lord High
Chancellor o f E ngland, nay, even in that character
alone in which the noble D uke would think it an a ffront
to be considered, but which charact er none can deny

me as a m a n I am at this mom ent, as respectable,


I beg leave to add I a m as much respected a s the
,
,
proudest P eer I n ow look down upon
.

RE AD I NG AN D S P E AKI NG

358

T HE

OL D

MAN S

W
F U NERA

B ryan t .

an aged m a n upon his bier


H is hai r was thin a n d whit e , and on his brow
A record of the cares of many a year
Ca r es that were ended and forgotten n 6w
And there was sadness round and faces bowed ,
And woman s tears fell fast and children wailed al oud
I

saw

Then rose another hoary man and said ,


I n falte ring accents to that weeping train ,

W hy mourn ye that our aged friend is dead 1


Ye are not sad to s e e the gathered gr ain ,
N or when their mellow fruit the o r cha rds cast
N or when the yell ow woods let fall the ripened mast

Ye sigh not when the s un his course fullled ,


His glorious cours e rejoicing ea r th and sky
In the soft eve n ing when the winds are stilled ,
S inks Where his islands of r efre s hm ent lie
And leaves the s m ile of his depa r tu re Sp r ead
O er the wa rm color ed heaven a n d ruddy m O
u n t a in hea d
,

W hy weep ye then for him who having won


The bound o f man s appointed years at last ,
Li fe s blessings all enjoyed life s labors don e,
S erenely to his nal rest has passed
While the soft memory of his Virtues yet
Lingers like twilight hues when the br ight s un is s et
His youth was innocent his riper age
M arked with some act of goodness eve ry day
And watched by eyes that loved him cal m and sage,
Faded his l at e d ec linin g years a wa y
,

RO B E R T

L I N C OL N

OE

359

Cheerful he gave his being u p, and went


To share the holy rest that waits a life we ll Spent
That life was happy every day he gave
Thanks for the fair existence that wa s his
For a sick fancy made him n ot her Sl ave
T o mock him with her phantom miseries
N 0 chronic tortures racked his aged limb,
t h had nourished none for him
FO
r luxury and Sl O

And I am glad that he has lived thus long,


And glad that he has gone t o his reward
N or can I deem that nature did him wron g,
S oftly to disengage the Vital chord
When his weak hand grew palsied , and his eye

D ark with the mists o f age , it was his time to die


.

(A

goo d

RO BERT O E L IN COLN

ewa mp

le

t he D a ct y lic

an

Wm

0 B rya nt
.

d T r o cha ic

v e r s e.

S ee p

M errily swinging on briar and weed ,


N ear t o the nest of his little dame
O ver the mountainside or mead
R obert of Lincoln is t e llin g his n ame
B ob O link B ob o link ,
S pink spank, spink
S nu g and S af e is that nest of ours
I
H idden among the s u mmer owers
Chee chee , chee
,

R obert of L incoln is gaily drest ,


Wearing a bright black wedding coat
W hit e are his shoul ders , and whit e his cre s t
I
H ear him call in his m e rry not e,

RE A D I NG A ND SPE AKI NG

36 0

Bob O li n k Bob o link


S p ink s pank spink
I
n
e
m
I
I
t
h
a
s
c
W
hat
a
nice
new
k
L ob
I
b
S
there
was
n
e
ver
a
bird
ne
S ure
Chee chee , chee

R obert of Lincoln s Quaker wife


P retty and quiet with plain brown wings
P assing at hom e a patient life
I
B r oods in the gr a s s while her husband sings
Bob O link Bob o link
S pink spank spink
you need not fear
B rbo d kind c ature
I
Thieves and r obbers while I am h ere
Chee chee chee

Modest and shy as a n u n is She


O ne weak chirp is her only not e
Braggart and prince of braggart s is he ,
P ouring boast s from his little throat
Bob o l ink Bob
o lin k,
S pink , spank, spink ;
I
N ev er was I afraid of m an
Cat ch me cowardl y knaves, if you can
Chee , chee , chee
.

Flecked with purple a pretty Sight


,

RO B E RT

OE

L I N C OL N

36 1

ut ,
Nice ghod wif e , that n e ver g oe s O
I
K e eping house whil e I frolic about

Chee , che e , chee


7

S oon as t he litt l e one s chip t he shell ,


S i x wide m on t hs are open for food
R obert of Lincoln best irs him w ell ,
G athering seeds f or the hun gry brood
B ob O link, B ob o l ink,
S pink spank, Spink ;
I
T his n ew life I is l ikely t o b e
I
H ar d for a gay youn g fe ll ow lik e m
Chee , chee , chee
.

