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UNIT 1 Answer Key

CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1 Section 1

Prereading and Vocabulary 2

Reading Comprehension 3

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

oligarchy
citizen
democracy
constitution
state
two basic levels; certain decisions; only the
federal government; each of the states
Federalism is a system of government in
which power is divided between a central
government and several regional, or state,
governments.

1. Population; the people who live within the


boundaries of the state
2. Territory; land with known and recognized
boundaries
3. Sovereignty; the supreme and absolute
power within a states territory to decide
its own foreign and domestic policies
4. Government; the institution through which
society makes and enforces public policies
5. Force theory; the state was born of force,
when one person or a small group gained
control over people in an area and forced
them to submit to that persons or groups
rule.
6. Evolutionary theory; the state evolved
from early families that united to form
clans. Later, clans united to form tribes. As
tribes settled into agricultural groups over
time, they formed states.
7. Divine right theory; God created the state
and gave a chosen few the right to rule.
8. Social contract theory; people voluntarily
agreed to create a state and give to
the government just enough power to
promote the safety and well-being of all.
Government exists to serve the will of the
people, and the people are the sole source
of political power.

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Government and the State
A. Definition of Government and the State
1. legislative, executive, judicial
2. state
B. Political Ideas and the Purpose of
Government
1. force
2. evolutionary
3. divine right
4. social contract
5. Preamble
II. Section 2: Forms of Government
A. Who Can Participate?
1. representative democracy
2. direct
3. autocracy, oligarchy
B. Distribution of Power
1. unitary
2. federal
C. Executive and Legislative Branches
1. presidential
2. parliamentary
III. Section 3: Basic Concepts of Democracy
A. Foundations of Democracy
1. majority
2. compromise
B. Citizenship
duties, responsibilities
C. The Free Enterprise System
1. capitalism
2. People

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Legislative power: Legislative power is the
power to make laws.
Executive power: Executive power is the
power to carry out the laws.
Judicial power: Judicial power is the
power to settle arguments and decide on
the meaning of the law.
2. Force Theory: Force theory is the idea that
a small group took over an area and forced
other people who came after them to
follow their rules.
Evolutionary Theory: Evolutionary theory
is the idea that the state began as a family,
with related families soon joining and
cooperating with the original family.
Divine Right Theory: Divine right theory
is the idea that God created the state and
gave people of royal birth a divine right to
rule.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Social Contract Theory: Social contract
theory is the idea that people with
common needs came together to form
a state. Out of this state, government
developed to keep people safe and to use
power for the common good.

Examples: Most Americans obey the


laws, helping us all live together in peace.
Sometimes, however, government actions lead
to domestic disturbances, such as antiwar
protests.
Statement: Provide for the common defense
Possible Reason: The Framers knew that
drawing on the resources of all States would
provide a stronger national defense than the
States could provide operating individually.
Examples: The United States has one of the
worlds most powerful militaries. However,
our security today depends in part on our
allies. The war on terrorism is a global war,
and we need to partner with other countries to
fight this war successfully.
Statement: Promote the general welfare
Possible Reason: The Framers intended a
government that serves, not oppresses, the
people.
Examples: The government provides many
services, such as public schools, aid to
low-income families, and environmental
protection. The government does not fulfill
all the basic needs of citizens. Americans are
expected to work and provide for themselves.
Statement: Secure the blessings of liberty
Possible Reason: The colonists fought to
liberate themselves from British rule, which
they perceived as oppressive. The Framers
recognized liberty as a core American value.
Examples: Individual liberties remain a core
American value. For example, Americans
may criticize the government without fear
of retribution. However, debate continues
over how far individual liberties extend. For
example, does an individuals right to bear
arms extend to owning an assault rifle?
Possible response to question: Yes. Only a
society working together through government
can keep order. Government makes laws, and
citizens obey them, so that people can live
together peacefully in a community. Without
order, there can be no freedom. Everyone
would live in fear. Individuals would fight for
power, and the winners would subjugate the
losers.

Core Worksheet 3
Sample Answers:
Statement: We the People of the United States
Possible Reason: The Framers intended to
establish a government that derives its power
from the people, rather than a monarchy (like
their British rulers).
Examples: The American people still rule by
electing representatives and voting out those
who disappoint. However, accountability
to the people has eroded somewhat today,
as average Americans must compete for
influence with moneyed interests. For
example, some members of Congress listen
more to powerful lobbyists than to the views
of their constituents.
Statement: In order to form a more perfect
Union
Possible Reason: The States needed a stronger
Union than the one created by the Articles of
Confederation to overcome the rivalries and
jealousies among the States.
Examples: The Federal Government has
sufficient power to act for the country as a
whole, providing strength that no State could
achieve on its own. The Union is not perfect,
however. The division of powers between
State and Federal governments is still debated.
For example, should States be allowed to
make their own gun laws?
Statement: Establish justice
Possible Reason: Resentment over British acts
that the colonists perceived as unjust helped to
ignite the American Revolution. After winning
the fight, Americans wanted to ensure justice
in their new government.
Examples: Equal justice for all remains
a national goal, although prejudices still
threaten justice for some groups. For
example, fear of terrorism sometimes leads to
harassment of Arab Americans.
Statement: Insure domestic tranquility
Possible Reason: The Framers recognized that
all citizens would benefit from peace at home
and that only a government could accomplish
this goal.

Core Worksheet 2
Answers will vary, depending on the phrases
that students choose or that the teacher
assigns to them.
Phrase: We the People of the United States

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Why included: The Framers intended to
establish a government that derives its power
from the people, rather than a monarchy (like
the British).
Why important today: The American people
still rule by electing representatives and voting
out those who disappoint.
Phrase: In order to form a more perfect Union
Why included: The States needed a stronger
Union than the one created by the Articles of
Confederation to overcome the rivalries and
jealousies among the States.
Why important today: The Federal
Government has sufficient power to act for the
country as a whole, providing strength that no
State could achieve on its own.
Phrase: Establish justice
Why included: Resentment over British acts
that the colonists perceived as unjust helped to
ignite the American Revolution. After winning
the fight, Americans wanted to ensure justice
in their new government.
Why important today: Equal justice for all
remains a national goal, although prejudices
still threaten justice for some groups.
Phrase: Insure domestic tranquility
Why included: The Framers recognized that
all citizens would benefit from peace at home
and that only a government could accomplish
this goal.
Why important today: Most Americans obey
the laws, helping us all live together in peace.
Phrase: Provide for the common defense
Why included: The Framers knew that
drawing on the resources of all States would
provide a stronger national defense than the
States could provide operating individually.
Why important today: The United States has
one of the worlds most powerful militaries
and partners with other nations in the war on
terrorism.
Phrase: Promote the general welfare
Why included: The Framers intended a
government that serves, not oppresses, the
people.
Why important today: The government
provides many services that promote the
general welfare, such as public schools, aid
to low-income families, and environmental
protection.
Phrase: Secure the blessings of liberty
Why included: The colonists fought to
liberate themselves from British rule, which

they perceived as oppressive. The Framers


recognized liberty as a core American value.
Why important today: Individual liberties
remain a core American value. For example,
Americans may criticize the government
without fear of retribution.
Possible response to question: Yes. Only a
society working together through government
can keep order. Government makes laws, and
citizens obey them, so that people can live
together peacefully in a community. Without
order, there can be no freedom. Everyone
would live in fear. Individuals would fight for
power, and the winners would subjugate the
losers.

Extend Worksheet:
Second Treatise of Government 3, 4
1. People had the freedom to choose their
own actions and control themselves and
their possessions without the consent of
others.
2. One free persons life, liberty, and estate
(property) will be threatened by another
free persons actions.
3. by people voluntarily coming together and
agreeing to live in a group according to the
will of the majority
4. People trade perfect freedom for increased
security. They do so by mutually agreeing
to abide by the will of the majority.

Extend Worksheet:
Assess Prior Knowledge 3, 4
Answers will vary, depending on what
students already know about these topics.

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. d
3. f
4. b
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. b

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Quiz B

Examples: European Union, United States


under the Articles of Confederation
Presidential: a form of government in which
the executive and legislative branches are
separate, independent, and coequal
Examples: United States; most other
presidential systems are found in the Western
Hemisphere.
Parliamentary: a form of government in which
the executive is chosen by the legislature.
Examples: Great Britain; most countries of the
world have parliamentary governments.

Key Terms
1. a
2. c
3. f
4. b
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. b
10. d

Reading Comprehension 2
1. In a democracy the government gets its
power from the people. In a dictatorship,
the government is run by one person who
is not necessarily concerned with the will
of the people.
2. Direct democracy: Direct democracy is a
type of government in which all people
create laws or policies. It only works on a
small, local level.
Indirect democracy: Indirect democracy
is a type of government in which a small
group of people is chosen to represent the
interests of the larger group. This is also
called representative democracy.
3. Autocracy: An autocracy is a dictatorship
in which a single person holds all power.
Oligarchy: An oligarchy is a dictatorship
in which a small group of people holds all
power.
4. In a unitary government, a single,
central group holds power. In a federal
government, power is divided between
a central government and several local
governments.
5. The United States has a presidential
form of government. The legislative and
executive branches are separate and equal,
and each branch can check the power of
the other.

CHAPTER 1 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
Democracy: a form of government in which
the supreme authority rests with the people
Indirect: democracy in which the people
express their will through their elected
representatives
Examples: United States, Great Britain
Direct: democracy in which the people
themselves make public policy in mass
meetings
Examples: New England town meeting, the
Landsgemeinde in small Swiss cantons; direct
democracy does not exist at the national level.
Dictatorship: a form of government in which
the ruler or ruling group has absolute power
and authority
Autocracy: a dictatorship in which a single
person holds unlimited political power
Examples: Libya
Oligarchy: a dictatorship in which a small
group of usually self-appointed elite holds all
power to rule
Examples: Myanmar, China
Unitary Government: a centralized
government in which all government powers
belong to a single, central agency
Examples: Great Britain; most democratic
governments in the world are unitary.
Federal Government: a form of government
in which powers are divided between a central
government and several local governments
Examples: United States, Australia, Canada,
Mexico, Switzerland, Germany, India
Confederate Government: a form of
government made up of an alliance of
independent states

Core Worksheet 3
Features:
Democracy: supreme authority rests with the
people; government rules by consent of the
people; direct or indirect
Dictatorship: single person or small group holds
unlimited power; rulers not held responsible to
the people; government not accountable for its
policies; authoritarian; often totalitarian; holds

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


power with the help of strong groups such as
the military, religious leaders, and industrialists
Predictions:
Answers will vary. Sample answers:
Democracy:
1. The national and local governments would
work together to get food to those who
need it. The governments would form
study groups to search for solutions.
2. The government encourages participation
in the program by setting aside money to
build recycling plants and wind turbines
and to fund research into alternative fuels.
3. The government must follow the
amendment process laid out in the
constitution, and the decision is made by a
vote of the people or their representatives.
Dictatorship:
4. The leaders and their supporters would
take the available food for themselves and
ignore other starving citizens.
5. The government builds the infrastructure
and commands citizens to recycle and
use alternative energy. The government
might use scare tactics, such as the threat
of imprisonment for those who do not
comply.
6. The dictators simply continue in office
without seeking anyones approval, or
they decree that they are the leaders for
life.

