Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 302

. . , . .

,
. .

. .

X
9

69({

623.45: 629.7


. . . .
-
,

- .

-
,
,
, ,
.
, 3, 4 5 I, 17
III . . ; I
I, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 II
. . , 2 6 I,
14, 15, 16 III . . .
31. 384.



,

.

,
, .

, ,

.

:
( ,
,
);
(
, ,
);

(
,
,
).
,
, .
,

. ,
. ,
( ),
( ).
,
(, ,
. .).
,
.
3



.
. ,
,
, . ., ,
.
,

.

.

,
, ,


.

, ,
.
,
, ,
,
,
.

.
. :
, >
,
,
;
,
,
.

I
-



, ,
.

: 1)
; 2) ; 3) ; 4)
.
, ,
,
()
:
,
.
,
, ;
,
;

;
- ,
;
;

;
.
,

.
5

, ,
,
, ,
,
.


,
.
:
()
;
()
;
;
;
.
, ,

, ,

( ); ,
,
, ,
, . .

,

.

( ),
, ,
, ,
(, ),
,
, . .

,
.

6

. , ,
.

, :
( ), ,
,
.

, ,
,
. ,
,
, .
,
:

;

;

.
, ,

,
:
(, , ,
.);
( ,
.);
, ;
.


.
.
, ,

.


7

,
(-, - . .)
.

,

, , ,
.



. 1
,
.
,

( ),
.

,
,

, .

1.

,
,
.

, .

,
, ,
.

. :
;
();
, ;
, .

,
.

10~6 10~7 ,

( ), ,
,
.
,
,
().


.
: . 9

,
.

,
.

, ,
, .
, .

,
.
. , ,
1 ( )
4 105 , 1 9 1012 .

,
.
.

: ( ),

.
.
( )
,
.

.
,
,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
,
.
.
, ,
900
1800 /.

,
.
,
,
.
10



(, ) .
. 1 . 1
.
1.1

,
, /
42004500
8000
10000
12000
1000
700
1000

,
( )
, ,
1
(, . .).
,
. 1
56 ,
1
12 . ,
,
.
.

.
, ,
,
.

.
, ,
2000 9000 /.

.
:
.
:
+ 0 2 = 2.
11

2.

,
, ,
, .
,
,
,
.
,
.
:
62 ( 02)3 , = 2 + 1,2 0 2 + 3,8 + 0,6 2 +
+ 1,6 20 4 -1 ,4 N0 -+- 0,2 3.
.
2( 0 2) 3 ,
,
.
,
. ,
.
,

, .


,
. ,
,

. 1
1000 .
,
, .

2 I - 20 3 = ]20 3

2 4- 198 ,

, , , ,

(, 120 ) 3000,
.
, ,
: , .
12



.
: ,
.
,


.
. .

.
,

.
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
,

.

,

.


.
,
.
.

. ^
,
,
.
, .

(
).
.
13

3.


, ,
- .

.
;
;
;
;
.

,
.
,

,

- ,
.

.
:
, ,
( ) .

.
- .


.
.

( ).
: ,
, , , (),
, .
: , , .


.
,
.
: .

14

, . ,
, .

.
, -
: , ,
. .
.

.
.

,
.

(
).
:

;
;
.

: ,
, . . ,
,
.

.
4.



. ,
,
. ,
)
, .
,
,
. ,

.

15

.
,
.
:
(, , );
(, );
( );
( );
( ).

, ,

.

. ,
,
, ,
.

,

.
,
.

.

.
: ,
, ,
, .
.
,

,
.
,
, 100 180
.
. , ,

.
.
, , ,
,
, .

16

. 1.2.
2 ,

.
1.2

- 40
20
80
90
105-110

46
36
18
8
5

.

.
, ,

.
(,
.)
, ,
. ,

, , ,
, , .
,


.
.

.
. , ,
:
.
,
.

.
.
: . ,
2.

. .

17

, . ,
,
, , ,
.
, ,
(,
, , .).

, ,
, .'
,
, , , .
,


.


.

.

.
(),
,
100.
(0,10,5 )
20 .
,

.
. 1.3.

1.3

18

140
170180
180200
195200
195200

200 205
205215


, ,
,
.

,
( )
100% , ,
100% .
,
.
. 1.4.
1.4

0,69
0,69
0,98
1,43

215-230
270-280
295300
300310
310-315
325340

8,5
12,5
23
25



,
5,5
7
7
14


,
.
,
10 25 ,
. 1.5.
1.5

, '

, /
48
2030
2432
5060
7080
7080
100

19

, ,
.

5 , ,
9 .

. 1.6.
1.6

) 10

10

10


()
,
.

1000 /2 1 ,
500 /2 .


.
,
,
.
. 1.7.
1.7

-------

0,09
0,36

0,025
0,29
> 1 ,0
> 1,0

1 1 -.-?

,
0,17

,

.
2



. ,
,
,
. ,
.

( ),
, ,
. , 1,2
1,4 /3,
. ,
,
. ,
.

.

.
, ,
( ), .

.

, .
.
.

.
. ,
, . -
/

.
.
: ,
.

, , .

(, ), N02
.
(, , ),
.

.
. ,
, , ,
, .


. 1.8.


( ), ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
, , .
,
,
.
.
.


.


.
6.

,
,
, .

1 .
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
.
.

.
,

,
22

!. 8

1480
1400
1390
1090
1040
1010
690
665
550
417
370
367
344


, .

.
, ,
, ,

.
. ,
,
, , ,

.

^ ~- .,
(1. 1)


0
.


+ .
.

. 1.9.
23

4350
4250
4010
3530
3450
3370
3060
2380

1
!
!
|

7.

1.9


.

,
. ,

. ,

( , )
,
. ,
, ,
(,
, ),
.


:
,
.
1
. 1.10.

,

.
.


,

.
,
.
,
,
. , ,
, .

, ,
. , , . .

( 1.2)

I
0 ;
;
I ;
.
. .
, . . 1.11
,
( 1.2).
1.11

.
; '-1

/,

),
/

0,108
0,108
0,108
0.108

1010
1010
190
1100

5300
6600
7500
780 )

74-108
93-106
117-100
15,6.10*

1.10

I


24

, ?/.

0, /

1,5
1,65
1,5
1,55
1,6
3,77

890
790
750
740
690
300

80/20

1,5
1,52
1.55
1.55


.
.

-

' .

.
.

, , ,
.
1 , '
.



.
,
.
.

,
1
. ,
, :
^ > ,
(1.3)
427 / .

, .
4 105 / 6 . 105/.

, (
).
,
1 ,
, 0
:
= ',
( 1.4)
1 ;
/? ,
1
.

:
= 0,08204 ~ :--1

(9400 10200) ^ ,

= ( 1 1100 11700) 26


1\.
(),

().

2,

(1802 5 0 )------

,
. ,
,
.

.

.
.

.

.
8.

( ) 2
4,31 /3.

.
,
.
, , ,
.
.
, .
.
.

500 /2 ,
. 10% ,
.
: (] ==415 ! ,

0 = 4500 : 5000 /.
-
-.
('3)2
4,8 /3.

27

.

= 370 /, 4500 5000 /),
,
23 , .
.
.
,
.

.
( 5 10 ,
). -
.

)
(0 2) (
.
,
3,12 /3, .
.
, .

.
, .
2,9 /3
5200 /, 370 /.
-
,
-.
'
, 1,65 /3.
,
. 550 /,
1,47 /35000 /.
-
, -
-
.
9


(,, ) 2(02)
.


. (
8 ).

1,6 /3, 1,55 1,59 /3.


,
( ).
.
. , .

, .
,
-

:
1000 /, 0 = 6 9 0 0 /
1,59 /3. ,
.

.
(, .).

.
,
. 0 = 5 9 0 0 /
1,52, 900 /.
.
.
,2(N02)
- .
.


.
,
.

.

^ (
) , ,
.
1,6 /3 7400 /,
845 /.
- ^ ).^ . 1\ 2)
- 1,78 /3,
, ,
.
, .
,
.
29


( ( = 1 0 9 0 /, 0 = 7 7 4 0 /
1,61 /3).

.
,
.
60 6.1
1,82 /3, ,
, .

, .
-.
,
= 1390 /,
0 = 8 4 0 0 / 1,70 /3) .

.
(-) ( *) 4
1,77 /3,
, , .

, .

. -
,
.
24 299(0 0 2 )
1,66 /3.

.
35( 0 0 2)

1,6 / ,
.

.
, ,
, ,

.
.

,

.
(,
30

.), -

().

.

()

,
.
.
1,63
1,7 /3. :
20 60% 80 40% .

.
40% ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.

, .
. 1.12.

()
, .
,
:
, .
3 20 + 2 1 = 2 + 120 3 + 227 ;
3 0 2 + 2 1= 3 + 120 3 + 197 \
3 + 21 - 3 + 12 + 321 .

, ,
,
.

.
,

, . .
.

32

-
[

34.90
19!1


120 3,
.
.
1620% .
1870%.
.

. 30%
,
,
.
.
,

,
.
( - ),
.
,
.
. 1.12. :
( 38% , 40% , 17%
5% );
-1 ( 40% , 42% , 18%
0,7% );
( 41% , 41% 18%
).
\ -

-
,
- ,
.

.
,
,
. ( )

. 10
50%.
, :
-2 ( 70% 30%' 90%
10% );
-3 ( 84% 16% ).

. . .

33

.
50/50 1,3 /3 4435 /.
,
,
.
50/50,
-50.
,
: .


.
- .
.

,
.
,
.
. ,
5 6 % , IXI.
,
, .
: <3^=1250 /,
/>= 75008*000 / 1,6 1,68 /3.

, 80% IX I 2 0 % ,
IX2.
.
<5^=1500 1650 /, 0 = 6 7 0 0 7800 /
1,6 1,68 /3. IX2

, .
5%
.

1520%
.
.

,


. , 34

,
.
,

.
,

( ).

.

, .
: ,
, .

52 0 %.


().
, , ,
,
.
.
.
(
, ),
. , .
2550% .
,
50%, 40%, 10%.
-,
90% .


,

. ,

.

,
, .

,
.
3 12 .

.

. ,
,
.
,
.
:
, , .
,

.
,
.
- ,
.
- ,
(4>).
, ,

.
.

: 0 .~ 379 /,
/> = 10003000 /.
.
, -,
250 .
, .

. 5%
.
,
20% .
, , *

. - (, ,
.) :
, , , .
- :
36

( 4 03 );
( ^ 0 3, );
( 82% 40 3 18% );
I( 8 8 % 410 3 12% );
( 80% 40 3 2 0 % );
( 72% 4 0 3 28% );
( 43
)
40 90%. -40, -50
. .,
, 40/60, 50/50 . .

. , 20%,
.

.
(8090%') .
- . 1.13.
- ,
, .
( 30% ).
:
. ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
,
.
. , ,
.
, .

,
.

( ),
,
- .


.
,
: ,
7

, , , . .
(< 2000 /)
.
.

,
/

,
/

53005500
5000
5100
5000
5100
5000
4000

970
980
1180
968
921
955
800

1.13


, | ,
2890
2890
3380
2850
2750
2870
1900

200
200
200
200
200
200
200


.

.
.
,
, .
, , ,
.
,
, .


.
.
, 60%
40% .

. 1,4 !3
= 1 0 8 0 /
0 = 6 1 8 0 /.
10.

,

.
: , , .
38


:
.

.
: -
, , ,
, , , (
) .
-


,
. -
(. 1.1)
1, - ^
2,
3.

,
11

().
(
),
, .
0,02
0,03 .

.

. ,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
.
-

,
, - - .
-

,
- .
(. 1.2) 1,
2 3. \ . ,
.
( 50% ) (0,130,20 ). 39


,
.
-
,
.


0 ,
.
, 0

<.


. (. 1.5)
,

,
-

0 = 900 ' 0,11'" ,


0 , V /.


.
, ,
, .

-,
, . 1.14.
1.14
-

,
/

601

1,5

320

2,5

141

5,0

10,0

20,0

30

40

120

140

86

64

60

40

27

22

20


-
. -

, ,
. (. 1.3)
, (. 1.4) .

( 20 )
-.

- .
(
).

, .

(70200) .

, .


.
(. 1.6) 1, 41

2, 3 4.

.
5 ,
.
6.

,


.


.

9
10 ,
20 ,
. 1.6
0,9 ,
0,001 .
,
-.
.
(. 1.7) 1,
2, 4, 5
3.
. 4

,
3.

. 1.7


.

42

,
.

( )
-
.

(. 1.8).

_

.
1 /.
18


. -,
, , .
-

.
, ,

. . 1.9
-
.

1,
2 .

,"

.

,
.
.

, , ,
.
4,
(
).
. , 5.
- 43



20 100 . . 1.10 -
.
, .
,
, .
, ,
.
30 180 /
20 100 .
,
, - |
.

. 1.10

.
. .11. 1,11
1.11

. ,
(. 1. 11),
- .
(. 1. 12) ,
- ,
,
.


-
,
.
( )


.
,
,
.
.
, -34 (

7600 /),
-39
( = 6500 / ).
44

I. 1.12

II.

|| .

. ,
,
. ,
,
:

(, ),

;

, , ,
, ,
;
- ,
;
,
;
,
, ,
,
,
. .
, ,

.

.
:
,
;
,
( ,
, . .);
.
,

. ,
,
. ,
,

.
.
45


,
,
.

:
;
;
.

.

.
,
, .

.

- .
, .

. -

( IX 1, IX2, ),

. -
,
, .

( ,
.) (, ),
50% .

.

.

.

. :

,
, .

. ,
46

,
.

.
.

, ,

.
, (,
), .
, , ,
,
.
12



, .
, ;^
, .
, ,
.
: , ,
,
. 75% ,
15% 10% .
- .
- -
.
1,5 1,93 /.
.
, .

.
. 2% ,
15% .
11
. 500 /
. ,
.

'1 ,
> /2;
1 / 1 /2.
47

18 10 /, = 0 ,4 5 0,55,
1,7/3. ,
450 . . ,
350 . . . .
(? = 6 6 5 /,
= 2 5 0 0 2600 .

,
, (, . .),
. .
.

, 90%
10% .
( 45 )
(- ).

.

.
(/1 = 2 4 0 250 /).
,
, . -
(,
),
.
, . 1.15.
1.15

, /

60
75

25

( )

20

20



: , ,
, , .
.
.
. (
) , , , . .
9293% () 5060% ().
. 12% , 12% .
,
.


.^
, .
,
.

, .
:
: - (
1 : 1,5) ;
: ,
.;
: , .


.
,
,
.

. ,


.
.

.
.

.
.

48

49
4.

. . -

, , .
,
.
1 % ,
.


.

:
1)
.
.
, ,
40 50% .

.
,
, ,
.
(, ,
. .).
: (9195% ), (1% ),
(1 % ), (26 %'), (0,20,3 %)
(1,3 1,5 % ).
2)
.
,
,
, ,
.
, , , . .
, .

1, :
(51,5% ), (43% ), ( 1%) , (3,25% ), (0,2% ),
(1,25% ), (0,08% ), (0,6% 100%).
, , ,
.
3)
.
,
,
, 50

- - , ,
.
. ,
. :
64% , 28% ,
3% , 2% , - 2% , 0,7%.
4)
.

,
.
, .

.
5)
.
.


.
: -, -, -, ,
. .
.

1,56 1,65 !3.
1,54 1,62 /3.


.

-
.

. ,
, ()
.


.

, . .

(, ).
5
1,52 .


.

.
. -
,
, 50 ,
.
6000 /.

( 1000 /).

,
.

,
.
:
.

,
.
()),
, .

.
. .
,

. , 1000 /2

,
,
.

,
\ 1.

,
.
0 2, ,
2, N2 .
( } ) 52

.
650 1300 /, 700
1000 /. &
' 3000, 2500.


.
,
,
.
,
6 10 ,
.

(68 ).
2030%
.
,

.


( ).

,

.

(, , -)
.
(. 1.13) :
2\ - .
, , - |
, - |

. ^
2 |
. - |
1 .
1 13
,
,

(. 1.14) ,
, ,
.


.
.

.
,
.
, ,

.


.

.



. 1.14
,
.

, , . .
,
.

.
. ,
(),
.
.
.

,

, .

,
( ). :
,

, ,
-,
.
:
,
. ,
-12-10 ,
0,12 , 1 .
,
54

, -35.
:
,
.
. , 9/7

0,9 ;
, 22/1 2,2 .
.
:
;

, , .;
;
. ,
. .

:
/
;
() . .
:
,
. -
.

.
1?
5

, 1,2 ,
, 5- , 1941 .,
, .

13
2
* 41
, (
,
),
1,3 , , 2-
, 1941 ., .
13. ;

,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
55

.
, ,
(,
).
, ,
, :
, ,
( ),
()
.
(, ,
.)
(, , , , , .)
(
, , , ), (
), ( ) .


(, , , , )
.
,
, .
,
,
.
, .
, (
, ) (, .).

.

, , , . .

() ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.
()
( ),
.

,
.
10003000 /,

(0,10,05 )
.

,
, , . . ()
.

- : (),
( ).
, - ,

.
,
.
'

( ).

.

.

( ), , . .

,
,
. .
, (
, .).
,
.

( ), , . .
, ,
.
, , . .

, , ,
.

, , (
, , .).
,
.
25%
75% .
, 57

_
.

, ,
.
.
2500.

, .
(10%)
(90% ).
, 2800

, .
, ,
. . .
, ,
. .

( 80), , .
,
,
.

. .

.
() .
,
25% , 25% 50%
, ,
.
.
48 %
.
,
.
.

.

, .

,
.
1000.

1.

,
,

,
.

.
- ,

. ,
- ,

.


.

,

.

,
.

. ,
,
,
,
.
,
,
, ,
59


,
, , ,


.
,


,
.
,


.

. , 1883 .
. ,
,
-
.
,
,
. ,
,
,
.

.
,

,
.

,
,
.


1889 .
. . .
. (1899 .) . (1905 .).

,
.

60

, ,
. ,
^

,

.

,

,
. . (1939 .).

()

. . . .
(1944 .).



,



.
,
,
.
2.


, ,
1>. (1860 .), (1870 .)
. (1887 .).



, ,
,
*.
*
, '
, '
.
., . ,
.

,
, ,
,
.
( )
, ,
.
, ,


, ,
.

, . .
, (, ,
)
*.

,

.

^ # ) .
V- = (, (), = ( , I).
,
^ ,
:
= :.

(2.1)


, . .

. ( " ,
(X + ) ,
, , ,
).
,
^

1_ *

+ 4 * . _ 0.

- ,

(2.2)

( - ) :
()
- (+)

V/,
/
( ) ~ V, (*)

1( )
,
. .

- -----( + ) ---------- .
<
(II
(

__ +

, , (. 2.1),
, **.

. , (, I),

I. ( I
*
, ,
, .
, ,
( ), (
, ) (

).
**
,

62

(1
---- ( + ) = ( + ),
1

. 2.1

1 ( )
------------ (

) () = ().

&

:

,2.3)

. (2.2)

,
,

<

. + 1
1

+ 1 .

(2.4)
63

(2.3) (2.4) (2.2) ,

<?

- + ~ - = (2.5)

(
, ,
.
.

,

(&.) = [ ( ) - ( + )].

(2.6)

,
( ) ( + \ ) = - ( ) = -

* 4:'
(2.6)

(2 7>

, - ,
, . .
, , ,
.
,
.
,

,
,
.
1= /1 (2.5) (2.9)
/

(,
,
, ;

).

/
/ *
1 / .

__

1 ~~ 1

(> ) = - ( ~ - +
\

(2. 10)

( I/ _

% 1{

(2.8)

(2.9)

!
_ _/
, -------
- =

(2.7) (2.8) (2.6),


,

------1_ ?
+ ~ .

',

(2.51 (2.9) $
(2.10),

, (I?

+ -------- $ = 0 ;

(2.1) (2.2),

?/

(2.5) (2.9)

.
,
. (2.5) (2.9)
(

),
,

.

,
(1), = (5), = (%), ($).
,
, = /(-

64

5 . . . .

(2.11)

65

1 /
I - --->

</?

<

( 2 . 12)


:
,
(
).
.
\ = (2.16) (2.11),
___

.
(2.11) -

---- (2.11). (2.12)

[( _ . 5)2 _ 2] ^
= 0.
11

= 0

= !,

(2.13)

(2.13) .
(2.14)

!;
(2.15)

- 0; $1.


% + .
, . .
,
(
):
= +

(2.16)

, ^ ,
\
. ,
( , ) ~\-
,

,,
(2.17)
66

(2 1 8 )

1
= - -

0;

(2.18)
.
:

, (2.11)
(1

(2-19)


.

:
= 1.
(2.20)

<, (2.20) (2.19)



= 2 .

(2.21)

(2.21)
1

<
-1
, /-7 1 ~ 1
/ 1
-----= -------- 2
--- -------------1
2
2

(2.18) ,
,

*

67

( - 0)

(2.22)

( ,
= 0 ,
$).
.
-\-,
(2.22),
+

^ - 1 _ + = [( 4- 1) - 2 0].
!
\
1

. ,
0
^

(2.23)


(2.21).
.
,
.
,
.
(. 2.2).
, ,
,

(


0).
(
). ,
,
, 0.
, ,
, ,
0,
0 ,
. ,
,
. (
), ,
. ,

0,
( < 0)
, .
, 6

, , 0 , ,

,
,
. (2.23),
-\- ,
0. , -|-<,
- [(: + \ ) - 20] < 0.
1

, <^0,
, < 0.

69

. , (2.22)
(2.16),

2
V -!;
= ( V - 1 .
(2.28)

\ I

\ !

= - } - , (2.27)

~ 1 \ '
~

,
1 _

= 6- .= 5 -

2
(2.24)

~ - 1

-,

__;

- 5),

+ 1

*
.
, = 9
, 0, /


\
\ 0|$ = = -5 =, 0 1. ,
= - + - (5 6).
-{- 1

(2.25)

%= 0 = 0 (
, . . 0= 0),
= 0 -

1 .


:
= _23>_ 1 _ 1
+ \\ 0
)

(2.26)

(2.25)

(2.27)

,
(. 2.2).
( = 0). 0{ = $ I
(2.25) = 0= 0 = = (. .
). = I = (
, . .

(2.15) = = !
70

1}=
+ 2 0.
)
+ 1
+ I

(2.29)

, (2.29) (2.281

,
..

_
- 1 \ 0


-1

+ 1 + 1 0
2
2
- 1 -1
\ + 1 ' 0

(2.30)

(2.27) (2.30),
.
( = :0= 5 ^)
(2.30)
(2.26):
2
3 0 \ - 1_

!_ _ ( 1 _

( 2 .3 1 )

0 1

? 1 .(

V - .

1!

(1 __

1 __


(2.20) (2.21) ,

. 2.2

(
0,5 0; 1,4). . 2.2
(2.28) (2.30),
? , ,
, , ,
, . . .
,
(
).
, ,

, .


.

,
(2.24),
= = + . , (2.25)
= + ; ~

- ),

(2.26)

(2.32)


(2.33)

(2.27) (2.30)
, (2.31)

_
|>

_|0

1+*

- ...

.
'

"

0 )
2

,
I . , . .
,
. ,

, (, , ).
> , ,
,
.

,
.
,
*.
,
(. 2.4). 1 1

(2.34)

1+
1 *-1
1

, (2.33), (2.34),
(2.27) (2.30), , ,
. 2.2 ,
,
(. 2.3).
. 2.4

.

( 00)
, . . .
, 1=1\ ( ,
00),
, , , .
, ,
,
2 2 , 1 /.
0 (2.33) > / 70 (2.34),

,
(0 < <

.
72

*
,
,
,
, , .
,

.
73

( ^ = /2) ,
,
, ( )
, ,
, + (2.23)
-{-^>. , -\-
0, ,
, ,

.
,
(1=() ,
, .

,

( , ),
. .
7
- . ,
;

,
-------
--------I , '

*.

,
1


1
<4
'
( ) . _'_?

^ (
)
25
,
. ,


, .
2.3.
-
(
). ,
.
V ,

1
/"
- , X

X .
, ,

X
.
74

,
,
. 2.5.
. ,
-
; (=00)
0, ,
, ,
(
).
,
.
3.


, .

(. 2.6). ,
, .
, , ,

. 2.6

- 2-7

,
.
. ,
,
, .
,
0, 0
0 ( ). ,

\, ] .

. 2.6
.
(. 2.7). 75-

{=, )
( ).
( \,
? ?\ )

- ,
.
, ,
.
' ,

'

, . ,
.
, , ,
, ,

, .
, ,
, ,
,
,
.
. 2.7,
0 0 1 1
*. I 0 0
, :

= 0 ( /),

. 2.8

.
,
(. 2.8).

:
= 4- 10~ ,

[\]
[/2].
,
- ,

.
0
1 1 (. 2.7 2.8), 0 0
, 1 1
, .
,
, ,
,
,
.
, ,
76

(2.35)

.
1 1 1 ,

*,= , ( 0 - , )
(2.36)

,

0 = 1( - 1).
(2.37)
, 0
{, 0. ,
, 1 1 ,
\ ( \).
, . .
( 1) I.
,
0 - /, ( - ,) (, - 0) (.
(2.38)
(2.38) 0 (2.35) \ (2.36),

* - - , ) =

(2.39)

, , .
()
, 0, \, ]
*
,

.
.
77

, 00,
:


(2.41)
(2.42)

V ^

, 1 /,

..
, /, ( ,)2

I)

1 + 1 ------- ? - .



. ,
, ,

( 0

- ,

- / ' ~ ' .

(0 ~ 112

(2.36),

= /> ,( 0 ,)/>0-(2.40)

.
(2.37) (2.39)
V
V =

(2.44)

0-

,
(2.40).
(2.40) ( ) (2.41):

& (

2\

> 1

_0 = - ,

*(-+ * +* ) - 0;7-0-

1&
)2 2_2
^1 = )
- 1 +
, '
2
-02

\ - ^ 0= - \ ( + ) - 1)-

(2.44),

( - ,) 0 >,;
( ~ )

( { ( - , ) ) .

(2.35)

^ + ) - - ,) ^1 + (^

__________
/
_
1
)( - 1) ( -
, ) 1 / 1-------(2-43)

1 (2.42):

^ *.


0(0

(2.41)

(2-45)

(2.43), (2.44) (2.45) -



,
, .
(2.45) \
VI .

.

, ,
,
= ,

(2.46)




= .
, /?

~ ~ = ------

( 2 .4 7 )

.,
<-

'
\ 0 (2.48) \,
(2.45):

,
:

(2.48)
\, ,

^ 1 - ^ + \ <1 = ( ^ + ^ ^ ' 1 - ') (2.49)

(2.49)

1 _ ( * + 1) , - (* 1) ,

( * + 1 ) , ( 1)0

(2.49) VI,
,

(6 + \ ) 0 + ( - 1 ) 1

( + \ ) + { - \ ) 0

(2.50) (2.51)
.
(, V)
, 0, (. 2.9).
(2.50), (
80

01), \.
,


= 1

= 0 0

(2.52)

.

,

,

.
(. 2.9)



, . . ,
, 0,

V, ,
.

, ,
. 2.9


, , .
, ,
.
,
(2.52),
( ^ - ) .
- .
, ,
. , ,

.
\, 1
. , ,
, V0 ( ),

(. 2.9),
, ( ). (
) , ,
.

,
.
, , . .
6.

. . .

81

. ,
1,4, (2.52)

. 1
(2.43),

(2.50):

'

\1 /

1 ( '- 1

\ = 1

&+ 1

- 1

/V,

(< \
/

6(~ ) 1

>0| ,

\ = 4,6 , 1=5,7

. (2.51), ^
( )
-
V
~
+ ~1 -

(2.53)

,
. = ,


1
1

(2.54)

\ ( ^ 0)
(2.44) (2.53):
_______

1^0 . /
-*
1 ~ ~+ 1\ 2-

82

2- .
+ 1

(2.56)

, (2.53)
, ,

6 \
\>, )

> '
, > . ,

/ * =

,=

----- - .
1
+ 1
( = 1,4) V = V 0, . .
, ,

6 0. ( ,

12,5 ).

, , . ,
, ,

, ,
,
<>( 2> \). ,
1
------- + 1
1
\, \, 1=
^

^ (/ + 1) /? 4- ( \ ) 2
( + \ ) 2 + ( \ )
, , 2

\ ,
V2

_ 1

+ 1
, :

__

(2.55)

, , ,
,
36 .
63= 2 1 6
. .
83

,
,
, ,
, ,
. =>,
(2.52)

, ,
,
:
= + ,
(2.57)

= ' = . / = / \

0 >0

0 \ , 1

\ 0)

(2.5 !)
( +1) + ( _ 1 ) ^ .

\ .

I ________________ _

V* ( + 1)^1 + ( - 1)

,
(& = 1,4, 0= 2 7 3 ), ,
7',2000. ,
1000 , ]?45000*.