R obert of Lincol n at l ength is ma de


S ober with work , and silent wit h care
Off is his holiday garmen t laid ,
H alf forgotten that merry air,
B ob o l ink , B ob O link,
S pink, spank , spink
NO
b Ody kn ows but my mat e and I
Where our nest and our n s t lin gs l ie
Chee , chee , chee

S ummer wanes t he chi l dren are gr own


Fu n and frol ic n o more he kn ow s
R obert of L incoln s a humdrum cron e
Off he ies and we sin g a s he go es

W hn you can pipe that merr y ol d st ram,

RE A D I NG AN D S P E A K I N G

36 2

her rosy steps in the E astern clime


Advancing, sowed the earth with O rient pearl,
W hen Adam waked so customed for his sleep
W as air y light from pure digestion bred,
An d te m pe r ate vapors bland which the on l y sound
O f leaves and fu m ing rills Aurora s fan
Lightly dispe rsed and the shrill matin song
O f birds on eve ry bough s o much the more
His wo n de r wa s to nd unwakened E ve
W ith t res s es discomposed a n d glowing cheek
He on his side
As t hrough unquiet re s t
Le a n ing half raised with looks of cordial love ,
Hun g ove r her enam ored and beheld
Beauty which whether waking or a sleep ,
Shot fo rth p e culiar graces then with voic e
Mild as when Z ephyrus o n Flor a breathes,

Awake ,
Her han d soft touching whispered thus
My fai r est my espoused my latest found
Heaven s la s t best gift my ever n ew delight
Awake the morning shines, and the fresh eld
Call s u s we lose the pri m e t o mark how s pring
O ur tended plants how blows the Citron grove ,
What drops the myrrh and what the balmy reed,
How nature paints her colors, how the bee
S its on the bloom e x t ra ct in
S uch whispering waked her

Now m orn ,

(C

0
My

ON T H E B R ITIS H T RE ATY

36 3

S
uch
night
till
this
I
never
passed
have
dreamed
)
,
(
If drea m ed not as I oft am wont of thee
Wo rks o f day past o r morro w s next design
But o f O ffence and trouble which my mind
K ne w never till this irksome night Methought
Close at mine ear on e called me forth t o walk
W ith gentle voice I thought it thine it said
Why Sl eep s t thou E v e n ow is the pleasant time,
The cool the silent save where silence yields
T O the night war bling bird that n ow awake
Tunes sweetest his love labo r ed song now reigns
F ull o r bed the m oon and with more pleasing light
S hado wy sets o ff the face of things in vain
If none regard heaven wakes with all his eyes,
Who m t o behold but thee nature s desire
In whose sight all things joy with ravishment
Attracted by thy beauty still t o ga z e
,

LE S S O N L
1

ON THE

RI ISH T REA Y
T

17 9 6

F is her Amos

If any , against a ll t hese proofs , shou l d maintain


that the peace with the Indians will be stable Without
the Western p ost s , t o them I will urge another reply
F rom argument s calc ul ated t o pr oduce conviction , I
will ap peal di rectly t o the heart s of those who hear
me and ask whether it is not already planted there ?
I resort esp eciall y t o the conviction of the Western
gent l emen , whether, s upposin g no post s a n d no treaty ,

RE A D I NG A N D S PE A K I NG

36 4

the set tlers will remain in security ? Can they t ake


it upon the m t o s ay that an Indian peace u n der these
It will not be
ci r cu m stances will prove rm ? N o
peace but a sword It W il be no better than a lure t o
draw victims within the reach of the t omahawk O n
this the m e m y e m otions are unutt erable If I coul d
nd wo r ds for the m if m y powers bore any proportion
t o m y zeal I would swell my voice t o such a note of
I
I
re m onst r ance that it should reach every log house
I beyond the m ountains I would s a y t o the in ha b i
tants W ake fro m your false secu r ity your cruel dan
ge r s your mo r e cruel apprehensions are soon t o be
renewed The wounds , yet unhealed are t o be t orn
Open again I n the day time , your path th r ough the
woods will be am bushed The darkness of midnight
will glitter with the blaze O f your dwellings Y ou I

r
are a fathe
the blood of your sons Shall fatt en your

cor n el d s
You a r e a m other the wa r whoop s hal l
wake the sleep of the cradle
,

on

T HE

SAME S PEECH 0
.

0n t in ued .

O n this subj ect you need not suspect any deception


your feelings it is a spectacle of horror, which can

they will speak a langu age , compared with which , all

M OR A L R E F L E C TI ON S

36 5

most solemn sa nctions of duty , f or the vot e we

t he

rs

give ;
By rej ecting the post s , we light t he savage res ,
we bind the vict i ms This day we undertake t o render
account t o the widows and orphans whom ou r decision
will make t o the wret ches that will be roasted at the
stake t o our country , and , I do n ot deem it t oo serious
to s a y, t o conscience and t o God We are answerable
and if duty be any thing m ore than a word of im p o s
ture if conscience be not a bugbear we are preparing
t o m ake ourselves as wretched as ou r country
There is no mistake in this case There can be
none E xperience has alre a dy been the prophet of
event s and the crie s of ou r future victi m s have already
reached us The West ern inh abitant s are n ot a silent
and uncomplaining sacrice The voice of humanity
issues from the shade of the wilderness It exclaim s
that while on e hand is held u p t o rej ect t his t reaty,
the other grasp s a t omahawk It summons ou r im agi
nation t o the scene s that will O pen I t is no great
effort of the imagin ation t o conceive that event s s o near
are already begu n I can fancy t hat I listen t o the
yells of savage vengeance and the shrieks of t ort ure !
Already they se em t o sigh in the We stern wind
already t hey mingle with every echo from the moun
t ains
I

r:

