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Exploration & Production

GENERAL SPECIFICATION
PIPELINES - RISERS
GS EP PLR 310

Pipeline Composite Repair Systems

02

01/2011

General review

01

10/2008

Modified sections 6.2, added section 6.1.2 and 9.2.

00

10/2007

First issue

Rev.

Date

Owner: EP/TDO/TEC

Notes

Managing entity: EP/TDO/TEC/PLR

This document is the property of Total. It must not be stored, reproduced or disclosed to others without written authorisation from the Company.

Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

Contents
1. Scope ....................................................................................................................... 4
2. Reference documents ............................................................................................. 4
3. Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................ 5
4. Applicability and limitations ................................................................................... 5
4.1

Applicability ........................................................................................................................5

4.2

Basic principles ..................................................................................................................5

5. Design basis ............................................................................................................ 6


5.1

Design data sheet ..............................................................................................................6

5.2

Defect assessment ............................................................................................................6

5.3

Defect location ...................................................................................................................7

5.4

Pipe geometry....................................................................................................................7

5.5

Loads .................................................................................................................................7

6. Design methodology ............................................................................................... 7


6.1

Structural design ................................................................................................................7

6.2

Anti-corrosion protection ....................................................................................................8

7. Material requirements ........................................................................................... 10


8. Composite repair system qualification ............................................................... 10
8.1

General ............................................................................................................................10

8.2

Pull off test on steel .........................................................................................................11

8.3

Pull off test on coating .....................................................................................................11

8.4

Cathodic disbondment test ..............................................................................................11

8.5

Pipe spool axial strength test ...........................................................................................12

8.6

Underwater application ....................................................................................................13

8.7

Fatigue test ......................................................................................................................13

9. Installation ............................................................................................................. 13
9.1

Preparation ......................................................................................................................14

9.2

Quality control ..................................................................................................................14

9.3

Marking ............................................................................................................................14

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Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 310

9.4

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 02

Pressure conditions in the pipe during installation ...........................................................14

10. Other references ................................................................................................... 15


Appendix 1

Composite repair system Supplier data sheet ...................................................16

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Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

1. Scope
This General Specification is applicable to the design, material selection, qualification and
installation of Pipeline Composite Repair Systems to be used for repair of pipelines during
operations.
Further information on the scope is provided in section 4 hereof.

2. Reference documents
The reference documents listed below form an integral part of this General Specification. Unless
otherwise stipulated, the applicable version of these documents, including relevant appendices
and supplements, is the latest revision published at the EFFECTIVE DATE of the CONTRACT.
Standards
Reference

Title

ISO 4624

Paints and Varnishes - Pull off test for adhesion

NF A 49-711/Annex K

Resistance to cathodic disbonding under negative polarization

Professional Documents
Reference

Title

GESIP

Supervision, Maintenance and Repair of Transport Pipelines

ISO/TS 24817: Draft 2006

Petrochemicals and Natural Gas Industries - Composite Repair for


Pipeworks

PDAM

Pipeline Defect Assessment Manual

PRCI R2269-01R

Pipeline Repair Manual

Regulations
Reference

Title

Not applicable

Codes
Reference

Title

Not applicable

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Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

Other documents
Reference

Title

Not applicable

Total General Specifications


Reference

Title

GS EP COR 350

External protection of offshore and coastal structures and


equipment by painting

GS EP COR 420

External field joint coatings of pipelines

3. Definitions and abbreviations


Definitions and abbreviations used in this General Specification are in accordance with the
ISO/TS 24817.

4. Applicability and limitations


This specification covers the minimum requirements, provides recommendations and
guidelines, as well as selects the reference documents, for the design, material selection,
qualification and installation of Pipeline Composite Repair Systems.

4.1 Applicability
This specification addresses static pipelines, flow and process lines, and risers in the following
environment:
Onshore aerial or buried
Offshore aerial, in splash zone or underwater, swamp.
Activities addressed include design, material selection, qualification and installation, which are
summarised as:
Engineering the composite repair: qualifying components mechanical and chemical
properties, assessing the loads applied on the pipe and defining the extent of the repair
and quantity of reinforcement to be applied
Selecting and qualifying materials used to fabricate the composite repair system
Qualifying the repair system by an appropriate test campaign
Preparing the pipeline surface, installing the composite repair and ensuring the quality of
this application.

4.2 Basic principles


The design, material selection, qualification and installation of pipeline composite repair systems
shall be performed according to the ISO/TS 24817.

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Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

In addition, this General Specification amends, replaces, or supplements various sections of


ISO/TS 24817.

