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FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF REPAIRED


CONCRET STRUCTURES

bv

Filippo Bucci

A thesis submitted in conformity wifh the requirements

for the degree of Master of Applied Science


Graduate Deparlment of Civif Engineering
University of Toronto

O Copyright &yFilippo Bucci

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OF REPNRED CONCREfE STRUCTURES

FINITE ELEMENT ANAL=

Degriee of Master of AppIied Science, 1998

FIUPPO BUCCI
Deparfment of Civil Engineering

Univemity of Toronfo

The pracce of repair and upgrading of existing structures has gained importance

in the past twenty years, As a consequence, various techniques for the rehabilitation and
retrofitting of infrastructures have been developed- Some involve the use of traditional
materials, such as steel, concrete and different cernentitious rnaterials, others are based

on advanced composite materials, known as fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). Field


applications and experimental research have contnbuted over time to assessing the
adequacy and the applicability of most of these techniques- In this wntext, the need for

reliable analyticai tools has emerged.


At the University of Toronto, various F.E. programs for the non-linear analysis of

reinforced concrete structures have been developed. Programs TRIX, for 2-0 membranes,
is based on the formulations of the Modified Compression Field Theory (Vecchio and
Collins, 1986). This thesis explores the present ability of this program to descnbe the

actual response of repaired RC structures. Furthemiore, it offers an extensive database,


provided by labotatory testing, for a more general corroboration of 2-0 and 3-0finite
element programs for the analysis of repaired reinforced concrete structures,

First of al1 Iwould like to thank my immediate family for their unconditionad love
and support. Words cannot express completely rny gratitude,

Professor Frank J. Vecchio and his work have been a constant inspiration
throughout my academic career- He provided the subject for rny thesis, the knoMedge, the
guidance and the patience mat allowed me to complete al1 my tasks. My most profound
appreciation goes to him.
Financial support of the School of Graduate Studies and the Department of Civil
Engineering is gratefully acknowiedged.
Thanks to my friends Dan Palemo, Gianni Gagliardi, Franco Scanga, Maum De
Franco, David De Rose, Bogdan Stanik, Gordon Bennet and Matt Czarnota and their
families for the advice and the great help lent in every-day Iife-

I would also like to express my gratitude to Professors M-P. Collins and G-T-Will
for their invaluable advice on school and professional work. The ideas and the enthusiasm
conveyed to me through their courses will always be part of my engineering culture.

Evan Bentz created program TRIXPOST, without which a great part of this thesis
wouId have been impossible, or almost

Last but not fewest... thanks to al1 the people who lent a hand in the Labs: Dan
(again). Nick, Tommy (1 know you did it for the free beer), Konst, Joe, Taira and the staff of
the Structures Laboratory at the University of Toronto.

iii

CONTENTS

Abstfacf

ii

Ackno wledgments

iii

Contenfs

iv

List of Tables

List of Figures

viii
ix

Cha~terf
INTRODUCT'N
1- 1

lntroducon

1.2

The Modified Compression Field Theory

1.3

Program TRlX

1.4

Objectives and Layout of Work

Chanter 2
LlTERA TURE REVIE W
2.1

Introduction

17

2.2

RC Beams Strengthened with Bemally Bonded Steel Plates

18

2.3

RC Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP sheets or Plates

20

CONTENTS

2.4

Approximate Modelling of Plated RC 8eams

2.5

Complete Modelling of Plated RC Beams

2.6

Finite Element Analysis of Field Applications

2.7

Repaired Shear Walls

Chanter 3
ANALYSIS OF STRENGTHENED R.C. STRUCTURES
Introduction
Analycal and Numencal Modelling
Analysis of the Slab Specimens

Comments on Slab Analysis Results


Analysis of the Beam Specirnen

Comrnents on Beam Analysis results

REPAIR AND TESTING OF A R.C. SHEAR WALL


Structure and Previous Testing Desm-ption

Assessrnent of Darnage and Repair Srategy


Repair Procedure

Test Preparations
Course of Testing

Presentation and Discussion of Results


Cornparison with Previous Results

CONTENTS

F.E. ANA LYS/S OF A REPAIRED SHEAR WALL


5.1

Introducon

5.2

Finite Element Mesh and Anaiysis Procedure

5.3

Results of the Analysis

5.4

Discussion of Results

CONCLUSIONS
6.1

General Conciusions and Recommendations

6.2

Suggestions for Future Studies

References
Appendix A
A. 1

TRlX input files for the slab analyses.

A.2

Slab cracking patterns near failure-

Appendix 8
8.1

TRlX input files for the beam analyses.

8.2

Beam cracking patterns near failure.

CONIENTS

Appendix C

Repaired shearwall progression of cracking pattern.

Repaired shear wall progression of crack widths.

Rotation of the top slab.


Web toe conmete sttains-

Flange reinforcement sains.


Relative vertical displacement of slabs.

Appendix D
D.1

TRlX input files for the shear wall analyses.

0.2

hear wall cracking patterns near failure for Math-3.

vii

LIST OF TABLES

2.1 : Repair techniques for the damaged beams


2.2 : Summary of experimental results

2.3 : Beam dimensions, steel reinforcement and FRP plate details

3.1 : Slab material properties

3.2 : Beam material properties

4.1 : Shear wall material properties

4.2 : Replaced materials properties

Chanter 5:
5.1 :Summary table

C2.1 : Progression of craclcwidths

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

1-1 :Reinforced concrete membrane element

1.2 :Mohfs circle of average strains.

i.3 : Free body diagram for equilibrium.


1.4 :TRlX solution procedure,

Chapter 2:
2.1 : Load-displacement diagrams of CFRP plated beam.

2.2 : Beam dimensions, steel reinforcement and FRP plate details.

2.3 :ABAQUS finite element mesh.


2.4 : Test settings and idealized cross-sectional rnodel-

2.5 : Cornparison of analytical and test results for beam SS-PRE12.6 : Moment-deflectioncuwe for the typical strengthened and control bearn.
2.7 : Expefirnental Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope for the FRP laye=.
2.8 : Possible stress distributions for a bonded plate.

2.9 : Element library and plate-glue interface six-noded element2.1 O : Coarse and fine meshes for tower modelling.
2.1 1 : Nominal dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of test specimens.

2.1 2 : Nominal dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of test specimens.

UST OF FIGURES

Chapter 3:
3.1 :Slabs dimensions and reinforcamentdetailing.
3.2 :Test conditions: loading, supports and LVDTs locations.

3.3 :Application pattern of epoxy and FRP sheets.


3.4 :Expen'mental load-defiedian response of slabs-

3.5 :Basic FE model, repair elements and support idealizations.


3.6 :Predicted vs- obsewed load-deflecon response of contml sfab.
3.7 :Predicted vs. observed Joad-defleconresponse of glass repair.
3.8 : Predicted vs, observed load-deflection response of carbon repair.
3.9 :Predicted vs. observed moment -cuwature response of glass repair.

3.1 0 : Predicted vs. observed moment -curvature response of carbon repair.


3.1 1 : Beam dimensions and reinforcement detailing.
3.1 2 :Test conditions: loading, supports, shear and moment diagrarns.
3.13 : Placing of epoxy and CFRP sheets.
3.14 : Basic FE mesh. repair elements and support idealizations.

3.1 5 : Predicted vs, observed load-deflection response of control beam.

3.1 6 :Predicted vs. observed load-defiection response of CFRP repair.

3.1 7 : Predicted vs. observed moment -cuwature response of CFRP repair.


3.1 8 : Predicted vs. observed shear load-shear strain response of CFRP repair.

4.1 : Top plan view of the test specimen.

4-2 : Lateral (west) view of the web.

UST OF FIGURES

4.3 :Lateral (south) view of the flanges,

74

4.4 :Top plan view of the section reihforcement and steel area percentages.

76

4.5 :Web wall reinforcement


4.6 : Flange wall reinforcement

4.7 :Testing setup (web wall view) and the actuator locations (top view).
4.8 : Horizontal displacernent of top slab (LVDT Hl).

4.9 :Damage in the concrete web at the tirne of repair.


4.10 :Cracking in the flange walls at the time of riepair4.1 1 :Repair work on the concret8 web wall,

4.12 : Steel web after concrete removal.


4.13 : Ovewiew of structure dunng repair4.14 : Back of North-East fromwork.

4.1 5 : Formwork pnor to casting.


4.16 : Fomwork after casting4.1 7 : Formwork for grouting of top layer.
4.18 : LVDT's locations: West-side view.
4.1 9 : LVDT's locations: Topplan view.

4.20 : LVTD's locations: West-side web toes.


4.21 :Loading sequence as a function of the top slab displacement
4.22 :Shear wall at zero load stage.

4.23 :Shear wall at load stage 2, cycles Iand II.


4.24 :Cracking pattern of stage 7, cycles I and II4.25 : Shear wall at load stage 11, cycle I.
4.26 : Flange wall cracks at load stage 12. cyde 1.

UST OF FIGURES

4.27.-

:Damage at test end. stage 17. cyde 1.

98

4.28 :Top slab lateral displacements LVDT: Hl.

1O0

4.29 :Envelopes of peak loads for cycles I and II.

101

4.30 :Vertical displacement of the top slab wrt. the bottom slab.

102

4.31 : Bulging of the web et midheight

104

4.32 : Diagonal strains in the North web toe,

105

4.33 :Comparison of peak envelopes for horizontal loads vs. top displaments. 107

Chanter 5:
5.1 :TR1X finite element meshl.
5.2 :TRIX structure defininon: different material types.
5.3 :TRIX finite elernent mesh2 and 3.
5.4 : F.E. simulation of the firot testing of the shear wall.
5.5 : F.E. simulation of oie testing of the repaired shear wall using 'meshl '.

5.6 : F.E. simulation of the testing of the repaired shear wall using 'mesh2".
5.7 : F.E. simulation of the testing of the repaired shear wall using 'rne~h3~.
5.8 :Cornpanson of experimental results with the finite elernent analyses.

A2.1 :TRlX predicted cracking patterns for the slab control specimen.

140

A2.2 :TRlX predicted cracking patterns for the carbon-repaired slab.

140

USTOF FIGURES

Appendix 8:
B2.1 :TRIX predicted md<*ng patterns for the beam wntrol opecimen.
B2.2 :TRIX predictad cracking patterns for the carbon-repaind beam.

Appendix C:
Cl. 1 :Web wall at -1 mm displacement
Cf. 2 : Web wall at -2 mm displacement

Cl. 3 :Web wall at -3 mm displacement


Cl. 4 :Web wall at 4 mm displacement
Cl. 5 :Web wall at -5 mm displacement

Cl. 6 :Web wall at -6 mm displacernent


C l . 7 :Web wall at -7 mm displacement

Cl. 8 :Web wall at -8 mm displacement


Cl. 9 :Web wall at -9 mm displacement
Cl. 1O :Web wall at -10 mm displacement

Cl. i l :Web wall at -1 1 mm displacement


C i . 12 :Web wall at -12 mm displacement
Cl. 13 :Web waIl at -13 mm displacement.

Cl. 14 :Web wall at -14 mm displacernent


C l . 15 :Web wall at -15 mm displacernent

C l -16 :Conmete uushing at the web wall toes.


C l .II : Concrete cnishing along the constructionjointCl. 18 : Pushing-through of the flanges.

xiii

UST OF FIGURES

C3.i :Rotation of the top slab.

C4.1 :Web wall toes vertical concrete strains.

C4.2 :Web wall toes horizontal concrete strains.

C5. 2 : South flange - vertical reinforcementstrainsCS. 1 : North fiange vertical reinforcement sbains,

C6.1 :Opening and ciosing of the slabs on the South side.

C6. 2 : Opening and dosing of the slabs on the North side.

Alonendix D;
D l .2 :Mesh-3 :repared shear wall at peak load, load stage 7.
02.2 : Mesh-3: repaired shear wall at failure.

CHAPTER 1

1.1 Introduction
In the design process for reinforced concrete structures, methods based on the
linear-elastic analysis are still widely used. This applies both to the initial dimensioning and
detailing phase as well as to the final checks. These approaches are appropriate for most
cases in which serviceability conditions are more important and difficult to meet. such as

schools, hospitals, museums or govemment buildings. Either consistent safety factors or

esthetic concems dictate a conservative design with respect to the ultimate strength
requirements.

On the other hand, when the functionality of a structure is mainly detennined by


issues such as the optimization of the construction materials or the response to ultimate
loads, and strength and ductility values becorne critical, the elastic methods do not

provide entirely useful results. Reinforced concrete shells for nuclear plants, water dams.
and offshore oil platfoms need to be verified under the most extreme conditions.
Extensive warehouses have to be built safely and at the sarne time ewnornically. In
general, though, design code provisions are based on previous experience, experimental
research and field applications, and stiII leave considerable space for the intuition or

cornmon sense of the designer,


For these reasons a great effort har been made, by private and public research
institutes around the world in the last hnenty yean, to provide the constniaion industry
with effective and rellable tools for the so called nonlinear analysis of structures. Various

constitutive models for plain and reinforced wncrete have been proposed, together with
new methods for computing, more or less sucssfully, capacities and strength of
structural elements. Recentiy. in this same field, another discipline has emerged that relies
on methods of nonlinear analysis: the praictice of repair and upgrading of exsting

structures.
As regards conuete, this phenomenon h mainly due to aging of materials,
changes in the design codes, or new functionality requirements, implying larger or different
loads. Accelerated corrosion of reinforcing steel, AAR expansion and freezethaw cycles
produce spalling and delamination of the cancrete cover, loss of transverse and
longitudinal steel area, unexpected eccentnkities in structural elernents and degradation of
the mechanical properties of concrete. Damage to structures can also occur because of

vanous other actions such as earthquake, wnd or explosions, with the main difference
being a lack of chernical contamination.
In the quest for a solution to these onerous problems, various techniques for the
rehabilitation and retrofitting of infrastructures have been developed. Some involve the use
of traditional materials, such as steel, concrete and different cementitious materials.

Others instead are based on advanced composite materials, also known as fiber

reinforced polymers (FRP). Field applications and experimental research have contributed
over tirne to assessing the adequacy and the applicability of most of these techniques, but
fumer studies are necessary in order to fully establish the standards for repair and

strength enhancement procedures. At this stage diable analycal tools are also required
for evaluating the strength or stifhess enhancement due to a certain type of structural
intervention.
Trying to predict the response of a reinforced concrete elernent that has been
some way darnaged and afterwards rehabilitated is definitely a nonlinear problem. Repair
materials have different mechanical pmperties hom the existing steel and concrete,
Furthemore the materials feft in pfa may suffer from residual damage such as cracking,
residual stresses and strains, yielding of steel, or fatigue. The most cornmon situation to

be found on site is that where the structure can be relieved only partially of the acting
loads or the permanent defiedons cannot be reduced ta zero. Among the possible
approaches to finding effective means for predicting the behavior of repaired structures,
the Finite Element Method seems to have the greatest potential. In this method, the

constitutive models assumed for the various materials appear to have considerable
importance.

At the University of Toronto, various F.E- programs for the nonlinear analysis of
reinforced concrete structures have been developed together with experimentally based
constitutive relationships. Programs TRIX, for 2-0 membranes, is founded on the
fomulations of the Modified Compression Field Theory [l].
In the following sections of mis
chapter the basic concepts of the MCFT will be briefly introduced and the structure and
main features of program TRIX will be descnbed. As well, the objectives of this thesis will
be discussed through some specific case studies.

1.2 The Modified Compression Field Theory


The analycal mode1represented by the MCFT is intended to predid the loaddeformation behavior of reinfomd conctefe elements subjected to in-plane shear and

normal stresses. In this model, the aa%ed concrete is treated as a new material with ifs
own stress-strain characteristics; tha is :equilibriurn, compatibility and constitutive
relationships are formulated in t e r n i of average stresses and average smns both for the
concrete and the reinforcing

steel. Local stress values are also computed in order to verify

the actual possible stability of the consideted element, New stress-strain relationships
were obtained for the cracked wncrete. The testing of two-hundred reinforced concrate
panels loaded under a variety of uniforrn biaxial stresses,including pure shear, provided

the necessary data.


In general it was found that cracked concrete subjected to high tensile strains in the
direction normal to the compression is weaker than concrete in compression in a standard
cylinder test, Considerable tensile stresses exists in the concrete bodies lying between the
rough cracks. Moreover, the stresses in the reinforcing bars were found to Vary dong the
length of the b a n and are highest at crack locations. The modified compression-field

theory has been developed h m the compression field theory (21 for reinforced concrete in
torsion and shear. While the original theory ignored tension in the cracked concrete, the
present model takes into account these tensile stresses together with modified average
constitutive relationships and stress variations in reinforcing bars.
With reference to figure 1.1, the membrane etement shown can be representative

of a portion of reinforced concrete structure. The thickness is uniforni and of relative srnaIl
size. An orthogonal grid of reinforcernentwith the longitudinal and transverse directions is

Figure 1.1 :Reinforced concrete membrane element,

chosen to coincide respectively with the X and Y axes. Loading is given through the
uniformly applied axial stresses f, , f, and the shear stress v,
defined by the two normal strains E , E, and ?heshear strain y,

.Mile deformations are


.The relation between

these in-plane stresses and in-plane strains is determined with the aid of a number of
assumptions:

1. stresses and strains are taken in terms of avenge values ;

2. first order definition of strains small displacements ;


3. cracks are smeared uniformly across the element ;
4. cracks are rotating and characterized by pure opening ;

5. concrete and reinforcing bars are perfectly bonded together ;


6. the reinforcementis smeared uniformly across the element ;

7. the direction of principal stresses coincides wiUl the direction of principal strains ;and
8. the stress state is independent of load history.

Finally, the tensile stresses and tensile strains are treated as positive quantities while
compressive stresses and strains will be taken as negative-

COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS : The assumption that the reinforcement is


anchored to the concrete and that both are smeared along the element implies that any

change in the average concrete strain is follaund by an qua1 change in the steel average
strain. Hence, for non-pmstressed reinforcement

If the strains amiponentr s.,c, and y*

am knorm then the $train in any other

direction can be found, From figure 1.2 the Mohts cirde of strains helps to derive the
follMng

relationships:

where si and

EZ

are the average principal strains.

Average Strains in Cratksd Elsrnent

Figure 1.2 :Mohts cirde of average ~trains.

EQUlLIBRlUM EQUATIONS :Using the frae body diagram in figure f.3 ifs possible
toetw
ir

the equations conerponding to the requirements of equilibrium in the two

directions X. Y for the three applied stresses f.. f, and v, :

and

Assuming that v, = v, = v,
if f,. f, and v,

. the stress conditions in the wnaete are fully known

are know as well. Using a Mohfs circie for stresses another set of

equations can be obtained:

CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIPS :These average stress average strain

relations may differ significantly from the local stress strain laws determined from
standard material tests. For the simplicity of the model, it is assumed that the relations for
concrete and for steel are completely independent-The steel is characterized by a triiinear response in which the stiffness assumes different values according to the values of

the strains in the following fashion:

Figure 1.3 :Free body diagram for equilibrium.


Where E. is the modulus of elasticity of steel. E, is the yielding strain, E* is the strain
hardening modulus and

is the strain at the onset of hardening.

In the concrete, the directions of principal'strainscan deviate from the directions of

principal stresses. However, in Iight of the results obtained with the panel tests, the
assumption that these directions coincide seems quite reasonable. As a consequence, the
angle 8 used in the compatibility equations is the same as that used in the equilibrium

equations, and the average stress-average strain relationship for cracked conuete can be
expressed simply as a funcon of only il and ez. The suggested constitutive law for

compression is:

where

fP
=

f:

085-027-1

Now fa is Vie principal compressive stress.

E,

is the strain at peak stress and s,,is the

strain for the peak cylinder Saenp. Note that 4 is a negative quanty and thus inueasing
E,

willreduce f. the maximum compressive strength corresponding to the actuaf biaxial

strain state,

For tensiie stress, the relationship suggested prior to cracking is:

fi = E,

61

for

o<E,<E~

where E, is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete which can be taken as 2 f, /

(1-8)

After

cracking the following relation can be used:

where f, is the tensile stress corresponding to first cracking.

LOCAL EQUlLlBRlUM :At a crack, the tensile stresses in the reinforcing bars are
higher Vian average, while midway between cracks they are lower than average. On the

contrary, the concrete tensile stresses are zero at a crack location and higher than
average midway between cracks- These local variations are important because the overall
stiffness and the ultimate capacity of a biaxially stressed element depend on the way
these stresses are transmitted across the cracks. Equilibrium can be govemed by the

stresses in the reinforcementand the possible shear and compressive stresses on the
crack. These conditions c m be summarized by the relations :

f., CP*
-(f9- f d ) - ~ o s ~ 4 ~

where, for the reinforcement in the i"-direction. Bi is the angle between the centeiline of

the bars and the crack normal. f+ is the yield stress and f* h the average stress. Fmm
Walraven's work (1981). Vs also given

where

v-,

is the maximum transmissible shear stress across the crack as a u


fnco
itn

normal stresses,,f

of the

the crack opening w and the maximum aggregate size a in miIlimeters-

1.3 Program TRIX


TRIX is a two-dimensional nonlinear finite element program for plane stress

anaiysis of reinforced concrete structures- I f s based on a modification of Iinear-elastic


finite element routines to inciude nonlinear analysis capabilities. The finite elements used

are the rectangular, triangufar and truss fi&-order elements. Rectangular and tn'angular
eIements take into account reinforcement contribution through the formulation of a
composite stiffness matrix with a unifom distribution of the reinforcement over the element

area. Tniss bar elements can model discrete reinforcement bars.


The computation algorithm consists of a modified secant stiffness formulation with
an iterative procedure. The calculated maten'al stiffness matrices of each element are
updated at each step of the analysis to reflect the current stress-strain state. Iterations are

performed until a convergence critenon is satisfied; this criterion can be chosen to follow

1) The data input phase requims creaa'ng three files:

a) %lem.job wntains information on the analysis case name , other input file narnes, load

factors. convergence limits and assumed analytcal rnodels.

b) Kle". sdr contains al1 stnictunl infonation: mesh genemon, material properes.

extemal restraints and activation state of elements.

c) "file". Idr has al1 the load conditions. induding steel prestrains, thermal or shdnkage
loads and imposed displawments.

2) The program detemines whether a new analysis is camed out or if data from a previous

Load stage have to be used. Typically, this step is repeated if the element secant stiffness
moduli have not onverged.

3) a) If a new analysis is to be done, the uncracked secant stiffness moduli for concrete
are used as an initial estimate of the overall stiffness matrixb) If convergence has not been achieved, the so called 'averaging factor" is used. An

estimate of the new secant stifinesses is given by the formula:

D,,

,
= (computed coefficient ofD) - (averaging factor) +(1 - averaging factor) - Dmt,

where O is the secant stiffness matrix and the averaging factor is a number greater than

zero and smaller than one and specified in the ".jobn file.

4) The matenal component stifinesses are now wmputed for concrete and reinforcement

a) Starting with the strains from the previous iteration [G, E, ,y, ] , the corresponding
principal strains and crack directions are obtained using equations (1-2) :

b) Principal stresses in the concrete are then determined thmugh equations 1-1 to 1-1 1.

c) Knowing the principal m e s and strains, the secant moduli c m be evaluated:

E, =fd /cd , for the reinforcement


d) The concrete material sb'ffness is assembled and, for sirnplicity. Poisson's affects are
assumed to be negligible. In some cases though, stains are affected by this assumption;

for a more generaf fomulation see Vecchio (1992).

and the transformation is the X. Y feference system is given by

where

and 4 is another crack angle = 1800 8,.

The local reinforcement material stiffness rnatrix, relative to the ih rebar, is :

The one referred to the global axis is obtained in the same fashion as the concrete
material stiffness matrix, with the exception of the angle 4 that now represents the angle

between the bars and the X axb ( = 1800 8, ) .

1.4 Objectives and layout of work


The present thesis addresses the probtem of nonlinear finite element analysis of
repaired structures. ln doing this, the actual ability and potentiality of prograrn TRlX to
descnbe the load-deformation response of these type of structures is explored.
The scientific literature involving the strengthening or the repair of reinforced

concrete structures reveals that few tests aiming to reproduce real field conditions were
conducted. As previously mentioned, field conditions imply that a structure has been
sornewhat damaged; permanent deformations were induced and extensive cracking and
spalling of concrete areas can be obsewed. The load causing deterioration sometimes can
be totally relieved, but rarety inverted in order to eliminate defonnations. Enhancing an

undamaged structure is more of a rare case and the correspondent expenments are

oriented mostly toward assessing the actual efficacy of a certain strengthening technique
or procedure. In this work the first type of situation will be considered; thus a Iimited, but
representative, number of case studies have been chosen in order to provide material for
the analyses and the test data to compare with computed resultsThese cases include a couple of reinforced concrete slabs loaded up to 85% of

their flexural capacity and repaired using FRP and a deep beam loaded to 70% of it's total

capacity and repaired using FRP. steel plates and post tensioned ban. During the
application of the strengthening materials the load was maintained constant and, when
curing was complete, increased again up to failure 141.
Another structure used for the analyses was a RC shear wall. This wall had been
previously tested and extensively damaged under incraased transverse cydic loading (51.
Subsequentiy, the major msisting concrete portion was removed and replaced with new
and stronger concrete. For the purposa of this thesis, the whole structure was then tested
again and the previous loading conditions were repeated-This provided an extensive
database for material modelling under cyclic loading and further corroboration of finite

element programs.
The slabs and beams can be considered as typical2-D problems because of the

proportions between the three dimensions of the structures and of the symmetncl loading
conditions. The shear wall, instead, is a more complex structure and 3-0effects that
influence behaviour consistently corne into play. This represents another challenge for the
TRlX program and for our task of properly modelling the repaired stnrcture. In our

perspective, this meant the possibility of confimiing previous results and an opportunity to
understand which repair techniques are best depicted and which are more critical for our
computationaf means.
The layout of chapters will follow first a Iiterature review conceming the finite

element analysis of repaired structures, the finite element modelling of repair materials
and a brief introduction to the work done on shear walls- Then the details of the modelling
of the slabs and beams and the results of the analysis are reported and commented upon.
The experimental work on the shear wall is described to underfine some important

concepts pertaining to the discipline of structural repair and to properly reporting the test

results- Finally, space is given to the finite element analysis of the shear wall and to the

general conclusions suggeste by the research wnducted. Further detaib regarding


various parts of the work can be found as appendices at the end of the thesis.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
The technique of stnictural strengthening by plate bonding has been widely used
for the last two decades in Europe as well as in North Amerka and Japan. Enhancement

of beams or slabs has also been obtnined with the installation of post-tensioning cables.
The numerous advantages offered by these methods attraded the attention of industry

and, as a consequence, gave impulse to a great number of experimental studies. The


intent was, and for prgrent research still is, to provide useful design guidelines for a more
confident use of the retrofitting techniques. New varieties of materials suai as glass.
carbon and aramid composite fibers were intmduced; structural adhesives and opecial

bolts for cable and plate bonding were produced and tested; and effects on corrosion,
material degradation and structural aging were explorad furthe?.