FR

O M A VIE

N TE

OF W I

T homson

Tis done d read winter Sp r eads his latest glooms,


And reigns tremendous o er the con q uered year

RE A D I NG

36 6

A ND

S P E AKI NG

Ho w dum b the t u neful 1 horror wide exte nds


His de s olate do m ai n Behold fond man
,

S ee he r e thy pictu red life pass so m e few years


Thy owe ri n g S p rin g thy S u mm er s ardent strength,
Thy s obe r Autu m n fading into age
And pale concl uding W inter co m es at last
And shut s the scene Ah whither now are ed
Those drea m s of greatness those unsolid hopes
O f happiness those longings aft er fam e
Tho s e re s tless ca r es those busy bustling days P
Those gay s pent festi v e nights those vee ring t hought s
Lo s t bet ween good and ill that s ha r ed thy life
All n o w a r e vani shed
V irtue sole survives ,
I m m o r t al neve r failing friend of Man ,
His guide to happiness on high
,

T HE

SAM

Con tin ued

And see
Tis co m e the glo rious morn the second birth
O f heaven and ea r th awakening N ature hears
The n e w c reati n g word and starts t o life
I n eve ry heightened form fr o m pain and death
F o r eve r free
The great eternal scheme,
I n volving all and in a perfect whole
Uniting as the p r ospect Wider sp r eads
To r ea s on s eye rened, clea r s u p apace
Ye vainly wis e ye blind p resu m ptuous n ow
Confounded in the du s t adore that P o wer
And W i s do m oft arraigned s ee n ow t he cause ,
W hy unassu m ing worth in secret lived,

O f l ife

wa s ga l] and

bi t terness of s o ul

H YMN

O N IN G

M R

36 7

Why the l one widow and her orphans pined


In starving solitude while luxury
In palaces lay straining her low thought,
T o form un r eal wants
why heaven born truth
And moderation fair, wore the red marks
O f superstition s scourge why licensed pain ,
That c ruel spo iler that embosomed foe ,
E mbittered all ou r bliss Ye good distressed
Ye n oble few who here unbending s t and
Beneath life s pressure yet bear u p awhile
And what your bounded view, which only sa w
A little par t dee m ed evil is no more
T he storm s of wintry t ime will quickly pass,
And on e unbounded S pring encircle all
,

MORNIN G

MN John

HY

M ilt on

B . 16 08 ; d. 16 7 4 .

These are thy glorious works P arent of good,


Al m ighty thine this universal frame,
Thus wondrous fair thyself how wondrous, then ,
Un s peakable who s it t s t above these Heavens,
T o us invisible , or di m ly seen
In these thy lowest works yet these declare
Thy goodness beyond thought , and power divin e
S peak, ye who best can tell ye sons of light ,
Angels for ye behold him , and with songs
And choral symphonies day without night ,
Circle his throne rejoicing ye in Heaven ,
O n earth join , all ye creatures t o e x tol
l iim rSt , Him last , Him midst , and without end
Fairest of stars last in the train Of night ,
If better thou be l o n g not to t he da wn ,
,

R E A D I NG A N D S PE A K I NG

36 8

S ure pledge of day that cr own s t the smilin g morn


W ith t hy b right ci r clet praise Him in thy sphere,
W hile day ari s es that sweet hour of prime
Thou S un of this great world both eye and soul ,
Acknowledge Him t hy greater sound His praise
I n thy eternal course , both when thou cl imb s t ,
And when high noon hast gained and when thou fall s t
Moon that now m e et s t the O rient s un now y s t
W ith the xed star s xed in their o rb that ies ;
And ye ve other wande ri ng res that move
I n m ystic dance not without song resound
His praise who o u t of darkness called u p light
Air and ye ele m ents the eldest birth
O f N ature s wom b that in quaternion run
P e r petual cir cle multiform and mi x
And nourish a l l things let your ceaseless change
Vary to o u r gr eat Maker still n ew p raise
Ye m ists and exhalations that n o w ri s e
F r o m hill or steam ing lake dusky or gray
Till the s un paint your e ecy ski rts with gold,
V
I n honor to the Vo rl d s great Author ri se
W hether to deck with clouds the uncolored Sky,
Or wet the thi rsty ear th with falling showers
R isin g or falling still advance His praise
His p raise ye winds that fro m four quar t ers blo w
B reathe soft o r loud and wave your tops ye pines
W ith every plant In S l gn O f wor ship wave
Fountains and ye that warble as ye ow

Bear

on

w
m
our
s
and
in
our
notes
ra
i
s
H
i
s
e
y
g
y
p

M IL I TA R Y

C IVIL

AN D

QU

A L IFICAT I ONS

36 9

'
.

