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Integrated Services Digital Network

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communications standards for


simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the
traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in
the CCITTred book.[citation needed]
Prior to ISDN, the phone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special
services available for data. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on
the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. There
are several kinds of access interfaces to ISDN defined as Basic Rate Interface (BRI), Primary
Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN).
ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which also provides access to packet
switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over
ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog
phone can provide. It offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data), and
packet-switched connections (for data), in increments of 64kilobit/s. A major market
application for ISDN in some countries is Internet access, where ISDN typically provides a
maximum of 128 kbit/s in both upstream and downstream directions. ISDN B-channels can be
bonded to achieve a greater data rate, typically 3 or 4 BRIs (6 to 8 64 kbit/s channels) are
bonded.
ISDN should not be mistaken for its use with a specific protocol, such as Q.931 whereby ISDN
is employed as the network, data-link and physical layers in the context of the OSI model. In a
broad sense ISDN can be considered a suite of digital services existing on layers 1, 2, and 3 of
the OSI model. ISDN is designed to provide access to voice and data services simultaneously.
However, common use has reduced ISDN to be limited to Q.931 and related protocols, which
are a set of protocols for establishing and breaking circuit switched connections, and for
advanced call features for the user. They were introduced in 1986.[1]
In a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission
between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing
systems.
Basic Rate Interface
The entry level interface to ISDN is the Basic(s) Rate Interface (BRI), a 128 kbit/s service
delivered over a pair of standard telephone copper wires. The 144 kbit/s rate is broken down
into two 64 kbit/s bearer channels ('B' channels) and one 16 kbit/s signaling channel ('D'
channel or delta channel).
BRI is sometimes referred to as 2B+D
The interface specifies the following network interfaces:
• The U interface is a two-wire interface between the exchange and a network
terminating unit, which is usually the demarcation point in non-North American
networks.
• The T interface is a serial interface between a computing device and a terminal
adapter, which is the digital equivalent of a modem.
• The S interface is a four-wire bus that ISDN consumer devices plug into; the S & T
reference points are commonly implemented as a single interface labeled 'S/T' on an
NT1
• The R interface defines the point between a non-ISDN device and a terminal adapter
(TA) which provides translation to and from such a device.
BRI-ISDN is very popular in Europe but is much less common in North America. It is also
common in Japan - where it is known as INS64.
Data channel
The bearer channel (B) is a standard 64 kbit/s voice channel of 8 bits sampled at 8 kHz
with G.711 encoding. B-Channels can also be used to carry data, since they are nothing more
than digital channels. Each one of these channels is known as a DS0.
Most B channels can carry a 64 kbit/s signal, but some were limited to 56K because they
traveled over RBS lines. This was commonplace in the 20th century, but has since become
less so.
Signaling channel
The signaling channel (D) uses Q.931 for signaling with the other side of the link.
X.25
X.25 can be carried over the B or D channels of a BRI line, and over the B channels of a PRI
line. X.25 over the D channel is used at many point-of-sale (credit card) terminals because it
eliminates the modem setup, and because it connects to the central system over a B channel,
thereby eliminating the need for modems and making much better use of the central
system's telephone lines.
X.25 was also part of an ISDN protocol called "Always On/Dynamic ISDN", or AO/DI. This
allowed a user to have a constant multi-link PPP connection to the internet over X.25 on the D
channel, and brought up one or two B channels as needed.
Frame Relay
In theory, Frame Relay can operate over the D channel of BRIs and PRIs, but it is seldom, if
ever, used.

X.25
X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network(WAN)
communication. An X.25 WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the
networking hardware, and leased lines, Plain old telephone serviceconnections
or ISDN connections as physical links. X.25 is a family of protocols that was used especially
during the 1980s by telecommunications companies and infinancial transaction systems such
as automated teller machines. X.25 was originally defined by the International Telegraph and
Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT, now ITU-T) in a series of drafts[1] and finalized in a
publication known as The Orange Book in 1976.[2]
X.25 is today to a large extent replaced by less complex protocols, especially theInternet
protocol (IP) although some telephone operators offer X.25-based communication via the
signaling (D) channel of ISDN lines.
History
X.25 is one of the oldest packet-switched services available. It was developed before the OSI Reference Model.
[3]
The protocol suite is designed as three conceptual layers, which correspond closely to the lower three layers
of the seven-layer OSI model.[4] It also supports functionality not found in the OSI Network Layer.[5][6]
X.25 was developed in the ITU-T (formerly CCITT) Study Group VII based upon a number of emerging data
network projects. Various updates and additions were
worked into the standard, eventually recorded in the ITU
series of technical books describing the telecommunication
systems. These books were published every fourth year
with different-colored covers. The X.25 specification is only
part of the larger set of X-Series[7] specifications on public
data networks. The Public data network was the common
name given to the international collection of X.25
providers. Their combined network had large global
coverage during the 1980s and into the 1990s. Publicly-
accessible X.25 networks
(Compuserve, Tymnet, Euronet, PSS, and Telenet) were set
up in most countries during the 1970s and 80s, to lower
the cost of accessing various online services. Beginning in
the early 1990s in North America, use of X.25 networks
(predominated by Telenet and Tymnet)[10] began being
replaced withFrame Relay service offered by national
telephone companies. X.25 networks are in use throughout the world. A variant called AX.25 is also used widely
by amateur packet radio. Racal Paknet, now known as Widanet, is still in operation in many regions of the world,
running on an X.25 protocol base. In some countries, like the Netherlands orGermany, it is possible to use a
stripped version of X.25 via the D-channel of an ISDN-2 (or ISDN BRI) connection for low volume applications
such as point-of-sale terminals; but, the future of this service in the Netherlands is uncertain. Additionally X.25 is
still under heavy use in the aeronautical business (especially in the Asian region) even though a transition to
modern protocols like X.400 is without option as X.25 hardware becomes increasingly rare and costly.