,
,
. , , ,
, ,
. ,
,

,
**. , ,
, , ,
(. 2.9) , . .
.
*
,
, ( ~ 20000).
,
.

. ,
.
** ,
.
5. ,
, ,

) ,
.

, ;
;
(1 , ,
, (IV.

( 1 0 = 15,

(2.58)

(2.57)
+ ) = (15.

(2.59)

,
.

(. 2.9). (2.45),
:
= - 0 = (/?, + 0)( - .).

(2.60)

. . .
,
, :
' = ' - 0 -

| ,

(2.61)

1}|

. . ' ,
( ). (2.60) (2.61),
,

- \ ' = ~ ( 1 + ) - >,) - - ^ -.
()
,
.
,
. ,
(2.59),
+ 5\
85

(5 = 0)
:
^ '- 0 .

, ^ ' =
, ,
. 2.9 .

, ( > ') , ,
5 > 0 , . . .

,



.
,
, ,
( VI),

(
),

', 01
, , . . ,
,

. 2.10
. ,
,
, \, VI
(. 2. 10), ,
, , .
\ ( ).
,
( =

'').

, ,
*.
,
. 2.10.
(2.44),
----------- =

I/
*

----- \
~

*

(. . ).

(2.62)

, ,
, ,

. , ,
.
, (2.62),

,
, ,

.
4.

,
.
,

,
.

.

, ,
.


.
.

, ,

.

(. .
),

.

,
,

, .
87



. ,

() .
, ,
0 0,
.
,
.
,

.\ \


(2.43), (2.44):
: " *> ,)]/
,

\ -

1 -
0- V ,

(2.63)

(2.64)

V\

1
(2.51) ( 1 1
. 2. 11)
>1 = ( + 1) -4- [ - 1)/?,
(2.65)
V,

(/+ \)\ +
1)
(2.62),
,
.

.


(- 2. 12) , ----------- , 1 1, -

, _______


.
2 2
. 2.12

. ,
1 1
. 2.11

2 2. ,

10-1 . 2 2
(2.65),
(2.40), ,
(2.40) ,
.
(, )
?*,,
2 2
(2.45)
- ( + * ) ~ ( + ) ( - V),
(2.66)

2 2 ;
()
.
(2.66) ,
(2 .45)
0.
0 (2.48),
(2.49)
, V

1 ( + 1) - ( - 1 = />\(+ 1) * - (* - 1 +
1

{ + 1 ) 0 - ( ~ \)
2( 1)
0( + 1) ( 1 ) ^
( + 1)- ( 1) 0

. ,
( V = 0 |) ,
(2.67), , \,
(2.50),
____ 2 { - \ ) 0 ___
( + 1)< ( 1) 0
. .
( 2 2 .
2.11). -
(, II, . 2.12), ,
,,, <3*,

- 1 1 2 2 (
I I . 2.11).


, -

. ,
,
, (, V0) (\, )
, (. 2.11).
, \, >1
( 1 / )
(2.62) ).
I /) , , , ,


I\1, 0, V,
. , ,
\, 0|,
~ =

> /?0 ,

* 1 *

, (2.64), -

~ V

^
/ -(- 1
? -= ------- ^
2 \ - 1

'02

/ = / ?^------(2-68)

V
.

,
1 1 (. 2.7) -
, .
V,
, ,
(2.44),

,
,
,

( )
. ,
(
),
(

1 ).
,


90

( ) , . .
^ ( V ) ,
. , -
I , V, ,
,

(2. (2.67)

) ),

\
I



(2.68), , - > / ? 0,
( V )
1
2 /1 V <3 < ) = - < .- < > >
1
2
- (2.64), /? ,> 0:

. !
*
(2.69)

,
( )
V = ,
^ ( V ^ ) = 0 .
(2.69). V=V^

(2.53)
-

^ ( V 0) , -

, - '

91

. (2.69)
,

\
,
,-\-\
V - V = ( ^ 0-)/
- 1


2,
2=

- 0.
+ 1

.
, 1 (.
2.13). ,
,
.
, ( 2 .
2.13), -

(2.70)

2
:
, \ ~ (
~ +

'

- ?

*+ 1

> /?0 ,

+ 1

1
1
I ----

,
(2.53)
!

(2.71)

^ -

. 2.13

(2.72)

, ,
, 2
.
. 2.13.

, , 2, , -,
, ,
* (
2 2 . 2.14). ,
. 2.13 ( 01"),
" < 1 , .

( 22) 2'2", . .
,

2,

, ,
, . . 3 5 = 0 5=1:.

2, ^ 2-
(2.67),
_ _ ( 1 ) [ ( / + 1)> (& 1 ) ^ \ - { -' ^ ) \ { - > 0 ( 1)>]

IV

[(
9 ( 4- 1 /
~[( +

1)> (* -

1) V { 1) 0]2
( -

\ ) 0 + ( +

( +

1 ) (/} 1)>0

\)

^ !2

, 2 , , , . , - - 5- <2-70> "*> ' - *


(2.72),
(2.73)

*
)
22, -2 ,

(, ^ ( V ) .

92

93

(2.68) \ > 0 :
^

& _
>2

1 - 0 = __ \
' -,
0

(2.75),
1 - ( V ^ - V ^ ^ \ - 1 ( - 0) (IV > 0 .

1
, _

1
?

4- 1 />1
2
'

(2.74)

), . . - = 0 IV
, , (1=),
, 2, V2
: ?5=0 5 = 51. , ,
,
.
0 1 1
2,
0 (
) , ,
1 2 3^>0, . . , ,
2, 0. -
0 ,
]' 2'
1'2', 2',

, 22, 2
( < ^ 2), 10^ > 0 , ,
. .
.
,

.
,
,
22.
2 2 (2.66)
1 = ^ ^ 0- 1 ) 1 - ~ ( () + ) ^ .
,
,

2, 8 ^>0

1 + (15 > 0.

(2.75)
,

(2.76)

2 (13=0)

(2.73) (2.74),
, 2
. 2

94

~
V

(2.71)

= _

,, V

, -

'

(2 77)

,
, . . .

2 2 V, ,
00 22,
,
22:
(2.78)

-
=

= ( - V)

*
-
V

(2.79)

(2.80)

V " |/

(2.80) (2.81) (2.76),


,
2:

- .

(2.82)

2 (2.77) , ,

2 =

. .

= 2 + 2.

(2.83)
95

,
2 2
. , 2,
,
*.



.

. . .
, ,
,
,
1 ^>\ (. 2.14).
,
.
1' 0 2',
2 2 (. 2.12)

. ,
2', 2,
2' > ' - / .
, ( 2 <
< \ ) , /
,
( '2).
,
\ , ,
, . .
,
, ,
\,
, , ?., 0 1'
2".
, ,
, 2'
,
( 2 2 . 2.12),
, ,
22.

. , 2 0
2 , -


,
( 2)*.
=

1 / '2 ;
1
~ ^2

2 = V (^0---=

(2-84)
/----------

V -------- ^ 0 ~- ^---2

) = 2 + 2.

(2-85)
(2 .86)



:
2 - %= ( 0+ 2) (*\> - ) +
22 = /? 2.

(2.87)

V (2.48)
2~^> 0 ,

1 = ~ 2 14 ^ ~ ^

(2'88)

, ,


2~ 2 2,

(2.89)

(2.84) (2.89)
: \, 2, 2, 2, 2.

-
^2 ^2
/ --- \
- 2
2
(2.89),
2 2=

0 -

*
(11)
(22) , 22

*
, ,
2, ( > 2) < 0 <13 < 0, .

66

7-

. . .

>0 - + 1
>2

^ ==

(2.90)

(2.84)

2 = 0 -- \ , = ( + 1) 0 2
1- .
%
I

2 (2.87)

-1

-1 *

{ - 1)

2 (2.91) ~2 (2.90) ()
{2.95),
= ____1______ = _ 2 _ _ 0 _ _
2

( \) ( + \ ) 0

4 -1

(1.1),

7 , ,
2=

( + ^)V0 '

(2.96)

+ 1

(2 -91)

, - -4 -
+ 1 ^

==
(2.92)

2 (2.85),

(2.90),

:

(2.86)

,293)
2 2,

2 (2.93)


)
2 ~ \
(2.88) *

(2-94>

2 ( -
( + \ ) 2 ( 1)0

77-- -- -----------------

2 (2.91)
(2.90)
,

= ] / 2 ( 2 1)<?,,.
98

.
( 0 2, 20 .) & = ,
6
(, N2 .) .

* +

(2.95)

- ,
1,2. ,


.



.

()
. ,

,
*. ,

,

. ,

= .

,
*
,
(1,52,0) /.*
7*

99

, . ,

,
,
. ,

.
,
*.
,
V.

0
.
,
1 2 /3 I) 0,

= *.
(2.97)

(2.90), ,

0:
= (2.98)

,

(2.78)

~^> 0

(2.97),

. = 02 ----
(2.99)
IV
V
(2.98)
0
|'0 = ( ! { ):
V
/
\
/
0 = V.
*
, ,
.
100

3=

=* 81,

(2.100)

1).

(2.100)
:

"

= .

(2.101)

(2.101) ,
, ,
( =
3).
= &1,
,

. ,
, . .
(2.95) (2.96).
, (2.90), (2.99), (2.93)
(2.94)
( = 3),
2 =

+ 1 __ 4

: ;
2 = 1.... = 4
+1
^2 =

* + 1

2 _ .
41
+ 1

V
2

0 (2.99),

(2.102)
(2.103)
(2.104)

! ;
(2.105)*

,


.
(2.102) (2.105),
( 2,


) . *
0
^/4, - - /. , , ,
8000 / 1,6 /.3,
0
- 160 -/4 2 = 2.56.109 / 2 - 256000 /'.
101


.

, . .
.
,
. , (2.95)
,

)/ ^.

$
.
-----
!
(
/
|
----------------------------

|
---------------.-------------_ ).
^
,

215
.

^ ,
(2.15). >
(1 = !(1
,
,
).

.
,
(. 2.16). ,
/ /
, 2 2

.
.
, 1 ,
. 2.16, 1' 1',
,
1'3,
3. 1',
, 1 1,
1 3
. ,
31 13.
,


102

,

. 1'0

1/ , , 1', *.
.

I
,

. 2.16

/ 0. , 10 1
, ,

101,
.
. 2.16,

, .
, 4 21,
,

.
( . 2.16).
,
,
, (0 1)
(13)
.
103

, ,
,
, . ,
, 101,
,
,
.
,
, 124,
,
. ,

,
. 2.15
(, ,
).


. . ,

.
,
.
,
.
I, ?
/

,
1/20.
, ,
(1 ^ I. ,
, , . .

1 /3, ^= 8 ,
1~ 32 , 1 = 1 ,
<?= 1 0 0 .

. , ,
, , ,

. 1, , -
.
104

5.


(2.102) (2.105) ,
,
*.
, ,
,
. ,

.

()

()

. 2.17
,
,
, ,

,
.

.
0 0 (. 2.17)
, I 1. ,
.
, ( < 0 ( ) , (, ,
( , (), (, I)
(, (). ,
2 . ,
, (.
2.17 2.1)
, (2.5) (2.9).

__.

^----
----- = ();

,
,

+ -------1 = 0.
1

*
,
22 , . . ,
.
105

, , ,
, , = -
(2.10),

(2.11)

(2.110):

~ = - ( &),
+ 1
1 .
0 0 (
), 0 , ,

0 5

( -5 )4

------(2.106)

,
;
(2.13)

[( - 2)5 - *]

= 0.

(2.107)

I
, , ,
2, : ,
:

= /7=51; === !; = = 5 1 ; = = 51, (2.108)

+1
6. , ,
, : 5 = /) (. . )

= . ----- (2.103).
4- 1

(2 .1 1 2 )

2
(2.112),
,

?=

(2.106)
= ", ,

2 ( ),

(2.24)

2
( 2 . 110)
! . 5
1-1
(2.109):

(
~ ~

]_

'

(2.110),

,11 1
- -1

(1.110),
:

2
~ = ------- :

= = 0 ;
2

0 < ?< ;
1 \.
2 )

(2 .1 1 1 )

(2 1 3 )
2

I = 3,
:
\.
2 /

(2.114)

,
, ( = 0),
, .
, .

. 2.18.
.
(2.109), (2.113),
=
_____ _ ^ 1 / _
1 \

(2.111)
( ).
106

, :

2 \

~( '

(I

(2.109)

~ +

1) '

> 0, , 3,

, $ = $* = - , = 0,
0 (2.116)
(2.115),

-( . + ) = 1
^20
2 ) 2

(2.119)

(2.116)

( + 4 ' ' )

, 0

( ) (2.115), , 3

, $= (2.104). -----
4

1
. 2.18.

5 = 0 ( ) ==2 =

5 = 0

4
(2-102),

= | .

(2. 120)

,
,
. (2.120)
(2.119)

9 [

2 /

9 \0 1

2 )

(2.121)

(2.121) . 2.18.
, , .
,

__ /_[ 3
2

\ 2 /

8 / & , 1 V

(2.102) (2.121),.
8 / X

.
+
= +
27 V
2 I
27 \ 0 1
2/

(2. 122)

(2.1225

'
9

.
:
- 1

= ^ = ~ ^22/
27

(2.123)

(2.117)

(2.122) . 2.18
.
,

, , . .

.
= 3 (2.117)

2 ,

V ?

(2.118)
108

, ,
, .
. 2.19
,
.
. . . .


.
.
109

,

5 = (
). , 0,
, 15 , ' : 4

15
~ 2, 5" . =
1\
4

32

( ~ 9% ).
, ,
; ,
,
.
. 2.20.




.
6.



.
, . . 110

.



,
,
,
.
%



.

,


,


----- 7

/1
,
I ' I

, ,
, .
,

I


( 00, .
. 2.21
2.21). -
,
.


,
. 2.21:
2 2
, ( = 0) ,
0.
( ^ ),
,
,
.
-
. ,
, ,
111

. ,
(. .
) .
.

,
. ,

.
3

2= - (
4

)
0 ~0 ( ,
).


. 2.21.

.
2

:

.
.
1

= 81,
1

\ 2

(2.125),

^
22 1 _
^
1
(2-126)
1

(2.103) (2.104)
2 =

,
+ 1

2=
+ 1

(2.127)

(2.126),
(2.124)
1
\ -----\ 2

(2.128)

2/
= 2 + .

(2.124)



(2.22).
,
, (2.22)

= - ( 2 - ) ,
1

(2.125)

2
;
,
.
. 2.21,

,
(

V ), 2

, , ,
,
(2.43) :
= ( - 0)&* -

V ),

(2.129)


( );
0 ;
V >0 ,
, .

,
, V,
.
(2.44)
---------------------

= 1> \ /
V

- ~
-

(2.130)

(2.125) (2.126),

. . .

113

( ^ 0
= 0 ) . , ,
,
, .
= 0 (2.126) (2.128)

1
- ^ 1 /

(2.131)

(2.132)

- 1

3,

0' :
= 3

) = ,

(2.133)

. .
.
, > 2
,

, .

,
= 3,
.

,
105 /2, ( )
, 103 /2 (
).
==3.
,

, ,

( = 3 ) .
,

V * = !
( * = 1,4).

(. 2. 1)

.
114

2.1

/3

1.60
1.60
1.69

7000
8.-'00
8400

I1 :, - \ \

\2
1
1
570
,60

1450
1500
1800

6450
7450
7700

7100
8200
8450



! , 1/ " = 1;
-
, 1.3 3.0.

.

|
,

(. 2.22).
, ,
!

.



,
.

. 2.22


, , ,
,
(
) . ,
,
(2.131).

,
2
(2.134)

,
, , 2
. ,

(. 2.22):
(2.135)
115

,
'

(2.134),
=

1
72" ^

<236>

(2.103), (2.104),

11

(,
2 ).
3, (2.136)
= 1 + - ^ ? .

, ,
(2.137)

.
,
(. 2.23).
,
( )
(. 2.23).
( )

' ' (, ' ). ,
, ,
.

.

,
, ,
,
. ( . 2.24

;
).
116

. 2.23

(2.137)

. 2.24

117

, ,
, . ,
(- )
( 90). , 45.
,

?,, (2.137)
,
,
11. (2.137)
= 2 6.
(2.134) 1,72 2
( > 2).
:
.


,
,
, ,
, , ,

.
2+ =--4 + 1,72'( ~ ) = !

+ 112 ^

1^31 .


, <? . (=18.
{^ 18. ,
^ 2 . ,
2

= = 32= 3 = 4
*

2.1,

/). /=2+ , 2

, 4
2.

(. 2.25).
,
( , , ),
= - .
4
,
| = .

^.



.
118

.
,
2 (,

2 ).
, ,
, ,
.
,
.

. ,
,
,
, 2 (
2== ==

'
'
4
= ).
, ,
,
,
.
119

7.


,
,
( , ,
). ,
(),
.
,
,

.

,

,
,
. ,

,
.

, . .
,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
.



, , ,
,
. ,
,
( ,
),

(
, . .

).

. ,

120


,
,
.
,


(. 2.25). ,

10'

,

10

, . .
I

~~
io
''







.
00




(. 2.26).
, ,
b
,
,

(

).

, ,

,
= 3

.


00

.


. 2.26


. 2.18.
. 2.26 I (
) ( )
121

. ( . 2.26
11 , 22
).
.
Um . = 3 D (2.133).

, , ,
.
, . 2.26 I

C z = - D , 4
D
C f' =
,
2
D
-^-.
(2.27), , ,
. ,
,
. ,
, (2.29)
= 0 ( ) , ,
.
,
, . 2.26 II. ( . 2.26 4 4
).
. 2.26 III. ( 22 4 4
). ,
D
0 = ~^~
.

. 2.26 IV ( 5 5).
,
(. 2.26 IV ),
,
.
, ,
0' O'. ,
, ,
, , , .


[ (2.117),
], ,

(tin I2, . 2.26), ,
(M 1 M2), ,
(Ii I2),
( E x E2).
,
.

' ' - \ - ) ; ' > = ( 1 + 2 ) - ,2" )


L .
522


, Mi M 2
I1 I2. ,
,

M 2= --- JV
Ml Qoi i 11-]+ ---- )I ,1
9
0V
4L I

.
(2.139)

M 0 .
(),
, ,
.
:
/ . = Z 2 = - I M 0 D.
27

(2.140)

,
, :
11

432

5_
Ti

M 0D 2

iV

16
M 0D 2
432

E2

16 ) (2.141)

,
,
.

W

2=

J
- J

>

M x = M2=

j,

, ,

F
H x - E 2=

= M 0D=. (2.142)

( = 0 ) ,
I1 = - L .
4

'

- L 1 M 1= - M
4
9

01

M 2 = - M 0,
9

(2.143)

. . , ,
.
:
E 1 = M 0 D 2;
432

E t = M 0 D 2.
432

(2.144)
123

,

=
Ex
Il

1,45.

(2.144) (2.142),

, , ,
2 0 % :
-
1
2

^ = 1, 2 0 .
27

,
, ,
, ,
, .
L11
U2,
:

M 1LJ1 = A t 2LTr
M 1= - M , (2.143), ZJ2= - U 1.
4
' 4

,
,
: ,
,
, ,
,
.


. ,
,
, , . .

,
, ,
.
,
,
,

( 00 . 2.27).
124

( 0'0'),
,
,
, ,
, ,
, .

( )
(
)



. 2.27.
,


M2
(
. 2.27


).

. ,

( 2 . 111 )
da
de

- 1

Ii= 3
d u dc.

(2.145)


Ui ,
~*. (2.145)
,
C2* = C2 -f- U2.

C2 -

D
4

U2=

D,
4

C2* = D
125

, |
( 2 . 101) (2.117),
1

P = B y n,

C -V B R fr

2*
2* 2* - ]
. = 3
Po* _ 2* _

*C1
i;I

Y- 4 Y
IJ /
(tot*

,
2,37 ;
4 f>0, P2 =
1 6 -);

- 4 2(, , ^2 -
3
3
'
9

,
-* = D . (,
^V=V^m22-220,79D).

,
( ,
),
, .
,
, .

,
, . .

.

,
,
.


,
. ,
,
. ,
/

126


( = 0 ) ,
, ,
,
, . .
.


.

,

,


,
(. 2.28).



. 2.28
, . .
,


. , ,
h , d (. 2.29),
:
I Tid2 / d \
^da
= Pbb

24
4
,
,
:
OTr

. 2.29

{d\
h J '


) . , . 2.30
,
, .
,
Tj .
, ,
,
.


, ,

,
(. 2.31).
,
>
D, '
^
'
HO , ,,
,
k
.
, ,


(2)
.

. 2.32


'


, /
I
,


. 2.30

cPppnm
(.
2.20).
,

. 2.31

, ,
,
. ,
128


, ,


.

. 2.32
(
, )
,
. . 2.32

(
). . 2.32,

.

(
),
,
U2 .
, -
,
. .
, ,
.
,

. ,
( 2)
( 2),
, , ,
, ,
9-

. . .

129

. , , ,

, ,
BB,
,
,
. ,
. 2.33, D 1
D

D 1> D 1
,

,

D ,


( )
:

s m a == = c o n s t .

D1

.
( = 9 0 )
=
COS P

D1


(),
(. 2.35).

. 2.34


, .

( 0), , ,

,

<.
,
,
BB,
(. 2.34).

BB,
,
:

= -f- = const,
2.35

2 ,
D
sin - =
D1

, -
, 0, . . ,
AC = A 1C 1 = D M . , . ,

A B = D 1M( D i D
BB). . 2.34,
(U 1)
130

,
Sin T
9*

AC

AB

D1

= ------ --- --------

131

D2 .
,

Ho, ,
tg T

AC

CB

;
,
dr
d.
~ ~ 7 W
7

= 0, ,

= 0 ev D' - D

I
"

TC

= P + - T -----
7 ,
( ) ,

D t D ^ s i n y = j .


28,
(. 2.37).
,

( )
D a:
D2
=
sin 8
132

cos (8 7)

,
,
:

D sin 8

D0
O O ZlH bl
ZOS (6 1)

(2.146)


,
.
, . 2.36

BB,
W
.


.


\00
. , =
. 2.36

. 2.37

. 2.38

'! -
D


. ,

(. 2.38)
, .
, ,
BB, ,
, (. 2.39).
, BB, ,
,
.

.

(. 2.40),
BB,
133

,
( ).
, ,
. 2.40.
/

. 2.39

. 2.40

,
,
,


.

. 2.4 i

,
,
. , ,

,


,
,
(.
2.41).


. 2.42



.
134

, , (
),

(. 2.42). ,
(
),
,
.



.

.

.
,
.

,
(
), .
,


.

,

.

,

, .

, .
1.


2000 4000
,
, 12 16 .

, 20 .
136


,
.
, ,
,

,
.

.

( )
.

, , ,
,
.(, ,
, . ,

, . .

.
,
.
, ,
,
(,
),
.]
,
,
, ,
, (, ,
), , . ,
, ,
,
,
.
, ,

.
,
( ) .
, ,
(
)
() . ,
137


,
. ,
.
. 2 .
:

,
;
-
;
'
.

. 3.1


,
. -#- ,.,
---,
.
, , ,
,
.

.
,

.

(. 3.1) ,
-22 100000 . .

,
, R k.

. 3.2.
:
Po ;
P 1 ;
;
Xp .
(. 3.2), ,


,
. ,


,



(
, ).
,
, (
),
.
,
, ,
, ,
.

,
.
. 2
,
,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
[.
(2.54), (2.55), (2.56)]:
-I- 1
Pm

k -

(3.1>
Da

+
139

Pl =

k + 1 Po .2

(3.1)

P0 ;

Pm
U1
D u
P 1
k

;
;
;
;

(Cp) (cv).
, ,

, p ( t) (. 3 .2 )
, .
,
p ( t)
,


(\) ()
(. 3.2).
t
, ,
(R)
,
.


\ ( )

.

^ P i= P l 0, 0
.
Pi ( ^ P i ) , \
,
() .
>
Qt, ,
, ,

.
,
/7,== /(/?, , Qv), R
, . 140

^p^ .
,
, , . . .

, , ,
.
(. . 2),
, ,

,

,
: ,
,
,
. ,
,
,
,
, ,
R b Rb . . . , R n :
R\

# 2 __

_ Rn

,
:

Pi = 1/ 1(- 7 -)

Pi = ki f J R
T

k\ k -2 ,
.

Z1 f2.

\ ,
. \ / ~ ~ V ( f

),

. .
^ l- = P i - P 0 B
ip , = 0 ,8 4 -^ + 2 ,7 ( '

\ R

+ 7 .0

R3

( I

Apl - /2; ; R
.
(3.2) :
;
;
> 100 ;

,

.

,
.
,
, ,
,
, . ,
, ,
. ,
(3.2)
< 2>,

Ap1 = 1 , 0 7 + 4 , 2

Y+

R )

1 4 -- .

R3

(3.3)
;

(3.2)
( 100 )

>,
,
.
(> ) ,
.

,

.
(8) ,
( . .)
, ,
142

,
.
. . >

_ A f ,
>
\
I

BB;
.
, ,
> ,

, .
<. ,
, , >.
,
,
- __

Qv , Qv .
, (3.2)
,
,
I/

Obb

V} T
j--

Q bb BB;
Qtht .
, (3.2)

--------Q BB
(3.4)
Ap 1 = A p l
Q THT



.

, ,
-
(. 3.3).

.
( I - I ) , .
143

, ,
,
.

, -Ti----
, ]
\

.
,
/?1 = 0 , ,

0.


,
. 3.3

, . ,
. . , ,
, ,

,
, .
, R
, ,

*
(3. 5)

. . ,
()
(3.5) = k } f R .
, ,
, ,
< : = 2 ().
,
T = T(, R).


1 = 1, - -8 Vr U> 7?.

(3 .6 )

, < , R
. (3.6)
2 500
0,04 1000 . R

.
144



,
-,
. ,
,
.
, ,
,
(. 3.4).
-
3
:
' -*J
1) .
-*-1
,
" i



^

. 3.4
T
,

,
, .
2) . ,
, ,
.
.


, : \
,

.
,


.
,

. ,

, P
()
, \.
,

, , () .
). . . .


,
,
.


,
.

(2.43)

Mi = ] / ( P i - P o ) V o ^ 1 -

(Pi

0> ^

(2.51),

Po P

+ I ) Pt + (k - 1) Po]

(3'7)

\ ;
Po
;
P0 ;

. 3.5


, ,, ,
.
(. 3 .5 )
-22
100000 .

,
, ,

.
2

.

.
,

.
,
U\
(. (2 .43 )].
14

.
,
0= 0 ,
.
0 0 (3.7)

U1= (P1- P 0) V

- 77

'

7 :----- 2 , , ,

............ , - -

[(&+ ^) P\~\-(k 1)/?0|

(3 - 8 )

,
,
,

U2 = ( P i - P i )

'

, 77--------------- 1-

Pi [ ( + I )Pi~\-(k I ) Pi

(3-9)

(3.9)
2 , ,
, ,
, 1.
, pi

.

(U2= O ) .
10*

147

(3.7) (3.9),

f t= 1,4 0= 1 /2,

(P2- P

, = 2 , +

H P 1 - Po) I / T - . ,----- ------------------ .


' Po I (ft
) P I -lT i k - 1 ) 0]

(3.10)

,
________ ( 2~ ~ ,)________ = ________ (P 1 - p j - ________
[(ft + I )2 ; (k I)/?,] ,

[(ft + l)/?i + (/ 1 ) /!

( P i~ Pi )2 = ( + Hp 2 + (fe - l)/?i Pl
(P 1 - P o )2

(ft+ I J p 1 + ( f t -

1 )

Po


Po
I (. . 2 )
, _

(ft +

D p ,+

(ft I )P 0

Po

(ft I) Pi + (ft + 1)0

(3.11),
(Pa - Pi)2,. = (ft + l ) P 2 + ( f e - l ) P !
(Pt
Po )2
(A
I ) P 1 + (ft + * Jp0

)2)


(3.12)
2
:
, , = J 3* - ' > * - < * - >*
(ft I j p 1 + (ft + 1) 0

,3.,3)

. . .
,
,
, >,
2= 2Po.

, = P i - P o - (3.13)

Ap2 = 2 Ap 1+ - ---- ---------- .

HS

(3.14)

Ap 1 + 7

'

(315)



.

2 Ap2 , ,

P2
2
P1

(3.14) , P i ( A p 1)
P 2 (Ap2) ,
P2 -----? .
-----
P1
Ap1
(3.13) f t= 1,4 \
0
/
3fe ~ 1
8.
V P 1 /max
ft - I
(3.14) ( f t = l,4
, 0)
/ AP s \
= 2 + 1 = 8.
\ ^ P

m ax

,

.
, (
pi) ft , 1,4,
P2
Ap2
"7
Ap1 '

10 11 ,
ft, 1,2.
,

ft .

~ , ,<^ 0
A p 1 Po .
149

(3.14)

= 2 ,

P1

.
() .


