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Result and Discussion

Analysis of data is necessary step in research process as it aims to find the meaning of the raw
data obtained. It is very necessary in research to analyze and interpret the collected data
scientifically. Result and their analysis may be called the heart of research. According to
kerlinger, analysis means categorizing, ordering, manipulating and summarizing of the data to
intelligible form so that the result of the research problem can be studied and tested.
Appropriate analysis and interpretation is necessary to make the study worthwhile.
Interpretation needs critical examination of the result, which means the study of the tabulated
material to determine the facts.
The result and discussion give shape and form to the study. It involves breaking down of
existing factors in simple and putting the parts together in new arrangement for the purpose of
interpretation. Appropriate analysis and interpretation is necessary to make selection
administration and scoring worthwhile.
Interpretation needs critical examination of result of the analysis of data which means the study
of the tabulated material in order to determine facts of meaning. The process of analysis and
synthesis of the collected data is the foundation stone of specific method.

Table- showing demographic classification of studied population as per different


background factors:

Background

percentages

factors
Gender

male

58

38.66%

female

92

61.34%

Total

150

100%

Up to 20 years

89

59.33%

Above 20 years

69

40.67%

Total

150

100%

Science

81

54%

Social science

69

46%

Total

150

100%

Under graduate

89

59.33%

Post graduate

61

40.67%

Total

150

100%

Amount of

Up to 2000

128

85.33%

pocket money

More than 2000

22

14.66%

Total

150

100%

Bheemrao Ambedkar

75

50%

75

50%

150

100%

Age

Faculty

Education

universities

universities
Dayalbagh educational
institute
Total

The demographic details of selected subjects

Objective first- To assess the expenditure pattern of college going students.


Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of Male and Female students regarding
Expenditure Pattern.
Expendit
ure
Pattern

GENDER Statistical
Values
Male
Female

n=
Assessment
Deviation
Total

58

Mean

S.D

34.83
7.62
41.24

8.05
3.60
8.39

92

Mean S.D t
0.05
0.01
31.68
4.88
37.97

7.92 2.351
3.29 4.789
8.13 2.372

p
<0.05
<0.01
<0.05

This graph showing mean values of gender.

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table shows mean, S.D. and t-values of expenditure pattern among male and female
student respondents under three components. Male subjects show significantly higher score of
all statistical values under all three components. Mean values of male respondents under first,
second and third components are 34.83, 7.62 and 41.24 as compared to female respondents at
31.68, 4.88 and 37.97 at t-values 2.351, 4.789 and 2.372 respectively. Male students are found
to spend more as compared to female students; they have shown their inclination to select the
costlier option of expenditure under different areas. It may be due to the reason that boys are
more outgoing and have more friends to interact with so there are reasons to have higher
chances to spend more as compared to their counter parts, as they are more extrovert and have
to pace up in the society to maintain their status so they may have a feeling to spend more to
create their influence. Male students make their own priority selection for expenditure pattern
and do not follow the priority of expenditure as advised or suggested by their elders therefore
they have shown higher deviation from standard in expenditure priority as compared to girl
students. Boys spend more than girls, is similar also claimed by ASSOCHAM (the associate

chambers of commerce and industry of India) report (2013), based on a survey conducted on
spending patterns among Indian youth.
Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of age of students regarding Expenditure Pattern.
Expenditu
re Pattern

AGE

Statistical
Values
More
Than 20
Mean S.D
61

Upto 20
Yrs.
n=

89

Assessment
Deviation
Total

34.17
5.69
40.24

7.58
2.19
6.75

Mean S.D
0.05
31.05
6.31
37.77

8.51
1.28
8.62

t
0.01
2.354
2.010
1.960

p
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05

This graph showing mean values of age of students.

This graph showing mean value of above table.


