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AP PHYSICS B

Electrostatics & Capacitance

Teacher Packet

AP* is a trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Entrance Examination Board was not

involved in the production of this material.

Copyright 2009 Laying the Foundation , Inc., Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit: www.layingthefoundation.org

Objective

To review the student on the concepts, processes and problem solving strategies necessary to

successfully answer questions on electrostatics and capacitance.

Standards

Electrostatics is addressed in the topic outline of the College Board AP* Physics Course

Description Guide as described below.

A. Electrostatics

1. Charge and Coulombs Law

2. Electric Field and Electric Potential (including point charges)

B. Conductors, capacitors, dielectrics

1. Electrostatics with Conductors

2. Capacitors

Topics relating to electrostatics are tested every year on the multiple choice and in most years on

the free response portion of the exam. The list below identifies free response questions that have

been previously asked over electrostatics. These questions are available from the College Board

and can be downloaded free of charge from AP Central. http://apcentral.collegeboard.com.

2006

2005

2001

2000

1999

Question 3

2006 Form B Question 3

Question 5

2005 Form B Question 3

Question 3

2003 Form B Question 4

Question 3

2002 Form B Question 5

Question 2

Copyright 2009 Laying the Foundation , Inc., Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit: www.layingthefoundation.org

There are two types of charges, positive and negative. Like charges repel each other, and unlike charges

attract each other. A conductor is a material through which charges flow readily due to a large number of

free electrons, whereas an insulator does not allow charges to flow freely through it. Coulombs law, an

inverse square law, describes the force between charges. The electric field is an invisible force field that is

produced by charges and can be felt by other charges. It is not a force, but the potential for a force. Work

must be done to move a charge in an electric field. Work is related to the potential difference between two

points in an electric field. A surface on which all points are at the same potential is called an equipotential

surface. Several electric charges in the same vicinity have an electric potential energy due to their mutual

attraction or repulsion. Two equally and oppositely charged conductors, usually metal plates, which are

near each other form a capacitor. Capacitors have the capacity to store charge and an electric field between

the plates.

Electric force and electric field are vectors (add using vector addition). The direction for the electric

force is determined by whether the force is attractive or repulsive. The electric field is in the direction of the

electric force that would act on a positive test charge.

kq1q2

1

where k =

2

r

4 0

F = q0 E

F=

E=

F

(always true)

q0

E=

kq

(specific for single point charge)

r2

k = electric constant = 9x109 Nm2 / C2

0 = permittivity constant = 8.85 x 10-12 C2 / Nm2

q (or Q) = charge [C]

r = distance between charges [m]

V= electric potential or potential difference [V]

d = distance between parallel capacitor plates [m]

E =

V

(electric field strength between the plates of a capacitor with voltage V and separation d)

d

Copyright 2009 Laying the Foundation , Inc., Dallas, TX. All rights reserved. Visit: www.layingthefoundation.org

Electric potential energy and electric potential are scalars, they can be + or -. Include + or signs since

these quantities have no direction, only magnitude.

U E = q0V =

kq1q2

1 q1q2

=

4 0 r

r

kq

(single point charge)

r

1

kq

q

(configuration point charges)

V = =

r 4 0

r

V =

Capacitance

Q

C=

V

A

C= 0

d

1

1

1 Q2

U E = CV 2 = QV =

2

2

2 C

d = distance [m]

Important Concepts

The charge on one electron (or one proton) is called the elementary charge (e) and is equal to

1.610-19C. Hence, it takes 6.251018 electrons to generate one coulomb of charge.

Charge is either positive (deficiency of electrons) or negative (surplus of electrons). The carrier of

negative charge is the electron, with a charge of 1.6 10-19 C. The proton, carries exactly the

same charge as the electron, but is positive. The neutron carries no charge.

Charge is conserved during any process so any charge lost by one object, must be gained by another

object.

The fundamental law of electrostatics states that like charges (+/+) or (/) repel each other while

unlike chages (+/-) or (-/+) attract each other.