,

(
).


(. 3.6), 0 90.

,
,




.

,

,
,
.
( = 0 )
.
() ,
,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
, ,

.
,
(. 3.7).

.

150

,

.
(. 3.7) ,
D1,
.

.
,

\ /

~^
U1.
"a V
\ \

> \
-- , U. 4

\
*
,

Uin
/\


Ss

.
Ui
. 3.7
:
Uhi
-
Mln . ,
,

.
,
, ,
.
,
,
,
, ,
,
.
. Va.
(. 3.7) ,
sm

(3-16)

,
,
(\),
,
D % D 1,

D 2, a ^ k D lt

(3.17)

k^>l.
151

, ,
------^>k, , Sin
, A ( v a> D 2,).
Va ,
,
, ?,*. ,
,
, ,

S
OO/1H0I

5
. 3.8

;
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
( ,
. 3.8).
, ,
. ,
: ,
, .
, ,
( )
, , ,
, .

(
)
, ,
,
, = 9 0
.

. ,
,
.
, , \.
.

,
, .
, . 3.6,

Ap2, ,
:
2

2, a ^ AP 1 4

COS2 ,

(3.18)

P x
;
P 1

;
, .

, P 1 -
.
(3.18) :
A Pi,* = A Pi + X cos2*

(3.19)

= , 2 = A Pi + = 2 P 1.
AP2 (3.14),
\
^ + I , . N2

. ( P l)

ft 1
X- A p 1

f t= 1,4
S (A p 1)3
X = V i + -----
Ap1 + 7
(3.19),
6 ( \2
cos 2 ,
(3.20)
/?2, A Pl A Pi +

P i + 7J

Ap2,
,
;
A Pi

;

.

(3.20)

.

.


(3.20)


3040.

<*,
,
. 3.9

,
, ,
= 90 , (3.20).

.
. 3.9 ^ 2,*- iu
.

.

Ap1
,
1. ( 3 .20 ); -

(X
90
80
70 -I
60
50 j

AC
30
2.Q
iO

B m m
/?

7 7

^ ^

f}e?o"~
QtrifXDfCPUHQfl

~ 7

-TTTnfrniT?'
5

flP ' ICl S c ZiHCL

Ao S I

. 3.10

1
.
,

.

(. 3 . 10),
154

,
.


,
,
. (. 3.11), ,

. 3.11

( )

. \, A 2, A 3, . . .

j, 2, as, . . . ,


. ,
,
,
.


.


, ,
,

.


,
, ,
.
, ,
,
155


.
,
,
.
. ,
,
, 2 .



. , ,


,
.
( )
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,


.

, . ,
, U1

. 3.12

. . 3.12
,
.

;
( );

(Po6r)
, (
, pi) .
(, , )
.

.

. 3.13


,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
,
, .
. 3.13.

, . . ,
,
,
,
, .

, ,
, .
, ;
-

.

,
.
,
. ,
,
(
157

156

, pi),
.
, (
),
, ,
.
P I

I /
! Y y &
K S v ,
I
'C x

. 3.14

. 3.15

/? ,
, . 3.14.

, .
,
0

. :
,

, ,
,
, .

, ,
. ,
,
,
(.
3.15).

,
. , ,
,
,
,
,
( AP i , . 3.14 3.15).
1-58

( ),

, ( ,
. 3.14 3.15). , ,
( ,
"
,
,
_=_

)

),

,
' f

5)
.
.
3.16.

, Sg
- '
- - kJ
,
*)

(
),

. 3.16
.
,
, ,
,
,
(), .
,

, ,
.

,
.
, Apl < 3 /2,

. . . . .
. ,

k
1 k -
[ 1 - Po)2
(3.21)
1+
PoCn P 1
k
( k - ] ) + ( k + \) Pl J
159

k ~ 1,4 0= 1 /'2,
(P 1- I )2 ____I 35
4 (P 1 + 6 ),
(3.22)

,
(

,
)

(.
3.17).
Pc6T=P11 I -I

t
. 3.17




:

, , , . .
,

.
,
,
,
;
.
, ,
. ,
, (
)
.
,
, .
,
,
, .
,
,
, .
.
3.18.
160

,
.




--------------- .
,
.


,
,
;

,
,
.

, ,
, ,
,

. ,

-

. 3.18

. 3.19

,
.
. 3.19
.

(, ,
. 3 .2 ), :
- , ,
;
-
, .
I l -. . .

161

,


5 6 , , ,
,

.



, .
,

,
.
, T

0,250,70 , ' 100 10000
500 1000
0,070,15 .
T
, ,
, ,
.
(
)
,
.
( )
, ,

(. 3.2).
,
, (. 3.2),
, .

,
,
.
, , T
,

,
.
t ()
,
162

,
,
.

, P
. ,



P0


.
. 3.20
,
,
.
,
/ \.
, ,
. Ii
b.p(t),
(. 3.20)
/, j (t) dt .

Ii

Ap ( t ) ,

(R)
(>) .
, 1\,
.


. ,
,
,
,
.
.


,

R,
.


I x = I1 (, R).
( ),

, / = | Vd Mf

V dM.
. , M
U=COnst,
Al
/ = V f d M = v M.
(3.23)
6

, M
,

Mv2

= -----------,

/ 2
----- .
\
M

V = I/

,
I = vJVi = M

= 2.

(3.24)


(3.24)
I = Y I n (/Wa+./WiibIi

(3.25)

M b , ;
.
,

,

. ,

,
I x :
) : R < R K;
) : R j > / ? K,
R ,

.

M
(
,
): ~ .
, (3.25)
/ = V i M u lM = M 1/27-

,
,
.
, ,
,
, ,
(3.26). ,
.


(3.26)

I = *xM V 2 iT v
(3.27)
X)
, .
R
, R,


( R<CRK)

164

I _ _ *1
X1 I/
2

Ar.R 2 '
4~

_ _ ______

__ _ _ _

R-

Ix= A - .

M
R2 '

___ .

(3.28)

R2

,
400450 /.

,
.
Af (3. 28)
< ,
A = - 2-

(
) ,
, ,
(3.25) .

(3.26)

(3.29)

A x .
|= 2 4 ,

I I
30^
/, = 24 1

R2

M2
165

R 0 (3.34),
(3.29)
R K R k.

( R > R k)
,
, ,
(3.25)
/= YW

b.

\ = a R 0,
(3.34)

;
( ) .
,
= ] I/ / ,
4 1L

166

(3.35)

X (3.33),
__
M b= 4irR 2 JZr M . ,
M n,
X, I/ 2, V M M i :i 4R 2 Pb ? v
*____ !--- ------- ------------4 R 2

I 1- B

^ X2

(3.32)



()
-Ma = 4 R 2 ,
(3.33)


(.
3.21);
.
,

,
,

2 , ,
,,
,
.
,

. 3.21

I/

= - '/ * ,

I = X2 ]/ 2 VM1 M M tt,

t 2 V 2v M M b
4:R-

(3.31)

M=VUjM, - '
, ,
. v
0,3 0,7.
(3.31)

X2

\[ 2, ?'' ^
/

R
1/4

M 2/3
R
}/2, Pb V
"^4

M ,
>2/
(3.36)
B1
R


S 1- 58 [ /]

_ 0 ,1 2 5
M
,
.

R > Rk'I1 = 58

2/3

M2

(3.37)

,
8 ,

.
! 67

,
,
.
I i( R ) ,
. 3.22. ,
R k ,

, Il 1= 1
a #5
H

. R = R k

/
1
,

"Ajv-

(3.29) (3.36),
UJ
:
R

0)2/3
, = ---- = B i .
R k2
R

1.-3
R k= .
Bi

. 3.22

(3.38)

= /?o2 tB .
3

Tbb R o . Tbb
. 1''3
(3.38) Tbb= 1600 /3,
58

( I 1'1600

) R 0 R k ^ t i R 0.

(3.39)

, R u
8 15 Ro- , (3.39)
R k
.



,
,
. ,
( /? < /? ),

; , ( R > /?),
.

168

,
,
.
|(, )

,


.
,

(
).


.
:
,
.
Ho ; ,
.
,
.

:
: , ,
,
;
,
:
, ,
;
.

.

.

.
,

() .

, ,
-
.
169

,
.

:
1)

: , ,
., ,
.
- .
,

,
P(t)
,

.
77777
CfT rT r

F nin31S
IPo(t)

P0(t)=p S6Pltj
<1

)
. 3.?3

. 3.24

R p ,
.
Rp , ,
R p .
R p .
2)
M
(. 3.23, )

M 0 (. 3.23, ).
0= , < 1 . ,
,
.
3)
, ,
, p(t) (. 3.24,).
P0(t),
, M0 (. 3.24,6).
p 0(t) = $ S 6p (i), < I; S 6 ,
.

.
170

-
: ,
.
,
,
.

:
,
,
.
,
.

, ,
(T)

/^j
:
.
I 0
,
/0
,
., f a r - -JL- .
~&
M 0

V0,
,
3 25

. .
, ,
,
, ,
^ max 5*
()
M 0
Pe(t) (. 3.25).

at2

, ( 0 - ky,

k ;

.
(3.40)

())

.
,

.
k x
. 3.1.

kt

()

3.1

k\
0,4

\*~

0,2

VT

O1Hi

V T

0,50

0,20

0,15

0,50

, ,
( )
()

2,8
30

* .

(3.49) ,
/? > R k 2/3 .
,

,
,
R p= k V u>.
k\, ,
(3.48).


.

,
(),
, 174

.
,

,
- .


. , ,
, , ,
.

,
.

.
,
,
,
. ,
(),

.
, ,
,
.

.
,
:
, ,
, , .
.

, :
R= k

(3.50)

R (
) ;
> ;
k , ,
.
k, ,
.
, (3.50)

1000 .
175

2 ,
2 '/.

(R) .

: 28 ; 4,0 ;
2,5 ; 1,5 ; 1,5 .


, ,
.
,

,
.
,
(3.50):
R - J

, ,

.

R
(
),

(. 3.26).
-.
.
R,
,
,
.

.

. ,
,
,
.

,
. ,
( 1,25 !3)

( 1,0 !3)

R ,
;
< . ' .


k . ,
, ()
k
5,0.
2.




.
,
(
), ,
,
.
,
,
.
, .
()
,
.!

, ,
,
.
12 . . .

177


, < Ro ( ,
, R 0
). ()

. ,
,
,
, ,

, ,
Ra, ,
,
, .


200000 !2,
,
.

.
,
.
,


60007000 .

, ,
,
().
, ,
, UUa
. ,

. ,


.

.
.

.
^

,
. ,
178

,

,
.
,
.
,
,
(
,
),


. ,
,
.

,
.

.

, ,
,
: ,
.
,
.

, ,
,
.
, ,
.
()

.

.

(. 3.27) (. 3.28).
.
, ( ) :
( );

;
12*

179

,
.

\\\

. 3.27

28



,

, .

: ,
, .
,
.
. ,

:
15002000 /2,
150000 !2.
,
,
, ,

( ), .

, .
1000
10000 !2,
10000 !2.

, ,
,
.
180


, , .

,
, .

. ,
10000 !2 1,5 /3.

.

.
,
.
,
,,
, .

, . ,
,
,
, ,
.


, ,

, ,


: ,
,
(. . 2).
,
:
Al +
+ 2 llU o
dt
'U R
R I
;
dv

dt

dR

;
181

(3.51)

V ;
R ;
;
t ;
;
P0 ;
B n n ,
.
= 3 0 7 0 / 2
7.

,
p = p (R ,t)\

V = v ( R , t) = (/?, t).

(3.51)

.
,

,

,
, ,


.
. 3.29
.
p (t)
.
, .
,
, , ,
Prn ,
/.


, ,
.

, ,
(R),
(Ro)
. , ,
<1;3 ,
( >)
. ,
,

Pm

f \



,1/3 \

.


/ 0)1/341.13

= 5 4 0 (-)

(3.52)

;
R .
, ,
=555 0==1,13.
(3.52)
.
Pm
:
Pm = 3070 ( ^ -

Pm

- 9210 Bi. .
183



( ):

P (t) =

( - aI t t
-P -
\
+
I .

<3-53)

C0 ;
,
:
Pm,
,
.

. ,

.
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

,
12% .
,
, ,
, ,
.
,

P m -M v
(3-54)
/ 1 ;
k .
(3.54), ,

.

, , , ,
,
T .

. , (3.54),

p m .
184

.

Z1
0)2/3
= ,
(3.55)

;
R ;

,
.
500520.

.

_ ^

__ Z-

Z]

-^

- 800, 5 03= 58. %=


P

= 540

(3.55)
0 )2 /3

/, = 540 ---- .

( 3.56)



, .

(. 3.30),

4 r R i2v x d t Ar. R 22 v 2 d t


. 3.30
,



V

R ~2.



(. 3.31).
C K C '1.
185

. 3.32
. ( R max )

R max
8,13- IO4
/v

R0
Po
;

;

Po
.

,
Po

,

.


-'
,

. 3.32
,
.


.
< R (. 3.33),
.
R0

4M

. 3.33

. ,
, ,
.
,
(
)
,
, .
H U<^R
(. 3.34).
187

,

,

, .

, , ,
,
.

\ _

. 3.34



.
.
, ,
,
,
5 6 ,
.
3.




.

. ,
,
,
,
.

,
(, ,
, , . .).
,
,


.
,
.

,
.
, .

().
BB : , Ra (
R 0 ).

,
.
.



.
10 20 % .


,
.
5 10~5,
5 IO-7, . . ,
.

, . ,
,
20000 /2. , , ,
,
, ,
,
.

, ,
.
,

. ,
, ,
. ,

.


.

.

.
,
,


,
,
.




.
, ,
,
. 3.35
,

,
. .
,
.



() (),
,

. ,
, ,

. ,
.
,



.
. 3.35
.
: R BB,
R cx
, R p
R c -
. - -
, ,
, ,
190

, .
,
.

.
,
,
, ,

.

.



.


.

.

,
. . 3.36
. I Ifi= V0 1)
.

, ,


Vc. 2 ( o = v plt)
- . , ,
.
Vpl
. 3 (S= v pt )

.
Vp,
.
Vpl
Vc v p . v e, v pl Vp
(v e^>vpl> >)

( ) , , ,
. , (<?)

( ),
>1 Vp
191

( ).
,
V e .
v e, Vpx Vp
I /
V
f P :

1 / E'
wP l= 1IV

, E' " . 3.37


, -
( )
( ),
().

Ve
= 5 - 1 0 3 /-, !pi = 3 IO3 /; v p = 1 IO3 /.
, '
(
)
,
,


.
, , 3 37

,
.
, ,
, .

:
Prp= (1)8 2,4) ,(3.57)

( ).
,
.
,
.
, . ,
( )
,
. ,
,
, .

,
192

.
.

,

.
,
: ,
.
,
, .

.


,
,
.

,
.


.
,
.

,
, ,
, . . , ,
.

.


. ,
,
, ,

,
.
:

< < < * ;


(3.58)

> P = P0* - ^ - ,

13. . .

193

0 ;
Po* ;
,
.

,
,

:

dv
dt

dv
dR

dp
p dR
dv , 2uv
--------- f- - =
dR
R
,

------- b v ~ H--------- = 0

dp
dt

- V

dp
---- dR

-f P

(3.59)
0


,
:
dR
2 = V V2 = '1 = - 7 ,
dt
R ;
-i ;
pi ;
V2 ;
V i .
(3.59) (3.58) :
p = p { R , t), v = v ( R , t) = (R, t).

,
.

,

.


,
.
,
()
2 IO5 /2.
1700 /.
1,40,
3,0 /3. 2,8 /3.
, R=-Ra
.
194



,
. . (. 3.2).
: BB;
; D h
; ; P1
; pi
; Di
; U1
.
,
()
.
, = 2 ,4 (
Pu
).
.

.
,

,

.

200300 ; .
20006000
.
:
# = * <'1 ;
Rp k p <1/3 ; I
R c AcU)13 .

(3.60)

= 0,36 kp, &= 1,83 Ap. k p


. k p
. 3.3.


,

3.3


,
, ,
, ,

0,4

1.4
1,07
1.04
0,96
0,94
0,92
0,84
0,77
0,65
0 ,5 -0 ,9
0,14
0,40

A 1 at
.
BB ,
,

C0V3\4
(3.61)
15
R

Rs

.
' )'/3 \4
(3.62)
4 1,32
Pn
R
R

/ 2;
R .
. .


/?:
(3.63)
R
,
, - ,
.
197

. 3.4 ,
.
T 3.4

600

5 - 104
102
3 - IO-2
0,35

450
250
50
7

1,5
2
2,5
3

b
0,350,45
3050% .
BB ,
. . ,

, -
.

()
. ( 0,35)
,
.

, ,

/ 0)1/3\*

/ = B n W ---- \ .

(3.64)

b
- ;
()
.
. 3.5 ,
() .

, b
.
, , ,
& .

3.5

B n b

0,01
0,35

198

LO

0,8
0,5
0,2

1,1
1,2
1,5

. 3.38


:
1. () .
, ,

.
. . 3.38
,
-22 .
2.
. ,

. .
,
:
!. .
, .
199

2. .

,

, ,
.



BB

.
I
BB
h (. 3.39).

.

88
.
,
. 3.39
,

BB
, ,
, .
, ,


,></V
,
(3.65)

U7 U2I


(3.61).
(3.62),

,

/ /

4- .

/ /

/ioV3\1

(3.66)
V r 2 )|

Al, A 2 A3
.


. , ,
A u A 2 A 3
, (
) .
A u A 2 A 3, , :
: A l 12; 2 9 ; A 3- 2,1;
: A t= 7 0 ; A 2- 54; A 3= 9.
200

17?

R-,

, ,
,
, ,
Au
A 2 A 3.


.


.

(h )
()
(. 3.40).
:
= ~

(3.67)

. 3.40.
,
.

( J lH C ) .
- :
= 1 ( 90);
<^1 ( < 90);
> 1 ( > 9 0 ) .
,
</?, R p .
, (3.63),

, ,
<^2.

BB .

,
.


.
: ()
BB, (h)
().
201

< = / , / ( ) :\
( 3 .68 )

k 1 , BB ;
Ii ;
f (n ) .
f(n)
,
f(n) .
, . . ,
= 1, /() = 1.

/ ( ) = 0 , 4 + 0,6 3

(3.69)

. 3.6 k x
f ( n ) (3.69).
3.6
kt


BB

.
= 1 ,5 2,2. 3.42

.
, - (L )
.

0,43

0,50

0,95

1,10

1,18
1,34
1,87
1,87
2,25
3,15

1,37
1,44
2,15
2,15
2,58
3,59


,
(. 3.41).
, T1
/ 2 .


, ,
0,75 1.
(3.68), :
1. (Ii)
() ()
.
2. (<>)
()
(h) .
,
,

. ,

.
. 3.7
, 12003500

0,2 .
3.7


W=--

(r2'+

/T 1 +

2)

W = 1,83 2 Zz3.

(3.70)

, ,
, - () . .,
,
202

=Z 1 ,8 3 A r 2
-100
-250
-500
-1000
-2000

1,52,0
4,5 5,5
6 ,0 -8 ,0
11,0 12,0*
16,0 18,0
21,0 21,5

0 , 7 - 1 ,0
1,2 1,5
1,5 2.0
4,1 4,5*
5 ,0 -6 .,0
6 ,0 - 6 ,5

* .
203

. 3.8 3 ,
-4

0,2 .

6000

8000

-250 M 46

47,6

58,0

54,4

-500 M 46

71,1

95,2

98,4

, ,
,
,

204

Rp

Izp 1'3.

R p + = A 1/3.
^pi
, = Z-^ p + Y .
\ Ap
ApJ /


, ,
,
() ,

R p~ k p 1/3.
Kp
Ul


:
1.

. 3.43
(Ap)
(Apl)
, (<) ()
(. 3.43).
(Rp),

.
2. (Ap) (fepl)
, ()
(/?) , .
(), .

.
. b ,
Apl ,
, Ap.
,

_
; ba= b - - (3.71)
An

pi
'iVi

Rp z

(3J3)

,
(3.71), (3.72)

2000

kpi
" )I

3.S

(Rp) ,
,

(3.72)

(3.74)


, ,

.
, ,
.
BB,
, -" /
I
(),
.n m ' L J S 0Ca
,
,



BB , . .

. 3.44
(JIH C ).
,

(). , ,
,
,
,
. .

, JIHC

(. 3.44).
, , . .

.


. , 205


, ,
.


,
.

.
. . .
(vm)

.

200

Vm =

(3.75)

to BB ;
R .
Vm
(3.75) = 1,
. . , .



/ .1/'V.5
____ . _

200

f(n)

\ R

(3.76)

f(n ) ,
(3.69).


= Ig/?,

(3.77)

R BB ;
, .
:
(, ) 0,11
0,13;
0,060,09;
0,010,03.
,
, , V m ,
.
vmT
= - .

206

Vm ,
200 Ig /?

/ CoV34I.5

(3.78)

2 - V } { ) \ R
:
J m

- -

= 3

200

(i ^ ) 15 '

Vf(n)*\gR\R)

(3 7 9 )

v m, a, J m T,
,

.
* * *

,
( )
.

-

.

.
,
.
,
,
.



.

.
, - ,
,
.
, ,
,

.

,
,
, .
2(17

,

V

culyV i

<-1

A 1 ,
.


# = " .
1

: = R < R r. = R > Rk .
3
1
3
a =
. kp
.

,


- ,
.

1.




.

,
.



.

,

.




.

,
, ,

.
, , ,
,
.
,
,
.
,
J 4 . . .

209

,
.



.
,
,

, .



.




4 1

.

. (v)
(v3B) ,

.
.

.

(
). ,
.
: ,
.

(. 4.1).
,
.

.
(. 4.2).
(v)
( ) , ,
,

.

.
210

,
.
.
,
(. 4.3).
:

41?

__

I-

,
, .
.

(. 4.4) .

( V)
( )
,
,
.
,
.

.
,
.
.
14*

211

,
(. 4 .5 ).
.
.
,
, ,
(. 4 .6 ).
(
) .




.


,
.



.

.

, . 4.1
.

4.1


()

/
3000
3000
2000
1500
1500
200500
100300
3050

, ,

(. . 5).


.
,
.

( , ,
).
: (,
. .), -
, .


. , ,
.
. ,
, -
, ,
, .

,
.
, ,
.

,
.
,
. , ,
, -
. -

(, , . .).

, (
)



,
,
212

P
~2

dxX ,
~~

'

(4)

;
,
X, , 2.

213


V:
dv ,
dv ,
dv
dv
= ~T
-----h 2 d z '
ot + ^ *Td x r + Vv
dy
,

2
~ dt' '
(4.1)
,
, Uyi Uz v x, v y, Vz
' xyyt xzz' xXvi xyz> xZX
, , z t,
.
, , z, t,
,
, , .
, (4.1)
,
,

.
-


. ,
(. . 3)

,
.
, , , ,

JL
Po

(4.2)

;
P0 ;
;
,
4;
,

Po cQ2

- C0 .
14

.



, , .
,
X. . ,

Pi
P

. 4.7
.
,
(. . 3).

, ,

. ,

.
, ,
.

.


. ,
(.
4.7, 1) (. 4,7, 2).
, , ,

p s ,
P0 . , p s,
pt ,
,
P1.

, .

. , ,
.
, ,
. . 215

,
.
-, ,
. ,
,
0 ,

(. 4.8).
Oc
() ( > 0 ),
() .

(Sc < Onp),




.


.
-
, ,

, (
) (. 4.9).
( )
.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,

. , ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
(, )
.
,
,
(. 4 . 10)
.
, ,

218

,
, ,

. ,

,
, .

.


,
(. 4.11). ,
,
,
_
().

. 4.11

. 4.12

. 4.12
( , . .).
( F t )
(. .),
(. .). , 8 (
v)
( 0 ) .
(Fr, )
2 ID

Fz , ,
M (. 4.12). Fz ,
, :
Fv,
-

();
F n ,



().

. ,
, (F)
.

:
F = F 1 + F2 + F 3.

(4.3)

F1 .
,
. F 1

F 1 = C1S ^ ,

(4.4)

Kd2
= ----- ;
4
d ;
Ci ,
.
F2 ,
, .


F2 = C2UVd,
( 4 .5 )
[ ;
V ;
;
C2 - , .
F3
. ,
,

(4.6)
;
C3 ,
.
220


(.
4.13).

F
F3, F2
Z71
.

F 1 F
F3

.
v
, ' '

.
.



,

,
.


:

;

;


.
,
(. 4.14): G ;
Vc


. 4.14
; F
,

G (Py

G-F.

g dt2
221



(F > G).

.4.7)

,
. . :
F = F l + F3,
. . F2 ,
.
(4.4) (4.6)
P

= 7 = ,

Cl

Ic z P0

F = S A ( I - Y b v t).

(4 .8 )

(4.8)
.


. . .
, (4.7)
dt2

= _ K^L ( I + b v 2).
G

( 4 .9 )

dt

t = t (v )
y ~ y ( v ) . ( 4 .9 )
:
+ 1 /!
G

222

dt
G
,

t = 2 b L0 Iarc tg ( Y b v c) arc tg ( Y )].


(4.11)
(4.10) (4.11)
, .
(4.10) (4.11),
( ( ),
,
.
(4.10) (4.11) v 0,
L
^np :
L - I 0 In (I + b v 2) ; _
(4.12)
t n = 2 V b /- arc tg ( V b v c).

(4.13)

(4.12) .

b
,
, . 4.2.
4.2

0,461-106

60-10-6

17 -I O -6

0,435-10
1,045-106
!,!60- !O6
3,16 -106

20-10-6
3 5 -1 0 -6
10-10-6
15-10-6

4.5 -10-6
1 0 -1 0 -6
6 10-6
2.5-10-6

= L ]n 7I 1+ 7bVi
1

2-g bAS

t t(v) . (4.9)
d-------v = _ g-----S ^ . ^ , . Jr , .

, b kn

/
n dy
t 0; = 0; - J 7 - V c.

dy

L = ____ ____

<4-10>

()

(, )



.
(4.10) (4.12):

-.

I/

L0 -

1.

(4.14)

Yb
223

(4.8)
1

, v = = - u*

(.
4.15). ,
, ,

(4 .8 ).

,

.
,

F k S v n,

c,

(4 .1 6 )

G ^;
;
k ,
;
X ,
.
(4.16)
.

, k a
0
.

gV

Cr

Vc S in O c.

(4 .1 8 )

g ;
E ;
;
2,55

(4.19)

;
.
(4.16) ,
,

F = ky,
(4 .2 0 )
C0

.

(4.10)
(4 . 11),
.
v
.
, (4.20),
G
dv
.
--- V.----- = ky
g
dy

L = Ika

2,15

(4 .1 5 )

k ,
;
S ;
V .

, (1908 1912 .),
L V c
:
I ^ K k n- V

L
(),

.

. 4.2, X
-I---

4.3

/
. 4 .3 .

d
:
Ir
; d
0 0,5
1,0
.
0 ,5 - 1 ,0
1,1

1,25
1 ,0 1,5

1 ,5 - 2 ,0
1,4

:

(4.1 7)

dv

By,

dy

224
15* A. H . .

225

: = 0;
V - V c,
V2 ^ c2 = - B y 2.


Anl, Zzn2.
Vi,
. , Vl^ v c .
<4.14) (4.21), Vi. , ,

u==0; y = L .

///////// /

< 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 /7 7 7 7 :

V
2

,
L
V^ v c

! - ( -

V=O

/ SS/ Sfy

**
f

Kn, i U=O
3*
Vjy///////////.'////////,

(4.21)
. 4.16


(4.16).
,

, .
,
,
, ,

, . ,
,
.
4.



, ,
-
.

() .
:
;
.

. ()
(. 4.16)
L = I i jr I2,
, L^>li.
226

IL

I1
4///S.S/XS/4 4 /S.SV.////// T

. 4.17

, ,
,
, ,
V\\
G
In X.fzn -V,
d2
! /> /]

/
- G
' ' ^nl ,7 V c ,
, .
,

.
.
, (
), , . 4.17.

: 1, k m, k uz. L = l\~ \-h \-h .
Z1 Ii ,

U.

.
,
. , -
15*

227

,
.
.
.
.
:
^ n s ..
/ ' _ / ^ns
h h
- ,.

(
) , 5 10 /,
, ,
() .
, ,
.

___ //
II lt _
&% . 1 1
1
12 I2
, . /3 I3 ,

I1', I2 I3' ,
.
L' , , :

L ' = I1'+ I ,'+ I3' = X3 - *.


Ui
4 = An3

l i ~ 1%

Cl

1^ '~
Vc - 1LI ,
- I 3 ,

,a
v C
d2
Anl
A112

>

/- = /, + U + 4 = ^113^ v c + I1I 1 d
\

An l)

+ Z2( 1 - -f"3
\
An2

, ,

/711
1

/ _ 2. "3 Or2

' 1-

=1

(4.22)

,
;
An I t- ;
Ii t- .
5.