Relation to the OSI Reference Model


Although X.25 predates the OSI Reference Model (OSIRM), the Physical Layer of the OSI
model corresponds to the X.25 physical layer, theData Link Layer to the X.25 data link layer,
and the Network Layer to the X.25 packet layer.[14] The X.25 data link layer, LAPB, provides
a reliable data path across a data link (or multiple parallel data links, multilink) which may not
be reliable itself. The X.25 packet layer, provides the virtual call mechanisms, running over
X.25 LAPB. The packet layer includes mechanisms to maintain virtual calls and to signal data
errors in the event that the data link layer cannot recover from data transmission errors. All
but the earliest versions of X.25 include facilities[15]which provide for OSI network
layer Addressing (NSAP addressing, see below)[16].
Error control
Error recovery procedures at the packet layer assume that the data link layer is responsible
for retransmitting data received in error. Packet layer error handling focuses on
resynchronizing the information flow in calls, as well as clearing calls that have gone into
unrecoverable states:
 Level 3 Reset packets, which re-initializes the flow on a virtual call (but does not break
the virtual call)
 Restart packet, which clears down all virtual calls on the data link and resets all
permanent virtual circuits on the data link
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Introduction
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a technology that has the potential of revolutionizing
data communications and telecommunications.ATM is cell relay protocols which allow high
speed interconnection. In ATMs information for multiple services types (voice, video or data0)
is conveyed in small, fixed size cells.ATM cells are connection oriented and provide scalable
bandwidth from few MBPS to GBPS.

ATM Devices
An ATM network is made up of an ATM switch and ATM endpoints.
ATM switch
An ATM switch is responsible for cell transit through an ATM network. The job of an ATM switch is well
defined: It accepts the incoming cell from an ATM endpoint or another ATM switch. It then reads and
updates the cell header information and quickly switches the cell to an output interface toward its
destination.
ATM endpoint
An ATM endpoint (or end system) contains an
ATM network interface adapter. Examples of
ATM endpoints are workstations, routers,
digital service units (DSUs), LAN switches,
and video coder-decoders (CODECs). Figure 1
illustrates an ATM network made up of ATM
switches and ATM endpoints.
Figure 1 An ATM Network Comprises
ATM Switches and Endpoints
ATM Network Interfaces
An ATM network consists of a set of ATM switches interconnected by point-to-point ATM links or
interfaces. ATM switches support two primary types of interfaces: UNI9User to n/w interface) and
NNI(N/w to n/w interface).
The UNI connects ATM end systems (such as hosts and routers) to an ATM switch.
The NNI connects two ATM switches.

The ATM Cell


Each individual ATM cell consists of a 5-byte cell header and 48 bytes of information encapsulated
within its payload. The ATM network uses the header to support the virtual path and the virtual
channel routing, and to perform a quick error check for corrupted cells.

ATM Services
Two types of ATM services exist: permanent virtual circuits (PVC), switched virtual circuits
(SVC). PVC allows direct connectivity between sites. In this way, a PVC is
similar to a leased line. Among its advantages, PVC guarantees availability of a connection
and does not require call setup procedures between switches. Disadvantages of PVCs include
static connectivity and manual setup. Each piece of equipment between the source and the
destination must be manually provisioned for the PVC. Furthermore, no network resiliency is
available with PVC.
An SVC is created and released dynamically and remains in use only as long as data is being
transferred. In this sense, it is similar to a telephone call. Dynamic call control requires a
signaling protocol between the ATM endpoint and the ATM switch. The advantages of SVCs
include connection flexibility and call setup that can be handled automatically by a
networking device. Disadvantages include the extra time and overhead required to set up the
connection.