The results of such intensive experimental investigations have Ied to sorne rapid
field implementations, even before the fundamental mechanics of repaired structures

were completely underotood. Soma basic expefiens that contributad to establishing the

plate bonding technique will be presented hem. Other work has been onenteci towards the

formulation of analytical models for predicng the structural response of plated beams.

and this is reviewed as well. Finite Eiement analysis of field applications have also been

perfonned; their main features are describeci and commented upon- Finally, space is
dedkated to a general overview of shear walls, repaired shear wall behavior and
modelling.

2.2 RC beams strengthened with externally bonded


steel plates
Among the first to conduct experimental studies on beams bonded with steel plates
was MacDonald

m. He focused on the effects of several variables. including adhesive

properties, plate ttiickness and load cycling- The results showed that in all test cases
failure occurred in the plated beam by horizontal shear in the concrete adjacent to the
steel plate (concrete ripoff), commencing at the plate curtailment. Also, after the plate
separation, subsequent failure seemed to ocwr by shear/cornpression failure of the
concrete at a load comparable to the failure load of the unplated beam. The observations
stated in this study may be summared as follows:

Bonding of steel plates increased the beam stiffness and resulted in more closely

spaced fiexural cracks- Ultimate loads were increased by 40% and stiffness by 190%.
In respect to the proportions of plates, thin ones (large width and smafl thickness)
gave ductile failures with yielding of the plate and eventual cnishing of concrete .The

reduced flexural stiffness of the plate decreased peeling stresses.


A recommendation was pmduced in which rapid shear failure rnay be prevented by

using a b / t greater than 60, Also, stiffer adhesives produce a more distributed
cracking pattern and thus are preferable.

Studes were conduded subsequentiy by Swamy,Jones et al. during the lote


l). They focused on various parsmeters such as the relative effiuerrcy
1980's (181, [9]. [O]

of different plate thicknesses and the increase of ultimate loads, adhesive thickness and
strass concentrations. strengthening of damaged beams in the unloaded state and

strengthening in the ioaded state. The mort important and general conclusions are that
As the plate thicluiess increases the failure mode goes frorn flexural yielding ta

progressive debonding, concrete *off

or concrete cnishing.

lncrease in ulmate loads nnged betwaen 44% and 100% ;greater loads usually
conesponded also to an achieved greater ductility.
Theoretical analyses were perfomed using a stress block of 0.6 fe and an ultimate
strain of E,, = 0.0035 for concrete, plus the actual stress-strain curve for steel. The

expenmental first cracking and ultimate loads were accurately predicted.


Flexural rigidity was found to be not constant; increasing the thickness of plates
reduced deflection and plate strains. The same results seemed to apply to the
adhesive thickness though to a lesser extent, while the effects on cracking were that

crack length and widths were reduced.


Limiting plate thickness to prevent premature failure should be such that the ratio plate

width to thickness ratio b I f is greater than 50.

Plate bonding of pre-damaged beams in unloaded conditions is more effective in


tenns of strength and stiffness than bonding under rnaintained load, though this last
condition still gives a consistently better behavior than the unrepaired beam.

It is interesting to note that the anchorage stresses for the plates were evaluated using
conventional elastic theory, that is according to the formula :

where V is the maximum shear , A is the area of the ttansfonned sedion y' is the
distance fmrn the neutral axis to the midplane of the plate. b is the wWiof the plate and I
is the moment of inera of the transfonned section, The maximum shear stress is then:

and f is the tensile Snength of concrete.

In surnmary. these studies show how bonding of thin steel plates on the soffits of
RC beams can substantially improve structural perfonnance. However, prematun failure

may occur because shear or normal stress concentrations at the plate curtailrnents result
in debonding, progressive peeling of the plate or rip-off of the ancrete cover. As s h o w by
Sharif et al. [l
11, bolts or steel uja~ketedn
ends may prevent this phenornenon. Gkied steel

plates on the beam sides help achieve a better perfonnance, if coupled ta thicker plates
on the bottom, preventing brittle and prernature diaponal-tension shear failum. Shear

damaged RC beams c m be repaked using lateral steel plates or strips, set in place

thin layer of the proper epoxy.

2.3 RC beams strengthened with externally bonded


FRP sheets or plates
Tests and conclusions were sirnilar for the use of FRP plates, the main difference
being increased matenal costs versus significantly decreased material quantities.

Investigations on such systems were first undertaken in Switzerland [12], [13], by bonding
uniaxial CFRP plates 0.3 to 1.2 mm thick to concrete beams with an epoxy min- It was

shown that the bending strength of these beams could be calculated the same way as for

conventional reinforced concrete barns.


In this study, conducted at EMPA ( W s s Federal Labofatories for Meterial Testing
and Research) a classical steei-reinforced concrete beam without any exiemal

reinforcement is compared to similar beam strengthened with a 0-3m m by 200 mm wide


CFRP laminate. The very thin laminate nearly doubles the ultimate load, The deflection at
this ioad, however, is only haif that of the unreinforced beam- In the case of a 7 m span
beam with typical steel reinforcernent and a 1mm thick CFRP laminate, the increase in the

ultirnate load was about 22%, with an observed failure in bending similar to that observed
in the previous case and represented in Figure 2.1. After the appearance of the first crack

in the concrete, the intemal reinforcement steel and the external CFRP laminate cary the
tensile stresses. After the intemal steel bars reach yielding, only the CFRP contributes to

an additional increase of the load. Finally, the laminate fails in a briffle manner (tensile
faiture)- As mentioned earlier, the deflecons of the strengthened beams are smaller, but
are stilt sufficient to predict impending failure. The bending cracks have a classical

distributionVarious failure modes were observed in the load tests :


1) Tensile failure of the CFRP laminate as described above. The laminate failed suddenly,
though the irnpending failure was always announced retatively far in advance by repeated

cracking sounds.
2) Classical concrete compressive failure in the top zone of the beam.

3) Continuous peeling off of the CFRP laminate due to an uneven concrete surface.
4) Sudden peel-off dunng loading due to the development of shear cracks in the concrete.

The peeling off is caused by a relative vertical

displacement of the shear crack faces. This

is a dangerous case which calls for careful considsntion of the shear problem dunng

design.
5) Results suggest that proper anchorage systems should be used, such as vacuum

bags, bolts or lightweightclamps.

Figure 2.1 : Load-displacernent diagrams of CFRP plated beam.

Sharif e t al.

also tested ten reinforced concrete beams to investigate the

feasibility of strengthening stnicturally damaged concrete beams by using extemally


bonded GFRP plates- The bearns were first loaded up to about 85% of their flexural

capacities and then the cracked beams were repaired with a varying nurnber of layers
(laminae) of woven roving fiberglass embedded in a plastic matrix- The single layers of
glass fabnc weighed 450 gr./m2 and their thickness was 0.5 mm; the plastic matrix was

basically made from liquid polyester resin. Three sarnples of GFRP plates were first tested
under uniaxial tension and al1 three specimens exhibited Iinear, elastic behavior up to
failure. Table 2.1 illustrates the various repair techniques investigated by Sharif et al..
A summary of expenmental results is presented in Table 2.2. Both the yield and

ultimate strength of the repaired beams are higher than those of the control beam (CE),

and the repaired bearns are not as ductile as the control beam. as revealed by ductility

index

(defined by the ratio of the ultimate deflection to the yielding defiection).

Gmup

1 Beam designation

Plate thi'ckness

Mode of repair
Pfate bonded to beam somt
Plate bonded to beam soffit and

anchored by steel bolts


Side plates bonded to sides of beam
in addition to repair of
group 8

P3J

I-jacket plates bonded to beam soffit


and sides of beams

Table 2.1 : Repair techniques for the damaged beams


The following conciusions were drawn based on the experimental evidence and
analycal estimation :
The shear stresses at the boundary of GFRP plates and beams soffit, at the plate
curtailment, increased with increasing plate thickness. This led to premature failure by
plate separation and concrete rp-off.

Steel-anchored bolts eliminated plate separation at the curtailment zone for thick
GFRP plates. However, the repaired beams failed due to diagonal tension failure.

1-jacket GFRP plates (sheets on the beam soffit and on the shear span of the sides)
provided the best anchorage system to eliminate plate separation and diagonal tension

failure and best developed the flexural strength of the repaired beams.
Repaired beams developing their flexural capacities revealed sufficient ductility despite
the brittleness of GFRP plates.

CS

51

1.1

PI

Sa

5.4

PZ

5;

6-0

PZB

50

pZBW

S3

5-4

59

5-4

P3

591

F knlcf
u r a l by )irelQnsor'

5;
61

t4-1

U I

1Z6

it

78

159

29

66

7.0

13

1.6

68

f~

56

P38W

PI

SI

9-0

9s

1
.
7

Plarc sepamaan

65

~ i a p cension
r ~ ~aadc

m.

80

HorironP1 and

v e e c a I ~

amund wing
b

58

5.3

sz

[&a

23

n e t u n i by

cnirning oiconaez

Table 2.2 :Summary of experimental results

2.4 Approximate modelling of plated RC beams


Some simplified methods for the amputation of interface shear stresses and total

ultimate flexural capacity of plated beams have already been introduced in the previous
section. In the following, we will focus on further examples of numerical and analytical

models. These were mosty developed on the basis of test results similar to the ones
described in the previous section,

and attempt to evaluate the various quantities that play

a role in the response of the complex structural systems.


Kaliakin, Chajes and Januszka 1141 presented a study in Wich a series of
reinforced concrete T-beams were enhanced in shear with extemal glass and aramid

composite fabric plates. The beams, loaded in flexure up to failure, increased their ultimate
capacity from 60% to 150%. This paper reports various analyses of the plated beams

using finite elernent rnodels and also several parametrical studies; the dimmsions, sted
reinforcernentand FR? plates am s h o w in Figure 2.2. The iMtW phase of the numerical
study involvecl the devekpment of an accurate finite d m n t modd of the unwrappe

conbol beams. In the second phase, the control barn model was modifiad to indudo the
presence of extemal fabric reinforcement. AH computations reported wem perfomied ruing

version 5.2.1 of the ABAQUS cornputer program-

Figure 2.2 :Bearn dimensions, steel reinforcernent and FRP plate details.
A mesh sensihivity study was fint penonned. The conaete was disaotked using

the eight-node isoparametricbrickmelernents. The steel reinforcement was repmented by


special three-dimensional bar elements, A perfect bond between the steel and the
surrounding conaate was assumed and, as a result, no interface elernents m m mquired
to predict relative displacements of the two rnaterials. The composite fabrics instead wem

discretized using four-node membrane shell elements and the matenal was ideaiked as
isotropic, linear and elastic. Again a perfed bond between the concrete surface and the
FRP plates was assurned. Figure 2.3 reproduces the typical finite element mesh. The

inelastic constitutive relation for plain concrete available in this version of the ABAQUS

program was used. while the reinforcing steel was idealizad as an isotropie, elastic-

perfectly plastic material- The shell elements that account for the ex!ernal composite fabtc
ware suitably added to the cxrrespondingweb portion of the contiol-beam finite element

model.

SECllOiu A-A

SEcTlOcu 0-8

Figure 2.3 :ABAQUS finite element rnesh.

All analyses were displacement controlled and they teminated when a prescribed
displacement was exceeded. or if equilibrium could not be attained during a given load

increment The latter situation proves the occasional instability of the ABAQUS algorithm
associated with the assumed failure surface. flow nile and crack modelling. In summary.

the finite element model captured faidy acwrately the overall load-displacement response
of the wrapped beams, but was unsuccessful in predicting the localized strain distribution

in the vicinity of severe cracking regions. This problem was associated to the discrete
representation of cracks adopted by ABAQUS.

In another experimental work. Shahewy et al.

[lapresented a specially developed

cornputer program that predicts the ultimate strength and moment-defiection behavior of
beams strengthened with CFRP laminates bonded on aie beam sotfits. The cornparison of

expenmental results with theoretical values is pfesented, along w*than investigationof the
failure modes- Figure 2.4 shows the test settings and the idealized cross-sectional model
of the test beam- The computer program is a 2-dimensional nonlinear finite element

program; it is able to take into account loading histories, and updates element material
properes at each new load stage.
The cross section was divided into several layers representing the concrete, steel
and CFRP layers. The span was divided into sections of variable length and the material

classification for each element was subsequently defined. The actual loading used in the
test was input into the program and applied in sixty load steps. The progfarn then used an

iterative procedure to calculate the moments, shears, stresses and defection throughout

the beam at each load step.


i067
5 mm dia bars

~ 3 0i
5,

1567

LongitudinalSection

BoriCni

CFRP
Laver

Cross Section

Figure 2.4 :Test settings and idealized cross-sectional rnodel.


Cornparison of experimental and predicted moment-deflection wnres closeiy agree
in a11 cases except for beam SS-PRE1, see Figure 2.5. The theoretical curve for beam S5PREl shows a higher ultimate moment and higher stiffness than the measured response.

10

15

20 25 30 35 40 45
Dedeaion (mm)

Figure 2 5 :Cornparbon of anaIyticaCand test rasults for beam SSPREq


The resulting higher pradicon of the ultimate capacity by the finite dament modei
can be attributed to the assumption of a perfect bond between the conuete and CFRP

laminates. This also leads to the conclusion that one CFRP layer was inadequate for
controlling cracking and deflecon; the inability to control cracking resulted in initiating a
premature bond failure between the concrete and the CFRP laminate at the crack tips.
In estimating the nominal shear stress at the interface between concrete and the
laminate, the adhesive thickness was ignored. It was also assumed that the strain at the
contact face of both the laminate and concrete was the same. Considering longitudinal
forces in a short length of laminate. LX,a change in strain of & comsponds to a
difference in Ioad of :

AP= E - b + A &

(2-3)

where E = modulus of elasticity of the CFRP laminate, b = laminate width, t = laminate

thickness. This load must be balanced by a shear force exerted by the adhesive given by:

AV=r-B-AL
where r = shear stress at the interface. Therefore,

(24)

and

(&/a)
is the local stroin gradient
The calculated values are nominal since local stress is likely to be relatively

greater due to stress concentration effects. It was observed that the computed values of
the nominal midspan shear stresses incfease progfessively with the increasing number of
CFRP laminates. This analytkal conciusion confimis analogous ones previously reported

for experimental tests on steel and composite plated beams.


A series of 16 ~nde~reinforced
beams was tested by Ritchie et al- [16] to study the

effectivenesr

of extemal strengthening using fiber reinforced plastic plates. An iterative

analycal method was also developed to predict the stiffness and maximum strength in
bending of the plated beams. The AC1 method for detemining the ultirnate flexural
strength is based on the ability of the reinforcement to deform plastically - This is
incompatible with FRP since they have no yield plateau. An alternative analysis technique
must be used to deal with this condition. The one chosen to predict the stfength and
stiffness of these beams was an iterative analysis technique developed by Geymayer
(1968) in his study of reinforced cancrete beams with unconventional reinforcernent

Several assumptions comrnonly made in reinforced concrete theory are used:

1) Plane sections

remain plane.

2) No slip between any longitudinal reinforcement and concrete.


3) Tensile stfength of concrete is zero.

4) Stress-strain relationships of materials as detennined by standard uniaxial tests are

representative of their behavior as part of the bearn-

Once all data are input in the cornputer program. the load and deflections are detennined
using strain compatibility. First, a top fiber concrete strain and a neutral axis depth are
assigned. The depth between the top compression fiber and the neutfal axis is divided into

ten slices. Assuming the average strain for each slice. the compression stress can be
found using the concrete stress-strain curve. Multplying this by the area of the slices gives

the compressive force. A similar method is used to determine the two tensile forces of the
reinforcing steel and the extemal plate. The neutml axis is then adjusted until the sum of

the ten compressive forces equals aie sum of the tensile forces.
When equilibriurn is achieved, the moment is detemiined by summing the ten
compressive forces and two tensile forces times their moment amis about a single point
The curvature is detemined from the top fiber strain and the neutral axis depth- Using a

coarse finite differen model, the slope and deflection of the beam are found by means
of the moment-area method. The maximum strength of the beam is detennined when

either the moment redus for an increase in the top fiber strain, or the reinforcement

fractures. This analysis method differs from the ACf building code in that the conuete
compressive strain is pemitted to exwed 0-003 i n . h The strength s not Iirnited by that
parameter but by the measured materiaf properties direcy.
The program was mainly developed to predict ultimate strength in bending. but it
also predicted the load-defiedion characteristics (sffness) of the beam. For the beams

that failed in shear at the plate end the program wuid not predict ultimate strength, but it
did provide the load deflecon relationship up to failure. In Figure 2.6. the progression of
the crack pattern and the moment-deflectiondiagram for a typical strengthened bearn and

control beam are represented,

2.5 Complete modelling of plated RC beams


In a study by Arduini. Di Tommaso and Nanni

[la analycal and numerical modefs

are presented that simulate the failum of RC bearns strengthened wiai FR? plates and
flexible sheets. Different failum mechanisms can be simulated and verified. The numerical

model is based on finite element analysis; it follows the smeared aaek approach and uses
standard elements available in a commercial package. Compariwns with expeimental
data obtained h m stmngthened RC beams teste in the labontory ara presented as

well. The experimental part consists of four-point bending tests as well as coupon tests to
charactere material properes induding the concrete-adhesive interface stmngth-

Figure 2.6 : Moment-deflection curve for the typical strengthened and conttol beam.
For the analytical results a simple solution is offered to model the system by taking
into account the non-linear properties of concret8 in compression. the tensile strength of

concrete and the adhesive interface properties. Numerical results are obtained wth finite
element analysis using the package ABAQUS.
From the coupon tests described in (17Jit was possible to constnict the Mohr-

Coulomb failure envelope shown in Figure 2-7. Also, since the cnrshing of concrete is

infiuenced by the confinement action due to closed stimips, a new constitutive relation for

wncrete in compression is adopted according to the CEBFIP Model Code 90- For the
adhesive, a nominal thickness of 1mm b considered together with an isotropie elastic
behavior up to failure and a perfect bond between the two interfaces- Steel reinforcing

bars are modeled according to an elaitohardening behavior and the FRP plates and
sheets are considered linear elastic until rupture. In order to develop the analytkal model,

a final assumption is made that plane sections remain plane- With reference to Figure 2-8,
depending on the strain diagram at a given cross-section, four stress distributions are

possible:
1) The concrete fibers at both th8 top and the bottom of the beam are still in the elastic

range.
2) The concrete on the tension side has cracked, m i l e the top cornpressed fiber of
concrete is still non linear-elastic3) The concrete tension strain at the bottom fiber is higher than E,.
4) The cross-section is fully cracked and the concrete compression strain at the top fiber is

higher than E, (this case may occur during the softening phase or crack propagation).

Figure 2.7 : Experimental Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope for the FRP layers*
A cornputer program was written to carry out the computations in a step-by-step

fashion, The first step is the determination of the m o m e n t ~ a t u r a


diagrams for any type

of section. mis procedure is guided by strain i n m e n t s at the bottom wnwte fibr sa.
Rien. for s givert value of the applied load the program crkulates the effective moment at

each segment and. knowing the effective moment, detemines cucvatum and deformaon
of each segment At the conuetbadhesiveinterface, shear stresses t am genemted from

the difierence behnreen the nomial forces N acting on tne FRP piated reinforcement a the
two ends of the segment The real distribution of shear stresses ha$ m axponenb'alfami.
but hem it is assurned to have a linear distribution, The mam*murnshear stress t

,
for the

generic segment is equal to:

1,.
.

1 i: \i i li 1' i ! ! l i i
.

i il.
t

Figure 2.8 :Possible stress distributions for a bonded plate.


Second order effects also generate tensile stresses (a)at the concret0 adhesivs
interface. The distribution of the normal stress is assumed to be linear, with maximums at

the ends of the segments equal to :

where Mi is the moment generated by imposing equilibriwn conditions for the j segment of

the plate and by second order effects due to the increment of vertical defiection dv at each
segment In this model, the failure mechanisms that can be detected are :

a) FRP rupture when the uimate strain of the matefial is reached.


b) Shear failure in the concret+adhesive interface when the shear stress r reaches T", as

determined from the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope.


c) Tensile fracture of concrete when the maximum tensile stress sigma equals f,.
d) Local adhesive failure when the ultirnate tensile strain E, is reached.

When the interface maximum value of sigma or r is reached in one cross-section of


the beam, the program disconnects the FRP reinforcernentfrom the concrete in that

segment, but does not originate failure of the beam. The presence of FRP sheets bonded

on the sides of the beam can be accounted for by their contribution to the fiexural
capacity, but only if the fibers are oriented in the longitudinal direction. During crack

propagation, local failure in the adhesive is recorded. A cornparison between the


experimental and the analytkal data shows a good correlation in ternis of failure mode
and strength prediction (uncracked, cracked-steel elastic and post-yielding behavior), but

ultimate deflection predicon is lest accurate. This fact a n be explained as follows:

In the uncracked region the analycal cuwes are generally stiffer than the experimental
ones. This is related to the fact that the material properties assumed for concrete are

those acquired from coupon specimens and not directly fram the beams.
The good correlation between predicted and experimental strain justified the

assurnption of perfed bonding between adhesive and concrete. However, the greater
stiffness of the analycal mudel in the post-yielding phase is probably due to the
existence of slipping at the twa interfaces in both horizontal and vertical directions,
The choice of the appropriate segment length (Dx) remains difficult to establish. In

these analyses Dx was assumed to be equal to 50mm, about two times the maximum
aggregate sire. There is a la& of experimental studies in the area of mechanical
properties related to sire effeds.
When numerous cracks are opening in the concrete, convergence cannot be reached,
and the solution is thetefore not attainable- This explains why the numerical model

falls short in the identification of the maximum load-camying capacity of the beam.
In a slightly more recent paper by the same authors [18] , the model is refined in

the various possible failure modes, in the influence of the dimensions of the adhesive layer
and it's mechanical properties. Still, in these proposed models and al1 the previously
reported ones, two main deficiencies are detected. The first concems shear resistance,
shear enhancement and the related possible brittle failure modes. No attempt is ever
made to include these important issues in the rnodefs. The second has to do with the fact
that al1 experirnental tests and analyses refer to the rnonotonic loading of RC beams which

had no load history before FR? or steel plates were bonded. That a brand-new beam or
column is considered to perfom below the standards for which it was designed, and thus
is in need of extemal enhanment, is a very unlikely situation.

Ziraba [Ag] produced a very detailed study on the behavior of beams strengthened

with steel or FRP plates on the soffit of beams- The result is a finite element computer
program which performs the nonlinear analysis of such beams subjected to any kind of
load history. This program can also account for strength enhancement interventions at any

moment of the load history; for example, the repair eiements can be added aRer a loa6

unload phase, The modelling of the additional materials is such that bn'ttle failure modes

that depend on the bond (surface interface) propsrties an, propsdy represente-

SECTION

Figure 2.9 : Element library and plate-glue interface six-noded element.


To capture the characteristics of the interface between the concrete and the

UTERATURE REVIEW

extemal plate as well as the bond between the intemal reinforcement and concrete, the

model involves the introduction

of a sknoded element The cornputer program elernent

library includes a nine-noded Lagrangian element or eight-noded Serendipity elements for


concrete components as well as the extemal steel plate; the intemal flexural and shear
reinforcement is represented by three-noded elements. See Figure 2.9.
Since the glue-line thickness as well as ifs strength are much smaller wmpared to

the other components of the plate bonded beam, a six-noded element was considered
sufficient to represent the plate-glus-concrete interface. By defining equivalent pseudonodes f ', 2' and 3'. an isoparametricformulation with parabolic shape functions

was

possible. A three-point gaussian integntion rule is used for the element; refeience [le]
describes the rest of the fomulation. The result is that not only can the element pick up

the normal and shear stress concentration at the plate curtailment, but it is also capable of
separation if the peak normal and shear tresses are exceeded.
Furthemore the program has been provided with restaR options to enable the non
linear analysis to be broken d o m into separate distinct 'runs'. In one such option, the
program can be restarted from any level of loadirig with a modified finite element mesh.
This facility, which uses the acronym "REPAIR", is essential in simulating repair of beams
subjected to a certain level of damage. This is accomplished in several steps: first the
program reads the status of the damaged unrepaired beam; secondly it reads the
geometry and element incidences of the discretized mesh of the unrepaired beam; thirdly
the new geometry and element incidences of the repaired beam are input The transfer of

previous nodal displacements required special consideration- The damaged beam has a
deflected shape and as the repair is carried out, the added elements must conform ta the
existing defomed configuration. This is achieved by allowing any new node to assume the

displacements of the node among those ciosest to it Fnally, the new testart file can be
reloaded.
Exparimental and analytical results show close agreement behnreen the ultimate
loads, deflected shapas, stress distribuons and cracking patterns. Failure points, though.
are often detected fmm stopped executions due to the divergence in the computer
solutions, while failure modes are deduced by controlling the values of the stresses in the
last converged solution. A more stable algorithm is then required that would allow the load

redistribution to occur among the structure's elements, and be capable of following the
entire load-displacementhistory, thus making it possible to detect dearly and irnmediately
the failure point and mode. Furthermore, ths program has been applied only to beams that

were over-reinforced in shear. It's effectiveness still has to be proven for shear failures of
2.C. beams and failures that involve side bonded plates.