'

that in waters glide and ye that walk


The earth and stately tread or lowly creep ,
Witne s s if I be s ilent , m orn or even
T o h ill or valley fountain o r fresh shade ,
Made vocal by m y song and taught H is prais e
Hail universa l L ord be bounteous still
and if the night
T o give u s only good
Have gathered aught of evil or concealed,
D isperse it, as n e w light dispels the dark
Ye

L E SS O N L I
1

MI LITARY QUALI F ICATI ONS D IST INCT F R O M C IVI L

has

It

1823 John S ergean t


.

been maintained that the genius which consti


t u t e s a great military man is a very high quality , a n d
may be equall y useful in the cabinet and in the eld
that it has a so r t of universality equally applicable to al l
aff airs W e have seen , undoubtedly, instances O f a rare
and wonderful co m bination of C ivil and military qu al i
c a tions both of the highes t order That the greatest
ci vil qualications may be found united with the highest
military tale n ts, is what no on e will deny who thinks of
W ashin gton B ut that such a combination is rare a n d
e xtraordinary, the fame of Washington suf ciently
attests If it were common , why wa s he s o illustrious
I would as k what did Cromwell with a ll his military
.

RE A D I NG

37 0

AN D

S P E A K I NG

the dictators hip and r estored the monarchy The swo rd


e ff ected both
C r o m well made o n e revolution and
Monk anothe r And what did the people of E ngland
gain by it
N othing
Absolutely nothing !
The
rights and liberties of E nglish m en as they now exist
we r e settled and established at the revolution in 16 8 8
N ow m ark the diff erence
By Whom was that r ev ol u
tion begun and conducted
W as it by soldie r s P by
by the s word
No
It was the work
m ilita ry geniu s
of s tates m en and of e m inent lawye r s men never distin
the do rm ant
u is he d fo r m ilita ry exploits
The
faculty
g

f aculty m a y have existed


That is what no on e can
af rm or deny But it would have b ee n thought an
ab su rd and ext r avagant thing t o propose , in reli a nce upon
thi s po s s ible do r m ant faculty that o n e of those e m inent
s t ates m en and lawye r s shoul d be sent
instead of t he
D uke of Ma rlborough t o command the E nglish forces
on t he con t inent
W ho achieved the freedom and the independence of
this o u r o wn country
W ashington e ffected much in
the eld but where were the Franklins, the Ada m s es,
the Hancock s the Jeff ers on s and the Lees the band
of sages and patriots whose m emory we revere
They
we re asse m bled in council The hea r t of the revolution
beat in the Hall o f Congress T her e was the power
which beginning with appeals to the king and the
B ritish nation at length made an i rresistible appeal t o
the world and consum m ated the revolution by the D e
cl a ra t ion o f Independence which Washington established
with t heir authority and bearing their comm ission , s up
ported by arms And what has thi s band of patriots, of
.

C H AMO U N Y

37 1

No t what C aesar
age s, a n d of statesmen , given to u s
gave to R ome n ot what Cromwell gave to E ngland or
N apoleon t o France : they established for u s the gr ea t
principles of civil political and religious liberty upon
the strong foundations on which they have hitherto
stood There may have been milit ary capacity in Con
gress but can any o n e deny that it is to t he wisdom of
sages, W ashington being on e we are indebted for the
Signal blessings we enj oy
S

C HAMOUNY S
.

H ast t he n a charm

T . Coler idge, B

17 7 0 ;

cl .

1834.

stay the morning star


In his deep course S e long he seems to paus e
O n thy bold , awful front , 0 sovereign B lan e
The Arve and Ar v eiron at thy base
R ave ceaselessly b u t t he n , most awful form ,
R isest from forth thy silent s ea of pines
How silently Around thee and above
D eep is the air, and dark substantial b la ck,
An e b o n mass m ethinks thou p ierces t it ,
As with a wedge
But when I look again
It is thine own calm home thy crystal Shrine ,
Thy habitation from eternity
O dread and sil ent mount
I gaze d upon thee ,
T ill thou , still present to the bodil y sense,
D idst vanish from my thought entranced in prayer,
I worshipped the Invisibl e alo n e
Yet , like some swee t beguil ing me lody
S o sweet , we kno w not we are listening to it ,
T he n , the meanwh ile , wast blending with my thought ,
Ye a, with my life , a nd life s o wn s e cre t j oy,
to

RE A D I N G AN D S PE A K I N G

Till the dilati n g s oul enr apt transfused,


Into the mighty vision pa s sing there
As in her natural form s welled vast to Heaven
Awake my soul
N ot only passi v e praise
Tho u owe s t not alone these swelling tears,
Mute thanks and silent ecstasy Awake
V oice of s weet song
Awake my heart awake
Gr een vales and icy cliffs a ll join m y hy m n
Thou rs t and chief sole sovereign of the vale
O st ruggling with the darkness all the night,
And visited all night by troops of stars
Or when they cli m b the Sky or when they sink
Co m panion of the m orning star at dawn
Thys elf ea r t h s rosy star and of the da wn
0 wake and utter p r aise
Co he rald wake
W ho s ank thy sunless pilla r s deep in ear t h
Who lled thy countenance wi t h ro s y light
W ho m ade thee parent of pe r petual strea m s
,