6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b

CHAPTER 1 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Individual worth; possible meaning:
All people have value and deserve to be
treated with dignity.
2. Equality; possible meaning: Every
individual is entitled to take advantage
of lifes opportunities and to the same
treatment before the law.
3. Majority rule and minority rights; possible
meaning: Decisions of the majority hold,
but the majority must be willing to listen
to the views of the minority.
4. Compromise; possible meaning:
Compromise is a process of give-and-take
among conflicting views to come to a
decision that is acceptable to most people.
5. Individual freedom; possible meaning: All
individuals may do as they like as long as
their actions do not violate the rights of
others.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. a. Every person has worth and dignity.
b. Every person is equal and should
be treated the same under the law.
Every person should have the same
opportunities.
c. The majority rule, but the opinions of the
minority should be respected.
d. Compromise is the best way to settle
differences.
e. Every person is free, but no one can take
away the freedom of others.
2. Any two of the following are acceptable:
citizens have a duty to pay taxes, go to
school, and obey laws.
3. Either of the following is acceptable:
citizens have a responsibility to vote and to
help in the community.
4. The free enterprise system is based
on a market system in which goods
and services are bought and sold in
a competitive marketplace. Workers

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. c
2. a
3. f
4. b
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. a
3. f
4. b
5. e

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


compete for jobs and businesses compete
for customers. Most economic decisions
are made by individuals. The government
plays a role by passing laws and regulations.
5. capitalism

Falling Short: In many cities, homeless people


live on the streets.
Equality:
Reflecting Ideal: The city builds wheelchair
ramps to provide access to government
buildings for people with disabilities.
Falling Short: An employer pays men more
than women doing the same job, asserting
that men need more money because they must
support a family.
Majority rule/minority rights:
Reflecting Ideal: City council surveys residents
to find out if most people want the city to build
a tennis court or a bike trail in the city park.
Falling Short: Until 1955, African Americans
in Baltimore were not allowed to use whiteonly public swimming pools.
Compromise:
Reflecting Ideal: Before appointing a federal
district court judge, the President consults
with senators from the State where the judge
will serve and chooses a candidate they support.
Falling Short: The President consults with the
members of his Cabinet, and then proceeds
with a policy they all oppose.
Individual freedom:
Reflecting Ideal: Keesha disagrees with the
schools dress code, so she writes an editorial
in the school newspaper supporting her
request for a change.
Falling Short: In 1873, the Supreme Court
upholds a State law barring women from the
practice of law.
Part 2:
Duties of Citizenship:
Jury duty: Citizens must be tried by a jury of
their peers.
Attending school: Educated people make
better citizens and are needed to participate in
daily life.
Paying taxes: Money is required to pay for
essential programs such as education, security,
and roads.
Obeying laws: Otherwise, anarchy could
result, with the loss of individual freedoms.
Responsibilities of Citizenship:
Voting: Although voting allows citizens
voices to be heard, it is not required in the U.S.
Volunteering/being active in the community:
Citizens are allowed to determine the extent of
the role they play in community life.
Understanding how the government works:
Knowledge of the principles and structure of

Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. Possible response: Information at Cyber
SpeedBut Beware; I suggest this title
because it captures the main idea of quick
access to information on the Internet, and
the warning at the end might intrigue
readers to read on.
2. Possible response: The Internet provides
average citizens easy access to a huge
volume of political information. However,
no one guarantees the accuracy of this
information. Much of it is false or biased.
Plans to conduct online voting have been
scrapped because the government could
find no way to protect against voting
fraud.
3. Possible response: Students might
underline this sentence: There is a vast
amount of unverified, often unverifiable,
and frequently false information and
biased analysis in cyberspace.

Bellringer Worksheet, ELL 2


theoretically
unverified
unverifiable
informed
guarantee
biased
quantity
participation
Possible response: The Internet provides a
lot of information about the government,
making it easy to stay informed.
10. Possible response: Much of the information
on the Internet is unproven, false, or
biased.
11. Possible response: Politics on the Web:
Read with Caution
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Core Worksheet 3
Answers will vary. Sample answers:
Part 1:
Individual worth:
Reflecting Ideal: The government runs jobtraining programs to help people living in
poverty gain employment skills.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


government can help citizens better monitor
the actions of that government.

you can do for your country; we can do for


the freedom of man; let us go forth to lead
3. Student responses will vary, but they
should cite specific parts of the speech.
4. Possible answers: President Kennedy
repeats the word citizen to appeal to
Americans sense of duty and citizenship.
By appealing to both American citizens
and citizens of the world he emphasizes
the connections of all people. President
Kennedy uses certain phrases (not as a
call to bear arms, though arms we need
not as call to battle, though embattled we
are) to emphasize the scope of the task.
The task is not limited to a single war.
It is very broad (a struggle against the
common enemies of man) and will last a
long time (the burden of a long twilight
struggle).

Skills Worksheet 3
1. In the excerpt, Kennedy urges Americans
to work together to defend freedom
against the common enemies of man,
namely, tyranny, poverty, disease, and war.
2. Students responses may vary. Possible
response: (a) Americans have a responsibility
to fight against the common enemies
of man; to support this idea, Kennedy
notes that Americans are being summoned
again to this task, emphasizing that
they have done it successfully in the past.
He also suggests that Americans have a
strong duty to serve their country (ask
not. . .). (b) Americans are up to the task of
defending freedom; to support this view,
Kennedy tells his audience that the current
generation would not be willing to trade
places with any other generation, but that
it relishes the challenge of service. He also
couches this sentiment in heroic terms
with heroic imagery.
3. Students responses will vary, but they
should cite specific parts of the speech.
4. Possible answers: repetition of the word
citizenKennedy repeats this word to
appeal to Americans sense of duty and
citizenship; turning phrases inside out
(e.g., a call to bear arms, though arms we
need; a call to battle, though embattled
we are)Kennedy uses this technique
to make a distinction between what he is
asking people to do (to work hardarms
working in service and battling against
oppression) and what he is not asking
people to do (he is not merely speaking
of military service, bearing arms and
fighting literal battles); the word finally in
the last paragraph signals to listeners that
his speech is nearing its conclusion.

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. c
3. e
4. f
5. b
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. d

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. b
3. e
4. f
5. a
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. d

Skill Activity 2
1. President Kennedy is urging Americans
to work together to defend freedom and
advance humankind.
2. Important words and phrases include:
summons us; a struggle against the
common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty,
disease, and war; defending freedom; what

CHAPTER 1
Test A
Key Terms
1. b

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


2. f
3. i
4. d
5. j
6. a
7. e
8. h
9. g
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. a
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. c
16. a
17. c
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. Sample response: In a democracy,
public decision making must largely
be a matter of give-and-take among
various competing interests. It is a matter
of compromise to find the position
most acceptable to the largest number.
Compromise is important to democracy
because, although the individual is
highly valued, each individual is the
equal of all others. Therefore, in a society
composed of different people with
different views, decisions cannot be made
except through compromise. Government
would be impossible without the process
of compromise as a way of achieving
majority agreement.
Critical Thinking
22. Possible response: Both democracy and
the free enterprise system are firmly based
on a commitment to the idea of individual
freedom. In a democracy, supreme political
authority rests with the people; in a free
enterprise system, supreme economic
authority rests with the people as well.
Individuals, not the government, make
most of the decisions in a free enterprise
system.
Essay
23. Possible response: For a wide variety
of reasons, government is necessary.
Order is essential to the well-being of
any society, and keeping the peace at

home has always been a prime function


of government. Similarly, defending the
nation against foreign enemies is also a
prime responsibility of government.
Without government, we would all
be personally responsible for our own
protection against domestic or foreign
threats. We would all be personally
responsible for our own education. Safe
food and safe highways, as well as many
other basic services, would be difficult or
impossible to achieve. Civil rights would
not be protected. We would live in a state
of nature in which individuals would
be only as safe as their own strength and
intelligence could make them.

Test B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. i
4. d
5. j
6. a
7. e
8. h
9. g
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. c
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. c
16. a
17. c
18. b
19. c
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. (a) President Ford is addressing the
concept of compromise. (b) Compromise
is the process of considering all sides of
an issue. It is a matter of compromise to
find the position most acceptable to the
largest number. Therefore, in a society
with different people with different views,
decisions cannot be made except through
compromise. President Ford says that, in a
democracy, compromise is the best way to
settle differences. Democratic government
would be impossible without the process

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


of compromise as a way of achieving
majority agreement.
Critical Thinking
22. The free enterprise system developed
as a result of the ideas written in the
Constitution and Bill of Rights. Democracy
is based on the idea of rule by the people;
that is, the countrys leaders are chosen
by the people. The free enterprise system
is also based on the idea of personal
choice. In this system, individuals, not
the government, make most economic
decisions.
Essay
23. Possible response: Without some form
of government, most people would live
in fear of losing their lives and property.
Government is necessary to keep order
in society and protect lives, property, and
individual rights. In order to accomplish
this, government needs legislative,
executive, and judicial powers so it
can make and carry out laws and settle
disputes. Another essential function
of government is to defend the nation
against foreign enemies. Government
also provides important services such as
schools and roads. Without some form
of government, it would be difficult
or impossible to obtain many of these
services.

1. Magna Carta
2. English Bill of Rights
C. The Thirteen Colonies
1. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and
Delaware
2. Connecticut, Rhode Island
II. Section 2: The Coming of Independence
A. British Colonial Policies
1. taxing
2. Boston Tea Party
B. The First Continental Congress
Intolerable Acts
C. The Second Continental Congress
1. Articles of Confederation
2. Declaration of Independence
D. The First State Constitutions
1. conventions
2. legislature
III. Section 3: The Critical Period
A. Problems with the Articles of
Confederation
1. money
2. trade
B. Need for a Stronger Government
Constitutional Convention
IV. Section 4: Creating the Constitution
A. Plans of Government
1. bicameral
2. equally
B. Convention Compromises
1. Connecticut, or Great
2. Three-Fifths Compromise
V. Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution
A. Ratification
1. Federalists, ratified
2. opposed
3. Bill of Rights
B. The New Government
1. George Washington
2. New York City

CHAPTER 2
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

possible answers: complaint, objection


possible answers: approve, authorize
possible answers: agreement, deal, bargain
f
d
g
a
e
b
c

CHAPTER 2 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Magna Carta
Date: 1215
Democratic Reforms: trial by jury, due
process, private property
Significance: established principle that
power of monarchy is not absolute
Petition of Right
Date: 1628

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Our Political Beginnings
A. Basic Concepts
1. limited
2. representative
B. Landmark English Documents

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Democratic Reforms: King cant imprison
or punish without judgment of peers or
law of land;
king cant impose martial law in
peacetime;
king cant require homeowners to shelter
troops without their consent
Significance: challenged divine right of
kings; even monarch must obey the law of
the land
English Bill of Rights
Date: 1689
Democratic Reforms: no standing army in
peacetime; free parliamentary elections;
monarch may not suspend laws or levy
taxes without consent of Parliament;
subjects have right to petition the king;
right to a fair trial; freedom from excessive
bail or fines and from cruel and unusual
punishment; right to bear arms
Significance: contributed many basic
principles to development of our
government
2. Crown: exercised direct control of colonies;
approved laws
Governor: colonys chief executive;
appointed by king; appointed judges;
approved laws
Council:
selected by king; served as advisory
body to governor and as highest court in
the colony
became upper house of the colonial
legislature
Lower House:
elected by property owners eligible to
vote
shared power to tax and spend with
advisory council and governor

2.
3.
4.