2.6 Finite Element Analysis of field applications


The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) is studying the use of
fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) ta upgrade existing reinforced concrete piers [20].
Laboratory tests of beam, slab and pile scale models were conducted to quantify upgrades
of moment capacity, shear strength, deflecons and ductility and to detemine effects on
failure modes. Test responses were predicted by Iinear and nonlinear finite element
analyses as well as by simple mechanics of material models.

Beams with CFRP were designed for a flexure failure; tension steel yields first
followed by concrete aushing and subsequent nipturing of the CFRP. The CFRP sheet

placed longitudinally on the tension side of the beam was analyzed as another layer of

flexural reinforcement located at depth h. The CFRP sheet placed transvenely on the
tension side of the beam was analyzed as additional shear reinforcementwhich would
provide a shear strength of :

where

4 -fu"f

is replad by the CFRP reinforcement tensile strength per unit wdh


it.

The slabs were analyzed using a nonlinear finite element mode1for pretest
analysis. Concrete was modeled with eight-noded 3 0 solids and a non-linear material
model which exhibits wshing in compression as weil as cracking and fmcture-energy-

based softening in tension. The program that uses these features is ADlNA ( Automatic
Dynamic Inuemental Nonlinear Analysis ). The steel reinforcement was represented as an

elastic-plastic material and lurnped into tmss elements placed as dose as possible to the
proper location. The CFRP sheet was modeled with shell elements and as an elastic-brite

material; only the wntrol slabs and the slabs with two orthogonal CFRP layers were
representedAdding only f i e m l CFRP reinforcement enhanced bending strength but resulted
in shear failure and reduced beam ductility- Adding both flexural and shear reinforcement

resulted in a bending failure with enhanced ductility and energy dispersion. Bonding FRP
sheets to the slabs produced an increased punching shear resistance provided by
increased in-plane restraint. The composite wraps around laterally loaded piles confined
the concrete compression zone and increased the values of cnishing strains. This resulted

in additional energy absorption. Analyses and laboratory test results are the basis for
further tests on a 1/2 scale models. Unfortunately, further details on the analytical
modelling and numerical results are not given in this report,

Huerner et al. 1211 describe the repair of a cracked cooling tower shell based on
numerical simulations. The actual condition of this thirty year old tower made of reinfond
concrete is characterized by a relatively large number of long, thennally induced
meridional cracks. For the purpose of designing the planned repair of the pre-damaged
cooling tower by stiffening RC rings. a comprehensive numerical investigation has been
perfomied by means of a FE cornputer program- In this investigation, geometric and
physical nonlinearities (cracking and piastification of concrete, yielding of the

reinforcement) were considered. The spatial distribution of the cracks and the state of
corrosion of the reinforcement were also pmperly reprodud. The numerical
representation of cracked cancrete is based on the LYixed-crack?concept in the context of

the 'smeared-crack? approach (similar to the ABAQUS approach previously described).


Cracks will begin to open in the direction nomal to the principal tensile stress, if this
reaches the tensile strength limit f., The directions of these cracks are Vien fixed and
secondary cracks are restncted to the direction perpendicularto the primary cracks. After
crack initiation, tensile stresses are gradually released according to a post-peak linear
stress-strain relationship. The residual shear transfer across the cracks, resulting from

aggregate interlock and dowel action of the reinforcing bars, is considered by means of
the shear modulus Gegiven by Cedolin-Dei Poli (1977)- The ductile behavior of concrete

under compression is accounted for by an elasto-plastic strain-hardening Dnicker-Prager


material model, A linear elastic-ideally plastic constitutive law is assumed for the

reinforcing steel.
All computations were performedwith the FE Program MARC. The numerical

investigationis based on a load-controlled incremental procedure. An updated-Lagrangian


approach was used to address the geometric nonlinearity. Figure 2.10 shows two FE

meshes: the coane one serves for a comparative investigation to detemine the optimum
location of the stiffening rings: the fine one is employed for the numerid predictonof

structural safety of the repaired cooling tower at the end of its guanntaed sem-ce life. This
disuetiration is characteriuid by a local refinernent of the original mesh in the vicinity of
the two concrete rings. while the flexibility of the supporng columns is mpresented by
beam elements with -al,

flexural and tomional stiffness. The distribution of meridional

cracks as obtained by the survey is aearunted foi in the FE mode1by a raduction of f, at

the htegration points in the vicinity of these cracks. The opening of the cracks is tnggered
by the application of themat load history representing a winter-summer cycle.

FE Lfesha:

(a) C m ; (b) f i e

Figure 2.10 :Coane and fine rneshes for tower modelling.


The comparative ultimate load analyses have shown that a repair based on two

stiffening rings connected to the shell results in a suffiCient degree of safety against
coliapse of the structure within its expected service lifetime of 25 yean. Final detailing of

the stiffening rings is conducted with an interesting strut-and-tie rnodel (or truss analogy)
assumed for detemining the intemal forces.

In 1995, the University of South Fionda began a systemac study [22l to assess

the feasibility of using un-d


ire
ico
itnal

carbon fiber sheets in repairing concret8 masonry

walls damaged by in-plane laads due to foundation setiement Four full-sue walls were
built and subsequentiy damaged under smulated soi1 subsidence loads- Two of these
were repaired using Forca Tow sheets from Tonen Corporation of Japan. The second
phase of this research cons-

of a finite element shrdy conducted with program FEMn

developed under the joint US-Japan Coordinated Program for Masonry Research. The
analysis of unreinforced masonry walls is cornplicated by the presence of planes of
weakness produced by vertical and horizontal mortarjoints- Although program F E M was
developed to analyze minforced-masonry building components, it surprsingly provided
reasonab[e agreement for both the plain and strengthened extemalry reinforced test walls.
Masonry, cancrete and rnortar material propertes were determined with actual
material testing when economically masonable, or from the literature ( Drysdale et al,
1979, Guo 1991, Haramid and Drysdale 1988 ). The masonry is rnodelled as a material
with bimodular orthotropy, while the tensile cracking used a rotating smeared crack

approach. The program adopts a bilinear stress-strain relationship for the reinforcing steel,
and the plastic modulus is derived by multiplying the elastic modulus & by the parameter

2,which estimates the effects of sttain hardening. The reinforcernent may be specified in
both vertical or horizontal directions, and is also considered smeared over the element.

The carbon fiber sheet used is unFdirectional and is almost perfectly linear elastic up to

the ultimate stress.


The predictions fmm the finite element analysis show reasonable agreement with

the test results for botfi plain and strengthened walls- FEM\I did not predict the crack
pattern vefy accurately, but this was expected because of the lack of interface elements

that represent the effect of mortar. Although the predicted deflections at peak loads were

good , the program predided a loaddefledon

wrve which took a significantly different

path from the achial expimental behavior. The analysis also suggests that comparable
strengthening c m be achieved with nanower strps than those evaluated in the tests.

2 7 Repaired shear walls


Structural walls find wide application in the design of reinforced concrete buildings
subject to high lateral loads (loads caused by strong winds or by earthquakes in seisrnic
zone areas) because they provide an efficient bracing system. Furthemore, they offer
great potentialfor drift control, enetgy dissipation and ductity requirements- Because of
these features, structuralwalls are expected to sustain various degrees of damage dunng

their predicted design lifetime. Expenmentaldata on the strength, defonnation


characteristics and failure modes of shear wall has been widely produced, but information
on repair methods and relative test data is limited. Herein are reported a few examples of
works that cover quite extensively and significantly the complex topic regarding the

structural behavior of repaired shear walls,


In a paper by A. Fiorato, R, Oesterle, and W. Corley [23] research significance is
provided with test data on the strength and defomation characteristics of structural walls
before and after repair. The data can serve as input for analycal models or as a basis for

selection of design criteria,

repair technique and construction details. Three specimens

with the nominal dimension indicated in Figure 2.1 1were built on a onethird

representationof five-storey walls. The floor slabs at each story Ievei were ornitted. The
walls were also delimited by column boundary elements at each end. Each specimen was

loaded laterally as a vertical cantilever with yaic f o m s applid thmugh the top slab. whik

at the same time an axial load was maintainad constant throughout the test

After testing, spetimens 85.89 and 811 exhibid sevem damge to the lower part
of their w b . Hoiiwver in each smmen

the confined boundary elements won in goad

conditions. TOinvestigate diffemnt mpair techniques, damaged webs in each specmen


were replad in various ways. In sp-men

65. the damaged web was mplaced with a

new concret8 layer having thickness and machmieai proprties similar te the old ancrete.

Figura 2.1 1 : Nominal dimensions and reinforwment arrangement of test specimenr.

In specimen B9. the web thickness was increased as part of the repair. ln specimen B11.
supplementary reinforcement was added to the web before the concret8 was replaced at

the original thickness. The addiional reinforcement consisted of diagonal ties in the
hinging area; these ties developed shorl trusses that helped the shear transfer to the base
of the wall,

Continuous plots of the lateral loads versus the top deflections, for al1three
specimens and for both new and repaired specimens, help draw the following condusions:
1) the replacement of the concret8 webs proved to be a simple and effective repair

procedure- Strength and deformation capacities of the repaimd specimens were


equivalent to those of the original walls, This finding was noticed to be consistent with
earlier tests conducted on low nse walls by F. Barda. J- Hanson, G. Corfey (ACI, 1977).
2) The initial stiffness of the repaired walls were approximately 50% of the original walls.
3) For the specimen repaired with a thicker web. deformation capacity of the wall was

increased. The thicker web reduced nominal shear stresses at equivalent loads and
increased the capacity of the inciined compression stnits- 4) The additional diagonal
reinforcementwithin the hinging region at the base of the repaired wall reduced shear
distortions and increased the wall ductility.
In another work by 1. Lefas and M. Kotsovos [24], analogous tests were conducted

on largescale slender wall models. The experiments were extended to failure, then the
specimens were repaired and retested to wllapse under various types of cyclic loading.
The main parameters investigated here were the repair technique and the loading history.
To this purpose, four identical specimens were built at a1 to 2.4 sale: SW30, SW31,
SW32, SW33. Of these, only three of the specimens were repaired and retested as the

fourth (SW30) had been damaged beyond repair. The geometry and the reinforcement
arrangements are shown in Figure 2.12.

To simulate the loading sequence similar to that which might occur during an

C. each representative of a different type of event Table 2.3 summariras oie experimental

data and the principal results of the tested walls. Itmust be noted that the faifure mode of

the original specimens was characteriml by vertical splitting of the lower region of the
compressive zone combined with flexural and indined cracking. Two methods were used
to repair the specimens: method A involved only the mplament of the damaged concrete
in the compressive zone (SW33); method B involved also the healing of the principal

tension and incfined cracks in the wall web with high-vismsity epoxy resin (SW32 and
SW31).

Figure 2.1 2 : Nominal dimensions and reinforcement arrangement of test specimens.


The concrete removal was camed out through the thickness of the wall in an area of about

The conmte removal was camed out through the thidmess of the wall in an area of about
150mm by 100mm in the compressive zone wen the aubiing occurred. Once agan. no
speaal matment uns dedicated to the yielde mbam. apart hom an approxirnate

straightening.
The condusions that wwe drawn indicate that 1) the strength and dudM
iy

of the

original speamens were found to be independent of the cydic loading regime. The
nominal amount of kngitudinal steel still al1owed considerable energy dissipation. 2) The
loadcarrying capacity of the repaired walls depended mainly on the strain history of the

reinforcing steel and is essentially independent of the concret8 strength. Repaired walls
exhibited lower stiffness and leu duclity than the original ones. 3) Use of epoxy-resin

appean not to have a significant affect on aie ultimae strength of the walls, although it

improved both the initial stiffness and dissipation characteristics of the walls. 4) The
observed uack patterns and failum modes of the original and repaimd walls are in
agreement with Vie concept of the compressive force path. which indicates that the wall
capacity is associated with the strength of the concrete in the hinging region.
Reinforcemm pcrcmtage
r

Specimcn
SW30

O-'

PI o h r

0.35

1 .

3.3

Cubt
strml;ih.

1..

p.5

MPa

0-9

3.1

TOP

horizontal

f ype of
l o i d h ~ r e p a r Ultimate
load, k N
mcthod
117-7
.Monotonid-

duplacement.

mm

20.9

SW3 1

0.35

3.3

0-9

3S.2

Cyclicl-

SW31R

0.35

1J

3.3

0.9

349

SfonotonidB

1 15.8
139.6

11-0

SW32

0-35

1.5

3.3

0.9

til.0

24-5

0.33

L.5

3.3

0.9

53.6
382

Cyclic/-

SW32R

CyclidB

82-8

14.0

SW33

0.33

3.3

0-9

49.2

Cyclid-

1LlS

3-0

SW33R

1 5

3 3 1 0.9

38.1

CyclidA

93 -9

16-7

12.2

Table 2.3 :Experirnentat data and the principal results of the tested walls
The wall being tested in the present work is a a?ow-risem
wall ( height h to depth d

ratio of the order of 1) and for such reason the following characteristics have to be kept in

rnind. As suggested by the ASCE Working Group on Stiffhess of Concrete Shear Wall

Structures* Pq ,the as-

ratio M affeds significanuy the stiffness characteristics

because, as previousiy mentioned, talt shear walls behave more like cantilever beams

when subjected to lateral seismic foads, but short walk behave more Iike deep beams. As
a result, the stress and crack distribution of lmrise walls Vary widely. Factors to bare in
mind are also the shear and elastic moduli of concrate, the presence and sue of flange

walls, the presen of cracks and the fiexbility of boundary wndions a

of the wall.

the top and base

CHAPTER 3

ANALYSE OF STRENGTHENED R.C. STRUCTURES

As discussed in the previous sections, the modelling of reinforced concrete bearns

or slabs retrofittedwith bonded steel plates or FRP sheets can be done in various ways. It
is clear though, that any method involving the use of finite element programs is more

versatile and useful. First of all, this is because the shape of the RC structure can be of
any type and, secondly, because FEM based prograrns provide information on a wider

number of parameters, It has also emerged that finite element programs and models have

to meet certain basic requirements in order to properly analyze these specific structures,
The material constitutive laws must account for the complete concrete nonlinearity both in

compression and in tension; the reinforcing steel must be able to undergo plastic flow and
hardening; and FRP plates and sheets must be characterired independently as linearelastic materials up to failure. From a geometn'cal point of view, the program must allow
the simple superposition of elements, each representing one of the materials contributing
to the global resistance.
A linear-elastic analysis of extemally strengthened structures is possible mainly

when the steel plates or FRP sheets are applied to unuacked concrete. Hem. the actual

ANALYSE OF STRENGTHENED RC SIRUCTURES

stresses in al1 materals sll allow a linear approximation of their elastic moduli, The
configuration is such that strains and stresses in the structure can be computed exactly
everywhere. Corresponding models are based on the material campatibility condition
goveming strains, which indudes the perfect adhesion of surfaces and the conservation of
plain sections. We need only detemine, for each different layer, the value of allowable
stresses beyond which the linear-elastic hypothesis can no longer stand, and
subsequently verify the wmputed values.
A non-Iinear behavior of the loaded structure is reached when the stress-strain

relationship is clearly non-linear in one or more matetials. This could be because of local
tension cracking, compression crushing or plastic flow. In the load partition that makes
possible a new equilibnum configuration, the loading condition on the plates depends on
where the portion of the wnsidered plate is located on the structure itself. In general, the

plate can be loaded with in-plane and/or out of plane pressures and shear stresses. That
is, if we apply a carbon fiber sheet on the sofft of a beam subjected to shear and flexure
the sheet can limit deflecfions 1) by working as a membrane: in-plane loading; 2) by
resisting shear stresses at the contact surface: out-of-plane loading- The latter eventually
generates vertical pressures and transverse moments resulting from local equilibrium. The
balance of contributions 1) and 2) will also depend on the method used for bonding the
plates to the beam (with bolting, epoxy-adhesive layer or both) and the local conditions of
matetials (surfsce separations or cracks).

AMLYSIS OF SfRENGTHENED RC STRUCTURES

3.2 Analyticai and numerical modelling


Let us consider a s ~ c t u f in
e which the plates have been applied before any other
load (negligible load history) or during the linear-elastic response. Fmm experience we
know that concrete reaches the Iimit of tensile stmngth before the tangential strength of
the concfeteepoxy surface is reached. The shear stresses on this surface depend directly

on the thickness of the FRP plate and inversely on the thidmess of the epoxy layet- Again
from experience we know that crack

is very Iimited and onsequentiy a more

homogeneous crack pattern is developed in the stressed ares. Fmm a modelling point of
view, and more precisely in a FE perspective, this situation is more wmplicated. The

simple superposition of a cracked concrete element and a FRP or steel plate element may
not reproduce the same degree of stiffness as that of the mal structure- The tangential
adhesion of plates influences crack propagation and formation, resulting in a greater
stiffness than that predided by the pmvious modelling. Thur,the shear affect of plates on
the deformations of the entire structure rnay not be properly taken into account

lt's hard to quantify this discrepancy between the model and reality. Depending on

the size chosen for the finite elements (sufficiently small) and on the effective stiffness of
the FRP plates (sufficiently high), the difference could be irrelevant, For a bearn loaded in
flexure, parametric studies tell us that stresses can stil be computed approxirnately using

the same cornpatibility condition over strains and neglecng tensile resistance in the
concrete below the neutral axis.
The modelling of a structure in which the repair or enhanment materials are
applied after a damage in the wncrete or in the steel reinforcement has been produced,

requires additional features. The present study revealed that the superposition of elements

ANALYSIS OF STRENGTHENED RC STRUCTURES

at such points of the load history demands not only that a FE program should ocwunt for

any arbitrary loading sequence. but also that these elements must be applied to aie
strained shapes in a stress-free condition. These options have been recently induded in

the formulation of the finite element program TRUC, previousfy desaibed in Chapter 1. At
each new Ioad stage the element strains are retained and 'plastic

offset strains" for the

concrete and the reinforcement are defined. Effects produced by the offsets can be
accounted for through the use of prestrain nodal forees, M i l e the composite material
stiffness matrix is formulated with efective

secant stitfness factors deteminad by the net

elastic strains (Vecchio, 1998)The ability to engage and disengage elements at any time of the loading history

was then added. Elernents that are disengaged exparience the same strains that adjoning

elements would expen'ence, but these strains are treated entirely as plastic offset strains.
The net elastic strains on these elements are now equal to zero and consequentiy there is
no contribution ta the strength or stiffness of the structure- If an initially disengaged

element is engaged at a certain point of the loading sequence it will start to contribute to
the element's rigidity frorn a zero value of the elastic strains. On the contrary, an initially
engaged element that s disengaged halfway through an analysis simulates the removal of
a damaged portion of the structure. A finite element mode1 that represerits a repaired,

strengthened or rnulti-stage constructed structure can now have double-meshed parts,


with the double sets of elernents accounting for subsequent structural removals, additions

or substitutions,

The following case studies will use these developed features for program TRlX
along with other implemented second-order mechanisms, such as compression softenng
and tension stiffening of the concrete, crack shear slip, expansion and confinement effects

and Bauschinger effsds on the steel reinforcement Additional assumptions indude a


perfect interface bond between the strengthening plates and the wncrete surface, a

negligible thickness of the epoxy layers, a Iinear-elastic material mlationship for the FRP
sheets with a brittle failure in tension and no resistance offered in compression-

3.3 Anelysis of the slab specimens


The first analyses were performed on a set of reinforced concrete slabs tested by
De Rose [5) in the laboratones of the University of Toronto. In this study it was decided to

simulate the distress, as revealed by a condition survey, of the foundation walls of the
parking levels in a residential condominium, and to verify the efficacy of a possible repair
strategy using unidirectional FRP sheets. The slab panels were built according to the

structurai design plans for the foundation walls: the reinforcement ratio for the flexural
steel was approximately 0.15% and consisted of dlOM bottom bars and 3-i OM top bars in
the direction

of the span and 5-1OM top and bottorn bars in the transverse direction. All

dimensions and reinforcementdetailing are provided in Figure 3.1.


All specirnens were tested in a universal MTS testing machine under displacement

control. In order to produce a cracking pattern similar ta that encountered in the field the

load was applied as two Iine loads, Figure 3.2 shows the loading, support conditions and
the locations of extemal instrumentationduring the test, Table 3.1 reports the matetial

properties of the various construction materials. m i l e the test of the control specimen
produced a flexural failure at a total load of approximately 193 khi, the slabs that were to
be rehabilitatedwith FRP sheets were initially loaded to approximately 135 kN (70% of the

ultimate capacity) and subsequently repaired under constant load conditions.

1150-0

Bu t t o m Reinforcement

LO.J

Top Reinforcernent

Figure 3.1 : Slabs dimensions and reinforcement detailing.


The epoxy was left to cure for three days. then the foad was applied again until failure.

Application of epoxy and carbon or glass fiben followed the schemo of figure 3.3; thme
strips of fabric were placed on the epoxy-saufated soffit and sidas of the slabs.
The test results indicate that such use of FRP sheets produced a substantial
increase in the ultimate capacity of the slabs. More preasely, the wall strengthened with

carbon FRP (CFRP) reached 478 kN, which is a 148% increase, while the wall

strengthened with glaso RP (GFRP) failed at 422 W. improving by 119% the original
capacity. It must be noted. though, that the FRP reinforcementwas aimed at impmving the

general flexural response. The load comsponding to the shear capacity was much lower
than that for the enhanced flexural capacity, tharefore the failwe in both repaired slabs
occurred in shear. No evidence of partial bond failum (peeling) was found. although there

was soma debonding in the f o m of ripping around the shear failum zone. A cornparison
between the load-displacernent curves of the control specimen and the repaired slabs
indicates that the latter were restored to stiffness values equaf to those of the original precracked control specimen; the GFRP repair resulted in a higher duclity. Figure 3.4 reports

the observed behavior of al1 three slabs at the bottom midspan point

15Cl-J

L 3 0 d

LM0

Figure 3.2 :Test conditions: Ioading, supports and LVDTs locationsThe finite element rnodelling of the slab specimens consisted of 171 rectangular
elements for the initial structure. Anather 144 rectangular and 16 tmss bar elements were

supermposed to the original mesh to reproduce the repair materials. The 144 rectangular

elements were used to represent the FRP sheeti applied to the sides of the slabs, whils

the 16 tniss elernents modelled the FRP layers applied to the slab soffits.

Concmte

esc
(mmlm)

Pc

(MPa)
Wall 1
Wall2 and 3
(E=200000 MPa)

48-4
53.9
YieId Strass
(MPa)

CFRP

Q (Nlmmnayer)

GFRP

850-956
Q (Nlmm/layer)

Steel

Mod. Elasticity
E (MPa)
31300

-1-86
-1-96

33000

Ultimate Stress
(MPa)

Rupture Strain
0.168

Rupture Stnin
1

t
T

0-04 42
Rupture Stnin

Table 3.1 : Matefial properties

Cross-Se &.ion
1

r 2 2 5 mm

E a s t - West E l e v a t i o n
Figure 3.3 :Application pattern of epoxy and FRP sheets.

Figure 3.5 shows the portion of structure used for the analysis (symmetry
conditions were applied), the mesh detaiis, the repair elements and support idealizations.

The load was applied irnposing displacement incrsments on the top surface noe

conesponding to the axis of the load. To mode1 the contml specimen only the fint 171
elements were activated, or engaged. while the other 160 were kept inadive, or
disengaged, throughout the entire analysis. For the tMI strengthened specimens, at the
onset of loading, only those fint 171elements npresenting the original structure wre

engaged. The load series analyses were then momentarily intempted at a displacetnent
approximately equal ta 3.5mm and. to simulate the application of the FRP sheets. the
initially disengaged elements were activated.
500

Control specirnen
9

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

Vertical Defiection (mm)

Figure 3.4 :Experimental load-deflectionresponse of slabs.


The load-displacement curves obtained for the conttal specimen from the

experirnental test and the performed finite elernent are compared in figure 3.6. The control
specirnen was very Iightly reinforced and expenenced a ducle yielding failure at a load
slightly greater than the cracking load. The overall behavior was simulated reasonably

well, particularly the pre-cracking stiffness, the post-cracking ductility and the peak load.

AMALYSlS OF STRENGWENED RC STRUCTURES

2 d iredional reinforcernent

1 diredional (vertical) reinforcement

2 diredional reinforcernent

TWSS

elements

Figure 3.5 :Basic FE model. repair elements and support idealizations.


Shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 are the predicted and obsewed load-displacernent
responses for the glass and carbon repaired slabs respectively. Again the analyses
reproduce well the initial post-strengthening stiffnesses. the overall stiffnesses and the

shear failure modes. The failure loads though where overestimated by 15 to 20%. From
Figures 3.9 and 3.10 the moment-curvature responses can also be compared; they

confimi that the predictions by program TRIX are a good approximation of the structural

AMLYSIS

OF STRENGTHENED RC STRUCTURES

Axial Displacement (mm)

Figure 3.6 : Predicted vs. observed load-deflection response of cuntrol slab.

3.4 Comments on slab analysis results


To better understand these experirnental and analycal results it is necessary to
consider a few facts. When the repair materials are applied after damage in Vie concrete
has been produced. the cracked conaete surface is coated with epoxy adhesive to allow

mechanical interaction with the FRP sheets. The epoxy will penetrate the surface to a

depth that depends on the porosity of the concrete; but mostly, mechanical and capillary
forces will drive the glue into the cracks. sealing them to soma extent Thanks to this

phenornenon, the original stiffness of a RC element (beam, slab) could be entirely


restored. In fact, as the adhesive cures, a consistent amount of shrinkage takes place on

the concrete surface as well as in the cracks. producing a slight prestressing effect over
the repaired area. Even if the epoxy has a much lower modulus of elasticity than concrete.

the percentage area of adhesive along any cross-section of the strudun is so small that

Deflection (mm)

Figure 3.7 :Predicted vs. observed load-deflecon response of glass =pair.