5. Design basis
5.1 Design data sheet
A design data sheet shall be filled in accordance with ISO/TS 24817 annex A, to provide the
repair system Supplier all the informations on pipeline design, operating conditions and defect
assessment.

5.2 Defect assessment


An assessment shall be performed in accordance with the PDAM in order to identify the defect,
measure the extent of the defect and define its acceptability. When the defect is not acceptable
with respect to the PDAM criteria, the pipeline shall be repaired.
Various repair systems, including, composite repair systems, metal sleeve welding, mechanical
clamps, mechanical connector, partial replacement, or other method may be appropriate.
Guidance for the selection and use of repair systems can be found in the PRCI R2269-01R.
The use of Composite Repairs Systems is strictly limited to the following type of defects:
Non through wall defect. Through wall defects (ISO/TS 24817 type B) repair with
composite systems is not allowed
Defect depth limited to 80% of the nominal wall thickness, with a remaining thickness
greater than 2 mm
External corrosion only. External repair of internal corrosion or erosion with composite
systems is not allowed, unless the corrosion or erosion can be guaranteed to have been
stopped
General and local wall thinning
External damages such as dents, pitting, gouges, blisters, lamination, fretting, etc.
Cracks repair with composite systems is not allowed, as the crack will be impossible to
monitor properly and is likely to propagate.
A particular attention shall be paid to the width (circumferential extent) of the defect. If the repair
system has not been qualified for axial strength, the remaining steel cross sectional area shall
be sufficient to withstand axial loads induced by pressure end cap effect, thermal expansion
(when the pipeline is unrestrained in section 5.5) and other external axial loading.
Depth
Length

Width

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Exploration & Production


General Specification
GS EP PLR 310

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 02

5.3 Defect location


The defect location to be repaired shall be identified, as one of the following locations:
Onshore, aerial
Onshore, buried
Onshore, intermittently flooded
Offshore, aerial
Offshore, splash zone
Offshore, underwater (buried or unburied), swamp.

5.4 Pipe geometry


In general, composite repair systems shall be applied on straight pipeline sections.
Bends, Tees may be repaired by composite repair systems provided that the composite layer is
designed to match curved areas (e.g. a rigid composite sleeve shall not be used in such
condition).

5.5 Loads
The loads acting on the pipeline or the riser shall be clearly defined as required in
ISO/TS 24817, in particular:
Maximum operating / design pressure
Maximum operating / design temperature
External loads (tension, bending ).
In addition, the following loads shall be identified:
Cyclic loading (pressure cycles, temperature cycles) range and frequency
Impact loads (e.g. for exposed risers).
With respect to axial loads, the pipe or riser status shall be identified (restrained or
unrestrained). Typically, risers and unrestrained pipelines will be subject to thermal expansion
and end-cap effect true wall tension. A pipe is considered as restrained when fully anchored by
soil friction and not allowed to expand axially. A fully restrained pipe will be subject to
compression loads (no true wall tension).
If the remaining steel cross sectional area at defect location is not sufficient to withstand true
wall axial loads, the system shall be designed and qualified for axial strength, as specified in
sections 6.1.2 and 8.5.

6. Design methodology
6.1 Structural design
6.1.1 General
Structural design of the composite repair system shall be performed in accordance with
ISO/TS 24817.

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General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

The composite repair system shall be designed for long term application, i.e. as a minimum, the
remaining life duration of the pipeline. This implies permanent access to the repair for condition
monitoring. If the access cannot be guaranteed, the repair cannot be considered permanent.
6.1.2 Axial strength
Where required, as per section 5.5 assessment, the repair system shall be designed for axial
strength, against the following criteria:
Axial strength of the composite system
Lap shear strength / adhesion between the composite system and the steel pipe (also
involves the axial extent of the composite system).

6.2 Anti-corrosion protection


The repair system shall be designed to ensure a continuous protection against corrosion
between the repair and the existing coating.
The composite repair system shall only be applied on the prepared steel surface (bare steel).
The base case will be to have a grit basted surface. The existing external coating shall be
removed up to where its adhesion to the steel is ensured. Depending on the defect location, the
anti-corrosion protection of the remaining bare steel area shall be performed as defined in the
table hereunder.
Edges of the composite repair shall be bevelled in order to avoid any possible water retention
and infiltration. This is particularly important for repair on risers, in vertical position. For paint
and corrosion coating application, design proposal shall be submitted to Company for approval,
as this will be a case by case evaluation.
Defect location
Location 1
Onshore aerial
Offshore aerial

Anti-corrosion protection
Apply paint system in accordance with GS EP COR 350.
Existing coating