Conductors, like metals, are materials that allow charges (electrons) to move freely.

Insulators, like wood or glass, are materials that do not allow charges (electrons) to move freely.

A charged object may transfer some or all of its charges to another object through direct contact

with the other object. This is charging by conduction. The second object gets the same type of

charge as the first object originally had.

A charged object brought close to a conductor may induce a charge separation in the other object.

This is know as charge polarization. While polarized, a grounding connection can be made to

remove some of the separated charge. This is charging by induction. Any charge given to a

conductor resides on its outer surface and the charges tend to concentrate at sharp corners on the

object. The second object gets the opposite type of charge as the first object originally had.

Insulators can be polarized, but it occurs at the atomic level. When a charged object is brought near

a neutral object, polarization will result in opposite charges being closer than like charges, and

therefore, a net attraction between the objects.Any charge given to an insulator stays in place and is

spread throughout its volume, unlike a conductor where the charges placed inside the conductor will

move to its outer surface so that the electric field inside the conductor is zero (shielding effect).

The force between any two charges is proportional to the magnitude of the charges and inversely

proportional to the square of the distance between the charges and follows the same basic form as

kq q

1

Newtons law of universal gravitation (inverse square law). F = 12 2 where k =

r

4 0

Forces are vectors and have magnitude and direction. The direction of the electric force is

determined by the law of electrostatics, opposite charges attract and like charges repel. If signs are

used for the charges, a negative result indicates attraction and a positive result indicates repulsion.

For more than 2 charges, Coulombs Law must be used multiple times, and then the resulting forces

must be added using vector addition.

Electric Field

Electric fields are measured in N/C or V/m.

Electric field is a vector which points in the same direction as the force acting on a positive charge

in the electric field. A negative charge would experience a force in the opposite direction.

Electric field lines originate on positive charges and terminate on negative charges.

Electric field lines never intersect.

Where electric field lines are closer together, the field (and the force if a charge were at that

location) is stronger.

Objects with more charge will have more lines originating from (or terminating on) them.

Electric field lines are always perpendicular to the surface of a conductor.

For two opposite charges along a line, the field would never be zero between them because the

fields from each charge point in the same direction.

In order for fields from two charges to cancel, they must be equal and opposite. i.e. you must be

closer to the smaller charge.

A parallel plate capacitor develops a uniform electric field between its charged plates and the

direction of the electic field goes from + to .

++++++++++++++++

----------------------

When charge is placed on a conductor of radius R, the charge quickly spreads to the outside surface,

so that the electric field inside the conductor is zero (this is a shielding effect). Outside the sphere (r

> R), the electric field behaves as if the sphere is a point charge centered at the center of the sphere,

KQ

that is, Eoutside = 2 . Below is the graph of electric field E vs. distance from the center r for a

r

charged conducting sphere of radius R:

0

R

Electrostatic Potential Energy and Electric Potential

The electrostatic potential energy of a system of charges is a scalar, so we find the EPE or UE for

each pair of charges and add them together. Positive and negative signs do not denote direction.

When charged objects are connected by a wire, they will arrive at the same electric potential V so

charge will flow from one object to the other until they are at the same potential, but not the same

charge.

To find the work done in moving a charge in a system from one point to another, it is usually easiest

to find the energy of the system before and after the move. The difference between the two is the

work done.

Electric potential is a relative quantity, so any point can be defined as the reference (0 V). It is the

difference that is important.

The difference in potential (or electric potential difference) is called voltage.

A volt is a Joule per Coulomb, so the work required to move a charge is Vq.

When charge is placed on a conductor, it spreads to the surface until the electric field inside the

conductor is zero. This means that no work will be done to move charges inside the conductor, so all

points on the surface and within the conductor will have the same potential V. Below is the graph of

electric potential V vs. distance from the center r for a charged conducting sphere of radius R:

V

r

R

Work is done when pushing a positive test charge against the electric field lines, so electric

potentials increase as you move opposite the field lines. The potential or voltage gets larger towards

positive charges and smaller towards negative charges.

