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STANDARD

SPECIFICATIONS FOR
CONSTRUCTION WORKS

2008

Module 19 Roadworks

Introduction
The Standard Specifications are published as a series of 21 stand-alone modules each addressing
a single distinct area of the construction process. This stand-alone module 19 is an integral part of
the Standard Specifications.

The purpose of the MoW STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION is to provide the
design professional with a guide for accepted construction practices for Ministry of Works projects.
As an aid to the designer, these Standard Specifications are provided for the inclusion in proposed
development projects for ease, efficiency and cost savings.

The Standard Specifications are not intended to limit the design responsibility of the design
professional. However, they establish a minimum acceptable criterion and/or quality for use within
Ministry of Works projects.

The design professional may increase the requirements of an item contained in the Standard
Specifications to meet job requirements, but when this is done, there should be no reference for
that item on the drawings to the Ministry of Works Standard Specifications and a new specification
should be included with the drawings or project contract documents.

The design professional must review all Standard Specifications to be sure that they are adequate
for the proposed project based on the job site conditions; the design professional is solely
responsible for the designs submitted under his seal.

In order to keep design standards current with changing regulations and improved construction
materials and practices this section will be updated and maintained by the concerned authorities of
the Ministry of Works. Prior to starting a new project, the design professional should contact the
concerned Directorate of the Ministry of Works to verify that he/she has the latest document
revisions.

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Module List
Module
No

Module Title

Guidance and General Specifications

Concrete

Earthworks

Glass and Glazing

Joinery and Carpentry

Ironmongery

Internal Finishes including Thermal Insulation

Painting and Decorating (Internal & External)

Metalwork

10

Roofing

11

Structural Steel (and Coatings)

12

Structural Timber

13

Masonry

14

Plumbing and Sanitary

15

Mechanical Installation in Buildings

16

Electrical Installation

17

Sewerage, Pipelines and Pipework

18

Sewerage M&E Works

19

Roadworks

20

Landscaping

21

Dredging, Reclamation and Shoreline Protection

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Table of Contents
CLAUSE

DESCRIPTION

PAGE

Introduction

Module List

Table of Contents

Foreword

PART 1 MATERIALS

1.1

Subgrade Improvement Layer................................................................................................... 6

1.2

Sub-Base 6

1.3

Unbound (Wet Mix) Road Base.. 7

1.4

Physical Properties for Subgrade Improvement Layer, Sub-base, Road Base and
Capping Layer 8

1.5

Material Suitability Tests for Subgrade Improvement Layer, Sub-base, Road base and
Capping Layer 8

1.6

Compaction Trials of Wet-Mix Road Base. 9

1.7

Asphalt Mixes... 10

1.8

Concrete Paving Blocks..18

1.9

Kerbs.. 21

1.10

Road Marking21

1.11

Traffic Signs. 23

1.12

Safety Barriers Road Vehicle Restraint Systems 24

1.13

Pedestrian Restraint and Guardrail Systems.. 29

1.14

Vehicle Parapets. 29

PART 2 CONSTRUCTION, METHODOLOGY & WORKMANSHIP

2.1

General Requirements ............................................................................................................ 31

2.2

Subgrade Improvement Layer... 35

31

Page 3

2.3

Sub-base35

2.4

Unbound Road Base ............................................................................................................... 36

2.5

Compacting Unbound Road Materials .................................................................................... 37

2.6

Asphalt Mixes .......................................................................................................................... 37

2.7

Surface Dressing ..................................................................................................................... 45

2.8

Hard Shoulder ......................................................................................................................... 47

2.9

Concrete Block Paving ............................................................................................................ 48

2.10

Kerbs ....................................................................................................................................... 49

2.11

Road Marking .......................................................................................................................... 50

2.12

Traffic Signs............................................................................................................................. 51

2.13

Safety Barriers, Terminals, Transitions and Crash Cushions ................................................. 51

2.14

Pedestrian Restraints and Guardrail Systems ........................................................................ 54

PART 3 SUMMARY

3.1

Reference Documents............................................................................................................. 55

55

Abbreviations

61

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Foreword
This specification provides the basis for roadworks. It covers the main requirements for selecting
materials, identifying the methodology and workmanship.

This specification must be read in its entirety, as it is structured in order of work-flow, which means
that items or activities appear in several places in the specification corresponding to the progression
of the construction process.

For larger or more complex or specialist projects, a project-specific Particular Specification for
roadworks may also be provided.

Absence of clauses for materials and methods does not necessarily signify that they can not be
used. Proposals for use of innovative methods and materials are encouraged and are subject to
review and approval by the Client.

Where the word approved is used in this specification, this means that the Client or Engineer has
been consulted and has confirmed that the item or procedure is acceptable in the specific context for
which approval has been requested.

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PART 1 MATERIALS

1.1

Subgrade Improvement Layer

1.1.1

General
Subgrade improvement layer material as described in the following clauses is for use as
a lower sub base or subgrade improvement layer (that is, a prepared subgrade layer).
Subgrade improvement layer material shall be crushed rock or naturally occurring gravel,
which is clean and free from organic matter, clay balls and other deleterious materials.
Where permitted by the design, the use of dredged sand shall be permitted in some
cases. General requirements, sample preparation, classification and testing of subgrade
improvement layer shall be in accordance with BS 1377 and BS 812 or equivalent
standards. Physical properties shall be as described in Table 1.4.

1.1.2

Grading
The material shall be well graded and complying with the following grading envelopes
when tested in accordance with the wet sieve method in BS 812: Part 103.
Table 1.1 Grading of Subgrade Improvement Layer

1.1.3

BS Sieve Size (mm)

Percentage by Weight
Passing Square Mesh

75
37.5
20
5
0.600
0.075

100
85 100
55 100
20 65
8 45
0 20

California Bearing Ratio (CBR)


Assessing the empirical strength criteria, CBR value, shall be in accordance with
BS 1377: Part 4: Test 7
The material shall be capable of achieving a laboratory CBR value of not less than 15%
after 96 hours soaking when compacted to 95% of the laboratory maximum dry density,
determined by BS 1377:Part 4:Test 3.7 (Vibrating Hammer).

1.2

Sub-Base

1.2.1

General
Sub-base material shall be crushed rock or naturally occurring gravel, which is clean and
free from organic matter, clay balls and other deleterious materials. General
requirements, sample preparation, classification and testing of sub base shall be in
accordance with BS 1377 and BS 812 or equivalent standards. Physical properties shall
be as described in Table 1.4. Where permitted by the design, the use of dredged sand
will be permitted in some cases.

1.2.2

Grading
The material shall be well graded and comply with the following grading envelopes when
tested in accordance with the wet sieve method in BS 812: Part 103.

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Table 1.2 Sub-base Grading

1.2.3

BS Sieve Size (mm)

Percentage by Weight
Passing Square Mesh

75
37.5
20
5
0.600
0.075

100
95 100
65 75
25 50
8 30
0 10

California Bearing Ratio (CBR)


Assessing the empirical strength criteria, CBR value, shall be in accordance with BS
1377: Part 4:Test 7.
The material shall be capable of achieving a laboratory CBR value of not less than 50%
after 96 hours soaking when compacted to 95% of the laboratory maximum dry density,
determined by BS 1377:Part 4:Test 3.7 (Vibrating Hammer).

1.3

Unbound (Wet Mix) Road Base


Unbound road base (wet mix) may be used where bound bases are not required. The
material shall be well graded and moisture content during laying tightly controlled.

1.3.1

General
Material for wet-mix road base shall be crushed rock or crushed gravel. Aggregate
retained on 5 mm BS sieve may contain up to 35% of pieces with one uncrushed face in
each grading size. Aggregate from quarried rock shall be deemed to satisfy this
requirement. Unless stated otherwise, testing of road base materials and workmanship
shall be carried out in accordance with BS 812 and BS 1377 or equivalent standard.

1.3.2

Grading
The material shall be well graded and comply with the following grading envelopes when
tested in accordance with the wet sieve method in BS 812: Part 103.
Table 1.3 Road Base Grading
BS Sieve Size (mm)

Percentage by Weight
Passing Square Mesh

50
37.5
20
10
5
2.36
0.6
0.075

100
95 100
65 80
40 60
25 40
15 30
8 22
28

The fraction passing the 0.075 mm sieve shall not exceed two-thirds of the fraction
passing the 0.600 mm sieve.

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1.3.3

California Bearing Ratio (CBR)


Assessing the empirical strength criteria, CBR value, shall be in accordance with BS
1377: Part 4:Test 7.
The material shall be capable of achieving a laboratory CBR value of not less than 50%
after 96 hours soaking when compacted to 95% of the laboratory maximum dry density,
determined by BS 1377:Part 4:Test 3.7 (Vibrating Hammer).

1.4

Physical Properties for Subgrade Improvement Layer, Sub-base, Road


Base and Capping Layer
Material for subgrade improvement layer, sub-base, wet-mix road base, and capping
layer, shall have physical properties which do not exceed the following test values:
Table 1.4 Physical Properties of Aggregates for
Subgrade Improvement Layer, Sub-base, Wet Mix Road Base, and Capping Layer
Property

Sub-base,
Road
Base, and
Capping
Layer

Subgrade
Improvement
Layer

Liquid Limit BS 1377: Part 2: Test 4.5

25%

35%

Linear Shrinkage (BS 1377 Part 2 Method 6.5)

3%

No requirement

Plasticity Index BS 1377: Part 2: Test 5

non plastic

Water Absorption (ASTM C128/C127)**

2%

2%

Flakiness Index (BS 812 Part 105.1)

30

No requirement

Elongation Index (BS 812 Part 105.2)

30

No requirement

MgS04 soundness loss (5 cycles) (ASTM C88)

12%

20%

Los Angeles Abrasion loss ASTM C131 or


C535

30%

50%

Organic Impurities (BS 1377 Part 3 Method 3)

0.2%

0.5%

Acid-soluble chloride (as NaCl) (BS 812: Part


117)

1%

1%

Acid-soluble sulphate (as SO3) (BS 812: Part


118)

0.5%

0.5%

** Where an aggregate has higher water absorption than 2% its use may be
permitted by the Engineer providing adequate evidence of past performance can
be produced.

1.5

Material Suitability Tests for Subgrade Improvement Layer, Sub-base,


Road base and Capping Layer
Before a section of road works is commenced and during the construction period, tests
shall be carried out to confirm the suitability of materials and to determine the degree of
compaction in the sub grade and the layers of the pavement. No section of the work shall
be covered until it has been approved. The finished surfaces of the road sub-base shall

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not vary at any point more than 10 mm above or below the grade established by the
Engineer.
The following tests shall be conducted: Initial laboratory tests for assessment of suitability
of proposed materials:
Table 1.5 Laboratory Test to Assess Material Suitability
Test

Frequency

Tests listed in sections:


Subgrade improvement layer
1.1.2 and 1.1.3, and Table 1.4

At least three per source per


job for prior approval

Sub base
1.2.2 and 1.2.3, and Table 1.4

At least three per source per


job for prior approval

Road Base
1.3.2 and 1.3.3, and Table 1.4

At least three per source per


job for prior approval

Capping Layer
1.3.2 and Table 1.4

At least three per source per


job for prior approval

Laboratory tests to monitor the consistency of the approved materials during construction
should be as displayed in Table 1.6 below:
Table 1.6 Laboratory Test to Monitor Material Consistency
Test
Moisture
content
density
relationship
to
determine
optimum dry density and
moisture content.
BS 1377: Part 4: Test 3.7
(Vibrating Hammer)
Grading and moisture content:
Wet sieve method in BS 812:
Part 103
Plasticity Index
BS 1377: Part:2: Test 5

Notes

Two per source per job

One test for every 500 t or part


delivered**
One test for every 500 t or part
delivered

** If gradings are inconsistent, further moisture content/density tests shall be


required

1.6

Compaction Trials of Wet-Mix Road Base


If directed by the Engineer, prior to the commencement of the wet-mix road base
operations, the Contractor shall construct trial lengths not to exceed 250 m. The materials
used in the trials shall be those approved for use as Wet-mix or gravel road base, and the
equipment used shall be that according to the Contractors approved detailed program of
work.
The trial area shall not form part of the permanent works unless specifically permitted by
the Engineer. Trials may be permitted in the construction of temporary detours of
sufficient length.

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The objective of these trials is to determine the adequacy of the Contractors equipment,
the loose depth measurements necessary to result in the specified compacted layers
depths, the field moisture content, and the relationship between the number of
compaction passes and the resulting density of the material.
The Contractor may proceed with the Wet-mix road base work only after the methods and
procedures established in the compaction trials have been approved by the Engineer.

1.7

Asphalt Mixes

1.7.1

Aggregate Sources and Aggregate Physical Properties


Aggregate shall be crushed rock or gravel, and sand obtained from approved sources
which shall not include quarries containing significant proportions of weathered
decomposed or extensively fractured materials. Aggregate shall be free from dust or
other material that would prevent adhesion or coating of binder. Also, aggregates shall
substantially be free from sulphates, chlorides and other materials that would break down
in the drier during mixing or subsequently when exposed to weather. The Contractor shall
propose a suitable source or sources, and samples shall be obtained for specified testing
before arrangements for obtaining aggregate are approved. Laboratory tests shall be
made in accordance with Tables 1.7 and 1.8 to confirm the suitability of aggregate.

1.7.2

Coarse Aggregate
Coarse aggregate is defined as that fraction retained on a 5.0 mm BS sieve. It shall have
physical properties which do not exceed the following test values (Table 1.7 below):
Table 1.7 Coarse Aggregate Test Values
Test
Los Angeles Abrasion
Loss (ASTM C131 &
C535)
Aggregate Crushing Value
(BS 812 Part 110)
Soundness Loss (ASTM
C88) Magnesium
Sulphate
Acid soluble Chlorides
(BS 812 Part 117)
Acid soluble Sulphates
(BS812 Part 118)
Flakiness Index (BS 812
Part 105.1
Elongation Index (BS 812
Part 105.2)
Water Absorption (ASTM
C128/127)**
Clay lumps and friable
content
(ASTM C142)
PSV (Where specified)
BS 812 Part 114

Permitted max
25

Minimum Test Frequency


Annual per source

25%

Annual per source

6%

Annual per source

1.0%

Annual per source

0.5%

Annual per source

25

One per design per project

25

One per design per project

2%

Annual per source

0.5%

One per design per project

48 MIN

2 results in preceding 6
months

(or 4% using Sodium


Sulphate)

(For any individual sieve


size)
(For Wearing coarse)

** Where an aggregate has higher water absorption than 2% its use may be
permitted by the Engineer providing adequate evidence of past performance can
be proven.

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At least 90% by weight of the aggregate in individual size fraction shall have three or
more crushed faces. Each crushed face shall have an area equal to a greater than 75%
of the area of the smallest mid-sectional area of the piece, and the angle between
adjacent faces shall not be less than 30.
1.7.3

Fine aggregate
Fine aggregates shall have properties which comply with the values in Table 1.8 (below).
Fine aggregates shall be that fraction passing 5.0 mm sieve and shall consist of natural
sand, quarry sand or crushed rock produced in a secondary plant. It shall be non-plastic
and free from loosely bonded aggregations, organic and other foreign matter.
Table 1.8 Fine Aggregate Test Values
Test

Permitted Max

Soundness Loss (ASTM C88)


Magnesium Sulphate
Acid soluble Chlorides (BS 812
Part 117)
Acid soluble Sulphates (BS 812
Part 118)
Plasticity Index

10%

Minimum Test
Frequency
Annual per source

0.1%

Annual per source

0.5%

Annual per source

Non-Plastic

Every 200T of
delivered material
per project
Every 200T of
delivered material
per project
Annual per source

BS 1377: Part 2: Test 5


Organic Impurities (ASTM C40)
Water
Absorption
(ASTM
C128/127)**
Content of clay lumps and
friable particles (ASTM C142)

1.7.4

Colour of supernatant
liquid shall be lighter
than standard solution
3%
3%

Every 200T of
delivered material
per project

Filler
Mineral filler shall consist of finely ground particles of limestone or cement in accordance
with ASTM D-242 or BS EN 197: Part 1. It shall be thoroughly dry and free from organic
substances and clay and meet the grading requirements in Table 1.9 below:
Table 1.9 Mineral Filler
Mineral Filler
BS Sieve

ASTM Sieve

Percentage by Mass
Passing

600 microns

No. 30

100

300 microns

No. 50

95 100

150 microns

No. 100

90 100

75 microns

No. 200

70 100

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The bulk density in benzene shall be between 0.5 g/ml and 0.95 g/ml. The part of the
mineral filler which is retained on the 75 micron BS sieve shall be regarded as fine
aggregate.
1.7.5

Aggregate Grading for Asphalt mixes


The aggregate grading for asphalt mixes shall comply with the Table 1.10 below:
Table 1.10 Aggregate Grading for Asphalt Mixes
Design Mix Grading
BS Sieve Size
B28

GW20 (TM5)

L10

100

28 mm

84 100

100

20 mm

70 92

96 100

14 mm

57 82

83 91

100

10 mm

48 - 74

73 81

88 100

5 mm

36 60

57 65

65 84

2.36 mm

26 47

42 48

40 65

1.18 mm

18 38-

29 35

27 50

600 microns

13 30

20 26

17 40

300 microns

9 21

13 19

10 30

150 microns

6 16

7 13

7 20

75 microns

48

4.4 7.4

3 10

50 90

40 65

50 max

37.5 mm

Compacted
thickness (mm)

In the above, B28 is binder course (Basecourse), GW20 is a general purpose


highway surface course, and L10 is a surface course for light use (footways, car
parking areas, and so on).