ATM Reference Model


The ATM reference model is composed of the following ATM layers:
• Physical layer—Analogous to the physical layer of the OSI reference model, the ATM physical layer
manages the medium-dependent transmission.
• ATM layer—Combined with the ATM adaptation layer, the ATM layer is roughly analogous to the
data link layer of the OSI reference model. Thus, the ATM layer is responsible for relaying cells from
the AAL to the Physical layer for transmission, and in the opposite direction from the Physical layer to
the AAL for use in an endpoint. The ATM layer is responsible for the simultaneous sharing of virtual
circuits over a physical link (cell multiplexing) and passing cells through the ATM network (cell relay).
To do this, it uses the VPI and VCI information in the header of each ATM cell.
• ATM adaptation layer (AAL)—Combined with the ATM layer, the AAL is roughly analogous to the
data link layer of the OSI model. The AAL is responsible for isolating higher-layer protocols from the
details of the ATM processes. The adaptation layer prepares user data for conversion into cells and
segments the data into 48-byte cell payloads.
Finally, the higher layers residing above the AAL accept user data, arrange it into packets, and hand it
to the AAL.
The ATM adaption layer:
The ATM adaption layer lies between the ATM layer and the higher layers which use the ATM
service. The information transported by the ATM adaption layer is divided into four classes
according to the following properties-
1) The information being transported is time dependent/independent: It may be necessary to
regenerate the time dependency of a signal at the destination. E.g. a 64kbps PCM voice.
2) Variable/Constant bit rate.
3) Connection/Connectionless mode information transfer.
The ATM adaption layer is divided into two sub layers:
1) Convergence Sub layer:
This layer wraps the user-service data units in a header and trailer which contain information
used to provide the services required. The information in the header and trailer depends on
the class of information to be transported but will usually contain error handling and data
priority preservation information.
2) Segmentation and reassembly sub layer:
This layer receives the convergence sub layer protocol data unit and divides it up into pieces which it
can place in an ATM cell. It adds to each piece a header which contains information used to
reassemble the pieces at the destination.

Frame relay
Frame relay consists of an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital
information. It is a message forwarding "relay race" like system in which data packets, called
frames, are passed from one or many start-points to one or many destinations via a series of
intermediate node points. Frame relay is a synchronous HDLC protocol based network.
Design
Frame relay puts data in variable-size units called "frames" and leaves any necessary error-
correction (such as re-transmission of data) up to the end-points. This speeds up overall data
transmission. For most services, the network provides a permanent virtual circuit (PVC),
which means that the customer sees a continuous, dedicated connection.
Unlike X.25, whose designers expected analog signals, frame relay offers a fast packet
technology, which means that the protocol does not attempt to correct errors. When a frame
relay network detects an error in a frame, it simply drops that frame. The end points have the
responsibility for detecting and retransmitting dropped frames. Frame relay often serves to
connect local area networks (LANs) with major backbones as well as on public wide-area
networks (WANs). Frame relay does not provide an ideal path for voice or video
transmission, both of which require a steady flow of transmissions. Frame relay relays
packets at the data link layer (layer 2) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
rather than at the network layer (layer 3). It varies in size up to a thousand bytes or more.
Frame Relay is a protocol standard for LAN internetworking which provides a fast and efficient
method of transmitting information from a user device to LAN bridges & routers.

Virtual Circuits
The Frame Relay frame is transmitted to its destination by way of virtual circuits (logical
paths from an originating point in the network) to a destination point. Virtual circuits may be
permanent (PVCs) or switched (SVCs). SVCs are set up on a call-by-call basis.

ADVANTAGES:
Frame Relay provides an alternative to bit dedicated lines & X.25 networks.
virtual circuits consume bandwidth only when they transport data, Virtual circuits can exist
simultaneously across a given transmission line. In addition, each device can use more of the
bandwidth as necessary, and thus operate at higher speeds.
Improved reliability of communication lines & increased error handling sophistication attend
stations which allow Frame Relay protocol to discard erroneous frame & thus eliminate time
consuming error-handling processes.
Frame Relay is less expensive than other traditional WANs.

Frame Relay Frame:


It is an HDLC protocol based network.

Each frame relay PDU consists of the following fields:


