You are on page 1of 14

manustravivaam of bhrucis (7.1 7.

20)

Based on Franz Steiner Verlag GmBh, Weisbaden 1975 edition edited by J. Duncan and M. Derrett pdf page 49 onwards.

evam ekramya cturramya ca sa-vikalpa prasdhya,


tatsamrakartham idnm
evam eka-ramyam ctur-ramyam ca sa-vikalpam prasdhya, tat-samrakaaartham idnm
so/then one stage of life and four stages of life admitting of distinctions having accomplished for the purpose of
protecting that now (he says)

So; having described the solitary life and the life of four stages along with the choice
(between them), the means of protecting them is now (explained)

rjadharmn pravakymi yathvtto bhaven npa |


sabhava ca yath tasya siddhi ca param yath || 7.1 ||
raja-dharmn pravakymi yath avttas bhavet npas |
sabhavas ca yath tasya siddhis ca param yath ||
I will explain the socio-cosmic duties1 of a king, how the protector of men should conduct
himself along with his arising and the manner of his achievement such that it is supreme.

siddhistu param raja svktasarvarjamaalasynantara sakalamahmaaldhipatye sati niratiay dharmrthasukhatrivargbhyudayaprptiraparmtydipraktisapat | tatra siddhimavekyedamucyate
siddhis tu param rajas svkta-sarva-rja-maalasya anantaram sakala-mahmaala-dhipatye sati niratiay(s) dharma-artha-sukha-tri-varga-abhyudaya-prptis
apara-amtya-di-prakti-sapat | tatra siddhim aveky idam ucyate
But power/accomplishment greatest of king made ones own/received/admitted/consented/promised-all-king-of
circle without break/continuously whole-great-realm-in supremacy/role of king in being unsurpassed duty-wealthhappiness-three-groups-pleasure/happiness-obtaining
after/later-minister-first/etc-principal/original/substancetogether. there perfection/achievement having regarded/seen this is said|

But the supreme achievement for a king of the circle of all the kings who have acquiesced
is to be continuously unsurpassed in supremacy over the whole great realm, obtaining
happiness in the three areas of socio-cosmic order, wealth and pleasure, surrounded by
noble-natured ministers and so on.2 Having considered the word achievement in this
context, the (following) is said

brhma prptena saskra katriyea yathvidhi |


sarvasysya yathnyya kartavya parirakaam || 7.2 ||
M. Biardeau proposed the translation of dharmas by lordre socio-cosmique and although it has the
disadvantage of being something of a mouthful in any language, no other proposal has the merit of coming
anywhere near as close to capturing the scope of the word. Replacing order with duty here makes more sense
but is a better translation than duty alone because it captures the important fact that the king has a duty that is not
just of this world. He is ultimately responsible, through the support of his brhmas, for playing his part in
maintaining the integrated functioning of the whole universe through correct practices and complex rituals.
2
Bearing in mind that these ministers around the king would often be of the brhmaas social class and that these
compositions were composed by them it is no surprise that the gameplan of our commentator is to strengthen the
position of the brhmaas social class wherever he can and this is what is seen throughout the commentary by
bhrucis here. The king is positioned as a controlled player in a hierarchical system under the dictates of a divine
order that the brhmaas social class are the custodians of and without whom the king will fail.
1

brhmam3 prptena saskram katriyea yath-vidhi |


sarvasya asya yath-nyyam kartavyam parirakaam ||
proper to/related to brahman by/with obtained ritual preparation/initiation by/with royal according to the rule
of all of him according to the custom to be done for all-round protection.

By being obtained relative to brahman there is the change of status ritual (undergone) by a
royal, according to the rule and then, according to custom, his all-around protection is to
be provided for everyone.

brahmae brahmao v saskro brhmamupa[nayan]di snnntas, ta


prptena
katriyea,
nnyavarena,
yathvidhi
yathstram
|
sarvasysyetyanenbhinayena varramau nirdiati | yathnyyam
yathopadea kartavya parirakanamiti
anyavttiparisakhyeya
niyamo v | eke tu drthatvdupadea vttyartha manyante | tath ca
sati pitrye dhane nidhyadhigamenyath prptau na niyogata |
brahmae brahmaas v saskras4 brhmam upanayana-di snna-antas, tam
prptena katriyea, na anya-varena, yath-vidhi yath-stram | sarvasya asya iti anena
abhinayena vara-ramau nirdiati |
for/to brahman of/from brahman or change of status stage ritual proper to brahman beginning with the
upanayanam ritual terminated by the ritual bath him/that by/with obtained by a king/warrior social class, not/no by
another social class, according to the rule according to the authoritative instruction. Of all of him quote by this
by/with accompanying gestures (theatre expression) social class and stage of life he points out/shows.

