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1. ( x + 2)( x 4) + 4( x 4) x + 2 = 12 .

x4

: {1 + 13; 1 3 5} .
. (): x 2; x > 4 .

, , :
x > 4,
x > 4,
)

x+2
( x + 2)( x 4) + 4( x 4) x 4 = 12
( x + 2)( x 4) + 4 ( x + 2)( x 4) = 12.
t 2 + 4t 12 = 0,
t = ( x + 2)( x 4) , t 0 ,
t = 2,
t 0

( x + 2)( x 4) = 2,

x > 4

x 2 2 x 12 = 0,

x > 4

x 2,

)
x + 2 = 12
(
x
2)(
x
4)
4(
x
4)
+

x4

x = 1 + 13 ;

x 2,

( x + 2)( x 4) 4 ( x + 2)( x 4) = 12.

t 2 4t 12 = 0
t = ( x + 2)( x 4) , t 0 ,
t = 6,
t 0
( x + 2)( x 4) = 6,
x 2 2 x 44 = 0,


x = 1 3 5 .
x
2

x 2

2. tg 6 x + ctg 6 x 2(sin 5 x + cos5 x + 2sin 3 x cos3 x) .


. :

) tg 6 x > 0 , ctg 6 x > 0 ctg 6 x = 16 , tg 6 x + ctg 6 x 2 .


tg x

) sin 5 x sin 4 x , cos5 x cos 4 x , 2sin 3 x cos3 x 2sin 2 x cos 2 x ,


2(sin 5 x + cos5 x + 2sin 3 x cos3 x) 2(sin 4 x + cos 4 x + 2sin 2 x cos 2 x) = 2(sin 2 x + cos 2 x) 2 = 2 .
, tg 6 x + ctg 6 x 2(sin 5 x + cos5 x + 2sin 3 x cos3 x) .1)

1)

, tg 6 x + ctg 6 x > 2(sin 5 x + cos5 x + 2 sin 3 x cos3 x) ,


, sin x 0 , cos x 0 , , , 2(sin 5 x + cos5 x + 2 sin 3 x cos3 x) < 2 .

3. c y = c
y = 2 x 3x 3 ,
(. ) ?

y = 2 x 3x3

y=c

4.
9

1.
a
y = 2 x 3x 3 y = c .

0 ( 2 x 3x

c dx = 0 ,

4
3
a 2 3a ac = 0 . , a > 0 , c = a 3a .

(1)

, a 2 x 3x 3 = c , c = 2a 3a 3 .

(2)

(1) (2) a > 0 , c = 4 .


9

2.
a, S1 S2

(. ). c = 2a 3a 3 . S1 = S2 :
S1 = S2 S1 + S3 = S2 + S3
a

a c = (2 x 3 x 3 )dx

2a 2 3a 4 = a 2 3 a 4
4

(3)

S2
S1

a= 2.

a >0

S3

3
, c = 2 2 3 2 = 4 .
3

4. ,
, . ,

.
.

ABC S
P. ,
ABC ,
, .
k1 , k2 , k3 ,

B1

A1

C2
M

A
k1 P, k2 P, k3 P k12 S , k22 S , k32 S .

B2 C1

, k12 S + k22 S + k32 S 1 S k12 + k22 + k32 1 .


3

AB1 = AC1 = 1 P1 = 1 k1 P ,
2
2

BC1 = BA1 = 1 k2 P
2

CA1 = CB1 = 1 k3 P ,
2

P = AB + BC + CA = AC1 + C1 B + BA1 + A1C + CB1 + B1 A = k1 P + k2 P + k3 P k1 + k 2 + k 3 = 1 .

k12

+ k22
3

+ k32

k1 + k2 + k3
, k12 + k22 + k32 1 .
3
3

5. ,
. , ,
, 3 3 .

: 6( 2 1)
.
1) PABC , PC, PA, PB
. a, b c (.1).
, ,

P
. :

a + b2 + c2 = b + a 2 + c2

a b = a +c b +c

( a b)

a 2 + c2 + b2 + c2 = a 2 b2

a2 + b2

c
C

a = b,
a=b.
2 2
b2 + c2
a2 + c2
2
2
a + c + b + c = a + b
B
( ,
Puc.1

a, b c 0 ).
, a = c . , PABC .
2) PH PABC, CK ( H CK ).
O, ,
P
, .
O PH (.2). KH
,
M
a
OK ABC,
a 2
r
2
OK AB .
O

OM

AP.

r
C
A
OK = OM = r , r ,
H
a 2
AM = AK ,
K
a 2
2
, .
:
B
Puc.2
a 2
1
:
) BP: AB = BP 2 = a 2 , AK = AB =

) BC: AH = BC = a 2 ;
3

) APH: PH = AP AH
2

= a ;
3

a (2 2)
;
) MP = AP AM = a a 2 =

) OMP AHP :

2
2
OM = PM , OM = a ( 2 1) ;
AH
PH

3) R ,
, ,
,
(.3). , a = 2 R = 6 3 = 6 .
3

2R
P

Puc.3

r = 6( 2 1) .