(, , ,,
) :
;
(
);
.
228


70200 / ,
,
(. 4.18).
,

(. 4.19). , ,
150 /,
5060 .
, ,
,

(. . 3).
,
,
, .


.
. V0


.

.
U0 H. .
.
(. 4.20).
229

, , ,
, W ,
:
I

v M(*> > z) d x d d z


.
V0 ,,
,
, :
v x = const = v ,
/

~ 1
/ = tnv,

.
,
,
,,

,
. 4.20
,
.

V:

--------- - V ,
I
M6
, M 6 W 6 (4.23),

V0 =

'(W)

M 6 ( );
.

* 71-17-----^ jj. * '

,
~ 2 , - = 0,12; V0 = 0,94v c.

(424'
-100

/I \

= Ii W 6Pb,

(4.23)

;
W 6 ();
.
[J*
,
(. 4.21), . 4.4.

,
.
F - F i (4.4),
F2
F3
. ,

P 2

T 4 .4

alb

H-

0,5

1.5

0,305

0,209

0,122

0,082

0,06

0,045

[ ,
,
d==b L a (. 4.22).
, ,

230

. 4.22

M ctVc = [M6 + m ) v 0,

F = ClS p- ? - -

(4.25)

G,
, , :
G * = G - W 69ug,
g .
F G*,
Oy
(. 4.23),
()

( f + . ) * - o
231

,
.
( ,
)
V
, .

4.23.
*,

()
dv
V

0.

dt

Vnv
(4.26)
^ - 0:
dt
. 4.23

^~

2G4

(4.27)

(4.26). , ,
,
.

G_

g
G*

(4.27), (4.26)
, dv
dt
=

V \2

^np /

(4.28)

V
V

du
VttP ~77 = I - M 2.
dt

: / = 0 ;
V=W0; = ,

t = A l W 1 / -Ji 1 0\

232

I -f-,.}

( 4 .29 )


(4.28) :
dv
Av
dt

p - Y

'^np I


A v 2nv d (2)
2
dy
: 0,
V=Vo, U=U0,

In 1 ^ 1 .
I-U i

(4.30)

(4.30) (4.29)
, :
( );
t = t ().
t
. , ,
y = y ( t )

.

(
)

, .
6. ,


()
,

.
()
F,
, G :
F
Tl
G
233


-L

tl

g
/ ,
;
g .
,
. ,
,
F F(t).
F(I)
.
F(t)
y = y(t),
, ,
,
.

F ( t)

.

. 4.24



/Zraax
,

Fcp (. 4.24). , ,


:
G v c2

F,Cp-

G Vc2
7I g L

L , , ,
.
<--
F-
,
Vr
*~

234

2 gL

(4.31)


,
(.
4.24). , , Fm= iI F cp =--21,
:
- ->
(4-32)
g^
,
, .


:
~ -608^

kn

j-

AhG

Vc2,

(4.33)

k ;
d ;
h ;
G ;
V c .


.
7.


.

.

, ,
.

, ,
.
,
, ,
.

, ,

.
, ,

235

(4.15),

- * '

(434>

d ;
b .

a H g ~ = \ F (y)dv

(4-5)


:

. < 4

.
, , ,
F, (4.34),
,
(4.35)

2g

4 [dl
H

2-

2 d 2
Vc = = K - ------ - ---GV2

(4.36)

K = I/ H h

2
,

= b 0,75 0,70.

?0,75 0.7

v, = K-

G 0-5



,
236

Vc ,
,
d0 ,75 ^0,7
Vc = --------------(4.37
O q-5 S i n e c

G0'75 Zvc sin @ V43


- d 1-07 \

'

/;
d ;
b ;
G ;
, .
(4.37) -. ,
,

F = S i a 0 - Y b 0V').
(4.38)
Vc


(-
)
(4.38). ,
0
,
, ,

.
.
0

.


Fm.
Gv 2 = F m(b + ), h -----
2g
(), ,

:
' 2 g i b + h)

(4-39)


Vc ,
(4.37).
237

,
,
: ;
;
.
(1886 .).

,
, . 1890 .
.
:
;
.


,
.
.

. ()
15 40% ,
, .
.



.


,
.

, .
( )
(4.37) 16002000;
( )
= 20003000.

.
(
^ = 3 , 7
4,1)
(. 4.25).
, .
,
. .
(^ = 3 .3 - 3,6)
,
(. 4.26).
238


, ,
(. 4.27).

( ).
, ,

.
,

.
,
25000 30000 !2,

.
(
. . ). ,
, .

, .

.
.
,
,
.
. 4.5
200
191 .
^min,
.

:
(0 ),
.

. ,
,
, .
239

, ,
(),
.
4.5
,

(
)
(
)
(
)
,

In, /
385

L-= LA /

471
612
700


. ,

. -
.

,
.
. , ,

,
. ,

.
,
.
8.





1000 1200 /,
.
,
, .

, ,
, .
240

,
,
.

.
, . V,
.

.

(L)
}

(4.40)
Pn

Lc ;
;
.
(4.40) ,

( ),

.
(
)
.
,

.

(), ,
.
,
. , ,

().
.

. .
(L)
:

,
;
0T (
= 20 - 30 !2).
241

16- A. H .

,

. ,
,

. ,

.
,
(),
, , , . .

,
, ,
()
.
(/?)
:

,
= 100, , , =
(Otn = 2 0 !2),
V c ~ 4000 /.
,
, 30004000 /.

Pn ;
v
.

(. . 5)


;
;
.

(),
,
,

. 4.2rt

\
Pc >
, (
) ,

. 4.28 (),
8
: (. 4.28,), (. 4.28,6),
(. 4.28, ) 4000 /.

( ); -

242

Vc

Ki*

'23

. 4.28. ,
,
,

,
, , , .

.


8 10 /.
, ,
3
10 /. ,

().
, ,

.
(
)
().
5000 /

,
,
.

.



.
(
);
( );
, , ,

.
9.


,
(). (
, )
244

,
(. 4.29). . 4.29 : F
; Frp
; v
; 3 ; 0
.

.
,

.
F
, ,

(
), .
M
, ,

.
,

'(. 4.30),
,

.
.

,

(
).
. (,
) ,

.
,

Oe = Onp,

. . 4.6 H np
.

. , 245


, 8
10 300
.


, :
M = aQ,

.
, ,
:

,
(=
= ----

( 1\

(4.4

A A
'
.

: V x Vy , Vx'
Vv' .
.

4.6

6 10
10-12
12 15
3 0 50

( , )
(. 4.31).
Vc .
. 4.31.
/
F(t)
.
,
,
A t .

Q = J F (t) dt.
U

,
. Q
246

(Vt - V x') =
g

(4.42)

- ( V y Vv') = Q
g
G ;
g .
(4.41) (4.42)

, :
" ~

gA

(V y -

Vy ') .

(4.43)



:
,
. ,
:
,
,
. .
,

.
, , ,

,
.
,
, .


. ,
, ,
.
,
.
.

,
.
.

:
;

, ;
;


.
, ,
.


.

.
,

,
.

, ,

,
,
.
,
,
,
.

1864 ,
, ,
,
, .
1865 ,
H. . ,

.
1883 , 1888
.


1923 1926 KA
. . .

.
,
,

() .


.
249

, ,
. .,
.


, ,

. , ,
( ), 1943 . .
,

.
,

, 9 .
( )
, , .


.
. . , . . , . .
.
, .
1.

. 2 ,
. . 5.1
,
,

. . 5.1,
,
,
,

.
,
w m
,

,
. 5.1,6.

,
,
(
)
.
. 5 .1 ,
,
. 250

,
, ,
,
.
,

( ), ,
,
.

, ,
.
, . 5.1,
: ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,

. 2 ( 6) ,
,
. . 5.2

( ). : Mi

; C1

; U

. ,


. 5.2


( )
( ),
. 5.3.

, .
Ho
,
,
.

251


()
.
, 67 ,
20 .


F (. 5.3)
,
,
( ),

.


F -

. 5.5

. 5.3

, ,
(, , ),
.
,
, .

.


,
. ,



. ,
'- F I
,
. 5.4
( )
,

. ,
, ,
,

( ).

,
(, ) ,

(. 5.4).

.
,

, .

.
, , . .
(. 5.5).
, ,
,
,
,
.

.
,
,
(. 5.6).
,
.
253.

, . . , .


.
,
, . .
,
(. 5.7).

,
.
y = f ( x ) #2= / 2 (^ 2) .
(. 5.7)
,
( > OB),
,
.
, W a , . . ,
,
y = f ( x )

,
r+h
Wa =

. 5.6

dx 1 =

\ f i (*]) 2

~ f t (-) ' =



= JKx) ,
,;

r+h
2 Cix-TZ

.,

12 ^ y 1+

d y 2j

'

j* , 2

dy,

Tzr06

Wa

. ( ^ d y 2.

,.

(5.2)

-2 \,
\

fl

(-^-i)

2 J z ( X 2)-

X = T i(^ i) , = ,

2 =


/ , ( X 2 )

X 2,

-V = <?i(yi) = T2OM.

(5.2)
+ Cp1 () == X + / 2 (-V).


(5.3)


. , y = f ( x )
y i - f i ( x i ) #2= / 2 (-*).
. ,
,
254

, ,

= 2; = V2 - .

X -

( 5 .4 )

dyu

dyx

,
2

I j y 12 Cl X.

ft

= , ; Cix = Cix1 +d\\ dy2,
(5.2).

= i ( y t),

. 5.7

= -V1 z;

T. j

= 0 ,) (5.5),

(5-5)


(5.3)

, (A ^ 20)

+ tPi ( )
4 0

-a =

Wa

(5.7)


( ) . ,
..............................
.
,
-: I .


. 5.8
.


(. 5.8).
2 -)- . :
,V fdy

= 0 ( 0 + ) +

,
11 % .
. 5.8 ,
.
,

:

:
2
5
W0 = T r0s + it 0* = Tt 0\

'\

^ r 02A

1 = 5 + 3

dy!
dx

- = 5, (5.8),
,
A=O.

I
.T rS

,-.

W 0 = 2 Ttr03

-^ 2 -= 6 .
Wa

,

. . .

, ,
5% ,

.

. ,
,
: //np= 2 r 0-f .
,
.
,
.
H3 d 3 ,
,
W a
(. 5.9).
1 7 . . . .

257



.
,



.

5
.

,

,
(. 5.10).

,



.




.

Go-

( ,
''
. .),

. 5.10


.

;
IO6 !2.
,

,
,

, ,
.
258


. 5.11.

. 5.12,
,
. . 5.12,

. . 5.12,

.

,

.


,


.
(
),

----- -
.

5.! 1

. 5.12

, ,
. ,
,
(, )
.
,
,
,
, , ,
, ,
,
.

,
17 *

259

,

. ,

34
,
.
, ,
, . .
.
,
,



----- &
\
, (. 5.13).

,


,


do
.


. 5.13

.

,

.

, ,
,
( )
,
.

.


.
,

. ,
, .
.

260

,

, .
(. 5.11)

.
, ,
,
(
, ),
,
.
, ,
,
, .

, ()
( )
.
,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
25%,
.


. ,
, ,
,
, , ,
, . ,
,
,
,
,
.
,
, . ,
,
,
.
,
.

.
261

2.



.

, ,
,
,
,
,
, ,




.
.

,
,
Va
,
(. 5.14).
, ,

,
.

Va,
.
,
:
,
(. 5.15).

-2 .
,,
t, :
d \

,
, (5.9) (5.10),
?22 d i2 = (d 22 + d j 2) cos .
, d\ d2,
:
d 2 22- - d , 2
cos
Cf22+ d ?

(5.11)

( 5 . 12)


, , t
, ,
:
( ^ 12 + d 22) v a t= 2 iz R b v at,
4

8 R b ^ d f + d 2.

(5.13)

TZ d o

TZ d

9,

rf, = 2 V R Z V \ - x o s

\\

~ ~ ? v at v a------- 1 Vj t Va -P Va t { d 2- ~ (1?), (5.9)


4
4
4
.
( )
,
, t :
(Ttd22
TZt f ,2
\

D.J -{-------- v a t\ v a cosa.


(5.10)
\ 4
4
1
2G2

(5.12) (5.13),
(5.14)

d2 - 2 V ~ R b V I + cos
,
,
.
,
,
263

, ;
, , .
,
,
.
,
, ,
,
(. 5.16).
(d\ d2)

(5.14).


), , '
:
Va

Vn

tg a

(
) :
.- - ? -

S in a

(
)
I -f cos
(5.15)
;
+ Va = V0 V,
sin a
I cos a
V0

. 5.16




.
( )
,
.
,

,
.
(1^0)

, .
:
(v3)
()
(vu) ()
(. 5.17).
V a ,
, -

(5.16)

Sin a


,
.
.

Zi~r~L. _

'

HQV

. 5 .1 7

,

.
205

264

, Vi d\(
.
10%
8 12 /.
, D2 d-,

500 1000 /.
,
(. 5.18).
,
.

- 58

. 5.19

, ,

. ,
, ,
,
. ,

, (
) .
, (hK) (dK)
,
(vz) (vr)
(. 5.19),
, ,
.
, . 5.19, ,
( ) , d
vr
hK
vr
_ , , , .
vz
dK
vz
, ,

,

266

.
,
. (d3)

(. 5.19).
,
, < 0 ,2 5 ,

,


,
,
( )

. ()
.
. 5.20


. ( )

.
( ),
,
, ,
,
.

.
(5.15) ,
(v\)
.
, , ,
, ,
( = 0)
,

,

.
. 5.20.

. ,


267

,
.
,
. ,
( !,5)
90 /.
, ,
, ,
.




, , .


, ,,

, (. 5.21,
). , ,
, ,

,
, . . , ,
,
(. 5.21).
,

3.



.
.
()

.


, ,

,

.
,
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
, , ( )
.


.
268

. 5.21

Vu


Va .
( P c )
(). Vn.

( ).
V1- V n .
(), ,
:



,
Vn2

/> =


,
Pc - Pt,
Ha

269


Pe (v ) I',,)2 = Pn ^ n 5,

= l /

Vn

'

+ l.

( 5 .1 7 )

Po

,
) . TO
1

(5 .1 8 )

,

.

.
L .
(t),
,

Vn

(5.19)

, t

t = ------ ,

(5.20)

V1 Vn

Lc .
(5.19) (5.50),
L=

Lq
Vi - V n

Vn = -

Lc- ... .

Vl _

Vn

(5.17),
V1

L = Lc / .
'

(5.21)

Pn

, , ,
(
)
,

.
270

, ,
,
,

,

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
, -
(),
.
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
,


.

,



.


, .
,
,
, . ,
.

, , (5.21),
. .
. . , . . . .

271

I0 ;
;
.
.
, . .

,
L = 20 \/~
>>
L ;
to- .
,
.
,
,
,
,
,

.



,

, .


. , ,
, ,

.

, -
.


,
, ,
,
.

,
272


,
.
, ,
, .


,
.
,

,

.
, ,
.

,
, (
) .

.


.

1,5.


. ,
,
,
, , .


, , ,
.

.

, .

18 . . . .

273

,

, ,
34% .
. :
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
,

. ,

.
,

- .
,

,
.
,
,
.
.


,

. ,


.

1520%.




. ,
(,
), .
(,
)
274

1520%.

, ,


.

.
,
, ,
,

.
, ,
, , 50%,
.

,
.

,
,

<
;

.
,
,
.

,
, .
,
,

. , ,
.

,

, :
;
18*

275


;
()
;

;

.



. ,


.
,
,
;
, ; (
)
.

,

.

,
.



1.


. ,

. ,
,

.
,

,
.
( ,
,
. .).

;;:-- ,
; , ,
, BB,
. .
(
, , ),

. f

,
, : ,

.
,

, . .
( ,
) , -
. , 277

, (
) , (
) ,
.
,
,
, ,
,
, , z .
G (, , z)
. , G(x, , z), . .

,
, (
) .

,
(
) ,


,
,
, , , ,

.

.
2.


,
. ,




(. 6.1). ,
BB

,

H . 6.1
.

, , -
, ,
,

. 6.2.
,

,
.
. 6.2 p(t),
,
,
( . 6.1 )

OTiX .

. ,
, ,

.
,
,
.

,
. 6.3. . 6.3
,
,
.
, . 6.1,
, ,
()


.


,
, ,
.
279


. 6.4,

,

.

, ,
, ,

. , . 6.5

.
,
;
,
.
,

, ,

.

, ,
,
, .
,
, ,
. ,

,
.
,
,
,
280

. ,
,
, (2.154).
,
, , ,
.
,
, ,

.


,
. ,

.

.

.
(
3 0 5 0 % ).

,

.

( 1,5 ) . ,

, ,
,
.

.
. . .

, . , ,


, ,

.

.


, ,

281

,
.
, -
( ),
,
.
(
, ,

).
/ \
,
0

,
,


, ,
"
.
. 6.6

, . 6.6
CM.
,
,
,

.
,
. 6.6
AB ( ,

).
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
, .

, ,
.
6.6 . ,
,


,
.
282


. 6.7. ,
, ,
, ,
, (
. 6.7 ,

OA).
,
,


(
. 6.7
AC),
.
:
,
( OCD),
, ,
( ACD).
,

.
. 6.7
,
,
,

, , -
.
. 6.8


( ).

,
,
,

. ,


,
.

. 6.9. ,


. , ,
.

,
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
,


.



,

,
.
. 6.9


, ,
,
. ,

,



.




(. .

. 6.10

,
)
,
(. 6.10).


.*
*
,
,
, -

.
.


.
,
,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
,

.
, ,
, .
,
.
,

. -
.
, ,
,

.

,
,
.

.
3. .



, . . ^ t ,
,
.

.

.
, ,
, .

, ,
, .
,

( ,
285

)

,

.


, .
, ,
qo. qo
0,5 1,0 ,
, , .
,
,
, .
,
, qm.
qo - qm :

Qi-

, Aqt
; , qt
.*
,
, q0, N, ,

N 1.

,

, ! qi _ 1 qt.

t* (q ). ,
t* (q) IN 1

-------
N

A q{.
** (?) =

Nbqi

:
1 2 ; 2 4 ; 4 6 ; 6 10 ; 10 15 ; 15 20 ; 2 0 3 0 ; 30 4 0 ; 40 5 0 ;
5 0 60 ; 60 75 ; 75 100 100 .

286




:
V

t* ( q ) b q ,-

I-I

q{.

/,-

q0. qi, q-i, . q q t, . qmA Qi = Qi


. 6.11. ,

(. .
),

= ,.

. 6.11

,
(. .
) :
ANi
Qi

/-I

i-i

(6.2)

q
; , q,
.
t*(q)
.



t*(q),
,
T*(q).

T * ( q ) ^ N('q)
N
N(q) -

( 6 .0 )

, , q.
287

,
</) = - ,

(6.4 (


qt < q.
,

--------'- .

,

q.

. 6 . 1 2 .
( 6 .3 )
(6.4), :

, %

q
Qt., .
. 6.12

7 * (9)==2 M l = 2 ^ ( ? ) * , ,

,.
-
/,
q i <^ q.

,

, q .

t*(q)
T*(q),

t{q) T(q) .
,
. ,
t* (q) * (q)
t{q) T(q),
t*{q) * (q).
t ( q ) T ( q ) ,
. 6.13 6.14.
, -
t(q),
, q x <
72,

q\ q2
<7.
= N ^ t ( q ) dq.
1
288

T i q ) = \t (q)dq.
J
9
, ,
q\ <72, -

( 5 .5 )

. 6 .1 3

. 6.1 4

T(q)
:
M?,. q, =

\T(4 i ) ~ T iql)).

(6.6)


,
t(q) T(q):
tjt(q )d q = \ ;

T(q0) = 0;

T(q)*= I.

, ' ,
t*(q),
* (q) , ,

t(q) T (q).
,



.
289
19 . . .

.

, (
).
,
, .
, ,
(,
, 0 , 5 - 1 , 0 2;
1,0 1,5 '2 . .).
,
, ,
,

.



,
.


.
,
, ,
; ,
,
. ,

, ,
, , .
,

.
, ,


, . . ,

. , -

(, , . .),
,

,

.
290

, , ,

,
,
.

. ,

,
-

,
,
. ,

,
.


,

.




. ,

,
,
, .
,
,
,
, ,
. ,

,
.

-
, , .

,
( ) , . .
,
, .
,
19*

291


, . .
;
, .
. 6.1
, ,
.
6.1

-4 ^



1

),


1 (
)


()

572

1032

1301

10,0

36,6

48,3

5,5

2,5

2,0



, , .
,
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
1 578; 490.

, . .
.
,
,
, ,
.
292



, . . .
,

. ,
, . .
.
,

,
,
,
. , ,
,
.
,

. ,

.

,
.
,


,
, .
, . .
,
,
:

( . + -

Tm }

5A

216-

+ j
1 4

\ , ..

.. 7

'

q ;
T m ;
Off ;
_

Tbb

UD 2

a = - ;
Tm

293

( 200),
20 0,6.*

S0 D

: 20;

p. ;
TfBB BB;
D BB;

;

;
/ .
(6.7)
,
,
. ,
/-
-
.


,

.


, . . t* (q)
, N.

.

,
,
( , B B )
q
, qm,
/V
,
N.
, , ,
100 (qmX=
= 100), 10
0,6 (^i==IO , = 0,1, V AjV,.

N1

=0,6), -

294

,1; - L V a w i _ ,
AA2

, ,
q,
.
, ,

.
X:
( 6 .8 )

Qn

, T (X),
, /|),
,
, BB,
, . .

. 6 .1 5



t (X) 7 ()
,
*

,
, 200

-*2.
Qmi

Ni Ni ,

.
295

.
7 '(X) .
6.15.

(6.9)

^t (X) = X - . ( 1 ).,

(Xj

P1 ,

;
Ai .
A i

rfX = 1.
(6.9),
1
A 1 f X .(1 ). = 1.

(6.8) (6.9),

t(q ) = A1 q'+a- ?' q~a (qm- qf\

T(q)
. ,
. 6.15
T(X) T(q)
X qm ,
X = 1 q qm.
, (6.8)
qm (6.12),

t(q).
T(q),
7~() (. 6.15) ,
qm.

,
.

-:

. (I
J

_ X)fc

- 3 i ) r (l + .)
( 2 , + P1)

(6 10)

(*) = ( * - 1)!
- ( )
. ,
A 1 ,
Ot1 P1,
:
( 2 - , + ,)
( 1 - , ) ( 1 +, )
(6.7), (6.8) (6.9)
, P1,

,
.
(6.7) qm.
I (q) ,
:
Hq) - t [(<7)] Q - .
aq
296

(6.12)

/V =

<7

Gm- ;
q .


X qm\
~q= * qm (
) X
,
1
X= f X^ (X) d X.
J \
( 0 ) (6.9)
, (6.10)
1
( 2 - , ) ( 1 + P 1)
X = A1 X1- (1 ) dk = A 1
( 3 - K 1 + P1)

(6.11),
X:
-- (2 Ct1) (2 ct, + P1)
X=

(I Gt1)

(3 Cc1 + P1)
297

Ho, -,
(* ) = ( . * - 1 ) 1 - ( j e - I ) (: - 2)1 = ( \ ) V ( x - 1).
,
( 2 - , ) - ( ! - , ) ( 1 - ,);
(3 - , + .) - (2 - a, + i) (2 ~ , + Pi).
,
:
X = J------ =CO nst.

2 Oc1 + P1

, q
qm\
-

1 ,
q^ 29--------X
TP j q^
CC1

,

,
/V = 2 n i P ]

(6.13)

I 1

(6.13)
(6 .7 ).
,
. , ,

1
d

(6.14)
8

Xj 2 - I

<
d

, B B ;
BB;
;

;
8

;
X1
,
.

P0 , BB;
= / ( ) ,
;
;
, (6.15),
, (6.14).
,
:
N t(q)
T(q)
,

(6 .7 ), (6.12) (6.13).
,

,

.
,
,
,
, ,
, , ,
.
-

.*


.





, \



.
, ,
BB
(. 6.16).
*
,

. , ,
,
. .
299


.

( ),
.

,


, . .

, ,
,


-J




(. 6.17). ,
,

(,
, . .).
:
(. 6.18),
(. 6.19) . .
,

.



, . .
.300

.


,
(. 6.20), ,
(. 6.21).


(
, ,
. .).

. 6.20

. 6.21

,
,
, , .


.
,

.

,
.
,


( ,

. .).
.
,
,
.
,

301

,
(
), ,
,
.
4.


,
. ,
,
,
.

,
, . .
, , ,


.
,
,
,
. ,


. ,
,
(. 6.22).

, ,

: if
(. 6.23).
302



, . .
.
,
,

.
,

,


,


( ,
),
. 6.23
,
,
. .
, ,
,

,

.
, ,
,
, .. . .

.

,

,
;


(. 6.24).
, ,
- ,
.*
*
, ,
,

.
303

,
,
0 ,

. (, 0 9,
- , . . I
40

,
).

,
<fy_j -
/*(<):
f *(<?)= ^-
J m
N

(6-16)

, .
6.26.

,
.
. 6.25
.
AB.
,
,
, Vj :
?> ?1> ? 2 - ? j - V

?/. ? - i , <.

, < = 0, = 180
ip = = Cpy _ cpy _

j.

, , = 5,
,
:
0 - 5 ; 5 - 10, 10 - 15; . . . 170 175; 175 - 180.
Nj,
, ,
N.

,
^-
N .

N, N.

(6.16),
/V,
1 ,

- N
, , . .

.
, / * ^ )
,
0 .

,

304

'20. . .

305

2'f,
2 _], :
360
aaW b
, , -

,
,
(6.16),
,

:
360
N 1
-7 AB
A Nj
360
N
N ------AB
HNj H
.
. 6.26
,
,
.
,
,
, .


( ),

,
W ( T ) - S aiv j ,
(6.18)
/,
Ifj < ?.
,

, 2<.
F*(<f),
. 6.26 ,
' .I * /(<pi*
W

ANj
~

(6.17)

306

9<<fn

I
. 6.27.
,
<f, (6.18) (6.16)

/V "



( 90).


F *(y):

N ;
N () - ,
2

Vh /
. 6.27

'-?= 2 tP/ * ( ? ) J-

= _

?0 % Y1

-
j, Vj < < .

, /*(?)
/(<?),
. /(<?)
,
.


<
/?) = j 7 ( ? )

.(In!
20*

307

/(() ^(<),
/ * (tp) F*(y),
. 6.28 6.29.
ft?)

. 6.28

. 6.29


F (),

F*(<p)
(. 6.30).



, ,

2 (S1 2 2:
Wfl.ft= = w j7(< p)dp

(6.19)

tPl

A ^ 1 = W I F K ) - F (Ti)I(6.20)
,
,

/*()
F * {) ,
F* (tp) ,
F ()
,

.

, , , ,
, ,

. ,
,
, .
ANr
?j~i . . ,
,
,
. (,

, ,
,
).
,

,
,
, - ,

.
,
,
,
,

. .

. ,

,

' .
, ,

.

.
309


,
,
(. 6.31). ,
, . 6.32 (
). ,

( )
(. 6.33),

, .
. 6.34 -'

/ ( )
, . 6.35
/()
(
, ).

, ,

. 6.32

. t .34

. 6.33

. 6.35

,
,
.


,
, ,
,
, .
,


,
, 5 15.

. 6.36

. 6.37

, . 6.31
,
<;
,
. 6.31, 10.
(

)
; ,
,
,

.




, .
6.36 6.37
,

(. 6.38).
, . 6.36,
,
. 6.37 .
,

311

, , ,
BB,
. .,
. ,

;

, ,
,
, ,
.
,O t
,

.




.

-
.


.
,
,
,
, ' (. 6.39).
,
, . .
( ,
)

( ). ,


.
. 6.39 , '
:
tgcp' =

,
,
. 6.39.
v 0 l V v 024- V 12+ sI v 0V x cos

oi, ,
' ,
, V 1:
T01=-D1COSCf' + V v O2 - V x2 Sin2 Cp'.


W1,
V1
w ,=

(6-21)

<'
cp' = a r c t g ------ ------------- .
W 1 + COS

(6.22)


W 1 . 6.40.
(6.22) , ,
-

V0 Sin I

*>,+ coses

Vo ;
Ui .

6 .4 0
313

312

, ,
.
,

. ,

F ().
F ()
, 2 .
tp
tp', (6.22).
, ,
,
2 <, ,
2'.

Fv (tp'),
:
(6.23)
, F v (y')
F (tp) ,
(6.23), . .
/7(;)
.

fy . 6.41.
(6.22) /,
^ ,
<f. ,
(6.23), M' Fv(tp')
, M
F (<?),
,
2',
,
2< .
if
,
F v(y ).


.

f v (tp').

314

5.

,

V0. ,

, , ,
.

,

, . .
.


, ,
, ,
.

,
.


(
).
, ,
, .