Deflection (mm)

Figure 3.8 :Predicted vs. observed load-defiection response of carbon repair.

the stress-strain relationship, in the same direction.

still basically follow the concrete's

stiffness value. Once again, t's difficult to quantify these affects, but as quite evident from

AMLYSIS OF STRENGTHENED RC STRUCTURES

the experimental testing that the initial contribution to the restored rgidity is consideable.
From a FE modelling point of view, this stiffening effact of the epoxy was taken into

account by substituthg

the bottom row of cracked concrete elements with a new one, at

the load-displacement coordinates of repair. Results are good, especially in the case of

carbon fibers where the prsvailing stiffness of carbon mduces the contribution of
secondary effects. In the case of glass repair, the relatively low stiffness of the GFRP
required that the epoxy be modelted using the same sti*ffmssas the concrete. Fgures 3.7

and 3.8 also show the corresponding behavion predicted by the sectional analysis
program RESPONSE.
As far as the overestimation of the ultimate loads is concemed, we might suggest a

few reasons for that as well. Sirnilady to the reinforcing steel, the carbon and glass fibers
and the epoxy adhesive were smeared through the elements, but no attempt was made to
model or account in any way for the bond properties and the actual rnechanics of the FRP
sheets. Furthemore, in order to allow the repair materials to take effect, the local

equiiibriurn checks performed by the program in proximity of the cracks were rninimized. AI1

limits on the crack-width openings were suppressed in the second part of the analyses.
These facts are certainly the cause, or part of the cause, for the excessive strength

attributed by the numerical results ta the enhanced slabs as the ultimate state is
approached. TRlX input files for these analyses and other data of interest (cracking
patterns and the principal strain distribution produd by the finite element analysis) can
be found in appendix A.

Figure 3.9 : Predicted vs. observed moment -cuwature response of giass repair.

= 250
'OO

**-O

*,

Predicted

,
i
..'

Pledicted

(Program Response,
KS. F a c t 0 ~ . 5 )

Experimental
(Average of Curvatuie

CURVANRE (radimm x103)

Figure 3.1 0 :Predicted vs. observed moment -curvature response of carbon repair.

ANALYSIS OF STRENGTHENEO RC STRUCNRES

3.5 Analysis of the beam specimen


The beam specimen analyzed hem is also part of the previous study conduded by

De Rose [5]. In the same building where darnage was detecte in part of the substruchrre

walls, cracking exceeding the serviceability conditions was detected in second-floor


transfer beams. Almost hill-scale (516) wncmte beam models were built accordhg to the
design plans. Dimensions and reinforcement detailhg are provided in figure 3.1 1. In
addition, in the field conditions the beams were ftamed into walls. In order to simulate this,
a haunched region was built Mat occupied half the length of the beam, and extensions for
the transverse reinforcement were positioned under it The amount of shear reinforcement

in section B-B was less than the minimum required by A23.3-94 (CSA standards, 1995)
and it consisted of defomed Arnerican Number 3 bars. For this reason shear cracking was
expected in the other half of the beam, through section RB. The flexural reinforcement is

given by 5-25M bars at the top and 6-30M bars at the bottom.

Concrete
Beam 1
Beam 2
Steel
(E=200000MPa)
No.30
No.25
Amer.No.3
CFRP

Pc
(MPa)
447
45.7
Yeld Stress
(MPa)
492
490
507
Q (Nlmmiayer)

e'c
(mmim)
-1-96
-1-83
Ultimate Stress
(MPa)
650
688
778
Rupture Strain

Table 3.2 : Beam material pmperties

Mod. Elasticity
E (MPa)
30000
30400
Rupture Stnin
0.150
0.147
0.21

AMLYSIS OF STRENGTHENEO RC STRUCTURES

PO
5 No. 25

No. 3(U.S)@400
6

No. 30

Na. 30

id3

Section B-B

Sect.ion A-A

AU dimensions in mm
Figure 3.1 1 : Beam dimensions and reinforcement detailing.
Steel plates and CFRP sheets were to be used for Me repair work Table 3.2
reports the main properties of al1 materials involved in the test, while figure 3.12 gives the

loading, the support conditions and the shear and moment diagrams. Testing of the control
specimen produced a briffle shear failure at a total load of appmximately 1700 kN in the
weak section of the beam (right of the point load). The second specimen was loaded
initially to 1180 kN and subsequently repaired with three unidirectional CFRP sheets while

AMLYSIS OF SiRENG7HENED RC STRUCTURES

the load was maintained constant. The wraps were placed transverseIy with respect to axis
of the beam. as shown in Figure 3.13. Afterwarbs, the epoxy was left to cure for three
days. Loadingwas then hcreased again to a value of 1911kN, at which point the top

haunched portion of the beam. when the load was applied. began to fail in compression,
The repair intervention now consisted of removing the damaged concrete and replacing it
with high-strength rnortar, confining this specifi

mgion with three steel plates. connected

with steel rods irough the mortar. amund the sides. The test recommenced and the beam

failed in concrete cnishing when the loading reached 2528 kN; this was accompanied by

some teanng and debonding of the FRP oveday at a steep shear cracking region.

* * * * - * * - * . * . . * .

- 1 -0.474P

O. 96P

M
(kN8m)

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\U\\\\\\\

Figure 3.12 :Test conditions: loading, supports, shear and moment diagrams.

Figure 3.13 : Placing of epoxy and CFRP sheets.


The experiment revealed that the carbon fabric succeded in changing the brittle

response of the specimen to a vey ductile one. It can be said that the failure was now
govemed by yielding of the flexunl reinforcement steel. and the ultimate capacity of the

beam was increased by 49%. The transverse placing of the CFRP sheets on the beam. as
opposed to the longitudinal placing on the slabs, enhanced mainly the shear resistance
and the ductility more Vian the ultimate capacity. This behavior c m be observed in

Figure3.16. Again, displacements and curvatures are taken at the midspan.


The finite element modelting of the beam proved to be more complex than in the
previous case of -theslabs. The control specimen was modelled by 644 rectangular

elements, while a total of 286 rectangular and 57 tmss elements were added to account

for the repair materials. Of the rectangular elements. 280 repmsent the CFRP sheets

applied on the sides of the beam and 6 are for the steel plates applied on the haunch. Ot
the tniss, 40 modal the part of the wmps applied on the beam top and soffit 27 the
remaining steel plates and rods. Figure 3.14 shows the finite element mesh details. the

load and support ideaikation,


Steel tmss elements
Caron elements

\
Caron elements

Superimposed rnesh

Vertical reinforcernent

Vertical reinforcement

2 direction
reinforcement

Figure 3.14 : Basic FE mesh. repair elements and support ideafizationt.

The load was applied through imposed vertical displacement increments on the top
surface node corresponding ta the axis of the load. To analyze the contrd beam only the
first 644 rectangular elements were engaged. but for the repaired bearn two separate

AlVALYSlS OF STRENGTHENED RC STRUCTURES

phases were used. In the first, only those 644 rectangular elements representing the
original structure were active and the analysid was temporarily intempted at a Ioad of
approximately 1200 kN. Then, in the second. al1 repair elements were engaged and the
analysis was recornrnenceduntil failure of the model- For the choice of the repair point
for the numetical analysis. uncertainties regardhg the accuncy of the experimentally
observed displacements. in this case. led us to refer to the total load values-

2000

Control beam
A

25 1500
u
a
O

io

1000

500
\
1

Analytical
I

Vertical Deflection (mm)

Figure 3.15 :Predicted vs. observed load-deflection response of control bearn.

The predicted and observed Ioad-deflection responses for the control specimen are
compared in Figure 3.15;Figure 3.16 gives the same variables as obtained for the repaired

beam. Analytical results yield excellent approximation of the ultimate capacity and failure
mode in both cases- On this P-Delta scale, the stiffness of the beams is considerably

overestirnated, approximately by a 1.7 factor, but if one considers the moment-curvature

response of Figure 3.17 the difference in rigidity is substantially smaller. This second trend

is confinned by the shape of the diagram shesr load vs. shear strain of Figure 3.1 8. Thus

AnicAI YSIS OF SmENGnENED RC SlRUCTURES

Repaired beam

\
1
1
1
\
\

Defiedion (mm)

Figure 3.16 :Predicted vs. observed load-deflecon response of CFRP repair.

one must deduce that, although thare still may be a small difference between the
observed and the computed stiffness. this is not as relevant as it may seem. and that
experimental data regarding displacements observed at midpoint of the beam might be
affected by some kind of inaccuracy. The cracking patterns and strain distributions shown

in Appendix B and produced by program TRlX can help evaluate the simulated behavior.

3.6 Comments on beam analysis results


Figures 3.17 and 3.18 also show the conesponding behaviors predicted by the
sectional analysis program RESPONSE. It must be noted though. that in the particular

case of a deep bearn the assumpon that plane sections remain plane which is at the

basis of the model adopted by prognm RESPONSE is no longer accufate. The


observations reported for the case of the analysis of the strengthened slabs regardhg the
modelling of the epoxy-adhesive stiffening effects, of the carbon fibers, of the bond

Figure 3.17 :Predicted vs. obsenred moment -curvature response of CFRP repair.

Predicted

'

(Program Responw)

Figure 3.1 8 : Predicted vs. observed shear load-shear strain response of CFRP repair.
properties and the crack width parameters still apply. The conclusions suggested by

figures 3.15 and 3.16 could also be partially explained as follows: it must be remernbered
that h e formulation of program TRIX is based on the Modified Compression Field Theory

and was comborated mainly on the test data relative to panels subjected to in-plane

normal and shear stresses. Th0 reinforcementof these panels was always such that it
provided limited crack spacing and cfackwidthcontroII In the case of a deep beam,
weakly reinforced in the transverse direction and subjected to flexure and shear loading,

the spacing of cracks is much greater and the opening is wider- It is then reasonable to
expect, dunng the post-cracked behavior, a certain amount of crack slip that does not

compromise the overall stabili- As ptesented in Chapter 1, the MC-

perfonns the local

equilibrium check on the basis of an assumed pure opening of cracks- If the above
conditions were me, the overall r i g i d i of the structure might be slighffy overestimated. On
the other hand, a rotating crack model such as the one used by the MCR, may be able to

compensate partially for mis effect

In Iight of the assumptions that were made at the onset of these analyses, of the
degree of complexity of the resulting composite structures and the load histones they were
subjected to, th8 presented results must be wnsidered satisfadory, In order to describe

more accurately al1 phases of the structural response and al1the various types of possible
repair interventions, further investigation is required on the material bond characteristics

and modelling. In chapter 6 more detaled conclusions are drawn.

CHAPTER 4

REPAIR AND TESTlNG OF A R.C. SHEAR WALL


4.1 Structure and previous testing description
In the previous chapter, the modelling and analysis of repaired structures focused
on damaged beams or slabs subsequentiy enhanced with FRP sheets. The purpose of the
following experimental program, then, is to broaden this study to different types of

structures. The case of a three-dimensional shear wall, damaged by a previous cyclic


Ioading test, provides the opportunity to model and analyze the response of the wall once
repaired and subjected to a similar load history. Furthemore, it provides an opportunity to
evaluate the influence of threedimensional effects and compare the performance of the
structure before and after intervention. This will give indications on the effectiveness of the

repair procedure, the influence of the various factors contribung to the global resistance

and, finally, the ability to model such situations using a finite element program.
The shear wall was built by D. Palermo (51 in the structural laboratones of the

University of Toronto- It consisted of an H section with two flanges and a central web. The
dimensions of the flanges were 2020 mm high by 3050 mm wide and 95 mm thick; the

web wall was 2020 mm high by 2885 mm long and 75 mm thick. This section was
connected to an upper and a lower slab. The upper slab provided anchorage to the

vertical reinforcing ban and allowsd the

and horizontal load ta e trPnsfi8rmd

unifomiy to the wa!ls. The l w r slab was demped to the lobomtoy fiaor, thus rimulating

a ngid fwndation. The dimensions of the slabs were respectiveiy 4010x43Qx640mm(top)


and 4OOOx4415~82Omm(bottom). Figuras 4.1 0 4.3 give the nominal dimensions of the

test specmert.

Figure 4.1 :Top plan view of the test speamen.

The reinforcement layout in both slabs consisted of No. 30 bars for top and bottom
reinforcement, equally spaced in both directions N-S and E-W by 350 mm. The resulting
percentages of steel area were 0.65 to 0.67%; these high values were requimd to prevent
significant deformations from occumng in the slabs and to ensure proper load

transmission. The flange and web walls of the H section were reinforced with 06 defomed
reinforcing steel. These ban were spaced at 140 mm in the horizontal direction and 130
mm in the vertical direction for the web. In the flanges, only the vertical reinforcernent
varied; near the web joint the bars were spaced at 130 mm, but near the fiange tips the

1b2885

Figura 4.2 :Lateml (west) view of the web.

Figure 4.3 :Lateral (south) view of the flanges.

spacing extended to 355 mm.


The vertical ban from the fianges and web section extended into the top and
bottom slab with a 500 mm. 90 d e g m bend. for anchorage. Refer to Figures 4.4 to 4.6 for

the H section minforcement perwntages and layout The uincrete dear cover hem is

approximately 75 mm. Table 4-1 gives the mean material properties for the concrete and
reinforcement in the slab, fianges and web.
The testing devices used for the initial qdic loading of oie shear wall were two

1000 kN load aduators mounted on a strong wall and then connected to the top slab of
the structure, These actuators provided the horizontal load and were attached to the slab
by hrvo sets of threaded mds, inserted thmugh ducts created before the casting of the

slabs. Load celts were then placed at each end of the rods to determine the applied load

corresponding to the imposed displacernent A constant vertical load was also applied

during the test This was provided by four 600 kN actuators positioned at the
Tabk 4.1 :Shear wall material properties.
Element
Walls

Pc
(MW
21-72

Bottom slab

S'C

oJ)

&Y

fY

fu

(MW

(MW

E
(MW

2-04

-O=)

34.66

1.655

Top slab

43.93

1-93

Element

Pu
(kN)
487-5

No. 30 b a n

PY
(kN]
385

0.0025

550-1

696.4

21 9747

D6 bars

23-4

25.2

0.00318

604-5

651-9

200000

(XI

(XI

corners of the specirnen, fured at the bottom slab by floor bol& and connected to the top
slab by rods that engaged two Ioad spreader beams. The spreader beams were used to

RFPAIR AND TESnNG OF A R.C. SHEAR WALL

ensure that the axial load was unifomly distributed along the upper slab. The applied load
was monitored by four Ioad cells mounted on the acbraton. Figure 4.7 and shows the
testing setup and the actuator locations- A wmputer controllad data acquisition system

collected data incorning from the load cells. LVDTs. stmin gauges and Zurich gauges.

b
@ 355 E.L.

Figure 4.4 :Top plan view of the section reinforcernentand steel area percentages.

Increasing horizontal cyclic displacements of the top slab were cornbined with a

constant vertical load of 1200 kN. The actuators were load controlled, but each load stage
was defined by incrernental 1 mm lateral displacements. The load history then consisted of

two cycles of displacements at each new displacement level; for exarnple. starting fr0m
the zero value, the fint load stage was 0, 1, 0. -1, 0. 1, 0,-1, O mm and the second 0, 2. 0,

-2, 0 , 2 . 0 , -2. O mm. This sequence continued until failure of the specimen was reached.

Figure 4.5 :Web wall reinforcemerit.

-4t-

2980

75
L.

Figure 4.6 :Flange wall reinforcement

Experimental results of mis test are presented in more detail in Sections 4.2 and 4.3,
where a cornparison with the behavior of the repaired structure is proposed. For the
purpose of a basic introductory description, a peak load of 1298 kN reached at the first

cyde of stage 11 (+Il


-14 mm) is hem reported.

HORIZONTAL LOAD

IAL LOAD

Figure 4.7 :Testing setup (web wall view) and the actuator locations (top view).
As can be seen from Figure 4.8, when the structure first cracked at stage 1, the

inelastic behavior began imrnediately and a quite ductite sequence of load-displacernent

excursions f o l l ~AmK
.
stage 1f the structure was in Ws port&

fange and second

excursions or cycles of evety stage whm ckaraderized by a signiticantiy d u c a d


stiffness and peak rtrrngth The testing m s tenninated at the second cyd.of stage 15,

when extensive and progressive damage in the f m of erushiig and spalling of the
concrete was obsaind in the web dong numemus v d d pianes. Fur(her infornation
and in-depth discussion of these mwlts is g h m in mfennco [q.

-1400

HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMEM' OF TOP SLAB (mm)


Figure 4.8 : Horizontal displacement of top slab (LVDT Hl).

4.2 Assessmen t of damage and repair strategy


Assessrnent of the damage was perfomed partiy by visual observation and partly
by exarnining the extensive data collected during the test Information was gathered on the

general condition of the reinforcernent both in the web wall and in the flanges, ftom the

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A R-C. W E A R WALL

strain gauges located on various steel bars and from the LVDTs and Zurich targets. A
typiml cracking pattern associated with the lateal cyclic loading had forrned in the web

area, along orthogonal directions inclined approximately by 45 degrees

respect to the

vertical a i s . The concrete appeared thoroughly cnished and was marked by numerous
inclined planes of weakness spaced approximately at 100 mm. At the later load stages,
though, the greater part of the concrete cnishing occurred along vertical planes distributed

throughout the width of the wall. In the Ranges cracking occuned mainly in the horizontal
direction as a consequence of the flexuml resistance opposed by this portion of the
structure. Figures 4.9 and 4.10 show the darnage in the web concrete and flange walls at

the time of repair.

Figure 4.9 :Darnage in the concrete web at the time of repair.

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A RC. SHEAR WALL

In the web wall. the vertical reinforcement seemed not to have undergone plastic
defomations, and thus to be still in the elastic phase. Conversely. the horizontal rebars
instead appeared to have yielded unifomdy along their length. especially in the central
area of the wall where a certain amount of bulging is believed to have taken place. The
vertical reinforcement in the flanges had yielded only locally, in proximity of the cracks,
while the horizontal appeared undamaged. AU structural joints connecting the walls
the top and bottom slabs were judged to be still in good condition.

Figure 4.10 : Cracking in the flange walls at the time of repair.


As a consequence of these observations it was decided to rehabilitate the structure

by leaving the flange walls unaltered and removing all the concret8 in the web area, with
the exception of a sound layer of ancrete at the construction joints about h o inches

deep. This concrete was then to be replaced by new concrete with similar pmperties and

REPAIR AND TESllNG O F A R.C. S H H R WAU

was judged that residual $trains would not influence the ultmate capacity of the new
structurai system, A descrp
i to
in

of the various phases of the repair work follows.

4.3 Repair procedure


The fimt step of mis work was that of removing the damaged web concrete. Before
a i s could be done, the residual lateral displacementthat the structure had retained from
the previous Ioading was approximately retumed to zero_Also, the weight of the top slab

was partially removed fmm the flange walls by mounting six steel shores between the
slabs; four were placed at each corner and two close to the vertical central axis of the
structure. All load actuators were diswnnected. The concrete was then removed using a
small pressurized chipping hammer. In the process, particular attention was paid to avoid
directly hitng the rebars and the strain gauges that were still functioning propedy after the
first testing. Dernolition initiated at the center of the wall and progressed towards the

extremities. The concrete in place confined the rebars which, at the time of repair, had

residuaf tensile strains. In fact, as the concrete was being removed, a consistent bulging of
the steel web started to develop as a wnsequence of the permanent strains that existed in

the horizontal reinforcement This process continued until it reached a few inches from the
top and the bottom slab. There a rough and inegular surface was created with the air-

chisel in order to create sufficiently resistant construction joints, see Figure 4.1 1.
When al1 the concrete had been removed, al1 the space around the shear wall was
cieared and the strain gauges tested again to venfy eventual damages. Part of the
wooden fomwork used for the original casting was retreved and modified to the new
required shape.

REPAlR AND TESTING OF A R-C- SHEAR WALL

PRE-EXISTING
CONCRETE

Figure 4.1 1 :Repair work on the conaete web wall.


Figure 4.12. shows the web steel cage left in place, the strain gauging wires, the
extemal mugh conaete fnme and part of the old fonnwork already f m d into position.
Figure 4.13 gives an overview of the structure after Me concrete had been removed. The
main wood fomwork consisted of two boards, one for each side of the wall, assembled
using horizontal 3 / 4 * plywood sheaths and wnneded by vertical 2nx Cstuds. The
formwork on one oide of the web wall was left with its original shape and size, which can

be obseived in Figure 4.12 and 4.14. The other side was modified in order to accomodate

casting of the new concrete. Restraint to the fonnwork was obtained by nailing the ends to
other vertical plywood sheaths and horizontal 2*x4" studs, which were fixed to the walls
and the bottom slab by conmete anchored screws.

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A R-C- S U H R WAU

Figure 4.1 2 :Steel web after concrete removaf,

Figure 4.13 :OveMew of structure during repair.

REPAIR AND 7ESnNG OF A R,C-

SHEAR WALL

The casting of the concrete was planned as follows: the plywood f o m on the west
side was divided in two, Aftennrards, the height of the top piece was reduced and this
shorter strip was ternporarily fixed to the top of the 2"X4"studs. Thus, when the formwork

was assembled and erected on this side of the wall, a 180 mm gap resulted slightly above
mid-height through which concrete could be poured to produce the bottorn part of the wall.
Figure 4.15 illustrates this situation. Frorn the photograph it can also be noted that
horizontal 2"anwailers were added to the fonnwark, prior to casting, to provide further
fiexural stiffness of the system and to ensure an approxirnately constant thickness of the

Figure 4.14 : Back of North-East fromwork.


wall. This latter objective was accomplished by connecting steel rods to both extemal
sides of the boards and tightening them with bolts. See again Figure 4.14. When the
concrete reached the height of the bottom West plywood board, the top plywood was

REPAIR AND TESTING OF A R C - S H H R WALL

detached, rnoved down to close the gap and pemanently fixed with screws to the 2"x4" 'S.
Subsequentiy, the concrete would fil1 the rest of the gap up to 180mm from the top slab.
Figure 4.16 documents the completed casting. In the process, the bulging steel web was
forced into a position with an overall minimum concrete wver of 10 mm.

The remaining empty layer was grouted using a very fluid mixture of Masterflow
928 grout. This particular grout was chosen for a number of desired properties- Firstly, it

was non-shrinking; secondly, it reached a sufficientfy high strength even if mked with a
high percentage of water- This second characteristicwas required because the grout was

to be pumped by hand, For this phase, a new specific fomiwork had to b e built. A 314"

plywood sheathing was cut to a depth Wce ttie size of the gap and was fixed using nails
and screws to two lateral plywoods and a top horizontal 23~4".

Figure 4.15 :Fonnwork prior to casting.

REPAIR AND =TING

OF A R.C. SUEAR WALL

Figure 4.16 :Fonnwork after casting-

Figure 4-17 :Forrnwork for grouting of top layer.

REPAIR AND =TING

OF A R G SHEAR WALL

These two boards and the 2k4. were rigidly conneded to the flange walls and top
slab with suews anchored in the concrete. Finally the bottom of the main plate was
supported by wstom cut wooden 4%. studs and 2w9braces of various length. Figure
4-17 shows the detailed system after grouting. The grout itself was purnped into a top feft

(North-West) port until it started to emerge ftom another port af the same height, but on

the opposite side (SouWWest)At this point the second opening was seaCed and the gmuting completed by slightiy
pressurizing the H o l e system. Between the time of the first casting and the completion of

the wall with the grout layer about two months had passed, and by the time the test was
wmpleted another two months elapsed- The matenal properties of the repair materials at

the time of testing are given in Table 4.2. The concrete was prepared and mixed at the
material laboratories of the University of Toronto. The proportions used were those
suggested by Neville (261 in order to obtain a 28 days strength equal and not greater than
30 MPa, and at the same time a high workability (slump of 180-200). The resulting

strength of the new cancrete, which was greater than the desired one, was most certainly
infiuenced by the lengthy time delay between the casting and the test. It is reported by
Neville that the gain in strength that concrete undergoes with time follows a loganthmic
law, and that for an expected four months of curing this increase can be estimated to be
about 25% of the 28 days strength value, depending on the concrete mix, on the
temperature and the humidity degree of the environment The grout tumed out slightly
weaker and less stiff than expected, but values still permitted a correct interaction between
the various portions of the structure. The properties of the grout were dictated more by the

water-dry m k ratio used, which at the time of casting was not strictly contmlled.

REPAIR AND =TING

OF A R-C- SHEAR WAU

- Material properties
f c - average

Table 4.2
Material
Concrete

(MPa)
44

Ec average
(MPa)
28900

4.4 Test preparations


Before the test could begin, the new wall had to be white-washed and the fines
wrresponding to the finite element mesh redrawn. These Iines served the purpose of
allowing a comparison between the obsewed cracking pattern and failure location with the
predicted ones by the computer analysis. After this, al1 the data acquisition apparatus had
to be reinstalled, including strain gauges. Zurich targets and LVDT.
The placing and locations of the abavementioned instrumentationfollowed as

much as possible the pattern adopted for the first test [S], eventually pemitng a direct
comparison of results. The strain gauges rewrded the reinforcement local strain values.
Ouring testing, these values could be monitored in order to determine the strain path of the

rebars. A total of 20 strain gauges were used, su< of which were positioned on the web wall
and the remaining fourteen divided among the fianges. In the previous test a total of 40

gauges were mounted; of these. 24 were damaged dunng th8 first casting, strained over

the Iimit during the fint test, or mined in the following repair w o k Four wem fued so that
a sufficient coverage of the wall reinforcernent could be obtained. Zurich targets were also

placed on the flanges to obtain strains in the concrete and cross-check the strain-gauges
data regarding the reinforcement. Placing was achieved with epoxy-glue applied to the

REPAIR AND TESTlNG OF A R.C- SHEAR W A 4

conaete surface. The total number of Zurich targets was 54: 18 were placed on the
extemal East sida of the North flange; 18 on the intemal East face of the Norh Range; and
an other 18 on the external West side of the South flange. Of these, six had to be

replaced becausa of damage to the concrete surface suffered fmm the first test In the
present test, readings were taken a the fint zero displacement stage and only at the peak
displacement of every following cycle, for a total of 27 readings each cycle.