Page 12

1.7.6

Storage of Aggregate
Aggregate, and chippings for surface dressing, shall be stored so that segregation,
intermixing of different aggregates and contamination by dirt and other foreign materials
is prevented. In general, each size of aggregate shall be stored separately.
Stockpiles shall be on concrete or other approved hard surfaces laid to falls so that water
is not retained in the base of the stockpiles and deleterious matter does not contaminate
the aggregate.
Stockpiles are to be at least 2 m in height built up in layers of not more than 1 m in
thickness. Each layer shall be completely in place before beginning the next, which shall
not be allowed to '
cone'down over the under layer.
Coarse and fine aggregate shall be supplied and stockpiled separately. In all cases,
separate stockpiles shall be provided for aggregates from different sources of supply.
If aggregates of different gradings or from different sources are stockpiled in close
proximity, the stockpiles shall be separated by bulk-heads.
All aggregates are shall handled from the stockpile or other sources to the cold bins in
such a manner as to ensure a uniform grading of the material, care being taken to avoid
crushing or mixing of the aggregates and to ensure that they remain free from extraneous
matter.
Filler shall be stored in dry conditions.

1.7.7

Bitumen
Bitumen shall be of Grade 50/70 penetration in accordance with BS EN 12591.
If directed by the Engineer, a certificate shall be obtained from the supplier stating the
grade of bitumen and the relative density.
At least two weeks before any proposed trial, the Contractor shall furnish the Engineer
with a graph showing the relationship between the viscosity and the temperature of the
bitumen.
Bitumen supplied as binder shall meet the following requirements:
Table 1.11 Required Properties of Bitumen
Bitumen Property

Limit of Requirement

Penetration at 25C, 100 g, 5 sec

60-70

Flash point (Cleveland Open Cup) 0C

250 min

Ductility at 25C 5 cm/min

100 min

Retained penetration after thin film penetration


tests %

52 min

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Table 1.11 Required Properties of Bitumen (continued)


Bitumen Property

Limit of Requirement

Ductility at 25C, 5 cm/min. cm after thin film


Oven test

50 min

Ring and Ball softening point C

50-58

Solubility
in
Trichloroethane %

Trichloroethylene

or

99 min

Foaming shall not occur when heated to C

175 min

Loss on heating for 5 hours at 163C

0.2% max by mass

Loss on heating for 5 hours at 163C

Drop in penetration
20% max

1.7.8

Asphalt Surfacing Mixes

1.7.8.1

Design and Testing of Mixes


Design mixes shall be submitted for approval and proved by means of laboratory, plant
and field trials. The final job mix shall display the Marshall characteristics specified in
Table 1.12 for Asphalt Mixes.
The mixes shall be tested in accordance with the following methods:

Preparation and testing of Marshall Specimens: Asphalt Institute MS2 using 75


blows per face. Aggregate greater than 25.4 mm shall be replaced with an
equivalent weight of 19 mm to 25.4 mm material.

Design mixtures for at least 5 bitumen contents 0.5% apart shall be prepared by
Marshall Method and tested to determine the following parameters:

mix density

voids in mix

voids in mineral aggregates

stability

flow

The bitumen content to be selected for the job standard mix shall be the average
value of bitumen contents as determined from 5 tested specimens for:

maximum mix density

maximum stability

median of limits for voids in mix

minimum voids in mineral aggregates


Page 14

The values of the parameters (mix density, voids in mix, voids in mineral
aggregates, stability, and flow) at the bitumen content selected for the Job
Standard Mix shall match the limits specified in Table 1.12.

Bulk Specific Gravity of specimens: ASTM D1188. The values for specific gravities
of the aggregates to be used in calculating the voids shall be taken as the mean of
the Bulk, Apparent and Effective Specific Gravities as defined in the American
Asphalt Institute publication '
Mix Design Methods for Asphaltic Concrete'
.

The adhesion of bitumen to aggregate shall be proven by comparing the stability of


specimens cured in water and air for eight days at 18C. The ratio of stability in the
two shall not be less than 0.65.

Surface course mix shall be subjected to further Marshall Tests at 80C after oven
heating for a period of 2 hours; the stability/flow ratio shall not fall below 270 at this
temperature.

Mixes with a bitumen content corresponding to the maximum allowable for the
selected job mix shall be compacted to refusal, or to 600 blows whichever shall be
reached first, and the resulting voids-in-mix values shall not be less than 3%.

The designed mixes shall comply with the following:


Table 1.12 Asphalt Design Mix Compliance Requirements

Marshall mould nr of blows


Voids in mix (%)
Voids in mineral aggregate %
Minimum stability kN
Flow, mm
Minimum stability/flow ratio (kg/mm)
Bitumen content (% of total mix)
Loss of Marshall stability in accordance
with DM 405
1.7.8.2

B28

GW20
(TM5)

L10

75
4-8
13 min
8
2-4
330
3-7
25% max

75
4-7
14 min
10
2-4

75
4-8
14 min
8
2 4.5

3.5-4.1
25% max

5-8
25% max

Job Standard Mix Permitted Deviations


After a design mix has been approved and adopted as a job standard mix, the maximum
permitted deviations from the job standard mix shall be as follows:
Table 1.13 Maximum Deviation From Accepted Job Standard Mix
Permitted Deviation
(% by weight of total mix)
Sieve size:
6.3 mm or larger
2.36 mm to 5 mm
0.6 mm to 1.18 mm
0.075 mm to 0.3 mm
Smaller than 0.075 mm

5%
4%
3%
2%
1%

Bitumen

0.3%

Voids in mix

1%

Page 15

The application of the above deviation percentages shall not result in values of the
parameters falling outside those specified in the clause above covering the design and
testing of asphalt mixes.
1.7.8.3

Procedure for Approval and Re-Approval of Suppliers Plant

1.7.8.3.1 Mixing Plant


All materials shall be mechanically mixed at a central static batching plant area. All mixing
plants shall be maintained in good working order.
The Plant shall be equipped with separate cold hoppers for preliminary batching of
coarse and fine aggregates. Where two or more fine aggregates are to be used, a
separate cold hopper with accurate adjustable feed shall be provided for each source of
supply. All plant shall be equipped to ensure the accurate separation of the aggregates
after heating into at least three separate sizes, and the correct measurement of each size
into the batch.
The filler shall be measured accurately by a separate feeding system. The binder may be
measured by weight or volume.
1.7.8.3.2 Design and Trial Procedure
The time intervals given in sub-Clauses (a), (b), and (c) of this clause may be varied with
the approval of the Engineer.
(a)

Laboratory Design: The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his
approved details of the '
Laboratory Design Mix'at least two weeks before the
proposed Trial Mix. The proposed '
Laboratory Design Mix'shall be determined
by the Contractor in accordance with section 1.8.8.1 and 1.8.8.2 of this
Specification.

(b)

Trial Mix: After approval of the '


Laboratory Design Mix'and at least seven
days before it is intended to lay the Trial Area, the Contractor shall produce
trial batches of the proposed mix which will be sampled and tested in order to
demonstrate the Contractor'
s ability to produce material consistent with the
Design Mix.

(c)

Trial Area: If the results of the trial batch are satisfactory, the Contractor shall
submit to the Engineer details of the proposed laying and compaction plant
and method of working at least two weeks before it is intended to commence
full scale production. The trial area shall be laid and compacted with the
proposed plant. If the trial area indicates that the Trial Mix is unsatisfactory for
mechanical spreading and compacting, the Contractor shall prepare a new
Design Mix.
The trial area shall comply with the following requirements:

The length shall be at least 50 m of at least one complete rip width.

The surface shall comply with the relevant requirements of Section 2.1 of
this Specification.

The area shall include for both the maximum and minimum proposed
thicknesses.

The trial area shall not form part of the permanent works unless
specifically permitted by the Engineer who must be satisfied that the
requirements above can be met without detriment to the works.

Page 16

1.7.9

(d)

The "Job Standard Density" is to be obtained by the following method:


Six Marshall mould specimens are to be made from the "Trial Mix". The mean
bulk specific gravity shall be determined and compared with the individual
specific gravities. Any individual result that varies from the mean by more than
0.015 shall be rejected and provided not more than two results are so rejected,
the mean of the remaining results shall become the "Job Standard Mix
Density".

(e)

Approval of Compaction Method: To obtain approval of laying and


compaction at least three pairs of core samples shall be taken from the trial
area, described in sub-Clause 1.8.8.3.2 (c). The density and thickness of cores
shall be measured. If the average density of each pair of cores is not less than
98% of the "Job Standard Mix Density" for B28 and GW20 and 97% for L10,
the method of compaction employed shall become the approved method of
compaction. If the necessary density is not achieved, the type of plant and/or
method of laying shall be revised and further trial areas laid until the necessary
density is achieved. If the results of the trial mix and trial compaction are
reasonably consistent with the "Job Design Mix" then the parameters laid out
in Clause.1.8.8.3.2 will be fixed on the trial results and will be known as the
"Job Standard Mix".

(f)

Approval Certificates: If the trial shows that the supplier can consistently
produce and compact material to comply with this specification a certificate will
be issued endorsed by MoW/MED. This certificate will expire after a period of
12 months. Over the period of approval the plant, separate constituents and
mixed material will be checked regularly. If the materials are found not to
comply with the certified "Job Standard Mix", or the plant found to be not in
good working order, the approval certificate may be withdrawn, and a new trial
procedure will be necessary for re-approval.

Bitumen Priming Coat


A priming coat of Road Oil shall be applied to the road base before placing asphalt. Road
Oil shall be medium cutback asphalt cement grade MC-250 to ASTM D2027. All
references to M.C.l. on any drawing shall mean road oil.
Road oil shall be applied to the sub-base or roadbase as shown on the drawing or
directed by the Engineer at a rate of between 0.7 litre/m2 and 1.0 litre/m2.
Road oil shall be applied uniformly by vehicular tank-spraying pressure units complying
with BS 1707 as appropriate.
Care shall be taken to protect the surfaces of all structures such as kerbs from being
marred or defaced during the operation.
If instructed by the Engineer, immediately prior to the spraying operation, the surface
shall be brushed to remove the excess fines and leave the coarse aggregate standing
3 mm to 6 mm proud. The excess fines shall be removed by the Contractor.
On completion of the spraying operation, the area primed shall be closed to traffic for a
period sufficient to allow for proper penetration and curing.

1.7.10

Bitumen Tack Coat


A bituminous tack coat shall always be used between layers of asphalt to ensure a good
bond.

Page 17

Tack coat shall be bituminous emulsion complying with BS 434, either anionic class Al-40
or cationic class Kl-40, or rapid curing cut-back bitumen conforming to BS 434 (road oil
shall not be used).
The tack coat shall not be permitted to collect in hollow, and shall be allowed to break or
cure before laying commences.
The tack coat shall be applied uniformly by vehicular mechanical tank sprayer pressure
units complying with BS 1707 as appropriate, at a spread rate of at least 0.5 litres/m2.
Where the shape or size of an area to be sprayed precludes vehicular access, with the
approval of the Engineer pressure spraying equipment for hand spraying shall be
permitted.
With the exception of necessary construction vehicles, traffic shall not be allowed on the
tack coat.
Care shall be taken to protect the surfaces of all structures such as kerbs from being
marred or defaced during the operation.
If instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall submit for approval a certificate of test
from an independent test authority not more than three months old, showing that the
uniformity of distribution from the spray bar of each spraying unit meets the requirements
of the appropriate British Standard. If instructed by the Engineer, the distributor shall be
checked at least once in every month to ensure consistent rate of spread, and the
Certificates submitted to the Engineer.

1.8

Concrete Paving Blocks


This specification gives requirements for precast concrete paving blocks intended for the
construction of low speed roads, footpaths and junctions and other paved areas
subjected to all categories of static and vehicular loading and pedestrian traffic.
Paving blocks covered by this specification are designed to form both a structural
element and the surfacing of pavements having the block to block joints filled so as to
develop frictional interlock.

1.8.1

Form of Construction
Concrete block surfacing shall consist of precast concrete blocks on a sand laying course
30 mm thick on wet-mix road base on sub base over the sub grade. When the blocks are
laid in footpaths the road base layer shall be omitted.

1.8.2

Laying Course
The laying course shall consist of clean sand in accordance with Tables 1.14 and 1.15
below. The sand shall be obtained from a single source, allowed to drain before use and
covered to minimise moisture changes.

Page 18

Table 1.14 Laying course Classification


Sand category

Application

IA

Pavements receiving severely channelized traffic, aircraft pavements and bus


stations

IB

Industrial pavements
Loading bays

II

Adopted highways and other roads


Petrol station forecourts
Pedestrianization projects regular heavy trafficking
Car parks receiving some heavy traffic
Footways regularly overridden by vehicular traffic

III

Pedestrianization projects receiving only occasional heavy traffic


Car parks receiving no heavy vehicles

IV

Private drives
Areas receiving pedestrian traffic only
Footways likely to be overridden by no more than occasional vehicular traffic

Table 1.15 Laying course Grading


Sieve size

Percentage passing each sieve


%
Category IA

Category IB

Category II

Category III

Category IV

5 mm

90-100

90-100

90-100

89-100

89-100

2.36 mm

75-100

75-100

75-100

65-100

65-100

1.18 mm

55-90

55-90

55-90

45-100

45-100

600 m

35-65

35-65

35-65

25-80

25-80

300 m

10-45

10-45

10-45

5-48

5-48

150 m

0-10

0-10

0-10

0-15

0-15

75 m

0.3 max

0-0.5

0-1.5

0-3

0-5

Acid-soluble sulphate and chloride contents shall not exceed 0.3% (as S03) and 0.5% (as
NaCl) by weight respectively. Tests shall be carried out to confirm achievement of these
requirements at the rate of one set of tests for each 500 m2.

Page 19

1.8.3

Surface Course
Concrete paving blocks shall be manufactured in accordance with BS EN 1338 and laid
in accordance with BS 7533: Part 3. Blocks shall be delivered to site undamaged,
unbroken, and not chipped and they need to be checked visually before use.

1.8.4

Sampling and Testing


Sampling and testing of blocks shall be carried out in accordance with BS EN 1338.
Sampled blocks shall be subjected to all the tests covered by Appendices A, B and C of
the standard. Certification of testing shall be obtained from the supplier.
If any of the 20 test blocks do not comply with the requirements for dimensional accuracy
stated in Clause 1.9.8, the whole consignment shall be rejected.

1.8.5

Fine Aggregate
Fine aggregate shall not contain more than 25% by weight of soluble calcium carbonate
in either the fraction retained on or the fraction passing a 600 micron BS sieve.

1.8.6

Coarse Aggregate
Coarse aggregate shall be material retained on a 4.75 mm BS sieve; the nominal
maximum size shall be 10 mm. The grading shall comply with BS EN 12620, Table 4 so
that when mixed with sand and cement a high density concrete is produced.