This change of status ritual is for brahman or belongs to brahman and the term related to
brahman refers to those rituals beginning with the upanayanam ritual and ending with
the ritual bath, with a royal obtaining that and no other social class, according to the rule,
which means according to the formal authoritative teachings. With this accompanying
phrase his (all-round protection) of everyone the author indicates the social classes and
stages of life.
yath-nyyam yath-upadeam kartavyam pari-rakanam iti anya-vtti-parisakhy
iyam niyamas v | eke tu da-arthatvt upadeam vtti-artham manyante | tath ca sati
pitrye dhane nidhi-adhigame anyath prptau na niyogatas |
According to the rule according to the instruction is to be done all-round protection quote other-conductcount/enumeration/calculate/adding this restraint/restriction/limitation or.
But in each/in some from
Derived according to adhyystram brhma ajtau (6.4.171) for this particular meaning.
The commentator observes that the manusmtis is not strictly grammatically in accord with the rules of pinis
here so he substitutes samskras for saskram to correct the fact that a pudvityaikavacanam is not correct in
relation to the pusttyaikavacanam katriyea (that is in commonality of reference with prptena). This is
because the primary action here is assumed to be that of bh bhavati and not pra-p pnoti. Although to be is
considered to be an action (unlike in the English conception) it is still an action with a single valence and cannot
take an object. Why would manus have formulated it this way? Was he having a bad day and it was a slip or was it
changed afterwards in transmission? Although it is grammatically incorrect, saskram, by taking dvity, does
tend to shift the agentship towards the katriyas since there is then no pratham to give a name to the agent of the
action of bh bhavati. The impression is a shift of meaning from a change of status empowered by relation to
brahman to a change of status carried out by a katriyas. One would have thought that both manus and
bhrucis would have preferred the former via the grammatically correct form of saskras but without any
evidence for an original version with this form we can only assume that manus did compose it using saskram.
It may be that metrical form was the reason behind it since brhmam prptena saskra katriyea
yath-vidhi does not scan well with the end of the first eight syllables occurring after saskra. Rearranging the
word order as brhmam saskraprptena or brhmam saskra prptena only results in the same problems. If
this is the reason, then manus was clearly more sensitive to the metrical constraints than to the grammar or any
ideological emphasis here and bhrucis was not. The superiority of musical properties over grammatical properties
has a long history going at least as far back as the early Vedic compositions and is still true in modern poetry and
song lyrics in all languages the world over.
3
4

purpose/usefulness of being seen instruction purpose of conduct they think/are thought. In that manner and in being
in paternal/ancestral/ritual for ancestors in goods/property/fortune receptacle/treasure (esp of kuberas)-in
obtaining/gain/study otherwise/alternately in obtained not by order/according to instructions.

According to custom, actually means that according to the formal traditional instruction
the all-around protection is to be carried out, adding on other conducts or a restriction on
them. But in each one they think the purpose of conduct is an instruction based on its
usefulness being seen and in that way, anything else is not according to the instruction in
terms of the treasure trove of the ancestors being obtained.

arjake hi loke 'sminsarvato vidrute bhayt |


rakrthamasya sarvasya rjnamasjatprabhu || 7.3 ||
a-rjake hi loke asmin sarvatas vidrute bhayt |
raka-artham asya sarvasya rjnam asjat prabhus ||
in no king indeed in world in this everywhere in dispersed/agitated/dissolved from fear
purpose of protection of him/of it of all king emitted the lord|

Indeed, in this world everyone is agitated by fear without a king.


The lord creates a king to provide protection everywhere

hirayagarbha matsyanyyo m bht | prajnmiti


rjotpattiranena pradaryate | prvavidhistutiriyam |

[rakya]

hiraya-garbhas matsya-nyyas m bht | prajnm iti [rakya] rj utpattis anena


pradaryate | prva-vidhi-stutis iyam |
hiraya-garbhas law of the fishes must not be for men/creatures quote [for protection] king creating by him/this is
shown (ic)| This is a praise of the previous rule|

Hirayagarbhas (thinking) the law of the fishes must not exist, is shown (by manus)
creating a king (for protection), that is, (for the protection) of his subjects. This is in
praise of the previous injunction.5

indrnilayamrkm agne ca varuasya ca |


candravitteayo caiva mtr nirhtya vat || 7.4 ||
indra-anila-yama-arkm agnes ca varuasya ca |
candra-vitta-ayos ca eva mtrs nirhtya6 vats ||
indra-wind/vayus-death/yamas-sun and of fire and of varunas
somas/moon-kuberas and indeed measures having removed/extracted eternal/perpetual (2.3.F)

and indeed having extracted the eternal parts of indra, vayus, yamas and the sun as well as
of agnis and of varunas, somas and kuberas.

blo pi nvamantavya ity asya vidher vakyamnasyeme daa loks


eatay vijey | evam indrdinm sva-viaye yena ces karoti tena tesm
mtrbhyo nirmita ity ucyate |

In 7.2 by the word kartavyam, which mmsakas recognised as injunctive by virtue of the affix tavya (see 3.1.96
and 3.3.163).
6
The action of ni-h-t-ya using lyap, although stated afterwards, actually precedes that of asjat in the previous
couplet and so is used in accordance with the rule.
5

blas api na avamantavyas iti asya vidhes vakyamnasya ime daa loks eatay
vijeys | evam indra-dinm sva-viaye yena ces karoti tena tem mtrbhyas
nirmitas iti ucyate |
even as a child (the king) is not to be distained/insulted quote of it/him of rule/injunction of speaking one must
understand the ten coupletts as the compliment of the injunction. So; indras and the others in own domain that by
which actions/movements he makes by him of these of parts composed is said.