HZ. H3

HL, ~ 5 1
Figura 4.1 8 :LVDT's locations: West-side view.
The nurnber and locations of the LVDTs (Linear Variable Displacement
Transducers) can be seen in Figures 4.18 to 4.20. The number and locations are identical
to those used in the first test, For the six LVDT's positioned on the web wall toes, the
mounds had to be re-built as a consequence of the repair work, The purpose of the

LVDT's was that of recording displacements in key points. representative of the behavior
of the stmcture, and deformations at the locations where failure was expected. A total of
19 were mounted on the specimen, six to measute principal strains at the compression

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A R.C- SHMR WALL

of the w b and 13 to masure displacement values.

Figure 4.1 9 :LVOT's locations: Topplan view.

The 'Hm labeled LVDT's recorded horizontal displacements, Mile the ones

labeled with the V measured the vertical displacements: in particular, Hl, H2 and H3
were meant to trace horizontal displacements and rotations of the top slab. H4 and H5
were supposed to verify possible sliding of the bottom slab, but the previous testing
showed that the influence of this phenornenon was very limited ,so these LVDTs were not

connected to the data acquisition system. H6 and H7 were used to measure the bulging of
the web and verify the proper transmission of the shear loading from the top slab to the
web. Instruments V1 to V6 recorded the relative vertical displacements of the top slab with
respect to the bottom slab; and V7 and V8 were used to assess the bond slip of the wall
with the base slab. The remaining LVDT's mounted on the web measured respecvely the
vertical, the horizontal, and the 45-degree strains at the two toes, and crossed each other

at the center of a 200x200 mm grid.

Figure 4.20 :LVTD's locations: West-side web toes.

Before the load could be applied, al1 the four veRical actuators had to be connected
again to the structure and centered, because they had been disconnected and lowered
during the repair and preparation period. Also the N o horizontal actuators, fmed at one

end ta the stmng wall, were now reconnectedto the top slab. At this point, the cornputer
data acquisition program was initiated. An initial set of zero strain readings was taken for

the Zurich targets, the vertical axial loading of 741 kN was applied wit the vertical
actuators and another set of readings was taken to measure the strains induced by the
axial load. Finally the horizontal Ioading sequence could be applied, and this was done
according to the pattern followed by the first test and previously descnbed in section 4.1.
Recall Figure 4-7 for the representation of the loading horizontal and axial Iines of action.
A diagram for the load history is given in Figure 4.21.

Figure 4.21 :Loading sequence as a function of the top slab displacement

4.5 Course of testing


In reporting the results and discussing them, some conventions and some ternis
which were adopted duflng the course of the testing will be referred to. To begin with,

every load cycle of each stage stafted from zero and proceeded with a positive value of

the displacement. This positive value is wnsidered to be in the North direction, that is
toward the strong wall. For this reason, durhg this phase of positive displacement, the
horizontal actuators are 'pulling' and to such acon we might refer to indicate the loading
condition on the wall. Vice-versa, when the wall is displaced in the South direction the
displacement has a negative value and the wall has been 'pushed". The first cycles of

each stage means that incremented displacements are reached for the first tirne. The

REPAIR AND TES7NG OF A R-C, SnEAR WALL

second cycle means that the displacement values are reached for the second and last
tirne.
Dun'ng the course of the test, the vertical axial load was rnaintained constant, while

the horizontal load was hand controlIed and depended on the values assumed by the
displacements. Figure 4.22 shows bath sides of the wall before the load sequence was
applied. At load stage 1, during the first cycle. the wall crackad irnrnediately. These cracks,
inclined at an angle of approximately 45 degrees, appeared near the four corners of the
web and were deady caused by diagonal tension. At stage 2 the first cracks developed
that completely crossed the web from top to bottom slab. All cracks were marked, when
they first appeared. with different colors depending on the sign of the displacement they
were associated with. Blue markers were used for the pulling phase (positive

displacement), and red for the pushing (negative displacement); see Figure 4.23.

Figure 4.22 :Shear wall at zero load stage.

REPAIR AND lESTlNG Of A R.C. SHEAR WAU

Figum 4.23 :Shear wall at load stage 2. cycles I and II.

Figure 4.24 :Cracking pattern of stage 7, cydes I and II.

REPAIR AND TESlNG O F A R.C- S H H R WALL

With load stage 3, the grout used for the top layer started to crack as well. The
cracks that appeared were sufficientiy indined with respect to the horizontal diredon to

not compromise the shear resistance. These cracks are explainad simply by considering

the comparable stiffness of the grout with respect to the new concrete. The transfer of the
load. from the top slab to the concrete web through the grout, had to occur with strains in

the grout similar to those experienced in the new concrete. As the displawment values
escalated. the diagonal cracks increased in number leading to the focmation of indined
concrete stnits. At the end of load stage 5, a residual displacement of 0.3 mm was
recorded. Some twsithg

of the top slab was first noticed during load stage 6, but the entity

of this phenornenon was judged to be limited and consistent with the first testing of the

wall.

Figure 4.25 :Shear wall at load stage Il,cycle 1.

REPAIR AND 7ESnNG OF A R-CS H M WALL

The cracking pattern of stage 7 can be seen in Figure 4.24. The spacing of the

cracks decreased as new cracks fomed or existing ones elongated, The latter seerned to
be the prevailing behavior during the second cycles of each displacernent amplitude; no

new cracks appeared, but previous ones becarne longer. During the second cycle, the

resulting stiffness and total load decreased slightiy as a resuit of the accumulating damage
in the concrete. At the first cycle of 11 mm displacement, the peak load was reached. Light
spalling of the grouted area and gnnding of the cracks had been noted since load stages 9
and I O .

Figure 4.26 : Flange wall cracks at load stage 12, cycle 1.


During the load stage 12, concrete c ~ s h i n g
was recorded in the toe amas of the

web wall, and at the same time some new vertical cracks appeared at the exterior faces of
the flanges close to the web. This was the sign of a possible progressive failure of the
flanges due ta punching thraugh of the web concrete stnits- A maximum crack width of 6

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A R.C* SHEAR WAU

mm was also noted on the web wall. Figures 4.25 and 4.26 show respectively the
condition of the wall and the flanges at load stages 11 and 12. Loading continued until a
displacement amplitude equal to 17 mm was reached,
At this point the test was terminated due to the excessive residual displacements

and the scarcely significant values of the loads. Figures 4.27-ah report the damage
observed at the end of the test Note the cnistiing of the concrete toes and the punched
flanges. Also, as the toes and flanges faled, the concrete wshing extended towards the
center of the web along the constructionjoint. This was a consequence of the
redistribution of forces in the resisting mechanism. In Appendix B a summary table and
pictures of the wall document cracks, loads and maximum crack-width values recorded

throughout al1 the load stages.

Figure 4.27-a : Damage at test end, stage 17, cycle 1.

RFPAIR AND TESnNG OFA R-C- S H M WALL

Figure 4.27-b :Damage at test end. stage 17. cycle 1.

4.6 Presentation and discussion of results


The description of the above observed behavior is completed by the presentaon
of the key displacement and strain parameters values recorded dunng the test The main

reference parameter assumed during the experiment was the lateral displacement of the
top slab as detected by the LVDT Hl. H l was located on the North side of the specimen

and recorded positive values OC displacements dun'ng the pullng phase and negative
during the pushing. In Figure 4.28. the kad-displacement values are reported-foral1 load

stages, including both first and second cycles. The behaviour of the stmcture c m be

considered to be linear up to displacements of 2 mm. although a few cracks had alnady

REPAIR AND TESlNG OF A R-C. SHEXR WALL

appeared dufing and before this load stage. By stage 3, the structure ente= an inelastic

response phase which progresses with an appmxmately constant until slope load stage 9.
Dunng this phase, the ml1M l y develops it's loadioristing rnechanism comprisad of

inclined compressed concrete struts and horizontal and vertical steel tension ties.

Figure 4.28 :Top slab lateral displacements LVDT Hl.


By the first cycle of 11 mm displacement, the structure had reached ifs ultimate

horizontal load of 1192 kN on the pulling phase (load cells B+C) and 1081 kN on the
pushing phase (load cells A+D). Also. the peak loads of the second cycles were reached

here, and the difference between the cycle I and cycle II peaks started to be consistent
The post-peak branch is characterized as weil by a constant descending slope that finally
reached a load of 412 kN with load stage 17, in the pulling phase of cycle 1. During this

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A ROCo


SHEXR WALL

phase, the damage in the web toes and flanges increased and propagated to the adjacent
parts of the stnicturs. After the second cycles of stage 17 the test was terminated because

residual displacements and accumulate damage considerably weakened the structure-

Figure 4.29 :Envelopes of peak loads for cycles I and II.


The difference in behavior between the first and second cycles of every load stage

is sumrnarized in Figure 4.29. The decrease betwaen the peak loads reached in cycles I
and II, expressed as a percentage of the first load, passed from a nominal 0% at zero
displacements to a 5.9 % at ilmm displacements. Especially during the pushing phase,

this variation was gradual. After the utlimate strength was reached, the absolute difference
remained approximately constant (-70 kN), while percentage values increased constantly
to a 17 % at 17 mm displacements. Another effect of the cydic loading was that, as the

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A R-C. S H H R WALL

values of displacements incnased. the shape of the loops also changed from nanow and
pointed to wide and round, especially in the port-peak region. This gives further indication
of the non-reversible damage produd and the dissipated energy,

Figure 4.30 :Vertical displacement of the top slab wrt. he bottom slab.
An important parameter that can be used to describe

the general behavior of the

structure is the vertical displacement of the top slab with respect to the bottorn slab, at the
level of the flanges. Two LVDTs were used to monitor this type of movement; V6 on oie
South side and V3 on the North sida. Figure 4.30 shows the displacements recorded by
V3. These values give a better description of the response of the shear wall to the extemal

fiexural actions indud by the horizontal loading on the top slab. As can be noticed. the
values of displacements are not symrnetrical: when the top slab is pushed (load cells A+D)

REPAIR AND TESnNG OF A R-CI SHEAR WALL

the North flange extends by a mm*mum of 3.8 mm dufing stage 12, but when the slab is

pulled (load cells B+C) the North flange is in compression. In the latter load stages, bath

flanges go in tension as the wall is progressivelyelongating,


When the n o m flange extends, since it has already extensively cracked from the
previous test, only the reinforcementmsists the tensite force, although there might be

some tension stiffening eff-

present When the north Range is in compression, the

cracks close and the concrete mistance is engaged as well. In this second case, the
absolute values of the resuIting displaments are now obviously smaller.
Finally, it is typical of a low rise shear wall such as this to experience a certain
arnount of bulging in the web region. This is a consequen of the considerable shear
stresses and strains induced in the wall, and can be visualized using a strut and tie model:

inclined compressive struts tend to f o m along the entire length of the web. AI1 the struts

that are wnfined atone end by a slab and at the other by a flange engage the resistance
of the horizontal ties, which extend from one fiange to the other. Deformations of these

ties afong their length eventually results in differential displacements of the flanges in the
horizontal direction and partially acamodates the diagonal cracking of the web, This

phenornenon is desabed by Figure 4.31. The two LVDT's that were used, H6 and H7, are
located at the flanges' mid-height; white one records positive displacements the other
records negative ones (this is the reason for the sum H6+H7). The maximum value
recorded by the LVDT H6 was 7.6 mm, M i l e for H7 it was 7.3 mm. These displacements
also prove the effective transfer of the shear load through the grout laye?.
Strains have been computed for the toes of the web wall. Six LVDT's have been
positioned according to Figure 4.20. The displacement recorded by each of these LVDT's
has been divided by the original length of the gauge to obtain the deformations that

REPAIR AND TESnNG OFA R E - SHEAR WAU

occuned, in every diredion, dun'ngthe course of the test,


WLIlLlLOllSO

Figure 4.31 :Bulging of the web at mid-height.


Herein are reported the strains detected by the LVDT WNDnlocated at the bottom
North-West corner of the web and indined at 45 degrees. The direction of the
compressive struts here is such that these strains can be considered to be approximately
coincident with the principal strains (compressive during the pulling phase and tensile in
the pushing phase)- Load stages that followed number 14 produced damage, in the

concrete just below and partially attached to the mounts of some of these LVDTs,
affecting results. For this reason, only the strains relative to Ioad stages previous to

number 15 have been reproduced in Figure 4.32-

REPAIR AND TESnNGOF A R.C. SWAR WALL

Figum 4.32 :Diagonal strains in the North web toe.


From the figure it can be seen how the values of the strain in compression,

assumed positive in this graph, almost reached the theoretical peak-strength value dumg
stage 11 (dc= 0.00213). At this point. mshing failure began at the interface surface

between the preexisting concrete and the replaced concrete nght below the gauge. The
damage soon extended to the flanges and the rest of the constnicu'onjoint. The strains

recorded by the horizontal and the vercal LVDT's were affected by the presence of
isolated cracks that cross the length of the gauge. The wnsequence of this is that the

recorded strain values cannot be considered average values and interpretation of results
might not be as straight forward,

Reported in Appendix C, for reference purposes, are the top siab rotations
detected using the displacement difference between LVDT H2 and LVDT H3, the web toe

REPAIR AND TES77NG OF A R-C,SHEXR WALL

strains in directions otherthan the diagonal. and the sttains in the reinforcement along the
flanges and the web. Not much importance is given to the latter deformations since none
of the reinforcement bars had been replaced in the repair work, and the values of
displacements experien during the second test were in al1 the same as the ones

reached wth the first test Instead, comments are provided on the rotational behaviorof
the structure.

4.7 Cornparison with previous testing


Further comrnents on the results indude a comparison with the results obtained by
D. Palemo [5) in the first test of the shear walf- The basis of this comparison will be

narrowed down to what are considered to be the main parameters characteriring the
structural behavior of the wall. As previously mentioned some secondary phenornena
occurred in a very similar fashion: the M-stingof the top slab assumed comparable values,
a maximum angle of 0.32 rad in the first experiment and a maximum of 0.3 rad in the

second, both counter-dockwise, The relative vertical displacements of the two slabs was
also comparable; a maximum opening of 4.073 mm occurred at a load of 1160 kN in the
first case, while a maximum of 3.8 mm at a load of 1142 kN in the second. With regards to
strains at the toes of the web, the first test did not yield signifiant results. The maximum

compressive strain recorded by the LVDf 'WNDa then was of 1.795~10~.


which is below
the theoretically cornputed peak-strength strain of E;-1.95~1O?

Other parameters are affected more by the repair w o k To begin with. the load-

deflection response as detected by LVDT "Hl" gives a dear indication of the similarities
and main differences occumng between the two cases. In Figure 433 we compare the two

REPAIR AND TES.nNGOF A R-C, SHEXR WALL

envelopes of peak horizontal loads versus top lateral displaments obtained for the first
and second cycles of displacements.

Figure 4.33 :Cornpanson of peak envelopes horizontal loads vs. top displacementsThe envelopes of peak Joads referred to the first cycles are drawn here using the
thick and dotted lines while the envelopes representing the second cycles are drawn with
the lighter Iines, as can be seen frorn the legend on the graph. Firstiy, the difference in

initial stiffness can be noticed. This is mainly due to the flanges, which were intact at the
beginning of the first test and left unrepaired for the second test As the flexural cracks

developed in the flanges, the stiffness of the first shear wall decreased until it matched or
became slightly less than the stiffness of the second shear wall. In this case it must be

remembered that the new concmte of the repaired web is stronger and stiffer than the f i r t t

A similar behavior can k detected in both cases

respect to the cyciic loading

effects. The envelopes of the second cycle peak loads are consistent with a decrease of
the load by a percentage that reaches 4 5 % at the peak load and 1647%at the last load

stage. Also, for the two experiments, the pulling phase is the 'strongest". The reason for

this can be that this phase, or direction

of displawntents, was chosen to be the first one to

reach every new value of displacement and thus it would produce damage that would
influence the stiffness and the strength in the other direction, For instance. when
displacement 11 mm was mached it occurred the first time by pulling the slab, so when 11
mm were imposed in me opposite e
o
d
rc
int

the wall had already cracked further. The new

cracks and old extended ones represent more planes of weakness for the compressive
concrete struts and produce higher local stresses in the reinforcement
The peak load in the first test was 1285 kN while in the second 1192 kN, which is

a difference of 7.1 % with respect to the original capacity. Both occurred during the first

cycle of load stage 11. Considering these facts, as well as the other similaries in the hnro
responses, we can Say that this repair strategy produced a rehabilitated structure that
could perfom and be relied on for analogous loading conditions. Another observation that
confimis these impressions regards the bulging of the web- In the first experiment the

bulging occurred symmetn'cally (with the same values in both the pulling and the pushing
phase) and the maximum bulging was recorded dun'ng stage 13 and equal to 6.52 mm.-

In the present test the bulging was reproduced by Figure 4.31, it is symmetfical and the
maximum value of 4.7 mm is reached again dunng load stage 13. The 1.82 mm difference

can be explained considering the greater contribution of the web wall and the reduced
contribution of the flanges to the shear stiffness of the repaired structure. The absolute
peak values recorded by the LVDT "He' in the two cases differ only by 0.2 mm.

REPAIR AND =TING

With respect to the failure modes,

OF A R-C, SHEAR WALL

the first test produced six vertical planes of

failure that began fotming during the stage of 11 mm of displacement. near the web toes
During the post-peak range, the web was widely damaged by the severe cnishing of the
concrete along these planes, unl the load -ng

capacity of the structure was

definitively impaired. See Figure 4.9. In the present case, failure was ultimately due to the
mshing of the concrete at the interface of the new c o n m e with the old one and at th8

toes of the web. At the same tirne, it appeared, the flanges were punched through at the
base of their connection with the central web. It is difficult to identify the sequence of

events: a weakness of the ancrete at the bottorn corners of the web might have caused
initial crushing, the load carrying mechanism was then transferred to the flanges and,
ultimately, towards the center of the wall along the lower construction joint.
It is believed that the difierence in the two failure modes was detennined by the

differences in strength and stiffness of the concrete between the first and second webs.
Also the relative lower stifftiess of the flanges, in the second case, caused more severe
loading conditions at the ultimate stages. The pre-existing bottom layer of concrete was
left in place after the repair work in a position wtiich proved to be critical. This might help
explain the only similarity between these twa failures that initiated at the same value of

displacements of 11 mm, In fact, the compressive strains in the web toes at peak load
during the first test was near to the peak-strength strain, When this portion of concrete

was reloaded, the strains exceeded the ultimate strain at a value of the displacements

approximateiy equal ta the failure initiation of the first wall. Although it is not yet clear in
which proportions, it is correct to Say that al1 the previously mentioned factors contributed

to the mode and the load-displacement coordinates of failure-

CHAPTER 5

F. E. ANALYSlS O F A REPAlRED SHEAR WALL

5.1 Introduction
The npaired shear wall was analyzed using three different finite element models.
All the element meshes were similar to mat used in the analysis camed on for the onginal
wall [5]. In addition to the elements used for the first analysis, layen of rectangular 2-0
elements representing the new repair materials were included. The various details
regarding the finite element meshes used are descn'bed in section 5.2. The procedure
followed for the analysis is then briefly ovewiewed; some of the features of the TRlX F E

program that were used and the vanous phases in which the analyses were conducted are

also illustrated. Section 5.3 presents partial and final results of the analyses. Here a basis
for the cornparison with the experimentat results is provided by a summary table. In section
5.4 various comments are made regarding the outcorne of this last part of the research
work .

5.2 Finite Element meshes and analysis procedure


As can be seen fmm figure 5.1, the finite element rnesh representing the original

structure is constituted of 540 membrane elernents: the top and bottom slab were

Figure 5.1 :TRlX finite element mesh,

rnodelled with 3x26 rectangular elements, the two side flanges with 16x2 elements each,
while the central web was modelled using 16x20 elements. ln a first mesh, referred to as
Mesh-1, 300 rectangular elements were added in the web area to rnodel the repaired wall.

Of these, a top layer of 20 elements was defined using the mechanical properties of the
grout, and the remaining elements were characterized by the properties of the new
concrete. Figure 5.2 shows different shades of colon, each representing a layer of
elements with different geometncal or mechanical properties used in the analysis of the
repaired shear wall, The bottom row of rectangular elements in the web wall identify the
old concrete that was left in place during the rehabilitation process.

The procedure for the analyses of this shear wall followed the same basic scheme
of the analyses conducted previously and described in Chapter 3. Using the given mesh of
540 + 300 elernents (Mesh-i), the first testing was simulated. The same vertical loads and

horizontal loading sequence of the initial experiment [5]were used. In this phase, only the

F E ANALYSIS OF A REPAIRE0 SHEAR WALL

540 elements representing the original structure were active or 'engagedu. An incremental

displacement procedure was adopted to ensure better control and description of the peak

and post-peak behavior. Recent features of the TRIX progfam allowed the analysis to
perform automatically the reversed displacement conditions. the repetitions of each
displacement value (thus producing the load cycles) and finally the displacernent
increments at each new load stage- Strain histones were also retained throughout the
entire analysis- This first analysis was stopped aftet the second cycfe of displacements
equal to 7 5 mm-

Structure De?n: Material Types Displacernent Factor = 1-00

3~ Wall

1
rn 2
M3
m4

Figure 5.2 :TRIX structure definition: different material types.

Test simulation of the repaired structure was made possible by activating the 300
repair elements representing the grout and the new concrete layers, and by de-activating

or "disengaging" the corresponding old concrete elements. The analysis was then

F E ANALYSIS O F A REPAIRED SHEAR WALL

resumed using a so-called 5eed filew;the k s t output file produad by T R K during the last
load series of the andysis was retneved and used to read geometrical and mechanical
conditions of the structure (permanent displacernents, stifness

moduli and plastic strains

of the conctete and of the steel reinforcement) at the end of the first test. The horizontal
displacement sequence was starte over again. while new vertical loading conditions were
imposed. This second analysis was stopped after the fkst cyde of displacements equal to
f 7 mm. Copies of the input files use4 for the simulation of the test of the repaired shear

wall are given in appendix D.


Two other types of mesh were pmduced and used to analyze again this structure.
The second mesh, or Mesh-2, is identical to Mesh-l with the exception of the rnodelling of

the bottom layer of the web wnaate. In order to allow the old original wnaete to better
develop ifs mechanical propefties. the corresponding layer of 20 rectangular elements
was subdivided into three layes of elements. For compatibility reasons, this partition was
extended ta the adjacent elements representing the flanges, As a result this finite elernent
rnodel has a total of 888 elements, but the nurnber of elements representing the repair
materials is unchanged. Figure 5.3 represents both Mesh-2 and Mesh-3.
Mesh-3 was introduced to partially model threedimensional effects. On the H

shape of the shear wall acts a combination of loads: axial, flexural and shear loads- But
the flanges contribute to the stiffness and strength of the H shape in their whole width only

for the first two cases. The shear loads and deformations are resisted by only a part of the
fianges; this part is the closest to the web wall and ifs width is about 0.5 to 0.2 times the

width of the flanges. In the attempt to accaunt for this effect the elements representing the
flanges were increased: for each flange, a row of 18 rectangulat elements was

superposed to the original 2 rows and 18 elements of Mesh-2. These new rows had nodes

defined independenffy fmm the previous nodes, except for the ones shared by the slabs,

and numbered such that the resulting bandwidth would be minimued. The onginal

elements npresenting the Ranges had a thickness of 3045 mm. but in Mis model they are
given a thickness of only 800 mm (0.26 * 3045 mm). while the ~

t dements
w
are 2245

mm thick. These values are suggested appmximately by the CA Standards in the case of

shear reinforcement-resistan of reinforceci concret8 T-sections

Mesh-3 was then

made of 924 elementr in which. once again. the number of elements accounting for the

structural intervention is unvaned.

Figure 5.3 :TRIX finite element Mesh-2 and 3.

Figure 5.4 :F.E. simulation of the R n t testing of the shear wall.

5.3 Results of the analyses


The results of the fint phase of the analyses (simulation of the test on the original
structure) can be represented by Figure 5.4. where the predicted horizontal displacement
of the top slab is given as a fundion of the total horizontal load. Cornparhg these results
with the experimentally observed behaviour of Figure 4.8 , we can see that there is

generally good agreement As reported in Chapter 3.the experimental results yielded a


maximum sustained load of 1298 kN during the first cyde at 11 mm displacement, while
the analysis gives s maximum load of 1293 kN reached with load stage 9. A slight

F E A W Y S I S OF A REPAIRED SHEAR WALL

REPAIRED SHEAR WALL FINITE ELLNENT ANALYSII :M E I H 1

Figure 5.5 : F.E. simulation of the testing of the repaired shear wall using "Mesh-1".

REPAIRED SHEAR WALL

- FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS :MESH 2


1600

7-

--

- -

I(0RIZOUTAL D I S P U C E I E Y I OF T O I S U D (mm)

Figure 5.6 : F.E. simulation of the testing of the repaired shearwall using "Mesh-2".

F E ANALYSIS O F A REPAIRE0 S H B R WALL

difference is recordecl both in the initial stifhesses and the post-peak descending
branches. These results, though, can Vary depending on the displacement steps adopted
within each load senes and the constitutive models chosen to represent the 2-0 response

of concrete under cydic loading. It is believed that the predicted response can be
irnproved with an appropriate sensitivity study on the parameten that have most influence
on this type of pmblem. Furthet comrnents are provided in section 5.4.

Figure 5.7 :F.E. simulation of the testing of the repaired shear wall using 'Mesh-3".