Repair system
Paint coating

Defect

Steel

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Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Defect location
Location 2
Onshore buried
Onshore temporary flooded
Offshore splash zone (*)

Rev: 02

Anti-corrosion protection
This is the most critical location for composite repair
application, as a good anti-corrosion protection is difficult to
ensure.
Apply composite repair system, if adhesion and disbondment
with existing coating is qualified for long term.
or
Apply heat shrink sleeve system as per GS EP COR 420, if
adhesion and disbondment with existing coating and applied
composite repair is qualified for long term.
Composite repair system
Or Heat Shrink Sleeve
Repair system
Existing coating

Defect

Steel

The minimum overlapping on each side of the repair shall be


100 mm.
Particular attention shall be paid to the temperature required to
install the heat shrink sleeve in order not to damage the
composite repair.
Durability of bonding between dissimilar materials shall be
evaluated.
(*) For offshore splash zone repair, it is recommended to
increase the length of the repair coating to ensure the topmost
part is within location 1 (in air) and the base is with location 3
(underwater):

Location 1
Splash zone
Location 3

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General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

Defect location
Location 3
Offshore underwater
Swamp

Anti-corrosion protection
Apply paint system in accordance with GS EP COR 350.
Ensure cathodic protection of the bare steel area, by
impressed current or anode proximity.
Existing coating

Repair system
Paint coating

Defect

Steel

+ improve cathodic protection

7. Material requirements
All material (fibre, resin, composite, filler, primer coating, top coating, etc.) shall be qualified in
accordance with ISO/TS 24817 and limitations shall be clearly mentioned.
Material and composite system data shall be summarised in a Supplier data sheet as per
Appendix 1.
In location 2, materials qualified for application in air can be used only if it is ensured that the
application and curing will not be with presence of water.
In location 3, materials shall be qualified for underwater application.

8. Composite repair system qualification


8.1 General
All qualification tests shall be performed on the composite repair system installed in accordance
with the Manufacturers surface preparation and application procedure, in order to be
representative of the site conditions. The base case will be to have a grit basted surface, and
the minimum anchor profile needed is to be defined by the repair system Supplier.
Qualification tests shall be performed in accordance with ISO/TS 24817. In addition the
following tests are required:
Qualification test

Reference

Applicability

Short term pipe spool survival test

ISO/TS 24817

All pipes, all locations

Impact performance

ISO/TS 24817

Where impacts are possible

Pull off test on steel

Section 8.2

All pipes, all locations

Pull off test on coatings

Section 8.3

All pipes, location 2

Cathodic disbondment test

Section 8.4

All pipes, location 2 and 3

Pipe spool axial strength test

Section 8.5

Pipes subject to axial loading

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Exploration & Production


General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Qualification test

Rev: 02

Reference

Applicability

Underwater application

Section 8.6

Location 3

Fatigue test

Section 8.7

Pipes subject to fatigue loading


(> 100 cycles the during design life)

8.2 Pull off test on steel


The objective of the test is to evaluate the adhesion of the composite repair system by
determining the tensile pull off force before detaching from the steel, before and after ageing in
hot water. Breaking points, demonstrated by fractured surfaces, occur along the weakest plane
within the system consisting of the dolly, the adhesive, primer coating and composite layers.
This test is required in locations 1, 2 and 3 (defined in section 6.2).
8.2.1 Preparation
The composite repair system shall be applied on 3 prepared steel surface (flat or pipe section of
approx 200 mm x 200 mm which will constitute a test sample).
2 test samples shall not be subject to ageing
1 test sample shall be subject to ageing, immersed in hot deionised water with
unprotected edges during 28 days at the maximum design temperature of the composite
repair system + 20C. The sample will be allowed to cool down before the pull off test.
8.2.2 Test procedure
The pull off test shall be performed at 2 locations per sample (6 tests in total) in accordance with
ISO 4624.
8.2.3 Acceptance criteria
The failure shall occur in the composite system, with a minimum value of 5 MPa for the sample
with ni ageing and 50% of the average value obtained for the sample with ageing.

8.3 Pull off test on coating


For anti-corrosion protection continuity purposes required in location 2 (defined in section 6.2),
the test defined in section 8.2 shall be performed on the composite system or a heat shrink
sleeve applied on the same coating as the pipe to be repaired.
The failure shall occur in the composite system or in the heat shrink sleeve, with a minimum
value of 3 MPa before ageing and 50% of the average value before ageing, once ageing has
been undertaken.

8.4 Cathodic disbondment test


Cathodic disbondment test shall be required in location 2 and 3 (defined in section 6.2). The
objective of this test is to assess the resistance of composite repair system to disbonding when
exposed to cathodic protection.