5.

Reforms: King could not imprison people


without a jury trial; king could not force
rich people to make loans
English Bill of Rights
Date: 1689
Reforms: Parliament had to approve all
taxes; king could not suspend Parliament;
people could ask the king for help; people
accused of a crime had the right to a jury
trial
All three documents were meant to limit
the power of the king.
The royal governors were too strict, which
angered the colonists.
Charter colonies had fair laws and
judges. They had more freedom and selfgovernment than the other colonies.
Royal colonies: Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Proprietary colonies: Pennsylvania,
Delaware, Maryland
Charter colonies: Connecticut, Rhode Island

Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
Answers will vary. Students should support
their comments.
Part 2
1. Students should select a few specific ideas
from the documents and apply them to
their own life.
2. Students should note that the restriction
of individual freedoms under British rule
helped spark the American Revolution.
3. Students should recognize that the
concepts in these documents appear in the
Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution and
are reflected in all State constitutions.

Quiz A

Reading Comprehension 2

Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. c
4. b
5. d
6. f
Main Ideas
7. b
8. b
9. c
10. a

1. Magna Carta
Date: 1215
Reforms: King must consult with nobles;
special taxes could not be raised without
consent of nobles; free men could not be
jailed without a trial with jury of peers;
common people would elect people to
Parliament
Petition of Right
Date: 1628

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Unit 1 Answer Key (continued)


Quiz B

Separation of powers and checks and


balances: Powers of government are
divided among three branches. Each
branch has the power to check the power
of the other branches.

Key Terms
1. f
2. e
3. c
4. b
5. d
6. a
Main Ideas
7. b
8. b
9. c
10. a

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Group: First Continental Congress
Dates: 1774
Purpose/Actions: The Congress sent a
Declaration of Rights to King George to
protest the Intolerable Acts and other
colonial policies.
Group: Second Continental Congress
Dates: 17751781
Purpose/Actions: The Second Continental
Congress ran the government, organized
an army, and supported the colonists
during the Revolutionary War. It also
wrote the Declaration of Independence
and the Articles of Confederation.
2. Section: First section
Summary: The first section says that all
people have the right to life, liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness. It says that if a
government does not grant people these
rights, the government should end.
Section: Middle section
Summary: This section lists the colonists
complaints against the king of England.
Section: Last section
Summary: This section declares that the
colonies are independent from British rule.
3. a. Popular sovereignty: The government
can only exist if the people consent to it.
The people give the power to government.
b. Limited government: Government
power is restricted.
c. Civil rights and liberties: People have
certain rights and freedoms that the
government must protect.
d. Separation of powers: The government
is divided among three branches. Each
branch has a way to control the power of
the others.
4. They influenced the Framers when they
drafted the Constitution of the United States.

CHAPTER 2 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Cause: End of French-Indian War
Effect/Cause: costly British troops stay in
America
Effect/Cause: British financial crisis
Effect/Cause: British acts/taxes; Stamp Act
Effect/Cause: American outrage;
British refusal to back down
Effect/Cause: Stamp Act Congress;
Committees of Correspondence; mob
violence; Boston Massacre
Effect/Cause: British Intolerable Acts
Effect/Cause: American resistance; First
Continental Congress; Lexington and
Concord
Effect/Cause: Declaration of Rights;
stricter British measures
Effect/Cause: Second Continental
Congress
Effect/Cause: Declaration of
Independence; first U.S. Government
Effect: State constitutions;
REVOLUTIONARY WAR
2. Popular sovereignty: Government
can exist only with the consent of the
governed. The people are the only source
of government authority.
Limited government: Government has
only those powers granted by the people
through the Constitution. Powers of
government have many restrictions.
Civil rights and liberties: People have
rights that government must respect.
Seven States established these unalienable
rights in a bill of rights.

Core Worksheet A 3
Cartoon 1
1. the union of the British colonies
2. That it is necessary for all the colonies to
unite in order for them to survive.

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232

Unit 1 Answer Key (continued)


Skills Worksheet 3

3. The colonies are shown as parts of a snake.


The parts appear to be in order from the
left to right to imply the order of the states
from south to north. The New England
states are shown together, and as the
head of the snake. It is possible that it was
believed that a snake could reform and
survive after being cut up.
4. the Colonists; the dire sentiment of the
caption is geared toward rallying the
colonists together against a common
enemy, the king of England.
5. the snake could be shown as actually dead
rather than alive, the image could be of a
weaker and less potent animal such as a
worm or rat.
6. No. The image does not use humor to
create a reaction but rather a more visceral
and dire image to cause an effect.
Cartoon 2
1. the Stamp Act
2. The Stamp Act will result in disaster.
3. the skull and crossbones and heavy black
border, both suggesting impending doom
4. The colonists point of view. The colonists
hated the taxes imposed by the Stamp Act.
5. A cartoon from the British viewpoint
might have highlighted tax money going
to support British troops defending the
colonies.
6. No. It exaggerates the hatred for this tax,
but with a serious, not humorous, tone.

1. The general subject of the excerpts is


whether or not the British Parliament has
a right to tax colonists even though the
colonists have no elected representatives in
Parliament. The audience for the first excerpt
is the British government. The audience for
the second is American colonists.
2. The first excerpt asserts that the British
government does not have the right to tax
American colonists because they do not
have representation in Parliament. Only
American legislatures can impose taxation.
The second asserts that because the colonists
have chosen to leave Great Britain, they
have forfeited their ability (if not their right)
to vote for Parliamentary representation.
3. Possible answer: Both Samuel Johnson and
the members of the Stamp Act Congress were
likely influenced by personal beliefs and
experiences. As Americans, the members of
the Stamp Act Congress were accustomed to
making decisions for themselves and, being
far removed from England, no doubt felt
entitled to a certain amount of independence.
As a loyal British subject, Johnson saw the
colonists as fellow countrymen who should
remain loyal to the Crown.
4. The title of Johnsons pamphlet Taxation
No Tyranny, which is an emotionally
charged way to express his disagreement
with the notion that taxation without
representation is tyranny.

Core Worksheet B 3

Skill Activity 2

1. Possible response: The author sympathized


with the townspeople. He described
the incident as a horrid murder and
suggested that the provocation was no more
than snowballs thrown by young boys.
2. Possible response: No. The author does
not suggest any reason for the firing from
the British viewpoint. The soldiers are the
villains in this account.
3. Possible response: The Boston Massacre
inflamed colonial resentment against the
British, and accounts like this fueled the
flames.
4. Possible account: An angry mob
descended upon us, wielding clubs and
throwing rocks. My men feared for their
lives. I asked the people to disperse, but
they refused. As the mob advanced, my
men fired in self-defense.

1. The general subject of the excerpts is


whether or not the British Parliament has
a right to tax colonists even though the
colonists have no elected representatives
in Parliament. The audience for the first
excerpt is the British government. The
audience for the second is American
colonists.
2. The first excerpt states that the British
government does not have the right to tax
American colonists because they do not
have representation in Parliament. Only
American legislatures can impose taxation.
The second excerpt states that because
the colonists have chosen to leave Great
Britain, they have forfeited their ability (if
not their right) to vote for parliamentary
representation.

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233

UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


3. Possible answer: Both the members of the
Stamp Act Congress and Samuel Johnson
were probably influenced by personal
beliefs and experiences. As Americans,
the members of the Stamp Act Congress
were accustomed to making decisions
for themselves. Being far removed from
Great Britain, no doubt they felt entitled
to a certain amount of independence.
As a loyal British subject, Johnson saw
the colonists as fellow countrymen who
should remain loyal to the Crown.
4. The title of Johnsons pamphlet Taxation
No Tyranny expresses his disagreement
with the notion that taxation without
representation is tyranny.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

self-evident
ends
endowed
destructive
pursuit
foundation
secure
principles
deriving
effect
consent
alter

Reading Comprehension 3
Preamble: explains why the Declaration of
Independence was written
Declaration of Natural Rights: lists the basic
rights to which all people are entitled; the
rights are unalienable and cannot be taken
away; government gets its power from
the people; when the government takes
power from the people and does not protect
their rights, the people have the right and
responsibility to throw off that government
and create a new one
List of Grievances: lists 27 complaints against
the King George III, who has attempted
to establish an absolute tyranny over the
colonies; grievances include the kings refusal
to agree to laws for the public good, the kings
dissolving of representative houses and his
refusal to allow the election of new legislators,
the lodging of British soldiers in colonists
homes, and the passage of harsh laws against
the colonists when they tried to petition the
king to correct his wrongs
The Resolution of Independence: declares that
the colonies are free and independent States,
by authority of the people of the States and of
God, and that the States can perform all acts
granted to independent States

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. d
2. c
3. e
4. a
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. d
8. c
9. a
10. b

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. f
2. b
3. d
4. a
5. e
6. c
Main Ideas
7. d
8. c
9. a
10. a

Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
Answers will vary. Students should support
their evaluations.
Part 2
A1. Possible response: The stirring words and
list of grievances might have inspired
many to join the cause, while the radical
step of declaring independence might
have frightened many into remaining
loyal to the British.

CHAPTER 2
Declaration of Independence
Prereading and Vocabulary Worksheet 2
1. instituted
2. inalienable
3. abolish

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


A2. Possible response: While some,
particularly the lower classes, may have
identified with the cause of freedom,
many Britons would have been outraged
by the audacity of the colonists and would
have resolved to crush the rebels.
A3. Possible response: European
Enlightenment thinkers likely celebrated
the colonists for trying to implement
Enlightenment ideas. Britains European
rivals, who stood to gain from American
independence, might have supported the
colonists as well. However, they probably
worried that this precedent might provoke
insurrection at home and in their colonies.
A4. Possible response: American
independence would cost them much
power and wealth, so British royalty most
likely was outraged and resolved to crush
the rebellion.
B. Possible response: The outcome of the
conflict would be decided, in large part,
by the strength of support for each side.
The colonists needed popular support at
home and significant military and financial
support from Britains European rivals.
C. Possible response: The signers probably
hoped the document would unite the
colonies and stir them to fight and provide
financial and other active support for the
cause.

(b) The king has imposed taxes on the


colonies without the consent of the
colonists.
5. The United Colonies are free and
independent states.