The results of the second part of the analyses (simulation of the test on the
repaired s+mcture)are presented using Figures 5.5 to 5.8. In Figures 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7 the
total horizontal load applied on the top slab is represented as a funaion of the horizontal

displacements of the same slab and obtained using, respectively, Mesh-1, Mesh-2 and
Mesh-3. To facilitate the cornpanson between the experimental and the numerical results,

F-E ANALYSIS O F A REPAIRE0 S U H R WALL

Figure 5.8 shows the envelopes of peak loads for the observed and predicted fimt cycles

of all displacement values for the thme cases. Also. a summary table is presented in which

observed and predided behavior am more genenMy described by the load-displacement


coordinates of some key phenomenons. or Wtal signsn, such as: first shear craking, first
flexural cracking, first minforcement yielding and first concrete cnishing.

Table 5.1 :Surnmar~Table,

Vital signs

Expen'mental

Mesh-1

Mesh-2

Mesh-3

Disp. (mmy

Disp- (mm)/

ioad (kN)

Hor. load (kN)

Ho?. load (kN)

9 / 1467
at a crack
10 / 1571
general

9 / 1324
at a crack
10 11456
general

9 / 1091
at a crack
10 / 930
general

11 / 1605
at a crack
12 / 1570
general

12 1 1450
at a crack
13 / 1448
general

9 11091
at a crack
9 / 1091
general

9 / 1467
at a crack
10 / 1571
general

9 11488
at a crack
10 / 1456
general

not
applicable

H l (mmw Hor. Disp. (mmy Ho?.

lord (kN)
Web wall :first
shear cracking

2 / 463

Web wall :yield

initiation of vert.
reinforcement

1 7 11192

Web wall :yield


initiation of horiz.

not
avaliable

reinforcement
Flange walls :
yield initiation of
vertical
reinforcement

1111192

general

Web wall :
initiation of

concrete
crushing

121 1120

new concrete

7 11176
new element
'IO / 1571
old element

6 / 1294
new element
5/1154
old element

6 / 1313
new element
5/1190
old element

F" E- ANALYSlS OF A REPAIRED SHEAR W A 4

Flange walls :
initiation
of punching
failure
Max.
Displacement

11/ 1192

fi7/4
cyde I

not
applicable

not
applicable

8/1199

+15 1 1611
cycle I

kt5 / 1138
cycle I

i l 5 1421
cycle I

5.4 Discussion of results


Fmm Figuras 5.5. 5.6, 5.7 we can see how the stiffness and strength of the
repaired wall has been overestimated- Both the numerical and the experimental results
yield the maximum load-canying capacity at a displament value of f i1 mm, For Mesh-l

the exprimental peak load obtained during the "pulling phase* of the first cycle of load
stage il is 1192 kN, while the numerical peak load obtained during the same phase is
1605 kN, which represents an increase of about 33%- The principal compressive strains
E

~ the
,

bulging of the web and the relative vertical displacements of slabs follow similar

trends to those indicated for the horizontal loads. Additional information is provided in

appendix 0.
This type of result for Mesh-1 was expeded for various reasons: first of all, the 3-0

shear wall structure was modeled using a 2-D membrane element mesh. Typical three

dimensional effects. such as the torsional behavior of the top slab or the considerable
horizontal slendemess of the flanges which reduces their effective width, cause nonuniform stress distributions and deflected shapes and tend to increase the flexibility of the
whole system. The 2-0 modelling concentrates ont0 a single plane al1 the flexural and

Fe&-AiULYSS OF A REPAIRED SHEAR WALL

shear stiffness properties of the various parts of the structure and dearly neglects the
contributions of the aforementioned 3-0 effects, thus overestimating the resulting stiffness.
Another reason can be found in the concrete hysteretic model used. As one of the
options, program TRlX features a non-linear constitutive model for cyciic loading. This
particular formulation has proven to perfom well for vuideand single unload-reload
excursions, but, as these excursions am repeated at the same cydic load-displacernent
values. the model is not capable of desaibing completely the damage pmduced in the
concrete. The msult is that the cornputed second or third cyde peak loads. relative to the
same displacement value, will be very similar. Expen'mental results show that the same
peak load cannot be reached on subsequent cycles and the following peak loads will
aIways be smaller than the previous ones, especially in the descending branches of the

curves. This fact can be obsenmd ciearly in Figure 4.28 of cbapter 4. Finally, the
incomplete modelling of the damage to the concrete, due to cyciic loading, produces
greater post-peak stiffhesses and load-carrying capacities. This conclusion can be drawn

comparing initially the observed load-displacernent response of the original wall in Figure
4.8, with the corresponding predicted response of Figure 5.4. Here the computed

descending branch is afways "highef than the actual one.


In the finite element analyses of the repaired shear wall this means that when the
analysis is resumed and the program reads the "seed file", permanent displacements, axial
and shear stiffness moduli, plastic stmins in the concrete and in the steel reinforcement,

and the damage produced along the cracks are al1 somewhat underestimated, In addition
to the stiffness, it is believed that this affects also the failure loads of the repaired

specimen, in that the test exhibited a cnishing failure of the old concrete and puncfiing of
the flanges at a much lower load than the one wmputed by TRlX (see Figures 4.27, 5.5).

F.E- ANALYSE OF A REPAIRED SHEAR WALL

Mesh-2 and Mesh-3 yidd different results. A s can be seen from Figure 5.6, Mesh-2
produces a peak horizontal load of 1488 kN at a displacernent value of 9 mm, which
represent an overestimation of the observed peak load of 24% .The predicted strength

has decreased as a resutt of the mesh refinernent in pmimity of the bottom concret0 layer
of the web: Table 5.1 shows how the ciushing of the concrete is predicted to occur at
much lower displacement value with Mesh-2 than

Mesh-1-

In the final analysis conducteci using Mesh-3, the computed peak horizontal load
decreases again to 1332 kN at a displacement value of 7 mm. This load is only 12% in
excess of the experirnental ultimate capacity- This last model is also the only one that is
able to capture the punchinq shear failure of the flanges as a consequence of the
concrete cmshing in the web and the tfansfer of the load carrying mechanism from the
web to the flanges- A msult of this phenomenon is the earlier yield initiation of the

horizontal web reinforcement cornpared to the previous analyses. See again Table 5.1.
Finally, Mesh-3 reproduces better the descending branch of the load-displacement
behavior. As previously menoned, the post-peak stiffness is an index of the damage
produced in the structure and is paroally a function o f the constitutive model used for
reinforced concrete under cyclic loading.
The initial stiffness of the shear wall is overestirnated by approximately the same
amount in al1 three cases. From the experimental data it appean that. during this part of

the load history, the web wall gives the main contribution to the stiffness of the entire
structure, whereas, as the cracking progresses and the reinforcernent starts yielding, the

flanges become more active. Thus, the mesh refinements over the old concrete layer and
the flanges produced better results in ternis of ulmate capacity and post-peak response,
but still couldnt descri-becomcy the initial phase of the test. It is then to be concluded

F.E. ANALYSIS OF A REPAIREO SHEAR WAU

that additional investigation must be addressed towards a complete 3-0constitutive rnodel

for reinforced concrete subject to cydic loading and that a 3-0 finite element analysis is

required in order ta pmperly take into account al[ the 3-0effects,

Figure 5.8 :Cornparison of experirnental results with the finite element analyses.

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS
6.1 General conclusions and Recommendations
The objective of this work has been to address the problem of modelling and

analyzing repaired or stmngth-enhanced structures. After an overview of the existing


Iiterature on the subject, a number of structures previously tested have been modelled and
analyzed using the finite element program TRlX This program had been originally
developed at the University of Toronto for the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete
membranes and was subsequentiy applied also to beams and columns. During the
present research, some features were added to program TRlX and some were extended,

in order to allow a better description of the behavior of these particular structures. A few
other requirements that were found to be necessary for a complete modelling of repaired
structures, are presented in section 6.2 and suggested as possible improvements to
achieve with future studiesThe type of reinforced concrete structures chosen for the analyses indude: two

slabs repaired under maintained load, one with glass FRP and one with carbon FRP; a
"deep" beam repaired under maintained load with carbon FRP; and a shear wall repaired

by replacing the web concrete at zero load conditions. The shear wall was repaired and
retested within the experimental program of this thesis.

CONCLUSIONS

The outcome of the analytW

program is considered generally very satisfactory. A

wmmon procedure was followed in which each finite elernent madel was first comborated
comparing the predicted and observed results from the conttol specimens- Except for a
few cases, stiffnesses and ultimate capacities of members were ahvays predicted M i n

acceptable limits. The strength of the slab repaired with CFRP was substantially
overestimated (20%) (see Chapter 3) and the computed initial stiffness of the repaired
shear wall was greater #an aie observed one by a factor of appmxrnately 1.55 (see
Chapter 5). Predictions are always given in various forms: load-displacements, momentcurvatures, shear load-sheaf stmins, concrete and reinforcernent strains, cracking patterns
and spacings. The overall descriptions of the structural response are good in every case-

These results were obtained by providing program TR1X with a few additional
features, specific for the modelling and analysis of repaired or enhanced structures. One
of these is the inclusion of pafticular constitutive laws for FRP or steel materials applied in

the f o m of sheets or plates. These Iaws are such that portions of plates subjected to
compression do not contribute to the total strength of the structure, thus simulating the
possible outward buckling of these plates. Furthemiore, in the case of FRP sheets or
plates, the stress-strain diagram is always specified to be Iinear-elasticwith a brittle type of
failure. Another important innovation is the possibility of defining superimposed elements.

with different material properties, and activating or disactivating

them at any point of the

analysis. As descn'bed in Chapter 3, the modelling of repaired or enhanced structures


under a maintained load or with permanent deformations requires that new elements can
be activated in a stress-free condition; that is, without having retained any stresses from
the previous load history. This was achieved introducing the possibility of retaining strains

with each new load stage and by defining the so called "plastic offset strains".

CONCLUSIONS

Condusions regardhg the exparimental program can be drami on the repair


strategy of the shear wall and on the considerable amount of data produced for 3-0
reinforced concret8 structures subjected to cydic loading. The strength of the shear wall
was almost entinly nstom (95%). even if the initial stiRness was lower than the original
one. Thus, the intervention can be considered effective.

It is advisable though, in light of

the failure mode describeci in Chapter 4, that the new ancrete should have mechanical

properties as similar as possibk to those of the originally used concrete. C


n addition, care
should be taken in removing as much damaged concrete as possible. Rough surfaces for
constructionjoints should be located on sound portions of the structure.
The data collected on the concret8 and reinforcement stresses and strains,
absolute and relative displacements of the sbbs, web bulging and cracking. can be used
for the corroboration of new or refined 3-0finite element formulations. Also, tiie data can
be used to model the 3-0stress-strain response of reinforced wncrete structures
subjected to extensive damage and reversed loadings.

6.2 Suggestions for future studies


Future research wuld address the problem of modelling the bond properties of the
concreteepoxy layer interface. In al1 the analyses conducted in this thesis, a perfect bond

was assumed between the FRP or steel plates and the wncrete surfaces. Experimental
evidence, though, shows that this does not aiways apply and that bond properties are

often the basis of failure mechanisms. Laboratory tests could be perfomed to provide the

necessary data for the formulation of a bond failure surface, expressed in ternis of shear,
normal and axial stresses, for the cancrete and the FRP-epoxy layer. From the analytical

CONCLUSIONS

point of view, new finite elements could be derived that account for these bond properes,
expressed by the faure surface. and implemented UIt0 the more general formulation of

programs such as TRIX Finally, more experimental ancl theoretical reseafchcould be


devoted to modelling the response of reinforced concrete subjected to monotonic and

cyclic 3-D sttess states. Existing rnodels could be refined in order to better desuibe
damage produced to conctete by reversed and repeated load cycles.

the

['il

Vecchio, F.J., and Collins, M.P.. (1986). 7he Modifed Compression Field Theory

for Concrete Elements Subjected to Sheaf. ACI Structural Joumal, Vol. 83, No. 2, pp.
219-231.

[2]

Mitchell, D., and Collins, M.?., (1974). 'Diagonal Compression Field Theory a

Rational Model for Structural Concrete in Pure Torsion', AC1 Structural Journal, Vol. 71,
NO-8, pp. 649-666.

[3]

Domondon, J-C., (1994). 7 R l X Quick Check Pre- and Post-Processorsn.M. Eng.

Thesis, University of Toronto, pp. 89.


[4]

De Rose, D., (1997). T h e Rehabilitation of a Concrete Structure Using Fibre

Reinforced Plastics'. M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto, pp. 177.


151

Palemo, D., (1998). Testing of a 3-0Shear Wall Under Cyclic Loading". M.A.Sc.

Thesis, University of Toronto, pp. 242.

[6]

Shanf, A., Al-Sulaimani, G.J., Basunbul, I.A., Baluch, M.H., and Ghaleb, B.N.

(1994). "Strengthening of Initially Loaded Reinforced Concrete Beams Using FRP Platesn.

AC1 Structural Journal, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp.160-168.

r]

MacDonald, M.D., (1978). m e Flexural Behavior of Concrete Beams With Bonded

Extemal Reinforcement". TRRL Supplementary Report 415. National Technical


!nfonnation Service, US. Department of Commerce.
[8]

Jones, R.. Swamy, R.N., and Ang, T.H., (1982). "Under- and over-Reinforced

Concrete Beams with Glued Steel Platesn.The InternationalJoumal of Cernent


Composites and Lightweight Concrete, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp 19-32.

REFERENCES

[9]

Jones, R.. Swamy. R.N.. and Charif, A.. (1989). The Effect of Extamal Plate

Reinforcement on the Strengthening of Structurally Darnaged RC Beams". The Structural


Engineer, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp 45-56.

ilO]

Jones. R., Swamy, RN., and Charif, A., (1988). uPlateSeparation and Anchorage

of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened by Epoxy-bonded Steel Platesu. The


Structural Engineer, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp 85-94.
[Il] Sharif. A., AI-Sulaimani. G.J.. Basunbul, I.A., Baluch, M.H., and Husain, M. (1994).

'Strengthening of Shear-Damaged RC Beams by Extemal Bonding of Steel Platesu.


Magazine of Concrete Research. Vol. 47, No. 173. pp.329-334.
[12]

Meier, U.. (1992). 'Carbon-Fber Reinforced Polyrners: Modem Materials in Bridge

Engineering". Structural Engineering Intemational, January 1992, pp. 7-12.


[13]

Meier. U., (1991). 'Strengthening of Structures with CFRP taminates". Advanced

Composite Materials in Civil Engineering, Proceeding of the Speciality Conference, Las


Vegas, ASCE, January 1991. pp. 288-294.
[14]

Kaliakin, V.N., Chajes. M.J., Januszka, T.F.. "Analysis of Concrete Beams

Reinforcedwith Extemally Bonded Woven Composite Fabricsu. Proceedings of the 1995


2nd International Conference for Composites Engineering, New Orleans, USA.

Composites-PartB: Engineering. Vol. 27. n 3-4. pp. 235-244.


[15]

Shahawy. M.A.. Arockiasamy. M., Beitelman, T., and Sowrirajan.

Concrete Beams Reinforced

R.. "Analysis of

Extemally Bonded Woven Composite Fabrics".

Proceedings of the 1995 2nd InternationalConference for Composites Engineering, New


Orleans, USA. Composites-PartB: Engineering. Vol. 27, n 3-4, pp. 225-233.

[16] Ritchie, P.A., Thomas. D.A., L M , L., and Connelly. G.M., (1991). 'Extemal
Reinforcement of Conaete Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Plasticsm,AC1 Structural

Journal, V.88, No. 4, pp. 490-500[17]

Arduini, M., Di Tommaso, A., Nanni, A., (1997). 'Brittle Failure in FRP Plate and

Sheet Bonded Beams". ACI Structural Journal, V. 94, No- 4, pp- 363-370.
[18]

Arduini, M., Di Tommaso, A.. Nanni. A., (1997). 'Parametric Study of beams with

Extemally Bonded FRP Reinforcemenr. ACI Structural Joumal. V. 94, No. 5, pp. 493-501.
[19]

Ziraba, Y.N., (1993). 'Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Con-

Beams Repaired by Plate Bonding". Ph.D. Thesis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals, pp. 326.
[20]

Inaba, C.M., Warren, GE., Malvar, LJ., (1996). 'Upgrade of Navy Pien with

Compositesn,41s t lntemational SAMPE Symposium, March 24-28, pp. 1280-1289.


[21]

Huemer, T., Kropik, C., Mang, H.A.,and Gunther, M.. 'Repair of a Cracked Cooling

Tower Shell Based on Numerical Simulationsu. Proceedings of the IASS-ASCE


lntemational Symposium, 1994. Atlanta, USA. pp. 887-896.
[22]

Engebretson, D., San. R., Mullins, G., Hartley, A., (1996). 'Strengthening of

Concrete Block Walls Using Carbon Fiber. Materials for the New Millennium, Proceedings
of the Materals Engineering Conference, Vol. 2, ASCE. pp.1592-1600.

1231

Fiorato, A-E., Oesterle R.G., Corley W.G-, (1983).

Behavior of Earthquake

Resistant Structural Walls Before and After Repair." AC1 Structural Journal, Vol.
September-October, Title no. 8-39, pp. 403-413.
[24]

Lefas, I.D., Kotsovos, M.D., (1990). 'Strength and Deformation Characteristics of

Reinforced Concrete Walls under Load Reversalsu. AC1 Structural Journal, Vol. 87, No. 6
November-December, pp. 716-725.
[25]

"Stiffness of Low Rise Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls" - Working Group on

Stiffness of Concrete Shear Wall Structures (ASCE), ASCE Pubblications, 1994-

REFERENCES

1251

Neville, A.M., (1996).' Proparties of Concrete 4th. Edition". John Wiley & Sons

editor, New York, 1996-

1271

%oncrete Design Handbook'. Canadian Portland Cernent Association (CPCA).

CSA Standard CANSA23.3-M84, 'Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings",

Clause 8.10.5., pp.40, (1987).

[28] 'Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Conuete Structures". Proceedings of the


International Workshop, Vol I and Il, ASCE, (1991).

A. 1 TRIX i n ~ ufiles
t
for the slab analyses.
Ta follow are the input files for the control slab and the input files for the carbonrepaired slab. The glass-repaireci slab has the identical input files, with exception for the

values of the elastic modulus E and the rupture strain E* of the glass fibers :

TRlX Tobwfile control slab:


*

TRIX

* JOB DATA '

**********te

Job TiNe
(30 char, max)
:control slab DER1
Job File Name ( 8 char. max.)
:DER1
Date
(30 char- m a )
:Aug 06,1997

STRUCTURE DATA

File Name

( 8 char. m a )

:DER1

LOADlNG DATA
No- of Load Stages
:31
:1
Starting Load Stage No.
:DER1
Load Series 10 ( 5 char- max)
Load File Name
Case (8 char. rnax.)
O
1 DER1
O
2 NULL
O
3
NULL

Factors
Initial Final LS-lnc Type Reps C-lnc
1 1 0.000
6
0.2
0 0 0
O
O
O
O
0 0 0

ANALYSE PARAMETERS

Seed File Name


(8 char. m a )
Convergence Limit (factor 1.O)
Averaging Factor ( 0.0 to 1.O )
Maximum No. of lterations
Convergence Cntena

:N U L
:1.O001
:0.6
:65
:2

:1

Results Files

MATERIAL BEHAVlOUR MODELS

Concrete Compression Base Cunre


(0-2):1
Concrete Post-Peak Dudiiii
(0-1) :t
Concrete Comprea-on Softening
(04) :3
Concrete Tension Stiffening
(0-3):1
Concrete confinement Sength
(0-1) :1
Concrete Variable Expansion
(,1) :-1
Conctete Tension Spiiing
(0-1) :O
Concrete Cracking Criterion
(013):1
Concrete Crack Slip Check
(0-1) :1
Coticrete Comp Stability Check
(0-3) :O
Concrete Residual Tension
(012):2
Concrete Hysteresis Model
(0-2) :O
Reinforcement Stress Response
(0-3):1
Strain Histories Retained
(G1) :1

TRlX "structure"file control slab:

STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS
Structure rrtle
(30 char. max-) :repaired slab DER1
Structure File Name ( 8 char. m a )
:DER1

Worlting Units
(Imperia! or Metric) :metrie
No. of R.C. Material Types
:4
No. of Steel Material Types
:1
No. of Rectangufar Elements
:486
No. of Triangular Elements
:O
No. of Tmss Elements
:16
No- of Joints
:200
No. of Restraints
:11

(A) REINFORCED CONCRETE

<NOTE:> TO BE USE0 IN RECTANGULAR AND TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS ONLY

CONCRETE
MAT. f c ft Ec MU Cc T A Srnx Smy Sma #REINF.
TYPE# MPa MPa MPa
IC mm mm mm mm deg COMP.
1 48.4 2.3 31300 0.15 O 1200 20 100100 O O
2 48.4 2.3 31300 0.15 O 1200 20 100 100 O 1
3 48.4 2.3 31300 0.15 O 1200 20 100100 O 1

REINFORCEMENTCOMPONENTS
>

MAT. SRF. ORIENT. PERCENT Fy


Fu
ES Esh
W P TYP deg
% ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa
2 1 O 1,136 458 692 -2
10000 15.0 0 0
3 1 O 1.667 458 692 200000 10000 15-0 0 0
4 3 O 100 10001050 90000 90000 11.2 0 0
4 3 90 100 90 100 5500 5500 18.2 O0
1

esh Cs Dep
me IFJC me

()STEEL
-

<NOTE:> TO BE USED FOR TRUSS ELEMENTS ONLV


MAT. SRF. AREA Es
Fy
Fu esh
Cs Dep
TYP TYP in2,rnmZ ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa me ksi,MPa /F,/C
1 3 1200 90000 1000 los0 11.2 90000 O O /
I
ELEMENT INCIDENCES

me

(A) RECTANGULAR ELEMENTS

<cc<< FORMAT >>w


ELMT lNC1 INC2 INC3 lNCl [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) 1 [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) J f
1 3 11 12 2 1 9 9 1 0 9 1 1 /
172 1 11 12 2 1 9 9 10 9 1 1 1
343 31 41 42 32 16 9 10 9 1 1 I
/

(B) TRIANGUUR ELEMENTS


cc<<<FORMAT >>>>>
ELMT INC1 lNC2 INC3 [lYELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC)] [ WELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) ]
/

(C) TRUSS ELEMENTS


<<cc<FORMAT >>>>>
ELMT INCl INCZ [ ELMT d(ELMf) d(lNC)] [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(l NC) ] 1
487 31 41 1 O0 161 10
/
MATERIAL TYPE ASSIGNMENT

<<<cc FORMAT >a>


ELMT MAT ACT [ ELMT d(ELMT)] [ #ELMT d(ELMT) 1 /
1 1 1 1991
2 3 1 199 I
3 1 1 199 4 1 1
7 2 1 199 1
8 1 1 199 2 1 1
172 1 O 19 9 /
173 3 O 19 9 1
174 1 0 1 9 9 4 1 /
178 2 O 19 9 I
179 1 0 1 9 9 2 1 1

COORDINATES
cmm+.i+,

<NOTE:> UNITS: in OR mm
<<<ceFORMAT w>w>>
NODE X Y [MODES d(N0DES) d(X) d m J [#NODES d(N0DES) d o d(Y) J f
1 O 0
31050 O 2 1 020 /
3 040
31050 O 4 1 0 3 6 /
70184
31050041022/
31 1500
11 1OSQ.l O 2 1 020 /
3315040 11 1059,l O 4 1 0 3 6 1
37150184 111059.1 O 4 1 0 2 2 /
141 8000 6 10 50 O 2 1 O 20 1
143 80040 61050 O 4 1 O36 /
147 800184 61050 O 4 1 O22 f
/
SUPPORT RESTRAINTS

<NOTE:> CODE: 'O' FOR NOT RESTRAlNED NODES AND '1' FOR RESTRAlNED ONES
c e < < FORMAT w>>>w
N O D E X-RST Y-RST [ #NODE d(N0DE) J f
191 1 O101 /
31 0 1 /
/

TRlX "load* file conttol specimen :

LOAD CASE
DATA

*t***t*****t*

LOAD CASE PARAMETERS


Structure Title
(30 char, maxJ :control slab DER1
Load Case Title
(30 char. maxJ :VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT
Load Case File Name (8 char- max,) :DER1
Units
(Imperia1 or Metfic) :metfic
No. of Loaded Joints
:O
No. of Presuibed Support Oispiacernents :1
No. of Elernents with Temperature Loads :O
No. of Elements wth Concrete Prestrain :O
No. of Elements with Ingres Pressure :O

JOINT LOADS
<NOTE:> UNITS: KlPS OR KN
<cc FORMAT >ww>>
SUPPORT DISPLACEMENTS
<NOTE:> UNITS: MM OR IN
<<<c<FORMAT >>>>>
JNT DOF DISPL [ WNT d(JN7)
150 2 -1.000 /

1/

TEMPERATRE LOADS
<NOTE:> UNITS: F OR C
<ex<FORMAT >>SB>
ELMT TEMP (ELMT d(ELMf) dCfEMP) ) [ELMT d(ELMT) dmMP) 1 1
1

CONCRETE PRESTRAINS

<NOTE:> UNITS: me
<cc<< FORMAT >>>a>
LMT d(ELMT) d(STRAIN) ] [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(SfRAlN)
ELMT STRAIN [ E
1

INGRESS PRESSURES

TRIX 'iob" file carbon repaired slab:

Job Title
(30 char. max.)
:repaired slab DER1
Job File Name ( 8 char. maxi)
:DER2
Date
(30 char. max.)
:Aug 06,1997
STRUCTURE DATA

FileName

(8char.max.)

:DER2

LOADING DATA
No. of Load Stages

:36

Starting Load Stage No,


Load Series ID ( S char. max.)