A positive charge will accelerate from higher to lower electric potential, or along the electric field

lines. Negative charges do the exact opposite, accelerating from lower to higher electric potential

against the electric field lines.

Equipotential lines (surfaces) are always perpendicular to electric field lines.

Equipotential

Surfaces

We would have to do work to move a charge between equipotential lines, but not along an

equipotential line.

A parallel plate capacitor develops a uniform electric field between its plates from + to -. The

electric potential increases in a linear fashion from one plate to the other, so if a capacitor has 12 V

across it, there is a 6 V equipotential line or surface from one plate to a point halfway between the

two plates.

+++++++++++++++++++

V

--------------------------

Q

, where Q is the charge on one of the plates, and V

V

is the voltage across the plates. The unit for capacitance is the coulomb/volt, or farad.

The capacitance of a capacitor depends on its geometrical properties and is proportional to the area

A

of each plate and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. C = 0

d

o, which is called the permittivity of free space (8.85 x 10 12 C2 / Nm2 ) provides an indication of

how well space holds an electric field.

The capacitance of a capacitor also depends on the material between the plates or the dielectric

(such as oil, paper, or plastic), but on the exam the dielectric will be air or vacuum.

The electrical energy stored in a capacitor can be calculated by relating its charge Q, voltage V, and

1

Q2 1

2

capacitance C. U E = CV =

= QV

2

2C 2

Free Response

y

+Q

a

x

a

2a

+

+Q

Two charges each with charge +Q are located on the y axis, each a distance a on either

side of the origin. Point P is on the x-axis at a distance 2a from the origin.

A. In terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants determine the

i. electric field at the origin

ii. electric potential at the origin

(5 points max)

i. Electric field is a vector. The electric field

at the origin is zero, since a positive test

charge placed at the origin would experience

no net force.

ii. The electric potential is a scalar.

kq

V =

r

kQ kQ

V=

+

a

a

Q

2kQ

2Q

V=

=

or V =

a

4 0 a 2 0 a

field is a vector

1 point for an indication that the electric

field is zero at the origin

1 point for an indication that the electric

potential is a scalar

1 point for using V =

kq

r

the given quantities and fundamental

units

B. A small negative charge q is now placed at point P. On the diagram above, sketch an

arrow indicating the direction of the

i. electric force acting on the negative charge

ii. electric field at the location of the negative charge

(2 points max)

1 point for an indication that the

electric force is directed to the left

1 point for an indication that the

electric field is directed to the right

C. Determine the magnitude of the electric force at point P in terms of the given

quantities and any fundamental constants.

(5 points max)

resultant force depends only on the

horizontal components of the forces

between the charges

1 point for using Coulombs law

1 point for recognizing the force

depends on two horizontal

components of the electric forces

since the vertical components cancel

1 point for indentifying and

expressing the horizontal component

of the forces in terms of the given

quantities and fundamental constants

1 point for the correct answer in

terms of the given quantities and

fundamental constants

2kQ 2

cos

r2

r 2 = a 2 + (2a) 2

F = 2 Fx =

r = a 2 + (2a ) 2

2a

cos =

F=

F=

a + (2a) 2

2

2a

2

2

2

a 2 + (2a) 2 a + (2a)

2kQ 2

4kQ 2 a

(a

+ (2a) 2 ) 2

D. The negative charge is released from point P and allowed to move freely. Describe

the velocity and acceleration of the negative charge for a long time after it is released.

It is not necessary to calculate these quantities.