,
,
.

.
:
V0 = 0 V ,

(6.24)

V0 ;
Tj ;
o , BB
(, = 2500).

, -
:
j_
V0

= 0 - i p ),

(6.25)

315

U0 ;
) ;
0 ,
(, 0
3 000);
1
(
0,4,
0,03);
(

cs 70 /2;

20 /2) .
,


.



,

,

.


,


,
. ,
, ,
,
, ;
, , ,
, .

. 6.42.

.
, (
)

.

,
.

(6.42) (6.43). , ,

, ,
3 16


,
; ,
,

,
.
,
,
. . . .



Ah
(. 6.43).
,
/-
,



,
,
,
- V0, (. .

)
, '
, Do
,
, , V0l ,
( ,
, , ,
).
,

, . .
(. 6.43)
(6.26)
.
(,
,

).
317


,
dr, :
V1

,,,

d b n n .=

dmBB

. . . .. 1 .
U1 - ------ ', , , != 4 ,1 - IO6 ------- ).
2
2
, , ,
, :

(6.27)

dE - -
;
dm
( ,
) .
,
dm = (2 ) Ah dr,
(6.28)
.
(6.27) v (6.26)
dm RB (6.28),
: Pb r M i v 02

d t = -------------- - " dr.

E - U 1IIIbb-

, BB

,

E = Enn + E0
(6.32)
, (6.29), (6.30) (6.31):

'

Vj
2
Vo,

V
/

ZHbb

( 6-33)

i\:
ZttBB

zzzbb

ZZZ0 +

(6.29)

Ho
.
, (
),
E0 =

Zttb B

* 2 Mi = ;
1
= /^1

(6.30)


,
.
BB U1 ( ,
, ; .
U1 ------, . . . ------------,
. . .
.
318

V2

rO

ZttBB

H 1 ZttH

U M t V02 /*
Ena = ---- ---------- j r s d r =
r 02 Mi V 02.

(6.31)

Ztt0

ZttBB

'f I

1.

(6.34)

(6.34) (6 .3 3 ),

:
________

/ T -2WT .

(6.35)

V
2
(6.35), (6.32),
, BB

.
BB

.
,
,
319

,
,
.
( )

. , ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,

(. . ) .
, , ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
,
,
( )

.
,
BB
1 =

ftj k 2 U1.

U13 , ,
BB;
k\ , /
;

k2 ,
>.
k{ k2
.
,
:

\_

(6.24), (6.25) (6.36) ,


, ,
.
, .
T0(^l) . 6.44.
320

. ,

(U1 5,6 IO6 2/2)
20%' ,
{ = 4,1 IO6 M 2I c e K 2) .

k\ k2.



,
.


. ,
,
,
;
. .
,
,
.

,
,
.

,
, . .
, ,
. ,
,

, ,


.
;
, ,
. , ,
,
,
;
, ,
.
,
, , ,
21. . . .

321

, . .,
, or

. ,

. ,

,
,
, . . .

.

,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
6.

, ,

.

V0 (,
, u0i ) , ,
, -
. ,

, ,
,
, ,
.

,

.
,
,
. ,

,
,
, ,
.



.

. . . .
,

-
.

, .
R
R - C xS p
- ,

;
5 ,
( );
P ;
V .
, Cx.
5
.

. 6.45


,
,
,
.
, S
S (. 6.45).

: ,
, 1,52,0 .

, (
)
R
5 .
21*

322

(6.37)

323

( ) S
,
. ,

5 =

(6.38)

q ;
, .
, ,
d,
1

(. d 2\

\ 4 ~/

9 Tt
16f

5 ('f, 0) == be s i n 's, -Jr ab cos <p cos 0 +


(6.39)

(

),
? 0

0 ) = = cost?

( 6 .4 0 )

(< < -1).


324

(6.41)

(6.41)
(6.39) (6.40) ,
5 = (ab - f be -f- ).

= . _ alI "1 +
.
q2
2 -f2/3 (abe)213

(6.42)

<
=

(6.42)
(, P) =

-gP f flc+ P

(6.44)

2 2/3()2/3

7 /3.
,

-------
2'3

:
( );
b
,
();
(),
*
,
:
*(, ) = 1,08 (, 8).
, ,

( C f )
/ (? .

5 = j j S(<9, 0 ) f ( 9 , 0)rfcpflte.
0 0

,
:

7 .

.


, b ( ;> ).


,

(. 6.46).

( 0
.

:
-f ac cos cp sin H.

(
S)

S = * (. ) ? 2'3,

(6.45)

_<7 ;
S 2.
325


(6.44), . 6.47.
. 6.47 ,

,
,

,
S.
ft?
0 ,0 0 7

0 ,0 0 6

0 .0 0 5

Q 004

0 .0 0 3
. 6.47

, (6.37)

R -C xS

(6.46)

(6.46)
Cx
,

(
, ,
- ).

.
,

, , ,
, Cx
. ,
Cx

326

,
S
.
. ,
, ,
.

,
.

.

Cx *
Cx ,
.
,

P 1U2
R=CX? S P- - .
(6.47)
,
( ),
. ,
R
.

,
.


.

d 2x
------- ,
dt2
.

R,
d 2K
--------=
c **S
-2
dt2
2

S (6.45)
d 2x
d t2

* pg *
2 q113

(6.48)
327

(6.49)

, ,
.

(6.50).
(6.51), (6.50)
dv

Vl

dt

^
--------- , *~~ 1-- ,
M

q ~ ,

* = 0,

, kH ,
,
P = Po H (),

P0 ( 0 = 0,125 Cen2IMi);
H () .
(6.48)

Cf i V - .

d t

(6.51)


-= -

Ch V.

,
V = VolSTcHx ,

(6.52)

U0I ,
(6.21).
(6.52)
,
U0I .
(6.50) (6.52) ,
,
< . . q,
( *
*)
( ).
,
,

, 328

V = ------- ------------ .
I -f- Ch V 0 lt
(6.53)
.
(6.53)
dx

V 01

dt

\-\-cHv 0lt

(6.53)
,

d 2x
dv
dv
- = = v -----,
d t2
dt
dx
dv
dx

V ^ v tv

(6.50)

h V*

. Oi 2.
/ 2
^ = 9,81

KZ2Ii

d 2x

= -C

t 0,

: = 0,


t = [ 1).
(6.54)
v Oi

:

,
.
7.
.
S*(g, V)


,

. ,
:
(
),
(

329


),

(
).

.
.



,

, .
, ,
,

, , ,
; , . .
, , ,
,
,
. .

.
,
,
,
, .

, .

,
.
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
.
, ,
-
h
So, q,
v,
.

,
330

,
,
.
,
, ,
,
,
, :
= const,

(6.55)

E , ;
V , .



. , ,

, .

k.
, (6.55)

~ = akx,

(6.56)

.
,
, ,
(6.56),
h,
, q, v
S:
qv2
.
2g Sh
(
; , , ,
' , :
qv2
,
> ak .
2 g Sh
,
S,

>ak
2g S h
S

(6.57)
331


,
:

/7n = /7 ( o < o 1) = F ( a 1) = /7f - ^ - - ] .

\ ak /

F _
h

Vv2
2g S h

5
(6.45), Eh

(6.62)

1/3 .

Eh= - 4
.
2gh * (, )

(6.58)

Eh
, .

,
.

=

(6.59)

(6.57) :
<

(6.60)

,
,
(6.60).
, ( ,
, )

(6.60). , ,
,
,,
. ~~ >

(6-6 *)

,
,
F ().
P ( S C o 1) = Z 7 (O1).
,
O1
332

- ,

,
,
.
,

Eh (6:58),
P a (Eh).
. 6.48.
. 6.48,
, Eh = (Eh) min,
Eh Eh =
=

(^ ft)m a x -

,
Eh


( )
.

F ()
. 6.49.
(6.61) (6.62),
(Eh) a k i ,
333

( ,
) :

,
Pn(Eh) = F

(6.63)

,
k
,
(Eh).

,
, ,
, , 0:
> 0 .

, ,
( , ,
S 0), :
CJ -. v3j,

Oq.

, ,
O0 < < O1.
. 6.49


Pn(Eh),
.

,
, ,
,
. (6.58) (6.62)
,
,
hkx.
h'
(' ')
( ),
:
h = h'

k ' '

kX

(6.64)

, ,

- ,
,
, , .

S 0. 334

(6.65)


(6.65),
,
:

= ( < 0 < "i) = Zr (O1) ~ F ( o 0).


Z7(O1)
Pn(Eh),
,
',
F { g0).
F (0)
F () (. 6.49), , ,
E() P [F h)
, Zr (O0)
Pn(Eh) . 6.48
.

:
Pu' = P n (E h) - Pn(Eh),
(6.66)

Eh akx --

5
S
q (6.45),
Clk X

, , (6.67)
k ,

Pn(Ell), .
, Eh'. ]>
> Eh. ,

(6.65). ,
,
S fh . ,

.
Pn (-)

, h
S 0, ,
P n ( Eh),
q
v. . 6.50
p n'(q, v),



So.



.
,


,

,
.


336

,

. S 0

.
.

,
, ,
.
. ,
,
. , ,
,
.


.
,

,

.

,
,

, , ,
,
,
. . . .
,
,
,
-

,
v q.

,
, , ,
.
,
,

. _ mv
1 ~ ~Y
. . .

337

q
(6.45),

.

qlia-V
g * (, )

(6 .68 )


. 6.51.
, 3 ()


,
,
. .

. 6.51 ,
i, ,
imin,

.
i
i imax
.
(6.68)
(i)
(. 6.51), ,

q v.
. 6.52

P3IqM

P 3 (<7, v),




.



. 6.52

, '
.
, , -
.
-
,
338

-
.
,
, ,
,

, ,

. .

. H*,

( ).
,

,

.
-,
,
. ,

:
P3' = P3F ( ),

(6.69)

3
;
P3 ;
F(H)
,
.
.

, (
, . .). ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
,
BB ' . , -
( ), , BB
,
, .
, BB
, 22*

339

BB
. BB
,
, ,
. (
)
.
,
.
,
(

) ,
BB , ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
BB , . . ,
BB ,

, ,
,
.
, ,
,
, BB W q.
, W0

.
, ,

.
BB [{
Wti ,
.

(
)
,
, . .
BB

. (IF0)
BB . 6.53. Pu(Wa)
340

- ,
BB
( BB ,

) . , ,
. 6.53, ,
,
(T );
.


.

BB
,
. ,
.
. 6.54


( ) (
) .
,
(Wo),
,
( ,
), ,
(, , ),
BB (, )
( , )
W0.
q,
V , ,
5 . h,
, ,
S h. ,
341

V u , ,
BB ,
(2.41),
(/?,
0)

= P0 V 1 D,

0
BB;
Vi [ (2.41) ,
, ,];
D
.
BB dx BB
, :
dE = (0 V1 D) S dx.
, ,
BB, :

dx
= P0 v, D S
7 =
dt ,=O
dt

/=0

dx
, -
= V 1,
dt /=
IF0 ^ p bS v 1W .

. ,
(
), V 1 ^
.
, W0

,

, ,
IV70 - (W),
,
W0

.
,



v S;
V 1 (6.70)
W0
5 . ,
(U^0)
p K(S). p'S),

Iio (2.42) ,

:
V1 = I I - M d ,
Pi /
, BB .
, ,
, ,

Po

D = U0 I i l ,
.0 .
, W70

W0- M 0S v l*.

(6.70)

(6.70) ,


. , ,
,
,
342

F(S) (
F () . 6.49),
:
=

^max
f Pyl lS id F ( S ) .
^min


( , ),
. 6.55.
343

A w a :
;.1 0 * (, ) q^3

= * (, ) Tu k . t j 8ka ,
(6.71)
V q

. ;
P0- ;
q ;
V ;
Tm ;
Am ;
Ta ;
;
*(, 8 ) .
, __ BB
5.
. 6.55 (6.71),

(q. v)
(. 6.56).
(q, v) ,
,

.

, , , ,
,
. ,
,
,
, , ,
, . . ,

.
.
,
.
k

P1 (q, V) (/ = 1 , 2 , ___k). ,
S i, . .

,
.

, , ,
q,
V,
*
P ( q, v ) = Y i P t e ' v ) -Os
T -'
i =1

(6 '72)

S
i ;
St

S i = Yi S i .
j=i

,
.


P (q , v),
S*(q, ):
,
.
,

p(q, v)
. p(q, v)

.
344

S * (, V) = S s P (,?, V) -

2 P1 ( , v)S,.
/-I

(6.73)

, S*(q, v )
,
q, v ,
.
34 >

(6.73) S - (q, )
.
,
S*(q, v ) ,

,
,




.



(
,
,

)
,- (q, v)

. ,
S*(q, v)
q v.

. . 6.57
,
, ,
.
,


.
, 5 * (q, v)


(
).
8.

,
( ,
,
, )
346

(
)


.

,

^ , ,
,
, ,
P (q, v )
, :
m = n P (q ,v ).

(6.74)

P (q, )
(6.73).


,

, , ,
.

,
(. 6.58).
,

. ,


R

'f' 0,

. 6.58
R.
' ^
. ,
R ,
,
,

n(R, Cf', 0) =.(R, <', ) Ss ,

(6.75)
347

n(R ,y ', 0 )
,

;
k (R, 'f', )
( ,
I 2 );
S i
(
).
,
,


.

.





,
. .
. ,
^

(6.75)
,
(6.75) *


.
(/?,<', ).
,

. ,

, . . /Jcp') /%,(<?')-.
,
: R '. ,
(. 6.58) (. 6.59)
(6.19) A AV .

2 ? ' 2 ( ? ' - j - ? ' ) :
AV = //(')<',
(6.76)

N ,
;
348

/ ( ')

;
' .
N9'
F v (y'),
(6.20)
AAV = N [Zri, (<'- ') F v (')!

^ = N A F v W ),

(6.77)

\ F V{if') .
( ),
,
. 6.59.
.5- = 2 ( sin </)(/? ').
(6.78)
,

AAV
* ( / ? ,? ') =
AS

(/?, ')

,
(6.77), (6 .7 8 ),
* (/? cp^ = 2

F ii

- Sm
- " v CSV

( 6 -79)

, (6.75), ,
,
R ,
cs' ,

(, <')^
s .
(6.80)
2/?2 s in x -''

^ = : W
2:

S m Cf

<6-81)

H(R)
R.
(')
,
.

F v (^'). (<')

.

,
, ,

(R, <?') --= </?)

(6.82)

_
(R, ip' )
(6.74)
P (q, v).

S*(q, ), (6.73)
m (R , ') = ( , <')(9 , /) = (/ ? ) ( ')5 * (? , v).

(6.83)


V,
R


R ? ' , ,
(6.52) (6.21)
V - V (R, ') == V01 ~<R =(1/, cos <p'-f V02 z/,2sin2 ')~ .

(6.49),

__________
V (R, ? ') = (^ 0 cos cP7+ V v O2 - 't'j-sin2 ')

(6.84)

,
R <f',

.
(6.84),

S*(q, v)
.
(6.83),
.
R ', (6.83)

R <'.
,
v(R, ') (6.84) S*(q, v )
(6.73) . ,

m(R, {/) -
.
350

, v
(6.84)
S*
S*(q, ), .
,
(6.83J_
m(R, tf')
.

,
R,
'
tn(R, tp', q).
,

(R, tf')= j (/?, Cf', q)t(q)dq,


(6.85)
<

t(q) ;
q0 qm
,
.

rn(R, tf', q),
, (6.85)
:
<?')=

>

<6 -86)

(-1

/V,
.
------------ j - M
;
.

, m(R, <') (6.83),
m(R, <') (6.86)

R, '
.

II

,

. ,

. , BB
, ,

(, . .). BB

. , , BB
, ,
, ( ).
.
.
BB ,

,
. BB
-,
: , ,
.
,
-, .
,
,
:
, ,
;
;

,
.


,
.
,


.

, ,
, ,
.

,

.
, ,
, ,
.


,
.

, ,
.
(. 7.1) .

,
,
.
, , .

.

,
.
,
, ,
.

, .
,
.
,
,
, ,
.

3.-2

2 3 . . . .


1.

353

, .
,

.

2.


. 7.2.
:
;
;
;
;
.

,
.
,
,
,
.
,

.
(. 7.3), /,
- 2 3,
.
, ,
.



.

.

, ,
, . ,
,
.
,

.

,
.

: ,
, .

,
.
,
.
.
, ,
( )

23*

355

-.

. ,
()
, ,
-. -
,
.
,
, ,
.

, , ,
,
, .
3.


:
;
;
;
.

:
( );
;
.
,
.
,
,
.

, .

, + .
,
.
, ,
.
:
, , . .
,
,
.
336

,
, , . ,

, .


.
, ,
,
, ,
;.
, , ,
- - .

,
,
.

,
. ,
,
. ( ),
: ,
.

.

,
,
.
,
.


,

, (, )
,
.
.

1. ,


,
,
, ( )
. ,
,
.

*
, ,
, ,
.
, q (. 8.1),

V .

S --i- ,

(8.1)

dt
,

^ 7 H 2 ^ (0 !,
g dt

(8.2)

G .
(8.2)
F 1, *

, , .
358

. :
,
,
.

,

(
).

.

, .
.

,
,

,

. ,
,

.


.


.

Tzd2
G dv
(8.3)
{ t).
4
g dt
d ;
p(i)
(8.3) ,
dv
dt

P it)

TZti2
4

.
(8.4)

dv

It

(8.4) (8.1),

(8.5)

Tzd2 q
4 G

(8.5) ,
,
359


(. 8.2). 5
S m t = t m( = ) ,
td S a.
tK 6' .

p(t),
5 .
(t)

. 8.2

. 8


-

. 5
.
*
S = S m.
(8.5) ,

^d2
~ . ~ '
4 G

,
(8.6)

Pm .
=

40

= Zi1,

S m = , .

(8.7)

ki, ,
,
. ,

, .
kt
40000 100000.
,
, ,
. ,
,
360


.
, ,
. F a (. 8.3)


F a = ,
(8.8)
= -------- ;
G
R .


R H ( ) F (v),
(8.9)
g

;
() \
F(v) .
F{v)
,
,
.
.
, v
V0, H () = 1.
(8.8) (8.9) ,
=

<8 -10>
g
ki - .

k2 10 100. ,

,
.

.

.

.

(8.11)
g
dt
G(t) ,
;
P(t) .
361

(8 .11 ) ,

dv

~dt

g P {t).
G(t)


(8 .12)


-8, M - 13 -31 . 8.4.


, .


,
, .
5 10 .
20 100 .
,
.
,

, 0,0020,05 .

.

. , -2
65 .
,
,
, ,
,
, , . .

.
(8.10), .
362

,
du>
- ,

dt

, .
Cf
w

dt

, (. 8.1)
.
, ,
:

= . .
(8.13)
g
dt

, w.
,
.
.
,


.

,


.
,

.

(. 8.5).

,
,


d ,

L.

, ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
363

. ,
S. (8.5) (8.19),

. 8.5 ,

rid

Ti

Tza

it

<8 1 4 )

Tj ;
, .
(18.14)

] d

v) = 20 = - ^ - , , = 0,15 S.
= >

= .
tI

(8.15)

(8.15),

dv
Tz d x

v.
(8.16)
dt
-ti d t
-rj
)

dy _ d

(8.17)
dt
2
(8.16) (8.17),
2ic
<8 ' 18)
> (8.13),
, _ 2Tzr q dv

(8.4),
(8.19)

, , ,
S,
. ,
S, . ,
.


364

------- = , Km
2j G
Km= k3 qr.
(8.20)
3, ,
,
.
,
,
.
ks 2000 10000.

.
,
, ,
.

= /-Ui2.
g

r\d g d t

K = .p (t)^ - r.
'2-]

ts
2 d q
- = P m - - I ' .
2-] G

(8.21)

(. 8.1)
.

, .
(8.21) (8.18),

=

f r p -

<822)

,

.
.
365

Cm~

7 r { ^ h -

(8 23>

Ce .


.

.
,
. ,
,
.
. - ( ^02 = A4, .'
g KrId J
(8.23),
C m = kAqr.

(8.24)

64, ,
,
,
.
k4 500040000.

.

.

.

.

.


, 1000 1500 /.
.
,
,
,

-
/
.
. 8.6
C11
(. 8.6)
.
, ,
.
C11 :
C h= -c Lq h ,
(8.26)
g

;
I
.


2 .- * .

(8.27)

-r,

Sm
;

B
.
Qm (8.26),
C h :
'S2 /.

=- W O /sin

/1 ;

(*) t;
I , ;
7 ,
;

.
366

(8.28)
k5
(0 ,5 --1 0 ) . (8.27) (8.28)
CM

367

KVo
(8.27)

Tj d
(8.18),
.

,
,
(. 8.7). _

Jk= 2 (w X
(8.29)
w ;
.

, (8.29),

( ) .
Fu 2
(8.30)
g
F k
.
F k w
)
. ,
(8.30), :

Fk= 2

tow sin .
(8.31)
g
(8.31) (8.18),

q 4
V W S m .
(8.32)
. 8.7

ka
, ,
,
. *
kG= (52 0 ) /.

.
, .


.


(. 8 .8 ),
,


.


. 8.8

,2
V
(8.34)
1+

P0 ;
;
V .


C0

166,7,'
P = Po

V \2

2,5

(8.35)

Ca !

F k V=V0 s i n a = l ,
. . , ,
.
P

_ 4nvO qw = k(. qw,


g'f\d

4 tzv0

g-nd
368

(8.33)

2.


:
;
;
;
;
.
2 4 . . . .



,
. ,
,
, -.
(. 8.9)
1, 2 3.


.

. ,
, ,

.

, .

,
.
,
,
, .
(.8.10)
.

(. 8.11),
1, 2,
.
( , ) ,
,
,
3.


.

. 8.11

. 8.12

1,
, 3
2.
,

.


,
.
2,
.
,
.
0 90
.
(. 8.12)
.
.
1 2,
.
, . ,
,
.
, ,
, .

-
(. 8.13) : 1
2.

370

24*

. 8.9

. 8. 10

371


.
,

,

(. 8.L4) 1, 2, 3 -

t\



(, 8.9) ;
/2
.
t,
V c.
.
,
,
^c.
, ,

Vci
CL +

. 8. 13

. 8.14

4.
.
,
.
.
,
,
.

.

.

: , .


.
,
, ,
( ,
).
.
t :
t == Tj j- ^2
372

,
, , , . ,
0,8 1,5 .

+ , ,
.
U -
-

2 Q .

.

, .


.

3 5
1 2 2 00 /.

,
, ,
, ,
.

. , ,
.


. -
373


2%' .

.
,
. .
,
,
. , ,
45
12 .


,
.
,
,
,
.

. , ,
, ,
, .
,

.
. ,
1000 .

.

: -
. ,
,
BB , .
,
.
, ,
- -,
.

: -, -
.
-,
.
,


.
-,
, - .
.


. (
)
,
.
(. 8.15) 2,
1 2.

:
-, .
(. 8.16) 1
,
2.

(
) .
1

. 8.15

. 8.16

(
)
.
- -
.

,
.

.

375

374

,
. . 8.17

.
1,
2, 3, 4 (/) - (/).
2 ,

. 8. 1 7

. 8.18

. 3
.
,
.

5. ,
.

.
,
,

: ,
, . .
:
, , .
,
, .


.
1,5 76 .
.


376

.
,
,
,
,
.


. . 8.18
,
. 1
2.
4, 3.
5 .
:
.
,
.
,
.
,
, .

, 6
. ,
,
, ,
, .

.


.
.

,

.
,
.


.
(. 8.19):
1, - 2, 3, -
4, 5 6.
377

,
.

,
( 7),
.


8,
.

,, .


- -...
,


.
-
-
.

,

. 8.19
.


. , ,
:
.


( ).

.
,
.
.
.

,
.



378

. , ,
:
,
;
,
;
,
.

: ,
.


,
,
,
,
. . 8.20


.
I r
.

3,
4 .

() (
). . 8.20
.

2 .

.
. 8.21
.
. 1
, 2,
- 3,
.
,
, ,
.
,

,
, . .
,
379


.

,
.
. ,

5)


= l .
0 < <^1.
= 0,4.
H
Vl = V Z g H .

(8.38)

(8.37) (8.38)
= ------ ------ .
(8.39)
( l + ) 2?
E
Rc :
F = Rcp,
,
nqa > E + E0,

H
,
.

JL

V- -

2g

(8.36)

q ;
V
.
,

V = V 1 + V2 ,

V1
;
Vs
.
(8.36)
,
^ ( 1

(8.37)
+ )2 = ,
^g
- .


v \


.
,
.
= 0.

380

(8.40)


;
Ei)
, .
(8.40) ,

.
(8.40) E (8.39),

,
.
> + (1 + ? ) " ,
qa

(8.41)



.
,
(8.41) .
,
.

.
. 8.21,6.
/, 2.
3, 4.
, 3S1

, . ,
, .

E0, ,
.
,

,

, . .
. ,
, , ,

,
.

, ,
,
.

(. 8 .2 1 ,).
1
2. 3
4,
.

.
.

,
Eu.


,

.
, , -
,
.

,
.

, ,
,

.
,
382

. ,

.

, .
.
, ,
:
( );
(,
);
(
);
(,
).

, ,
.
.

,

. . 8.22
, . -

. 8.22

1,
3
2 4.
- 6, 383

- 5
7. 1
, ,
- .

9 . 10,
. 9
,
10.
,
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.
, .
,
,
. ,
.
.


5. 5
4
. 2,
3.
9,
.
.


.

, .
,

.
.

. ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
.

. . 8.23

. 8 381

, 6,
4.
, 5,
8, .

. 2
3 9.

10. .
10
, ,

.
10,
, 1
,
.
9 . 2
3 ,
.
385
2 5 . . . .

3.



. ,

.
,
,
E0.

Eh

F(t) ;
G .
, . 8.25,

R (x) = R0 - f (/ + *) tg ,
(8.44)
Ru ;
I ;

;
t g a = & .
(8.44)
R{x) = Rm-

Eq.


,
.
,
qn(t),
(.
8.24), <.

Rm= R o+ (l-\- a )k
;
Xo
.
(8.42) n(t) R(x) (8.43)
( 8 .4 5 ) ,
J l JL + 2 = _

dt2

qn(t)


:
2

--------- = qn (t) cos 4- q fn (t) sin <p f- R(x),


(8.42)
g d t2

q ;
n(t) ,
;
f ;
R(x) .

386

W M - ( cos ? - / s i n ) + P2 X0,

(8.46)

A -JL
dt2

. 8.24

/ kt?
= I /
V

.
= X0 , (8.46)

RU)

(0 =

(8.45)

(JC) = k ( * 0 ) ,

(8.43)

p iy = F ^ g (cos cp / sin tp).


G

* = 0,

(8.47)

(8.4/)

= 0 (I + a ) ,

f/v
dt

dx
dt

,
.

. (8.47)

= C 1 cos t + C 2 sin t
(8.48)
, C 2
, ,
2 5

387

(8.48) (8.47).
(8.47),
I
pt +

( / + ) ] COS

sin p{ t x)dx,


(8.49)
t
^ = [^0-

(8.49)

dt

(I + )] sin pt + A (T1! cos ( t ) dx.


J

'

()

It ) = ^ ^ (cos Cf - / s i n 'f).
Cr

/=-(0 = / ^ ( 1 + ^ 2),
(8.50)
V ;
Fo .

/ = 2 |/ L0 (arctg V b v c arctg V b v).

dx
dv
,
1 ---- = -------,
dt
dt

t
dx,
f*
-----= [0 (I + a)} sin pt I () co sp (t ) dt.
(8.55)
dt
J

(8.49)
, , [.
(4.8)]:


(8.55), t = t\:

v h P

[ ~ (I + )\ sin i

(8.51)

(8.51)

Vh

-4 () cos Itl ) dt.

(8.56)

(8.56) Vh if
Eiv
/?(?) (. 8.27). E0, -

tg (arctg ~ Vr
V T t g I arcig 0 Vc ~ T T T Z 0
^np :

(8.54)

t = 2 V b L0 arctg V T v et
V = - L r tg ( -
Vb
\ 2 V b L 0J

(8.52)

(8.52)
(8.50),
I -h tg a I g = 1
2 Y b Lr

(8.53)
. 8.26

. 8.27


(8.53) (8.49)
. ,
y{t), , x(t) - X 0 y{t).
x(t) (. 8.26),
<, , I,
t\. tc,
,

,
/;() ,
.
,
, :

t2 .

tPnp
(. 8.27).

388

Iip == ~

" '"*

389

< (8.56)

,
, . . .


(. 8.28).

. 8.28 ,
F 2 = / N s i n ( Oj,
t

<8 5 8 >

f ;
P ;
F .