And you ye ve wild torr ents e r cely glad


Who called you for t h fro m night and ut t er death ,
F ro m dark and icy caver n s called you for th
D o wn tho s e precipitou s black jagged rocks
F o r ever shatt ered, and the sa m e for ever
W ho gave you your invul n e rable life
Your s tre n gth your speed your f u ry and your joy,
Uncea s ing thunde r and ete rnal foam
'
And who com m anded and the Silence c am e ,
,

C HA MO U N Y

37 3

Adown enorm ous ravines sl ope amain ,


Torrents, methinks that he ar d a mighty voice
And stopped at o nce amid their maddest plunge
Motionle s s torrents Silent cataracts
Who made you glorious as t he ga t es of Heaven
Beneath the keen ful l moon
Who ba de the su n
Clothe you with rainbows
Who with living owers
O f loveliest blue spread garlands at your feet
G od
let the torrents like a shout o f N ations,
Answer and let the ice plains echo
G od
G od
Sing ye meadow s t reams with gl a d so me voice
Ye pine groves, with your soft and soul like sounds
An d they, t oo, have a voice yon piles of snow
And in their pe rilous fall shall thu n der God
Ye eag l es play m ates o f the mountain storm
Ye lightnings , the dread arrows of the clouds
Ye s igns and wonders of the elements
U tter forth G od
and ll the hills with praise
Thou too , hoar mount with thy sky pointin g pea ks,
O ft from whose feet the avalanche , unheard,
S hoot s down ward glittering thr ough t he pure serene,
Into the de pth of clouds, that ve il thy breast
Thou too , again stupendous mountain thou,
T hat as I raise my head , awhil e b owe d l ow,
I n adoration upward from thy base
S lo w travelling with dim eyes suffused with t ea rs
S olemnly s ee m es t like a vapory cloud,
To rise before m e rise 0 ever rise
Rise , like a cl oud of incense , from the earth
T ho u kingly spirit , thro n ed am ong the hil ls
Thou dread embassador fro m E arth t o H e aven ,
,

'

RE A D I N G A N D S P E A K I NG

37 4

G reat hierarch tell thou the sile n t sky


And tell the stars a n d tell you r ising sun
E arth with her thousand voices praises
,

God

H YMN T O T HE

EASON

T homs o n

These as they change , AL MI G H TY F AT H ER these


Are but the varied GOD The rolling year
Forth in the pleasing S pring
Is full of T H EE
Thy beauty walks T H Y tenderness and love
W ide u s h the elds the softening air is balm
E cho the mountains round the forest smiles
And eve ry sense and every heart is j oy
Then co m es T H Y glory in the summer months
Wi t h light and heat refulgent Then T H Y s un
Shoot s full pe rfection through the s welling year
And oft thy voice in d readful thunder speaks
An d oft at da wn deep noon o r fallin g eve
By brook s and gr oves in hollow whispering gale s
T H Y bounty shines in Autumn u nconned ,
And spreads a common feast for all that lives
In W inter awful T H O U with clouds and storm s
Around T H EE thrown tempest o e r te m pes t rolled ,
Majestic darkness on the whirlwind s win g,
Riding sublime , T H OU b ids t the world adore
And humblest N ature with T H Y northern blast
Mysterious round what skill, what force divine ,
D eep felt in these appear a Si m ple train ,
Yet s o delightful m ixed, with such kind art,
S uch beauty and b en ecen ce combined,
,

T hat

as

they still succeed , they ravis h st ill ,

H YM N

T H E S E AS O N S

T o

37 5

But wande ring o ft with brute unconscious ga z e,


Man m arks not T H EE marks not the mighty hand,
That ever busy wheels the silent spheres
Wo rks in the secret deep shoots streaming, thenc e
The fair p r ofusion that O ersp rea ds the S prin g :
Flings from the sun direct the aming day
F eeds every creature hurls the tempest forth
And as o n earth this grateful change revolves
With transport touches all the springs of l ife
,

'

HY

MN T O

TH

E SEA S ON

Continued

N ature attend join every living soul


Beneath the Spacious temple o f the s ky,
In adoration j oin ; and ardent raise
O ne general song
To HIM ye vocal gales
Breathe soft whose S pirit in your freshness breathes
O h talk of HIM in solitary glooms
W here o e r the rock the scarcely waving pin e
Fills the brown shade with a rel igious awe
And ye whose bolder note is heard afar
W ho Shake the astonished world lift high t o heaven
The impetuous so n g and say from whom you rage
HIS praise ye brooks attune ye trembling rill s,
And let me catch it as I muse along
Ye headlong torrents rapid and profound
VP
Ye softer oods that lead the humi d ma z e
Along the vale and thou majestic main
A sec ret wo rld of wonders in thyself,
S ound HIS tremendous praise, whose greater voic e
O r bids you roar or bids your roarings f all
S oft roll your in t ense herbs , and fruits and owers,
,