Flag Field. The flag is used to perform high-level data link synchronization which indicates the
beginning and end of the frame with the unique pattern 01111110. To ensure that the
01111110 pattern does not appear somewhere inside the frame, bit stuffing and destuffing
procedures are used.
Address Field. Each address field may occupy octet 2 to 3, octet 2 to 4, or octet 2 to 5,
depending on the range of the address in use. A two-octet address field comprises the
EA=ADDRESS FIELD EXTENSION BITS - It indicates whether or not the current byte is the final
byte of the address.
C/R=COMMAND/RESPONSE BIT - It is provided to allow upper layer to identify a frame either
as a command or response.
DLCI-Data Link Connection Identifier Bits. The DLCI serves to identify the virtual connection
so that the receiving end knows which information connection a frame belongs to. Note that
this DLCI has only local significance. A single physical channel can multiplex several different
virtual connections.
FECN, BECN. These bits report congestion:
FECN=Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit
It indicate that traffic is congested in the direction in which the frame is travelling. This bit
informs the destination that congestion has occurred.
BECN=Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit This bit indicate that traffic is congested
in the direction opposite to one in which the frame is travelling. This bit informs the sender
that congestion has occurred.
DE-Discard eligibility- This bit indicates the priority level of the frame .In emergency
situations switches may have to discard frames to keep the network away from collapsing
due to overload.
3.Information Field. A system parameter defines the maximum number of data bytes that a
host can pack into a frame. Hosts may negotiate the actual maximum frame length at call
set-up time. The standard specifies the maximum information field size (supportable by any
network) as at least 262 octets. Since end-to-end protocols typically operate on the basis of
larger information units, frame relay recommends that the network support the maximum
value of at least 1600 octets in order to avoid the need for segmentation and reassembling
by end-users.
Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field. Since one cannot completely ignore the bit error-rate of the
medium, each switching node needs to implement error detection to avoid wasting bandwidth due to
the transmission of erred frames. The error detection mechanism used in frame relay uses the cyclic
redundancy check (CRC) as its basis.
Network switch
A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connect network
segments.
The term commonly refers to a network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link
layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network
layer (layer 3 and above) are often referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer switches.
The term network switch does not generally encompass unintelligent or passive network
devices such as hubs and repeaters. The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in
1990.[1]
Ethernet hub
An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub or hub is a device for connecting
multiple twisted pair or fiber optic Ethernet devices together and making them act as a
single network segment. Hubs work at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. The
device is a form of multiport repeater. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection,
forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects acollision.
Hubs also often come with a BNC and/or AUI connector to allow connection to
legacy 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 network segments. The availability of low-pricednetwork
switches has largely rendered hubs obsolete but they are still seen in older installations and
more specialized applications.
Router
A router is a device that interconnects two or more computer networks, and selectively interchanges
packets of data between them. Each data packet contains address information that a router can use
to determine if the source and destination are on the same network, or if the data packet must be
transferred from one network to another. Where multiple routers are used in a large collection of
interconnected networks, the routers exchange information about target system addresses, so that
each router can build up a table showing the preferred paths between any two systems on the
interconnected networks.
A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are customized to the tasks
ofrouting and forwarding information. A router has two or more network interfaces, which may be to
different physical types of network (such as copper cables, fiber, or wireless) or different network
standards. Each network interface is a small computer specialized to convert electric signals from one
form to another.
Routers connect two or more logical subnets, which do not share a common network address. The
subnets in the router do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router.[1] The
term "layer 3 switching" is used often interchangeably with the term "routing". The term switching is
generally used to refer to data forwarding between two network devices that share a common
network address. This is also called layer 2 switching or LAN switching.
Conceptually, a router operates in two operational planes (or sub-systems):[2]
 Control plane: where a router builds a table (called routing table) as how a packet should be
forwarded through which interface, by using either statically configured statements (called
static routes) or by exchanging information with other routers in the network through a
dynamical routing protocol;
 Forwarding plane: where the router actually forwards traffic (called packets in IP) from ingress
(incoming) interfaces to an egress (outgoing) interface that is appropriate for the destination
address that the packet carries with it, by following rules derived from the routing table that
has been built in the control plane.
Repeater
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level
and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover
longer distances.
Digipeater
A "digipeater" is a blend meaning "digital repeater", particularly used in amateur radio. Store
and forward digipeaters generally receive apacket radio transmission and then retransmit it
on the same frequency, unlike repeaters that receive on one and transmit on another
frequency.

Bridging (networking)
Bridging is a forwarding technique used in packet-switched computer networks. Unlike routing,
bridging makes no assumptions about where in a network a particular address is located. Instead, it
depends on flooding and examination of source addresses in received packet headers to locate
unknown devices. Once a device has been located, its location is recorded in a table where the MAC
address is stored so as to preclude the need for further broadcasting. The utility of bridging is limited
by its dependence on flooding, and is thus only used in local area networks.
Bridging generally refers to Transparent bridging or Learning bridge operation which predominates
in Ethernet. Another form of bridging,Source route bridging, was developed for token ring networks.
A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI
model. In Ethernet networks, the termbridge formally means a device that behaves according to
the IEEE 802.1D standard. A bridge and switch are very much alike; a switch being a bridge with
numerous ports. Switch or Layer 2 switch is often used interchangeably with bridge.
Bridges are similar to repeaters or network hubs, devices that connect network segments at
the physical layer; however, with bridging, traffic from one network is managed rather than simply
rebroadcast to adjacent network segments. Bridges are more complex than hubs or repeaters.
Bridges can analyze incoming data packets to determine if the bridge is able to send the given packet
to another segment of the network.
IPv6
nternet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is an Internet Protocol version which is designed to succeedIPv4, the
first implementation which is still in dominant use currently. It is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-
switched internetworks. The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the
foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard specification, RFC 2460.
IPv6 has a vastly larger address space than IPv4. This results from the use of a 128-bit address,
whereas IPv4 uses only 32 bits. The new address space thus supports 2128 (about 3.4×1038)
addresses. This expansion provides flexibility in allocating addresses and routing traffic and eliminates
the primary need for network address translation (NAT), which gained widespread deployment as an
effort to alleviate IPv4 address exhaustion.
IPv6 also implements new features that simplify aspects of address assignment (stateless address
autoconfiguration) and network renumbering (prefix and router announcements) when changing
Internet connectivity providers. The IPv6 subnet size has been standardized by fixing the size of the
host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits to facilitate an automatic mechanism for forming the
host identifier from Link Layer media addressing information (MAC address).
Network security is integrated into the design of the IPv6 architecture. Internet Protocol Security
(IPsec) was originally developed for IPv6, but found widespread optional deployment first in IPv4 (into
which it was back-engineered). The IPv6 specifications mandate IPsec implementation as a
fundamental interoperability requirement.
Packet format
The IPv6 packet is composed of three main parts: the fixed header, optional extension headers and
the payload.
The fixed header makes up the first 40 octets (320 bits) of an IPv6 data packet. The header contains
the source and destination address, traffic classification options, a hop counter, and a indication of the
next header. The Next Header field points to a chain of zero or more extension headers (chained
by Next Header fields); the last Next Header field points to the upper-layer protocol that is carried in
the packet'spayload.
Extension headers carry options that are used for special treatment of a packet along the way or at its
destination, routing, fragmenting, and for security using the IPsec framework.
The payload can have a size of up to 64 KB in standard mode, or larger with a "jumbo payload" option
in a Hop-By-Hop Options extension header.
Fragmentation is handled only in the sending host in IPv6: routers never fragment a packet, and hosts
are expected to use Path MTU discovery.