6. S Z,
: 1) 0 S , 2) x S ,
3x S , 3x + 1 S . S,
2009.
: 128.
1. S . 0 S ,
1 S . S . 1 S , 3 S
4 S . .
: 9, 10, 12 13.
, x y ,

x < y x + 1 y 3 x + 1 < 3 x + 3 = 3( x + 1) 3 y . ,
x , y

S ,
. :

1
1
1
1
2
2
3
4
3
4
9
13
4
8
27
40
5
16
81
121
6
32
243
364
7
64
729
1093
8
128
2187
3280

, , 8- , S 2009. , 0,
S, 2009, 1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + + 64 = 128 .
2. , 0 S

1 S .

. x 3 x 0,

x 3x + 1

1.

,
1 S 3( = 103 ) S , 4 ( = 113 ) S . n- (n 2 )
, , 0 1.
. n- S n- ,
0 1. n- 2 n 1 .
. n = 2: 13 10 3 , 113 . 2- c
, 21 . n = 3: 10 3 100 3 , 1013 ; 113 110 3 , 1113 . 3 , 0 1, 22 .
. k- ,
0 1, 2 k 1 . 0
1. , (k+1)-
. .
, 3 729 > 2009 > 2 729 = 2 36 . ,
2009 7- , 2. ,
, 7 (11111113), , 2009.
, 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 3 + 2 4 + 2 5 + 2 6 = 2 7 = 128 .
4

7. , , n ,
1 n(n + 1) + 1 .
2

. - ,
n .
.
1. cn , n ,

, 1 n(n + 1) + 1 .
2

.
. , c1 = 2 .
. , cn = 1 n(n + 1) + 1 cn +1 = 1 (n + 1)(n + 2) + 1 .
2

, n
. n
.
n + 1 , , ,
n + 1 , , .
cn+1 = cn + (n + 1) , cn +1 = 1 n(n + 1) + 1 + (n + 1) = 1 (n + 1)(n + 2) + 1 .
2

.
2. n m k1 , k2 , , km ,
. cn ,
m

, n + 1 + (ki 1) , m > 0
i =1

n + 1 , m = 0 .
m = 0 , n
.
m > 0 l,
, m
n . ,
( ) n
n + 1 . l
. ,
,
l . ,
k , k 1 . ,
cn , ,
m

cn = n + 1 + (k1 1) + (k2 1) + + (km 1) = n + 1 + (ki 1) .


i =1

n + 1 + (ki 1) , m > 0 ; n + 1 , m = 0 .
i =1

8. a,
x 2 + y 2 = 2,

| y | x = a

.
. , , ( x0 ; y0 ) ,
( x0 ; y0 ) . ,
, y0 = 0 . ,

x = 2 , a = 2 .
: a = 2 .
. .
y = 0 , .

a , : a = 2
: (0; 2); (0; 2); ( 2; 0) .
: a = 2 .
9. a x + y , ( x; y )
2
2
2
4 x + 4 y = a + 16a 32,

2 xy = a,

?
4 x 2 + 4 y 2 = a 2 + 16a 32,
4 x 2 + 4 y 2 = a 2 + 16a 32,

2 xy = a
8 xy = 4a.

, 4( x + y ) 2 = a 2 + 20a 32 ,
2 x + y = a 2 + 20a 32 . a 2 + 20a 32
a0 = 10 . 10

a 2 + 20a 32 . , , , ,
x + y a = 10 .
: a = 10 .
.
.
2
2
4( x + y ) = a + 20a 32 , .
, a = 10 .
, a
. , :
,

x 2 + y 2 2 xy .
:
a 2 + 16a 32 4a

a 2 12a + 32 0

4 a 8.

[4; 8] a 2 + 20a 32
() a = 8 .
: a = 8 .
6

10. x 2 + x + 5 = 5 .

1 21
;
2

17 1
.
2

1.

x2 + x + 5 = 5

x 2 + x + 14 = x + 5 x + 5 + 14

x + 12 = x + 5 12 ,

x + 12 = x + 5 + 12

( x + 12 )

x + 1 = x + 5,

x = x + 5

x + 5 12

x = 17 1 ,
2

x = 1 2 21 .

2.

x +5 = 5 x

x + 5 = x 4 10 x 2 + 25,

2
5 x 0

x 4 9 x 2 + 20,25 x 2 x 0, 25 = 0,

x 5

2
2
( x x 5)( x + x 4) = 0,

x 5

4
2
x 10 x x + 20 = 0,

x 5

( x 2 4,5) 2 ( x + 0,5) 2 = 0,

x 5

x = 1 21 ,
2

17
x = 2 1 .