R E A DI N G A ND S PE A K I NG

37 6

In m ingle d clouds to HIM whose s un exalts,


W hose breath perfumes you , and whose pencil paint s
Ye forests bend ye harves t s wave , to HIM
B reathe your still song into the reaper s heart,
AS home he goes beneath the j oyous m oon
Ye that ke ep watch in heaven , as earth asleep
Unconscious lies e ff use your mildest beams
Ye constellations while your angels strike,
A m id the Spangled s ky the silver lyre
Gr eat sou rce of day best i m age here below
O f thy CRE AT OR ever pouring wide,
Fro m wo rld to world the vital ocean round
O n N ature write with every beam his praise
The thunder rolls be hushed a prostrate world
While cloud to cloud returns the sole m n hymn
Bleat ou t afre s h ye hill s ye mossy rocks
R etain t he sound the broad responsive l ow,
Ye valleys rai s e f or the GRE AT S H EP H ERD reigns
And his un s ufferm g kingdom ye t wil l come
,

Ye woodlands all, awake a boundless song


Burst from the groves and when the restless day
E xpiring lays the war bling world asleep
S we etest of birds sweet P hilomela, charm
The listening
night His prais e
Ye
At once the head, the heart, and tongue of all,
,

t he

welling ba ss

HY M N

S EAS ON S

HE

And, as each mingling ame increases each ,


In on e united ardor rise to heaven
O r if you rather choo se the rural shade,
And nd a fa me in every sacred grove
There let the shepherd s ute, the virgin s l ay,
The prompting seraph , and the poet s lyre,
S t ill sing the G od of seasons, as they ro ll
F o r me , when I forget the darling theme ,
Whet her the blossom bl ows, the S ummer ray
R ussets the plain inspiring Autumn gleams,
Or Winter rises in the blackening east
Be my tongue mute may fancy paint n o more,
And , dead t o joy forget my heart to beat
S hould fate command me to the farthest verge
O f t he green earth t o distant barbarous c limes ,
R ivers unknown to song where rst the su n
G ilds Indian mountains or his setting bea m
Flames on the Atlantic isles tis naught to m e
S ince G od is ever present , ever felt ,
In the void waste as in the city full
An d whe r e HE vital breathes, there must be j oy
When even at last the solemn hour shall com e ,
To wing my mystic ight to future worlds,
I cheerful will obey there, with n ew powers ,
Will rising wonde rs sing : I cann ot go
Where Universal Love not smile s around,
S ustaining all you orbs, and all their suns
From seeming evil still educing good,
And better thence again , and better st ill
But I los e
In inni t e progr ession
Myself in HIM, in Light in eab le
.

"

R E A DIN G

37 8

E LEGY

W RITT EN

AND

S PE A KIN G

O UN TRY

CHUR HYAR D

Gray

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day


The lowing he rd winds slowly o er the lea
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way
And leaves the world to darkness and to me
,

fades the glimmering landscape on the sight ,


And all the air a solemn stillness holds ,
S ave where the beetle wheels his droning ight,
And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds

N ow

S ave t hat fro m yonder ivy mantled tower


The m 0ping o wl does to the moon complain
O f such as wandering near her secret bo wer ,
Molest her ancient solitary reign
-

Beneath t hose rugged elms that yew tree s shade ,


W here heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap ,
E ach in his narr ow cell for ever laid
The rude forefathers of the ham let sleep
-

The breezy call of incense breathing m orn


The swallo w t wittering fro m the straw built shed,
The cook s shrill clarion o r the echoing horn ,
N o m ore shall rouse them from their lowly bed
-

For

them no more the blazing hearth shall burn ,


O r busy housewife ply her e v em n g care
N or children run to lisp their sire s return
O r climb his knees the envied kiss to share

O ft did the harve s t to their sickl e yield

L E GY

L et

RITT EN

IN

UN TR Y

CO

CHU R CHYAB D

37 9

a m bition mock their useful toil


Their ho m ely j oys and destiny obscure
N or grandeur hear, with a disdainful smile ,
The short and simpl e annals of the poor
n ot

T he boast of heraldry the pomp of power


And all that beauty all that wealth e er gave
Await alike the i n evitable hour
The paths of glory lead but to the grave
,

N or you , ye proud , impute to these the fault ,


If memory o er their tomb n o trophies raise ,
Where, through the long drawn aisle and fretted vault ,
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise

Can

s t orie d

urn or animated bust,


Back to its mansion call the eeting breath

Can honor s voice provoke the silent dus t 2


O r attery soothe the d ull col d ear of death

P erhaps in this neglected spot is laid


S om e heart once pregnant with celestial re
Hands that the ro d of e m pire m ight have swayed
O r waked t o ecstasy the living lyre
,

But knowledge t o their eyes her ample page,


R ich with the sp oils o f time, did ne er unroll
Chill penury repressed their n oble rage ,
And froze the genial current of the soul

Full many a gem of purest ray serene


The dark unfathomed caves o f ocean bear
F ull many a ower is born to blus h unseen
An d wast e it s s weetness on the desert a ir
,

R E A DI NG

380

A N D SP E A K I N G

S o m e village Ham pden that with dau ntless breas t,


The little ty rant of his elds withstood
S om e mute inglorious Milton here may rest
S om e C r omwell guiltless of his count ry s blood
,

The applause of listening senates to command


The threats of pain and ruin to despise ,
To scatter plenty o er a s m iling land
And read their history in a nation s eyes,