1.8.7

Test for Compressive Strength


Testing of blocks for compressive strength shall be carried out in accordance with
Appendix C of BS EN 1338 except that blocks shall be soaked for 24 hours in fresh water
at 20C immediately prior to testing. Fresh plywood packing shall be used for each
specimen tested.

1.8.8

Dimensional Accuracy
Block dimensions shall be measured using steel callipers and a steel rule capable of
measuring up to 300 mm to an accuracy of 1 mm.
The thickness of each sample shall be measured to the nearest 1mm at four different
points using steel callipers. The value of the thickness measured shall have a maximum
deviation of 2 mm from the specified thickness.
The length and width shall be measured to the nearest 1mm across two opposite faces
using steel callipers. The values of length and width measured shall have a maximum
deviation of 2 mm from the specified dimensions, or the manufacturers theoretical
dimensions.

1.8.9

Water Absorption
Blocks are required to be tested for water absorption. The test shall be based on that
specified in BS EN 1338 Appendix E, and the maximum acceptable limits for water
absorption shall be:

2.5% absorbed after 10 minutes

5.0% absorbed after 24 hours

The acceptable limits for water absorption may be required to be varied to achieve the
minimum absorption compatible with the aggregate approved for use in the paving
blocks.

Page 20

1.8.10

Colour
The colour of blocks shall be uniform and as detailed on the Drawings or as directed.
Samples of each different colour shall be submitted for approval.

1.9

Kerbs
Kerbs, channels, edgings and quadrants shall be precast concrete and shall comply with
BS EN 1339 except as amended herein.
Straight kerbs and edgings shall be hydraulically pressed.
The cement used in the manufacture shall be sulphate-resisting Portland Cement
3
complying with BS 4027. The minimum cement content shall be not less than 370 kg/m .
The coarse aggregate used in the manufacture shall be obtained from an approved
source.
All plant and machinery used in the manufacture shall be operated by qualified and
experienced personnel.
Sizes, shapes, and designation shall be as the UK annex to BS EN 1340 (figures and
designations from BS 7263-3: 2001).
The characteristic strength of kerbs, channels, and quadrants shall be 5.0 MPa.
The characteristic strength of edgings shall be 3.5 MPa.
Precast concrete kerbs and edgings described as '
pressed'shall be made by employing a
pressure of not less than 7 MPa over the entire surfaces receiving the pressure (7 MPa =
2
7 MN/m = 1,015 psi).
Kerbs shall be delivered to site undamaged, broken, or chipped. They shall be checked
visually before being used.

1.10

Road Marking

1.10.1

General
Permanent road markings shall be thermoplastic road marking material or paint in
accordance with BS EN 1871 and shall be suitable for road surface temperatures of up to
80C. Road trials for road markings shall be in accordance with BS EN 1824.
Road markings shall be white or yellow (Classes Y1 and Y2) complying with BS EN 1436
Table 6, as appropriate except where an alternative shade has been specified. The
markings shall consist of continuous or intermittent lines, letters, figures, arrows or
symbols and comply with the following sub-Clauses. The width tolerances and thickness
for screed, spray, preformed and extruded white or yellow lines shall be as specified but
in no case shall any materials be laid more than 6 mm thick. Road marking materials
shall be white or yellow (Classes Y1 and Y2) complying with BS EN 1436 Table 6, unless
otherwise specified.
They shall be also tested in road trials to the Roll-over class P5 in accordance with the
procedure stated in BS EN 1824 to demonstrate compliance with the performance
requirements.. The test report shall give particulars of the quality and quantity of the
material, including drop on glass beads laid at the test site for future reference and
comparison purposes should such a need arise.

Page 21

1.10.2

Performance
Road markings shall have the following road performance as defined in BS EN 1436 for
the period of the functional life starting from the date of application or when the road is
trafficked, whichever is later. The materials to be used shall be to the same mix, material
quality, quantity and rate of application as used on the test site.

Property

BS EN 1436

Requirement

Value

Colour

Table 6

1. White
2. Yellow

x, y, co-ordinates given

Class Y1, Y2

Luminance

Table 5

Factor

1. Class B2
2. Class B1

x y co-ordinates given
0.3
0.2

Skid resistance

Table 7

1. Class S1
2. Class S1

45
45

Retroreflectivity

Table 2 Class of RL
for dry markings

1. Class R2
2. Class R1

100
80

Note: 1 = White, 2 = Yellow

Where specified, all white markings shall be reflectorised and with glass beads in
accordance with BS EN 1423 and BS EN 1424 by incorporation (apart from preformed
markings) into the road marking mixture and to the wet surface of the marking. The glass
beads shall not have more than 1,000 ppm of Arsenic Trioxide, 200 ppm of Lead and
1,000 ppm of Antimony. The Contractor shall supply test certificates showing compliance
with these requirements. Solid glass beads complying with BS EN 1423 shall be
incorporated at 10% to 12% by weight of total mix. They shall also be applied to the
surface of the markings at the rate of 400 g/m2 to 500 g/m2.
Where there is requirement for improved visibility in wet conditions at night, products
showing the following performance shall be used.
Property

BS EN 1436

Requirement

Value

Class RW3

50

Reference
Retroreflectivity

Table 3

Page 22

Where there is a requirement for improved skid resistance products showing the
following performance in addition to other sub-clauses shall be used.
Property

BS EN 1436
Reference

Requirement

Value

Skid Resistance

Table 7

Class S3

55

Spray paint, thermoplastic applied by machine screed, spray or extrusion or preformed


road markings shall be used for carriageway markings on porous asphalt surfacing.
Manual screeding shall not be permitted except for directional arrows and similar
markings.
1.10.3

Reflective Studs
Reflective road marking studs shall be approved and shall comply with BS EN 1463:
Part 2. The colour of the glass lenses and the spacing of studs shall be as indicated on
the Drawings.

1.11

Traffic Signs

1.11.1

Materials and Fabrication


Sign plates shall be fabricated from sheet aluminium to BS EN 485. Sign bracings and
fixing brackets/collars shall be fabricated from approved aluminium alloy sections. Fixing
bolts nuts and washers shall be stainless steel grade A4 80 to BS EN ISO 3506. Posts,
caps and base plates shall be of steel grade S275 to BS EN 10025.
Mounting posts shall be of circular or rectangular hollow section structural steel, as
required, provided with caps continuously fillet welded to the post heads to prevent the
ingress of water.

1.11.2

Corrosion Protection
Steelwork shall be hot-dip galvanised to BS EN ISO 1461 to achieve a coating of
2
610 g/m (85 microns minimum DFT), and then shop painted in a salt and dust-free
covered area.
Aluminium and steel components shall be insulated from each other at fixing points by
the use of approved non-degradable inert grommets, washers and packing.
Base plates, bolts and posts below ground level shall, in addition, be coated externally
with bitumen in accordance with BS 3416 to a minimum dry film thickness of 300 microns.
Above ground level, posts for warning and regulatory signs shall, in addition, be painted
in black and white horizontal bands with high gloss finish to a minimum DFT of
30 microns.
Galvanised components on which the galvanising has been damaged in transporting,
handling or erection will be rejected, or may be repaired on site, if approved, by the zinc
alloy steel method.

1.11.3

Traffic Sign Manufacture


The Contractor shall obtain traffic signs from an approved manufacturer, who shall design
the signs based on information given by the Engineer. The materials, design and
manufacture of the signs shall comply with the requirements of the following documents:

Page 23

BS EN 12899: Part 2: Fixed, vertical road traffic signs. Transilluminated traffic


bollards (TTB)

All sign face sheeting shall be reflective high intensity grade or Diamond Grade.

Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions'published by UK TSO

Traffic Signs Manual published by UK TSO

Lettering and numerals shall be in both English and Arabic; English characters
shall be of the '
Transport Medium'alphabet for signs with red, blue or green
backgrounds and of the '
Transport Heavy' alphabet for signs with white
background. The Arabic script shall be '
naskh'style with characters so sized that
their general appearance is comparable with the English script.

The Engineer will provide typed Arabic translations of place names and other lettering but
shall at no time be required to give the manufacturer full-size translations or templates.
If dimensions of signs are shown on the drawings they relate to the Standard English title
dimensions. If the size of the Arabic translation dictates that the dimensions of the sign be
increased, the manufacturer shall alter the size so that the Arabic does not appear
cramped.
The Contractor shall submit for approval working drawings and design calculations for
signs, posts and base plates. Fabrication shall not be commenced until approval has
been given.

1.12

Safety Barriers Road Vehicle Restraint Systems

1.12.1

General
Road Vehicle Restraint Systems as defined in BS EN 1317: Part 1 shall conform to the
relevant clauses of BS EN 1317 unless otherwise described in the following clauses or on
the Contract Drawings.

1.12.2

Performance Requirements
Performance Class requirements (Containment Level, Impact Severity Level [ISL],
working Width Class, Performance Level, Redirection Zone Class [Z], Permanent Lateral
Displacement Zone Class [D], Performance Class [P], Permanent Lateral.
Displacement Zone [PLDZ] characteristic, Exit Box Class) and other requirements such
as the Length of Need and the maximum height that allows the required visibility shall be
as described on the Contract Drawings.

1.12.3

Acceptance of Proposals
The Contractor shall submit to the SO for acceptance Road Vehicle Restraint Systems to
conform with the Performance Class Requirements and any other requirements specified
on the Contract Drawings
Vehicle Restraint Systems proposed by the Contractor shall be submitted to the SO for
acceptance with supporting information demonstrating compliance with the applicable
part of BS EN 1317 and DD ENV 1317: Part 4. In addition, the Contractor shall submit
any further information requested on the Contract Drawings and documentation showing
compliance with and operation of Quality Assurance/ management systems.

1.12.4

Durability
Safety barriers, vehicle parapets, terminals, transitions and crash cushions shall conform
to the following:

Page 24

All components shall be designed to achieve a serviceable life of not less than:
(a) 20 years for metal safety barriers, terminals, transitions and crash cushions;
(b) 50 years for concrete safety barrier systems, except for temporary safety
barriers where the serviceable life shall be not less than 10 years;
(c) 30 years for metal vehicle parapets and concrete components of combined
metal and concrete vehicle parapets; and
(d) 120 years for concrete vehicle parapets and concrete components of
combined metal and concrete vehicle parapets; and

1.12.5

For metal vehicle parapets and metal components of combined metal and concrete
parapets, the serviceable life shall be obtained without the requirement for any
maintenance other than that resulting from accidental damage.

Temporary Safety Barriers


Where required, the Contractor shall provide, maintain, install and remove temporary
Safety barrier systems upon completion of the works.

1.12.6

Components for Materials for Vehicle Restraint Systems

1.12.6.1 Materials
Materials, fabrication of components, fittings and tolerances shall be as described and
detailed on the Drawings submitted by the Contractor.
Structural concrete, reinforcement, workmanship and other requirements shall conform to
the relevant requirements of this specification.
1.12.7

Protection Against Corrosion


Protection against corrosion shall be as described in the Manufacturers Specification and
the following:

1.12.8

(i)

All steel components except stainless steel items, reinforcing rings and
reinforcing bars shall be galvanized after shop fabrication to BS EN ISO 1461.

(ii)

The surface preparation and protection against corrosion for steel vehicle
parpet components is as shown on the Contract Drawings.

Welding

1.12.8.1 General
Arc welding of ferritic steels shall conform to BS EN 1011: Part 1 and BS EN 1011:
Part 2. Weld symbols shown on the Drawings, submitted by the Contractor in accordance
with sub-Clause 401.5, shall be as described in BS EN 22553. Welding shall not be used
except as where detailed on the Drawings submitted by the Contractor in accordance
with sub-Clause 401.5. Arc welding of stainless steels shall conform to BS EN 1011:
Part 3. Arc welding of aluminium alloys shall conform to BS EN 1011: Part 1 and BS EN
1011: Part 4.
1.12.8.2 Procedures
Written welding procedures shall be used with testing to BS EN ISO 15607, BS EN ISO
15609: Part 1 and BS EN ISO 15614: Part 1 for steel and BS EN ISO 15607, BS EN ISO
15609: Part 1 and BS EN ISO 15609: Part 2 for aluminium alloys and shall apply to all
Page 25

production and repair procedures. These shall be subject to re-approval after a period of
seven years. When applying BS EN ISO 15607, BS EN ISO 15609: Part 1 and BS EN
ISO 15614: Part 1, the welding consumables and procedures used shall be such that the
mechanical properties of deposited weld metal shall not be less than the respective
minimum specified values of the parent metal being welded. Weld testing shall be
undertaken by an appropriate organisation accredited in accordance with sub-Clauses
105.3 and 105.4. Approval shall be by an Independent Inspecting Authority using
Registered Welding Engineers or Registered Welding Quality Engineers or equivalent.
Welding procedures shall be approved in accordance with BS EN ISO 15613. Preproduction test pieces shall represent the main assembly types.
1.12.8.3 Welder Qualification
All welders shall hold certificates of approval to BS EN 287: Part 1 and BS EN 1418 for
steel and BS EN ISO 9606: Part 2 for aluminium alloys. The tests shall include in addition
an application test on transverse butt welds in beams. Welders carrying out fillet welds
only may be approved to BS 4872: Part 1. Certificates of approval shall be by an
Independent Inspecting Authority using Registered Welding Engineers, Registered
Welding Quality Engineers or Welding Inspectors certified by the Certification Scheme for
Weldment Inspection Personnel (CSWIP) or equivalent. Weld testing shall be undertaken
by an appropriate organisation accredited in accordance with sub-Clauses 105.3 and
105.4.
1.12.8.4 Production Inspection and Testing
The manufacturer shall provide suitable personnel to carry out inspection of production
welds in (a) to (c) below. Personnel conducting visual inspection shall be certified by the
Certification Scheme for Weldment Inspection Personnel (CSWIP) or equivalent at a
competency level appropriate to the type of weld inspected. Personnel conducting nondestructive testing (NDT) shall be certified by the Certification Scheme for Weldment
Inspection Personnel (CSWIP) or equivalent appropriate to the equipment used and the
weld groups inspected all in accordance with BS EN 473. Evidence of training and
qualification shall be retained and made available for examination when required. The
results of all weld inspections shall be recorded.
(a) Visual Inspection
All welded joints shall be subject to visual inspection in accordance with BS EN 970
prior to any NDT and galvanizing. Weld surfaces shall be free of slag residues and
sharp edges. All surfaces shall be free of traces of weld splatter, arc strikes and
contaminants. The apparent throat dimensions of butt welds and the apparent leg
length and apparent throat dimensions of fillet welds, as measured by a welding
gauge, taking into account any known lack of fit, shall not be less than those specified,
except that local shortfalls up to 1 mm may be accepted, provided the average over
any 50 mm length is not less than the specified dimension. The toe angle shall not be
less than 900. The surface of all welds shall be free from cracks, lack of fusion
including overlap, and slag. Isolated discontinuous porosity may be accepted provided
it is not detrimental to the galvanising process. Undercut shall not result in a section
loss of more than 5% over any 50 mm length of joint, nor shall its depth exceed
0.5 mm or 10% of the thickness, whichever is the less.
(b) Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) and Liquid Penetrant Inspection (LPI)
MPI shall be applied in accordance with BS EN ISO 9934: Part 1 to joints selected in
accordance with (d) below, where any of the material thickness exceeds 20 mm.
Notwithstanding the requirements of (d) below, MPI or LPI in accordance with
BS EN 571: Part 1, shall be applied as appropriate where on visual inspection the
presence of cracking or lack of fusion may be suspected. To aid inspection, the profile
of the weld may be dressed by burr grinding provided that the specified throat size and

Page 26

leg length is still maintained. The surface of the weld shall be free of cracks, lack of
fusion and slag.
(c) Ultrasonic Testing
All butt joints in material 8 mm thick or greater selected in accordance with (d) below
shall be ultrasonically tested in accordance with BS EN 1714. The weld shall be free
of cracks. The height of buried slag, lack of fusion or lack of penetration shall not
exceed 3 mm and within 6 mm of the outer surface their individual lengths shall not
exceed 10 mm. The resulting net throat area loss over any 50 mm length of weld shall
not exceed 5% of the specified throat area.
(d) Frequency of NDT: Joints shall be selected as follows:
All joints of each type up to a batch size of 10 components and 10% of additional
components thereafter. If non-conformances are found the scope of NDT shall be
doubled. If further non-conformances are found, the whole batch shall be tested.
(e) Reporting:
Inspection records for production welds shall be retained by the manufacturer for three
years and those covering the production periods relating to the components supplied
shall be made available for examination.
1.12.8.5 Destructive Testing
Copies of certified reports of destructive tests on components supplied under earlier
contracts with the Overseeing Organisation shall be provided.
1.12.8.6 Frequency of Destructive Testing
The Contractor shall supply components, or sample joints cut from components, for
destructive testing as selected on behalf of the Overseeing Organisation. The basis of
selection shall be as follows:
(a) For batches of less that 100 beam assemblies with transverse butt welds, one
sample joint shall be supplied unless an identical sample joint from the same
works has been destructively tested within the previous four weeks. For batches
exceeding 100 or more, one sample joint shall be supplied for each subsequent
sampling lot not exceeding 100.
(b) Welded adjuster brackets shall be supplied at a rate of one for each sampling lot
not exceeding 300.
(c) Each type of post shall be supplied at a rate of 1 post for each sampling lot not
exceeding 1,000.
(d) Each type of surface mounted post shall be supplied at the rate of 1 post for each
sampling lot not exceeding 100.
(e) For batches of up to 150 vehicle parapet posts: No test required, provided that
records certified by a representative of the Overseeing Organisation are produced
of successful testing carried out on posts of the same weld group within the
previous 3 months. If no satisfactory record is available, one post to be tested. For
batches of 150 to 300 vehicle parapet posts: One post to be tested. For batches
exceeding 300 vehicle parapet posts: Two posts to be tested.
(f) Each type of anchor frame, vehicle parapet connection and connection piece shall
be supplied at an interval not exceeding 6 months for each manufacturers works.