:1
:DER2

Load File Name


Factors
Case (8 char. m m )
initial Final LS-lnc Type Reps C-Cnc
1 DER
2.8
16.8 0.4
i 1 0-000
2 NUL
O
O
0 0 0
O
3
NUL
O 0 0
O
O
O
ANALYSE PARAMETERS
Seed File Narne
(8 char. max.)
:DERI-15
Convergence Limit (factor > 1.O)
:1.O001
Averaging Factor ( 0.0 to 1.O )
:0.25
Maximum No. of Iterations
:65
Convergence Criteria
:2
Resuits Files
:1
MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR MODELS
Concrete Compression Base Cuwe
(0-2) :1
Concrete Post-Peak DudiMy
(0-1) :1
Concrete Compression Softening
(0-8) :3
Concrete Tension Stiffening
(0-3) :1
Concrete Confinement Strength
(M):1
Concrete Variable Expansion
(04):1
Concrete Tension Splitting
(011) :O
Concrete Cracking Criterion
(0-3) :1
Concrete Crack Slip Check
(0-1) :1
Concrete Comp Stability Check
(013) :1
Concrete Residual Tension
(0-2) :2
Concrete Hysteresis Model
(0-2) :O
Reinforcement Stress Response
(0-3) :1
Strain Histories Retained
(0-1) :O

TRlX "stNcture"file carbon re~airedslab:

"***********
* STRUCTURE
*
DATA

'

'************
STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS
Structure T'le
(30 char. max.)
:repaired slab DER1
Structure File Name ( 8 char. max.) :DER2
Working Units
(Impetial or Metric) :metnc
:4
No. of R.C. Matenal Types
No. of Steel Matenal Types
:1
No. of Rectangular Elements
:486
No. of Triangular Elements
:O
No. of Tmss Elements
:16
No, of Joints
:200
No. of Restraints
:11

(A) REINFORCED CONCRETE


<NOTE:> TO BE USED IN RECTANGUUR AND TRlANGULAR ELEMENTS ONLY
CONCRETE
MAT. fc Pt Ec MU Cc T A S m Smy Smc #REINE
TYPE# MPa MPa MPa
I C mm mm mm mm deg COMP.
1 48.4 2.3 31300 0-15 O 1200 20 100 100 O O
2 48.4 2.3 31300 0.15 O 1200 20 t W 100 O 1
3 48.4 2.3 31300 0.15 O 1200 20 f00 100 O 1
4 48-4 2.3 31300 0.0s O 2 20 100 100 O 2
1
REINFORCEMENTCOMPONENTS

MAT. SRF ORIENT. PERCENT Fy


Fu
Es
Esh
esh Cs Dep
TYPTYPdeg
%
MPa
MPa
MPa MPa me /F,/C me
2 1 O 1.136 458 692 200000 1O000 15.0 O O
3 1 0 1-667 458 692 200000 10000 15.0 0 O
4 3 0 100 10001050 90000 90000 11.2 O 0
4 3 9 0 IO0 90100
5500
5500 18.200
1
(B) STEEL

<NOTE:> TO BE USED FOR TRUSS ELEMENTS ONLY


,WT.SRF AREA Es
Fy
Fu esh Esh
Cs Dep
TYP TYP mm2
MPa
MPa
MPa me MPa F , / C me
1 3 1200 90000 1000 1050 11.2 90000 O 0 1
1
ELEMENT INCIDENCES
(A) RECTANGULAR ELEMENTS

ccccc FORMAT >>>>>


ELMT INC1 INC2 INC3 lNC4 [ E L M T d(ELMT) d(lNC) ] [#LMT d(ELMT) d(1NC) ) 1
1 1 11 12 2 1 9 9 1 0 9 1 1 /
172 1 11 12 2 19 9 10 9 1 1 /
343 31 41 42 32 16 9 10 9 1 1 1
1

(B) TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS


cccec FORMAT >w>>>
ELMT INC1 lNC2 INC3 [ELMT deLMT) d(lNC)] [ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) ] 1
/

(C) TRUSS ELEMENTS

ccccc FORMAT >>>a>


ELMT INC1 INC2 ( E L M T d(ELMT) d(lNC)] [ #MT d(ELMT) d(1NC) ] 1
487 31 41 1 0 0 161 10

MATERIAL TYPE ASSIGNMENT


cc<<<FORMAT w>w>w
ELMT MAT ACT [ YELMT d(ELMT)] [ ELMT d(ElMT) ] 1
1 I O 199 1
2 3 1 199 1
3 1 1 199 4 1 /
7 2 1 199 1
8 1 1 199 2 1 1
172 1 1 19 9 1
173 3 O 19 9 1
174 1 0 1 9 9 4 1 1
178 2 O 19 9 1
179 1 0 1 9 9 2 1 1
34341 169 9 1 1
487 I 1 16 1 /

COORDINAES

<NOTE:> UNITS: in OR mm
<<cc< FORMAT >>>
NODE X Y [#NODES d(NODES) d(X) d(Y) J (IYNODES d(N0DES) dm d(Y) ] 1
1 0 0
31050 O 21020 1
3040
31050041036/
7 O184
31050 O 4 1 022 1
31 1500
11 lOS8.l O 2 1 020 /
3315040 111059.1 0 4 1 0 3 6 1
37150184 11 1059.1 O 4 1 0 2 2 /
141 8000 6 1 0 5 0 O 2 1 0 2 0 f
143 80040 6 1 0 5 0 O 4 1 0 3 6 1
147 800184 6 1 0 5 0 O 4 1 0 2 2 1
/

SUPPORT RESTRAINTS
<NOTE:> CODE: 'O' FOR NOT RESTRAINED NODES AND '1' FOR RESTRAINED ONES
<<<cc FORMAT >>>>>
NODE X-RST Y-RST [ #NODE d(N0DE) 1 I
Y91 1 0 1 0 1 f
31 0 1 1
1

f RlX "load" file carbon re~airedslab:

LOAD CASE '


DATA
*************

LOAD CASE PARAMETERS


Structure Title

(30 char. max.)

:repaired slab DER1

Load Case Tffle


(30 chat- mart) :VERTICAL OISPLACEMENT
Load Case File Name (8 char- m m ) :DER2
Units
(Imperia1 or Metfic) :metric
No- of Loaded Joints
:O
No. of Prescribed Sup~ortDsglacements :1
No. of Elements with Tempefatum Loads :O
No. of Elementswith Cona'ete Prestrain :O
No. of Elements with lngress Pressure :O

JOINT LOAOS

SUPPORT DISPLACEMENTS
<NOTE:> UNITS: MM OR IN
<cc<< FORMAT w>>
JNT DOF DlSPL [KINT d(JNT) ] /
150 2 -1.000 1
1

TEMPERATURE LOADS

<NOTE:> UNITS: me

<<cc< FORMAT >,>>>


ELMT STRAIN [ #LM1 d(ELMT) d(STRAIN) j [ELMT d(ELMT) d(STRAlN) ] 1
/

INGRESS PRESSURES

A.2 Slab cracking patterns nearfailure.


In this section the cracking patterns and deflected shapes produced by progam

TRlX are shown both for the sfab control specimen and the carbon-repaired slab:

Figure A2.1 : TRlX predicted cracking patterns for the sfab control specimen.

Figure A2.2 :TRlX predicted cracking patterns for the carbon-repaired slab.

APPENDIX B

B. 1 TRIX input files for the beam analyses.


To follow are the input files for the control slab and the input files for the carbon-

repaired beam:

TRIX "job"file control beam:

TRIX
JOB DATA

************

Job TRle
(30 char. max.)
:control beam DER3
Job File Name ( 8 char, rnax.)
:DER3
Date
(30 char. max.)
:Aug 06,1997

STRUCTURE DATA
File Name

( 8 char. m a )

:DER3

LOADING DATA
No. of Load Stages
Starting Load Stage NoLoad Senes ID ( 5 char. max.)
Load File Name
Case (8 char. max.)
O
1 DER3
O
2 NULL
3 NULL
O

:29
:1
:DER3

Factors
Initial Final LS-lnc Type Reps C-lnc
0.5
1 1 0.000
14
0 0 0
O
O
O 0 O
O
O

ANALYSlS PARAMETERS
Seed File Name
(8 char. marc)
:N U L
Convergence Limit (factor > 1.0)
:1.0005
Averaging Factor ( 0.0 to 1.O )
:0-6
Maximum No. of lterations
:65
Convergence Criteria
:2
Results Files
:1
MATERIAL BEMVIOUR MOOELS
Concrete Corn-on
Base Cuwe
(0-2) :2
Concrete Post-Peak Ouctility
(0-1) :2
Concreten
ois
C
e
m
orp
Softening
(0-8) :3
Concrete Tension Stiffening
(0-3):2
Concrete Confinement Strsngth
(M):1
Concrete Variable Expansion
(Gl) :1
Concrete Tension Splitting
(0-1) :O
Concrete Cracking Criterion
(013) :1
Concrete Crack Slip Check
(0-1) :1
Concrete Comp Stability Check
(C3) :2
Concrete Residual Terision
(0-2) :2
Concrete Hysteresis Model
(0-2) :O
Reinforcement Stress Response
(0-3):2
Strain Histories Retained
(0-1) :1

TRlX "stnicture*file

- control beam:

STRUCTURE
DATA

**+**********
STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS
Structure Tiile
(30 char. m a ) :control beam DER3
:DER4
Structure File Name ( 8 char. max.)
Working Units
(Imperia1 or Metnc) :metric
:14
No. of R.C. Material Types
No. of Steel Material Types
:3
:930
No. of Rectangular Elements
No. of Tnangular Elements
:O
No. of Tniss Elements
:57
No. of Joints
:706
No. of Restraints
:3

MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
(A) REINFORCED CONCRETE

<NOTE:> TO BE USE0 IN RECTANGUiAR AND TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS ONLY


CONCRETE
MAT. fc Pt Ec MU Cc T A SmxSmySma #REINFTYP MPa MPa MPa /F,/C mm mm mm mm mm deg COMP.
1 45-7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 1
2 45-7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
3 45.7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
4 45.7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 300 20 1000 500 O 1
5 45-7 2.3 30400 0-15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 1
6 45.7 2.3 30400 0-15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
7 45-7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
8 45.7 2.3 30400 0-15 O 300 20 1000 500 O 2
9 45.7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 1
10 45.7 2.3 30400 0-15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
11 45.7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
12. 45.7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O O
:3 45.7 2.3 30400 0-15 O 2 20 1000 500 O 2
14 45.7 2.3 30400 0.15 O 50 20 1000 500 O 2
/

REINFORCEMENT COMPONENTS
MAT. SRF ORIENT, PERCI NT Fy Fu Es Esh esh Cs Dep
WPTYPdeg
%
M sa MPa MPa MPa me /F,IC me
1 1 90 0.1632 507 7 8 20 300 10000 15 0 O
2 1 0 19.07 492 650 200a 30 10000 15 O0
2 1 90 0.1632 507 778 200 100 10000 15 0 0
3 1 0 11.O91 492 688 200 300 10000 l S 0 0
3 1 90 0.1632 507 778 200 100 10000 15 0 0
4 1 90 0.167 507 778 200( 100 IOOOO 1s 0 0
5 1 90 0.2464 507 778 200 300 10000 15 0 O
6 1 O 19.07 492 650 200 30 10000 15 O0
6 1 90 0.2464 507 778 200 100 10000 15 O0
7 1 0 11.O91 492 688 200 DO0 10000 1s 0 0
7 1 90 0.2464 507 t78 200 300 10000 15 0 0
8 1 0 0.4444 507 778 200i 100 1O000 15 O 0
8 1 90 0.3333 507 ?78 200 300 10000 15 0 O
9 1 90 0.0672 507 778 200 300 10000 15 O0
10 1 0 19.07 492 650 200 300 1O000 15 0 0
10 1 90 0.0672 507 7 8 20 3000 10000 15 0 0
11 1 0 ll.O9l 492 688 20 3000 1O000 15 0 0
11 1 90 0.0672 507 778 20 3000 10000 15 0 0
1 3 3 0 100 90 100 550( i 5500 18.2 O 0
1 3 3 9 0 100 1000 1050 9( 1000 90000 11-2 0 O
14 1 O 100 492 688 2000i 10 10000 15 O0
14 1 90 100 492 688 2000 I O 10000 15 0 0

() STEEL
<NOTE:> TO BE USU) FOR TRUSS ELEMENTS ONLY
MAT. SRF AREA Es
Fy
Fu esh Esh Cs Dep
TYP TYP mm2
MPa
MPa MPa me MPa IFJC me
13550 5500 90 100 18.2 5500 O 0
2 1 750 200000 492 68 15 10000 O O
3 1 1400 200000 492 688 15 10000 O O
1
ELEMENT INCIDENCES

(A) RECTANGULAR ELEMENTS


ccctc FORMAT w>www

ELMT 1NC1 lNC2 INC3 lNC4 [ # M T d(ELMT) d(INC) ] [ELMT d


1
1 1 7 18 2 2 3 1 5 1 6 1 5 1 1 1
346 369 385 386 370 1 O O 131 1 1
359 385 399 400 386 22 13 14 13 1 1 1
645 369 385 386 370 1 O O 13 1 1 1
658 385 399 400 386 19 1314 431 1 /
905 369 385 386 370 1 O O 1
906 385 399 400 386 19 1 14 /
925 334 350 351 335 3 2 16 2 1 1 1

o d(lNC) ] /

(B)TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS
ce<<< FORMAT >>>>>
ELMT INC1 INC2 INC3 (IYELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC)] [IYELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) ] 1
/

(C) TRUSS ELEMENTS


ce<<< FORMAT w>>

ELMT lNCl INCZ [EW d(ELMT) d(lNC)] [#ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) ] f


931 369 385 1 O 0 1
932 385 399 1 9 1 141
951 382 398 1 O O /
952398 412 1 9 1 141
971 382 383 1 O O 2 1 1 1
973273274 f O O 1 5 1 1 /
/
MATERIAL TYPE ASSENMENT

cc<<< FORMAT >>>>>


ELMT MAT ACT [ # L m d(ELMT)] [ELMT d(ELMT) ] /
1 12 1 23 15 /
2 2 1 19 1 5 1
3 1 1 1915 9 1 /
12 3 1 19 15 /
13 4 1 19 15 3 1 1
2876 1 4 15 1

2885 1 4 15 9 1 /
2977 1 4 1s /
2988 1 4 15 3 1 /
34612 1 20 13 /
34710 1 23 13 /
3489 1 23 13 9 1 /
35711 1 23 13 /
35812 1 23 13 /
60612 1 3 13 1
645 13 O 20 13 13 f 1
90512 O 20 1 1
92514 O 3 2 2 1 1
931 1 O 20 1 1
951 1 O 20 1 /
9712 O 1 O 2 1 /
9733 O 1 O 1 S 1 /
1

COOROINATES
<NOTE:> UNITS: in OR mm
<ce<< FORMAT >>w>w
NODE X Y [MODES d(N0DES) do() dCI) J [#NODES d(N0DES) dm d o J 1
1 O0 316158.3330 2 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 1
2 0 4 5 3 1 6 158-3330 2 1 1 O910 1
3 0 8 5 318158.3330 1 0 1 092.221
15 O1150 316158.3330 2 1 0 1 5 0 1
49 4750 16 1695,31250 2 1 3 0 1000 /
50 47545 161695.31250 2 1 1 0910 1
51 47585 16 16 95.31250 10 1092.221
63 4751150 16169S131250 2 1 O 150 /
30520000 5 1 6 1 0 0 0 2 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 /
306200045 5 1 6 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 O910 1
307200085 5 1 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 9 2 2 2 1
319 2000 1150 5 16 IO0 O 2 1 O 150 1
385 2496.25 O 20 14 96.25 O 2 13 O 1000 /
386 2496.25 45 20 14 96.25 O 2 11 O 910 /
387 2496.25 85 20 14 96.25 O 1O 1 O 92.22 /
665 4483.333 O 3 14 158.333 O 2 13 O 1000 /
6664483.33345 3 14158.3330 2 1 1 O910 1
667 4483.333 85 3 14 158.333 O 10 1 O 92.22 /
1

SUPPORT RESTRAINTS

<NOTE:> CODE: 'O' FOR NOT RESTRAINED NODES AND '1' FOR RESTRAINED ONES
<<<cc FORMAT >w>>w
NODE X-RST Y-RST [#NODE d(N0DE) 1
49 1 1 1
651 0 1 /
/

TRIX 'loadDfile carbon re~airedbeam:

* LOAO CASE '


DATA

'

*****t******t

L W CASE PARAMETERS
Structure r i e
(30 char, m a ) :controt beam DER3
Coad Case Tiile
(30 char. m a ) :VRTICAL DISPLACEMENT
Load Case File Name (8 char. m a ) :DER3
Units
(Imperia1 or Metric) :metn'c
No. of Loaded Joints
:O
No, of Prescn'bedSupport Displacements :1
No. of Elements with Temperature Loads :O
No. of Elements with Conmte Prestrain :O
No, of Elementswith Ingress Pressute :O

JOINT LOAOS
<NOTE:> UNlfS: KlPS OR KN
<<<<< FORMAT >>w>>
NODE Fx Fy [ #NODE d(N0DE) d(Fx) d(Fy) ] /
1
SUPPORT DISPLACEMENTS

<NOTE:> UNITS: MM OR IN
<cc<< FORMAT >>>w>
JNT DOF DISPL [ WNT d(JNT) ] /
368 2 -1 .O00 /

TEMPERATURE LOADS

ELMT TEMP [ E
LMT d(ELMT) d(TEMP) ] [ E L M T d(ELMT) d(lEMP)
1
CONCRETE PRESTRAINS

]/

<NOTE:> UNITS: me
<ce<< FORMAT >>a>>
ELMT STRAIN [ E L M T d(ELMT) d(STRAIN) ] [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(STRA1N) ] /
/

INGRESS PRESSURES

a TRIX 'jobmfile repaired beam:

(30 char. max)


:repaired beam DER3
Job File Name ( 8 char- m a )
:DER4
Date
(30 char. m a )
:Aug 06,1997

Job Title

STRUCTURE DATA

File Name

( 8 char. max.)

:DER4

LOADING DATA
:33
No. of Load Stages
:1
Starng toad Stage No.
Load Series 10 ( 5 char. m a )
:DER4

Load File Name


Case (8 char. max,)
1

DER4

2
3

NULL
NUL

Factors
Initial Final LSlnc Type Reps Glnc
4.5
20.5 0.5
1 1 0.000
O
O
O
O 0 0
O
O
O
O 0 0

ANALYSE PARAMETERS
Seed File Name
(8 char. max-)
:DER3-10
Convergence Lirnit (factor > 1.O)
:1-0005
Averaging Factor ( 0.0 to 1.0 )
:0.25
:95
Maximum No. of Iterations
:
2
Convergence Criteria
:1
Results Files

MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR MODELS


Concrete Compression Base Curve
(0-2) :2
(0-1) :2
Concrete Post-Peak DudiMy
(0-8) :3
Concrete Compression Softenicig
(0-3) :2
Concrete Tension Stiffening
Concrete Confinement Strength
(0-1) :1
(0-1)
:1
Concrete Variable Expansion
( 0 4 ) :O
Concrete Tension Splitting
(0-3) :1
Concrete Cracking Criterion
(0-1) :1
Concrete Crack Slip Check
(0-3) :O
Concrete Comp Stability Check
(0-2) :2
Concrete Residual Tension
(0-2) :O
Concrete Hysteresis Model

ReinforcementStress Response
(CM) :3
Strain Histories Retained
(61) :1

TRlX "stmcture' file repaired beam:

STRUCWRAL PARAMETERS
Structure Tle
(30 char. max.)
:contml beam DER3
Structure File Name ( 8 char- m a ) :DER4
Working Un&
Qimprial or Metric) :metric
:14
No. of R-C- Material Types
:3
No. of Steel Material Types
:930
No. of Rectangular Elements
No- of Triangular Elements
:O
:57
No. of Tniss Elements
No. of Joints
:706
No. of Restraints
:3

MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
(A) REINFORCEO CQNCRETE
<NOTE:> TO BE USE0 IN RECTANGULAR AND 1RIANGUCAR ELEMENTS ONLY

CONCRETE
___)

MAT- f c ft Ec MU Cc T A Smx Smy Sma # REINF.


TYP MPa MPa MPa F , / C mm mm mm mm mm deg COMP1 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 550 20 1O00 500 O 1
2 45-7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
3 45.7 2.3 27500 0-15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
4 45.7 2-3 27500 0.15 O 300 20 1000 500 O 1
5 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 1
6 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
7 45.7 2.3 27500 0-15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
8 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 300 20 1000 500 O 2
9 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 1
10 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
11 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 550 20 1000 500 O 2
12 45.7 2.3 27500 0-15 O 550 20 1O00 500 O O
13 45.7 2.3 27500 0.15 O 2 20 1O00 500 O 2

14 45.7 2.3 27500 0.1 5 O 50 20 1000 500 O 2


/

REINFORCEMENTCOMPONENTS
MAT. SRF ORIENT, PERCENT Fy Fu Es Esh esh Cs Dep
TYP TYP deg
%
MPa MPa MPa MPa me F , / C me
I1 90 0,1632 SOT 778 200000 iom IS O O
2 1 0 19-07 492 650 200000 10000 15 0 0
2 1 90 0-1632 507 778 200000 10000 15 0 0
3 1 O 11.091 492 688 -2
tOW0 15 0 0
3 1 9 0 0.1632 507 778 200000 10000 15 0 0
4 1 90 0.167 507 778 200000 10000 15 0 O
s 1 90 0 . 2 4 ~507
200000 IWW 15 O O
6 1 0 19.07 492 650 200000 10000 15 0 0
6 1 90 0.2464 507 778 200000 10000 15 0 0
7 1 0 11.091 492 688 200000 10000 15 0 0
7 1 90 0.2464 507 778 2WOO IWO0 15 O O
8 1 0 0.4444 507 778 200000 10006 15 0 0
8 1 90 0,3333 507 778 200000 10000 15 0 0
9 1 90 0.0672 507 778 200000 1OOOO 15 O0
1O 1 0 19.07 492 650 200000 10000 15 0 0
10190 0.0672 507 778 200000 10000 15 0 0
11 1 O 11.091 492 688 200000 1000015 O0
11 1 90 0.0672 507 778 200000 10000 15 O O
1 3 3 0 100 90 100 5500 5500 18.2 0 0
13390 IO0 1000 1050 90000 90000 11.2 0 0
1 4 1 0 100 492 688 200000 10000 15 O0
14 1 90 100 492 688 200000 f 0000 15 0 0

ne

(e) STEEL
-

<NOTE:> TO BE USED FOR TRUSS ELEMENTS ONLY


MAT. SRF AREA Es
Fy
Fu esh Esh
Cs Dep
P I P TYP mm2
MPa
MPa MPa me MPa F , / C me
1 3 550 5500 90 100 18.2 5500 O O
21750 200000 492 688 15 10000 O O
3 1 t400200000 492 688 15 10000 O O
/

ELEMENT INCIDENCES

(A) RECTANGUUR ELEMENTS


<cc<< FORMAT >>w
ELMT lNCl INC2 INC3 INC4 [ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) 1 !
1
1 17 18 2 2 3 1 5 1 6 1 5 t 1 I
346 369 385 386 370 1 O O 13 1 1 1
359 385 399 400 386 22 13 14 13 1 1 1
645 369 385 386 370 1 O O 131 1 /
658 385 399 400 386 19 13 14 13 1 1 1
905 369 385 386 370 1 O O /
906 385 399 400 386 19 1 14 1

925 334 350 351 335 3 2 16 2 1 1 /


1

(B) TRfANGULAR ELEMENTS


.-

<<ce< FORMAT a>>>>


ELMT INC1 INCZ INC3 (#LMT d(ELMT) d(iNC)] [ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) ] /
/

(C) TRUSS ELEMENTS


<cc<< FORMAT >>>
ELMT INC1 INC2 [ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC)I [YELMT deLMT) d(lNC)
931 369 385 1 O O /
932 385 399 19 1 14/
95.1 382 398 t O O /
952398 412 1 9 1 141
971 382 383 1 O O 2 1 1 1
973 273 274 1 O O 1 5 1 1 /
1
MATERIAL W E ASSIGNMENT

<<<ccFORMAT >>>>>
ELMT MAT ACT [ ELMT d(ELMT) J [ E i M T d(ELMT) ] /
1 12 1 23 15 1
2 2 1 19 1 5 /
3 1 1 19 1s 9 11
12 3 1 19 1s 1
13 4 1 19 15 3 1 /
2876 1 4 15 1
2885 1 4 15 9 1 1
2977 1 4 15 1
2988 1 4 15 3 1 1
34612 O 20 13 1
34710 1 23 13 1
3489 1 23 13 9 1 1
35711 1 23 13 1
35812 1 23 13 1
60612 1 3 13 1
64513 1 20 13 13 11
90512 1 20 1 1
92514 1 3 2 2 1 1
931 1 1 20 1 1
951 1 1 20 1 /
9712 1 1 O 2 1 1
9733 1 1 O 15 11
/

COORDINATES
<NOTE:> UNITS: in OR mm
<<cc<FORMAT >w>>w
NODE X Y [ MODES d(N0DES) dm d o ] [MODES d(N0DES) d o d(Y) ] 1
1 O 0 316158.3330 21301000 /
2 0 4 5 316158,3330 2 1 1 OB10 /

3 085 316158.3330 101 O 9 2 Z f


15 O 1150 3 16158.3330 2 1 O 150 /
49 4750 16 16 QS.3lZSO 2 1 3 0 IWO 1
50 47545 161695.31250 2 1 1 O910 1
51 475 85 16 16 95-3125 O 10 1 O 92.22 /
63 4751150 161895.31250 2 1 O150 f
30520000 5161000 21301000 /
306 200045 5 16 1000 2 11 O910 f
3072000 85 5 16 100 O 10 1 O Q2.Z2/
319 2000 1150 5 16 100 O 2 1 O 150 /
385 2496.25 O 20 14 96.25 O 2 13 O 1000 /
386 2496.25 45 20 f 4 98.25 O 2 11 O 910 1
3872496.25 85 20 1498.25 O 10 1 092.221
665 4483.333 O 3 14 158.333 O 2 13 O 1O /
666 4483.333 45 3 14 158.333 O 2 11 O 910 /
667 4483.333 85 3 14 158.333 O 10 1 O 92.22 /
/

SUPPORT RESTRAINTS
<NOTE:> CODE: 'O' FOR NOT RESTRAINED NOOES AND 't' FOR RESTRAINED ONES
cc<<< FORMAT >>>>>
NODE X-RST Y-RST [ #NODE d(NO0E) ] /
49 1 1 1
651 O 1 /
/

r TRlX "load"file repaired beam:


LOAD CASE *
*
DATA
*
*************
LOAD CASE PARAMETERS
(30 char. rnax.)
:control beam DER3
Load Case Title
(30 char, m m )
:VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT
Load Case File Name (8 char. m a ) :DER4
Units
(Imperia1 or Metric) :metnc
No. of Loaded Joints
:O
No. of Prescribed Support Displacements :1
No. of Eternentswith Temperature Loads :O
No. of Elementswith Concrete Prestain :O
No. of Elements with Ingres Pressure :O

Structure Title

JOINT LOADS

SUPPORT DISPLACEMENTS
<NOTE:> UNITS: MM OR IN
<<c FORMAT w>>>w
JNT DOF DlSPL [WNT d(JNT) 1 1
368 2 -1.000 1
f

'IEMPERATURE LOADS
<NOTE:> UNITS: F ORC
cc< FORMAT >w>w>
ELMT TEMP [ #LW d@MT) d m P ) 1 [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(TEMP) ]
1
CONCRETE PRESTRAINS
<NOTE:> UNITS: me
<cc<< FORMAT wwww>
ELMT STRAIN [ # L W d(ELMT) d(STRAIN) J [ E
LMT d(ELMT) d(STRAIN) ] 1
I
INGRESS PRESSURES

ELMT PRESSURE [#iMT d(ELMT) d(PRS) j [#W


d(ELMT) d(PRS) ] /
/

B.2 Beam cracking ~attemsnear failure.