CHAPTER 2 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. hard to reach a consensus; small States can
block laws that might benefit most of the
country
2. no funds to carry out responsibilities or
powers assigned under the Articles
3. States impose taxes and bans on each
others trade; weakens economic
development
4. no avenue for resolving State disputes;
court systems vary from State to State
5. threatens unity; undermines the whole
enterprise financially, politically, and
socially
6. nearly impossible to reach consensus; few
laws would be enacted
7. cannot support a national military; cannot
fund nationwide programs; cannot
fund day-to-day operations of central
government
8. threatens unity; makes the confederation
vulnerable to foreign interference and
invasion; undermines creation of national
economy; increases suspicion and
bickering
9. threatens unity; increases suspicion and
bickering; increases likelihood of civil war
10. undermines trade; undermines
development of State economies;
undermines creation of national economy;
increases suspicion and bickering
11. undermines creation of national economy
and trade; boosts inflation; sound credit
vanishes; public and private debts go
unpaid; people lose their property, leading
to violence

Reading Comprehension 2
1. The Preamble states that the political
bands between the colonies and Great
Britain are being dissolved. The purpose
of the Declaration of Independence is to
declare the causes for the separation.
2. (a) All men have certain unalienable rights
such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness.
(b) It is the purpose of government to
secure the rights of the people.
3. (a) Governments get their just (rightful)
powers from the consent of the governed.
(b) When government no longer respects
the rights of the people, it is their right to
abolish the government and institute new
government.
4. (a) The king has cut off trade between the
colonies and all parts of the world.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. a. Congress could make war. b. Congress
could agree to treaties with other
countries. c. Congress could take care of
financial needs.
2. There were 13 delegates, one from each
state.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


3. Shays Rebellion was an attack on a federal
arsenal in Massachusetts protesting the
fact that many people had no money to
pay their debts.
4. Any three of the following: Congress
did not have the power to tax; there was
only one vote for each state, regardless of
size; Congress could not regulate trade;
Congress had no power to enforce its
acts; there was no national court system;
amendments had to be approved by all the
states.
5. The Constitutional Convention was called
to revise the Articles of Confederation
because they were too weak to deal with
the countrys problems.

would have drawn out the process even


more.
3. Prediction possible response: Each State
would have used its militia to protect its
own borders, but would not have sent
its troops to protect other States. Reason
possible response: The top priority of each
State would be to protect itself, not the
nation as a whole.
4. Prediction possible response: Some States
would have made treaties with Native
Americans to gain some of their land.
Other States would have ignored claims
and simply taken their land. Reason
possible response: Each State would have
operated separately in its own interest.
There would have been no overall policy
toward Native Americans.
5. Prediction possible response: These
nations would have kept much of the
land they claimed, and the United States
would be smaller than it is today. Reason
possible response: The States, operating
individually, would not have been
powerful enough to take land or wealthy
enough to buy much land from these other
nations.

Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
1. Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
2. Virginia
3. Answers will vary. Some students may
note that the issue of Western land
claims was so divisive that it would have
precluded the possibility of any unity if it
had not been solved. Surrendering land
claims to the Federal government may
have been the only way to solve the issue
fairly.
4. Spain, Britain
5. Foreign land claims might lead to foreign
interference, invasion, or threats. Without a
strong unifying National Government, the
States may not have been able to stand up
to these foreign threats.
Part 2
1. Prediction possible response: The States
would have paid their own debts but
ignored those of the National Government.
Reason possible response: The States
would have operated like sovereign
nations. They would have paid their own
debts to improve their standing with
foreign nations, but would not have seen
an advantage to paying national debts.
2. Prediction possible response: Delegates
from each State would have chosen
a location after a long, drawn-out
negotiation. Reason possible response:
With no central authority, the process
would have taken a long time as the States
bickered. Also, ratification by all 13 States

Core Worksheet 2
Part 1
1. Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
2. Virginia
3. Answers will vary. Some students may
note that the issue of Western land
claims was so divisive that it would have
precluded the possibility of any unity if it
had not been solved. Surrendering land
claims to the Federal government may
have been the only way to solve the issue
fairly.
4. Spain, Britain
5. Foreign land claims might lead to foreign
interference, invasion, or threats. Without a
strong unifying National Government, the
States may not have been able to stand up
to these foreign threats.
Part 2
1. Prediction possible response: The States
would have paid their own debts but
ignored those of the National Government.
Reason possible response: The States
would have operated like sovereign

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)

2.

3.

4.

5.

Quiz B

nations. They would have paid their own


debts to improve their standing with
foreign nations, but would not have seen
an advantage to paying national debts.
Prediction possible response: Delegates
from each State would have chosen
a location after a long, drawn-out
negotiation. Reason possible response:
With no central authority, the process
would have taken a long time as the States
bickered. Also, ratification by all 13 States
would have drawn out the process even
more.
Prediction possible response: Each State
would have used its militia to protect its
own borders, but would not have sent
its troops to protect other States. Reason
possible response: The top priority of each
State would be to protect itself, not the
nation as a whole.
Prediction possible response: Some States
would have made treaties with Native
Americans to gain some of their land.
Other States would have ignored claims
and simply taken their land. Reason
possible response: Each State would have
operated separately in its own interest.
There would have been no overall policy
toward Native Americans.
Prediction possible response: These
nations would have kept much of the
land they claimed, and the United States
would be smaller than it is today. Reason
possible response: The States, operating
individually, would not have been
powerful enough to take land or wealthy
enough to buy much land from these other
nations.

Key Terms
1. f
2. d
3. c
4. e
5. a
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. c
10. c

CHAPTER 2 Section 4
Reading Comprehension 3
1. New Jersey Plan
unicameral Congress with States equally
represented
Congress given limited powers to tax
and regulate trade
federal executive of more than one
person, chosen by Congress; could be
removed by request of majority of States
governors
federal judiciary composed of a single
supreme Tribunal chosen by executive
Virginia Plan
legislative, executive, and judicial
branches
bicameral legislature, with each house
based on population or money given to
central government
House members popularly elected;
senators chosen by House from people
nominated by State legislatures
Congress held power to veto State law
in conflict with national law, by force if
necessary
Congress would choose a National
Executive and National Judiciary to form
a Council of revision
Council could veto acts of Congress, but
Congress could override
Congress would have exclusive power to
admit new States
2.
a. Connecticut Compromise
Conflict: whether States should be
represented equally or by population in
Congress

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. c
2. e
3. d
4. f
5. a
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. d
9. c
10. b

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Resolution: Congress would be bicameral,
with one house represented equally and
the other by population.
b. Three-Fifths Compromise
Conflict: how slaves should be counted
in State populations to determine
representation
Resolution: Three fifths of the slave
population would be counted for
determining representation and taxation.
c. Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
Conflict: whether Congress would
have the power to regulate foreign and
interstate trade, including the slave trade
Resolution: The southern States agreed
to support commerce power in exchange
for an agreement that Congress could not
tax exports from any State and could not
interfere with the slave trade for at least 20
years.

Conflict: whether Congress would


have the power to regulate foreign and
interstate trade, including the slave trade
Resolution: Congress would regulate trade
between states and with foreign countries;
Congress could tax imports, not exports;
Congress could not end the slave trade for
at least 20 years.

Core Worksheet 3
1. (1) Virginia, (2) Massachusetts, (3)
Pennsylvania, (4) North Carolina, (5) New
York, (6) Maryland, (7) South Carolina,
(8) Connecticut, (9) New Jersey, (10) New
Hampshire, (11) Georgia, (12) Rhode
Island, (13) Delaware
2. (1) Virginia, (2) South Carolina, (3)
Maryland, (4) North Carolina, (5) Georgia,
(6) New York, (7) New Jersey, (8) Delaware,
(9) Pennsylvania, (10) Connecticut, (11)
Rhode Island, (12) New Hampshire, (13)
Massachusetts
3. Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia
4. Connecticut, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island
5. The most populous States, such as
Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and
North Carolina, would have supported the
Virginia Plan. With representation based
on State population or ability to finance the
National Government, large States would
have more votes in Congress and therefore
more power than small States.
6. Less populous States, such as Delaware,
Rhode Island, Georgia, New Hampshire,
and New Jersey, would have supported the
New Jersey Plan. With each State equally
represented in Congress, small States
would have equal votes and equal power
with large States.
7. Possible response: Yes. This compromise
resolved the issue of representation in
Congress, which was so fundamental that
progress would have stalled without it.
8. Possible response: Yes. The issue of how
slaves would be counted for representation
pitted southern States, which had the
largest slave populations, against northern
States, which had fewer slaves.
9. Massachusetts. It had a large population,
yet no slaves.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Virginia Plan
Features: Strong central government
with legislative, executive, and judicial
branches; bicameral legislature; House
members elected by each state; senators
chosen by the House of Representatives;
Congress would choose a National
Executive and National Judiciary;
Congress would admit new states to the
Union
New Jersey Plan
Features: Congress with one house in
which large and small states would be
equally represented; Congress could tax
and regulate trade; federal executive of
more than one person
2. Connecticut Compromise
Conflict: whether states should be
represented equally or by population in
Congress
Resolution: Congress would have two
parts, with states represented equally in
one house and by population in the other.
Three-Fifths Compromise
Conflict: how slaves should be counted in
state populations
Resolution: Every five slaves would count
as three free men.
Compromise on interstate and foreign
trade

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Quiz A

Reading Comprehension 2
1. James Madison; Alexander Hamilton; John
Jay; George Washington
2. Patrick Henry; Thomas Jefferson
3. A strong central government was needed
to defend the nation and keep it united;
the separation of powers and checks
and balances would prevent any branch
from becoming too powerful; the new
government would have an independent
judicial branch and would operate under
the rule of law.
4. The Constitution would take away state
and individual rights; it created a national
government that was too strong. It did not
protect peoples basic rights.
5. The Federalists agreed to add amendments
to the Constitution that would protect
individual rights. These first ten
amendments are called the Bill of Rights.

Key Terms
1. d
2. c
3. e
4. b
5. f
6. a
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. a
3. d
4. c
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. Delaware; Rhode Island
2. North Carolina, Connecticut, South
Carolina
3. Rhode Island, New York, Virginia
4. New York
5. Both were large States with influential
leaders. The commercial State of New York
separated New England from the rest of
the nation. For the new government to
succeed, it needed the support of both of
these key States.