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General Specification
GS EP PLR 310

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 02

8.4.1 Preparation
The composite repair system shall be applied on 2 prepared steel surface (flat or pipe section of
approx 100 mm x 100 mm which will constitute a test sample).
8.4.2 Test procedure
The test shall be performed according to NF A 49-711/Annex K.
1 sample shall be exposed during 2 days at 65C or the maximum design temperature of the
composite repair system + 20C, whichever is the lowest.
1 sample shall be exposed during 28 days at the maximum design temperature of the
composite repair system + 20C.
The test samples shall be polarized to -1500 mV with respect to the calomel reference
electrode. For temperature check, thermocouple shall be positioned inside the cell at contact to
the steel.
For interpretation of test result, the following procedure shall be followed:
Once the test is finished, abrade the composite system top layers, until only the first layer
is visible on the whole area under the cell during the test
Make twelve radial incision using a sharp knife through the composite system down to the
steel, extending outwards from holiday for a distance of at least 40 mm. Make the incision
approximately 30 angle of each others
Insert the knife point into the center portion of the holiday down to the metal substrate.
Using a gentle levering action, peel away slowly a radial section of coating continuing until
firm action is encountered. Record distance up to which coating is disbonded (and not
discoloration of the steel)
Repeat with each segment
Calculate the average of the twelve measurements. Record the value.
8.4.3 Acceptance criteria
The measured disbonding radius shall not exceed:
3 mm on the sample exposed during 2 days at 65C
5 mm on the sample exposed during 28 days at the maximum design temperature of the
composite repair system +20C.

8.5 Pipe spool axial strength test


When the remaining steel cross sectional area at defect location is not sufficient to withstand
true wall axial loads, as evaluated in section 5.5, the composite repair system shall be qualified
for axial strength.
8.5.1 Preparation
The test spool shall be cut in 2 segments. The composite repair system shall be applied on the
2 segments aligned, as presented hereunder. The repair shall be designed in accordance with
ISO/TS 24817 for minimum thickness t min,a and minimum axial extent lover required for short term

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General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

axial load resistance (i.e. non aged mechanical properties shall be considered). The axial load
to be considered shall be greater than the end cap effect at design pressure.
Spool (part 1)

Repair system

Spool (part 2)

8.5.2 Test procedure


A tensile load shall be applied progressively on the spool, until the failure occurs. The failure
mode may be either a circumferential rupture in the composite system, or a lap shear failure
between the composite system and the steel.
8.5.3 Acceptance criteria
The failure shall be a circumferential rupture in the composite system, not a lap shear failure.
The tension at failure shall be above the calculated axial load considered for the design of the
composite repair system.

8.6 Underwater application


When the defect is in location 3, an underwater application test program shall be required.
The composite repair system shall be applied by a diver in a fully immersed environment (e.g.
test tank).
The same qualification tests shall be performed after complete curing underwater (typically after
7 days).

8.7 Fatigue test


In the case of pipelines subject to fatigue loading (more than 1000 start-up / shutdown
pressure / full temperature cycles during the design life), the composite system shall be qualified
for fatigue.
The fatigue test shall be performed on a spool prepared as per ISO/TS 24817. The test shall
consist of applying a minimum of 10 times the number of cycles occurring during design life,
with a range from minimum to maximum operating temperature/pressure, without failure. The
test procedure shall be subject to Company approval.

9. Installation
The quality and repeatability of the composite repair system strongly relies on the respect of
design and installation procedures, applicator training and qualification, and inspection.
Installation and inspection shall be performed in accordance with ISO/TS 24817 requirements.
In addition, the following requirements shall be fulfilled:

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General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02

9.1 Preparation
For any location defined in section 5.3, the existing coating shall be fully removed where the
composite repair system is installed, up to where its adhesion to the steel is ensured. The steel
surface shall be blasted to SA 2.5 with 60 microns roughness, or the value specified during the
repair system qualification process.
In case of rigid preformed reinforcement layers are used, if a weld is present at the repair
location, this weld shall be ground flush with the pipe in order to ensure a perfect contact
between the composite system and good transfer of the loads between the pipe and the
composite system.