.
(8.57) F2,
Sb- A j l = nq2 Q /V [co s( 8 ) + /sin ( 8 )].
S d t2

(8.59)

f tgo,
cos ( 8 ) + / s in ( 8)-= co s^a . L .
COSO

(8.60)

(8.60) (8.59)
Qn d
** cos (a 28)
/0 Al '1
= nq.2 Q ~ N ----------- ------- .
(ob i)
g d t2
cos 8
,
, N
, . 8.28.


, ,
. ,
. 8.28,
.

390

= Wy2 - Q - Z 72 - /cos

8 ),

(8.57)

,
;
q2 ;
Q ;
F2 ;
N ;

;
8 .

I i - A l L = R -L F _ N sin ( 8 ),
(8.62)
g
qi ;
R ;
F1 .
FI nq\
N.
F x = / [tiqx + ArCos (a 8)].

(8.63)

(8.62) F\ (8.63),

^ L = R
g dt2

- W sin la - - ^ ,
cos 8

(8.64)

sin ( _28) __ Sin (a _ g) __ ycos (a 8 ).


cos
(8.61), (8.64)
N.
391

(8.61)
cos 3
N=
,Iq2 - Q - - V l - d' x
co s(a 28)
g d t2
. 8.28,

dy dx ctg a.
,
d.2
d 2
dt'd t2 - tg .

(8.65)

COS

N--

cos ( 28)

tg a

( 8.66)

g d t*
(8.64) N ( 8 .6 6 )
,
I l

tg a tg fa 2 )

9i

d~y
d t3

= R + Ufqi (nq2 Q) tg (a 23).

(8.67)

(8.67)
, ( 8 .4 5 ):
R

IHy0 - ).

R,
(8.67)
d2
Vi
g ~ d F + ky + nfq 1 - I nV z - Q) tS (* - 28)>

P = I + t g a tg (a 28).
Vi
n(t),
( 8 .6 8 ) Z1 Eh.

1.


.
?

.
. 9.1.
,
( ),
( ).
.

.
,
.

( 8 .6 8 )

. 9.1

. 9.2

,
,
.
,
.
,
.
393


.
. . 9.2
,
,
. . 9.3 , -

. 9.3

.
(.
9.4),
.
.
,
.

.

.
. .
9.5
.
,
,



.

.


.

.

() (),
10
. 1. ,
-
.
-

(. 9 .6 )
, .

.

,
.
. 9.7.
,
, . -

. 9.6

.
.
,
.

. ,
,
.
394

. 9.7

0,1 .
( 1 0 0 0 2 0 00 )
, .


, , ,
.


, .
395


- ,
, .
,
, ,

, .
(
) .
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
,

.
,

.

,
.


.

, .

. 9.9 ,
.
: Cl,
C2, R,
.
. ( )

.

. 9.8

. 9.9

. , C i
R C2,
. R

2.


. 9.8. ,
,
,
( ). ( )
.
,
.

, .

, .
,
, ,
.
396

C 1 C 2 ,
. Ui U2 Ci
C 2 . 9.10. 397


,
Ui U2 , U00.
,
.
I C2
,
, . .
U^Q J = 1 C 1 -4~ C^.
/ = ,

I ,2 = U 00 , ,
io ^ I = (Q ~ C2) Hoo

,
j
.
C1 + C2
U2, ,
Wc,
.
, .
C2
. ,

RC, C0
= ----- ' C1 + C 2
.
,
.
.
(. 9.9)
,

,
.
. 9.11
,
: ()

.
3
.

,
.
: (C2, ,)

(Cs, :), 3 2, 3 3).

Ib OQ

398

U 1

( 3 ). ,
S B 1 3 -.



,

,

. .


C2
C3.
C2
,
C3,

(. 9.12)

.


Iiib2.

. tw i,
.

*,

tOb
. 9. 12

399

2 3
,
.


.
.

(. 9 .9 ).
U\(t) U2(I)
:
U1 =

IR
-

+ U2 ;

(9.1)

du,
dux
dt

(9.2)

(9.7)

t
' +

C2R

.
(9.8)
(9.7) ,
.
,
: t 0, U2 0.
(9.8) t 0 2 = 0,
= n i = C1_ _ = .

c I-T T -,

(9.8)

C2R

(99)

10 C 1 + C 2

du

:C


: , U2, i.
(9.1) i (9.3),
^

+2-


U2 = 0,

du2

(9.5)

dii^

(9.5)

:
Co
~~

u i w i9

U1 =

),

(9.6)

U1 (9.6) (9.4).
2
- l U2 =
C1

dli-
- + ,.
dt

C0R

dt

2= - ^ -

, R

(9.10)

(9.7)

( 9 . 1 0 ) Cu
C2, R.
:
,
;
,
E0',
/;
\0 .
C2
.

2

> 0,

(9.12)

Cu2
---------,
.
(9.12) ,
C2= ? ^ ,

C 1 -f- C2

U2 (9.10) (9.6),

t
M1 = U00^ 1 - f 2- " j .
(9.11)

4 UO

Mco (1

(9.4)

U1 2.
(9.2) (9.3),
C2

U2 =

(9 3 >

(9.13)

, 1.
2 6 . . . .

401

E0 ^ 2 IO-4
.
,

Mo=>

Uc .

(9.14)

R (9.10)
t = t m , a H2 = .

.

.
3.



. . .
, .
.

, .
.

.
.
^.

.

, .
, ,


. . . .
,
1,0 1,6 . ,
,

(150200 fl).

. 9.13

. Bi
, R,
! .
402

,
.

,
.
.
R
Zj1- B o



,

.


. 9.13
.
B2
.
R, . . . ,
.

.



. 9.14.
, ,
( ).
N


. -

--------

I,

. 9.14


. . .
,
.
. 9.15
.
403

. . . .
(
) 5 .

,
, . . .

.



.
,

.
, ,
, , , , .


. 9.16.

(),

,
.


. 9. 16
.

.

.

Q
=
C0
C0 ;
q .
.

.

.


.

10


1.


() ,
.
.

( ),
( ,
. .). ,
,
,
,
,
. ,

,
.


.

, ()
.


,
.
(. 1 0 . 1 )
- 2 - 6.
,
, -
405

, -
.
( ) 1
.
3 ,
0,3 1 /.
4, , 5
.
-,
. ,


V
,
.

,
,

.

,

(
,
,
).


.
, ,
.
,
(
),
,
.


. . 10.2
,
.
1 2,
. .
-3,
. ,
,
. S
406

4,
5. 6,

.
7 8 10
.
9.
11, 12
, 13 14.

. 10.2

5 ,
, .

, .
.
9
.

.
,
..

.
0,5---1%'
.
407

.

,
.


/
(, , .).

1

.


. 10.3.
(. 9.9) ,

JI.
(), M2 Ca
, .
C 2

R, ,
.

.

t d (. 10.4).

,

.
.

20 <-
. 10.5.

.

. ,
,
. 10.6. -

- 4 1 -------
. 10.5

10.3

. 10,4

.
(
)

.

408

. 10.6

,
.
- (. 10.7),

.
1 5
233 394 .

C3,
Cl. ,
409

,
C2R2. ,
,
.
.

,
C2 C3.
C 3


Ri R2,

R 1.

C3
,
R2C2.

,

C 1 U2 +M 3
C2 C3. C2
R2, C 3 -
C1,
R1.

U3 ,
.
. 1 0 .8 ,
R2C2. ,
, td

U10


.
,
, 3%'
.
2.

,
, ,
.

ta . 10.9.
,
.
,
,
, , , .

. 10.8
410

10.9



Ty.
,
, td
Ty. , , td

,

.

411

,
.
.
.

, ,
.
,

.


.

.

.
,

.
At
:
At1;
At^;

/,:
At = Atl + AZ2 + Atz .
( ] 0 .1)
At
,
.
.
, ( 1 0 . 1 ), :
Ot = l/o ,2 + , 2 4- S32,
( 10.2)
,, 2, 3
AZ1, At2, Ats .
, .
(. 10.10) *
Az
2 = 0 ,
,
>1.

:
tOjrtt
fd
td+tt
D = f V l n (I) d t = J v m( t ) d t + f v la (t)d t.
(10.3)
412

ta = Ty,
f av ,a (t)d t = D

(10.4)

D y .

(10.3) (10.4) ,
Id+
Az = D - D y= J v m{t)d t.

(10.5)

At
. (10.5)
,
. ,
A z ^ v lnAt
aZ= v Ul *,

(.6 )


At.

, . .
At1 = At lB+ Atlllt
(10.7)

Atla Atlyi
.
,
,

,
.
.
41.



D v = V 1 1,

(10.8)

Vi ;
Dp t .
U1 :
V 1 = v c + Vm ,

;2

,
0 I,, <
2+
ljO

- 2 __ f 2

O2

Vl 1 v


(. 10.11).
,
(10.13)
ta +
*V 1 V ix, +
+ '2
, ;
2 .

;
Vm .


D = D0 + t,

Oi - V n * i

(10.9)

D0 ;
Va .
Dp- D11.
( 1 0 .8 ) (10.9)
t = td,

V1 t d = D 0 + v a t a ,
,
ta= -
=
v I -
*

oD, ovV D, V 1, V u
.
(10.10)
( 1 0 . 1 1 ),
D n2 .

D02

D02 / O2n

O2 + 2

+.
*

Bn
. 10.11
, ,
32

O4-Oli +A1

( 10.101

(10.10) ,
.
, td
,
. ,
, , .

.
, ,

O2n

( 1 0 .1 2 )

V 1

/ i ^ y a2 + / ^ M 2 2
[ ^ I 1 U a J

(1014)


.
,
(10.14)
2 = 0 2 + - ^ - * .
(10.15)


,

(10.15)
.
,
=

V - 0 ;

=V ~ ' Oj;

0
.
415

(10.15),
3L = V ((3J.0)2 + ) 2].
0

(10.16)
8

.
Bs = ( 0 , 1 1) /0;
S1 = 3%.
(10.7) ,
3I2= 3L + 3 L -

(10.17)

( 1 0 . 1 2 ) (10.16), (10.17)

V = t 2 ()2 + )2 + 0 )2 + - - - ; ^
V i1

.
,
, .

.

.
(10.8)
, V m
.

.
.

0 V m. ,
:
t
------r
Vm
T

t < -,

0 D= (1 - - - ) ' + ! ( * - ')
t td
(10.19),

( 1 ~ ) + ^ !(' ) =

( 109>
(10.9)

+ v Iixtd,

,
> + ^
td = ------- -------- .

(10.18)

( 1 0 .2 0 )

(10.10),

AF1 = -? 2 ..
2 V lll

( 1 0 .2 1 )

:
F = y X mx.

( 1 0 .2 2 )

, (10.21) (10.22)
.

,
.
,

.
3, 1 ,
.
3 (0,007 - 0,015) td;
3
(0,03 - 0,045) td.
3
,
(, , ).
3
(. 10.3).
27. . . .

417



t
2 ( 1 - ),
C1 C2 R
" = -----

;
C1 + C 2
Ii =

__

C1

(10.23)

U-1 ,

I + C 2

.
,

, . .
,
,
(, . .). , ,
100 ,
td 1 0 00 / 0,1
( ( J z ) m In = 3 .

U2 ,
.
(10.23) U2 = ,
ta = - t i n ^l

(10.24)

3
ta Cu C2, R, Un . 3

. _ ( \ > + / ^ y v + ( )
+ l h . O2
OCj
\)
\dR) '
Wun
3 .
, td
,
td .

h z)m\n .
()1
, O1- C2- 0 , . .
.
( 1 0 .2 ) ( 1 0 .6 ) ,
(0 ) Hiin =

O3

O3= 0,03 ta, , (Oz)mln = 0,03 -Plll tr


] = /, td 2 , (o*)min = 60 .
, (=Vmin
.

, ,
.

,
.
,
, ,
T i*

11

.
,

1.

(HB)
,
.
, ,
,
. HB

.
, HB

,
. ,
,
(. 1 1 . 1 ), ,

.

. V liV v

'T T jT y t T ^ T ^ T T .7

. 11.1

. 1 1.2


- HB
, ,
.
(. 11.2)
420

,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
, . ,
,

. -
, .
HB
.
,

.
,
,
.

. (. 11.3)

.
,
,

1020.




.

, ,



.

. 11.4 . 11.3

, .
-
.
, , ,
, ,

0 0 , ,
Cp1 2, 121

.
0
.
0
. , - 12 ,
3040 ,
1,52
3 5 .


,
.
,
.

, ,
.

. , ,
, ,
, . .


.
.
.
,
. -
HB.
422

,
HB ,
, .
, ,

, . , ,
,
.
, ,
. HB
: , ,
, ,
.
HB.
:
HB (
);
HB ( );
(
);
HB (
);
- HB (
) ;
HB (
);
----- HB (
,
) .
HB, ,
,
.

. HB

( ).
,
.
.

. HB
.
423

2. HB


. HB

. HB -
,
,
.
HB ,
.
, HB ,
, ,
,

.
HB , - ( ).

,
.
HB,
, :
, ,
.

. 1 1.5
HB
*
.
(. 11.5)
,
,
* - .

424

HB.
.
HB,
,
( ,
. .). ,
HB ,
,

, HB. ,
r m1 ,

.
,
,

,
HB, .
,

.
:
HB,
,
.
HB

.



. HB

. HB

.
, .
, , ,

, ,
, , ,
. , ,


.
,
,
HB
.
425


.
HB ,

,
.
3.

()

, . , ,
,

.
.

,

.
, .
. 11.6.
JI,
,
,
. E

,
.


Au,
R.
Au ,
,
E -f Au.
Au .
E -J- Au,
, ,
.


. HB
.

. ,
,
35 .
426


- .

.
,
.
(. 11.7)
Co.

,

.


Ci C2,

C0 .
-1
--J--C 2
, --V
I
I
:
C e = C0 +

JL.


14
C 1 + ,2

11.7

Ci C2 .
, Cs
. - HB,
, . 1 1 .8 . -

. 11.8

, ,
() .
, , f 2
,
Cs .
, F
= J1 /.
.
, 427

.

, Fo,
.
fi f2 ,
.
Cs , /
2, ,
F. F0,
.
HB .
4.

()
,
,
. ,
(, , ),

,
. ,
.


.
MHB
,
.

.
, , > ,
.
HE,
,
.
,
.
HB
.

.

,
.
,
HB.

.
.

. . . . . .,
, :
d<&
( 11. 1)
at
;

, .
, ,
= fx HS cos a,

, . .
.
(, , . .)
.
(. 11.9) ,
428

( 11.2)

. -


;
H ;
S ;
fX
.
429


(, Hy, Hz)
Oxyz (. 11.9).
,
z, . . .

H2 . , ,

,
.
. . .
.

( 1 1 .2 ) :
= HzS.
(11.3)

,
, .
.

. . . . HB,
,
. 11.11. ,

. 11.11

(11.3) (-1),
, dH ,
= k
dt

(11.4)

k = \ S.

(11.4)
ft

dHz
dz

dz
~dt

kv

dH,

V,

(11.5)

(11.5) , . . .,

,


.




(. 11.10).
Ht,
(11.5),

,

.


,
11.10
.
4S0

.

. HB,
, .
, ,

. - HB
. 11.12.

&

. 11.12


.
. ,
, ,
, _
.
,
431

. ,
.
, 180

.
HB
.
MHB
.

, ,
, .
5.


HB,

.
. . 11.13

J3L .

IR
//Zw/

. 11.13

. 11.14


.
,
. Al .
,
,
-.
7 .

. 11.14.
, (,
.).
,
R
.
,
, . He432


15 .
, HB
.
HB .

,
. .
,
.

' , ( =*
= 1500 /)
(, ). ( = 340 /)
, ,
.
HB

( ).
( 20 . )

. ,

.
,
.
. ,
2 0 0 0 0
7,5 , 150000
0,01 . HB -

. 11. 15


. - HB,
, . 11.15.
, , , ,
.

, . 2 3 . A. H- .

433

,
.
,

( ).
,
.
.
,

. (.
11.16), ,

12

1.

,
.

.

.
, ,
,
.
.
HB
,
HB .


,
.


(PB)
: .
PB
.

. ( )
, .
,
.

, .
PB
. - (. 12.1)

.


.
A 1

. ,
,
,
A2.
. 12.1

. . .,
,
.
,
: Uh
, 2, .
28*

435


Zt1 = /Vlf7i cos (if),

( 12. 1)

U lm ;
<(t) , t.

. -
,
.
,
.
,
2 = U2mCos <? ( t - ),

(12.2)

2D
= -----;

D ;
,
~ 300 /.
2.
:
= -\- U2 .
(12.1) (12.2),
= U lm cos <(t) + U2in cos <(t - ).

(12.3)


= V A 2 B2 cos ( + )>
(12.5) (12.6) ,

(12.7)

2 + B2 = V (Ulm + U2mCOS )2 H- U lm S i n s

&

- Uim V

U Im

,
U2in sin
: arctg = arctg ---------------- 1------ .
A
U xm - f U 2mcos <
(12.7),

/
H \2
( 12.8)
= Uxm 1 9 _U_2tn_ cos -f + --- 2m_ I cos ( - f ).
Uu
U
U9
, - - "C l, (12.8) ,
U Jrn
U 2m
------, ,
U 1Im
2
(12.9)
COS ] COS ( +']).
U iA u

,

(. 1 2 .2 ), -

? ( * *) = ?(* ) +
) *= (/ ) {^).

(< *),

(12.3)
= Ulmcos + Utm cos ( + ?).

( 1 2 .4 )

(12.4)
(^) (^ ).
.
(12.4)
= (UXm+ U2mcos -f) cos - {U im sin ) sin =
= A cos sin .

(12.5)

---- CQS . ...................... =Sintj).


V A2+ 2
V 2 + 2
436

(12.6)

. 12.2

cos .
, .
Umc cos ,
(12.10)
Umc - kU 2 ;
k
.
437

COS .

,
,
,

.
, PB,
.

PB (U 2m= 0).

.
.
,
.
,
(t),
.
2 = It ) = (( ) (t),

)0

dD
--------- .
dt
438

dz
dt

2D
---- ,
2(Ull dD
~
>

-----= 2 = 0.
<
dt
dt
, (12.11), ^>0. ,
> 0 < ^ 0 . ,
dt



.

. ,
,
.
(12.11)
.
.-
2 o)n = 4~/ ^ 4.
C
C
^

<(t ) ;
(^) .

cp(t) = (/).
:
< ;
> .
1 ) (O= U)0 = const.
()=>, (/) = )0 / <() >0 (/).
, (t X) = (t ) (t) CO0 .
:
= ( / ) =

(12.11) ,
, ,

.

( 12. 1 1 )

( 12. 12 )
/.

dt

<*9
X dt

(12.13)

X ;
fa ;
F .
,
.
, /0 = 300 ,
X = I ,
d
D = 1000 /, 2000 .

, ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
439

2 ) , >(()
.
,
(. 12.3), . .
.

(12.15) ,
,
(
),
.
Qm. ,
Qm ,
Q , . .
,
Q ^ [sin QmIt ) - sin Qmt\.

(12.16)

, ,
.
(12.16)
.
Q = 2 > cos 2 ^

:
'f ( 0 ~ toO ~ sin Qmt,
(12.14)
)0 ;
;
Qm .
, >0
0 .
(12.14),

CS( f) = (0 t -----cos Qmt.

<?(/ ) = 0 ( ^ - )

~ ~ !~ COS

Qm(t

sin

(12-17)


, (12.17)
.
. 12.3 ,
.
,

.
.
Q.
I
,
v(t) y(t). , Q
. T
Q ~
2
/ = .
M

? (t

cos Qm(t

) =

COS 2 t.

) +

'- M


Q, .
,
, , .

:
Q = <(t ) = [*>0 + sin Qm{t x)j ~

2 Ammsin

at

+ < fsin Qm(t ) sin Qmt\.


440

(12.15)

cos Qm[ t dt.


' J |c o s2 "(

(12.18)
441

t\, ,
,

(12.18) :

2 <
Qm
Q = - sin -

cos Qu \ dx.

T
(12.19) T = 2
4 >
X
Q = -
sin *
T
1
TVl

CO S------- X

Tu

8 >

Qm

(12.19)
2
,
Tu

dx

----- sin - I cos X dx.


T
T
TM
1 M )

Q = 4(0
------- S m

---Tu

( 12.20)

,
,
,
Tu
( 1 2 .2 0 )
. ,
:
= 4 Al-V ^
,
8 (D Jr
Q= m D;

( 1 2 .2 1 )
( 12.2 2 )

- .
17'
(12.22) ,
.
.

F u

442

Q .
Q,
(12.15), :
dz
-J- ( , sin Qm(/ )]9..
dt
> < 0,
dz
Q,
dt
[(12.11), (12.12)]:

4- dD
=
.
I dt

, ,
. (Q0 ^>0)
(. 12.4), (Q0 < 0)
.


ip

(f (t-)

.
S -

Q01To

Q
q

Q .
. 12.4

, ,
.
,
Q Qd .
( 1 2 .2 1 ), :
SAmw /7,. ^ J 7L dD

' X dt
:

IA A ^L -D 1
dt
dD
dt

( 12.23 )
443



.
A fm Fm
. (12.23) ,
:

Q - Q + Qd.

, PB -
-*
.

.
,
,
.
PB.

-.
PB

.
,
. ,
\,
,
.
.
- PB
, .
PB ,

, .
. , ,
3040 .
PB

.

PB, .

.
444

2.
PB

PB

.
,
PB, - PB ,
PB
.
PB
.

PB
.
, ,
, .
PB -,
. 12.5. ,
PB . 12.5

DbfCQ KG U

HOs

1
HOf)

. 12.5


. ,

,
. PB
,
,
, . 445


. ,
, ,
.

PB ,
.
PB
.
()
,
.

,
( ).
,
, PB,
,
.
PB ,

, ,
,
0 PB.

,
. ,

,
PB.

.

,
-
().
^,

.
PB
,
.

v lntK.
.
:
T
* 3 = t4- t *
tn PB.

T3
tu,
.

.
dD

PB
-----.
^
dt
(. 12.6)
dD
- = >, cos
at
V i n ;
ip 1 .
:
0 (7 )

F = , cos-f.

(12.24)

(12.24)

H
0
tPo < 9 < < + .
Ep0 !
;
0
;
v lu.
, 1
, ,

.
= 0. ,
tp
,
.


,
,
.
PB

,

.
,


. 447

446

,
,
.

, .
(12.24)
:
F =

Fn

2 d 1

cos ( 0 -

2 -
/

cos

Z7max Fmm
,
PB
>,yIU- Ulll Ulljmax

m in ,
,
_
I COS 'f t
+
Fn
X
2
F mm

== 2 -1,

COS

Cf,


PB .12.7, .

,
.
, ,
,

,
.

,
.

PB

.

- PB

.
. 12.7

448

-
Dm ,

1 max

8 A/mF

i y Hiax


- PB . 12.7,6.
,
.
, Draax,
.

PB

.

. 12.8.
().
, ,
,
. /H j

/
//
(. 12.9).

12.8

. 12.9

- PB
F :
8 ^fmFu
- ---------
csin
;
.
29.

. .

449

:
,.
lI v t.
0 = 51 cos Hc ,

.
2 AF
V c .

.

D0 (. 12.10) ,
Vc

PB,
,

PB,
.
, ,
,
.
3. BATEJ I

PB
,
.
PB
(. 1 2 . 1 1 )
,
. , ,
,
.
,

.

. 12.10
.
,
PB
,
.
, ,
Z = 0 ,
. . . :
/

zQ
^lu
________

2 = VDq1 - T 2 .

D0 >

450

- PB . 12.12.
PB ,
, , .

F (. 12.13, ) ,

.

, ,

A^. -
(
) ().
29*

451


.
. ,

, ,

PB.
PB D 0

= Li + ,
- ;
M .
,
D 0 = i ^ - --^..'~ T*) ,

(12.25)

PB
- : ^>.

,
- PB () , ,
.

's. (12.25) ,

. 12.12

D.

)
-
~ A L

)
. 12.13

1 .

.
.

( .12.13,) , ,
. ,

, PB

Af.
PB

, ,
.
PB

. ,
. ,


AD = ( - I) Tv In

C n - I ) -Wlu

T .
PB
:
DZ = D0 - A D = D 0

( I ) V ia

PB
,

452
453

, (. 12.14).
, ,

---- , F
Vu
\
, , . lF

< H --------

In
PB
,

. , ,

.

- , .
-
,
. 0 - .
M = :
, .
/ 0 = 0

= :
X

2 0

~~

~~

CSiIl

'

PB
,
,

, .
PB
, :
I - II) T =

1 .
7 3 =( /1

CT11

/'min ~

S in ,, .

r min
.
,

, .
-
.

PB.

Peh ,
P cp,
.
,
)
J-

,
( ) /,

. Z1tt- 0:

/ */1 .
454

P sh
PB .
PB
,
, -,
, -,
.
455

,
,
PB. ,
PB ,
,
-.
:

-
. -
- PB . 12.16.
-

D _ +
"
2
, Dnpt
-
.
PB

( ),

.
(. 12.15),
, .

,

,

.

.

. 12.15
.
PB ,

,
, .

. PB
PB ,

.
PB -
.
456

. 12.16

(. 12.17, ) ,
. ,

, A 1.

.
,
(. 12.17,0),
(12.9):
Um= Ulm f l + -- cos ' .
\
Ulm
'


,

.
, ,

,
.
#> ,

. - PB
, .
PB ,


.
4.57

I----------- ]
I

,
.
PB
.
PB .

PB ,
,

, .


,
. PB

. . 12.18 , -

I
I

OAr

!
I


11 11 I 11 Ii

1<! I l l l l l....I f W ni

'


IX
Ps
"qTTCT
IJU V

. 12.17
4 .

PB .
,
,
.
,
.

458

. 12.18

, . 12.19 - PB .

,
.

.
, ,
.
, .

.
459

,
.
,

.
()
, -

/1 ;
'-Po


PB;
8 1.
/, (12.27)
.
(12.27) / (12.26),
Z i = / +

COS <? +

, COS (? ) ] .

(12.28)

,
, :
=/ + V l Coscpp ,
(12.29)

. 12.19

.


Da
. Da
,
.

, .
PB. ,
, :
/ = / + - C o s c p ll,
X

(12.26)

/ ;
X ;
V u ;
Th Da V a i l .
(12. 26)
,
.
, PB,
, :
/ .= / + ^ - - 5 ( ? 0 - ) ,

460

(12.27)

v iH ;
Dp V l n .
(12.29)
.
F J1 f2.
(12.28) (12.29), :

F = K i cos ? + ^ lll cos (0 ) v lHc o s ]. (12.30)

,
, f2 /,

F - L [ cos + v la cos ( - S) ].
.
, ,
PB, PB ,
. PB

.
PB
.
, , .
PB, PB
, ,
. PB
, .

. PB
.

5.


(. 12.20).
Oxyz. 2
,
>1, Oxy z.
, PB
.

, ,
, , ,
.
, PB Z111
tK,
S 0 (O) = I - v ^ t" + *)

a - - L I - V 111T3,

(12.33)

. 12.20

, ,
PB
, zo(r)
z.
n- .
Z0 () = f br + 2 + . . ., < ,

(12.31)

, , ,... ;
;
PB.
, (12.31)
,
. ,
Z0 () a + br + 2 < , .
(12.32)
, , .
(12.32) = 0, a Z0 (0).
, Z
PB , .


.
() .

462

I ;
v In T3 ,
T3 .
,
PB.
T3 0 0. ,
(12.32) 0,
PB
.
PB
,
.

. (, ?)

(4it):i Prrmtfl

,12.34)

, PB;
X ;
G( &)

(. . .);
Pnmin (
,
P B );
5 .
Pnmin
, ,
,

,
,
. (12.34)
,
S ll
, .
PB.
463


PB
,
.

.
,
, .

(). , , ,
,

.
PB D ()
, ,
.

(. 1 2 .2 1 )

D(<f) D mY g 1 (<),

(12.3 5)

Dm PB
(12.34),
4

Pb V G 2mS ll

(12.36)

(4)3 Pnmin

Dm 0, . . .
Gi - I , PB.

^m= DmS ln <0 .


(12.36) PB.

Dn

V'

5 0/5~
4 : Y

(12.37)

^U0


PB;
(

,
P B ).

PB
( ).
S

,


, 1 .

(12.36) (12.37) ,
PB


.


PB.

. 12.22
(12.35)
b ,
.
(12.35)
Z 0 br + /'2, b

Vlll T3 .
,
()
Ou .
(<) (12.34)
G (T)==GmG1 ((f),

4S4

Gm . . .;
G1 (<) . . . (
0 1 ).

30. . . .

4b;>

,
(.
1 2 .2 2 ): (<=^0),
/ = <f ''j
,

0 ).