CHAPTER 2 Section 5
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Federalists: James Madison, Alexander
Hamilton, John Jay, John Marshall,
Edmund Randolph, George Washington;
Anti-Federalists: Patrick Henry, Richard
Henry Lee, John Hancock, Samuel Adams,
Amos Singletary, Robert Yates, James
Monroe, George Mason, Thomas Jefferson
(who George Washington later convinced
to support ratification), George Clinton,
John Lansing
2. Federalists: Articles of Confederation too
weak; need for strong central government
to solve nations problems; liberties
protected in State constitutions; separation
of powers would prevent any branch from
becoming too powerful; Anti-Federalists:
Ratification process flawed; presidency
could become a monarchy; Congress could
become too powerful; lack of a bill of
rights

Core Worksheet 3
Alexander Hamilton
1. Hamilton opposes a bill of rights.
2. Possible response: Bills of Rights . . .
dangerous.
3. Possible response: Individual liberties do
not need the protection of a bill of rights,
because the power to restrict these rights
is not given in the Constitution. A bill
of rights might even provide a basis for
government to claim more power than the
Constitution grants.
4. Possible response: I believe the argument
is weak, because he insists that protection
of rights is implied by the absence of
government power to restrict them
in the Constitution. People who fear
infringement of their rights would likely
want more explicit protection.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


a campaign whether a candidate will
support your views or not.
Strongest Arguments for a Bill of Rights,
possible response:
1. All people are entitled to a bill of rights to
protect them from government oppression.
2. Rights are too important to depend on
inference for their protection.
3. The majority of States have indicated by
their votes that they believe their liberties
would not be safe without a bill of rights.
Strongest Arguments Against a Bill of
Rights, possible response:
1. A written bill of rights might provide a
basis for the government to claim powers
not granted to it.
2. A bill of rights is not needed because the
Constitution does not give government the
power to infringe on rights.
3. Your rights will be protected by electing
representatives who are disposed to
protect your rights.
4. Having a written bill of rights wont
protect you if you make poor choices in
electing representatives.
5. A bill of rights that declares that all men
are born free could threaten our ownership
of slaves.

Thomas Jefferson
1. Jefferson supports a bill of rights
2. Possible response: Let me add . . . on
inference.
3. Possible response: All people should
have their basic liberties protected from
government by a written bill of rights.
These protections are too important to be
simply implied in the Constitution.
4. Possible response: I believe this argument
is strong. If left unwritten, these implied
protections would be open to varying
interpretations.
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
1. Pinckney opposes a bill of rights
2. Possible response: Now, we . . . born
slaves.
3. Possible response: A bill of rights that
suggests that all men are born free would
go against our States commitment to
slavery.
4. Possible response: This is a strong
argument for the slave States. A bill of
rights could become ammunition for an
antislavery movement.
Mercy Otis Warren
1. Warren supports a bill of rights
2. Possible response: Thus, it is . . . liberties.
3. Possible response: Seven of the thirteen
States either rejected the Constitution
or ratified it with the understanding
that amendments would be added later.
Thus, the majority of states believed their
liberties were not safe as the Constitution
was originally written.
4. Possible response: I believe this is a strong
argument. Democracy is based in part on
respecting the will of the majority.
Roger Sherman
1. Sherman opposes a bill of rights
2. Possible response: If you are to trust . . . of
writing.
3. Possible response: To protect your rights,
you should elect representatives who will
support those rights. Having rights written
into a bill of rights wont protect you if you
elect representatives who will abuse them.
4. Possible response: I think this argument
is weak. He contends that if government
abuses individual liberties, it is the fault of
the voters who elected the representatives.
This blames the victims for the abuse.
Also, it is often difficult to know during

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. b
3. f
4. d
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. c
10. b

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. b
4. d
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. c

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


8. a
9. c
10. b

and the king, and it also included more


protections of individual rights and
freedoms. Together, these documents
helped shape the colonists thinking when
they established the new United States
government.
Essay
23. The Constitution reflects the Framers
determination to prevent any one person
or group of people from seizing control of
the new nation. This was a direct response
to their experiences with the British
government. The Constitution contains
many built-in checks and balances among
the branches of government and between
the States and the Federal Government.
The Constitution is also a testament to
the power of compromise, because it
shows how people with very different
ideas were able to reach agreements on
essential issues. Many of the Framers
ideas were drawn from English documents
and from Enlightenment thinking, but the
Constitution was a truly unique document
at the time.

CHAPTER 2
Test A
Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. f
4. d
5. i
6. j
7. h
8. g
9. e
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. a
12. b
13. b
14. c
15. c
16. b
17. a
18. c
19. d
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. The colonists deeply resented being taxed
without being represented in the British
government. They punished tax collectors
by tarring and feathering them so that the
British government would clearly get the
message that it would not be able to collect
unjust taxes in the colonies. The colonists
regarded the tax collectors, representatives
of the oppressive British government,
as stubborn and evil. They felt they had
no choice but to resort to rebellion and
violence.
Critical Thinking
22. These landmark English documents
established the ideas of ordered
government, limited government, and
representative government. The Magna
Carta included protections for citizens
against absolute power. The Petition of
Right further limited the kings power.
The English Bill of Rights established
checks and balances between Parliament

Test B
Key Terms
1. c
2. b
3. g
4. f
5. j
6. d
7. a
8. h
9. i
10. e
Multiple Choice
11. a
12. b
13. a
14. c
15. d
16. b
17. a
18. d
19. d
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. The cartoon shows that the colonists
deeply resented being taxed without being
represented in the British government.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


They punished tax collectors by tarring
and feathering them. They wanted to
show the British government that it would
not be able to collect unjust taxes in the
colonies. The colonists thought the tax
collectors were stubborn and evil. They
felt they had no choice but to resort to
rebellion and violence.
Critical Thinking
22. These English documents established
the ideas of ordered government,
limited government, and representative
government. The Magna Carta included
protections for citizens against absolute
power. The Petition of Right further
limited the kings power. The English
Bill of Rights established checks and
balances between Parliament and the
king. It also included more protections of
individual rights and freedoms. Together,
these documents shaped the colonists
thinking when they established the new
government of the United States.
Essay
23. The Constitution reflects the Framers goal
to keep any one person or group of people
from taking control of the new nation.
This is because of their experiences with
the British government. The Constitution
contains many built-in checks and balances
among the branches of government
and between the States and the federal
government. The Constitution also shows
how different groups can compromise.
People with very different ideas were
able to reach agreements on important
issues. Many of the Framers ideas were
drawn from English documents, but the
Constitution was a unique document at the
time.

3. judicialrelating to law; reviewto study


again; judicial reviewto study a law again
4. executivechief officer in a government;
agreementan arrangement or compact;
executive agreementan arrangement
made by the chief officer in a government
5. c
6. e
7. b
8. a
9. d

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Basic Principles
A. The Outline of the Constitution
1. principles
2. 10, 27
3. VI
B. Popular Sovereignty
the people
C. Limited government
1. above
2. rule of law
D. Separation of Powers
1. branches
2. Congress
E. Checks and Balances
1. approve
2. override
F. Judicial Review
constitutional
G. Federalism
federal government (or national
government), state
II. Section 2: Formal Amendment
A. The Formal Amendment Process
Congress, state legislatures
B. The 27 Amendments
1. 10
2. 22nd
3. 1789, 1992
III. Section 3: Change by Other Means
A. Legislative, Executive, and Judicial
Influence
1. Laws
2. executive
3. interprets
B. Party Practices
1. party
2. presidency, vice presidency
C. Custom
1. Cabinet
2. no-third-term

CHAPTER 3
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. popularthe people; sovereigntypower;
popular sovereigntypower from the
people
2. electoralrelating to elections; collegea
group of people with a common purpose;
electoral collegea group of people who
elect

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


CHAPTER 3 Section 1

Federalism:
Meaning: Power is divided among the
central government and several regional
governments.
In what way did federalism represent
a compromise made by the Framers? It
was a compromise between the loosely
tied confederation of nearly independent
States, created by the weak Articles of
Confederation, and a too powerful central
government.

Reading Comprehension 3
1. A Articles IIII
B Article V
C Article IV
D Preamble
E Article VI
2. Popular Sovereignty:
Meaning: The people are the only source
for governmental power; government
can govern only with the consent of the
governed.
How does the government exercise
popular sovereignty? through popularly
elected leaders chosen by the people
to represent them in the exercise of the
peoples power
Limited Government:
Meaning: No government is all-powerful.
A government may do only those things
that the people have given it power to do.
What are two other terms used to express
the concept of limited government?
constitutionalism and rule of law
Separation of Powers
Meaning: Legislative, executive, and
judicial powers are distributed among
three distinct and independent branches of
government.
How does separation of powers contribute
to limited government? Separation of
powers prevents the concentration of
power in the hands of one person or
group.
Checks and Balances:
Meaning: Each branch is subject to
constitutional checks, or restraints, by the
other branches. Each branch has certain
powers with which it can check the actions
of the other two.
Why does the President tend to select
judges that most senators favor? because
the Senate holds the power to confirm or
reject judicial appointments
Judicial Review:
Meaning: A court has the power to
determine the constitutionality of a
governmental action.
When a court declares a law
unconstitutional, what does this mean?
The law is illegal. It becomes null and
void, and has no force or effect.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. a. Articles IIII
b. Article V
c. Article IV
d. Preamble
2. Popular Sovereignty
Meaning: People hold all political power.
People influence government by voting to
choose government representatives.
Limited Government
Meaning: The government is not allpowerful and must follow the law.
Limited government can be described as
the rule of law.
Separation of Powers
Meaning: The government is divided
into legislative, executive, and judicial
branches.
The judicial branch tells what the laws
mean.
Checks and Balances
Meaning: A system in which each branch
of government checks the others to prevent
one branch from becoming too powerful.
Any one of the following is acceptable:
The President cant make laws, but
must approve laws passed by Congress;
Congress can override the Presidents
veto; Congress must approve all money
spent by the country; the President names
federal judges and other important
officials, but the Senate must approve each
appointment; the Supreme Court cannot
make laws, but can decide if a law is
constitutional.
Judicial Review
Meaning: Courts have the power to decide
whether or not a government action is
constitutional.
Marbury v. Madison established this power.
Federalism

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Meaning: Federalism is a system in which
power is divided between the federal
government and state governments.
Federalism allowed there to be an effective
national government while still preserving
the rights of the states to govern
independently.

Checks and Balances


Definition: Each branch is subject to
constitutional checks, or restraints, by the
other branches. Each branch has certain
powers with which it can check the actions of
the other two.
Article I, Section 2, Clause: 5: The House of
Representatives can impeach officials of any
branch.
Article I, Section 3, Clause: 6: The Senate tries
impeachments.
Article I, Section 7, Clause: 2: The President
may sign or reject bills passed by Congress,
but Congress can override the veto with a
two-thirds vote of both houses.
Article I, Section 7, Clause: 3: This Clause
applies veto and override rules to all orders,
resolutions, or other votes of Congress.
Article I, Section 8, Clause: 9: Congress has the
power to set up the lower federal courts.
Article II, Section 2, Clause: 1: The President
can grant reprieves and pardons, which
constitute checks on the judicial branch.
Article II, Section 2, Clause: 2: The Senate
must confirm treaties and appointments of the
President for them to take effect.
Article II, Section 3: The President must report
to the Congress on the state of the Union; this
Section gives the President the power to call
Congress into special session.
Article II, Section 4: This Section provides for
the impeachment of members of the executive
branch, a power granted to Congress in
Article I.
Federalism
Definition: Power is divided among the
central government and several regional
governments.
Article I, Section 10, Clause: all: This section
forbids the States from engaging in activities
that the Constitution assigned to the Federal
Government, such as entering into treaties,
coining money, taxing imports, and keeping a
standing army.
Article III, Section 2, Clause: 1: The federal
judiciary has the power to settle disputes
between States and between citizens of
different States.
Article IV, Section all: This Article outlines
the relationship between the States and the
Federal Government.
Article V: Amending the federal Constitution
requires approval of two thirds of the States.