The mean value of assessment of expenditure pattern of lower aged respondents if found 34.17
against 31.05 mean value of higher age group which is found significantly higher with 2.354 tvalue, the mean value of deviation in expenditure pattern of higher age group is 6.31 against
5.69 of other group the difference is significant at 2.010 t-value, the mean value 40.24 of
overall total
Expenditure pattern of lower age group is found higher against 37.77 mean value of higher age
group at 1.960 t-value.
Subjects of lower age group are found to spend on higher side under the assessment and total
overall expenditure pattern as compared to the subjects of higher age group, it may be due to
the reason that the students of lower age group are might be spending under the influence of
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their friends or peer group they are less aware of less costly options, they usually engage in
panic buying instead of rational spending after due comparison and survey and they may not be
mature enough usually to take rational and correct financial decisions Atri (2012).
Deviation from the standard expenditure pattern is found higher among the subjects of higher
age group as compared to lower age group, it may be due to the reason that as the age grows
the individualistic and personal perception to take financial decisions also get engraved in the
minds of students which lead to take independent decisions without looking to the advice of
elders, they feel that they are growing up and are capable to take their own decisions which
may vary from the standard expenditure pattern, there are also chances that the students of
higher age develop their own source of earning by that time through which they start enjoying
the financial freedom that is reflected in their expenditure pattern.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of two faculties regarding Expenditure Pattern.
Expendi
ture
Pattern

Faculty
Science

Statistic
al
Values
Social
Science

Mean S.D
n=

81

Assessment
Deviation
Total

69
34.17
6.33
40.20

Mean S.D
0.05

7.96 31.41
2.87 5.48
7.30 38.10

8.04
1.35
5.35

t
0.01

2.111
2.270
1.976

<0.05
<0.05
<0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


The above table indicates that the statistical values of two groups of respondents which are
science and social science the score of mean and t-value of assessment, deviation and total
expenditure pattern show significantly higher value with 34.17, 6.33 and 40.20 mean
respectively they are significant at t-values 2.111, 2.270 and 1.976 respectively.
The significantly higher scores of expenditure pattern in all components among the science
students is perhaps due to the reason that the kind of subjects they study hardly comprised of
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any financial aspect they are deeply engage to study different practical aspects of cause and
effect relationship whereas the students of social sciences comprised of MBA and BBM study
lots of economics, accounting and finance subjects, they are also taught to establish and run a
successful business therefore they are found to be more economical and thrifty in their
expenditure pattern and its all components.
Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of education level of students regarding
Expenditure Pattern.
Expendit
ure
Pattern

Educatio
n level
Up to
Graduate

n=

89

Assessment
Deviation
Total

Statistica
l Values
Above
Graduate
Mean S.D
61

Mean
S.D
0.05

34.25
5.69
39.97

30.93
6.31
38.16

7.58
1.65
5.03

8.47
2.04
6.03

T
0.01
2.506
2.071
1.986

p
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05

This table showing mean values of educational level of students.

This graph showing mean value of above table.


The above table indicates that the statistical value of two group of respondent which are up to
graduate and above graduate the score of mean and t-value of assessment, deviation and total
expenditure pattern show significantly higher value with 34.25, 5.69 and 39.97 mean
respectively they are significant at t-values 2.506, 2.071, 1.986 respectively. Mean value of
first group is higher score in comparison to second group
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Deviation from the standard expenditure pattern is found higher among the subjects of above
graduate because these students are taking financially secured decision and they are able to
spend wisely their money. Therefore above graduate students have higher score in comparison
to up to graduate.
The significantly higher score of assessment of expenditure pattern may be due to the reason
that first group of students spend higher without any suggestion they purchase what they want
and also what is the demand of their friends and what the trends going on present time and
second group of students spend less in comparison to the first group. First group to want to
experience each and everything in their college life and second group have already been taken
all the experiences and there is big point which is age differences and also numbers of friends
is less .thats why they have shown higher statistically score than second group.
Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of amount of monthly pocket money of students
regarding Expenditure Pattern.
Awareness Amount
Statistical
Of
Values
monthly
Pocket
Money
Upto
More
Rs.2000/- Than
PM
Rs.2000/Mean
S.D
n=
128
22
Assessment
Deviation
Total

31.73
5.72
37.88

7.55
3.08
7.74

Mean

S.D
0.05

39.68
7.23
47.14

4.526
2.188
5.206

<0.01
<0.05
<0.01

0.01
7.95
2.34
7.50

This graph showing mean values of above table.