IPv4 IPv6
address 32 bits long (4 bytes). Address is 128 bits long (16 bytes). Basic architecture is
composed of a network and a host 64 bits for the network number and 64 bits for
portion, which depend on address the host number. Often, the host portion of an
class. Various address classes are IPv6 address (or part of it) will be a MAC
defined: A, B, C, D, or E depending address or other interface identifier.
on initial few bits. The total number Depending on the subnet prefix, IPv6 has a
of IPv4 addresses is 4 294 967 296. more complicated architecture than IPv4.
The text form of the IPv4 address The number of IPv6 addresses is
is nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn, where 10 28(79 228 162 514 264 337 593 543 950 33
0<=nnn<=255, and each n is a 6) timeslarger than the number of IPv4
decimal digit. Leading zeros may be addresses.The text form of the IPv6 address
omitted. Maximum number of print isxxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx,
characters is 15, not counting a where each x is a hexadecimal digit,
mask. representing 4 bits. Leading zeros may be
omitted. The double colon (::) may be used
once in the text form of an address, to
designate any number of 0 bits. For
example, ::ffff:10.120.78.40 is an IPv6 IPv4-
mapped address. (See RFC 2373 for details.
To view this RFC, see RFC
Editor (http://www.rfc-
editor.org/rfcsearch.html).
address allocation Originally, addresses were allocated Allocation is in the earliest stages. The
by network class. As address space Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and
is depleted, smaller allocations Internet Architecture Board (IAB) have
using Classless Inter-Domain recommended that essentially every
Routing (CIDR) are made. Allocation organization, home, or entity be allocated
has not been balanced among a /48 subnet prefix length. This would leave
institutions and nations. 16 bits for the organization to do subnetting.
The address space is large enough to give
every person in the world their
own /48 subnet prefix length.
address lifetime Generally, not an applicable IPv6 addresses have two lifetimes: preferred
concept, except for addresses and valid, with the preferred lifetime always
assigned using DHCP. <= valid.
After the preferred lifetime expires, the
address is not to be used as a source IP
address. After the valid lifetime expires, the
address is not used (recognized) as a valid
destination IP address for incoming packets.
Some IPv6 addresses have, by definition,
infinite preferred and valid lifetimes; for
example link-local (see address scope).
address mask Used to designate network from Not used (see address prefix).
host portion.
address prefix Sometimes used to designate Used to designate the subnet prefix of an
network from host portion. address. Written as /nnn (up to 3 decimal
Sometimes written as /nn suffix on digits, 0 <= nnn <= 128) suffix after the print
presentation form of address. form. An example isfe80::982:2a5c/10, where
the first 10 bits comprise the subnet prefix.
Address Resolution Address Resolution Protocol is used IPv6 embeds these functions within IP itself as
IPv4 IPv6
Protocol (ARP) by IPv4 to find a physical address, part of the algorithms for stateless
such as the MAC or link address, autoconfiguration and neighbor discovery
associated with an IPv4 address. using Internet Control Message Protocol
version 6 (ICMPv6). Hence, there is nosuch
thing as ARP6.
address scope For unicast addresses, the concept In IPv6, address scope is part of the
does not apply. There are architecture. Unicast addresses have 3
designated private address ranges defined scopes, including link-local, site-local
and loopback. Outside of that, and global; and multicast addresses have 14
addresses are assumed to be scopes. Default address selection for both
global. source and destination takes scope into
account.
A scope zone is an instance of a scope in a
particular network. As a consequence, IPv6
addresses sometimes have to be entered or
associated with a zone ID. The syntax
is %zidwhere zid is a number (usually small)
or a name. The zone ID is written after the
address and before the prefix. For
example,2ba::1:2:14e:9a9b:c%3/48.
address types Unicast, multicast, and broadcast. Unicast, multicast, and anycast. See IPv6
address types for descriptions.
communications trace A tool to collect a detailed trace of Same for IPv6, and IPv6 is supported,
TCP/IP (and other) packets that including ICMPv6 and IPv6 packets tunneled in
enter and leave an iSeries server. IPv4.
configuration Configuration must be done on a Configuration is optional, depending on
newly installed system before it can functions required. An appropriate Ethernet or
communicate; that is, IP addresses tunnel interface must be designated as an
and routes must be assigned. IPv6 interface, using iSeries Navigator. Once
that is done, IPv6 interfaces are self-
configuring. So, the system will be able to
communicate with other IPv6 systems that are
local and remote, depending on the type of
network and whether an IPv6 router exists.
