Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

Circulatory and Immune System

Circulatory and Immune System By: Lydia Maxon, Andrew Rice, Ben Klinge, and Jake Rubey

By: Lydia Maxon, Andrew Rice, Ben Klinge, and Jake Rubey

Circulatory System Function

transport resources and waste

made up of a heart, a series of blood vessels, and blood

System Function ● transport resources and waste ● made up of a heart, a series of
Heart ● Located in the center of the chest ● Nearly fully composed of muscles

Heart

Located in the center of the chest

Nearly fully composed of muscles

Only about the size of your clenched fist

Enclosed in a protective sac of tissue called the pericardium

Septum divides left and right sides of the heart

Upper chamber - atrium

Lower chamber - ventricle

Circulation Through Body

Heart functions as two pumps, sending blood to lungs(pulmonary circulation)

and body(systemic circulation)

blood exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen in lungs

systemic circulation brings oxygen to the body

Blood flow Through Heart

Blood enters in either the right or left atrium

Next it flows to the ventricles

Valves stop blood backwash

Oxygen low blood enters the right atria, and is

pumped to the lungs

Oxygen rich blood enters the left atria, and is sent

to the body

the right atria, and is pumped to the lungs ● Oxygen rich blood enters the left
Blood Vessels ● Blood flows through 3 types of blood vessels 1. Arteries: large vessel

Blood Vessels

Blood flows through 3 types of blood vessels

1. Arteries: large vessel that carries blood from heart to tissue

2. Capillaries: smallest of blood vessels, one cell thick, where nutrients & O2 brought

to tissues, absorption of CO2 & waste

3. Veins: returns blood to heart, walls contain connective tissues & muscle

Immune System Function

Protect the body from disease

Primary defense against pathogens

● Protect the body from disease ● Primary defense against pathogens

Immune Response

Specific defenses that attack disease-causing agent

Pathogen: microorganism that can cause disease

Antigen: substance that triggers response, pathogen can carry receptors that act as antigen

2 different responses:

1. Humoral Immunity - immunity against pathogens in body fluids (blood and lymph)

2. Cell-Mediated Immunity - killer T cells attack antigen bearing cells directly

Cells

Lymphocytes: type of white blood cell, crucial to immune system

: type of white blood cell, crucial to immune system B lymphocytes / B Cells :

B lymphocytes / B Cells: recognize antigens & grow and divide rapidly

Plasma Cells: specialized B Cells that release antibodies

Antibody: Protein that helps destroy pathogens - has 2 identical antigen-binding sites

B Cells that release antibodies Antibody : Protein that helps destroy pathogens - has 2 identical

More Cells

T Lymphocytes / T Cells: assists and regulates activation of plasma cells/antibodies (Helper T Cells)

Killer T Cells: attack antigen-bearing cells directly

Phagocytes: engulf antigen-bearing cells

(Helper T Cells) Killer T Cells : attack antigen-bearing cells directly Phagocytes : engulf antigen-bearing cells

Humoral Immunity

1. B Cells develop early in life - immune system contains millions

2. Pathogen enters body, small fraction of B Cells recognize antigen

3. Activated B Cells grow and divide with help of Helper T Cell

4. Plasma Cells produced and Memory B Cells to remember antigen

5. Plasma Cells release antibodies

6. Antibodies attach to antigen with antigen binding sites, attracts phagocytes

7. Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogen (phagocytosis)

Antigen
Antigen

Cell-Mediated Immunity

1. Phagocyte engulfs pathogen & displays antigens on surface

2. T Cells binds to phagocyte becoming Helper T Cell

3. Helper T Cell activates killer T Cells

4. Killer T Cells binds to pathogen

5. Killer T Cells transfer proteins into cell membrane of pathogen

6. Fluid inside cell membrane leaks out, pathogen ruptures and dies

How Are the Two Systems Related?

The circulatory system transports the needed immune bodies to the infected area of the body.

Are the Two Systems Related? The circulatory system transports the needed immune bodies to the infected

Model

Pathogens
Pathogens
Model Pathogens Phagocytes Antibodies Helper/Killer T Cells B Cells
Model Pathogens Phagocytes Antibodies Helper/Killer T Cells B Cells

Phagocytes

Model Pathogens Phagocytes Antibodies Helper/Killer T Cells B Cells
Model Pathogens Phagocytes Antibodies Helper/Killer T Cells B Cells

Antibodies

Model Pathogens Phagocytes Antibodies Helper/Killer T Cells B Cells

Helper/Killer T Cells

B Cells