Above table indicate that statistical value of two groups up to 2000 and above 2000 .128
students get pocket money up to 2000 and 22 students get more than 2000the score of mean
and t-value of assessment, deviation and total expenditure pattern show significantly higher
value with31.73, 5.72, and 37.88 mean respectively they are significant at t-values 4.526,
2.188, 5.206 respectively. MEAN value of second group is higher score in comparison to first
group.
Students getting higher amount of pocket money have shown a tendency to choose higher
expenditure options as compared to students getting lower amount of pocket money it may be
due to more amount of money available to them on their disposal so they rarely think to
discover the cheaper or less coasty options while selecting their options for expenditure. The
higher paid students also make their expenditure pattern according to their liking and interest
rather to follow the standard norm prescribed by elders or friends. They also follow or show
interest in overall higher expenditure pattern as compared to the students getting lower amount
of pocket money, it can be said that they show lower interest to save money and select
economical means to spend money.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of universities of B.R. Ambedkar and Dayalbagh
educational institute of students regarding expenditure pattern.
Expenditu
re pattern

DAYALB
AGH
UNIVERS
ITIES

B.R.
AMBEDK
AR
Mea
n

n=

10

75

75

Statistical
Values
S.D

Mean
0.05

S.D
0.01

Assessment
Deviation
Total

33.16 8.70
6.43 1.67
39.35 8.77

34.26
5.74
41.16

7.45
2.44
7.98

0.830 >0.05
2.006 <0.05
1.325 >0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table shows mean, S.D. and t-values of expenditure pattern among students of
Dayalbagh and B.R. Ambedkar University under three components. Subjects of B.R.
Ambedkar Agra University show numerically higher mean vale under assessment and overall
expenditure pattern with 34.26 and 41.16 mean values as against 33.16 and 39.35 of the
Dayalbagh educational institute students however the difference is found statistically
insignificant at 0.830 and 1.326 t-values. The scores of deviation in expenditure pattern is
found significantly higher among students with 6.43 mean value against 5.74 mean value of
other students, it significant at 2.006 t value.
Deviation from the standard expenditure pattern is found higher among the subjects of
Dayalbagh College as compare to Agra College it may be due to the difference in environment
and discipline in both the universities, the students of Dayalbagh educational institute have
very different routine and they stay inside the university for longer period of time as compared
to their counterparts, they find very little time and energy to spare on other activities so they
may have a tendency to spend as per their wishes instead to follow any expenditure pattern
advised to them during the least opportune time and occasion available to them.

Objective second- to study the reason behind the expenditure pattern.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of Male and Female students
regarding factor expenditure pattern.

Gender

11

Male

Female

Statistical
Values

Expenditure pattern
n=

58

Factors Affecting Expenditure


Pattern

Mean

S.D

92

Mean

S.D

0.05
13.71

2.47

14.46

0.01
2.52

1.787

>0.05

This graph showing the mean values of above table.


Above table shows or indicates that male and female both they are spend equally on the
enjoyment in their college life. Mean value of male is 13.71 and mean value of female is 14.46
and t- value is 1.787. Statistically these values show insignificant because there are very little
differences. In their expenditure pattern because present time boys and girls are equally spend
in movies, clothing, food and there is boys and girls in their group.
Today trend affects the girls for their personal care and on beauty products these factors effect
on girls for spend. Friend circle of boys are huge therefore friends effects the expenditure
pattern and boys mostly involve and taking interest in technical work like computers, mobile
phones, bike and cars in comparison to girls and boys change their technical items time to time
these factors affect the expenditure pattern of boys. So there is very little differences. A study is
also conducted by the researchers in which different are described. The manner in which
college students manage their money is based on several factors such as age, personality traits,
and knowledge (Norvilitis, et al., 2006).