Domain Name System Applications accept host names and Same for IPv6. Support for IPv6 exists using
(DNS) then use DNS to get an IP address, AAAA (quad A) record type and reverse lookup
using socket APIgethostbyname(). (IP-to-name). An application may elect to
Applications also accept IP accept IPv6 addresses from DNS (or not) and
addresses and then use DNS to get then use IPv6 to communicate (or not).
host names usinggethostbyaddr(). The socket API gethostbyname() is unchanged
For IPv4, the domain for reverse for IPv6 and the getaddrinfo() API can be used
lookups is in-addr.arpa. to obtain (at application choice) IPv6 only, or
IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
For IPv6, the domain used for reverse nibble
lookups is ip6.arpa, and if not found then
ip6.int (see API getnameinfo()).
Dynamic Host Used to dynamically obtain an IP Currently, DHCP does not support IPv6.
Configuration Protocol address and other configuration
(DHCP) information.
File Transfer Protocol allows you to
File Transfer Protocol
send and receive files across Currently, FTP does not support IPv6.
(FTP)
networks.
fragments When a packet is too big for the For IPv6, fragmentation can only occur at the
next link over which it is to travel, it source node, and reassembly is only done at
can be fragmented by the sender the destination node. Currently, the
(host or router). fragmentation extension header is not
supported.
host table On iSeries Navigator, a configurable Currently, this table does not support IPv6.
table that associates an Internet Customers need to configure a AAAA record in
IPv4 IPv6
address with a host name; for a DNS for IPv6 domain resolution. You may
example,127.0.0.1, loopback. This run the DNS locally on the same system as
table is used by the sockets name the resolver, or you may run it on a different
resolver, either before a DNS lookup system.
or after a DNS lookup fails
(determined by host name search
priority).
interface The conceptual or logical entity Same concept as IPv4.
used by TCP/IP to send and receive Can be started and stopped independently of
packets and always closely each other and independently of TCP/IP using
associated with an IPv4 address, if iSeries Navigator only.
not named with an IPv4 address.
Sometimes referred to as a logical
interface.
Can be started and stopped
independently of each other and
independently of TCP/IP using
STRTCPIFC and ENDTCPIFC
commands and using iSeries
Navigator.
Internet Control Message ICMP is used by IPv4 to Used similarly for IPv6; however, Internet
Protocol (ICMP) communicate network information. Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
provides some new attributes.
Basic error types remain, such as destination
unreachable, echo request and reply. New
types and codes are added to support
neighbor discovery and related functions.
Internet Group IGMP is used by IPv4 routers to find Replaced by MLD (multicast listener
Management Protocol hosts that want traffic for a discovery) protocol for IPv6. Does essentially
(IGMP) particular multicast group, and used what IGMP does for IPv4, but uses ICMPv6 by
by IPv4 hosts to inform IPv4 routers adding a few MLD-specific ICMPv6 type
of existing multicast group listeners values.
(on the host).
IP header Variable length of 20-60 bytes, Fixed length of 40 bytes. There are no IP
depending on IP options present. header options. Generally, the IPv6 header is
simpler than the IPv4 header.
IP header options Various options that may The IPv6 header has no options. Instead, IPv6
accompany an IP header (before adds additional (optional) extension headers.
any transport header). The extension headers are AH and ESP
(unchanged from IPv4), hop-by-hop, routing,
fragment, and destination. Currently, IPv6
does not support any extension headers.
IP header protocol byte The protocol code of the transport The type of header immediately following the
layer or packet payload; for IPv6 header. Uses the same values as the IPv4
example, ICMP. protocol field. But the architectural effect is to
allow a currently defined range of next
headers, and is easily extended. The next
header will be a transport header, an
extension header, or ICMPv6.
IP header Type of Service Used by QoS and differentiated Designates the IPv6 traffic class, similarly to
(TOS) byte services to designate a traffic class. IPv4. Uses different codes. Currently, IPv6
does not support TOS.
iSeries Navigator support iSeries Navigator provides a full The optional configuration for IPv6 is provided
configuration function for TCP/IP. in full by iSeries Navigator, including the IPv6
Configuration wizard.
LAN connection Used by an IP interface to get to the IPv6 has the same concept. Currently, only
physical network. Many types exist; the 2838 and 2849 Ethernet cards and tunnel
for example, token ring, Ethernet, lines are supported.
and PPP. Sometimes referred to as
IPv4 IPv6
the physical interface, link, or line.
Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol L2TP can be thought of as virtual Currently, L2TP does not support IPv6.
(L2TP) PPP, and works over any supported