Page 27

(g) For batches of up to 150 shop welded vehicle parapet splices and/or less than
50 site-welded vehicle parapet splices, one splice shall be supplied for testing
unless successful testing has been carried out within the previous 3 months on a
similar splice(s), where the splice to be tested was selected by the Overseeing
Organisations representative and the welding is to be carried out by the same
personnel. For batches greater than 150 shop-welded and/or site-welded vehicle
parapet splices, two splices shall be tested.
(h) Other welded components shall be supplied at an interval not exceeding
12 months for each manufacturers works.
1.12.8.7 Acceptance Criteria
The acceptance criteria shall be as specified in sub-Clause 402.6 (iv), except that in subClause 402.6 (iv) (a), the throat and leg dimension of the weld shall apply to the true
rather than apparent dimension.
1.12.8.8 Non-conformance
In the event that there is a non-conformance arising from a deviation in materials,
preparation, assembly or welding procedure, the batch concerned shall be rejected and
further production of the components affected stopped until such time as the fault has
been corrected. A minor non-compliance shall only be accepted on the basis that further
sampling and testing shows that the fault is not repetitive and will not in that instance
impair structural integrity. If the problem can be traced to a particular manufacturing
period, operator, piece of equipment or batch of material and if proper traceability to
individual batches of components can be assured, only those batches affected may be
subjected to rejection.
1.12.8.9 Test Report
The destruction test reports shall be retained by the Contractor and recorded in a register
for a period of three years. The destructive test samples shall be retained for a period of
18 months. These shall be made available for examination on future contracts with the
SO.
1.12.8.10 Remedial Work
Welds which do not conform to the Specification may be repaired to an approved
procedure as described in sub-Clause 402.6 (ii). Welds in aluminium alloys shall not be
repaired more than once.
1.12.9

Marking
All components, excluding fasteners, reinforcing rings and bars, shall be clearly and
durably marked with the manufacturers identification mark and digits indicating month
and year of manufacture. In addition to the marking requirements of BS EN ISO 898:
Part 1, fasteners shall be clearly marked with the following:
(a) Safety barrier, terminal, transition, crash cushion manufacturers identification
mark; and
(b) Fastener number as referenced on the manufacturers construction drawings.

1.12.10 Workmanship and Testing


All components shall be manufactured so as to permit the construction of the accepted
systems within the tolerances described in sub-Clauses 403.2 and 403.4 and in
accordance with the accepted Drawings submitted by the Contractor.
Page 28

Unless otherwise indicated on the accepted Drawings submitted by the Contractor to the
Overseeing Organisation, all fabrication of components shall be completed before
galvanizing or metal coating.
The Contractor shall provide the Overseeing Organisation with evidence that the
manufacturer has arranged for tensile tests to destruction to be carried out by a testing
laboratory, accredited in accordance with sub-Classes 105.3 and 105.4, annually and
whenever the production technique is changed.
1.12.11 Handling and Storage
All components shall be protected from damage and handled and stacked in such a way
that permanent damage is not caused, particularly to threaded components. Means shall
be provided to avoid damage to galvanized coatings and any damage that does occur
shall be made good in accordance with BS EN ISO 1461.

1.13

Pedestrian Restraint and Guardrail Systems

1.13.1

General
Pedestrian restraint and guardrail system shall be provided as shown on the Contract
Drawings.
Pedestrian restraint and guardrail systems are provided to delineate the pedestrian from
the traffic and they are not intended to protect pedestrians by containing vehicle impact.
The requirements for the materials and components to be used in the construction of the
pedestrian restraints and guardrail systems shall be in accordance with BS 7818.

1.13.2

Characteristics
The characteristics types and dimensional constraints for the pedestrian restraints and
guardrail systems shall be specified in accordance with Figure 4 in BS 7818. Minimum
section thickness shall be as noted in Table 5 of BS 7818. Steel and aluminium used
conform to the appropriate British Standard listed in Table 6 or 7 of BS 7818.

1.13.3

Durability and Protection


Steel pedestrian restraints shall be galvanised to BS EN ISO 1461 and treated with a
suitable protective system in accordance with the intended environment and life
requirement.
Steel guardrails shall be galvanised to BS EN ISO 1461.
Aluminium pedestrian restraint systems in general will not require additional corrosion
protection.

1.13.4

Delivery and Acceptance


The contractor shall obtain the pedestrian restraints and guardrail systems from an
approved manufacturer. The system shall be tested in accordance with BS 7818, with
failure at the second test being deemed a failure of the system. The system shall have
identification marking as set out in BS 7818 and illustrated in Figure 7 of that code.

1.14

Vehicle Parapets

1.14.1

General
The design of vehicle parapets shall comply with the aesthetic requirements given on the
Contract Drawings.

Page 29

1.14.2

Anchorages and Attachment Systems for Vehicle Parapets


The design, fabrication, and installation of the anchorage and attachment system shall
conform to the manufacturers Drawings and specifications and the requirements of
BS EN 1317: Part 1, BS EN 1317: Part 2.
Unless otherwise described in the testing schedule, at least 4 weeks before installation,
the Contractor shall submit to the SO well attested and documented evidence that the
proposed attachment systems and anchorages in drilled holes are capable of resisting
the ultimate tensile loads resulting from failure of the proposed vehicle parapet system.
Where the ultimate capacity of a vehicle parapet system is governed by the failure of the
attachment system, the evidence shall demonstrate that the anchorages in drilled holes
are capable of resisting the ultimate tensile loads resulting from the failure of the
attachment system. Anchorages of an expanding type shall not be permitted.
Anchorages shall include an internally threaded component to receive the attachment
system. All parts of anchorages (where the anchorage is within 80 mm of the upper
surface of the supporting concrete or where the anchorage part is threaded to receive the
holding down bolt) shall be of stainless steel designation 1.4401, 1.4436, 1.4362 or
1.4462 to BS EN 10088: Part 1. Holding down bolts, studs and nuts shall be in stainless
steel grade A4-80 to BS EN ISO 3506: Part 1 and BS EN ISO 3506: Part 2. Washers
shall conform to BS 4320 and be made from stainless steel strip designation 1.4401 or
1.4436 BS EN 10048, BS EN 10051, BS EN ISO 9445. Metal to metal contact between
dissimilar materials within the attachment system and anchorage shall be prevented by
the use of non conducting sleeves, washers or coatings to prevent bimetallic corrosion.
Except where vehicle parapet posts are attached to a steel base they shall be bedded on
mortar complying with Clause 2601 and Appendix 26/2. The bedding mortar shall have a
minimum thickness of 10 mm and a maximum thickness of 30 mm. An additional
allowance may be made for longitudinal falls.
For anchorages in drilled holes, each hole location shall be checked to ensure that the
hole will be clear of reinforcement before drilling is carried out. Where it is not possible to
locate drilled holes without encountering reinforcement, the Contractor shall provide a
Specialists report to the SO on the consequences of drilling through or cutting the
reinforcement. No drilling or cutting shall take place without the prior written acceptance
of the SO.
Before installation of anchorages in drilled holes, each hole shall be sound, clean and dry
and the tolerance of the hole shall be within the values given by the anchorage
manufacturer.
Attachment systems shall be tightened to the specified torque and have not less than the
minimum thread engagement specified by the manufacturer of the system.
Stainless steel bolts, screws and nuts shall comply with BS EN ISO 3506: Part 1 and
BS EN ISO 3506: Part 2, Grade A4-80. The dimensions and tolerances of the bolts,
screws and nuts shall comply with BS EN ISO 4016, BS EN ISO 4018 and BS EN ISO
4034.
Stainless steel washers shall comply with BS 4320 and be made from stainless steel strip
designation 1.4401 or 1.4436 to BS EN 10029, BS EN 10048, BS EN 10051, and BS EN
ISO 9445.
The threads of steel anchorages shall be lined with grease having a high resistance to
creep and being suitable for hot or cold smearing.
All voids in anchorages, attachment systems and base plates shall be filled with a nonsetting passive filler.
Page 30

1.14.3

Inspection and Testing of Vehicle Parapet Posts


Unless otherwise described in the testing schedule, the components for production posts
and all completed production posts shall conform to the acceptance criteria described in
clause 9.4.3.2.6.3 of BS 6779: Part 1 (Amd. No. 14290, 21 March 2003). Unless
otherwise described in Appendix 4/1, the Contractor shall only supply vehicle parapet
posts of a type which have certification for static destructive testing in accordance with
clause 9.4.3.2.6.3 of BS 6779: Part 1 (Amd. No. 14290, 21 March 2003). Test certificates
shall be valid for a period of six months from the date the posts were tested and certified.

1.14.4

Site Tests on Anchorages in Drilled Holes for Vehicle Parapets


The Contractor shall carry out on-site tensile load tests on anchorages in drilled holes.
For the purpose of this specification the types of fixing referred to in clause 1 of BS 5080:
Part 1 shall include anchorages. Where anchorages are tested they shall be loaded
incrementally in tension in accordance with BS 5080: Part 1 except that they shall be
capable of resisting a test load equal to 10 per cent above the nominal tensile load
applied to the anchorage at failure of the vehicle parapet in lieu of testing to failure. The
nominal tensile load shall be determined by the vehicle parapet manufacturer. Where the
failure of the attachment system (for example, the holding down bolt) is the prescribed
failure mode of the vehicle parapet, the test load shall be 90% of the yield load of the
attachment system. Incremental loads shall be held for not less than half a minute and
the test load for not less than five minutes. Readings shall be taken immediately after
applying load and at the end of the time intervals stated above.
The total movement of the anchorage shall not exceed 1.0 mm during the test. Any
evidence of slip during loading up to the test load, as demonstrated by a significant
change in the slope of the load/extension curve, shall constitute failure.
The Contractor shall test the anchorages at the frequency and to the requirements given
in the testing schedules.

PART 2 CONSTRUCTION, METHODOLOGY & WORKMANSHIP

2.1

General Requirements

2.1.1

Surface Levels of Pavement Courses


The levels of pavement courses shall be determined from the true finished road surface
calculated from the vertical profile and crossfalls as shown on the Drawings. The vertical
depth below the true pavement surface of any point on the constructed surface of the
formation or pavement courses shall be within the appropriate tolerances stated in
Table 2.1.
The surface level of the pavement at any point shall not deviate vertically from the true
finished road surface by more than 6 mm. However the combination of permitted
tolerances in different pavement levels shall not result in a reduction of the surface
course thickness by more than 5 mm from that specified for a flexible road. The combined
thickness of base course and surface course layers shall not vary from the theoretical
combined thickness by more than 10% of that thickness, or by 15 mm, whichever is less.
For checking compliance with Table 2.1 measurements of surface levels will be taken at
points to be selected by the Engineer at 10 m centres longitudinally and at 2 m centres
transversely. At junctions, the grid point spacing shall be as described in the Contract. In
any length of pavement, compliance with the requirements of Table 2.1 shall be regarded
as met when not more than one measurement in any consecutive ten longitudinally or
one in any transverse line, exceeds the tolerances permitted in the Table.

Page 31

2.1.2

Surface regularity
The longitudinal regularity of the surfaces of wearing courses and base courses shall be
within the relevant tolerances stated in Table 2.2.
An irregularity is a variation not less than 3 mm or 5 mm of the profile of the road surface
as measured by the rolling straight edge, set at 3 mm or 5 mm as appropriate. No
irregularity exceeding 6 mm shall be permitted.
Compliance with Table 2.2 shall be tested by a 3 m rolling straight-edge of the type
designed by the Transport and Road Research Laboratory (UK), along any continuous
line or lines parallel to the centre line of the carriageway as selected by the Engineer
Pavements shall be measured transversely for irregularities at points decided by the
Engineer, by a 3 m-long straight-edge placed at right angles to the centre line of the road.
The maximum deviation of the pavement surface below the straight-edge shall not
exceed 3 mm.
For lengths less than 100 m of wearing courses and base courses or where the use of
the rolling straight-edge is impracticable, the surface regularity shall be tested where
necessary, at points decided by the Engineer, with a straight-edge 3 m long placed
parallel with or at right angles to the centre line of the road. The maximum allowable
deviation of the surface below the straight-edge shall be:

2.1.3

For pavement surfacing

3 mm

For base course surfacing


For cement bound road base

6 mm
10 mm

Use of Surfaces by Constructional Plant


Constructional plant used on pavements under construction shall be suitable in relation
to the material, condition and thickness of the courses it transverses so that damage is
not caused to the sub-grade or the pavement courses already constructed.
The wheels or tracks of plant moving over the various pavement courses shall be kept
free from deleterious materials.
No traffic shall run over lean concrete or any other cement treated roadbase or sub- base
layer within 7 days of construction.
Asphalt material shall be kept clean and uncontaminated for so long as it remains
uncovered by succeeding layers or surface treatment The only traffic permitted access to
asphalt material shall be that engaged in laying and compacting the next course or,
where a base course is to be blinded, that engaged on such surface treatment. Should
the material become contaminated, the Contractor shall make good by cleaning it to the
satisfaction of the Engineer and then applying a tack coat. If cleaning proves
impracticable then the Contractor shall make good by removing the layer and replacing it
to Specification.

2.1.4

Numbers of Layers for Bituminous Courses


An asphalt pavement course shall be laid in one or more layers so that the compacted
thickness of each layer shall not exceed the maximum allowable figures for each material
specified as per Table 1.10.

Page 32

Table 2.1 Tolerances in Surface Levels of Pavement Courses and Formation


+ 6 mm

Surface Course

- 6 mm
+ 6 mm

Base Course

- 6 mm

Bitumen Bound Road Base


Unbound Stone Road Base

+6 mm
- 13 mm
+ 0 mm
- 20 mm
+ 0 mm

Sub-Base Type A

-20mm
+ 0 mm

Sub-Base Type B

- 30 mm
+ 0 mm

Formation

- 40 mm

Table 2.2 Maximum Permitted Number Of Surface Irregularities Over Any 100 m Length
Flexible Surface Course

Flexible Base Course

Irregularity
3 mm

5 mm

3 mm

5 mm

Category A*
Road

Category B*
Road

10

Note: * The category of each section of road is as described in the Contract


2.1.5

Horizontal Alignment
The horizontal alignment of the road as constructed shall not deviate by more than
15 mm from the true alignment as given by the dimensions on the Drawings. The rate of
deviation shall not exceed 1 in 1,000.