PB (12.39)
,
0 .
b
= ctg

(12.35) . 12.22,

zI =* DmCOS tPo ;

__________ 0________

D r

F t coT

'Po

-Pm Sm
( - 1 ) ;
V2

Z3 = O;

= 0 .
(Zh ,) Z0 br -f- %,
,
:
Dmcos 0 = bDmsin ( + D2msin 5 0
0

c o s I 90

------- S l I l

V Y

V0

Dm

zf

(12.38) ,
_0 '

2
Sin

S l I l 0

Cp0

c t g S i n

Y 2
I
. I
sin I 0
2
V

G'
C tg

1
. /
I- .
D,, = sin
%
Cj ------- sin .
2
466

(0

(12.39)

Ctg

(12.40)

(12.41)

, b

. ,
, PB.
0 -> 0 ,
>ctg Sp0, ->0 , ,
,
2 0 .

, (12.33),
Ulll. Vfll
.
, Ili
/ .

S1

,

ctg Cp0 = 6 + CDmSincp0
(12.38)
ctg U 0 - Y

ctg V1

------ ------- j ----------2 ( ) sin^ 0

, = Z 3 s in * ;

Cp0

6,
PB

PB
,
.


.
-
(. 12.23), ,
.
,
' \
,
.
,
,
,
sin Cf
= a r c t g ----- ,
(12.42)
COS -j ---

30*

467 '

cp
;
V 0 .
Oi O2
cs' '

I
^
<?' + -- ' ,
.
(, ) ,
.

,
.


.

' 2
<\

(
).


<' '.
(12.42)
, -
<', ,
<'
(<, V0)
^ .
' . ,
,
.
, ,

. ,
, ,
, , ,

. PB
- ,
, .

z .
,
, . -

PB

.
,
.
S () ,
PB

S ( ) = f cp(z\r) dr,
(12.43)
V)

(f (z\r) PB
;
Zt () 2 () .
,

_ (* 1

2 -2

(\) = -------
22

(12.44)

Z0() -4- PB;


z
z0( r ) .
(12.43-)

VnJ &)
./ ZfPf(Lsc)
I

_ ( z '
(12.45)
2 Zl
, )
\\
2 'Z /J
^
,
{) .
S ()

. 12.24.
, ,


S ()
, , .
, ,
,
,
.
: = 0, b = Ctgte', = 0. _ ,
'

,
PB
Vu - V la0.

453

469
^

( < ? }

/4

- ( "V4-/ 7

-W
*.

"

Cf' ,
( = )
v In.
' , _ , - ,
>1 10,
,

,
T3 .
, 0

Az = T3Vla = ctg (0 - ) +

/ - r c t g c p '.

\
'

. 12.24
. 12.25

,
S ()
. A^lu,
,
,
.
,
, ,
.



,
.
. (. 12.25)

PB. 0,
,
,
(, v Ja), . ,
0 ;
Az 470

'
(12.42),
/
0
1
(12.46)
Ctg
T3V
C t g ( -Pr
V0 sm
2

? = arcctg

C tgcp +

V 1

V0 sin

T3 v Iu. -

(12.47)

(12.47) , <0

. ,

,
.
,
^ ll.
0
<0
471

.
, "
(12.47) 0.
%
, ,
<0. <0
.

, ,

.

<0
.

<0. PB

,
.

.
,
,
.
,
, - .


. ,
PB, (12.46)
0 = const.
t K,
ctg

tpO- )

V In

Ve Sin

Icv Ia

tH. (12.48)

,
,
0 .


,
- ctg

ctg Po

> t n, (12.49)
2v Inm
,
.
V Inm

472

V 0 Sil! <

t"

(12.49)
. ,

.
(12.49)
<0- 0 (12.49)
:


PB.
0
(12.49), ,

______^

^ ^

U0 Sincp


PB
<?0 < - f arcctg (
- f ctg ) .
2
W 0 S in ?
)

(12.50)


, ,
tK,
.
<0
.

,
.
,
.
,
,
- .

PB,
. -

,
.

, ,
. ,

473


,
.
. 12.26.


,


.


PoHo,

,
.



,
. 12.26


Z/y. ,

.
,

ein s
sin q

va
sin s

V1
=

V1

sin q,

q - ;
D1 ,
;
0 .

(12,51)
-

(12.51) ,
O1, v a, q.
.
. ,
,
.
( 1O11 q)

s.
, ,

474

.
,
,
.
.
,
:
,.
;
,
iUlu V 1 .
,
D
D. , . 12.26,
D 1. a, D D
.


.
U
D0

.
.
,
,



, V la
. 12.27
.
. 12.27 , /0 :
^o= -D
S 0l = Vju
( 12'52>
D
.
t0 P H t
D0 , :
= s0 Z10 ,


,


= D0 As = D0 s 0

475

/0 (12.52),

0 Q2gQ

/A4

D0
(D0,

,
.
().
(. 12.26) ,
sin
vI

sin ( - ) __ sin (<7 + )


v In

V ia


Ctg =
- cos \ .
sin s V V1
J
-

.
, PB ,
,
. ,
, , ,
PB -
.

.
,

,

.
7.

PB
:
5 ,
.
PB,
,
, .
, ,
(
, , . .),
.
476


,
,
,
, , .
S 11
.
,

.
S a
PB. S n

,
.

,
.
PB ,

, .

,
PB
. ,
(12.44) ( 2
) Z 0
.

PB :
Z0 () a - f br + 2.
(12.53)
, , ,
,
PB .

2 , , ,
(12.53) .
( 12.53)
, , .

,
=

2 +

(12.54)

, ,
, , .
477

(12.33),
(12.41) :

(12.40),

a - - I - V ln [tx + tH)
b = c tg <0 +

(12.55)

0 ,6 s in 2 %

9
0,6 Sin 2 Cp0

0,6 Dmsin 3 <?

_1

0 , 6 2

,
.

V
+ 0K21
,
PB .
, ,

aK= V '

=2 + O32

O1
,
;
2 ,
;
O3 , .
o h
.
, :
- V

/ If -
Vi
^-

V
*

42

db \2
+

Po

(12.56)

Dm


, 0 Dm .
, (12.56),
(12.55) .
oDtri
(12.36) (12.37).
,
PB '1)
478

0O 3Dm

\ )

, 0 ,

. K m , 0 ,
0. oz PB
.

PB
(. 12.28).
,
.


.

PB

.


. 12.28
PB
.

PB: .
,

.
,

. ,
,
PB.

, .
() PB
.
() 2 (). PB ty(z)dz
dz z ,
,
dz,
.
, ,
Z

() dz Cp1 () dz \ 2 () dx + 2 (z) dz j , () dx,


--- CO

CO

cpi(z)dz i-
dz;
2
f Cpi ( ) dx - t- -
dz.

,
Z

() =

!P 1

(Z) j

Cp2 ( J f )

dx + b (Z) j

---- OO

'f ,

(X) dx.

12.57)

OO

VTo

'I

dz -

V V 2 , )

2 Oz '
Tl (2O= cP z H = W(Z))
--Z0 + - L -

I (Z0 + V

() = 2<() j {) dx.

(12.58)
. g + -go r e - < ^ ( 0 ^ +

7rJ
(12.57) (12.58) ,
PB
.
( ) (12.44),
(12.58)
( )"

():

<sz t ) f i - ( < b ( t ) d t .

V * .1

K*

1 t e . - * < s> (t)d t.

( 1 2. 6 1)

J
X

() =
( "dt / w J
( ) ( ) ,
( 1 2 . 6 1 ) .
.
00

(12.59)

gzlI 2

2I

(t)te-- dt

( ) .

-( + "2< dt =
2

-=,

YV

----CO

2
PB:

= Izty (z) dz =

OO

O2 J

( 12^62)

_ ( - ^n)3

22

^Q~{'d t = \' -.

Ij M

V V 2 , I

2 = Z0 - f -=- .

dz.

(12.61),
(12.63)

(12.60)

(12.60)
z
, , Z0.

,
PB

2 .
Z0 , <2
.

480

3 !.

. . .

481

:
\2

~
[

(z) dz =

TZ

( - z.j)'

->V Y
V !*

1 4 /

Z Zu

dz.

I V 2

.
,
ty(z)dz dz

, .
,
(12.57) (12.58)
,
+ .

OO

V 2

[1 + (/)] dt-

V 2 Ct i - - L =

= t,

() = 2<p(z) J tf (z) dz.

(12.67)

? ( ) (12.67)
( .,)

OO

2 / 2
]/

JV

2 I (t) ~ dt

( ^ - /

V *

(12.64)

, (12.64)
,
.
2.
-,
(12.62).
, ,
2 ,

0,83 , .

( 12.66)

(12.66) ,
PB.
PB,
. PB
, 482

(12.59) (12.68) ,
PB
.


(12.63) (12.65),
.
(12.63) (12.65)
,
I ^ Z0

C2

aJ24

(12.69)

V 77

-----
IZ

TZ

_3_

(12.65)

( 1 2 .6 8 )

2 (*

- f - Q- dt
d t + 2*
2s? ** ( 0 - ?

2 ]/ 2

1-

(2 ) = - 1
V 2 O2

dt 4-

Ti

1,4

(12.70)

PB


2 . (12.70) ,

.
PB 40% ,
.
31*

483

8.

PB
,
( )
.
PB
P
,
.
P
.
PB
:
A 1

. , ,
,
, , . .

,
, .
.
PB ,
.
A 2
() .

.

, ,
PB (
, .).
PB ,
.
A3
.
,
PB
.
A4 .
4
, A b A2, A3,
A h 2, AsA i = A 1 A2Ai .
481

A i
,

P (A i) = P ( A l) P ( A ^ A 1) P ( A 3)

_
P = P 1P2P3,
(12.71)
P 1 '= P (A x) , PB ;
P2 = ( 2\\)
,
;
P3 = P (A 3) ,
,
.
P 1
P i PB
,

. ,
p t, i = 1 , 2 , ..., .
, (
) PB

,

. ,
PB , ,
, .
P 1= I l p j .
(12.72)
i -1
, (12.72) ,
PB
.
, ,
,
.
(12.72) Pi ,
,
:
.
, , '- PB
.
(1
PiYn , , ^
P l d - ^ (1 ~ Pi)"1
(12.73)'
, PB,
. 485


(, , .),

:
,
.

. :
,
, . .

.

Pi =

(12.74)

Xf ( ) t- ;
tt ,
-
PB .
X ,
, ,
.
-
.
,
.
PB
: ,
,
. X ,
(12.74)
P i = _</' '* + <

'> ,

(12.75)

ifXK ;
tn
;
tp PB ;
Kp ;

;
). .
Xxp, X1 Xp .
,
, ,
,
PB
.
486

, ,
,

.
P i (12.75)
(12.72),

- S

= '-1

'*P + V n + % V

P j,
(12.76)
J=1
k
,
PB;
k ,

.
PB ?^> ?~ ^p.
PB, , .
PB

PB. 7'
^xp / = , Tn .
2
PB

.
,


.
P 2
PB


. PB
, (t) , ,
, U2,
. j (t )
um(t)

U20 PB
t, t -j- Af, , t
. ,
, bt
Uu^ t) U29.
M 487


t. ,
,

At.
PB At,
,
(/ = 0 )
(*). ta
At.
t-
M ,
, :
1 TW M .

t u ,
.

P 2 = Hm T W *].
(12.77)
(12.77),

[1 7 (*,) ^] = Hm
In fl 7 (tf) /].

U -I

I- = I

7 (tt) At
1 , In [I (Ii)At]
.

In P 2 = Hm 5] (Ii) At = j( t ) d t .
/->0 . ,
<- 1
J
(12.78) ,
-J

P 2=

(12.78)

TW dt

(12.79)

P2
,
t,
.
t

j ( . )

dx

P= 5
(12.79)
7 (),
U2.
7 (t)
488

,
PB. 7 (/)
. (12.79) ,
PB
,
,
( U20),
PB
..

: , ,
,
, ,
.
P 3.
P 3 PB
,
. ,
PB

,
. ,
.



, .
, PB
()
,
Ucm.
.

.
2
/ (Ucm) = v T

2^ .

( 12 8)

.
,
,
1 . ,
Jj 2
2 = --- .
C O
v(12.81)'
Ucri

'
Ucm= V-YPnv,
(12.82)
489

H , . ,
P .

;
Pnp
.

P t X2 5 , , G 2 ()

W D -

(12'83>

- ( 1 2 .3 4 ) .
D
.
,
D= JL - ,
sin tp0
0
;
.
(12.83)
rj
P^p

P s X21Sa G2Op0) .
,. ,, 4
s*n cPo-

(12.84)


.
-
PB.
,
PB, ,
,
.
,

,

:
A=^k0 , c ,

(12.89)

B(A) =
4 .2

l/

4 **

(12.85)

U10
,
PB. ,
, r m .
(12.85) ,
-

L i /

4 Ttrm

l s .

( ,2 .8 6 ,

(12.85) ( 1 2 .8 6 ),
U cm=-- U 10

(12.87)

, (12.81)

UL

( 12.88 )
'
, 2

490

. 12.29

,
,
. 12.29.
-

(12.84) (12.82),
=

Il <
B0 > ,

(12 90)

;
.
= 0 = B(A)
.

,
. ,

(12.91)
f () ^ f f l IA(B)
( ) , ().
(12.91) = ,

/ 1 5 )- -/ ,(- )j1
\ /
(12.80) (12.89)

<|2-92)

(12.92) (12.93) ,
B1
J(B ) = - Q .

(12.99)

tn:

0 < < B0,

(12.94)

0B

= [!/J0 .

In

, ,
B0.
, = B0 :
P(B = B0) = $ f A(A)dA.

(12.95)

(12.95) / ()
(12.93) ,

2^ .

(12.96)

Bn = ;,

_ JV
22
P { = B0) =
.
(12.97)
-,

'

/()

2~

2,1
+

2*2

i l Z ( B - B 0)

> B 0.

(12.101)
U20
< 1.
(12.100)

U,
^ > 1

. t K()
. 12.30.
U2 B0
,


U2.
t K
tn0,
,

.

( 1 2 . 1 0 0 ) ,
1

In 1 ~ ~ \ (12.102)

(12.98)

==--------- , .
RC
492

U 20 = k0\xUlo.

, - (B0)
,
B0, .
-,
, , 1 .
,
R ,

U2 = ( 1 - - '),
( 1 2 .9 9 )
1

( 12. 100)

U2 ,
.

< < B0 ;

U1

U20 Ui0

OO

P [ = B0) = z

tn
, tc. tc
S 1 ,
. (12.100)
B1=

U91

(12.103)


^> Bu PB :
P a = P ( B y B l)-^ j f(B ) dB.
493

(12.98)
B0

___ >_

P3 = J ^ -
B1

J d B + e

B 0+ i

- B0)dB, (12.104)
B u-A

(),
PB.
,

_ / \4
- " ( j l j I4
(12.108)

V' m/ dr.
P 8W rfr

.
(12.104)
_ JL l

P3 =

(12.105)

(12.105) S 1 , ( 1 2 .8 8 ),
(12.101) (12.103)
--------- _____ ( - f - ) 4
P 3=
- '> V .
(12.106)
PB tc
:
:-J
0.2'

I ^ lir

0.6

08

1.2

<4

r ,

. 12.31

- == q, (12.106)
=

--------I3 - ( - U 4

P3=

(>- qYyrm' =

rJ ,

(12.107)

--------------- .
(1 - e r 4)2
PB

- q . 12.31.
,

(12.107). q
(RC = O).
,
P , = 0.
,
> 0.
P3
V lu .
PB
P 3
.

(12.108)

-------

-** dx
4

4 Z-

() -.

z () = (z + 1),

(1,25) = 0,906.
-L 1 1
,
'

(12.109)
rm= 906 V ( 1 ~*) .
, PB
(,q = ) 1 0 %
,
. q == I, /^=0,72 <7 = 0 , 5 , r m= 0 ,5 6 4 r .
m.
495

491

9.

PB
, PB

.

PB
,
,
.

. ,
,
, (
, )
.
,
, ().

() .
,
PB .
,
.

. ,
.
PB

.
,
PB.
.

,
,
PB.

.

.

, .
PB
,
496

,
.
PB.

,
PB .

,

PB.
,
PB , . .
.
PB
,
. PB

,

, .

PB

. PB,
,
()
. (. 12.32)
,
.
32- . . .

497



(, ,
.) .
PB :
, .

,
PB
,
.

PB
() ,
, , .
- PB. PB,
,
, -
.
PB
,
. , ,
,
-,
.

PB
- ,
. PB
, ,
, , ,
. ,

,
PB
.
PB
, .
, ,
,
PB. ,
,
PB,
.

13

1.

(OHB)

.
() .

(, .)
(, . .),
,
.

.
. , ,
10 ,
M = 0,8, 250 .
M = 2,4 ,
16 .

.

, .

,
,
- .

.
OHB
. ,

, .

. , ,
300 599

5 .
!OOcC 7,8 .

3,5 .


- .
PbS
33,5
,
. -
.
,
.
-
,
, , .

( ,
- .),
10 .
, ,
, .

J L JL

13.1

- ,
, . 13.1.
,

500

.1 .
,
,
1,52.


.
,
.
,
.


.
.
, ,

, .
,

,
. .,
,
().
, PB,

.


,
.
,
,
.


,
,
.
:
.

. IIa . 13.2

. .
f.
.

501

. ,
,
, 1/
2 2 .
2 , :
L
2/

2 a r c tg -


-,
.
OHB


, ,
.
,
.
(. 13.3)
1,

2.


,
.

R , :
i= - ,
+ /?
E . . . .

(13.1)

/,
,
,
di
/?,
(13.2)
Al
dR,
/?

,
.
(13.1) ,
I

F
(R + R )2

(13.3)

(13.2),

M = .... .
(13.4)
(R + /?)2
,
, :
=

=
( +

/?|
-

. 13.4


.
.
. 13.4.
'
502

(13.5)
(1 +

R
~ ;

,
,
;
.

(13.5)
,
1 1 .
(13.5) , ,
,
, ,
5 , 503


. ,

.

,
, (. 13.5),

,
,
.
OHB
(),

.
OHB
,
.

OHB (. 13.6)
,
1 -

2 -

,
.
,
.

rm,

.
, OHB

Z0 = + ,
(13.6)
b ctg j3;
.
a = I1, Ii
.
OHB a = I1 >, tK.
OHB
t K.
OHB
, .


504

13.6

.
lt 2.
.

, .

,
. ,
,
, .
,
, .
,
, ,
.

. , OHB
,

, .
505


(. 13.7),

Az ,
At.
Az
.

( ctS i - ctg

- r (ctg Pi - ct^ a )

(13.7)


At

.

. 13.7
.
.
OHB /', ,

M = .
(13.7), ,
~ "

ctg, -

C tg p2

(13.8)

OHB
,
:
Rm= { >
I 0 K0 < Tm,

2.



.
,
.


. 13.8. OHB

.

: 1,
2
3.


,
.


. . . .


,
,

,.

(13.9)

.

, , ,
^>,
,
.

,

,
.
506

OHB
,
.

()

.

(. 13.9),
507

.
,
.
,
.
,
. ,

. ,
OHB
, ,
.

, .
,

.
2 ,
.

. . . , /?
,
.
,
. . . E
R
. R

.

.
, ,
.

,

. ,
R,

.
.
,
.
OHB
0,03 (,
) 0,9 ().



508

.

.
H0
. OHB
. H0
.
, H0
.
, OHB
, H0. ,
OHB
OHB ( ,
, ,
.),
, ,
.
. 13.10
,
.
,
.
,

,
OHB
.

,
, , .

, , 1 0 0 0
1500 . , 509

(1 1500 )
. ,
.
, OHB
.
.

, ,
,
.

. ,

, .

III

-

14

1. -
HP O EKTPyEA1SbIX

,
,
,
,
,
,
. .
,
, , ,

.

,
. ,
,

.
,
, ,

. ,

511

,

. ,

,
- . ,


,
.
,
, :
( ,
),

.

. ,
,
,
.
,
(
). ,
, ,
.

. ,
.
,

.
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, -
,
.

. ,
,


.
,
, ,

512

.
,

,
.
,
(

). ,


.


. ,
.

,
, .

,
,
.

.
.
, ,
,
, ,
. ,
- () ,
.
, ,

,

.
2.




,
.

, 33. . . .

513

.

() , . .
,
-
,
.
,

, ,
,
, - , .

,

,

.
, ,
,
. ,


. ,
, ,

.

( ).
: , , , . .

.
.

,
.
,

, . ,
,
,
,
.
,
, ,
. , ,

514

,

,
,
. ,

, , ,
,
( ).
,
( ,
, . .),


,
.
,

( ). :
, ,
, , , ,
- , . .

, ,
- ,
,

,
, .
,
,
( ,
70%' . .),

. , ,

, ,
, -
.

,
,
,

, (
).
, , ,
- ,
33*

515

, - , -
. .

,
, - ,
. .

, , ,
. , ,
-
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
,
,
- ,
- . .
,
-
,
; -

,
, . .
( ,
, ,
,
) ,
.
, ,
U0,

,

U .
W:
W = { U > U0 }.
(14.1)
U, ,
.
, U
;
U , , ,
- . .
,
U0 , . . .
516


. ,

- ,
,
.
, ,
U0 ,
,
.

U, U
U:
V = M\U\.

(14.2)


U,
,
( ),
, ,
,
. . ( ).
( )
: _
W U
.
,
( ),
( ).
W.
U,
,

,
( 1 , 0 ):
U = I W + 0 (1 W) W.

(14.3)

W
,
, .
U,
,
,
.
,
- ,
517


U.

, .
,

U, , ,
W, ,
U0.
3.



,
, , ,
.

,
( ,
. .).
,
,
, ,
, . ,

, .



,
.
-
.
,

.
.
,

, : ; ^
,
, ;

,
. ,
5! 8

, ,


, . . ,
. , ,


,
,
.
, ,
,


, , ,
.
,
,
,
, . . ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,
,

,
. , ,
,

,
. .


. ,
, :
,
- ( )
( )
(

). ,

. ,

, ( ,
519

), ,
,
. .

.

: ,
-,
,
,
,

. .
,
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
,
-

.
, -

. ,

.

,

.
,


.
,

, '

.
, ;


,
.
,
520



.

.

.

,
,
. ,
,

.

,
, ,

. ,

,
.

,

. , - ,

. , ,
, ,
.
,

. ,

,
. ,

(rU111)mIn (rVla) may..
:
<,
Op,
, V0
, b .
,
('tm)min (^iu)max
.

521

.
, , .
. 14.1

>,

,
(*trla)i, (^ ui)]! (i>m)m (
. 14.1

;
). . 14.1,

,
W1 ,
.
,

,

(. 14.2).

, . .
,

,
- ,
,
,
,
522

, .
-


.
,
,
,
, ,
.

,

.

,
.



.


,
,

.

la



I.



, -
.
, ,
,
. . ,
. .


W nI
.

W n, 14,
.

.
,
, .
G(m)
,
.

,
. ,
, , , . .
.
,
. ,


,
524

, ,
, .
, G(tn)

,
.
,
G(O) = O G(OO)- 1,
(15.1)
(
), ,
( )
.
,
, . .
G ( -f I) > G (),
(15.2)
,
,
, ,
\&()

,
,

,

,
,

.
G(m)

. 15.1
, ,

,
, (. 15.1).

G ( )
,
, .


. ,
.
. - ,
, ( 1 )
.
G(m) :
G (-l).
(15.3)
, /- ,
525

:
1

C i { k - I),

( 1 5. 4 )

. .
(k 1 ) .

. &-
X k, ,
fe- , ,
. ,
v X k:
OO

'' = S Xkk\

,
<.
G( m)

,
,

. , ,
:
, ,

, , -

(15.5)

, v
,
. '>
, ,
.
<:
= M [v].

(15,6)

X k
, , (15.6)
(15.5),
OO

. 15.2

OO

--Z M [Xk].
=1

(15.7)

M [Xk]
X k (0 1)
(15.3) (15.4):
M [Xk] = O . G ( k - I) + I [I G ( k - I)] = I G{k 1).
,
OO

-= V [ I - 0 ( / - 1 ) ]

OO

CO =

[I

G ( m ) ].

(15.8)

, >
G(m).

G(m), (. 15.2).

. 526


. (,
, )
, ,
:
- ,
. ,
, . .
,
.

. , ,

(15.9)
S 1 (
);
S - ,
(
).
527

,
I G( I) . * ( )
,
.
G* () = 1 [I G(I)]"* = 1 (1 - ,)"1.

(15.10)

(15.10)
( ).
G* ( )
.
(15.8) (15.10),
OO

CO

>= V [I _ G*{tn)} = V (1 - ,) - .
/-
/=0

,

I
I - ( I - T 1)

T1

9
6 ,

(15.11)

, <

.
,
,
, . . ,
,
. ,
, ,

( ,
),
,
, . .
, ,
,
.
,

. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
:
, .

, ,
528

, ,
(
).
,
, , -
,


.
, ,
G* ( )
G ( ) = 1
G d ) = G* (1),
> 1

G ( ) > G* (.).

(15.12)

, G(m),
, G*(m)
(. 15.3). ,
- = k,
> k
G () > G* (),
(15.13)
m<^k

G () < G* (),

(15.14)

. . G( m)
G*(m) (. 15.4).



.
S 11,
2:
, -
34. . . .

(15.15)
*^9

,
, ,

,
(15.17)

(15.16)

G*(m) = 1 - ( 1 - ,)"*.

G(Ot) = I - ( 1 - ,) + S c I "-* G2 (k).

(15.18)

*2

G(m)
- \
(

).

G * ( l ) = G( I ) = T1
(15.12)
G(ot) = G* {m) + bG{m). (15.16)
A G f m ) -


(. 15.5).
,
G2 ( ) .
G2( ) .

, Go(Hi),
AG(m)
.

,
. , k
, (mk) ,
(
)
. , k

' 2 '0

, ,
:
G2 (D = G2 (2) 0;
G2 (Aj) = 1

( > 3),

. .
, ,
.
(15.18)

G () = 1 - ( 1 r x)m + V Cm 2 '"~ .
,

m
irI + )) = L Cm <2
I

(15.19) :
2

+ " 1rS +

{ - ! )

G () = 1 ( 1 ) + (., + 0) -1 2
----- ( 1) ~ 2 \.

= 1 - , 2,

G () = I ( I T1 2) ( 1 j 2) ~1 .,
----- ( 1)-(1 - T 1 -

r 2)m~2 r \ .

(15.20)

(15.17)

*-2

(15.17) k = 2, k<i'l
.
530

0
(0
1 , ).

, ,
:
AG () = ] Pm, k G2 (&)

(15.19)

fc- 3

,

,
.
34*

531

,


.

.
,
, , . 4 ,
,
,

.
,
,

,


. Ho ,

,
,

(. 15.6).


S i. , ,
,
(
. 15.6
,

, ).
,
G* ( )
, :
I
ri

5
Si


,

.
, . 3
6 , ,
.

,
532

(
,
,
. .).
(
; ,
,
, . .)


. ,

, .


.
,
.


,
,
.
,

,

(. 15.7).

O2 (/) =
G2 ( ) I

[ > k),

k ,
, .
533

,
5
5,.
,
(15.18), T2 ^ r 1
G (/) G* (/).
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
,
G () = G* (/) = 1
,
/ ,
, ,
. , m
, , . .
,
/, , , .
, <= 2 = 2
G (2)

y j=

2.

0

Pm.

G ().

(15.23)

,-' E1
^ ).

(
) Enx Eny
Xr :
( -
( Vr)*


,
G (/),
.
, ,
, ,
, .
,
W n
:
I

f l ( )

0 ,7 5 .

=
, = 1 (
).

G(m)
W 11 (15.22)
/^, -
, ,
, , -.


,

,
,
,

. .
15.8

.


C ry ( ) E

(15.22)

/ (*> )
Y lX

(15.24)

,
,
^ Ex Ey:
(
(15.24)
/ (JC , V )'
Ex Ey

Ey

E2rx + Elx

535

534

Wn
0 = 1 ^ l - j".

Ia = V V-xIV ,

".
(15.25)
LLx
Ey
,
tx (
).
( J i = 0) ,

Pm, = C Z p ? ~ ,

(15.26)


(q, = I pi).
pi
:
P1 = j $ f ( x , y ) d x d y ,

(15.27)

f (, ) (15.247);
5 .
, ( 15.26) G(m) (15.21)
W n (15.22) /
(ji=r. 0 )
W n= V
2 , ?(\ - Ply - "

. , G(Q) = 0 ,
m = 1 , = 0

IF" =

V
0

pi (I Pi)n~m4

~ ~ ) (\ - \)" -

, ,
:
V Cn (I - P 1" - ' " ) = [, + (I - P 1) ] " = 1.
/0
:

Wn
(15.28)

(^ 1)
,
. , ;j. = 1
( = Evty = 0), . .

,
.
,
. ,
Pm, = (Ttl ) Pn, = Pi',

Pi = j fi (, ) dxr d yr.
(15.29)
(5)

(15.29) (> )
(15.23).
W n
(Ijl = I ) :
W ri' = Vpm.nG (m) =, n G(n).
m*=*I

, ,
:
1

(15.30)
Ul

, . .
< ( < 1. , 0
I, W n
. , (15.28),
W n ,

, :
V Pi

1- ( 1 - -

(15.31)

Wn
0 ( * >y r) = 1

/?,"(,,,)
,
,
:
( >) ()
f2{x, ) (15.24).