12

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of age group of students regarding factors
affecting expenditure pattern.
More Than

Statistical

Yrs.
Expenditure pattern

20

Values
S.D

n=

61

AGE

Up to 20

89

Factors Affecting Expenditure


Pattern

Mean

Mean

S.D

0.05
14.42

2.46

13.80

0.01
2.59

1.467

>0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table indicates that up to 20 years and more than 20 years both they are affected by
same factors. There is also very little differences. In this table statistically mean value of up to
20 is 14.42 and mean value of more than 20 is 13.80 this table indicates insignificant value and
t-value is 1.467. There are so many reasons for the same factors which are responsible for
affecting students of both group, society is the same factor because both age group of students
live in same society. a similar study which is A survey conducted by the Associated Chambers
of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM- the associate chambers of commerce and
industry of India) on the Indian youth's expenditure patterns, reveals that while youngsters
spend most of their money on phones, apparel and branded cosmetics - with the average
monthly expenditure going up by 65% in the last 10 years. Present trend also a same factor in
which both age group students spend equally in fashion, food, movies, entertainment, tour and
13

personal care but up to 20 years students affect quickly present trend and without any
instruction, suggestion and recommendation applying on them and above 20 years students
very less affected by present trends in comparison to up 20 years because they become
mentally matured where to spend and how to spend and what they get from thing after spend.
Therefore there is insignificant statistically value of both group.
Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of two faculties regarding factors affecting
expenditure pattern.
Faculty
Expenditur
e pattern
n=

Social

Statistical

Science

Values

Mean

S.D

Mean

81

69

Science

Factors Affecting Expenditure


Pattern

13.95

2.28

S.D

0.05

0.01

14.42

2.77

1.138

>0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table shows that the statistical values of two faculties which is science and social
science.

The mean value of science faculty is 13.95 and means value of social science

faculty is 14.42.
Mean value of both faculty is similar there is very less differences. Both faculties had shown
insignificant value and t-value is 1.1385. There is also same factors which are affecting them

14

like- education process, entertainment, movies food etc. and numbers of students of science
faculty is more in comparison to social science faculty. Same factors effects on students of
Social science faculty and science faculty and they equally spend on each component.
Table
showing
Mean, S.D.
and tvalues of
education
level of
students
regarding
factors
affecting
Expenditur
e Pattern.
Educationa

Up to

Above

Statistical

l Level
Graduate
Expenditure pattern

Graduate
Values
Mean
S.D

Mean

n=

61

0.05

89

Factors Affecting Expenditure


Pattern

15

13.97

2.59

14.46

S.D

0.01
2.41

1.178

>0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table shows that the statistical value of up to graduate and above graduate is
insignificant. Both level of education of students affected by the same factors which promotes
equally expenditure. Mean value of up to graduate students is 13.97 and mean value of above
graduate students is 14.46 these values is insignificant. t- Value is 1.178.and above graduate
spends on their study work like research and other essential work in comparison to up to
graduate students. Present trends like fashion , movies , food , clothing affect more up to
graduate students and they quickly affected by them and they Purchase panicky without any
thinking in comparison to above graduate students. And they have feeling of (up to graduate)
show off and they show their status front of their friends.
Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of amount pocket money of students regarding
factors affecting Expenditure Pattern.
Amount
of pocket
Expendit