(3 points max)

The negative charge q is attracted toward the

midpoint of the two large charges and will

accelerate toward the origin. As it reaches

the origin, it attains maximum velocity and

is then pulled and accelerated back toward

the origin and decreases its speed until it

comes to rest at a distance of 2a from the

origin. Then the charge returns to the origin,

starting the cycle over again and oscillates in

simple harmonic motion about the origin.

the velocity of the charge

1 point for the correct description of

the acceleration of the charge

1 point for indicating that the charge

oscillates about the origin

A charge is suspended at rest between two charged parallel plates which are connected to

a 12 V battery. The plates are separated by a distance of 0.05 m.

A. Place a check in one of the blanks below, indicating whether the charge q is positive,

negative, or neutral. Justify your answer.

_____ positive

_____ negative

_____neutral

(2 points max)

1 point for indicating that the charge is

The downward gravitational force is balanced negative

by the upward electric force. Thus, the charge

is attracted to the top positive plate, repelled

1 point for a correct justification

by the bottom negative plate, and must be

negative.

B. On the diagram above, draw an arrow to indicate the direction of the electric force on

charge q.

(1 point max)

Electric force vector is directed up toward

the positive plate.

force is directed up toward the positive

plate

i. the magnitude of the electric force acting on the charge

(3 points max)

F = 0

FE FW = 0

force on the charge is zero

1 point for any indication that the

electric force must equal the weight

force

FE = FW = mg

m

FE = ( 5.0 104 kg ) 10 2

s

FE = 5.0 103 N

including correct units and reasonable

number of significant digits

(4 points max)

FE = qE

relating charge to electric force and

electric field

FE

E

V

E=

d

q=

electric field

3

FE d ( 5.0 10 kg ) ( 0.05m )

q=

=

12V

V

5

q = 2.1 10 C

distance between plates and voltage

across plates

1 point for the correct answer or

answer consistent with section i

including correct units and reasonable

number of significant digits

D. The same charge q is removed from between the parallel plates and replaced with a

proton of mass 1.6710-27 kg. If the proton is accelerated from rest with the same

accelerating potential, calculate its speed when it encounters one of the plates.

Indicate which plate (top or bottom) the proton will move toward.

(5 points max)

Proton will move downward toward the

direction the proton moves

conservation of energy

U E = KE

potential energy of the proton to its

charge and the accelerating voltage

1 2

mv

2

2qV

v=

m

qV =

v=

1.67 10

27

kg

= 4.8 104

or alternate solution

F = ma

F qE qV

a=

=

=

m

m md

v 2 = v02 + 2ax

of the proton to the electric potential

energy

including correct units and

reasonable number of significant

digits

qV

v2 = 2

d

md

v=

m

s

m

2qV

= 4.8 104

m

s

Multiple Choice

Questions 1-3

1m

+20 C

+10 C

1. A 20 C and a 10 C charge are placed 1.0 m apart as shown in the diagram above. The

10 C charge experiences a force of 1.8 N directed to the right. The 20 C charge will

experience a force of

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

0.9 N to the left

1.8 N to the right

1.8 N to the left

3.6 N to the right

D

The charges repel each other with equal and opposite forces.

2. What is the direction of the electric field midway between the 20 C and 10 C

charges?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E) The electric field is zero

C

The electric field from the 20 C directed to the right is twice as strong as the

electric field directed to the left from the 10 C charge.

force on the 10 C charge will be

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

0.45 N

0.9 N

1.8 N

3.6 N

7.2 N

FE = kq1q2/r2

The distance is doubled. Thus the new Electric Force is 1/4 of its original

value.

Questions 4-6

The figure shows three equipotential lines for a particular charge distribution. Point A lies

on a line of potential 0 volts, point B lies on a line of potential +2 volts, and point C lies

on a line of potential +4 volts.

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

Point A

Point B

Point C

The electric field is the same at all points

There is no electric field present

A

are closer together near point A, indicating a strong electric field.

5. Which of the following arrows best represents the direction of the electric field vector

at point C?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

The electric field vector points from higher potential (more positive) to

lower potential (less positive) so the electric field vector would point

away from C and toward A, perpendicular to the equipotential surface.