line type.
loopback address An interface with address The concept is the same as in IPv4, and the
of127.*.*.* (typically127.0.0.1) that single loopback address
can only be used by a node to send is0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:000
packets to itself. The physical 1or ::1 (shortened version). The virtual
interface (line description) is named physical interface is named *LOOPBACK6.
*LOOPBACK.
Maximum Transmission Maximum transmission unit of a link IPv6 has an architected lower bound on MTU
Unit (MTU) is the maximum number of bytes of 1280 bytes. That is, IPv6 will not fragment
that a particular link type, such as packets below this limit. To send IPv6 over a
Ethernet or modem, supports. For link with less than 1280 MTU, the link-layer
IPv4, 576 is the typical minimum. must transparently fragment and defragment
the IPv6 packets.
netstat A tool to look at status of TCP/IP Same for IPv6, and IPv6 is supported for both
connections, interfaces, or routes. 5250 and iSeries Navigator.
Available using iSeries Navigator
and 5250.
Network Address Basic firewall functions integrated Currently, NAT does not support IPv6. More
Translation (NAT) into TCP/IP, configured using iSeries generally, IPv6 does not require NAT. The
Navigator. expanded address space of IPv6 eliminates
the address shortage problem and enables
easier renumbering.
network table On iSeries Navigator, a configurable Currently, no changes are made to this table
table that associates a network for IPv6.
name with an IP address without
mask. For example, host Network14
and IP address 1.2.3.4.
node info query Does not exist. A simple and convenient network tool that
should work like ping, except with content: an
IPv6 node may query another IPv6 node for
the target's DNS name, IPv6 unicast address,
or IPv4 address. Currently, not supported.
Basic firewall functions integrated Currently, packet filtering does not support
packet filtering into TCP/IP, configured using iSeries IPv6. However, IPv4 filtering can be applied to
Navigator. tunneled IPv6 traffic.
packet forwarding The iSeries server can be Currently, IPv6 packets are not forwarded.
configured to forward IP packets it
receives for nonlocal IP addresses.
Typically, the inbound interface and
outbound interface are connected
to different LANs.
packet tunneling In IPv4, tunneling occurs in VPN for For IPv6, tunneling in IPv4 packets is expected
tunnel-mode VPN connections (IPv4 to be a major part of its evolution. Currently,
tunneled in IPv4) and in L2TP. at least 5 different types of 6-in-4 tunneling
are defined by IETF, each with different
attributes and advantages.
A basic and flexible type of IPv6-in-IPv4
tunneling is supported to allow IPv6 nodes to
communicate across the existing IPv4
Internet. Called configured tunneling, it
provides a virtual point-to-point link between
two IPv6 nodes and uses a new type of tunnel
line called *TNLCFG64.
PING Basic TCP/IP tool to test Same for IPv6, and IPv6 is supported, for both
reachability. Available using iSeries 5250 and iSeries Navigator.
IPv4 IPv6
Navigator and 5250.
Point-to-Point Protocol PPP supports dial-up interfaces over
Currently, PPP does not support IPv6.
(PPP) various modem and line types.
port restrictions These iSeries panels allow a Not supported for IPv6. Configured restrictions
customer to configure selected port apply only to IPv4.
number or port number ranges for
TCP or UDP so that they are only
available for a specific profile.
ports TCP and UDP have separate port For IPv6, ports work the same as IPv4.
spaces, each identified by port Because these are in a new address family,
numbers in the range 1-65535. there are now four separate port spaces. For
example, there are two TCP port 80 spaces to
which an application can bind, one in AF_INET
and one in AF_INET6.
private and public All IPv4 addresses are public, IPv6 has an analogous concept, but with
addresses except for three address ranges important differences.
that have been designated as Addresses are public or temporary, previously
private by IETF RFC 1918:10.*.*.* termed anonymous. See RFC 3041. Unlike
(10/8),172.16.0.0 through172.31.25 IPv4 private addresses, temporary addresses
5.255 (172.16/12) , and192.168.*.* can be globally routed. The motivation is also
(192.168/16). Private address different; IPv6 temporary addresses are
domains are commonly used within meant to shield the identity of a client when it
organizations. Private addresses initiates communication (a privacy concern).
cannot be routed across the Temporary addresses have a limited lifetime,
Internet. and do not contain an interface identifier that
is a link (MAC) address. They are generally
indistinguishable from public addresses.
IPv6 has the notion of limited address scope
using its architected scope designations
(see address scope).
protocol table On iSeries Navigator, a configurable The table supports IPv6 without change.
table that associates a protocol
name with its assigned protocol
number; for example, UDP, 17. The
system is shipped with a small