2.1.6

Vertical Alignment
The required levels of base course and surface course shall be determined from the
finished road surface calculated from the vertical profiles and cross falls shown on the
Drawings. The permitted vertical deviation from the true level of any point shall be 6 mm
for base course and 6 mm for surface course.
The thickness of the individual layers of base course and surface course shall not vary by
more than 5 mm from the theoretical thickness of the respective layers.

Page 33

2.1.7

Rectification
Where any tolerances in Clauses 2.1 are exceeded the Contractor shall determine the full
extent of the area which is out of tolerance and shall make good the surface of the
pavement course or formation in the manner described below.

2.1.7.1

Formation Level
If the surface is too high, it shall be re-trimmed and recompacted. If the surface is too low,
the deficiency shall be corrected by the addition of suitable material of the same
classification and moisture content or other approved material laid and compacted to
Specification. In cohesive soils where the surface is less than 150 mm below formation
level, further soil shall be removed to a total depth of at least 150 mm below formation
level before replacement material is spread and compacted.

2.1.7.2

Road bases and Sub-bases


Where these consist of unbound material, the top 75 mm shall be scarified, reshaped,
with material added or removed as necessary, and recompacted all to Specification. The
area treated shall be not less than 30 m long and 2 m wide or such area to be determined
by the Engineer as necessary to obtain compliance with the Specification.
Where the courses consist of cement-treated material, except concrete slabs, the method
of correction will depend on the period which has elapsed between detection of the error
and the time of mixing of the material. If this is less than 2 hours, the surface shall be
scarified to a depth of not less than 50 mm, supplemented with freshly mixed material as
necessary and recompacted all to Specification. If the period is 2 hours or more the full
depth of the layer shall be removed from the pavement and replaced to Specification. In
either case, the area treated shall be at least 5 m long and the full width of the paving laid
in one operation. If areas are corrected within 7 days of laying, no construction traffic or
compaction plant shall use the surrounding satisfactory areas.
With asphalt bound layers, the full depth of the top layer as laid shall be removed and be
replaced with fresh material laid and compacted to Specification. Any area so treated
shall be at least 5 m long and the full width of the paving laid in one operation.
Alternatively, for low areas in flexible pavements the Contractor may make up with the
material of the layer immediately above one being rectified, when the subsequent layer is
laid.

2.1.7.3

Base Courses and Surface Courses


These shall have the full depth of the layer removed and replaced with fresh material laid
and compacted to Specification.
Where the surface level of a base course or surface course is too high or too low, the
area rectified shall be the full width of the paving laid in one operation, and at least 5 m
long if base course or, 15 m if surface course.
Where the number of surface irregularities exceeds the limits in Table 2.1 the area to be
rectified shall be determined by the Engineer as that which would make the surface
regularity conform within the Specification limits.
Testing of the surface course for compliance with Clause 2.1.2 and Table 2.2 shall be
carried out as soon as practicable after completion of the surfacing, and remedial works
completed before the road is opened to traffic.

Page 34

2.2

Subgrade Improvement Layer

2.2.1

Placing of Subgrade Improvement Layer


Subgrade improvement layer material shall be spread evenly and compacted by
approved means, in layers not exceeding 250 mm finished thickness to the depths
indicated on the Drawings, with a well-bound surface finish. Loose and segregated areas
shall be made good by the addition of fines or by removal and replacement as directed by
the Engineer.

2.2.2

Testing of Subgrade Improvement Layer


The subgrade improvement layer shall achieve a minimum dry density of 95% of the
laboratory maximum dry density as determined in accordance with BS1377: Part 4:
Test 3.4. In addition to the requirements of Table 1.10, compliance and compaction of
any subgrade improvement layer shall be verified by the following testing:
2

Each layer shall be divided into 2,000 m control sections, or such other size as directed
by the Engineer for which the following testing shall be performed:

Five in situ dry density tests in accordance with BS 1377: Part 9: Test 2.2 in
representative locations.

One dry density moisture content relationship in accordance with BS 1377:


Part 4: Test 3.4 determined on soil taken from the dry density test locations
(previous bullet)

Average degree of compaction in any control section shall be at least 98% and no single
value must be less than 95%.
If the compaction tests fail, the Contractor shall recompact the control section and have
the same number of tests carried out. This procedure shall be repeated until the specified
degree of compaction has been reached.

2.3

Sub-base

2.3.1

Placing of Sub-base
Sub base material shall be spread evenly and compacted by approved means, in layers
not exceeding 200 mm finished thickness to the depths indicated on the Drawings, with a
well-bound surface finish. Loose and segregated areas shall be made good by the
addition of fines or by removal and replacement as directed by the Engineer.

2.3.2

Testing of Sub base


The sub-base shall achieve a minimum dry density of 98% of the laboratory maximum dry
density as determined in accordance with BS1377: Part 4: Test 3.4. In addition to the
requirements of Table 1.10, compliance and compaction of any subgrade improvement
layer shall be verified by the following testing:
2

Each layer shall be divided into 2,000 m control sections, or such other size as directed
by the Engineer for which the following testing shall be performed:

Five in situ dry density tests in accordance with BS 1377: Part 9: Test 2.2 in
representative locations.

One dry density moisture content relationship in accordance with BS 1377:


Part 4: Test 3.4 determined on soil taken from the dry density test locations
(previous bullet)

Page 35

Average degree of compaction in any control section shall be at least 98% and no single
value must be less than 96%.
If the compaction tests fail, the Contractor shall recompact the control section and have
the same number of tests carried out. This procedure shall be repeated until the specified
degree of compaction has been reached.

2.4

Unbound Road Base

2.4.1

Placing Wet-mix Road base


Wet-mix road base material shall be crushed and mixed by approved mechanical plant.
Water for adjusting the moisture content shall be added at the mixer. If required, the
moisture content shall be adjusted to allow for evaporation loss during transportation.
After mixing, the material shall be removed from the mixer and transported to the placing
location without delay. The moisture content at the time of laying shall be within 1.0% of
the optimum value determined in accordance with the Vibrating Hammer Method
described in BS 1377: Part 4:Test 3.7.
Vehicles carrying the plant-mixed material shall be of a capacity suited to the output of
the mixing plant and the site conditions, and shall be capable of discharging cleanly. After
mixing is complete, the materials shall be removed at once from the mixer, transported
directly to the point where it is to be laid and protected from the weather both during
transit from the mixer to the laying site and whilst awaiting tipping. The distance between
mixing plant and job site shall not exceed 15 km. The compaction procedure and plant
shall be proved by trials at the commencement of the Works. The weight, type and
number of passes of compaction plant shall be varied to determine the optimum
compaction effort.
Road base material shall be placed and spread evenly, without delay, using a paving
machine, or spreader box operated with a mechanism which levels off the material at an
even depth, and it shall be spread in layers not exceeding 200 mm compacted thickness.
Segregation shall be made good by removal and replacement.

2.4.2

Testing Wet-mix Road base


The wet-mix road base shall achieve a minimum dry density of 98% of the laboratory
maximum dry density. In addition to the requirements of Table 1.4, compliance and
compaction of any road base shall be verified by the following testing:
Each layer shall be divided into 2,000 m2 control sections, or such other size as directed
by the Engineer for which the following testing shall be performed:

Five in situ dry density tests in accordance with BS 1377: Part 9: Test 2.2 in
representative locations.

One dry density moisture content relationship in accordance with BS 1377:


Part 4: Test 3.7 determined on soil taken from the dry density test locations
(previous bullet)

Average degree of compaction in any control section shall be at least 98% and no single
value must be less than 96%.
If the compaction tests fail, the Contractor shall recompact the control section and have
the same number of tests carried out. This procedure shall be repeated until the specified
degree of compaction has been reached.

Page 36

2.5

Compacting Unbound Road Materials

2.5.1

General Requirements
Special care shall be taken to obtain full compaction in the vicinity of both longitudinal and
transverse joints.
The completed surfaces of all layers shall be well closed and free from movement under
compaction plant, and shall have no compaction planes, ridges, cracks or loose material.
All loose, segregated or otherwise defective areas shall be made good to the full
thickness of the layer and recompacted.
Before placing the next construction layer or applying prime coat, each compacted layer
shall be mechanically swept then cleaned with compressed air to remove loose material.
As soon as possible after cleaning the surface of the road base it shall be sealed by the
application of a prime coat as specified. Should the surface of the material be allowed to
dry out before the seal is applied, it shall be lightly watered and recompacted immediately
prior to spraying with prime coat. Should the full depth of layer be allowed to dry out, it
shall be removed and replaced, at the Contractor'
s expense, with fresh material. Watering
and re-mixing in place will not be permitted.

2.6

Asphalt Mixes

2.6.1

General
The mixing, transport, and placing of asphalt mixes shall be carried out in accordance
with the requirements of BS 594987.

2.6.2

Trial Areas
Before pavement construction is commenced, a trial area of each asphalt mix material
shall be laid. The extent and location of these areas shall be as approved by the
Engineer. The materials, mix proportions, plant and methods shall be those which are
proposed for the main work.

2.6.3

Placing at Night
If approval has been given for asphalt mixes to be placed at night, approved lighting shall
be provided at locations where mixing, laying and testing operations are in progress.

2.6.4

Mixing Asphalts
The aggregate and bitumen shall be mixed in an approved plant of the batch type.
Constituents shall be proportioned by weight; the bitumen may be proportioned by a
metering pump. Facilities shall be provided in the mixer to enable the sampling of hot
aggregates.
Bitumen and aggregates shall not be heated to above 150C and 170C, respectively,
and the temperature difference between them at the time of mixing shall not exceed
15C. The mixing temperature shall be established from the bitumen
viscosity/temperature graph in accordance with ASTM D2170. Approved facilities for
continuous measurement of temperatures shall be provided.
The batching plant and equipment shall be properly maintained and cleaned and shall be
provided with means of checking the accuracy of weighing mechanisms and metering
devices. These shall be checked at monthly intervals or as directed.

Page 37

2.6.5

Transporting Asphalt Mixes


Asphalt mixes shall be transported in clean vehicles. Dust, coated dust, oil or water may
be used on vehicle bodies to facilitate discharge, but the amounts shall be kept to a
minimum and any excess shall be removed by tipping or brushing.
Every precaution shall be taken to avoid segregation of mixed materials during transport.
Heat loss shall be minimised during transit and the asphalt mix shall not be discharged
into the paver at a temperature less than 130C.

2.6.6

Placing Asphalt Mixes


Asphalt mixes shall generally be spread, levelled and tamped by approved self-propelled
pavers. The materials shall be laid by approved mechanical spreaders and finishers,
which achieve a minimum as laid density of 90% of the Job Standard Mix density prior to
rolling. Each spreader and finisher shall be in good mechanical condition and correctly
adjusted so as to be capable of laying to the required width and profile without causing
segregation, dragging, burning, irregularities or other surface defects and it shall be
capable of being operated at a speed consistent with the character of the mixture and the
thickness of the course being laid, so as to produce a surface having a uniform density
and surface texture.
Immediately after arrival at the site, the asphalt shall be supplied continuously to the
paver and placed without delay. The rate of delivery of material to the paver shall be
regulated so that the paver may operate continuously and it shall be so operated
whenever practicable. The initial thickness of the asphalt laid shall be such that after
compaction the surface level of the completed layer shall be within the permitted
tolerances.
The rate of travel of the paver and its method of operation shall be adjusted to provide an
even and uniform flow of material across the full laying width, freedom from dragging or
tearing of the material and minimum segregation.
Excess material arising from placing base course shall be removed by brooming or light
raking. Over-raking causing segregation of the material shall not be allowed. The excess
shall be discarded and not used elsewhere.
Hand-raking of surface course material, which has been laid by a paver and the addition
of material by hand spreading for adjustment of level, shall require prior approval.
If the abutting lane or succeeding strip is not placed on the same day, the joint shall be
cut back to an even line. Loosened material shall be discarded. The joint shall be brushed
with a very light coat of hot bitumen before the next strip is placed. The whole face of the
joint shall be treated before fresh asphalt is placed against it. Joints shall be formed only
in compacted material and fresh material placed against a cut face shall be properly
compacted.
Joints in surface course shall be offset by at least 300 mm from parallel joints in the layer
beneath.
Hand laying of asphalt will be permitted only for laying courses of irregular shape and
varying thickness, and in confined areas where a paver cannot operate.

2.6.7

Joints
The width of spread shall be such as to provide for the off-setting of longitudinal joints
in multilayer construction by a minimum of 300 mm.

Page 38

Longitudinal joints of base and surface course shall be trimmed as vertical as possible
by mechanical or manual means to be approved by the Engineer.
Transverse joints of both base and surface course shall be cut back sufficiently to
ensure correct profile, thickness and compaction of the joint. This shall also apply to
joints to existing pavements. Base courses and surface courses are to be laid to break
transverse joints by at least 600 mm.
If required by the Engineer, immediately before laying new lanes of bituminous
surfacing the ex-posed vertical edges of adjacent lanes shall be painted with hot
bitumen or tack coat. All joints on completion shall present the same texture, density
and smoothness as other sections of the surface.
The exposed edges of the frames of manhole covers, gully- gratings, kerbs and similar
projections against which the new pavings will abut, are to be thoroughly cleaned and
coated with bitumen. The new paving is then to be tamped around and against the
projection to such a depth that, on completion of compaction the finished surface of the
surface course is level with the top of the projection. Pavings shall be dished to the
frames of gully gratings, and so on. the dishing being formed in both courses of two
course construction.
2.6.8

Rolling
Each course of bituminous material shall be adequately and uniformly compacted at
temperatures not less than those specified.
Unless otherwise specified, at least two self-propelled smooth wheel rollers following
closely one behind the other shall be used in conjunction with each spreader and each
roller is to weigh no less than 8 t, and no more than 12 t.
Alternatively, one or more vibrating smooth-wheel rollers may be used, each roller
weighing 6 t to 12 t. If so, the requirements of 4 and 5 of this Clause shall not be
applicable. The mode of vibration (amplitude frequency and the travel speed) shall be
established during the laying in the trial area and shall be adhered to in all subsequent
laying.
At least one of these rollers shall be three wheeled with a weight per 25 mm width of
rear wheel between 136 kg and 181 kg. This roller shall be used immediately behind
the spreader with its driving wheels adjacent to the spreader, unless otherwise directed.
The second roller may be either tandem or three-wheeled with a weight per 25 mm
width of roll between 91 kg and 181 kg.
To achieve the specified field densities a self-propelled pneumatic-tyred smooth-tread
roller with type pressures of 5 bar to 10 bar may be used between the two smooth roll
rollers specified above.
All rollers shall be fitted with smooth quick acting reverse controls, and shall be
equipped with roll scrapers, absorbent mats and tanks connected to spray pipes on
both front and rear rolls to ensure a uniform application of water or parting fluid. A
mobile water bowser is to be provided alongside each spreading unit to ensure that
rolling continues with the minimum interruption.
Rolling is to proceed in the following order:
i. transverse joints
ii. longitudinal joints
iii. breakdown rolling beginning at the low side and

Page 39

iv. progressing towards the high side


v. second rolling as above
vi. finish rolling
Rollers shall not be left standing on the new surface while there is any risk of the
surface being damaged or marked thereby.
Only in places inaccessible to rollers may compaction be achieved by tamping with
approved mechanical tampers.
Rolling temperature shall be determined by rolling trials but with a minimum of 120C.
2.6.9

Compacting Asphalt Mixes


The Contractor shall obtain approval of compaction methods and plant by carrying out
trials to demonstrate consistent achievement of the requirements. The degree of
compaction achieved during the trials shall be not less than 1% greater than that required
during the course of the Works. The methods and plant shall not be changed without
approval. After placing, the asphalt shall be compacted to the thickness shown on the
Drawings by rolling to a density of not less than 98% of the maximum density of the
approved daily Marshall Laboratory density.
Should any individual core, tested in accordance with Clause 2.6.14, not have the
specified degree of compaction, additional cores may be taken in adjacent locations, at
the discretion of the Engineer.

2.6.10

Traffic on Layers
Traffic shall not be allowed to run on the final surfacing course without approval. Traffic
on layers other than the final surfacing course shall be restricted to the plant required to
place the succeeding layer.