6. Suppose the distance between the points B and C is 0.4 m. Assuming the electric field

between points B and C is relatively constant, the magnitude of the electric field

strength between points B and C is most nearly

A) 0.5

B) 0.8

C) 1.6

D) 2.0

E) 5.0

V

m

V

m

V

m

V

m

V

m

E=

V 4V 2v

V

=

= 5.0

d

0.4m

m

Question 7

1m

+4 C

-2 C

7. Two charges of +4 C and -2C are placed on a line 1 m apart. At which point could

a small positive charge be placed such that the net force exerted on the small positive

charge is zero?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

At a point between the two charges but closer to the -2C charge

At a point to the left of the +4 C charge

At a point to the right of the -2 C charge

None of the above

Since the electric force between two charges depends on the magnitude of the

charges and the distance between them, a small positive charge would be

repelled strongly by the + 4 C charge, and attracted weakly by the - 2 C

charge, both forces could be equal and opposite if the small positive charge

were far from the + 4 C charge and close to the - 2 C charge. The only

location where this is possible is to the right of the - 2 C charge.

Question 8

A force acts on an electric charge in an electric field as shown.

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

The charge is negative

The charge is neutral

The electric field is weak

The electric field is strong

Since electric field lines are drawn in the direction a positive charge would

experience a force, and the charge experiences a force to the left, the charge

must be negative.

9. Consider two charged spheres of equal size carrying a charge of +8 C and 4 C, respectively.

The spheres are brought in contact with one another for a time sufficient to allow them to

reach an equilibrium charge. They are then separated. What is the final charge on each sphere?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

-4 C

-2 C

-1 C

+1 C

+2 C

When the two spheres come in contact with each other, charge will be

transferred, but the total amount of charge is conserved. The total charge on

the two spheres is +8 C + -4 C = +4 C, and this is the magnitude of the

equilibrium charge. When they are separated, they divide the charge evenly,

each keeping a charge of +2 C.

10. Two uncharged spheres A and B are near each other. A negatively charged rod is brought

near one of the spheres as shown. The far right side of sphere B is

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

uncharged

neutral

positive

negative

equally positive and negative

The far right side of sphere B is negative, since the negative charges in the

sphere are pushed as far away as possible by the negative charges on the rod.

11. The electric field lines are sketched around two charges as shown in the diagram

below. What are the signs of charges A and B respectively?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

negative, negative

negative, positive

positive, positive

positive, negative

neutral, neutral

charges.

12. In an experiment, it is found that a negatively charged balloon will attract the hair of

all 25 students in the classroom. This proves that all 25 students have

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

neutrally charged hair

negatively charged hair

positively or neutrally charged hair

positively or negatively charged hair

D

A negative object will attract both positive and neutral objects (due to

polarization).

Questions 13-15

A=0.004 m2

+++++++++++++++++++

12 V

0.001 m

--------------------------

13. A capacitor is charged by a 12 V battery as shown in the diagram above. Two parallel

conducting plates each of area 0.004 m2 are separated by a distance of 0.001 m. The

capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor is

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

7.010-11 F

3.510-11 F

6.010-9 F

9.010-9 F

4.010-12 F

C=

0 A

d

C2

0.004m 2 )

2 (

Nm

= 3.5 1011 F

0.001m

8.85 1012

14. The charge on one of the plates of the parallel plate capacitor is

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

2.110-10 C

3.010-10 C

4.210-10 C

5.210-10 C

9.010-10 C

Q

V

Q=CV= ( 3.5 1011 F ) (12V ) = 4.2 1010 C

C=

C

15. If the distance between the plates of the parallel plate capacitor is doubled, and the

area of each plate is quadrupled, which of the following is true?

A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

Both the electric field and the capacitance are doubled

The electric field is halved and the capacitance is quadrupled

The electric field is halved and the capacitance is doubled

Neither the electric field nor the capacitance is changed

E=

4 A

A

V

and C = 0 = 2 0

d

2d

2d

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