One must understand these ten couplets as the compliment of the injunction that Even as
a child (the king) is not to be insulted. So; the king undertakes actions in each of the
natural domains of indras and the others by being composed of the parts of these
(divinities), so it is said.

yasmd e surendr mtrbhyo nirmito npa |


tasmd abhibhavaty ea sarvabhtni tejas || 7.5 ||
yasmt em sura-indrm mtrbhyas nirmitas n-pas |
tasmt abhibhavati ea sarva-bhtni tejas ||
that from which of these god-indras of the parts composed protector of men
from that/therefore he masters/rules that all beings with brilliance.

Since the protector of men is composed of the parts of these divinities along with indras
he rules all beings with brilliance.7

kryenaitad
artham
darayati
|
yasmd
dhipatyaivaryt
sarvabhtnyabhibhavati svena tejas ata indrdi-devat-mtrbhyo nirmita
iti styate| yatas ca
kryena etad artham darayati | yasmt dhipatya-aivaryt sarvabhtni abhibhavati
svena tejas atas indra-di-devat-mtrbhyas nirmitas iti styate | yatas ca by to be done/product that purpose/wealth he shows. That from which from the governing power (imperium) of the
sovereignty all beings he masters/rules by own brilliance from which of the parts of the divinities beginning with
indras fashioned/composed quote is praised. And that from which

The author shows the purpose by what is to be done. The word since means that due to
the governing power of his sovereignty he rules over all beings by his own brilliance from
which his being composed of the parts of the divinities beginning with indras is praised.
And from which

tapaty dityavac caia caki ca mansi ca |


na caina bhuvi aknoti kacid apy abhivkitum || 7.6 ||
tapati dityavat ca ea caki ca mansi ca |
na ca ena bhuvi aknoti kacit api abhivkitum ||
he burns/scorches/hurts like the sun and he eyes and minds and
not and him on earth he is able someone also to look in the face/regard directly

The phrasing of the compound with indras provided separately suggests that the divine paradigm of the group of
divinities with their king indras is manifest in the earthly king and not just a group of divinities with no order or
hierarchy. Note that all these are here considered to be suras where in fact agnis and varuas were originally
asuras. See Les dieux magiciens dans le Rig Veda by Patrick Moisson, Arche edidit, 1993 for a detailed study of
the changes that occurred in the transition from the older to the later paradigm.
7

And he torments eyes and minds like the sun


and nobody on earth is able to look him in the face.

mahrja-ligena cmaracchatrabhrgdin yukto dptimattvc


caksydityavat tpayati mansi daa-ptand | yasmd ato na kacid
ena aknoty abhivkitum api, ki punar apakartum | prvavad ayam api
stutyai | eva ca sati tsu tsv avasthsu kryrtham,
mahrja-ligena cmara-chatra-bhrga-din yuktas dptimattvt caksi dityavat
tpayati mansi daa-ptant | yasmt atas na kacit enam aknoti abhi-vi-kitum api,
kim punar apakartum | prvavat ayam api stutyai | evam ca sati tsu tsu avasthsu
krya-artham,
great king by sign plume-umbrella-large black bee-with first employed due to a state of being possessed of
brilliance eyes like the sun he causes to burn, minds due to the fall of the staff. That/he from which /whom
therefore not something this he is able to be regarded/looked upon/seen/observed/looked in the face also, what
again to remove/drag off/harm/injure. This like the previous is for praising (the injunction). So/in that way and in
being in these in these/in various places/being present/taking hold purpose of product/to be done.

Being connected with the signs of a great king, the plume, umbrella, black bee emblem and
so on, he causes pain to the eyes like the sun due to being possessed of brilliance (and to)
minds due to his applying punishment. Since nobody on earth can look him in the face
who could remove him? This, like the previous (couplets), is for praising (the injunction).
And in that way, in (his) being present in various places (his) purpose is to be carried out.

so 'gnir bhavati vyu ca so 'rka soma sa dharmar |


sa kubera sa varua sa mahendra prabhvata || 7.7 ||
sas agnis bhavati vyus ca sas arkas somas sa dharmar |
sa kuberas sa varuas sa mah-indras prabhvatas ||
he agnis is vyus and he sun somas he king of dharmas
he kuberas he varuas he through/by consequence of great indras.

He is agnis and vyus, he is the sun (and) somas, he is the king of dharmas,
he is kuberas, he is varuas, he exists by virtue of great indras.

eva ceme loka-pl yair aya rj tathaiva vyapadiyate |


yata caitad evam ata
evam ca ime loka-pls yais ayam rj tath eva vyapadiyate |
yatas ca etad evam atas And such are these world-protectors those by whom this king in that manner indeed designed. That being so then

And such are these world-protectors, those who actually designed this king in that way.
That being so, then

blo 'pi nvamntavyo manuya iti bhmipa |


mahat devat hy e nararpea tihati || 7.8 ||
blas api na avamntavyas manuyas iti bhmipas |
mahat devat hi e nara-rpea tihati

A protector of the earth, even as a mortal male child, is not to be insulted.