2.6.11

Existing Pavement
Where new pavement is required to join into existing road construction, the joint shall be
formed and treated in accordance with the Drawings.
Each layer of existing bituminous course shall be cut back to a clean vertical face and
coated with hot bitumen of a grade suitable for the purpose immediately before laying
adjacent new bituminous material.
Cutting back of the existing pavement layers shall be undertaken in a stepped manner, in
accordance with the drawings. The lower layers of bituminous courses shall be prepared
to receive the new covering courses by removal of dust and deleterious materials using
air jetting or other approved means, and shall then be coated with bituminous tack coat.
Exposed existing road base surfaces shall be scarified, then recompacted and sealed
with bituminous prime coat in accordance with the road base specification.

2.6.12

Overlaying Existing Pavements


Overlays shall be placed in accordance with the requirements for placing asphalt mixes
as detailed in Clause 2.6.6 of this Specification.
The areas to be overlaid shall be cleaned by soaking with potable water and mechanical
brushing while wet. This operation shall be carried out twice and shall be followed by airjetting.

Page 40

Where the existing pavement layer is smooth or where bitumen, oil, rubber, dust etc, has
accumulated, the area shall be cold-planed to a nominal depth of 10 mm, to provide a key
for the overlay.
Where the existing asphalt surfacing requires cold planning prior to placing the overlay,
the method for cold planning shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval. The
planning machine shall have cutters specifically designed to accurately reduce the
thickness of the existing surfacing to the depth required.
A bituminous tack coat shall be applied to the prepared surface before the overlay is laid.
Overlays shall be laid to achieve the minimum specified thickness. Protrusions of the
existing pavement shall be removed to give the minimum depth required. Holes and local
depressions shall be cut out to at least 25 mm depth and filled with base course or
surface course material, as appropriate, prior to commencement of the overlaying course.
2.6.13

Testing of Asphalt
The Contractor shall supply the apparatus for all testing necessary to ensure strict control
of the materials and mixtures and execute all testing required by this specification. The
Contractor shall employ the services of an experienced Materials Engineer. Together with
experienced laboratory technicians capable of carrying out all the specified testing
requirements. All testing shall be subject to the scrutiny and approval of the Engineer.
Full records shall be kept by the Contractor and the results of all testing shall be available
for inspection by the Engineer. The facilities of the Laboratory shall be made available to
the Engineer at any reasonable time. The sampling and testing of asphalt shall be carried
out in accordance with the requirements of BS 598 (ASTM D 2172 for bitumen content).
In addition to the tests required for the initial approval of the materials, all aggregates and
fillers shall be sampled and tested for grading both at source and on delivery to the
mixing plants and the results of each test are to be submitted to the Engineer. within
24 hours. The number of such tests is to be adequate for proper control of the materials
and is not to be limited to those made on specific instruction of the Engineer.
When requested by the Engineer, approximately every 2 hours during mixing periods, an
aggregate sample is to be taken from each hot bin and its grading determined, together
with that of the combined grading. This combined grading is to be checked for
compliance with the grading of the approved Job Standard Mix".
Samples of the mixed materials are to be taken at the point of mixing at least once every
4 hours and not less than twice daily for each mix produced for making Marshall
specimens and their stability, flow, unit weight and voids are to be determined. Samples
of the mixed materials are to be taken at the point of mixing at least once for every 100 t
produced and not less than twice daily for each mix produced for aggregate grading
analyses and binder content determinations. If these tests show results which are not in
accordance with the approved" Job Standard Mixture" values, suitable adjustments are
immediately to be made to ensure compliance therewith. Experienced personnel capable
of making these corrections must be in attendance at the plant at all times during mixing.
If for any reason the quality, grading or supply source of aggregates is changed or if at
any time the cause of variations outside the permissible limits cannot be corrected for
reasons beyond the control of the Contractor the Engineer may request a new
"Laboratory Design Mix" or "Job Standard Mix" depending on the extent of the change or
variation.
A summary sheet showing the results of analyses is to be submitted to the Engineer for
each 5 days production.
When requested by the Engineer, the Contractor shall supply copies of test results
within 24 hours of completion of testing.
Page 41

Whenever the Contractor takes samples for testing, he is to take duplicate samples if
so directed and deliver them to the Engineer. Such samples are to be properly packed
and clearly labelled so as to be identifiable with the samples retained by the Contractor.
The sampling and testing of each material is, if not otherwise specified, in accordance
with the following standards:
(i)

Bitumen. BS 2000, ASTM D1754

(ii)

Aggregate, Sands. BS 812, ASTM C88, and fillers ASTM C142

(iii)

Mixed Asphalt Materials. BS 598

(iv)

Mix Design Asphalt. Institute, Manual Series No.2 (MS-2) 1988

A certificate shall be obtained from the supplier with each consignment of bitumen
delivered stating the grade of the material being supplied, and such test results as are
necessary to ensure compliance with this Specification. These certificates shall be
supplied to the Engineer.
Samples for analysis shall be taken from the final mix as it leaves the mixer and from
around the augers of and/or behind the paver. Marshall cylindrical test specimens shall
be made from the mix and tested. Cored samples shall be taken after placing and shall
be tested in accordance with ASTM D1188.
2.6.14

Density of compacted materials


The density of compacted bituminous courses of all mixes shall be related to the "Job
Standard mix Density".
When directed by the Engineer at least one pair of cores shall be taken from every
1,000 m2 of each course and their densities determined. The mean of the pair shall be
submitted as the field density for that area. The field density shall be such that for 75
blow compaction mixes no mean value is to be below 97% of the "Job Standard Mix
Density". For all other mixes, no mean value shall be below 96% of the '
Job Standard
Mix Density'
. Material which does not meet this requirement is to be cut out and
replaced.
The samples may also be used to determine the course thickness.
All core holes shall be filled with a compatible bituminous mixture and compacted within
24 hours of cutting of the core.

2.6.15

Special Asphalt Mixes

2.6.15.1 Asphalt Kerb Machine Mixes


The mix to be supplied for use in an asphalt kerb machine shall comply with the
following specification. The actual grading and bitumen content shall be determined by
laboratory and/or field trials:

Page 42

BS Sieve

Percentage Passing By Weight

20 mm

100

10 mm

80 95

5.0 mm

65 80

2.36 mm

50 67

300 micron

18 30

75 micron

5 15

Bitumen Content

6.0 9.0

When a proposed mix has been approved no variations shall be made in the mix
proportions or in the type, size, grading zone or source of any of the constituents
without the agreement of the SO who may require further trials.
2.6.15.2 Fine Asphalt Mixes
Fine asphalt courses are to be laid where directed by the SO and shall be composed of
bitumen mixed with sand, crusher dust or a mixture of sand and crusher dust complying
with the following specifications.
Fine asphalt for pedestrian trafficked areas shall meet the following grading
requirements:
BS Sieve

Percentage Passing By Weight

5.0 mm

100

2.36 mm

75 100

600 micron

25 50

150 micron

10 30

75 micron

5 15

The bitumen content shall be in the range of 5.0% to 9.0%. The actual mix proportions
shall be determined by trial.
2.6.15.3 Sand and Bitumen Plant Mixes
Sand bitumen plant mix shall be a mixture of clean well graded sand and bitumen. The
sand shall be heated to such a temperature as to ensure complete coating with
bitumen. The bitumen content shall be determined by mass and shall be such as to
ensure durability of the mix and satisfactory wearing characteristics.
2.6.15.4 Bituminous Macadam 10 mm size close-graded wearing course
Close-graded wearing course (preferred mixture, previously known as 10 mm dense
wearing course macadam) shall be supplied in accordance with Tables 2.3, 2.4
and 2.5. Binder content and grade shall be agreed with the Engineer as being fully
suited to local climatic and usage conditions. Materials shall be transported and laid in
accordance with BS 594987.
The aggregate grading, binder content and grade of binder shall be in accordance with
Tables 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 below:

Page 43

Table 2.3 Aggregate grading for 10 mm size close-graded wearing course


Aggregate: crushed rock, slag or
gravel

Test sieve aperture size

% by ass passing
14 mm

100

10 mm

95 to 100

6.3 mm

55 to 75

3.35 mm

30 to 45

1.18 mm

15 to 30

75 micron

3 to 8

Table 2.4 Binder content for 14 mm size close graded wearing course
High temperature
Bitumen
Aggregate *

Low temperature

tar

tar

% by mass of total mixture ( 0.5%)


Crushed rock (excluding
limestone)

5.3

6.3

5.7

Limestone

5.2

6.3

5.7

1440

6.1

6.8

6.8

1360

6.5

7.2

7.2

1280

7.1

7.6

7.6

1120

8.1

8.5

8.5

Steel slag

5.0

6.3

5.7

Gravel **

Blast furnace slag of bulk


density kg/m3

* B.5.2
** The information on the binder contents required for these mixtures made with gravel is
insufficient for a single target value to be specified. The binder content to be used should be
chosen within a range 5.5% to 6.5% and should be approved by the purchaser. As a guide,
lower values should be selected for pavements designed to carry Category B traffic and
higher values for footway work. The tolerance of 0.5% should apply to the selected and
approved binder content.
NOTE : Tar bound mixtures are for category B use only.

Page 44

Table 2.5 Grade of binder for 10 mm size close graded wearing course
Grade of Binder
Type of Binder

Aggregate
Category A Traffic

Category B Traffic

Crushed Rock

300 pen to 100 pen

100 s to 200 pen

Slag

300 pen to 100 pen

100 s to 200 pen

Gravel

300 pen or 200 pen

Crushed Rock

C. 34 to C. 42

Slag

C. 34 to C. 42

Bitumen

Tar

2.6.16

Temporary Repairs
Where instructed by the SO, a temporary patch shall be applied by the following
method:

A shallow trench with vertical edges shall be cut around the patch. The area shall
be cleaned thoroughly using brooms or, to ensure complete cleaning, with
compressed air.

Fine Asphalt shall be swept into cracks in the area and compacted with a vibratory
plate compactor or vibratory roller. A tack coat shall be applied.

The area shall then be patched with Fine Asphalt to give a compacted surface
level with the surrounding material. Compaction shall be carried out with a
vibratory plate compactor or vibratory roller. Care shall be taken to ensure that
there is no "difference in level" between the patch and the adjacent road surface.

If directed by the SO, cracks shall be cleaned and sealed with an approved hot applied
joint sealant.
2.6.17

Opening Roads to Traffic


Asphalt layers shall not be opened to traffic until the asphalt temperature, measured at
a depth of half the thickness of the surface layer, is lower than 70C.
Traffic shall not be permitted on the final layer of asphalt until the installation of all Road
Markings forming part of the Contract Works has been completed or the permission in
writing of the SO to waive this condition has been obtained.

2.7

Surface Dressing

2.7.1

Binder
The binder for surface dressing shall be grade RC 800 cut-back bitumen to ASTM D2027,
applied at the rate of 1.1 litres/m2 to 1.3 litres/m2.

Page 45

2.7.2

Chippings
Chippings for surface dressing shall be 6mm nominal size complying with the
requirements of BS 63: Part 2 and shall have physical properties which do not exceed the
following test values:
Aggregate crushing value
(BS 812: Part 110)

25%

Water absorption
(BS 812: Part 2)

2% **

** Where an aggregate has higher water absorption than 2%, its use may be permitted by
the Engineer providing adequate evidence of past performance can be produced.
The chippings shall be spread uniformly at the rate of approximately one tonne per
2
140 m and rolled in by a slow-moving pneumatic-tyred roller.
Coated grit for blinding shall be in accordance with Tables 34 to 36, BS 4987: Part 1
except that the soluble binder content for all aggregates shall be 3 0.5%. It should be
suitable for spreading by mechanical gritter and should remain suitable for a period of not
less than 7 days.
2.7.3

Construction Procedure
Any necessary remedial works to the road surface and structure shall be completed
either prior to commencement of the works, or as part of the Contract and agreed as
acceptable by the Engineer before Surface Dressing commences.
Before binder is applied, street furniture shall be masked using self-adhesive masking
material. Oil, sand or similar materials shall not be used. Any packed mud or other
deposits on the road surface shall be removed, and the road surface shall be swept free
of all loose material.
Binder shall be applied to the road surface at the rates specified in the design. The
Contractor shall mark out areas where an adjusted binder rate is needed, because of
localised conditions and record such changes. Application restrictions to be observed in
the event of adverse weather shall be as specified below:
1. When there is precipitation
2. When there is free water on the surface
3. When the air temperature is at or below 15C
4. For emulsion binders when the relative humidity exceeds 80%
5. When the road surface temperature exceeds 35C for roads carrying over
200 cv/lane/day or 40C below that traffic level.
Transverse joints shall be formed with spraying and finishing on a protective strip not less
than 1 m wide at each end of the lane length being treated. Transverse joints shall be of
binder overlap only and not wider than 100 mm. There shall be no ridges or bare strips.
Longitudinal joints shall coincide with lane markings. Longitudinal joints shall be of binder
overlap only while ensuring that the proposed rate of spread is achieved across the joint.

Page 46

For quartering (using a part of the spraybar) the overlap may be extended to a maximum
of 300 mm. There shall be no ridges or bare strips.
The Contractor shall carry out the tests for rates of spread and accuracy of application of
binder and chippings in accordance with the test methods in BS EN 12272 and report the
results to the Engineer.
Rolling shall be performed by rubber coated vibratory steel rollers and/or pneumatic-tyred
rollers. The rollers shall have fully operating sprinkler systems, spraying water or other
release agent onto the drum or tyres, so that if the chippings start to move under the
roller exposed binder the sprinklers are available immediately.
Masking shall be removed after the Surface Dressing has been applied and before
opening the road to unrestricted traffic. The Contractor shall remove surplus chippings
from the road by suction sweeping before it is opened to unrestricted traffic.
The Contractor shall monitor the Surface Dressing closely for a minimum period of
2 hours, after the road is opened to traffic. The Contractor shall reinstate traffic safety and
management procedures or institute other remedial action where necessary, such as
dusting, if there are signs of distress, such as turning of the chippings, in order to prevent
further damage to Surface Dressing.
Further operations to remove subsequently loosened chippings shall be carried out over
the next 48 hours. The road, and adjacent side roads, footways and paved areas, shall
be kept substantially free of loose chippings for a period of 30 days after completion of
the work.
2.7.4

Coated Grit
Coated grit for blinding shall be in accordance with Table 2.6 below, except that the
soluble binder content for all aggregates shall be 3 0.5%. Binder penetration shall be
160/220 pen. It should be suitable for spreading by mechanical gritter and shall remain
suitable for a period of not less than 7 days.
Table 2.6 Aggregate grading for 0/4 mm size fine graded surface course
Test sieve aperture size
mm

Aggregate: crushed rock or slag


% by mass passing

6.3

100

90 100

63 93

Report value*

0.25

14 40

0.063

5 16

NOTE: Up to 25 % by mass of the fine aggregate passing the 4 mm sieve may be


sand
* There is no specified value but actual measured value shall be reported

2.8

Hard Shoulder
Hard shoulders shall comprise road base overlaid by surface course and/or surface
dressing, in accordance with the relevant clauses. The priming coat to the road base shall
extend 1.0 m down the batters on embankments, if required.

Page 47

The placing of a trial length of hard shoulder may be required, to demonstrate the
suitability of the proposed method of construction.

2.9

Concrete Block Paving

2.9.1

Laying Course
The edge restraints to the paved area shall be installed before the laying course.
The sand shall be laid at uniform moisture content and carefully screeded to form a
smooth compacted surface.
The profile of the laying course before compaction shall be similar to that of the finished
surface. The maximum deviation from the design levels shall be 5 mm. The laying
course shall be placed to a level which takes into account the compaction which occurs
during vibration of the blocks; the amount of this compaction shall be determined by trials
prior to commencement of surfacing.

2.9.2

Block Laying
Concrete paving blocks shall be laid in accordance with BS 7533: Part 3.
Block laying shall commence at right angles to the main pavement axis starting at one
end of the area. Interlocking blocks shall be laid in a herringbone pattern at 45 degrees to
the main pavement axis, or other pattern as approved or directed. Rectangular blocks
shall be laid in patterns, as directed, using different colours, if directed.
Blocks shall be laid on the sand laying course so that blocks already laid are not
disturbed. Blocks shall be placed to fit closely together; the width of joints shall not
exceed 3 mm.
Dimensional accuracy, uniformity of joint gaps, alignment and squareness shall be
checked after laying the first three rows of blocks and thereafter at regular intervals. If
joints begin to open, the blocks shall be knocked together using a hide mallet.