money

l Values
More

ure
pattern

Statistica

Upto

Than

Rs.2000/-

Rs.2000/-

PM
Mean
S.D
n=

128

Mean

22

S.D
0.05

p
0.01

Factors Affecting
Expenditure
Pattern

16

14.13

2.50

14.36

2.66

0.396

>0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table indicate that statistical value of two group of amount of pocket money is up to
2000 Rs and more than 2000 Rs mean value of first group is 14.13 and mean value of second
group is 14.36 and t- value is 0.396.In this table value shows insignificant there is very less
difference factors affecting on expenditure pattern. All the students get money from their
parents. Todays students spend their pocket money on the things like cosmetics, apparels and
mobiles. A similar study has done by An ASSOCHAM (the associate chambers of commerce
and industry of India) study conducted on the eve of World Youth Day, celebrated on August
12th, shows that about 75 percent of Indian youth (16 21 years old) spend more than Rs.
6000 on cosmetics, apparels and mobiles.
The findings were based on interactions with 2000 youngsters in 10 Indian cities. It revealed
that their cosmetic consumption has gone up by about 65 percent in last 10 years.
Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of
universities of B.R. Ambedkar and Dayalbagh educational universities of students
regarding factors affecting expenditure pattern.
university Dayalba
gh
Expendit
ure
pattern

educatio
nal
universit
ies

17

B.R.
Ambedk
ar

Statistica
l Values

Mea
n
n=

75

75

Factors Affecting Expenditure


Pattern

S.D

Mea
n
0.05

13.92

2.28 15.48

S.D

0.01
2.67

3.86
1

<0.01

This graph showing mean value of above table.


Above table shows mean, S.D. and t-values of factors affecting expenditure pattern among
Dayalbagh College and Agra college student respondents under components. Agra colleges
show significantly higher score of all statistical values under all three components. Mean
values of Agra College are15.48, as compared to Dayalbagh College at 13.92, at t-values 3.861
respectively.
There are many factors which affect the expenditure pattern of both colleges but mostly
students of Agra College are affected because there are many of reason like college
environment, discipline and pattern of study. It may be due to the reason that students of
AGRA COLLEGE spends their time on entertainment and food just because of there is no

18

regularity in classes and they are free from regular examination so therefore students of Agra
college very much affected by the factors which promotes the expenditure pattern.

19

Third objective-sources of financing the expenditure.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of Male and Female students regarding type of
financing.

Gender

Male

Female

Financing of Expenditure
n=

58

Type of Financing

Statistical
Values

Mean S.D

92

Mea
n

S.D

0.05
6.41

2.16

6.28

0.01
2.13

0.365

>0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table shows mean scores of male and female of respondents regarding type of financing
of expenditure pattern, the male respondents show numerically higher mean value at 6.41
against the 6.28 of female respondents however the difference is statistically not significant at
0.365 t-value. The gender of the respondents do not have any influence upon choosing higher
or lower options for financing the expenditure pattern, however the male respondents may

20

have higher instinct to opt for higher income options as compared to females but they are not
significantly different.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of age of students regarding type of financing.
AGE

Up to 20

More

Statistica

Yrs.
Than 20 l Values
Financing of Expenditure Mean S.D
Mean
n=

89

Type of Financing

61

S.D

0.05
6.07

1.90

6.72

0.01
2.08

1.992

<0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.

The table shows mean scores of lower and higher aged groups of respondents regarding type of
financing of expenditure pattern, respondents aged more than 20 years have preferred
significantly higher value source of income as compared to lower aged subjects with mean
values 6.7 and 6.72 respectively, the mean value of higher age respondents is significant at
1.992 t-value.
The students of higher age may have higher level of expenses to incur so they have elevated
targets to finance their expenditure patter. They are the subjects who are supposed to be
21

financially independent as soon as possible so they may have responsibility to achieve bigger
financial targets as compared to the students of lower age group.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of two faculties regarding type of financing.