Core Worksheet 3
Popular Sovereignty
Definition: The people are the only source for
any and all governmental power; government
can govern only with the consent of the
governed.
Preamble: The source of this Constitution is
We the People.
Article I, Section 2, Clause 1: Members of the
House of Representatives will be elected by
the people.
Limited Government
Definition: No government is all-powerful. A
government may do only those things that the
people have given it power to do.
Article I, Section 3, Clause 7: Impeached and
convicted public officials can also face criminal
charges.
Article I, Section 9, Clause: all: This Section
prohibits several actions by government,
including suspending writs of habeas corpus
and taxing in certain ways.
Article I, Section 10, Clause 1: This Clause
applies the prohibitions in Article I, Section 9,
to the States.
Article II, Section 1, Clause 8: The oath of
office binds the President to the limits of the
Constitution.
Separation of Powers
Definition: Legislative, executive, and judicial
powers are distributed among three distinct
and independent branches of government.
Article I, Section I: This Section assigns all
legislative powers to Congress.
Article I, Section 8, Clause: all: This Section
enumerates the powers granted to Congress.
Article II, Section 1, Clause 1: This Clause
assigns executive powers to the President.
Article II, Section 2, Clause: all: This Section
enumerates the powers granted to the
President.
Article III, Section 1: This Section assigns
judicial power to the courts.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Quiz B

Article VI, Section 2: The Constitution is the


supreme law of the land, above the laws of
any State.
Judicial Review
Definition: A court has the power to determine
the constitutionality of a congressional or
presidential action.
This principle was intended by the Framers,
based on Federalist writings, but it was not
specifically stated in the Constitution.
Judicial Review was established later in:
the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v.
Madison.

Key Terms
1. c
2. d
3. f
4. a
5. e
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. a
10. d

Extend Worksheet 3, 4

CHAPTER 3 Section 2

Excerpt 1: popular sovereignty


Excerpt 2: limited government, federalism
Excerpt 3: separation of powers, checks and
balances
Excerpt 4: limited government
Excerpt 5: federalism, separation of powers,
limited government
Excerpt 6: judicial review
1. a government that derives all its powers
directly or indirectly from the people
2. Its jurisdiction extends only to
enumerated objects and leaves the rest
of the powers to the States.
3. The Constitution divides powers between
the State and Federal governments, and
those powers that the Federal Government
has are further divided among different
departments (branches). The Constitution
also provides checks and balances to
protect against a gradual concentration
of the several powers in the same
department.

Reading Comprehension 3
1. By Whom? Congress
How Proposed: by a 2/3 vote in each
house of Congress
How Ratified: 1. by 3/4 of State
legislatures 2. by conventions in 3/4 of the
States
By Whom? national convention
How Proposed: national convention called
by Congress at the request of 2/3 of State
legislatures
How Ratified: 1. by 3/4 of State
legislatures 2. by conventions in 3/4 of the
States
2. by national convention
3. No State, without its Consent, shall
be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the
Senate.
4. The President has no formal role in the
amendment process (does not sign or
veto amendments), but his or her political
influence can affect the success or failure of
an attempt to amend the Constitution.
5. yes; no
6. 1789: distribution of seats in the House of
Representatives
1810: voiding the citizenship of anyone
accepting any foreign title or other such
honor
1861: prohibiting any amendment relating
to slavery
1924: giving Congress the power to
regulate child labor
1972: proclaiming the equal rights of
women

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. f
3. c
4. a
5. b
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. a
10. d

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


1978: giving the District of Columbia seats
in Congress
7. 110: Bill of Rights
11: States immune from certain lawsuits
12: Changes in electoral college procedures
13: Abolition of slavery
14: Citizenship, equal protection, and due
process
15: No denial of vote because of race, color,
or previous enslavement
16: Congress given the power to tax
incomes
17: Popular election of U.S. senators
18: Prohibition of alcohol
19: Womens suffrage
20: Change of dates for presidential and
congressional terms
21: Repeal of Prohibition (18th
Amendment)
22: Limit on presidential terms
23: District of Columbia allowed to vote in
presidential elections
24: Ban of tax payment as voter
qualification
25: Presidential succession, vice
presidential vacancy, and presidential
disability
26: Voting age changed to 18
27: Ban on congressional pay increases
during same term

needing the support of three more states to


be ratified.
5. the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
6. the 18th and 21st amendments
7. Amendment: 110
Year Ratified: 1791
Summary: Bill of Rights
Amendment: 11
Year Ratified: 1795
Summary: States cannot be sued by
residents of other States
Amendment: 12
Year Ratified: 1804
Summary: Changed the way the President
and Vice President are elected
Amendment: 13
Year Ratified: 1865
Summary: Outlawed slavery
Amendment: 14
Year Ratified: 1868
Summary: Defined citizenship
Amendment: 15
Year Ratified: 1870
Summary: Gave African American men the
right to vote
Amendment: 18
Year Ratified: 1919
Summary: Banned the making, use, or
transportation of alcohol
Amendment: 21
Year Ratified: 1933
Summary: Repealed the 18th Amendment
Amendment: 22
Year Ratified: 1951
Summary: Limited the number of terms in
which a President may serve to two
Amendment: 26
Year Ratified: 1971
Summary: Lowered the voting age to 18
Amendment: 27
Year Ratified: 1992
Summary: Forbids members of Congress
from raising their own pay in that term

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Group: Congress
How Proposed: a 2/3 vote in each house of
Congress
How Ratified:
1. by 3/4 of state legislatures
2. by conventions in 3/4 of the states
Group: National convention
How Proposed: National convention called
by Congress at the request of 2/3 of state
legislatures
How Ratified:
1. by 3/4 of state legislatures
2. by conventions in 3/4 of the states
2. An amendment has never been proposed
by a national convention.
3. A state can approve an amendment it
rejected earlier.
4. ERA was the Equal Rights for Women
Amendment of 1972. It did not become
an amendment because it expired in 1982

Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. 13th Amendment; 1865; 10 months, 6 days
2. 17th Amendment; 1913; 10 months, 26
days
3. presidential succession; 1967; 1 year, 7
months, 4 days
4. 23rd; 1961; 9 months, 13 days
5. 19th; 1920; 1 year, 2 months, 14 days
6. 27th

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Core Worksheet 3

Quiz A

Answers will vary to reflect the skits presented


in class.

Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. f
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. d
10. a

Skills Worksheet 3
1. The Addams excerpt is a first-hand
account of a woman who worked in the
suffrage movement. She gives arguments
in favor of the vote for women in an
attempt to persuade people to agree with
her. The historians account was written
almost 100 years after the events took
place by someone who did not have firsthand knowledge of them.
2. According to Henretta, women began
asking why they should not be allowed
to vote when they had shown themselves
capable of handling other responsibilities.
He also suggests that women would
advocate for more enlightened
legislation if they had the votean idea
supported by Addams when she writes
about using the ballot to educate and
protect from danger factory children and
bring the cultural forces to bear upon our
materialistic civilization.
3. Addams does not think women are given
enough credit for what they do. She says
that they are constantly being overlooked
and slighted in our political institutions
even though they preserve the home.

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. b
3. a
4. f
5. d
6. e
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. a

CHAPTER 3 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3

Skill Activity 2

1. Means of Change: Legislation


How It Works: by passing laws to spell
out provisions of the Constitution; by
using congressional power to define and
interpret constitutional meaning that is not
otherwise explicit
Means of Change: Executive Action
How It Works: by using its powers
to define and interpret constitutional
meaning that is not otherwise explicit
Means of Change: Court Decisions
How It Works: by interpreting and
applying the Constitution to cases the
Court decides
Means of Change: Party Practices
How It Works: by shaping the processes of
government through party politics
Means of Change: Custom
How It Works: by establishing precedents,
thereby shaping processes of government
2. A. court decision

1. A secondary source is written by a person


who did not have firsthand knowledge
of the events. The historians account was
written almost 100 years after the events
took place by someone who did not have
first-hand knowledge of them.
2. According to Henretta, women began
asking why they should not be allowed to
vote when they had successfully handled
other responsibilities. He also suggests that
women would push for more enlightened
legislation if they had the vote. Addams
writes that women do not want the vote to
take over mens work or affairs. She says
that women must have the right to vote to
fulfill their traditional responsibilities.
3. Addams does not think women are given
enough credit for what they do. She says
that they are constantly being overlooked
and slighted in our political institutions.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Bellringer Worksheet 3

B. party practices
C. custom
D. legislation
E. executive action

1. False. Countless changes by informal


methods have occurred over the years.
2. True. For example, the Constitution
does not provide for political parties, yet
parties influence much of the business of
government.
3. True. The laws Congress passes add
specifics to the broad powers outlined in
the Constitution.
4. False. Executive agreements with other
countries do not require congressional
approval.
5. True. Court decisions determine what
actions are or are not permitted by the
Constitution.
6. True. Party agendas influence the actions
of government officials at all levels.
7. False. The make-up of the Cabinet was
established by custom.

Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) basic legislation, (b) executive action,
(c) court decisions, (d) party practices, (e)
custom and usage
2. (a) court decision, (b) custom, (c) party
practices, (d) legislation, (e) executive
action
3. (a) Federal court system: The Constitution
set up the Supreme Court; however, it left
the creation of all other federal courts to
Congress. Congress passed the Judiciary
Act of 1789. Since then, all federal courts
except the Supreme Court have been set
up by acts of Congress.
(b) Executive department: The
Constitution created the presidency and
vice presidency. Beyond that, Congress set
up the executive department.
(c) Commerce powers: The Constitution
gives Congress the power to regulate
commerce. However, by passing laws,
Congress has clarified and expanded these
powers.
4. The Constitution says that only Congress
can declare war. However, many times in
history the President has sent troops into
combat without the approval of Congress.
5. Because the nations courts interpret and
apply the Constitution in many of the
cases they hear, they, too, have an influence
on the meaning of the Constitution. An
example is the power of judicial review
established by a decision of the Supreme
Court.
6. At first the electoral college elected the
President. However, because of the
influence of political parties, the electoral
college today simply reflects each states
popular vote.
7. A Vice President has taken over 8 times
in history after the death of a President.
This wasnt written into the Constitution
until the passage of the 25th Amendment
in 1967. Before 1967, the Constitution
stated that the powers and duties of the
presidencynot the office itselfshould
be given to the Vice President.

Core Worksheet 3
Part 1
1. custom and usage
2. executive action
3. basic legislation
4. court decisions
5. party practices
Part 2
1. Possible example: Congress passes a law
placing a tariff on imported steel.
2. Possible example: The President issues
an executive order, banning trade with a
nation suspected of aiding terrorists.
3. Possible example: The Supreme Court
overturned a conviction, stating that the
accused had been denied due process
because he had not been informed of his
rights.
4. Possible example: In the Senate, the parties
meet in separate caucuses to discuss the
partys position on an issue.
5. Possible example: By custom, the opposing
party broadcasts a response to the
Presidents State of the Union address.