2.9.3

Edge Details
Special edge blocks shall be used on all edges of interlocking block paving which are
parallel to or perpendicular to the main pavement axis. Where the shape of or dimensions
of paved areas precludes the use of special or standard blocks on all edges, cut blocks
shall be used. Blocks shall be cut to suit, using a mechanical block splitter or bolster
chisel. In-situ concrete shall not be used to make up to edge restraints.

2.9.4

Compaction by Vibration
The blocks shall be compacted to the required levels using a plate vibrator as each area
of 20 m2 is laid.
The plate vibrator shall have a plate area of 0.2 m2 to 0.3 m2 and a compaction force of
9 kN to 16 kN. Two passes of the plate vibrator shall be made in two directions at
90 degrees.

2.9.5

Filling Joints
Joints shall be filled by brushing in fine dry sand with a particle size of 0 mm to 2 mm and
a maximum sulphate content (as SO3) of 0.4% by weight. A further pass of the plate
vibrator shall be made in each direction.

Page 48

The vibrator shall not be used within 1 m of an unrestrained edge. Paving shall not
otherwise be left uncompleted overnight.
2.9.6

Laying Tolerance
The finished surface level shall be within 5 mm of the design level and the maximum
deviation within the compacted surface, measured by a 3 m straight edge, shall not
exceed 5 mm. The level of any two adjacent blocks shall not differ by more than 2 mm.

2.10

Kerbs

2.10.1

Laying and Jointing Kerbs


Precast concrete kerbs, edgings and channels (kerbs laid on reverse face) shall comply
with Clauses 1.9 and shall be laid and bedded in a layer of Class 1 mortar not less than
10 mm and not more than 40 mm thick on a Class C45/20 concrete foundation and
incorporating 12 mm diameter bars 200 mm long, equally spaced, two behind each kerb.
Kerbs shall be backed with Class C45/20 concrete all as shown on the Drawings. The
concrete designations are shown in table below:

Class

Grade

Notional max. size


of aggregate

Characteristic
compressive
2

strength (N/mm )

C 45/20

20

45

C 30/20

20

30

C 20/20

20

20

C 15/20

20

15

Special Mixes
E

40 (10/1 all-in)

40

20 (10/1 all-in)

20

Hydraulically pressed kerbs with ends consistently square and true shall be laid pointed,
with flush joints. 10 mm compressible, waterproof joint filler shall be provided at every
tenth joint to accommodate expansion.
Kerbs which are not hydraulically pressed shall be laid with a 5 mm gap which shall be
pointed down to road level with a 1 to 3 cement/sand mortar. One joint in ten shall be left
unpointed and 10 mm compressible, waterproof joint filler provided to accommodate
expansion.
Where non-standard lengths of kerb, or kerbs with skewed ends, are required, kerbs shall
be saw cut and care shall be taken to avoid damage to arise. The bed and haunch of all

Page 49

kerbs shall have expansion joints with 10 mm compressible, waterproof joint filler
coincident with expansion joints in the kerb line.
For radii of 12 m or less, precast radius kerbs as per BS EN 1340 shall be used, that is,
1 m, 2 m, 3 m, 4.5 m, 6 m, 7.5 m, 9 m, 10.5 m and 12 m. Use of half kerbs shall be at the
discretion of the Engineer if existing radius is non-standard or the pre-cast radius kerbs
are unavailable.
All exposed rear surfaces of kerbs shall be treated with two coats of approved bituminous
paint.
Kerbs against which concrete block surfacing is to abut, shall be pointed at joints on the
ear face from top of haunch to top of kerb. Pointing material shall be cement slurry or
mortar, dependent on joint width. Kerbs shall be protected from defacement by bitumen,
concrete or mortar.
2.10.2

Alignment
The longitudinal and vertical alignments of the kerbs shall not deviate by more than 5 mm
from the true line. Any unit of kerb or edging deviating more than 1 mm per metre run of
kerbs shall be made good by lifting and relaying.

2.10.3

Painting of Kerbs
If kerbs are required to be painted they shall be painted alternately black and white or
black and yellow. Before application of paint, the kerbs shall be thoroughly cleaned of
dust, loose particles, oil and similar blemishes. The paint shall be a chlorinated rubber
suitable for application to concrete. Two coats shall be applied; the paint shall be thinned
in accordance with the manufacturer'
s recommendations for brush application.

2.11

Road Marking

2.11.1

Application of Markings
Road marking materials should be applied in accordance with BS 3262: Part 3 and the
manufacturers recommendations. The minimum laid thickness of the markings shall be in
accordance with BS 3262.
The pavement shall be prepared in accordance with the following:
(i)

Where the marking is to be applied on concrete carriageways, the


transverse texturing shall be greed from all traces of curing compound by
sire brushing or other approved means. Prior to the application of the
thermoplastic material a tack coat compatible with the road surface and
the marking material shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions

(ii)

On chipped carriageways, all loose chippings where the marking is to be


applied shall be removed prior to application.

Carriageway markings shall only be applied to surfaces which are clean and dry. If the
pavement has become polished, a tack coat compatible with the marking material may be
required. Tack coat shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer'
s instructions,
before marking. Markings shall be free from raggedness at their edges, uniform, and free
from streaks. Carriageway lane and edge lines shall be laid by an approved mechanical
means, to a regular alignment.

Page 50

The Contractor shall provide a full method statement for markings, including the
maximum safe heating temperature, the temperature range of the apparatus and the
method of laying to be used.
The Contractor shall control traffic to protect fresh markings from damage. The traffic
control shall give minimum interference to the travelling public. Signs, barricades,
flagmen and control devices shall be supplied by the Contractor and a system of spaced
warning flags or blocks shall be used to protect the fresh markings until dry, if so
required. Markings defaced by traffic shall be repaired by the Contractor.

2.12

Traffic Signs

2.12.1

Erection of Signs
The Contractor shall take delivery of signs, posts and fittings from the manufacturer and
shall be responsible for the transport to and erection on site.
Signs shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 12899: Part 2.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the inspection and acceptance of the signs on
delivery and shall protect the paint coatings during transport and erection. Minor damage
shall be repaired by touching up on site with miraculous iron ore paint provided by the
sign manufacturer.
Major damage shall be repaired by full preparation and paint treatment in accordance
with BS EN 12899: Part 2.
Signs shall be erected in accordance with the details provided on the Drawings.
Erected sign posts shall be truly vertical.
If sign posts have base plates for fixing to concrete they shall be bolted onto to the
foundations by drilling and fixing galvanised high yield threaded steel studs using an
approved polyester resin anchor grout. The installation of resin anchors shall be in strict
accordance with the manufacturer'
s instructions.
Immediately after erection of the posts on foundations, base plates, nuts, and protruding
portions of bolts shall be coated in bitumen in accordance with BS 3416.
Sign plate assemblies shall be fixed to the posts in accordance with the manufacturer'
s
instructions and the details on the Drawings.

2.13

Safety Barriers, Terminals, Transitions and Crash Cushions

2.13.1

Layout
The overall layout and location of safety barriers, terminals, transitions and crash
cushions shall be as indicated on the Contract Drawings.
All safety barriers, terminals and transitions shall be erected to present a flowing
alignment in accordance with the following:
The overall alignment on plan shall not depart from the prescribed alignment by more
than 30 mm, nor deviate in any 10 m length from the straight or required radius by more
than 15 mm.

2.13.2

Excavation for Concrete Foundations and Anchor Blocks


Excavations for concrete foundations and anchor blocks shall be in accordance with the
accepted Drawings submitted by the Contractor to the SO and Module 03.

Page 51

Where the sides of excavations cannot be maintained vertical until concrete is placed,
suitable permanent or temporary casings shall be used. The casings shall be installed
immediately after excavation and any lateral overbreak of the excavation shall be filled
with concrete conforming to BS 8500: Part 2 as appropriate.
Impermeable plastic sheeting 125 microns thick shall be laid at the base of an in-situ
concrete foundation located in filter drains.
2.13.3

Concrete in Foundations and Anchor Blocks


Concrete in foundations and anchor blocks shall be in accordance with the relevant
Specification in Module 02 and the accepted Drawings submitted by the Contractor to
the SO.
The Contractor shall ensure that any concrete which constitutes part of the system has
reached the specified strength stated on the accepted Drawings prior to any tensioning
taking place.

2.13.4

Beams
Notwithstanding the manufacturing tolerances permitted for individual beams, the
cumulative length tolerance shall be such that beams and posts can be positioned in their
prescribed location. With the exception of any special closure pieces necessary to
complete lengths of safety barriers, terminals or transitions, beam lengths shall not differ
from those described on the accepted Drawings submitted by the Contractor.

2.13.5

Posts
Where applicable, posts, foundations and post sockets shall be as shown on the
accepted Drawings submitted by the Contractor.
Where posts are mounted in cast in post sockets these shall be protected to prevent the
collection of detritus in the socket voids.
When steel posts are driven into the ground this shall be carried out without damage to
the post and the protective coating. Any minor damage to the galvanising shall be treated
in accordance with BS EN ISO 1461.

2.13.6

Cutting of Components
No drilling, cutting (including flame cutting) or welding of beams and posts shall be
permitted after galvanizing.
Special closure pieces shall be fabricated before galvanizing.

2.13.7

Assembly of Anchorages and Attachment Systems for Surface Mounted Posts


Direct contact between dissimilar metals shall be avoided by interposing non-metallic
sleeves, washers or coatings as detailed on the accepted Drawings submitted by the
Contractor.
Unless otherwise described on the Contract Drawings at least 4 weeks before installation,
the Contractor shall submit to the SO well attested and documented evidence that
proposed anchorages and attachment systems in drilled holes, are capable of resisting
the ultimate tensile loads resulting from failure of the proposed safety barrier, terminal,
transition or crash cushion system. Where the ultimate capacity of a safety barrier,
terminal, transition or crash cushion system, is governed by the failure of the attachment
system the evidence shall demonstrate that the anchorages in drilled holes, are capable
of resisting the ultimate tensile loads resulting from failure of the attached system.
Page 52

Anchorages of an expanding type, other than undercut anchorages, shall not be


permitted.
Steel anchorages and attachment systems shall be used for securing surface mounted
posts to a concrete or steel base.
Where surface mounted posts are to be installed on bridge decks and other structures,
the anchorages shall include an internally threaded component to receive the attachment
system. All parts of anchorages on bridge decks and other structures (where the
anchorage is within 80 mm of the upper surface of the supporting concrete or where the
anchorage parts are threaded to receive the holding down bolt) shall be of stainless steel
designation 1.4401, 1.4436, 1.4362 or 1.4462 to BS EN 10088: Part 1. Holding down
bolts, studs and nuts on bridge decks and other structures shall be stainless steel grade
A4-80 to BS EN 1SO 3506: Part 1 and BS EN ISO 3506: Part 2. Washers on bridge
decks and other structures shall conform to BS 4320 and be made from stainless steel
strip designation 1.4401 or 1.4436 to BS EN 10029, BS EN 10048 and BS EN 10051.
Metal to metal contact between dissimilar materials within the attachment system and
anchorage shall be prevented by the use of nonconductive sleeves, washers or coatings
to prevent bimetallic corrosion.
Except where surface mounted posts are attached to a steel base they shall be bedded
on mortar conforming to this specification. The bedding mortar shall have a minimum
thickness of 10 mm and a maximum thickness of 30 mm. An additional allowance may be
made for longitudinal falls.
For anchorages in drilled holes, each hole location shall be checked to ensure that the
hole will be clear of reinforcement before drilling is carried out. Where it is not possible to
locate drilled holes without encountering reinforcement, the Contractor shall provide a
Specialists report to SO on the consequences of drilling through or cutting the
reinforcement. No drilling or cutting shall take place without the prior written acceptance
of the Overseeing Organisation.
Before installation of anchorages in drilled holes, each hole shall be sound, clean and dry
and the tolerance of the hole shall be within the values given by the anchorage
manufacturer.
Attachment systems shall be tightened to the specified torque and have not less than the
minimum thread engagement specified by the manufacturer of the system.
Stainless steel bolts, screws and nuts shall conform to BS EN ISO 3506: Part 1 and
BS EN ISO 3506: Part 2, Grade A4-80. The dimensions and tolerances of the bolts,
screws and nuts shall conform to BS EN ISO 4016, BS EN ISO 4018 and BS EN
ISO 4034.
Stainless steel washers shall conform to BS 4320 and be made from stainless steel strip
designation 1.4401 or 1.4436 to BS EN 10029, BS EN 10048, and BS EN 10051.
The threads of steel anchorages shall be lined with grease having a high resistance to
creep and being suitable for hot or cold smearing.
All voids in anchorages, attachment systems and base plates shall be filled with a nonsetting passive filler.
Intermediate anchors shall be provided to all wire rope safety barrier systems that are
over 1,000 m long. They shall be spaced approximately at equal distances between end
anchors so that the maximum length of unanchored wire rope safety barrier does not
exceed 1,000 m. The means of terminating wire ropes shall ensure that there is at least
50% of the normal containment capacity provided at any point within the termination
sections. The minimum distance between anchor blocks within the intermediate
Page 53

terminating sections shall be 30 m and the maximum distance 60 m. These requirements


shall be stated on the manufacturers drawings.
All permanent crash cushion installations shall be monitored over a three-year period
from the date upon which completion for the Works or any section thereof, which
incorporates crash cushion installations, is certified. All temporary crash cushion
installations shall be monitored over the period of deployment. The monitoring of the
installations shall comprise recording and reporting to the SO, in an agreed format, the
number of accidents involving the crash cushion and the maintenance/repair costs.
2.13.8

Site Testing of Anchorages in Drilled Holes


The Contractor shall carry out on-site tensile load tests on anchorages in drilled holes.
Types of fixing referred to in Clause 1 of BS 5080: Part 1 shall include anchorages.
Where anchorages are tested they shall be loaded incrementally in tension in accordance
with BS 5080: Part 1 except that they shall be capable of resisting a test load equal to
10% above the nominal tensile load applied to the anchorage at failure of the safety
barrier, terminal, transition or crash cushion system in lieu of testing to failure. The
nominal tensile load shall be determined by the manufacturer of the safety barrier,
terminal, transition or crash cushion system. Where the failure of the attachment system
(for example, the holding down bolt) is the prescribed failure mode of the safety barrier,
terminal, transition or crash cushion system, the test load shall be 90% of the yield load of
the attachment system. Incremental loads shall be held for not less that half a minute and
the test load for not less than five minutes. Readings shall be taken immediately after
applying load and at the end of the interval stated above.
The total movement of the anchorage shall not exceed 1.0 mm during the test. Any
evidence of slip during loading as demonstrated by a significant change in the slope of
the load/extension curve, shall constitute failure.
The testing frequency shall be in accordance with the testing schedule in this
specification. In addition, testing shall comply with any special requirements given on the
Contract Drawings.

2.13.9

Post Foundations
The Contractor shall provide the test equipment and carry out loading tests on post
foundations to ascertain compliance with the manufacturers specification for the
proposed safety barrier, terminal, transition and crash cushion system. The tests shall be
carried out and the results submitted to the SO at least one week prior to installation of
the relevant lengths of safety barrier, terminal, transition and crash cushion system. The
testing frequency shall be in accordance with the testing schedule in this specification.
Where stated in the testing schedule, the SO shall provide the test equipment and carry
out loading tests on post foundations installed by the Contractor for that purpose. The
Contractor shall make available a vehicle of not less than 5 t for the SOS use while
carrying out the tests.
The Contractor shall install test posts and foundations after completion of the finished
ground. On completion of loading tests the Contractor shall remove the test posts and
foundations and reinstate the finished ground to meet the requirements of the Contract.

2.14

Pedestrian Restraints and Guardrail Systems


Workmanship, inspection and testing shall be in accordance with BS 7818 Section 3.
Pedestrian restraint systems that use base plates shall be fixed to the main structure
using stainless steal bolts with a minimum grade 316. 10 mm to 30 mm thick bedding
mortar shall be provided under the base plates.
Page 54

Provision over any movement joints shall be made with the maximum gap between
panels not exceeding 100 mm in the fully open/close position.