Faculty

Science

Social

Statistica

Science
l Values
Financing of Expenditure Mean S.D
Mean S.D
n=

81

69

Type of Financing

0.05
6.02

1.85

6.70

0.01
2.29

1.98
4

<0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


Above table shows mean scores of Science and Social Science streams of respondents
regarding type of financing of expenditure pattern, the respondents from Social Science stream
have shown significantly higher mean value at 6.70 against the 6.02 of Science stream
respondents however the difference is statistically significant at 1.984 t-value.
The students of Social Science are from MBA and BBM courses, they are the respondents who
are educated economics, business laws/principals and how to manage the enterprise profitably

22

whereas the students of Science are more studious and are education oriented and not business
oriented. This may be the reason for the respondents from Social Science have shown the
advanced preference towards higher financing sources as compared to their counterparts.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of education level of students regarding type of
financing.
Education

Up to

Above

al Level
Graduate Graduate
Financing of Expenditure Mean
n=

89

Type of Financing

Statistical
Values
S.D

61

Mean

S.D

0.05
5.72

1.62

7.23

0.01
2.47

4.523 <0.01

This graph showing mean values of above table.


The table shows mean scores of lower and higher educated groups of respondents regarding
type of financing of expenditure pattern, respondents of above graduate education group have
preferred significantly higher value source of income as compared to graduate respondents
with mean values 7.72 and 5.72 respectively, the mean value of higher educated respondents is
significant at 4.523 t-value.

23

The students with higher education have shown the similar trend as of the subjects of higher
age group, the students at upper education level have the preference to select higher value
source of income as they have higher level of expenditure pattern to follow, they are of more
age and education as compared to their counterparts so they must be close to their settlement
point in life, they are supposed to soon bailout from their education life and become
financially independent in near future therefore they must have higher preference to have
advanced financial sources to tap.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of amount of monthly pocket money of students
regarding type of financing.
Monthly

Up to

Above

Pocket

Rs.2000/-

Rs.2000/-

Money
PM
PM
Financing of Expenditure Mean
n=

128

Type of Financing

Statistical
Values
S.D

22
6.14

Mean

S.D

0.05
2.12

7.45

0.01
1.90

This graph showing mean values of above table.

24

2.723 <0.01

The table shows mean scores of respondents getting lower and higher amount of monthly
pocket money of financing of expenditure pattern, respondents getting monthly pocket money
above Rs.2000/- have preferred significantly higher value source of finance for their
expenditure pattern as compared to respondents getting monthly pocket money up to Rs.2000/with mean values 7.45 and 6.14 respectively, the mean value of respondents getting higher
pocket money is significant at 2.723 t-value.
It may be due to the reason that second group have more money at their disposal to maintain
their expenditure pattern so they have adopted it as their way of life, so they are more
interested to choose the source of financing with expected higher inflow of money.

Table showing Mean, S.D. and t-values of universities of B.R. Ambedkar and Dayalbagh
education universities of students are regarding type of financing.
Dayalba
gh
university

educatio
n
universit

B.R
Amedka
r, Agra

Statistica
l Values

ies
Financing of Expenditure
n=

75

Type of Financing

25

Mea
n

S.D

75

Mean

S.D

0.05
6.19

1.49

6.90

0.01
2.79

1.965

<0.05

This graph showing mean values of above table.


The table exhibits the mean scores of respondents from two different universities which are
.D.E.I, Dayalbagh and B.R. Ambedkar, Agra; the respondents from later university have shown
their priority to choose the source of finance with higher inflow as compared the former. The
mean difference between them is significantly higher with mean value 6.19 and 6.90
respectively; the level of significance is 1.965.
The students of DEI, Dayalbagh have shown their priority towards lower financial inflow
options as they have longer college hours and have less time to finance and spend money on
other activities, whereas students from B.R. Ambedkar University have less busy college
routine and they have to spend lesser time and days in college so they have the inclination to
spend more in their extra time, therefore they have chosen the option of higher financial
support as compared to their counterparts.

26