3.

y = x + 5 , y 0,
x 2 + y = 5,
2
y x = 5.
, :
y = x,
x 2 y 2 + x + y = 0 ( x + y )( x y + 1) = 0
y = x + 1.

x + 5 = x

x + 5 = x + 1 , x = 1 21 ,
2

x = 17 1 .
2

4.

a = 5 x 2 + x + a = a a:
a = x 2 x,
2
2
4

(2
1)
(
)
0,
a
x
a
x
x

+
+

x2 + x + a = a x + a = a x2
a = x 2 + x + 1,
2
2
a x 0
x a.
a = 5 , :

x 2 x 5 = 0,
2
x + x 4 = 0,

x 5

x = 1 21 ,
2

1
17
x = 2 .

11. ,
, .
. ABC , CM CD
. : AB = c ,
BC = a , AC = b , CM = m , CD = l , b a . b = a ,
m = l , .. .
, b < a ( 1 2).
1.
AB AD : DB = b : a < 1 ,
C
AM : MB = 1:1 . , AD < AM
(. ). E CD
, ABC.
b
CD C, E
AB . , , E
AB , AB , . ., M. , A
ME < DE ,
CD + DE = < CM + ME < CM + DE , CD < CM .

2.
C
b < a , 2 < 1 . , M
D B, (. 1),
a
BCM < BCD = ACD .
b
: 4 = BCM + 2 < ACD + 1 = 3 .
1
3 4
, CD < CM .
A
D M

3.
2
2
2
2
2
2
1) , m 2 = 2a + 2b c = a + b c .

m2

a 2 + b 2 a + b ,
2
2

(a + b)
( a + b + c )( a + b c )
c =
= p( p c) .
4
4
4
2

2) , l =
2

ab ( a + b )2 c 2
(a + b)

) = 4abp( p c) .
(a + b)

, l p( p c) . , l

ab ,

4ab 1 ,
( a + b)2

p ( p c) m , . CD CM .

4.

a +b
2

ab ( a + b )2 c 2
2( a 2 + b 2 ) c 2
2
, m =
, l =
.
4
( a + b)2
2

l m

ab ( a + b) 2 c 2
( a + b) 2

) 2(a

+ b2 ) c2
,
4

4ab(a + b) 2 4abc 2 2(a 2 + b 2 )(a + b) 2 c 2 (a + b) 2 ,

c 2 (a + b)2 4abc 2 2(a 2 + b 2 )(a + b) 2 4ab(a + b) 2 ,


c 2 (a b) 2 2(a + b) 2 (a b) 2 .
, c < a + b .

12. x 4 2 xy + y 4 .

: 1 .
2

1.
x 4 2 xy + y 4 = x 4 2 x 2 y 2 + y 4 + 2 x 2 y 2 2 xy + 12 12 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 + 2( xy 12 ) 2 12 12 .

, x 2 y 2 ( xy 12 ) 2
, .., x = y =

1
2

x = y =

1
2

2.

, x 4 + y 4 2 x 2 y 2 .
2

(1)

2 x y 2 xy = 2( xy
4

1 2
) 12
2
2 2

12 .

(2)

, x 2 xy + y 2 x y 2 x y = 2( xy

1 2
)
2

12 12 .

(1) x = y , (2) xy = 12 .
, , x = y =

1
2

x = y =

1
2

3.
x = r cos , y = r sin .
, cos 4 + sin 4 = 1 12 sin 2 2 = cos 2 2 + 12 sin 2 2 :

x 4 2 xy + y 4 = r 4 cos 4 2r 2 cos sin + r 4 sin 4 = r 4 (cos 2 2 + 12 sin 2 2) r 2 sin 2 =


= r 4 cos 2 2 + 12 (r 4 sin 2 2 2r 2 sin 2 + 1) 12 = r 4 cos 2 2 + 12 (r 2 sin 2 1) 2 12 12 .

r 4 cos 2 2

, , r = 1 =

r 2 sin 2 1

4.

y = kx f ( x) = (k 4 + 1) x 4 2kx 2 . ,
f ( x) , , min f = min f .

[0; + )

f ( x) = 4(k + 1) x 4kx = 4 x (k + 1) x k .
4

k 0 , f ( x) 0 [0; + ) , f ( x) = 0 x = 0 . ,
f ( x) [0; + ) , min f = f (0) = 0 .
[0; + )

k > 0 , f ( x) = 0 x = 0 x =
0

min
k
4
k +1

k .
k 4 +1

f ( x )
x
f ( x)

,
min f =

[0; + )

2
2
( k 4 +1) k 2
24k = k4 = 2 1
4
2
( k +1)
k +1
k +1
k +

1
k2

1 .
2

k = 1 .