PART 3 SUMMARY

3.1

Reference Documents
The following Abbreviations for standards Specifications are used:
ASTM
BS
BS EN

3.1.1

American Society or Testing & Materials


British Standards Specifications
English language version of harmonized European Standard
Specifications

Subgrade Improvement Layer and Sub-base


ASTM D 2419
BS 812

Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine Aggregate


Testing aggregates

BS 812: Part 103

Testing aggregates. Method for determination of particle size


distribution

BS 1377
BS 1377: Part 4

Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes


Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes.

BS 1377: Part 9

Compaction-related tests
Methods for test for soils for civil engineering purposes. In-situ
tests

3.1.2

Road base
ASTM C88

Standard Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of

ASTM C127

Sodium Sulphate or Magnesium Sulphate


Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific

ASTM C128

Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate


Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific

ASTM C131

Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate


Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of SmallSize Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los
Angeles Machine

ASTM C535

Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of LargeSize Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los

ASTM D 2419

Angeles Machine
Standard Test Method for Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine

BS 812

Aggregate
Testing aggregates

BS 812: Part 103

Testing aggregates. Method for determination of particle size


distribution

BS 812: Part 105.1

Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of particle shape.


Flakiness index

Page 55

3.1.3

BS 812: Part 105.2

Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of particle shape.

BS 812: Part 117

Elongation index of coarse aggregate


Testing aggregates. Method for determination of water-soluble

BS 812: Part 118

chloride salts
Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of sulphate

BS 1377

content
Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes

BS 1377: Part 2

Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes.


Classification tests

BS 1377: Part 3

Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. Chemical


and electro-chemical tests

BS 1377: Part 4

Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes.


Compaction-related tests

BS 1377: Part 9

Methods for test for soils for civil engineering purposes. In-situ
tests

Asphalt mixes
Asphalt Institute
ASTM C40

Manual Series No.2 (MS-2) 1988


Standard Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates

ASTM C88

for Concrete
Standard Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of

ASTM C127

Sodium Sulphate/Magnesium Sulphate


Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific

ASTM C128

Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate


Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific

ASTM C131

Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate


Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of SmallSize Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los
Angeles Machine

ASTM C142

Standard Test Method for Clay Lumps and Friable Particles in


Aggregates

ASTM C535

Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of LargeSize Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los

ASTM D1188

Angeles Machine
Standard Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of

ASTM D1754

Compacted Bituminous Mixtures Using Coated Samples


Standard Test Method for Effect of Heat and Air on Asphaltic

ASTM D2027

Materials (Thin-Film Oven Test)


Standard Specification for Cutback Asphalt (Medium-Curing

ASTM D2170

Type)
Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts

ASTM D2172

(Bitumens)
Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen
from Bituminous Paving Mixtures

Page 56

BS 63: Part 2

Road aggregates. Specification for single-sized aggregate for

BS 434

surface dressing
Bitumen road emulsions (anionic and cationic)

BS 598

Sampling and examination of bituminous mixtures for roads and


other paved area

BS 812
BS 812: Part 2

Testing aggregates
Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of density

BS 812: Part 105.1

Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of particle shape.


Flakiness index

BS 812: Part 105.2

Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of particle shape.


Elongation index of coarse aggregate

BS 812: Part 110

Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of aggregate


crushing value (ACV)

BS 812: Part 114

Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of polished stone


value

BS 812: Part 117

Testing aggregates. Method for determination of water-soluble


chloride salts

BS 812: Part 118

Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of sulphate


content

BS 1707
BS 1377: Part 2

Specification for hot binder distributors for road surface dressing


Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes.

BS 2000

Classification tests
Methods of test for petroleum and its products

BS 4987: Part 1

Coated macadam (asphalt concrete) for roads and other paved


areas. Specification for constituent materials and for mixtures

BS 594987: 2007

Asphalt for roads and other paved areas. Specification for


transport, laying and compaction and type testing protocols

BS EN 197: Part 1

Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for


common cements

BS EN 12272
BS EN 12591

Surface dressing. Test methods


Bitumen and bituminous binders. Specifications for paving grade

BS EN 13043

bitumens
Aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments for
roads, airfields and other trafficked areas

3.1.4

Concrete Paving Blocks


BS EN 1338

Concrete paving blocks. Requirements and test methods

BS EN 7533: Part 3

Pavements constructed with clay, natural stone or concrete


pavers. Code of practice for laying precast concrete paving blocks

BS EN 12620
3.1.5

and clay pavers for flexible pavements


Aggregates for concrete

Kerbs
BS 4027

Specification for sulphate-resisting Portland cement

Page 57

BS 7263: Part 3

Precast concrete flags, kerbs, channels, edgings and quadrants.


Precast, unreinforced concrete kerbs, channels, edgings and
quadrants. Requirements and test methods

BS EN 1339
BS EN 1340
3.1.6

3.1.7

Concrete paving flags. Requirements and test methods


Concrete kerb units. Requirements and test methods

Road Marking
BS 3262: Part 3

Hot applied thermoplastic road marking materials. Specification for


application of material to road surfaces

BS EN 1423

Road marking materials. Drop on materials. Glass beads,


antiskid aggregates and mixtures of the two

BS EN 1436

Road marking materials. Road marking performance for road


users

BS EN 1463: Part 1

Road marking materials. Retroreflecting road studs. Initial


performance requirements

BS EN 1463: Part 2

Road marking materials. Retroreflecting road studs. Road test


performance specifications

BS EN 1824
BS EN 1871

Road marking materials. Road trials


Road marking materials. Physical properties

Traffic Signs
BS 3416

Specification for bitumen-based coatings for cold application,


suitable for use in contact with potable water

BS EN 485
BS EN 970

Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Sheet, strip and plate


Non-destructive examination of fusion welds-visual examination

BS EN 10025: Part 1 Hot rolled products of structural steels. General technical


delivery conditions
BS EN 10025: Part 2 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Technical delivery
conditions for non-alloy structural steels
BS EN 10025: Part 3 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Technical delivery
conditions for normalized/ normalized rolled weldable fine
grain structural steels
BS EN 10025: Part 4 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Technical delivery
conditions for thermomechanical rolled weldable fine grain
structural steels
BS EN 10025: Part 5 Hot rolled products of structual steels. Technical delivery
conditons for structural steels with improved atmospheric
corrosion resistance
BS EN 10025: Part 6 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Technical delivery
conditions for flat products of high yield strength structural steels
in the quenched and tempered condition
BS EN 12899: Part 2

Fixed, vertical road traffic signs. Transilluminated traffic bollards


(TTB)

BS EN ISO 1461

Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel

Page 58

articles. Specifications and test methods

3.1.8

BS EN ISO 3506

Mechanical properties of corrosion resistant stainless steel


fasteners

TSO

Traffic Signs Manual UK

Safety Fences and Barriers


BS 4320

Specification for metal


purposes. Metric series

BS 5080: Part1

Structural fixings in concrete and masonry. Method of test for


tensile loading

BS 6779: Part 1

Highway parapets for bridges and other structures. Specification


for parapets of reinforced and unreinforced masonry construction

BS 7669

Vehicle restraint systems. Guide to the installation, inspection


and repair of safety fences

BS 8500: Part 2

Concrete. Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1.


Specification for constituent materials and concrete

BS EN 473

Non-destructive testing. Qualification and certification of NDT


personnel. General principles

BS EN 571: Part 1
BS EN 970

Non-destructive testing. Penetrant testing. General principles


Non-destructive examination of fusion welds. Visual examination

BS EN 1011: Part 1

Recommendations for welding of metallic materials. General


guidance for arc welding

BS EN 1011: Part 2

Recommendations for welding of metallic materials. Arc welding


of ferritic steels

BS EN 1011: Part 3

Recommendations for welding of metallic materials. Arc welding


of stainless steels

BS EN 1011: Part 4

Recommendations for welding of metallic materials. Arc welding


of aluminium and aluminium alloys

BS EN 1317: Part 1

Road restraint systems. Terminology and general criteria for test


methods

BS EN 1317: Part 2

Road restraint systems. Performance classes, impact test


acceptance criteria and test methods for safety barriers

BS EN 1317: Part 4

Road restraint systems. Performance classes, impact test


acceptance criteria and test methods for terminals and transitions

BS EN 1418

washers

for

general

engineering

of safety barriers
Approval testing of welding operators for fusion welding and
resistance weld setters for fully mechanized and automatic
welding of metallic materials

BS EN 1714

Non-destructive testing of welded joints. Ultrasonic testing of


welded joints

BS EN 10029

Specification for tolerances on dimensions, shape and mass for


hot rolled steel plates 3 mm thick or above

BS EN 10048

Hot rolled narrow steel strip. Tolerances on dimensions and


shape

Page 59

BS EN 10051

Continuously hot-rolled uncoated plate, sheet and strip of non-

BS EN 10088: Part 1

alloy and alloy steels. Tolerances on dimensions and shape


Stainless steels. List of stainless steels

BS EN 22553

Welded, brazed and soldered joints. Symbolic representation on


drawings

BS EN ISO 898: Part 1 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and
alloy steel. Bolts, screws and studs
BS EN ISO 3506: Pt 1 Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant
fasteners. Bolts, screws and studs

stainless-steel

BS EN ISO 3506: Pt 2 Mechanical properties


fasteners. Nuts

stainless-steel

BS EN ISO 4016
BS EN ISO 4018

of

corrosion-resistant

Hexagon head bolts. Product Grade C


Hexagon head screws. Product Grade C

BS EN ISO 4034
Hexagon nuts. Product Grade C
BS EN ISO 9606: Pt 2 Qualification test of welders. Fusion welding. Aluminium and
aluminium alloys
BS EN ISO 9934: Pt 1 Non-destructive testing. Magnetic particle testing. General
BS EN ISO 15607

principles.
Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic

materials. General rules.


BS EN ISO 15609: Pt1 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic
materials. Welding procedure specification. Arc welding
BS EN ISO 15609: Pt2 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic
BS EN ISO 15613

materials. Welding procedure specification. Gas welding


Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic

materials. Qualification based on pre-production welding test


BS EN ISO 15614: Pt 1 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic
materials. Welding procedure test. Arc and gas welding of steels
and arc welding of nickel and nickel alloys
3.1.9

Pedestrian Restraint and Guardrail Systems


BS 7818

Specification for pedestrian restraint systems in metal

BS EN ISO 1461

Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron


and steel articles. Specification and test methods

Page 60

Abbreviations
ACB
ACOP
ACRIB

Air Circuit Breakers


Approved Code of Practice
Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Industry
Board
ADCM
Acoustic Doppler Current Meters
AFMA
Australian Fisheries Management Authority
AGMA
American Gear Manufacturers Association
AISI
American Iron and Steel Institute
AS
Acceptance Strength
ASTA
Association of Short-circuit Testing
Authorities
ASTM
American Society for Testing Materials
ATS
Automatic Transfer Switch
AWS
American Welding Society
British Approval Service for Electric Cables
BASEC
BOCA
Building Officials and Code Administrators
BRE
Building Research Establishment Ltd.
British Standards
BS
BSRIA
Building Service Research and Information
Association
California Bearing Ratio
CBR
Close Circuit Television
CCTV
CECOMAF Comit Europen des Constructeurs de
Matriel Frigorifique
CENELEC Comit Europen de Normalisation
Electrotechnique
CFC
Chlorofluorocarbons
Chartered Institution of Building Services
CIBSE
Engineers
CHW
Chilled Water
CI
Cast Iron
CLW
Cooling Water
Current Margin / Communication cable
CM
CMP
Communication cable (Plenum)
CP
Code of Practice
CPC
Circuit Protection Conductor
Cone Penetration Testing
CPT
CRS
Categorised Required Strength
CRT
Cathode Ray Tube
CRZ
Capillary Rise Zone
Current Transformer
CT
c(UL)
Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated
(Canada)
DEO
Defence Estate Organisation
DFT
Dry Film Thickness
DI
Ductile Iron
DIN
Deutsches Institut fr Normung
DPC
Damp Proof Course
DPDT
Differential Pressure, Differential
Temperature
DS
Durability Strength
DVR
Digital Video Recorder
DW
Ductwork Specification
EA
Exhaust Air
European Computer Manufacturers
ECMA
Association
EA
Exhaust Air
ECMA
European Computer Manufacturers
Association
ECR
Extra Chemical Resistant
EIA
Environmental Impact Assessment/
Electronic Industries Alliance

EMC
EPDM
FA
FBA
FRP
FSC
GANA
GGBS
GMS
GRC
GRP
HCFC
HDPE
HEPA
HFC
HPL
HPPE
HRC
HSE
HSFG
HV
HVCA
ICBO
IGCC
IGE/UP
IP
ISAT
ISO
ITP
KD
kVA
LCD
LED
LPG
LS0H
LSF
LV
MCB
MCC
MCCB
MDF
MDD
MDPE
MEP
MICC
MIO
MMI
MOD
MS
MSDS
MSRPC
N
NDFT
NEMA
NFPA
NRC
NS

Electromagnetic Compatibility
Ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer
copolymer
Fresh Air
Factory Built Assembly
Fibre Reinforced Polymer
Forest Stewardship Council
Glass Association of North America
Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag
Galvanized Mild Steel
Glass Reinforced Cement/Glass Reinforced
Concrete
Glass Reinforced Plastics
Hydrofluorocarbons
High Density Polyethylene
High Efficiency Particulate Air
HydroFluoroCarbon
High Pressure Laminate
Higher Performance Polyethylene
High Rupturing Capacity
Health and Safety Executive
High Strength Friction Grip
High Voltage
Heating and Ventilating Contractors
Association
International Conference of Building Officials
Insulating Glass Certification Council
Institution of Gas Engineers Utilization
Procedures
Ingress Protection
Initial Surface Absorption Test
International Standard Organization
Inspection Testing Plan
Kiln Dried
Kilovolt Ampere
Liquid Crystal Display
Light Emitting Diode
Liquid Petroleum Gas
Low Smoke Zero Halogen
Low Smoke and Fume
Low Voltage
Miniature Circuit Breaker
Motor Control Centre
Moulded Case Circuit Breakers
Medium Density Fireboard
Maximum Dry Density
Medium Density Polyethylene
Mechanical Electrical Plumbing
Mineral Insulated Copper Covered Cable
Micaceous Iron Oxide
Man Machine Interface
Ministry of Defence
Micro-silica
Material Safety Data Sheet
Moderate Sulphate Resistance Portland
Cement
Nitrogen
Nominal Dry Film Thickness
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
National Fire Protection Association
Noise Reduction Coefficient
Norwegian Standard

Page 61

O/D
ODP
OFS
OFTEC
O&M
OPC
PD
PE
PFA
PFC
PM
PTFE
PVC
PVC-u
PWTAG
QA/QC
RA
RCCD
RCD
R&D
REFCOM
RPM
RPZ
RTD
RTR
SA
SBCCI
SDR
SIS
SP
SPDT
SRPC
SS
SSPC
TIA
TRA
UL
ULPA
UP
UPS
UTP
UV
VC
VR
WBP
W/C
WIS
WP
WRAS
XLPE

Outside Diameter
Ozone Depletion Potential
Oil Fired (Appliance/Equipment) Standard
Oil Firing Technical Association
Operation and Maintenance
Ordinary Portland Cement
Published Documents
Polyethylene
Pulverised Fuel Ash
Power Factor Correction
Project Manager
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Polyvinylchloride
Unplasticised Polyvinylchloride
Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Return/Recycled Air
Residual Current Circuit Breaker
Residual Current Device
Research and Development
Register of Companies Competent to handle
refrigerants
Reinforced Plastic Mortar
Reduced Pressure Zone
Resistant Temperature Detector
Reinforced Thermosetting Resin
Supply Air
Southern Building Code Congress
International
(Incorporated)
Standard
Dimension
Ratio
Swedish Institute of Standards
Super-plasticizing
Single Pole Double Throw
Sulphate Resistance Portland Cement
Structural Strength
Steel Structures Painting Council
Telecommunication Industry Association
Trussed Rafter Association
Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated
Ultra Low Penetration Air
Unsaturated Polyester Resin
Uninterruptible Power Supply
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Ultra Violet
Vitrified Clay
Video Recorder
Weather and Boil Proof
Water Cement Ratio
Water Industry Specification
Water Proofing
Water Regulations Advisory Scheme
Cross Linked Polyethylene

Page 62