9.2 Quality control


All materials used for the composite repair system shall be referenced in the qualified repair
system.
The Supplier shall provide a quality control datasheet in accordance with ISO/TS 24817.
In addition, the following information shall be provided:
Maximum application temperature of the resin
Curing curves of the resin for various temperatures
Shore D or Barcol hardness curves, to follow the polymerisation process.
The repair system applied shall be recorded in a database to ensure the traceability and the
correlation with intelligent pig data. As a minimum, the following shall be recorded: field, pipe
identification, location, date, design pressure, design temperature, Supplier, applicator,
materials references, system description).
Samples are to be taken during the application process, to be used for quality control. The
quantity of sample will depend on the number of layers of the system, but as a minimum will be
one sample from first layer in contact with the steel, and one layer at mid-thickness.
The applicator will also provide a mean to measure the hardness of the resin, to follow the
polymerisation process, on the samples as well as on the completed repair.
It should be noted that the temperature to be used as a reference in the polymerisation curves,
is the lowest of the fluid temperature and the ambient temperature. For emergency repair, when
the pipeline needs to be returned ASAP to service, the polymerisation process can be slow
down by low temperature, in particular due to the flow of the fluid.

9.3 Marking
A marking system (e.g. metallic piece) shall be inserted in the repair system in order to allow
clear location identification by intelligent pig during inspection runs. The marking system shall be
placed in such manner that it does not affect the repair performance.

9.4 Pressure conditions in the pipe during installation


When the pipeline cannot be depressurised entirely, the installation of the repair system is
carried out with internal pressure in the pipeline. For safety reasons, the pressure is to be
reduced by at least 30% from the pressure in the pipeline at the damage location, when the
damage occurred.

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General Specification
GS EP PLR 310

Date: 01/2011
Rev: 02

The pressure in the pipeline during the installation of the repair system, until complete curing,
will determine when the pipeline return to operation, the pressure at which the hoop stress is
transferred from the pipe wall to the repair system.
If cyclic loading of the pipeline is likely, the pressure variation is to be maintained above the
repair pressure to avoid fatigue damage to the defect.
Alternatively, the repair system could be installed at zero pressure to provide full protection from
fatigue.

10. Other references


Following professional document is applicable: GESIP.

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General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02
Appendix 1

Appendix 1 Composite repair system Supplier data sheet


A data sheet summarising composite system properties shall be provided by the Supplier.
General properties
System name/reference
System description
Forming process (Wet Lay-Up/Layered Systems/Sleeve/
Shuttered, etc.)
Applicable locations (location 1, 2 or 3)
Maximum allowed hygrometry during application
Minimum Design Temperature
Maximum Design Temperature
Anti-Corrosion Continuity (composite, heat shrink sleeve, etc.)
Third Party Certification (Design, Qualification, Installation
method, etc.)

%
C
C

Reinforcement properties
Fiber Nature (Carbon, glass, aramid, etc.)
Fiber directions towards pipe axis (hoop, axial, other, etc.)
Fiber Type (preformed, woven, tressed, etc.)
Tensile Strength in hoop direction
Tensile Strength in axial direction
Tensile Modulus in hoop direction
Tensile Modulus in axial direction
Density
Interface of Fibre and Resin

MPa
MPa
GPa
GPa
kg/m3

Resin properties
Chemical Name
Chemical Family (epoxy, urethane, polyester, etc.)
Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)
Heat Distortion temperature (HDT)
Environmental Compatibility (seawater, chemicals,
hydrocarbons, etc.)
Resistance to pH
Resistance to UV
Fire Performance
Electrical conductivity

C
C

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General Specification

Date: 01/2011

GS EP PLR 310

Rev: 02
Appendix 1

Composite system properties


Percentage of Fiber in Volume
Percentage of Fiber in Mass
Nominal Ply Thickness
Density
Wrap or Sleeve Width
(short term)
Tensile Strength in Hoop direction
(short term)
Tensile Strength in Axial direction
(short term)
Tensile Strain to Failure in Hoop Direction
(short term)
Tensile Strain to Failure in Axial Direction
(short term)
Tensile Modulus in Hoop Direction
(short term)
Tensile Modulus in Axial Direction
Poissons ratio
Shear Modulus
Impact resistance
Thermal Expansion Coefficient in hoop direction
Barcol Hardness or Shore D Hardness
(short term)
Lap Shear Strength
(short term)
Lap Shear Strength
(short term)
Adhesion (Pull-off test)
(short term)
Cathodic disbondment
Interlaminar Shear strength

(long term)
(long term)
(long term)
(long term)
(long term)
(long term)

%
%
mm
kg/m3
mm
MPa
MPa
%
%
GPa
GPa
GPa
J
m/m/C

(long term)
(long term)
(long term)
(long term)

MPa
MPa
MPa
mm
MPa

Long term data means after ageing 28 days at the maximum design temperature of the
composite repair system + 20C.
All tests shall be carried out as per ISO/TS 24817 and this specification.

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