This great divinity indeed stands with the form of a man.

aknoti hy aya blo py amtydibhir akrya-krio nivartayitum |


kicnyat:
aknoti hi ayam blas api amtya-dibhis akrya-krias nivartayitum |
kica anyat:
he is able/can indeed he/this child even by ministers etc not to be done-of/from doing/acting(5-6.1.MN 1-2.3.MN)
to return/stop/interrupt. Moreover another

Even as this child, with his ministers and so on, he is able to stop people doing what is not
to be done. Moreover, another (aspect is that)

ekam eva dahaty agnir nara durupasarpiam |


kula dahati rjgni sapaudravyasacayam || 7.9 ||
ekam eva dahati agnis naram dur-upa-sarpiam |
kulam dahati rja-agnis sapau-dravya-sacayam ||
one indeed he burns agnis man approaches imprudently.
Family he burns king agnis along with all the property and domestic animals.

Truly, agnis destroys a man who approaches (the king) imprudently,


king agnis destroys his family along with all his property and domestic animals.

yasmd akryakri tatsahyn tadapardhasambandhn ca kula


dahati | ato 'py asau nvamantavya | yata ca
yasmt akrya-krim tat-sahynm tat-apardha-sambandhnm
ca kulam dahati | atas api asau na avamantavyas | yatas ca
he from whom of doings not to be done that-of companions that-mistake-of connections/relatives and family he
destroys. From which also he is not to be insulted. And from which

On which basis, he destroys the family of his companions and his transgressive relatives
who are implicated in doing what should not be done.8 For which reason also, he is not to
be insulted. And from which

krya so 'vekya akti ca deaklau ca tattvata |


kurute dharmasiddhyartha vivarpa puna puna || 7.10 ||
Clearly bhrucis does not feel that manus has made the point strongly or clearly enough so he adds that the king
will not only destroy that mans family and his livelihood but also of all his friends and extended family. This is
because social control depends on the fear of punishment and the hierarchy of fear is that the people must not do
anything to displease the king so that his royal power and being the ruler of the whole world are never in doubt. In
turn, the king must never insult or injure a brhmaas who is his superior and the guarantor of his status. The
brhmaas in turn obeys the dictates of the divine revelation that issues from beyond this world. For this reason,
the concept of the apaurueyatvam of the vedas became important later on to firmly anchor the whole hierarchy in a
transcendental omnipresent unchanging eternal value in the face of opposition and criticism from ideologies and
practices based on ascetic ideas promoting pacification of the mind, which were difficult to square with this actionbased ideology, but whose value could not be ignored.
8

kryam sas avekya aktim ca dea-klau ca tattvatas |


kurute dharma-siddhi-artham viva-rpam punas punas ||
to be done he having regarded power and time and place and in reality/exactly/truly.
He acts for himself dharma-accomplishment-purpose many/every form again again.

He, in reality, having regarded what should be done and the power and time and place,
acts of himself again and again for many forms of wealth, power and socio-cosmic order.

ata csau vllabhyn maitryt svjanya-dvrena v nvamantavya | yata


ca tasya samyag upacaritasya
atas ca asau vllabhyt maitryt svjanya-dvrena v na avamantavyas |
yatas ca tasya samyak-upacaritasya
from that and he from loved/dear/preferred from friendship/alliance or by means of being self-born not to be
insulted. That from which and his/of him convergent/reunited/correct-of assisted/honoured

And so; from fondness, from alliance or by virtue of his being self-born, he is not to be
insulted and as regards his being correctly honoured

yasya prasde padm rr vijaya ca parkrame |


mtyu ca vasati krodhe sarvatejomayo hi sa || 7.11 ||
yasya prasde padm rs vijayas ca parkrame |
mtyus ca vasati krodhe sarva-tejas-mayas hi sas ||
he of whom in clarity/splendour lotus-goddess r and victory/conquest in courage/heroism
and death he lives/clothes in anger made of all-brilliance indeed he.

He whose heroism surpasses the lotus-goddess r in splendour,


while death lives in his anger, he is truly made of all-brilliance.

ato na kevalam asau bhayt pratyavya-parihrrtham rdhyo; abhyudayo


pi hi tasmt samyag upacaritd viio bhavati | ata caivam ca sati
atas na kevalam asau bhayt pratyavya-parihra-artham -rdhyas;
abhi-udayas api hi tasmt samyak-upacaritt viias bhavati | atas ca evam ca sati from not alone/isolated/pure he from fear purpose of avoiding diminution/contrary conduct/disagreement
to be made favourable/worshipped; sunrise/elevation/prosperity/beginning also indeed from
convergent/reunited/correct-from assisted/honoured specific is. And from that and in that way in being

that

So; not from fear of avoiding disagreement alone is he to be favoured; prosperity is also in
fact specifically from his being correctly honoured. And so in that way

ta yas tu dve samoht sa vinayaty asaayam | 7.12 ab |


tam yas tu dve samoht sa vinayati asaayam
him he who but he who hates/enemy (1.1.M) from loss of consciousness/stupor/confusion/mental problems he is
lost/perishes/disappears/is frustrated without doubt

But he who hates him out of stupidity perishes without doubt.

yathoktam upadeam aparigaayya paunapunyena | yatas ta na dviyd


anyrthpardham, yena
yath-uktam upadeam aparigaayya paunas-punyena | yatas tam na
dviyt anya-artha-apardham, yena
The teaching according to what was said not having calculated by frequent repetition. That from which him not
from to be hated another/other-purpose-mistake, that by which