Thei r l o t fo rbade nor cir cumscribed alone ,


Thei r gr owing virtues but their crimes conned
Forbade t o wade t hro ugh slaughter to a throne,
And shut the gates of m ercy on mankind
,

The struggling pan gs of conscious truth to hide


To quench the blushes of ingenuous shame
O r heap the shrine of luxury and pride
W ith incense kindled at the m use s ame
,

from the madding crowd s ignoble st rife ,


Their sobe r wishes never l earned to stray
Along the cool sequestered vale of life
They kept the noiseless tenor o f their way

Fa r

Yet even these bones from insult to protect ,


S ome frail memorial still erected nigh
With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture
,

de ck d,

OP I N I ON S OF

T he

f v or
a

e v e ry

x mi

r nc

e o

n on o f

o t he r

work

im

t hin

blished

g
S HERW OO D

e
,

I ha v e

t hese

on

c an e

an d a

gl

e ct e

t he

ne

which

bst r a ct

wit h

su ch c ar e

in t he

c on cur

as

Opi i

d has

ha s

e of

e du ca t ion .

ca t io n , an d

gl

im

f om
r

e v er

art in

e sso n s a n d

h
t
i
t
h
w
g

r au

in t ho se t wo

st u den t

o rm e d a v e ry

g
g

a dv an t a

E sq ,

un de rs i n e d

t he

It diff e r s m a t e riall y

t he

en t s o f

art

ERW OO D

rul e s,

r e ss o f

ro

SH

b u t b y r e a din
l e asin
st y l e , a n d

an d

Gr a mm ar S choo l

an

o r schools .

p g
m
d d p
hy f p bli

wort

by W

t he m t he decide d

t e t he

ne

a min e d

of

xp di

a n d s e akin

cl e ar

v e ry

b ook f
bj ct s

dr y,

T he

in t e n ds t o

v e ry

b sc ibe r

su

it , when

use

m y t im e

n on e

xp

all o we d,

r e s sed

by

MS

t he

of

Mr

P rof e ssor An t hon

as

work

x m i d m wh t
gi
m h pp y

su

of

e m in en t ly

I qu it e

t o t he m er it s

te t

as a

in t he Coll e

Ha v in

t ion ,

it

b u t m u ch

t hin ks t he wo rk

r e a din

OR K

work in M S

a m in e d a

b y m e a ns

g th t

or t an t

co rr ec t

writt en in

ues

o ss e s se s o v er a ll of

or m a t io n , n o t

e v ery

of

es

dia l o

ha s

n e d, an d

in

b sc iber

p i ipl
bl pi i

t he

on

su

HE

so

to

ve

in det a il , Mr S HE R W OOD s work

t e s t im on y t o it s

re a t

m e rit

on

E l ocu

ERW OO D
g t
i

Mr S H
.

his sy s t e m , which is n a re a
erie n ce
e
It is e a sily
mea sur e or i in al, is t he r uit o f m an y y ea r s
m ast e re d ; t he dir e ct io n s are l a in an d p ra ct ica l, a n d t he st yl e of t he wor k

ha s b e en

a s u cce s s ul

is

cl ear

an d sim

pl

e.

t e acher

of

t he

ar t , an d

Of xp

p
I will p
t

rov e ,

I t hink,

of

t he

gre

a t e s t v al u e

t o t hose

382
an d s

e akin

t r ea t is e s

ot her

p p

F or t his

on

t he

su

E C O MM EN D A T IO N S
ur

bj

r e a din

c a r e ully

bee i s d f
f i h im p t

rom

s ue

t he

gm

ud

who

an d o

s e rv a t ion ,

Wit h

s u ch s u

S HE

WOO D S W

ork o n

pl

I t ake

E l ocut ion

S HE

RWOO D

in

s a yin

his

e s t eem

r a ct ical , a n d c a l cul a t e d

e du ca t io n

of

ha v e

ill us t r a t ion s ,

of t he

on

Dr

h of

r ov e m e n t

m a t er ia lly

s, an d

t ha n t heir

wn

in t his

a s a r e c on t a in e d

xp

be

ne

er ie n ce

a t t r a ct iv e

Y
ork
N
e
w
f
o

P arker s

r ecom m en dat ion

It will

e du c a t io n .

nc

Cha ncellor of N ew Yor k U n iver sity


far

as

a n d n a t ur al ,

m u ch

bee

I ha v e

as

n a

of

Mr

Mr

his

and

bl e t o hear
sy s t em

in t er e s t t o t he de

e a t er

ne

xp

da y ;

OW EN

a nd

d M r SHE R W OOD s M S

m ake

is

a n , cl e ar a n d corr e ct

m i ht b e

im

j u st

ve

OHN

x mi

t ha t

gi

to

work

v ie ws

or J
ess
f
o

best wo ks t
p bli h d It

t he

b ee

pl

art o f

hi hly

a rt m e n t o f

f or which it is in t e n de d.