Px ( V , )

JJ

537

1
(15.23), W n
(15.31):

X i , 1 ,
?- , 0 , i - .
X :
N

OO

W" = J f Wn ( ,.) /, (1 vr) dxr dyr.

(15.32)

X -

i 1

-OO

Wn
, .

, Wn
|.
W n
:
;
( ;
Px
(15.27);
.

Wn

Wn = Wn' H- V T = V ( W n
0-

IVn').

( 15.33)

(15.33) W n
0 W n'
(15.28)
(15.30)
.
, \


(15.27).

Wn (
. 15.9.





.
,
,

(
). , N
,
(15.32) (15.33).
- W ni.
538

V .Vi .


.
( ),
N

M=-M \\ =

L M [X,].
1=1

,
:
] - Wnl-I + ( I - W nt) O= W I.
,
M = Yi Wni,
(15.34)
i-i
. .
. ,

:
W nt - W n = const,
(15.34)
M = NWn.
(15.35)

W n M


.
,
(
).
3.
-


-


.
,

539

, .
.
,
,
.
,

CO
Wn,

,
.


.
,

,
;

; . 15.10


, , ,
.
,

.
<
7
V0 . (
V0

).
, 1 ,




. 15.10.

.
qB
V0 .
- .
:
z>0 = L ',ln (l + _ * _ \ ,
\
G - I
540

(15.36)

U e ;
;
G .
,
( ,
, . .) q

<7 = ?,.
(15.37)
,

( , ),
.
G
q , qa <
7<:
G <
7 + qa -+- qm-

(15.38)

,
G .
(15.36)
G

").

(15.39)

(15.37), (15.38) (15.39),


G <?
V0 .
G -- ------

- .

(1 + )

(15.40)

qm qR
? V0 :
/

(15.41)

(1 + )

(1 - -
)
<? = ------ T X -----
( 1 + ) .

:
Gny^ k G .

(1542)

(15.43)
54 L

,
:
( 1 + ) <7

-- - Z - -----
(15-44)
(I + )


. 0,
,
(,
. .),

- Fn
G + G

-
1 +

'

1 +

(15.45)

qB4 0
. 15.11.
,

,

.



,

qB
V0

:
Er
(
)
(,


). ,

{FCx---- Ery = Er -Jiux = Eiiv =/:),

:
E - E1 (/ 4 V 10 1
(15.46)
*2 ( ? ^ o ) '

,
, 2 , '
Jt1
:
E=
542

V E2r + El

-
P1

<
7 O0 (. 15.12 15.13).
, ,
(>, , \, J i .) ,
, Wn

. , ,

,
.
Wn qB V0
^ g 4 Vu*,
W n
(. 15.14). q*4 U0* -

. 15.14

)
G* (15.40),
q* (15.41) (15.42),
* (15.45)
E f Et (15.46).
,


.
543

,
,

( , . .),
. ,
, ,
(
) .
,
, ,
.
,

,

,
().
, .

, ,
> S
.
Er (


).
,
, TV , L
.

(15.34)
N
iij vv ni'

I=I
W n (15.33),

Af = W m + V l z r F ( 2 W 0ni - IVr, ').
- 1
'/-I
;=|
'

(15.48)

(15.48) .
(15.30) t-
:
, .
, ,
,
, (
). ,

(
15.15):
En =
, ,

:
H=

(15.47)

W n i= P ,

I 1- - T
\
)

,

. ,

Wni ^ P1.

(15.49)

i- ,
,
(15.27) 0:
P=(*+?)

JtV

Pt = ^ 7T2 U e
E .

dxdy.

(15.50)

(IS,)

3
544

35. . . .

545


,
, Pi

2
2
? /
(15.51)

( ,
i-
X i ,-,
Vi ).
Wni .
/, , Evi =
(
Br) . 15.16. M
, ((15.48), W ni
V
2

- P1
(,-)
(Bn).
t- ' P1 Eiit
(15.52)
i - W \ .

E., Er . 15.17,
W"n ( Eu < Er-,
Bk = Er, /:*'> Er).
Bu
Wni | S W^ki).

SM


Wni- (15.28) ,
Wni = 1

Pl ^

(15.52)

t-
,
(15.27).
,
(Er + Bi > S),
- , ,

Pi

Pi ~
546

V2 S
(Bi -f Bi)

(15.48),
,
/:
(15.48)
JJ- En
(15.25):

(15.53)
3! *



(. 15.18).
En*
.
* (15.47):
* = EU .
P

(
M En ) ,
.

16

1.

,
,
, .


(
),
( ).
,

, .
G(x, , )
, , z
.

.

Rpt
, . 3. ,
R, ,
Rp) (
). ,
, Rp, (
). , ,
,

G(R)
R b (. 16.1).
, G (R)
( ),
. 549

,
(. 16.2).

G(x, , z) ,
.
, z

, , ,
.
G(Q)

'.

,

, . . ,
.
,

,
.
,
, ,

, .
:
P n -

. 16.1
.
, ,
, .
- - ,
. ,
-
( )
gt
Iil

P 1.
'
'
U1
,

'

= 1 - ( 1 ~ PiY i .

(16.1)

( )
. 16.3
,

. . 16.3 ,
,
1,8 ,
, ,
, .

"I.
~ ,1
, , - ;
Tl1 , - .
,
,
. ,
t-
P1,
H1
Ttll

'

.'.

550

, ;
- ;
.
, -
,

Jni = I l t P l ,

(16.2)
, -
, .
, i- g t
:
gi = 1 Po. ,
551

, '-



: R <'
(. 16.4).
. 6 (6.83)

R <\

g .^ 1 - - " * .

(R, <') = (R) ( 4>')S*(q, v),

Po. , i-
.
. ( 16.2) /, = 0:
. = ~ .

(16.3)

,
, k
.
6

,
.
.
-
(16.3):
gt = \ - <

(i = 1 , 2 , . . . ).


,
k ,
G = I - (1 - & ) ( 1 - & ) 0 - & ) .

(16.4)

Si (16.3),

:
k
_
- S mI
G = 1 - ~ . . ~ m* = 1 ; 1 .
* _
mI r.. 1

, .
, . 6 ,
,
G = I _ .

(16.5)


.

,

552

(16.6)

( R ) - ,
(6.81);
('-') ,
(6.81);
S*(q, ) (6.73).
,
:
G (fl, tp') = 1 -

(16.7)

m(R, ') (16.6).


,
,
,
.

.
,

, ,


.

,



(
,

. .).

,
.
,
,

(
). ,
553

,
. , ,
(
),
(16.7),
, ,
,

(16.7).
,
S*(q, v),
,
, .
2. OLlEfiKA


.
.
, . 6 ,
<' (
'f' 15 30)
m(R, <?')
m(R, !?')>
G( R, ')
G (R, <') = 1 - - *


(.
16.5).


,

( ,
). ,

,
(. 16.2). ,

,

/___\

N7 I = f f f ( x , y ) d x d y ,
(V)

f( x ty )

P1

V Bx

(16.9)

(Ex Ey
).
(16.8)
S',
.

,
G (R, ?')


.
,
551

(16.8)

. 16.5


G(R, f ' )
,
G (/ ? ,?') = Gk = const.
(16.10)
(16.10) R

R = R (/) ,
Rj , </
Gk, .

G{R, ')

G(R, ') - G k
/ Rj .
Cik (. 16.5).

R = R (to')

,
555

(. 16.6).
,

.

, . . ,

G (R, *') = 1.

,
(. 16.8).
, ,

,
, ,

,
Rp
.
. 16.6 .
(. 16.5)
(.
16.6) -

. 16.6

R,
.
, ,
. , ,
H
0 ,


, . . ,
(. 16.7).
. 16.7,
,


.
, Bc = 90
,
,

556

,
G(R, <').

(
)
, ,
G(x, , ) .
, G(R, <?'),
G (, , )
.
, , z (
); Ox , xOz
557

, (.
16.9). ,
, , H ( = )

(. 16.9)
AB = ;
sin Bc

BC=
tg 0

OB
OBD:

BD = + .

(16.12)

[ = 2 +

(16.13)
V tg Hc I

, OAB

(Ofi)2 =/?2 -]------ ------- 2 R ----- --sin 2 0


Si nBc

COS

'Jj'.

(16.14)

(16.11),

, ,
-f

.V -

, 2Xii
tg Bc

H2
tg 2 Oc

-\------------------+----------- =

,
- -f

2 ,

V2

, H'2
2RH
+ 2 + ----------------------cos s.
Sin2 Hc s i n 6 c

costs',

cos (f' = -----sin f)c ------ cos 0 .
R
R

(16.15)

(16.11) (16.15),
, 0 ,
, ,
R <' , ,
G(R1 ^r) R '
G (R, <f') = G (, ) .
G(x, )
,
.
, ,
, Wi.
,
( = 0 ) , W1

OO

W 1 = \ G ( , ) / (, ) d x dy,

(16.16)

CO

6 . , R :
R = X2 2 + H2.
( 16. 11)
558

G(x, ) ,
= 0;
/(, )
(16.9).
' 559

(16.16)
, ,
f(x, y)dxdy (

dxdy), a G(x, )
.
W1 (16.16)
.

,
,
(16.11) (16.15), .
,
,
Wr .
W\ (H) ,
(16.16):
OO

W1(H)

G ( x , y , ) f (, ) dxdy.

(16.17)

/=1

OO

(16.17) G(x, , )
= .

. 16.10.
.
16.10, W1
H = H*.

W1


(H). ,
H

. 16.10

W 1 = I W 1 (H) [) dH. (16.18)


6

,

(- )
(H) -L----
,
(16.19)
V n Eh
H0 ;
Eh .
, //
*.
(16.17) (16.18)
.
60

,
, , 1N
.

Mi.


,
I

( , )

T
VMt
. , ,


, ( , )

1.x,)
. ----


'
(, )
G (X1, Vi ), (16.20)
. 16.11
G(JC11 Vj) i-
,
G(x, ) Vi .
X 1, y t t-
. -
, f\i, , (.
16.11),
X1 = S| - , V1 = Yli - ,
je,
.
G (Xi, V1)
.
( , ) ,

. ,

,
, ,
,
. , , . 16.12,
:
0 ,15 + 0,40 + 0,11 + 0,90 + 0 ,1 5 + 1,00 + 1,00 + 0,00 + 0,45 +
+ 0,35 + 0,25 + 0 ,1 2 = 4,88.


( , ),
36. . . .

H , , (16.20)
:

CO

M1 =

(.V,

) f (, ) dxdy,

(1 6 .2 1 )

{, , ) = V1 G (xt, y lt ).

(16.22)

/-1

f(x, )
(16.9).

Mi

/; (H) = f
*0,t
G - 0,2
G--0,3

OA

CO

Af, = j Af1 (H)* (H) dH.

G -0.6
C--Q7

G -0,9

(16.23)


, (16.18)
M I:

-Q5

Gk 0,8

(, , ) J (, ) dxdy.

( 16.24)

,
(16.21), (16.23) (16.24),
.

Wi M 1 .
, ,

, , ,

IFji= I (I - W 1)".

(16.25)

,

, . .
,
,
Mn = Af1.

. 16.12

,
,
562

(16.26)

, ,
,

S n.
,
90 (
) = 0 (
). , ,
,
, .

. 16.8, , , ,
36 *

.
, 0 = 90 = 0 ,
, ' = 90. ,
G(R, ') <' = 90.
G () *= G (, 90).
G( R) ,
Rk, Gh
(. 16.13).
Mu
II0, ,
,
Gffl

. ,
,
R,
:
dm = H0 (2r. RdR).
R .
G(R). ,

, ,
, S 11 Rn,


() .
3.



,
.


.
, ,

, , -

OO

. 16.13

M 1=-- H0 f G (R) 2,RdR.

(16.27)

, (16.27), G(R)
,
S n:
S n = 2 * f O (R) RdR.

(16.28)

S n (16.28)
.
S n,
, Mi

M1 = Yl0S a.
(16.29)

Rn
I/

(16.30)

,

Wx
Rn .
564

. 16.14

,
,
.
, t
, Va,

(Rt) Cp0') (Ri
<?/)
(. 16.14).

,
, , .
565


( ),
, ,
S*(q, v) (6.73), ,
(16.7).
Vu
(6.84)
Rt
Viy
V0 ,

,
(. 16.15).
. 16.14 16.15 ,

f^ \ f

[
.

V u
.
V u


,
(. 16.16).
, ,

V.

-
,

R ', ,
,
. ,

, '
566

R = R (<?')
(. 16.6)
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
,

(. 16.17).

.

,
, ,

567

i|mi
. *
:
CO

Wi=

G (, , z) / (, , z) dxdy dz,

,
,
, , , ,
f \(, , z) :

(Ki III

/j (, , Z) = / (, ) C
O[z\x, ) ,

(16.35)

G(x, , z) - ;
fi(x, , z)


(16.3)

gi (, , ) =

1 - "mi (t<
'"V ,

(I6.U2)

/Til Cil, \, ,) *
,
,
, , z
,
Zi- t\t,
.
*
(16.4).
i.)
('
fi(x, , z) ,
.
fi(x, , z)
. Oz
,
Ot
, , .

f , ( x , , z) = f ( x , ) <? (),

(16.33)

f(x, ) ;
<(z)
.
f(x, )
(16.9).

V f ( Z ) - =

V* Ez

Z0 -

(16.34)

2,
;
E 2 .

568

(zjx, )
, ,
.
[zjx,y)
(16.34),
Z0
Ez :
Z0 =-Z0 (,); = 2(,).
(16.36)
0 = z0(x, )
.

,
,
(
). ,


.




. ,

, . 16.18

V0
,

(. 16.18).
<' (6.22)
' = a rc tg ----- ------------ .
Vi

( 16.37)

----- -- - i - COS-CS

U01 (. 16.18):
v01 V v 02 -I- V1'1 + 2v0v xcos .

(16.38)


, ,
569

t,
,
.

(1.3H)

-D0I
, ,
,
/ ( ) Il (
), ( . 16.19).
(16.39),

, <

, , , R,
,
(16.43).
(6.52):
Vr = Vo l ^TcHbr.
(16.45)
v ,
V r V ll (. 16.20)

Vn

v =

(16.40)

V 1Ol


R. R

V? f v rl + 2 v a v r cos '

(
, ).
(16.45) , (. 16.18)
'01 cos ' - V1 4- v 0 sin <,

V= V

-cHbr 2/ (Vl -Jr v 0 cos.'?) ~ >, .

Voi (16.38) ~ -
,

> V = cH hr V v I sin2 * + ( V 1 + -0 cos <? V 11 & * ' ); - (16.46)


!6.19):

R = -I
.
(16.41)
Sin <
, . 16.IH

(16.42)
Sln Cp'
(16.41)
R
V0

, (16.38),
R

v Qsm <?

^ V

sin

+ rVl 2

!
v t sin ?
570

V v 02 +

V 12

eIv 0 V 1 cos =. Ir,


+ '2v0 V 1 cos ip.

(16.43)
'
'
(16.44)





V lll

= V1 V11

(16.47)

(
-


.
. 16.20
).
Vlll,
,
. , tc',
,
(16.37),
, D1
1
f ' = a r c t g ------------------- .
-f- cos
<\>

(16.48)

671




.
/(< )



,,,

,
,
(. 16.21):
?1 = ? - I 3 Olf;
O2 = '

3 Sip.

(16.49)

, ,

- 16.21
4>1 ~<2
(. 16.22).
,
" ip


,
<,.
<:
V ' cH, \ V02 s i n 2 + (^i + Vo c o s tp Vli & ', )2- (16.51)

.
.



,


,

,
,
,

,
,
(. 16.24).
, ,
,
,
, , ,
, ,

,
.

. 16.22

, / <2'
(16.48)/
Ti

arctg-

(,. 16.23)

S l I l CS

VIll

. 16.25

C O S CC1

Vn

(J2' arctg

Sm

In

Vn

572

CB2

- f COS S 2

(16.50)

,

(. 16.25). ,
, 573

poro L3

.
S*(q, v)
.
,


.

-.
,
,
(,
. .).


.
, ,
,
- .
Lb </ <2',
,

. . 16.26 ,

(
).
,
,
() S*(q, v ) .
, ,
. 16.27, :
IT

(16.52)

2-/

N
;
/
.
r ~ L3
i f T T W f ',

~1 ^ ~

LJ t -

. 16.27

:
I

S=

( ctg

<,'

ctg

<,').

(16.53)

*,
. , ( 16-.53)
I,
c t g , ' - C t g <2'
L9 (
),
, AC BI).
, ,
.
,
, ,
574

(16.54)

< * (. 16.27)
S*(q, ),
(16.55)
L9

~,> *.

S*(q, v)


< * (16.52), (16.55):
, () = ()

L3

5 * (^, V) =

2/,

(16.5(1)

> *
(16.52), (16.53)
m.2(r) = \\(r)S*(q, V ) =

NS* \q' V)------ .


Jrrr2 (ctgcp, - Ct gcp2 )

(16.57)

, (<*)

, ( > *)
. (16.5),
G ()

Gi () = I
G2( r ) = 1 -

cp(z/r)
(12.44), (16.34), Z0 Et (
)
, .
,
,
Zi Z2,
Z 0 . Z 0 = Z o ()

. S ()
(12.45):
Zo \
(16.61)

E2 !
\ E2
() .

( < *)

(> /-*)

(16.58)


(G () = 0),
Wi
. '
, , S ()
( .. 12, 6).
S () (12.43)
MO
5 ( ) = cf(zlr) dr,
Z1()

(16.59)

Zi () Z2()
(. 16.28);
< (z/)
.
zOr

+ r ctg <,';

-2 ir ) = " + r Ctg*/

(16.60)

( Oz ,
).
576

I f(r)

. 16.28
,
, W\ () :

W 1 () = G {) S {).
(16.62)
,
W i.
.
(Ex = Ey = )
, (16.9):
^3 f x'2 + 1
- P
2
P'
(16.63)
fix, )
2
37* . . .

577


:
= sin ;

V = rcos 0 .

,

(16.64) J ()
rt _^_

. (
,
; ,
,
).
, ,
W1 q.


\()
(16.56) ., () (16.57):
, .
NS*iq, v)
. ,
NS*(q, v)
r ) = -------- 2 -'> ) = ---- ;------------------------
2 TirL9
2* ( c t g ? / - ctg ')


,
,
W 1= j W 1 (r)f{r) dr

W 1 = f G () S () / () dr,

(16.65)


.
, ,
,
(16.31)
: S () (16.59)
(16.61)
W1 (16.65) .
4.
-




.
, ,
.
(
U0, <

)

. ,
578

q
S*(q, v) N.
S* q : ,
,
S*, , , ,
.
v0, V1 ^ll H
,
[ (16.51)
].
\{) 2()
v () (16.51)
q.
,
S*(q, v )
.
N,
], q:
N = o . - J ^ {X ' - A . t

(16.66)

G6 ;

,
.
mi(r) {)
q ,
* (16.54), (16.58)
G1 () G2().
.
16.29.

S () (16.61)
37*

579

f(r) (16.64), (16.65)


W1
q. W\,(q)
. 16.30. q*
. ,
5 () f () </,

.
, . 16.29 ,
, ;

.
,
, , . .
Wi.


,

Vuv
,
Va ,
('). ,
V0
( ),
Uia.
V0 ,
.


V0m ( . 16.31
,
V0m

, ,
- V0
- <' ).
, rOz,
(. 16.32), 580


2 ( ,
).

. 16.31

,
, , z .

:
r m = S t g t f m.

(16.67)

. 16.31 ,
j Om
(16.68)
Vm
M () :

tg =

II () = -- =
TZrm


/

/_ *

N
1 tg 2

NS*

(16.69)

/ I f i 7\

5*
q
V ln (
V0
).
(
) (16.5)

z = z* G(z)P(z)
(. 16.34).
2 *
. Z*,

.

N S*

G () = 1 - - () = 1 -

*ni.

( 16.71)

,
(16.71) , ,
2 , , , (. .

). r > r m G(z) = Q (
).
,
2 , .

(16.64)
(16.67)

. 16.34

z* Wi(z)
(16.72). (16.72)
,

dW, (z)
dz

(1

-") 2 z e ~ " 5( l

az- ~
1 _ -

) =

P (z)= J

f(r)dr = 2

re

d r = 1

'~ .

, Wi () :
_ JL

W 1 (z) = G z ) P ( Z ) = ( 1 -

2) <1 -

- ),

( 16.72)

E2

(16.74)

1
,

2
? = az\
Zi

tS2

NS*
tg2

,
z = z* :
(16.73)

(16.72),
W1(Z) - z . ,

(
),
( ).
, ,
,
(. 16.33).

>

, (16.73), _____ _

(16.75)
tS
tg (16.68),

____
,.
4
P2MS*
v
Ia
I
(16.76)
-E2
583

582
i



.
, , ,
,
. ,

. ,
5 * (q, ),

H0. ,
H 0
90 (. 16.35).

fv (?')
( ),

.
, f v (<)

( ').
(),
. 16.35 I I () f v (y'):
() =
dS

2 ^rdr

,
= H tg '

dr Ii -

COS2 '

()

16.78)

S* ()
S * .
S* ()

S*(q, ). ,

(6.52), R = V H 1 + 2 ,
q


V0.
S*(r)
,
. 16.36.
,
',
(16.5):
G ( ) = 1 ,1()5* - (16.79)

(16.27)
Af1- J h r II0 J

584

N f v (') cos8
2H2 sin t?'

,
II () (16.78),
/(').
().
11 ()
, ,
', :
() = II () S* (),

( j Q77 j
V

dN , dy';
dS ,
.

[1

( ) *(/) I

rd ,

(16.80)

',
= H tg ' .

( 1 6 .8 1 )
585

,
II (), M1 .


2: j

Tl () dr = N,

(16.82)

N .


.*
() ,
F* ( ):

S* () ,
X,
(16.84)
I I (). 11 () H ig

(16.78),
/ (').
f v{yr) . 16.37.
() (16.83).
, , ~
^
(16.80),
-'Wini:
1

C m '

M lm= 20 1 + 2

F* () = 2 II0 [ 1 - ys*(r) j + 2,
X .
F* () ,

2TiII0 rS* () - yS' (r) + 2* =


, 2,
-

S* ( )

'

(16.83)

Ile 5* (,
(16.83) II
X):

= () - L - [In Ii0 S* () In ( - X)].


S*(r)

()

(
(16.84)

X
() Bi (16.82) :
2*

[In D 5* () - In ( - X)]

= N.
5*

(16.85)

()

*
:
XI
= (), Z1= J f rJ (, ) dx =, ,

X0
Xl
I = \F ( , ) dx.

X0
Fi' ( V)=- F (. ) -(- XF1 (, ),
, =>()
dF* I v)

X
:

= 0. X ,

586

= (.) Z1.

| ^ 1 .(1 .8 6 )
,1 S*(r)
'

(16.86) ,
-
*


. 16.37
,
,
. ,
S*(r) = S 0* = const. ( )
(16.84)

^ cons^

(16.87)

,

.
(16.85)

[In II0 V
Sn*

- In ( X)] r l = N .

(16.88)

NS*

(16.89)

05 0*
(16.88) l n ( X) (16.87),
( ) = ---'j
~

587


(16.78):
, , ,

sin 'Si'

(< ) = - r - ---- T117 .


tg

'fm COS3 If'

X (16.89)
S*(r) = S 0*,
(16.86)
NS,,*

M 1 = 2110 r\i ( 1 1

).

( 16.90)


* < * ,
-
(16.90)
.

17



1.



.

.
-
.
:
,
,
;

,
;
,
,

;
,
;
, ,
;
,
,
;
,
;
,

.


583

.
,
.



,

.


,
(,
, , ).
(, )
,

.

,
,
,
(
).
,
, , ,

.

,
().
:

:
;
,
, (
, , ),
(, , );

( ,
. . ) ;
(
, ) ;

, ,
, .
590


.


.
,
,
.
,
,
,
, (
, , ) . .
,
,

.
,

,
.


,
.

,
,
, ,
.
2.



.
,
,
, .
:
,
;
-
;

;
591

-

;

;
- ,

;
-
;

. .

,
, - ,
,
.



.

:

;

;
, ,

;

,
;

.

, ,
, . .
.
:
- ,

;

;
;
, , , ,
;
;

;
;
:
,
, , . .;
;
: -
, -, ,
, . .
, ,
,
:

;
-
;
-
, .
,
, , ,
, . .,
,

.
,
, ,
,
:

;
, - - ;
;
;
;
;
- , ;
;
;
-
.

592

38. . .

,
,

593

:
, ,
. . - ;

( ,
);

.
.


.

, , (
),
, ,
, ,
, ,
.



.

.

:
;
,
,
;

.


-
(, , ,
, ,
. .).
- ,
,
- , ,
, -.

,


. -
594

,
.


( ,
. .).

.

.


:
, ,
;
- , ,
,
;
.


.

,
.

:
;
;
;
.


( ) .

,
, ,
, ,
. .



.


38*

595

50 .

( 1,5 , 0,25X0,40 ).

,
,
,
,
,
,
(, . .).
,
:
, ,
, ,
- ,
() ,
-, ,
.
He
,
,
.



.




.
(,

)
,
, .
.
, ,

, ,
. -
()
,
.
596

(
) ,

,
,
.


,
.
,
.
, (
) , .
,
.

. ,
() , .
.


,

.

:

;
;

;
;
;
,
;
.
,
, ,


, ,
,
. , 597

,
, .

, ,
, , , ,
.
-, ,
.



.

: , .

25 ,
.

.
,

(, , ,
, , , , , ,
), -
, 0 3 ,
, 20 ,
. .
,
,
(, , ),
12,7 , -
2037 , 26- 52-
, -.
,
,
, , ()
()
, ,
, (,
, , , )
.

.................................................. ..

............................................................................. 3

I
-

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1. ..................................................................................... 9

. . .
9
..................................................................... 13
..................................................................... J 4
........................................................... !5
............................................................................ 21
.
....................................................................................................................... 22
7. ................................................... 25
8. .................................................................... 27
9. .
.
................................................... 28
10. .
.......................................................................................38
11.
.............................................................45
12. ......................................................................................................................................... 47
!3 . .............................................................
55
2. .
......................................................................................59
1.
. . .
59
2.
. . .
61
3. ...................................................
75
4. ............................................................ 87
5.
................................................................................................................ 105
6. .................................. HO
7. ............................................................................. 120
3. ........................................................... 136
1. ..............................................................................................136
2. ....................................................................................................177
3. ..............................................................................................188
4. ........................................................... 209
$ 1. ................................................... 209
2. ...........................................217
$ 3. ............................................................221
4. ...................................................
226
5. ....................................................................................................... 228
6. , ................................................... 233
7. .........................................................................................................235
8. ...................................................240
9. .
. ....................................................................244
59

5. ..................................
1. ..................................
2. ............................................
3.

6.
1. ..................................
2.
. . . .
3. .
4.
5. .....................................................................
6. .....................................................................................
7. . S*(q, ) ...............................
/ 8.

249
250

'Jbl
2(58
277
277
278
285
302
315
322

32
345

H

7. ...........................................................
1. ..............................................................................................
2. ....................................................................
3. .....................................................................................

352
352
354
35G

8. ..................................
1. , ..........................................
2. .....................................................................
3.
........................................................................................................................I

358

9. 1. .
2.
. . . . .
3.
10. ....................................................................
1. ..................................
2. ....................................................................

353
393
396
402
405
405
411

11. .
, .
1.
2. HB
3. ....................................................
4. ....................................................
5. ........................................................................

125
.............................................................................................
1.

..........................................................................................................................
. 2.
P B ...............................................................................
3. .............................................................
4. ...................................................
51
| PB .
Jj .
8. .............................................................................
9.

600

I 13. ..................................................................... 499


1.
.
. 499
2. .
.
. 507

358
369
386

420
420
424

426
428

432

435
435
44 5
451
458
462
4; .7
47 6
484
49 6

11!

-

i 14.
...............................................
.................................. 511
I. -
............................................................511
2.

....................................................................................................................................... 513
3.
....................................................................518
15.
........................................................................................................524

Ijj Ij ............................................................. 524

^"2.
................................................................................................................................534
3. .
.
. 539
! 16.

.......................................................................................

549

I f f ljs ij .............................................................................549
I
2.
^
. ' ............................................................................ 554
; 3.
, 1 ...........................................565
4.
.
. 578

17.
..............................................
. . .

589
^ 1. . 589
S 2. .
. 591

. .

. .

10/VrI I1967 .
25/1111968 i\
-114083
. ,Nb 4730
. 41
6 0 9 0 Vio
37,75 . .
34 .- . .
( M 5 - i Z . 80 .
7 1 . 50 )
. H . .

Оценить