Not working out a frequently repeated instruction according to what was said (by the
king) wherefrom there is the mistaken purpose by another rather than due to him being
hated, but by which

tasya hy u vinya rj prakurute mana || 7.12 ||


tasya hi u vi-nya rj prakurute manas
The kings intention swiftly acts for his destruction.

anyas tu dviyamna kadcid dharmpekay akty v saheta rja


puna sahamnasya svatantra-virodho yato 'akta csau nigrahaa
kartum iti | ata sadnuvartitavyo nirupadhais sadbhi |
anyas tu dviyamnas kadcit dharma-apekay aakty v saheta
rjas punas sahamnasya svatantra-virodhas yatas aaktas ca asau
nigrahaam kartum iti | atas sad anuvartitavyas nirupadhais 9 sadbhis |
other/another but being hated whenever/sometime with observing socio-cosmic order by lack of power or he would
vanquish/master/attack
of/from
king
after/but/again
of
possessing
pride/arrogance
independence/liberty/free/independent-hostility/quarrel/conflict whence/from which without power/ability and he
capturing/imprisonment to do/make quote. from that always to be conformed to/followed by being without
fraud/pretext by being(pl)

But another man being disliked might offend him at some point with regards to the sociocosmic order or by his incompetence and then there is a conflict with the independence of
the kings pride, in which case imprisonment is not an option.10 So; he is always to be
genuinely obeyed.

tasmd dharma yam ieu sa vyavasyen nardhipa |


ania cpy anieu ta dharma na vicrayet || 7.13 ||
tasmt dharmam yam ieu sa vyavasyet nara-adhipas |
an-iam ca api an-ieu tam dharmam na vicrayet ||
from that/therefore socio-cosmic order him who in desires/loved/approved/valid for he should encourage/determine
sovereign of men not desired and also in not desireds him socio-cosmic order not he should spread/make an
attack/commit a mistake.
This form does not seem to be correct since there is no stem nir-upa-dha, only nir-upa-dh or -dhi.
A king did not imprison anyone who was a threat to his autonomy, he would have them executed to ensure his
sovereignty. This is because the status of a king was not determined by outside factors, he was not a king because
he was king of a particular region or country, he was a king because he was created to be so in himself and every
king was in theory the king of the whole world. This meant that any opponent was a contradiction to that status
merely by being alive. The only valid situation ideologically was an uncontested single king of the whole world
and that is why they were perpetually at war with their neighbours.
9

10

Therefore, it is the socio-cosmic order which he, the sovereign of men, should encourage in
agreeable circumstances and even when something is disagreeable; he should never
disregard that socio-cosmic order in the context of those disagreeable circumstances.11

na hi rj varnrama-dharma-pravrttau hetuh, stra-laksaatvd


dharmdharmayo | avyavasth caiva syt | vyavasth-kri ca strena
bhavitavyam | tath ca bahu-ktvas tad-ukti, tad-virodha cnyyya |
yata prakarad rja-stuti-param etat pratyavagantavyam | laukikadharmpekay veda vijeyam stram | sampt rjotpatti | adhun
tatsahakr dao vykriyate |
na hi rj varna-rama-dharma-pravrttau hetus, stra-laksaatvt dharmaadharmayos | avyavasth ca evam syt | vyavasth-kri ca strena bhavitavyam | tath
ca bahu-ktvas tad-uktis, tad-virodhas ca anyyyas | yatas prakarat rja-stuti-param
etat prati-ava-gantavyam | laukika-dharma-pekay vedam vijeyam stram | sampt
rja-utpattis | adhun tat-sahakr daas vykriyate |
not indeed king social class-life stages-socio-cosmic order-in progress/manifestation cause, formal oral traditiondue to state of indicating of/in socio-cosmic order and disorder. Inconsistence/impermanence/irregularity and in
that way would be. And by making consistence/permanence/regularity by formal oral tradition will be. Thus and
many times saying that, contradiction of that and contrary to custom. Whence from discussion/explanation/subject
only praise of the king that is to be accurately known. By observing the worldly socio-cosmic order vedas to be
discerned/known oral tradition. Fully obtained/achieved/accomplished arising of a king. Now that-doing together
staff is distinguished/explained.

A king does not cause the twofold activity of the social class life stages and socio-cosmic
order. (The cause) is in the socio-cosmic order and disorder from the characteristics given
in the formal oral tradition since (being down to him) would be inconsistent so the
consistency will be made by the formal oral tradition. And in that way, (the formal oral
tradition) saying something many times, contradicting it is not done. Whence, from that
explanation, this (couplet) is just the praise of a king who accurately knows that. The
formal oral tradition, the vedas, is to be known, along with observing the worldly sociocosmic order. The (description of the) arising of a king is accomplished. Now the role of
punishment acting alongside that is explained

tasyrthe sarvabhtn goptra dharmam tmajam |


brahmatejomaya daam asjat prvam vara || 7.14 ||
tasya arthe sarvabhtnm goptram dharmam tmajam |
brahma-tejas-mayam daam asjat prvam varas ||
his/of him in wealth/purpose/object of all beings protector socio-cosmic order self-originated
made of the brilliance of brahman staff/punishment he ejected/emitted previously divine governor.