Fr om the R ev P

re a t er

p p il

an d

RALST ON SMIT H

b ra

or t a n t

e st ion s

SAAC FERRIS

e a su r e

gg

From Dr I
.

of

in t he R ev

con cur

E s q ; a n d hesit a t e n ot t o
es t sy s t e m o f in s t ru ct ion t ha t ha s ev er

t hat im

m e an s

c or dia l ly

t he

ERW OO D

SH

t o t e a cher s

F rom the R ev T

LLIAM

r es s o n

os s e s s n o o t he r

all

ab ov e

New York

in m a n u scr i t , t he

en t ,

or a n t a s s is t an ce

ur n s

t hos e

by W

a n d el ocu t ion ,

t ha t it is , in m y

s a y,

eru s e d,

it

a ce

JOE L P AR K ER

pl

hes it a t e t o

n ot

E l o cu t ion

e ct o f

F r om t he R ev Dr

I hav e

I do

os e ,

in

on

t he t rue

RTO N

of ess or B A

on

oo d r e a der s a n d s

a sed u

E l ocut ion ,

an d

r e

ec

an d

ru

p i ipl
r nc

an

Wh

o se

m in d ha s b e en

on e

y which ha s e v er
of n a t ur e , ori in al in

es

s t y l e , a n d r e n der ed a tt r a ct iv e
r

t hin k it

e ake r s of a n

b y m an y

pl

u st

f e d m f om dry l es d t i esom e det il


t e d from
gen t l em an who ha s b ee o e f t he b

an d a

of t he Free

en riche d

wit h t he

xp

s :

e a s in

Wh

at

e st e du ca t or s

er ie n ce of

man y

R E COM M EN DATI ONS


t ha t

it

it

as

e m in en t ly

bj e ct

pl

b ee

cit y ,

s erv e r ,

is

de s it e

o f ev e r
y

recom m en din

I hav e
.

on

rie n ce of

su

bj e ct

it s

t hin

LLIAM

as

an d

pre e m in en t l y

a u t hor

ha s

su

gg

t he

of

t he

to

s em in ar ie s

f om it s publica t ion
r

WI LLI

T he s yst em
work of s t e rlin

Av oidi g a
who
t han

o f re a din

v a lu e .

cu ou s,

e
t
y

n e cess a ry

t he

pp

sub e ct o f

xp

e l ocu t ion is t ,

m a st er

t he

of

su

blishe d

cl e a r

bj ect

on

m u st work it s wa y in t o u s e
ea r e d
I t a ke r e a t l e a sur e in
,

gg

e n er al us e

in

a m in a t ion of

an d s

ea kin

P a cke r Coll e giat e


will

coun t ry ,

our s cho ol s a n d

ERWOO D S
l g
p

Mr SH
.

T he

on

im

ex

or t a n t

In st it u t e, in

re aliz e

comm on

f ll

t he

b en et

Ja m ,

DA E
,

E sq ,

NI L

to

p g
ro

a n d e l ocu t ion

It is

m ul t i l icit y o f

ar e co n v e r s a n t
a ids

on

W ar d S chool No 2 0, of
o
f W ard S cho ol
.

e r e ct

es .

E LDEN

F rom the R ev
AM B
the cit y of New York, a nd
No 4 0
.

wa n t in t he

t he des iderat um u on t his v ery

e st ed

of

a n t ici a t ed

e s o f c orre ct r e ad in

I t rust t ha t t he s t u den t s
o t her

blished

E sq , wit h which I ha v e
e
e rien ce a s a t ea cher

n a t u r al

a c a r e ul e

se

wit h t he

ha d l on

hours in

b ot h

o f e du ca t io n

en t sev er al
r nc

familiar wit h t he

a t all

work in M S

RWOO D

deserv in

p i ipl

t o m e t o m e et

who is

s chol a r ,

ha s hit her t o

at

S HE
as

pli h d

g th

l e arnin

t he

n n

T his work, whe n

g it

s e m in a rie s of

t hin ker,

r o o un d

x mi i g

ERWOO D h

a ccom

an

which he wr it e s

MS

E l ocu t ion , b y W
m u ch l e a sed
Mr SH

in t he
o

e a sur e o f

it b e

an d

s e em s

It

scho ol s , shoul d

in t he

s t ru ck ev ery on e

b ooks

of e du ca t ion al

I ha v e ha d t he
R e a din

u s e ul

des erv e s t o b e

which m u st hav e

scho ol s
su

fail t o be highly

ca n n ot

383

it

un da n t l

in t he ory t o

t he co mprehens ion o f

re

in t s

n al

rul e s a n d m in u t e

wit h works

r e s s,

gi

o ri

p p
i pl

on

re se n t s

t his

t he

su

co m re he n s iv e

f rm
o

a very

su

bj

modera t e

a n , a n d s im

n d em

in

e ct

a n a t ur al a n d

b y Mr S

pl

HERW OO D is a
in it s de t ails

dis t in ct ion s which m o s t Of t ho s e ,

bj e ct

so

a r ed

t ha t

b arr

m a n n er

a s s m e n t s , r a t he r

e a s y an d

whil e t eachin

r a ce ul e l o cu t ion ,

c a acit y .

p erspi
all t ha t is

it is

suite d

to