Core Worksheet 2
Part 1
1. custom and usage
2. executive action
3. basic legislation
4. court decisions
5. party practices

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


2. Students might cite any of the
following about the decision: (1) It
made the judiciary a co-equal branch
of government with the legislative and
executive branches. (2) It established the
Supreme Court as the final arbiter of the
Constitution. (3) It gave the Supreme Court
the authority to declare acts of Congress
unconstitutional. (4) It established that the
rule of law would govern Supreme Court
decisions. (5) It established the neutrality
and credibility of the Supreme Court.
3. Students paragraphs will vary, depending
on the case they choose. They should
explain how the Court asserted the power
of judicial review in its decision in that
case.

Part 2
1. Possible example: Congress passes a law
placing a tariff on imported steel.
2. Possible example: The President issues
an executive order, banning trade with a
nation suspected of aiding terrorists.
3. Possible example: The Supreme Court
overturns a conviction, stating that the
accused had been denied due process
because he had not been informed of his
rights.
4. Possible example: In the Senate, the parties
meet in separate caucuses to discuss the
partys position on an issue.
5. Possible example: By custom, the opposing
party broadcasts a response to the
Presidents State of the Union address.

Quiz A

Landmark Decisions of the Supreme


Court 2

Key Terms
1. d
2. b
3. e
4. f
5. c
6. a
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. b
10. a

1. The case arose from the political


rivalry between the Federalists and the
Democratic-Republicans.
2. Adams expected to continue to influence
the government after his party was out
of power by appointing Federalists to the
new judicial positions.
3. Jefferson did not want the judicial
positions filled by members of the rival
political party.
4. Yes, the Court believed that Marbury had
a right to his commission and that the
executive branch under President Jefferson
was wrong to deny him the commission.
5. The Court said that it could not force the
executive branch to give Marbury his
commission because it did not have the
authority to do so. The Judiciary Act of
1789 that granted the Court that power
conflicted with the Constitution.
6. Students answers may vary but should
focus on the importance of the rule of law
rather than the personal preferences of
individuals who are in power.
7. Students might cite any of the following
about the decision: (1) It made the judiciary
a co-equal branch of government with the
legislative and executive branches. (2) It
established the Supreme Court as the final
arbiter of the Constitution. (3) It gave the
Supreme Court the authority to declare
acts of Congress unconstitutional. (4) It
established that the rule of law would

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. c
2. d
3. f
4. b
5. e
6. a
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. b
10. a

Landmark Decisions of the Supreme


Court 3, 4
1. Students answers may vary but should
focus on the importance of the rule of law
rather than the personal preferences of
individuals who are in power.

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


govern Supreme Court decisions. (5) It
established the neutrality and credibility of
the Supreme Court.
8. Students paragraphs should show a clear
understanding that whenever a court finds
a law to be unconstitutional, it is using its
power of judicial review, established in the
landmark case, Marbury v. Madison.

decisions and the popular interpretation


of the Constitution with bringing about
these positive changes. Because of the
peoples ability to amend and interpret
the Constitution, Jordans faith in the
document is strong.
Critical Thinking
22. The first ten amendments are called the Bill
of Rights. They mostly protect individual
rights and freedoms, such as freedom of
belief and expression, freedom of the press
and assembly, the right to bear arms, and
fair and equal treatment before the law.
These amendments limit the power of
the Federal Government and protect the
people of the United States from abuse by
the State and Federal governments and
court systems. The Bill of Rights upholds
the principles of limited government and
popular sovereignty.
Essay
23. The Constitution has remained flexible
enough to guide the United States
through changing times for several
reasons. Most importantly, it describes
some very basic principles that constitute
the guiding philosophy of the republic.
These principles are broad in nature and
are meant to limit the government and
describe how it should function. The
Constitution is also flexible because it can
be formally amended to suit changing
times. Through the amendment process,
the States and the National Government
can work together to keep the Constitution
responsive to the will of the people.
In addition, the provisions laid out in
some sections of the Constitution are
skeletal, providing the opportunity for
Congress to flesh out the operations
of government through legislation
that addresses the needs of the times.
For example, there is only a very
basic description of the courts in the
Constitution. Congress has established the
complex modern court system through the
laws it has passed since the Constitution
was adopted.
Finally, common customs and usage,
such as political parties and senatorial
courtesy, have shaped and influenced the
way the Constitution has been interpreted
and used throughout its history.

CHAPTER 3
Test A
Key Terms
1. f
2. e
3. j
4. c
5. h
6. a
7. i
8. b
9. g
10. d
Multiple Choice
11. c
12. c
13. a
14. b
15. a
16. d
17. c
18. b
19. b
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. As an African American and a woman,
Jordans rights would not have been
protected by the Constitution at the time it
was written, nor for many years thereafter.
She would not have had the right to vote,
hold office, or even be free like a white
male at the time of the Constitution. She
points out that by amendments such as
the 13th Amendment, which abolished
slavery; the 15th Amendment, which
grants the right to vote to people of all
races; and the 19th Amendment, which
grants women the right to vote, the
Constitution was eventually updated
and corrected to include people of all
races and both genders in the rights and
freedoms it protects. She also credits court

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


Test B

before the law. These amendments limit


the power of the federal government.
They also protect the people of the United
States from abuse by the state and federal
government and court systems. The Bill of
Rights upholds the principles of limited
government and popular sovereignty.
Essay
23. The Constitution has remained flexible
enough to guide the United States through
changing times for several reasons. Most
importantly, it provides some very basic
principles that guide the nation. These
principles are broad ideas. They are meant
to limit the government and describe
how it should work. The Constitution is
also flexible because it can be formally
amended to suit changing times. Through
the amendment process, the states and the
national government can work together.
This helps the Constitution to reflect the
will of the people.
The general way in which parts of the
Constitution were written has provided
the opportunity for Congress to flesh out
the operations of government. Congress
does this through legislation that addresses
the needs of the times. For example, there
is only a very basic description of the
courts in the Constitution. Congress has
established the complex modern court
system through the laws it has passed
since the Constitution was adopted.
Finally, common customs and usage
have shaped and influenced the way the
Constitution has been interpreted and
used throughout its history.

Key Terms
1. d
2. g
3. e
4. c
5. j
6. a
7. f
8. i
9. h
10. b
Main Ideas
11. c
12. a
13. c
14. a
15. b
16. d
17. c
18. b
19. b
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. As an African American and a woman,
Jordans rights would not have been
protected by the Constitution at the time it
was written, nor for many years thereafter.
She would not have had the right to
vote, hold office, or even be free. She
points out that amendments eventually
updated and corrected the Constitution
so that it protects the rights and freedoms
of people of all races and both genders.
These amendments include the 13th
Amendment, which abolished slavery;
the 15th Amendment, which grants the
right to vote to people of all races; and the
19th Amendment, which grants women
the right to vote. Jordan also credits court
decisions and the popular interpretation
of the Constitution with bringing about
these positive changes. Because of the
peoples ability to amend and interpret
the Constitution, Jordans faith in the
document is strong.
Critical Thinking
22. The first ten amendments are called
the Bill of Rights. They mostly protect
individual rights and freedoms, such as
freedom of belief and expression, freedom
of the press and assembly, the right to
bear arms, and fair and equal treatment

CHAPTER 4
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

(down) inherent
(across) expressed
(down) delegated
(across) exclusive
(down) concurrent
(down) implied
(across) reserved

Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: Federalism: Powers Divided
A. The System of Federalism

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


1. Framers, national government, states
2. abuse
B. Federal Government Powers
1. delegated
2. Expressed, Implied, Elastic, Inherent,
sovereign
C. Powers Denied the Federal Government
1. federalism
2. exports, freedoms
D. The Role of the States
reserved, federal government
E. Exclusive and Concurrent Powers
1. federal government
2. Concurrent powers
F. The Supreme Law of the Land
Supremacy Clause
II. Section 2: The National Government and
the 50 States
A. Federal Government Guarantees
1. republican
2. invasion, internal
B. Admitting New States
1. enabling act
2. act of admission
C. Conditions for Admission
interfere, own affairs
D. Cooperative Federalism
grants-in-aid
E. Types of Grants
categorical, block, project
F. Responsibilities of the States
1. funding
2. naturalization
III. Section 3: Interstate Relations
A. Interstate Compacts
1. agreements, foreign
2. Congress
B. Full Faith and Credit
1. laws, records, valid
2. criminal law
C. Extradition
Extradition
D. Privileges and Immunities
Privileges, Immunities

Possible examples: coining money; regulating


interstate commerce
Implied Powers
Definition: powers that are not expressly
stated in the Constitution but that are
reasonably suggested by the expressed powers
Possible examples: creating a national bank;
ending racial discrimination
Inherent Powers
Definition: powers that belong to the National
Government because it is a sovereign state in
the world community
Possible examples: regulating immigration;
granting diplomatic recognition to other
sovereign states
Reserved Powers
Definition: powers that the Constitution does
not grant to the National Government nor
deny to the States
Possible examples: licensing professionals,
regulating speed limits
Concurrent Powers
Definition: powers that both the National
Government and the States possess and
exercise
Possible examples: collecting taxes; borrowing
money
Exclusive Powers
Definition: powers that can be exercised by the
National Government alone
Possible examples: making treaties with
foreign states; taxing imports

Reading Comprehension 2
1. Federalism is the division of powers
between a national government and
several smaller, local governments. The
United States is a federal system because
power is divided between a national
government and fifty state governments.
2. Expressed powers examples: Any two of
the following are acceptable: the power
to collect taxes, declare war, coin money,
make treaties, appoint officials, and make
laws
Implied powers: These powers are
contained in what is known as the Elastic
Clause because it has been stretched so far
to cover so many different situations.
Inherent powers examples: Any two of
the following are acceptable: the power
to regulate immigration, acquire territory,
and protect citizens

CHAPTER 4 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
Expressed Powers
Definition: specific powers assigned to the
National Government by the Constitution

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


weak Articles of Confederation, and to
a much-feared, too-powerful central
government. In part to allay concerns from
smaller States, the Framers agreed to create
a bicameral national legislaturewith
one house (the Senate) having equal
representation, and the other (the House
of Representatives) having representation
based on population. To win the votes
needed for ratification, Federalist leaders
also assured the ratifying convention in
Massachusetts that they would enact a
national bill of rights to protect individuals
from possible oppression by the new
National Government.

3. Reserved powers are powers denied to the


national government and reserved for the
states; exclusive powers are powers that
only the national government has; and
concurrent powers are powers that the
national government and the states share.