In his purpose, the self-originated socio-cosmic order is the protector of all beings.
The divine governor created first the staff (of punishment) made of the brilliance of
brahman.12
This makes it clear that the king actually has very little personal choice about how he acts. How agreeable or
disagreeable he considers a situation to be has no bearing on how he should act. He must act in conformity with the
socio-cosmic order as expressed by the traditionally recited rules kept and interpreted by the brhmas.
12
This word is difficult to translate well even in a specific context and here there may be many associations at play.
However, the enigmatic and immortal power of speech with its correlations is surely included as well as the link of
brahman to the brhmaas social class who maintained their place at the top by their association with and
empowerment by this enigmatic speech-power. It was important for them to continually convince the king of this
11

idam rabhya dvdaa-lok daotpattyarth | daa-nmnam


tejomayam sarva-bhta-goptram dharmam tmajam asjat prvam
rjotpatte | etad uktam bhavati "dad te rja[sa]tva n [bhivartate
tasmn naiva daotsar] janena rj praj rakiyati iti | yata ca
idam rabhya dvdaa-loks daa-utpatti-arths | daa-nmnam tejomayam sarvabhta-goptram dharmam tmajam asjat prvam raja-utpattes | etad uktam bhavati
"dat te rja[sa/s]tvam na abhivartate tasmt na eva daa-utsarjanena rj prajs
rakiyati iti | yatas ca
this having commenced twelve couplets purposes of the arising of the staff (of punishment). Name of staff (of
punishment) made of brilliance protector of all beings socio-cosmic order self-originated emitted previously/firstly
from/of arising of king. That said is, from staff (of punishment) in true/regular/right state of being possessed of
rajas not/no he gets to/approaches/attacks/commences from that not/no only/indeed staff (of punishment)- by/with
letting loose/abandoning/suspending king offspring/subjects he/it will protect. And based on that

There are twelve couplets starting with this one about the arising of the staff (of
punishment). The designation of the staff (of punishment) was the first he emitted as the
self-originated socio-cosmic order, the protector of all beings, made of brilliance, based on
the arising of a king. That is said as, A state (of mind) based on royal passion is not a tool
for getting into good order compared to the staff (of punishment), so the king will never
protect his subjects by abandoning the staff (of punishment). 13 And based on that

tasya sarvi bhtni sthvari cari ca |


bhayd bhogya kalpante svadharmn na calanti ca || 7.15 ||
tasya sarvi bhtni sthvari cari ca |
bhayt bhogya kalpante sva-dharmn na calanti ca ||
his/of him/for him all beings stationary and moving from fear for pleasure they organise/arrange/adapt own sociocosmic order not they move/act/set in motion and.

All his stationary and moving subjects seek pleasure based on fear
and do not depart from their inherent socio-cosmic status.

jta csau yukto rja-shyye yasya [bhayt sthvari phalacch]ydibhir


bhogya kalpante, ki punar anye | yo hi sthvaro vko na bhogya kalpate
niyata tasya pariodhandy rabhate, yata ca na pariuddhyate hitvsv
ag[r-kriya]te, ya ca pratiklam vartate tasya chedana-mlotpandibhir
daa prayata eva | yath rja-mrgdi-jtasya braa-stabde |
jtas ca asau yuktas rja-shyye yasya bhayt sthvari phala-chya-dibhis bhogya
kalpante, kim punar anye | yas hi sthvaras vkas na bhogya kalpate niyatam tasya
pariodhana-di rabhate, yatas ca na pariuddhyate hitv asau agr-kriyate, yas ca

eternal divine power since the king wielded a physical power that could easily and swiftly eradicate the tiny
population of the elite brhmaas social class completely.
13
The king should not follow the dictates of his own passions but should apply punishments according to the
dictates of the traditional instructions. Note that the staff (daas) is not described here as an extension of the
kings will or passion but as a divinely-fashioned instrument that will necessarily follow the dictates of the
traditional instruction based on divine precedent. It is as if he wields a tool of chastisement that is controlled by a
divine power that is not of his making.

pratiklam vartate tasya chedana-mla-utpana-dibhis daas prayate eva | yath


rja-mrga-di-jtasya braa-staba-des |
born and he employed/used in the aid/help of a king he of whom from fear stationary (beings) by/with colours of
fruits and so on organise for pleasure, why would it be otherwise? He who indeed stationary tree not/no for
pleasure he/it organises certainly/decidedly/in good order of him/his beginning with purification he commences,
and whence not/no is purified having killed/struck he is made into coal/shame, and he who/that which
contrary/opposed/adverse he acts of him/his cuts/fact of cutting-root-uprooting-by beginning with/and so on staff
(of punishment) is led forwards/conducted/promoted only/indeed.
In which manner, kingpath/way/means/expedient-first/beginning with-of born/multitude/species fragrant grass-bunch/tuft-of/from
first/beginning with.

And once created, that (staff of punishment) is employed to aid the king, from fear of
whom stationary (beings) seek for pleasure with the colours of their fruits and so on. Why
would it be otherwise? Indeed, that stationary tree which does not seek such pleasure,
being in good order, one starts with the purification of it and when it cannot be purified,
having struck it down, it turns into coal. So also for one who acts against society, the staff
(of punishment) surely impels him by his being cut down, uprooted and so on. In which
manner, the first expedient of a king begins with a tuft of fragrant grass.14

ta deaklau akti ca vidy cvekya tattvata |


yathrhata sapraayen narev anyyavttiu || 7.16 ||
tam dea-klau aktim ca vidym ca avekya tattvatas |
yath-arhatas sapraayet nareu anyya-vttiu ||
him time and place and ability knowledge and having considered/comprehended/known conforming to reality/in
truth/justly/exactly according to capability/merit/respectability he should reunite/amass/bring in taxes in men of
bad/poor conduct.