number of entries: IP, TCP, UDP,
ICMP.
Quality of service (QoS) Quality of service allows you to Currently, QoS does not support IPv6.
request packet priority and However, when IPv6 is tunneled in IPv4,
bandwidth for TCP/IP applications. existing iSeries QoS facilities can be applied to
the IPv4 traffic, which will then transparently
handle the IPv6 payloads.
renumbering Done by manual reconfiguration, Is an important architectural element of IPv6,
with the possible exception of and is supposed to be largely automatic
DHCP. Generally, for a site or especially within the /48 prefix.
organization, a difficult and
troublesome process to avoid if
possible.
route Logically, a mapping of a set of IP Conceptually, the same as IPv4. One
addresses (may contain only 1) to a important difference: IPv6 routes are
physical interface and a single next associated (bound) to a physical interface (a
hop IP address. IP packets whose link, such as *TNLCFG64 or ETH03) rather
destination address is defined as than an interface. There are various reasons
part of the set are forwarded to the for this. One reason is that source address
next hop using the line. IPv4 routes selection functions differently for IPv6 than for
are associated with an IPv4 IPv4. See source address selection.
interface, hence, an IPv4 address. Duplicate routes are allowed to improve
The default route is *DFTROUTE. robustness, but they are ignored during route
lookup.
IPv4 IPv6
Routing Information RIP is a routing protocol supported Currently, RIP does not support IPv6. IPv6
Protocol (RIP) by the routed daemon. routing uses static routes.
services table On the iSeries server, a No changes are made to this table for IPv6.
configurable table that associates a
service name with a port and
protocol; for example, service name
FTP-control, port 21, TCP and UDP.
A large number of well-known
services are listed in the services
table. Many applications use this
table to determine which port to
use.
Simple Network SNMP is a protocol for system Currently, SNMP does not support IPv6. IPv6
Management Protocol management. routing uses static routes.
(SNMP)
sockets API These APIs are the way applications IPv6 enhances sockets so that applications
use TCP/IP. Applications that do not can now use IPv6, using a new address family:
need IPv6 are not affected by AF_INET6.
sockets changes to support IPv6. The enhancements have been designed so
that existing IPv4 applications are completely
unaffected by IPv6 and API changes.
Applications that want to support concurrent
IPv4 and IPv6 traffic, or IPv6-only traffic, are
easily accommodated using IPv4-mapped IPv6
addresses of the form::ffff:a.b.c.d,
where a.b.c.d is the IPv4 address of the client.
The new APIs also include support for
converting IPv6 addresses from text to binary
and from binary to text.
See Use AF_INET6 address family for more
information on sockets enhancements for
IPv6.
source address selection An application may designate a As with IPv4, an application may designate a
source IP (typically, using source IPv6 address using bind(). Similarly to
sockets bind()) . If it binds to IPv4, it can let the system choose an IPv6
INADDR_ANY, a source IP is chosen source address by using in6addr_any. But
based on the route. since IPv6 lines have many IPv6 addresses,
the internal method of choosing a source IP is
different.
starting and stopping Use STRTCP and ENDTCP to start or Same as IPv4. IPv4 and IPv6 are not started or
end TCP/IP. stopped independently of one another or
independently of TCP/IP. That is, you start and
stop all of TCP/IP, not just IPv4 or IPv6.
Any IPv6 interfaces are automatically started
if the AUTOSTART parameter = *YES (the
default). IPv6 cannot be used or configured
without IPv4, and IPv6 must have IPv6
loopback configured (::1).
Telnet Telnet allows you to log on and use Currently, Telnet does not support IPv6.
a remote computer as though you
were connected to it directly.
trace route Basic TCP/IP tool to do path Same for IPv6, and IPv6 is supported for both
determination. Available using 5250 and iSeries Navigator.
iSeries Navigator and 5250.
transport layers TCP, UDP, RAW. A new transport, Same three transports exist and are
Stream Control Transmission functionally unchanged for IPv6.
Protocol (SCTP), aims to offer the
best features of TCP and UDP, that
is, guaranteed connectionless
IPv4 IPv6
communication. SCTP is in the
earliest stage of use, and is not
supported on iSeries.
unspecified address Apparently, not defined, as such. Defined as ::/128 (128 0 bits). It is used as the
Socket programming uses0.0.0.0 as source IP in some neighbor discovery packets,
INADDR_ANY. and various other contexts, like sockets.
Socket programming
uses ::/128 as in6addr_any.
Currently, VPN does not support IPv6.
Virtual private networking (using
However, when IPv6 is tunneled in IPv4,
virtual private networking IPsec) allows you to extend a
existing iSeries VPN facilities can be applied to
(VPN) secure, private network over an
the IPv4 traffic, which then transparently
existing public network.
handles the IPv6 payloads.