Core Worksheet 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Reserved
Concurrent
Implied
Inherent
Expressed
Reserved
Concurrent
Expressed
Implied
Expressed
Implied
Implied
Inherent
Expressed
Expressed
Reserved
Reserved

Skill Activity 2
1. The Framers needed to create a national
government that was strong enough to
deal with the nations problems but that
would also preserve the powers of the
states.
2. (a) James Madison said that the state
governments were too uncertain and the
people wanted changes made to address
this. (b) Patrick Henry argued that a strong
national government would jeopardize the
rights and privileges of individuals and
that the states would lose too much power.
3. (a) The Framers found their solution in
federalism. The federal system provides
for a division of power between the
national government and the states. The
state governments balance the power of
the federal government. (b) Each level
of government in the federal system can
do things that the other level cannot.
Certain powers are denied or not given
to the national government, and certain
powers are reserved to the states. These
limits make it difficult for the national
government to abuse its powers.

Skills Worksheet 3
1. How could they create a new central
government that would be strong
enough to administer the nations affairs
effectively but would also preserve the
powers of the States? Some people, like
Madison and Hamilton, supported a
strong central government, while others,
like Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams,
wanted to preserve the powers of State
governments. Framers from smaller States
were particularly concerned about the
amount of power their States would have
in the new government.
2. Answers will vary, but students should
outline three strategies, as well as the
advantages and disadvantages of each.
3. Answers will vary. Students should choose
one of the strategies identified in the
previous question and explain why they
think it would be the most effective in
resolving the problem.
4. The Framers found their solution in
federalism. The federal system, with its
division of powers, was an alternative to
both the system of nearly independent
States, loosely tied to one another in the

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. f
4. a
5. d
6. b
Main Ideas
7. c

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


8. a
9. b
10. d

2.

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. f
4. a
5. d
6. b
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. b
10. d

3.

4.

CHAPTER 4 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
A.
Step 1: Area asks Congress for admission.
Step 2: Congress passes an enabling act.
Step 3: A territorial convention prepares a
State constitution.
Step 4: The constitution is put to a popular
vote in the proposed State.
Step 5: The approved constitution is submitted
to Congress.
Step 6: Congress passes an act of admission,
creating a new State.
Step 7: President signs the act, admitting the
new State to the Union.
B.
Categorical grants: grants made for specific,
closely defined purposes
Block grants: grants made for particular but
broadly defined areas of public policy
Project grants: grants made for specific
projects to States, localities, and private
agencies that apply for them
Lulu payments: federal funds paid to areas in
which there are large federal landholdings in
lieu of property taxes that local governments
cannot collect from the National Government

5.

6.

(d) recognition of each states physical


boundaries
Step 1: A territory applies to Congress for
admission.
Step 2: Congress passes an enabling act.
Step 3: The territory writes and approves a
constitution.
Step 4: Congress approves the constitution
and passes an act of admission.
Step 5: The President signs the act and the
state is admitted to the Union.
Grants-in-aid programs are grants of
federal money or other resources, such as
land, to states, cities, counties, and other
local units.
Categorical grants: special reasons, such as
school lunches, building roads, or building
airports
Block grants: a particular but broadly
defined area of public policy, such as
health care, social services, or welfare
Project grants: specific projects in states
or localities that apply for them, such as
medical research
(a) States fund national elections.
(b) States take care of the naturalization of
immigrants.
(a) The FBI aids state police.
(b) The states use data compiled by the
Census Bureau.

Bellringer Worksheet 3
Steps 1, 2, 4
Steps 5, 6
Step 3
Although the States hold primary
responsibility for dealing with local issues,
occasions occur when they cannot fulfill
these obligations alone. At those times, the
Constitution provides for the intervention,
support, or cooperation of the National
Government.
5. Article IV, Section 4: the Invasion and
Internal Disorder provision
1.
2.
3.
4.

Core Worksheet 3
1. The law has identified failing schools and
demanded that they improve, and it has
changed the conversation about education
in America.
2. NCLB has increased the authority of
the Federal Government in establishing

Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) a republican form of government
(b) protection from invasion and domestic
violence
(c) protection of each states legal existence

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

educational criteria for public schools, an


area generally reserved for the States.
There have been some gains, but these
successes are open to debate.
Scores have climbed slowly, there
continues to be an inadequacy in meeting
standards, and schools are faced with the
stigma of being a failing school.
The law has changed the conversation
about education in America and has
focused on students who have been
previously overlooked.
The department has already approved
pilot programs in five States, and wants
Congress to include a growth model in
NCLB.
The Department of Education is
emphasizing long-term trends and
patience with the process of education
reform.
Answers will vary. Students should
support their position with facts from the
article.
Education is a responsibility normally
reserved to the States. However, the States
depend in part on federal funding to
operate schools. The No Child Left Behind
law places strings on these federal grants.
States must meet the laws conditions to
get the grant money. In effect, the federal
grants for education transfer some of the
power to control education from the States
to the Federal Government.

growing, due to changes in the global


marketplace, rapid technological growth,
and pressures from corporations and
advocacy groups. Domestic spending ebbs
and flows are also expanding the federal
role and centralizing government.
2. Pre-emptions are actions of the National
Government that would either substitute
nationwide policies and programs for
those of States and localities, or prohibit
States and localities from exercising
certain powers that have previously been
their responsibility. Pre-emptions replace
State or local laws or require States or
local governments to adhere to certain
standards, and they are increasing in
frequency.
3. Although the grants are optional, States
and localities are usually so dependent on
funding from federal grants-in-aid that
participation is not really voluntary.

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. d
4. c
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. d
10. b

Core Worksheet ELL


1. reform
sanctions
proficiency
landmark
assessing
performance
strides
mounting
traction
adequate
2. 3
3. States will lose federal funds.
4. identifying weak schools and demanding
better performance

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. a
2. e
3. d
4. c
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. d
10. b

Extend Worksheet 3, 4
1. The need to nationalize and streamline
certain regulations and standards is

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


CHAPTER 4 Section 3

states. (b) Any one of the following is


acceptable: A state may discriminate in the
areas of voting, running for public office,
obtaining licenses, or paying college or
university tuition.

Reading Comprehension 3
Interstate Compact
Definition: formal agreement entered into,
with the consent of Congress, between or
among States or between a State and a foreign
state
Location: Article 1, Section 10, Clause 3
Full Faith and Credit
Definition: requirement that each State accept
the validity of public acts, records, and judicial
proceedings of every other State
Location: Article 4, Section 1
Extradition
Definition: the legal process by which a
fugitive from justice in one State is returned to
that State
Location: Article 4, Section 2, Clause 2
Privileges and Immunities
Definition: stipulation that all citizens
are entitled to certain privileges and
immunities, regardless of their State of
residence; no State can draw unreasonable
distinctions between its own residents and
those persons who happen to live in other
States
Location: Article 4, Section 2, Clause 1 (and
reinforced in the 14th Amendment)

Core Worksheet 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Privileges and Immunities


Full Faith and Credit
Privileges and Immunities
Extradition
Privileges and Immunities
Full Faith and Credit
Privileges and Immunities

Quiz A
Key Terms
1. f
2. e
3. b
4. d
5. a
6. c
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. d
4. a
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. c
10. a

Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) Interstate compacts are agreements
states make with one another and with
foreign states. (b) Either of the following is
acceptable: the contract between New York
and New Jersey creating the Port of New
York Authority; the Compact on Juveniles.
2. (a) The Full Faith and Credit Clause
declares that the laws, records, and results
of court cases of one state are valid in
all others. (b) Any two of the following
are acceptable: marriage licenses, birth
certificates, titles to property.
3. (a) Extradition is the legal process by
which a fugitive from justice in one
state is returned to that state. (b) Any
of the following is acceptable: in cases
concerning race, in cases concerning
politics, or in cases involving disputes over
child custody.
4. (a) The Privileges and Immunities Clause
forbids any state from discriminating
unreasonably against people from other

CHAPTER 4
Test A
Key Terms
1. e
2. d
3. i
4. a
5. h
6. j

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


7. g
8. b
9. f
10. c
Multiple Choice
11. b
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. b
16. d
17. a
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. Sample response: Since the Department
of Health and Human Services has by
far the largest portion, States and local
governments apparently ask for a great
deal of federal assistance in paying for
health care for the needy and elderly
through programs such as Medicaid. The
next-highest sponsors of federal grants
are the departments of Transportation and
Education. This would indicate that State
and local governments need help paying
for things such as road maintenance and
school programs.
Critical Thinking
22. Possible response: The Privileges and
Immunities Clause states that the citizens
of each State are entitled to the privileges
and immunities of citizens in all other
States. In other words, no State can draw
unreasonable distinctions between its own
residents and those who happen to live in
other States. So, a person from one State
is allowed to buy property or get married
in another State, and the contract is
considered legal in both States. However,
reasonable distinctions are allowed. For
example, a State can require persons from
other States to pay higher fees for hunting
licenses.
Essay
23. Sample response: The federal system
ensures that the National Government
does not become too powerful by requiring
it to share powers with the States and by
limiting the powers it can claim for itself.
This makes the National Government more
accountable to the people of the States.

Over the years, though, there has been a


back-and-forth power struggle between
the two levels of government. Gradually,
the National Government has taken more
power for itself in an effort to unify the
nations solutions to problems. Some
people fear that the National Government
has already become too powerful and
takes too much liberty from the people,
levies too much taxation, and shuts the
States out too often.
I believe that federalism is the best
system for the United States, but its
continued strength and success depends
greatly on the American people being
educated about the dangers of giving too
much power to a central government. It
depends on whether one believes that
the National Government is best able
to solve peoples problems, or that local
governments and individuals are. I believe
in always striving for a balance.

Test B
Key Terms
1. e
2. d
3. i
4. a
5. h
6. j
7. g
8. b
9. f
10. c
Main Ideas
11. b
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. b
16. d
17. a
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. (a) The chart shows the federal agencies
that give the most federal grant money to
state and local governments. (b) The chart
shows that state and local governments
need a great deal of federal assistance
for health and human services. I can tell

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UNIT 1 Answer Key (continued)


this because the greatest amount of grant
money is paid out by the Department
of Health and Human Services. (c) The
next two greatest needs of state and local
governments are transportation and
education.
Critical Thinking
22. (a) The Privileges and Immunities Clause
forbids any state from discriminating
unreasonably against people from other
states.
(b) Any one of the following is acceptable:
The Clause guarantees that any citizen
may travel or live in any state. Any citizen
may use the facilities in any state. Citizens
may buy, own, sell, or rent property in any
state. Employers cannot be required by the
state to hire only residents of that state.
Essay
23. Sample response: The federal system
ensures that the national government does
not become too powerful by requiring it
to share powers with the states and by
limiting the powers it can claim for itself.
Over the years, though, there has been
a power struggle between the national
and state governments. Gradually, the
national government has taken more
power for itself as the states have become
increasingly dependent upon national
government money. Some people fear
that the national government has already
become too powerful and takes too much
liberty from the people by shutting out the
states from decision making.
I believe that federalism is the best
system for the United States. However, its
continued strength and success depend on
the American people being educated about
the dangers of giving too much power to a
central government. I think that we should
have more balance between the powers of
the state and national governments. The
balance has shifted too far in favor of the
national government.

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