Having justly considered time, location, ability and knowledge,


he should bring in taxes according to merit for men of poor conduct.

grmraya-bhybhyantara-rathydir dea | div nakta blo yuv


sthavira iti kla | akti arra-gatrtha-gat ca | vidy tray sgopg |
etadapekay daa praeya | anyath pranto 'nartham utpdayati,
artha ca na karotti daa-stutyartho 'yam anuvda | daa-ptanavidhi tparid vakyatyapardham pratijyeti |
grma-araya-bhya-abhyantara-rathy-dir deas | div naktam blas yuv sthaviras iti
klas | aktis arra-gat artha-gat ca | vidy tray sga-upg | etad-apekay daas
praeyas | anyath prantas anartham utpdayati, artham ca na karoti iti daa-stutiarthas ayam anuvdas | daa-ptana-vidhim tu uparit vakyati apardham pratijy
iti |
village-forest-outside-inside-trade route-and so on location. By day and night, child, youth or elderly time. Ability
according to the body and according to wealth. Knowledge is the three vedas with their subsidiaries and auxiliaries.
With knowing that the staff (of punishment) is to be wielded. Wielding it in any other way produces no wealth,
wealth and not he makes quote staff-praise-purpose this explanatory reference. But the rule for using the staff (of
punishment) will be said later on mistake/error by/with intelligence/admit/accept/acknowledge quote.

This can be read as the king taking care of everything from the smallest tuft of fragrant grass upwards or that the
king starts with softer measures to change (purify) bad behaviour before moving on to the more drastic measures
that the staff (of punishment) generally refers to. The phrase, being cut down, uprooted and so on is clearly
analogous to a subject being beaten and expelled from society or executed.
14

Location refers to the village, forest, living outside or inside, on a trade route and so on.
Time refers to working by day or night, being a child, a youth or elderly. Ability is
according to the body and according to wealth. Knowledge is the three vedas with their
subsidiaries and auxiliaries. The staff (of punishment) is to be wielded with knowing all
that. Wielding it in any other way produces no wealth such that the king makes no wealth.
This explanatory reference is just for praising the staff (of punishment), while the rule for
using the staff (of punishment) will be said later on with acknowledging error.

sa rj puruo daa sa net sit ca sa |


caturm ram ca dharmasya pratibh smta || 7.17 ||
sa rj puruas daas sa net sit ca sas |
caturm ramm ca dharmasya pratibhs smtas ||
he king man staff/staff (of punishment) he leader/guide/conductor/chief (of army)
chastises/punishes/controls he
and of the four stages of life of socio-cosmic order observing/guarantor remembered/loved

and

he

who

The staff (of punishment) is the man and the king, the leader (of the army) and the
chastiser, as well as the acknowledged guarantor of the socio-cosmic order of the four
stages of life.

daa eva rj, tannimittatvd rjatvasya | sa eva purua, yena balyaso 'pi
purusn strvan nyakkrtv vaam nayati | sa net yasmt tadbhayd eva
kryni samya nyante | sa eva sit yena tadapekayaiva vsan
sanbhavati | sa eva ca pratibhr varramavyatikrame pratibhr iva
pratibh | yata caivam ata
daas eva rj, tad-nimittatvt rjatvasya | sa eva puruas, yena balyasas api purusn
strvat nyak-krtv vaam nayati | sa net yasmt tad-bhayt eva kryni samyac
nyante | sa eva sit yena tad-apekay eva vsan san-bhavati | sa eva ca pratibhs
vara-rama-vyatikrame pratibhs iva pratibhs | yatas ca evam atas
The king is truly the staff (of punishment), due to his kingship being caused by that. A man truly is he, he by whom
stronger also men like women having humiliated will/desire/order authority he brings. The leader is he from whom
from fear of that/whom truly to be dones/products/obligations convergent/reunited/correct they are led. He truly
chastiser by whom that-by observing truly habitation/impression/association becomes chastising. And he truly
guarantor four stages of life in exceeding/surpassing guarantor like/as if guarantor. And because of that

The king is truly the staff (of punishment), due to his kingship being caused by that. A
real man is he who, humiliating even stronger men as if they were women, brings order.
The leader is he from fear of whom alone their obligations are brought together. And he
truly is the chastiser, where merely by observing him the mental impression becomes
chastising. And he truly is the guarantor, as if a guarantor surpassing the four stages of
life is the guarantor (of them). And because of that

daa sti praj sarv daa evbhirakati |


daa supteu jgarti daa dharma vidur budh || 7.18 ||
daas sti prajs sarvs daas eva abhirakati |
daas supteu jgarti daam dharmam vidus budhs ||

staff (of punishment) he/it punishes/chastises/corrects all beings staff/staff (of punishment) only/truly he
preserves/protects staff/staff (of punishment) in asleeps/who sleeps/immobiles he wakes staff/staff (of punishment)
socio-cosmic order they knew the wise

The staff (of punishment) chastises all beings; the staff (of punishment) alone protects;
the staff (of punishment) is awake in the deepest slumbers; the wise know the socio-cosmic
order as the staff (of punishment).

na stram rj v sti | satyapi ca stre rjani ca daa-bhayd eva


sanam anuvartante varnramia | eva ca sa evbhirakati, akryakribhya itarn, suptev api rja-puruev aihika-bhayt para-loka-bhayd
v na yath-kma pravartate loka |
na stram rj v sti | sati api ca stre rjani ca daa-bhayt eva sanam
anuvartante varna-ramias | evam ca sa eva abhirakati, akrya-kribhyas itarn,
supteu api rja-purueu aihika-bhayt para-loka-bhayt v na yath-kmam pravartate
lokas |
not/no order/law/teaching/instruction/norm king or punishment/chastisement/correction/he chastises. In being
also/even and in order/law/teaching/instruction/norm in king and from fear of chastisement alone/truly chastising
they follow/pursue/obey those engaged in the four stages of life. And in that way he alone protects, otherwise
for/from those doing what should not be done, in deepest slumbers/asleeps/who sleeps/immobiles also/even in men
of the king of this world/local/temporal-from fear from fear of the other world or not according to desire he/it acts
the world.

The king does not correct the statutory norms. In them just existing and in the king being
in the statutory norms, those engaged in the four stages of life obey the chastising norms
from fear of chastisement alone. And in that way, he alone protects others from doing
what should not be done even in the deepest slumbers of the kings men based on fears
about the here and now or the other world, since the world does not function according to
ones desire.

samkya sa dhta samyak sarv rajayati praj |


asamkya pratas tu vinayati sarvata || 7.19 ||
samkya sa dhtas samyac sarvs rajayati prajs |
asamkya pratas tu vinayati sarvatas ||
having
observed/examined/contemplated
he
held/maintained/supported/guarded
convergent/reunited/correct/entire/whole all he causes to be coloured/touched/delighted/charmed/satisfied
progeny/beings
not
having
observed/examined/contemplated
led
forward/advanced/offered/delivered/performed/established/desired
but
he
causes
to
perish/kills
everywhere/everyone

Observing (the socio-cosmic order) being correctly maintained, he makes all his subjects
delighted. But not observing (the socio-cosmic order) being established, he causes
everyone to perish.

naitvat mucymahe, asamyag-dhta krya na karotti | yathaiva


samyag-dhto rajayati praj, evam asamyag-dhta sarvam eva vinayati
|
na etvat mucymahe, asamyag-dhtas kryam na karoti iti | yath eva samyak-dhtas
rajayati prajs, evam asamyag-dhtas sarvam eva vinayati |

not/no by so big/so numerous/so many we are freed/liberated, not convergent/reunited/correct/entire/wholeheld/maintained/supported/guarded to be done not/no he does/makes quote. In which manner truly/only
convergent/reunited/correct/entire/whole-held/maintained/supported/guarded
he
causes
to
be
coloured/touched/delighted/charmed/satisfied
subjects/progeny/beings,
thus
not
convergent/reunited/correct/entire/whole-held/maintained/supported/guarded all only/indeed/truly he causes to
perish/kills

We cannot escape. Incorrectly supported he does not do what is to be done. Only when
correctly supported does he make his subjects delighted, so when incorrectly supported he
surely causes everyone to perish.

yad na praayed rj daa dayev atandrita |


le matsyn ivpakyan durbaln balavattar || 7.20 ||
yad na praayet rj daam dayeu atandritas |
le matsyn iva apakyan15 durbaln balavattars ||
When/if not/no he should lead forward/advance/offer/deliver/perform/establish/desire king staff (of
punishment)/staff in to be punished untired/indefatigable/unsleeping on the spit fishes like they would be cooking
the feeble/impotent more powerful/stronger

If the untiring king did not deliver punishment to those who need to be punished,
the strong would roast the weak like fishes on a spit.

na kevalam daa-pratau guvptir, apratau matsyasya nyya


pravartate |
na kevalam daa-pratau gua-avptis, apratau matsyasya nyyas pravartate |
not alone/solitary/secret in delivering punishment obtaining quality/subordination, in no delivery the maxim of the
fishes he invokes.

He is not only obtaining subordination (to him) in delivering punishment, without it the
maxim of the fishes applies.16

apakyan pac pacati l prathamapuruabahuvacanam pac l (3.3.139 which specifies that a future action
is possible but does not come about) and 3.1.33 adds sya pac sya jhi (3.4.78 and by 1.4.14 this is a padam
(word) by virtue of ending in jhi) then 7.1.3 substitutes jh with ant pac sya anti and 6.4.71 adds a a pac sya
anti and 8.2.30 substitutes the c with k a pak sya anti and 8.3.59 substitutes the s with a pak ya anti and
3.4.100 zero-substitutes the final i of anti a pak ya ant and 8.2.23 zero-substitutes the last consonant of a
conjunct at the end of a word a pak ya an and 6.1.97 operates to substitute the a of ya and the following a
of an with the latter a a pak yanand with codings zero-substituted by 1.3.9 apakyan
16
What we call the law of the jungle that bigger animals eat smaller animals is generally referred to as the law of
the fishes in the Indian traditions such that bigger fish eat smaller fish.
15