In this section the cracking patterns and deflected shapes produced by program
TRlX are s h o w both for the barn control specirnen and the repaired beam:

Figure 62.1 :TRlX predicted cracking patterns for the beam controi specimen.

Figure 82.2 :TRIX predicted cracking patterns for the carbon-repaired beam.

C.1 Re~airedshear wall - ~ r o ~ r e s s i oofncracking


pattern.
These photographs document the progression of the craking pattern in the repaied

shear wall at the end of each displacementlevel. Additional photos of the failure locations
have been included, showing the cnishing of the web concrete, the shear ailure of the
bottorn constructionjoint and the punching-through of the reinforced conaete Ranges.

Figure C l . 1 :Web wall at -1 mm displacement,

Figure Cl. 2 :Web wall at -2 mm displacement

Figure Cl. 3 :Web wall at -3 mm displacement

Figure Cl. 4 :Web wall at -4 mm displacement.

Figure C l . 5 :Web wall at -5 mm displacement

Figure Cf. 6 :Web wall at -6 mm displacement,

Figure Cl. 7 :Web wall at -7 mm displacement.

Figure Cl. 8 :Web wall at -8 mm displacement

Figure Cl. 9 :Web wall at -9 mm displacement.

Figure C1.10 :Web wall at -10 mm displacement

Figure C l .ll: Web wall at -1 1 mm displacement

Figure C l .12 :Web wall at -12 mm displacement

Figure C l .13 :Web wall at -13 mm displacement.

Figure C l-14 :Web wall at -14 mm displament.

Figure C l .15 :Web wall at -1 5 mm displacement

Figum C l.16 :Concrete crushing at the web wall toes.

Figura C1.17 :Conuete cnishing atong the construction joint

Figure C l .18 :Pushingh-through of the flanges.

C.2 Re~airedshear wall - oro~ressionof crack widths


Table C2.1
L

Displacement value
(mm)

Maximum
crackwidth

O. 1

0.2

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.5

(mm)

--

CrackWidth values rernain approxmately constant for al1 load stages following the 8th.

APPENDIX C

C.3 Rotation of the top slab


In refecence (51 the twisting charactefistics of the shear wall have been monitored
throughout the test This phenomenon was descnbed by plotting the algebraic difference
between the readings of LVOT's H2 and H3. The response of the structure was of course

of hysteretic nature and it yielded a greater rotation realized during the negalive cycles.
that is when the walt was pushed. in a clockwise direction. The magnitude of the hnisting

values was never significant. For completeness of results. this behaviour was monitored
also during the second test Results are very similar to the previous ones; the maximum
rotations are now slightly greater. but still considered of minor significance within the
analysis of the global behaviour of the structure.
TOP SLAB ROTATION

I
H2.m OISPLACEMENTS {m)

Figure C3.1 :Rotation of the top slab.

Ca4 Web toe concmte strains


For c o m p l e t w t of msuIts and in the attempt to produ a set of data that wwld

allow a good cornparison between the original test and the second t e e LVDTs were
mounted at the toes of the web wall to record the surface coricrete strains. As in the
previous test.

six LVDTsuvere mounted to the conaete. thme at each toe. to measum the

horizontal, vettical and diagonal stnins. The diagonal stniins am pnsented in Chapter 4.

To follow are the vertical and horizontal strains recorded at the North web toe; note that
compression strains hem are assumed positive-

Figurir C4.1 :Web wall toes vertical concrete strains .

Figure C4.2 :Web wall toes horizontal concrete strains-

C.5 FIange reinforcement stmins


Among the avaiIabk data h m are also the minforcementstrain responses of
gauges FVBNQand FV8S9. Iocated at the bottom end of the vertical mbars, respectivelyin
the North flange and the South flange. at the connecon with the web wall. Tensile strahs

are again positive, thus ilMbe noted mat after a few cydes in the compressive fange
both rebaro shift pemanently to the tensile ange. This is due most pmbably to the

cracking and the permanent defornation undergone by the fianges Local strain values
recorded by these gauges indiats that no yielding occurred. as the yield strain for D6 bars
is 3.18~10%

Figum CS. 1 :North flange vertical reinforcement strains .

Figum CS. 2 :South flange vertiul reinforcement strains .

C.6 Relative vertical disolacement of slabs


Figures C6.1 and C6.2 show the msponses of LVDTs V6 and V3. As can be seen
fmrn Figuras 4.18 and 4.19 these am two of six LVDTs which wem used to record the
relative vertical displaments of the top slab to the bottom siab. Values are very similar to

those recordeci during the fimt test [5]. although a greater constant vertical load had been
applied then. Also, al1 $train and displament values presented in the present and

previous appendices wiere compared with the analycal results obtained with Mesh-1,
Mesh-2 and Mesh-3 (see Chaptef 5). Prediconswere a h y s judged to be in good
agreement with the expenmental results.

Figure C6.1 : Opening and closhg of the slabs on the South side.

L V O I : v r ~ v a + i c l r r ~ ~ ( n i n )

Figure C6.2 : Openhg and dosing of the slabs on the NoNi side.

D.1 TRIX input files for the shear wall analyses.


To follow are the input files for the original wall and the input files for the repaired
wall. Input files mfer to the first m e s of the tests, because for both cases the analyses
had to be camed on by more succesive 'runsm,

TRlX Miobw
file original ~ a l:l
*****-******
TRIX
JOB DATA *

************

Job Title
(30 char- max)
:DP wall
Job File Name ( 8 char. max.)
:wf
Date
(30 char- ma=)
:MAY 12, t 997

STRUCTUREDATA
File Name

( 8 char. max.)

:wf

LOADING DATA

:225
No- of Load Stages
Starting Load Stage No:1
Load Series ID ( 5 char- m a )
:wf

Load File Name

Factors
Case (8 char- max.)
Initial Final LSlnc Type Reps Ginc
1 wfvl
1.000 1.000 0.000 f 1 0.000
2 wfdl
0.000 1.000 1.000 3 2 1.600
3 NUL
0.000 40.0 0.500 1 1 0.000

Seed File Name


(8 char. max.)
:NUL
Convergence Limit (fsdor > f .O)
:1.0002
Averaging Factor ( 0.0 10 1-0 )
:0.2
Maximum No. of Item0iu
:35
Convergence Criteria
:2
Resuits Files
:1

MATERIALBEHAVIOUR MOOELS

(&a

Concrete Corn-on
Base Cuwe
:2
Concrete P-Peak
Duaility
(SI) :2
Concrete ComQressCon Saffening
(M)
:3
Concrete Tension Stiffeiiing
(013) :2
Concrete Confinement Strength
(Cl) :1
Concrete VariaMe Expansion
(si):1
Concrete Tension Spiitting
(o-i) :O
Concrete Cracking Criterion
(013):1
Concrete Crack Slip Che&
(0-1) :f
Concrete Comp Stability Check
(013) :2
Concrete Residual Tension
(012):2
Concrete Hysteresis Model
(M)
:2
Reinforcement Stress Reqmnse
(0-3) :3
Strain Histories Retained
(0-1) :1

TRIX 'structure' file on~linal


wall :
****t**t**.*

STRUCTUR E
*
DATA
*
*********t***

STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS

Structure r i l e
(30 char. max.) :DP Wall
Structure File Name ( 8 char. max.)
:wall
Working Units
(Irnperial or Metric) :rnetric
:7
No. of R.C. Material Types
No. of Steel Material Types
:O
No. of RedangularEIements
:924
No. of Triangular Elements
:O
No. of Tniss Elements
:O
No. of Joints
:709
No. of Restraints
:!i4

WTERiAL SPECIFICATIONS
@) REINFORCED CONCRETE
<NOTE:> TO BE USED IN RECTANGULAR AND TRlANGUiAR ELEMENTS ONLY
CONCRETE
-

MAT. f c
Pt Ec
MU Cc T
A
S
SREINF,
TYPE# ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa
F J C in,mm in,mm in,mrn COMP.
121.61.53172700,150 75 15707002
221.6 1.53 172700,150 615 15707002
3 34.7 1.94418000.150U15 15707002
443.92.18455000.1501115 15707002
5 44.1 2.1222370 0.15 O 70 10 70 70 O 2
6 50.2 2.00 22337 0.15 O 70 10 70 70 O 2
7 21.6 1.53 l?27OO-lSO243O tS707002
/
REINFORCEMENT COMPONENTS
MAT REF ORIENT, PERCENT Fy
Fu
Esh esh
N P TYP deg
% lol.MPa G , ~ ~ ksi,MPa
a
ka',MPa me
1 1 O 0.737 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
1 1 90 0.794 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
2 1 O 0.018 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O

4
5
5

1
1
1
1
1
1
t

6
6

1
1

1
1

3
3
4

7
1

Cs Dep
FJC me

90 0.383 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O


O 0.595 550 696 220000 5000 15.0 O O
90 0.010 550 696 220000 5000 15.0 O O
O 0.595 550 696 22000 5000 15.0 O O
90 0.010 550 696 220000 5000 15.0 O O
O 0.737 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
90 0.794 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
O 0.737 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
90 0.794 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
O 0.018 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
90 0.383 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O

(B) STEEL
<NOTE:> TO 8E USED FOR TRUSS ELEMENTS ONLY
MAT. AREA Es
Fy
Fu esh Esh Cs Dep
N P E X in2,mm2 ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa me ksi,MPa F , / C
/
ELEMENT INCIDENCES
(A) RECTANGULAR ELEMENTS
<<cc< FORMAT >>>>>

me

E l M i INC1 INC2 INC3 INC4 [#LMTd@.MT) d(lNC) ] [ E L M T d


1 1 2 a ~ 2 8 2 t si
i 3zenr
79 83 4112111 24 1 $ 1
103111 112141 110 24 1 1 2 24 291
151 1691701991W 24 1 1 14 24 291
487 575 576 601603 24 1 1 /
511 602 603 630 629 28 1 1 3 26 27 1
589 171 172201 200 20 1 1 14 2 291
869 s n sr8 eoe 60s 20 i 1

o d(lNC) ] 1

88983 85 110 fOB f


890 105 707 137 136 f
891 109110139138 2 127 18 2 2 9 1
923573574605603 f
924 600 601 625 627 f
/

(B) TRlANGULAR ELEMENTS


ELMT INC1 lNC2 INC3 [EWd(ELMT) d(lNC)] [YELMT d(ELMT) d(1NC) ] 1
/

(C) TRUSS ELEMENTS

<cc<< FORMA'>>>a>
ELMT INC1 INCZ [ E L M T d(ELMT) d(1NC)J [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC) ] 1
1

MATERIAL TYPE ASSIGNMENT

<<< FORMAT >w>>w


ELMT MAT ACT [ ELMT d(ELMT)] [E i M T d(ELMT) ] 1
81 1 1 20 1 1 8 2 4 1
79 2 1 2 1 18 24/
101 2 1 2 1 18 24/
1 3 178 1/
511 4 t 78 1 1
589 5 O 20 1 14 201
869 6 O 20 1 1
889 7 1 2 1 18 21
1

COORDINATES

<NOTE:> UNITS: in OR mm
<<<<< FORMAf >>>>>
NODE X Y [#NODES d(N0DES) d(X) d o ] [MODES d(N0DES) d(X) d(Y) ] /
1 -500. 0. 4 27 O. 206.667
1
2 O. O. 4 27 0. 206.667 2 1 47.5 O. /
4 95.
0. 4 27 O. 206.667 21 1 1U.25 O./
25 3027.5 0. 4 27 O. 206.667 2 1 47.5 O. /
27 3500. O. 4 27 O. 206.667
1
111 O. 662.08 2 29 0. 42.083 3 1 47.5 O. 1
109 0. 662.08 2 29 O. 42.083 2 1 95.0 O- 1
114 239.25 662.08 2 29 O. 42.083 19 1 144.25 0. 1
133 2980.0 662.08 2 29 O. 42.083 3 1 47.5 0. /

136 2980.0 862.W 2 29 O- 42.W 2 1 95.0 O. /


969 0- 748.2s 15 29 0. 126.250 3 t 47.5 O. 1
167 O. 748.25 15 29 O. 126.2S 2 1- 95.0 O. f
172 239.25 748.25 15 29 0, 126.250 19 1 144.25 0- /
191 2980.0 746.25 15 29 O- 126.250 3 1 47.5 O. /
194 2980-0 748.25 15 29 O. 126.250 2 1 95.0 O. /
602 -500- 2640. 4 27 O. 213.333
/
603 O- 2810- 4 27 O. 213.333 2 1 47.5 0, /
805 95. 2640. 4 27 O. 213.333 21 1 144.25 0.1
626 3027.5 2640. 4 27 O. 213.333 2 1 47.5 O- /
628 3500- 2640. 4 27 O. 213-333
1
1
SUPPORT RESTRAlNTS

<NOTE:> CODE: '(r FOR NOT RESTRAINED NOOES AND '1' FOR RES-INED
c<<<<FORMAT a>>>>
NODE X-RST Y-RST [MODE d(NO0E) 1 /
111271 /
1

TRlX "loadmfiles oriainal wall :

Vertical load
LOAD CASE *
DATA
*

*************

LOAO CASE PARAMETERS


Structure Title
(30 char. max.) :OP Wall
Load Case Tile
(30 char, m a ) :Vert Load
Load Case File Name (8 char. ma,) :wallvl
Units
(Imperia1 or Metric) :metric
No. of Loaded Joints
:56
No. of Prescribed Support Dispiacements :O
No. of Elements with Temperature Loads :O
No, of Elernentswith Cancrete Prestrain :O
No. o f Elements with lngress Pressure :O

JOINT LOAS

<NOTE:> UNITS: KIPS OR KN


<ce<<FORMAT >>>>w
NODE Fx Fy [ #NODE dWODE) d r x ) d(Fy) ] /
630 0.0 -5.64 25 1 0.0 0.0 1
657 0.0 -5.64 25 1 0.0 0.0 1
687 0.0 -152.9 3 1 0.0 0.0 /

ONES

703 0.0 -152.9 3 1 0.0 0-0 /


/

SUPPORT DISPLACEMENTS

J N T DOF DlSPL [WNT d(JNT) 1I


/

TEMPERATURE LOADS

<NOTE:> UNITS: F OR C
<ce FORMAT >>>>>
ELMT TEMP [ElMi'd

o d(TEMP) ] [nEWd(ELMT) d(lEMP)

CONCRETE PRESTRAINS
<NOTE:> UNITS: me
cc< FORMAT >>>>>
ELMT STRAIN [ # U T d(ELMT) d(Sll?AIN) [#LW d(ELMT) d(STRAIN) ] 1
/

INGRESS PRESSURES

<NOTE:> UNITS: MPa


<<<cc FORMAT >>>>>
ELMT PRESSURE [#LW d(ELMT) d(PRS) ] [IYELMT d(ECMT) dpRS) ] /
1

Horizontal load

LOAD CASE "


DATA
*

*t*t*+*n*****

LOAO CASE PARAMETERS


Structure Tiile
(30 char. max,) :OP Walt
(30 char- max.) :Lateral Oisp (1 .O
Load Case Tiile
Load Case File Name (8 char. max.)
:wfdl
Units
(ImperialorMetric) :mefric
No. of Loaded Joints
:O
No. of Prescn'bed Support Dispiacemerits :1
No. of Elements with Temperature Loads :O
No. of Elernenl with Concrete Prestrain :O
No. of Elements with lngress Pressure :O

JOINT LOADS

mm)

SUPPORT DISPLACMENTS
<NOTE:> UNITS: MM OR IN
<<cc< FORMAT >ww>w
J N T DOF DlSPL [ WNT d(JNT) 1/
669 1 1-01
I
TEMPERATURE LOADS

CONCRETE PRESTRAINS

INGRESS PRESSURES

ELMT PRESSURE (YELMT d


1

o d(PRS) 1

TRIX "jobnfile repaired wall:

Job Title
(30 char. max.)
:DP wall
Job File Name ( 8 char- m a )
:wr
Date
(30 char. max.)
:MAY 12,1997
STRUCTURE DATA

File Name

( 8 char- m m )

:wr

LOADING DATA

:225
No-o f Load Stages
:1
Starting Load Stage No.
:wrl
Load Series ID ( 5 char. m a )

deLMT) d(PRS) 1 1

Load File Name


FactoCase (8 char. m a )
Initial Final LWnc Type Reps Glnc
1.000 1.000 0,000 1 1 0.OOO
1 wrvl
0.000
1,000 1.006 3 2 1-000
2 wrdl
3 NUL
0,000 10.000 0,500 1 1 0.000
ANALYSIS PARAMETERS
Seed File Name
(8 char. m a )
:W4-,3
Convefgence Limit (factor 1.O)
:1.0002
Averagirrg Factor ( 0.0 to 1.O )
:0.2
Maximum No. of lteratim
:35
Conveipen Criteria
:2
Results Files
:1

MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR MOOELS

Concrete Compe
rssoin
Base Cuwe
(0-2) :2
Concrete Post-Peak Duclity
(0-1) :2
Concrete C o m ~ o SoRening
n
(04) :3
Concrete Tension Stiffening
(0-3):2
Concrete Confinement SImngtti
(M):1
Concrete VafiaMe Expansion
(04):1
Concrete Tension Splitting
(0-1) :O
Conmte Cracking Criterion
(0-3):1
Concrete Crack Slip Check
(0-1) :1
Concrete Comp Stability Check
(013).Y 2
Concrete Residual Tension
(0-2) :2
Concrete Hysteresis Model
(0-2):2
Reinforcement Stress Responss
(0-3):3
Strain Histories Retained
(CM):1

TRIX 'structure* file re~aired


wall:
STRUCTURE
DATA
*
******CI*****

STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS
Strudure Tiile
(30 char. max.) :DP Wall
Stnidure File Name ( 8 char. m a ) :wall
Working Units
(Imperial or Metn'c) :metric
:7
No. of R.C. Material Types
No. of Steel Material Types
:O

No, of Redangular Uements


No, of Triangular Uements
No, of Truss Elements
No. of Joints
No. of Restraints

:924
:O
:O

:700
:SI

(A) REINFORCED CONCRETE

<NOTE:> TO BE USED IN RECTANGULARAND TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS ONLY


CONCEiETE
MAT. f c
Pt
Ec
MU Cc T A
S
#REINFW P E I ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa
/FjC in,mm in,rnm in,mrn COMP.
121.61.53172700,150 75 1 5 7 0 7 0 0 2
221.6 1.53 l727OO,lSO 800 1570 7 0 0 2
334.71.94418000.1501415 1 5 7 0 7 0 0 2
4 43.9 2.18 45500 0.15 O U 1 5 15 70 70 O 2
5 44.3 2.1 22370 0.15 O 70 10 70 70 O 2
6 50.2 1.9 22337 0.15 O 70 10 70 70 O 2
721.61.53172700.1502245 15707002
1
REINFORCEMENT COMPONENTS

MAT REF ORIENT, PERCENT Fy


Fu
Esh
esh Cs Dep
TM, deg
% ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa me /F,/C me
1 t O 0,737 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
1 f 90 0.794 605 652 200006 550 3.025 O O
2 1 O 0.018 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
2 1 90 0.383 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
3 1 O 0.595 550 696 220000 5000 15.0 O O
3 1 90 0.010 550 696 220000 5000 15.0 O O
4 1 O 0.595 550 696 220000 5000 15.0 O O
4 1 90 0.010 550 696 220000 5000 15.0 O O
5 1 O 0.737 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
5 1 90 0.794 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
6 1 O 0.737 605 652 2MK)OO 550 3.025 O O
6 1 90 0.794 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
7 1 O 0.018 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O
7 1 90 0.383 605 652 200000 550 3.025 O O

N P

(6) STEEL

<NOTE:> TO BE USED FOR TRUSS ELEMENTS ONLY


MAT. AREA Es
Fy
Fu esh Esh CS Dep
TYPE # in2,mm2 ksi,MPa ksi,MPa ksi,MPa me ksi,MPa F , / C me
1
ELEMENT INCIDENCES

APPENDMD

(A) RECTANGULAREiEMENTS

<a<<
FORMAT >w>>>
ELMT INC1 lNC2 INC3 lNC4 [ ItELMTd(ECMT) d(lNC) ] [ELMT d(ELMT) d(1NC) 1/
1 1 2292826 1 1 326271
79 83 84112111 24 1 1 1
103111 112141 140 24 1 1 2 24 291
151 169 170 189198 24 1 1 14 24 29/
487 575 576 604 603 24 1 1 /
511 602 603 630 629 28 1 1 3 26 27 /
589 171 172201 200 20 1 1 14 20 29/
869 577 578 606 605 20 1 1 1
88983 85 t I 0 109 /
890 105 107 137 136
891 109110139138
923573574605603
924 600 601 625 627

2 127 16 2 291
/
/

(e) TRIANGULAR ELEMENTS

<cc<< FORMAT >ww


ELMT INC1 lNC2 [ E L M T d(ELMT) d(lNC)J [ ELMT d(ELMT) d(lNC)

MATERIAL IYPE ASSIGNMENT

<ex<FORMAT >>>
ELMT MAT ACT [ E i M T d(ELMT)] [ E
LMT d(EWT) ] /
8 1 1 1 2 0 1 3241
153 1 O 20 1 15 24/
7 9 2 1 2 1 1824/
101 2 1 2 1 18 241
1 3 1 7 8 11
511 4 1 78 1 /
589 5 1 20 1 14 201
869 6 1 20 1 /
889 7 i 2 1 18 2 1
i
COORDINATES

<NOTE:> UNITS: in OR mm
<<<cc FORMAT >>www
NODE X Y [ #NODES d(NO0ES) d(X) d o J [#NODES d(N0DES) dm dCI) J /
1 -500. 0. 4 27 O. 206.667
1
2 O.
0. 4 27 0. 206.667 2 1 47.5 O. /
4 95- O. 4 27 O. 206.067 21 1 144.25 O, /
25 3027.5 0. 4 27 0. 206.667 2 1 47.5 O-/

27 3500. O, 4 n O- zoe-ear
1
111 O. 662.08 2 29 O, 4 2 . m 3 1 47.5 O- 1
109 0. 662-08 2 29 O, 42.083 2 1 95.0 O- /
114 239.25 662-08 2 29 O. 42.083 19 1 14435 O. 1
133 2980.0 62-08 2 29 O. 42.083 3 1 47-5 O. /
136 2980.0 662.08 2 29 0. 42.083 2 1 95.0 O. /
169 O. 746.25 15 29 O- 126.250 3 1 47.5 O- /
167 0. 746.25 15 29 0. 126.250 2 1 95-0 0, 1
172 239.25 746.25 15 29 O. f 26250 t 9 1 144.25 0.1
191 2980.0 746.25 15 29 0. 126.250 3 1 47.5 O. /
194 2980.0 74.25 15 29 O. 126.250 2 1 85.0 0. /
602 -500. 2610, 4 27 0- 213.333
/
603 O, 2640. 4 27 0- 213,333 2 1 47.5 O- 1
605 95, 840, 4 27 O, 213.333 21 1 1U.2S 0-1
626 3027.5 2640. 4 27 0, 213.333 2 1 47.5 O. /
628 3500. 2640, 4 27 O, 213.333
1
/

SUPPORT RESTRAINTS
<NOTE:> CODE: 'O' FOR NOT RESTRAINED NODES AND '1' FOR RESTRAINED ONES
<<cc< FORMAT >>w
NODE X-RST Y-RST [ MODE d(N0DE) ] /
111271 /
1

a TRlX "load" file reoaired beam:

Vertical load
LOAD CASE
DATA

'

*+***********
LOAD CASE PARAMETERS

Structure Title
(30 char- max) :OP Wall
Load Case Tiile
(30 char- m a ) :Vert Load
Load Case File Name (8 char. max.)
:wallvl
Units
(Imperia1 or Metnk) :metric
:56
No. of Loaded Joints
No. of Prescribed Support Displacements :O
No. of Elements with Temperature Loads :O
No. of Elements with Concrete Prestrain :O
No. of Elements with Ingres Pressure :O

JOINT LOADS

<NOTE:> UNilS: KlPS OR KN


<<<ccFORMAT >>>>>
NODE Fx Fy [-DE
d(NODE) drx) d(Fy) ) I
630 0.0 -5.64 25 1 0.0 0.0 /
657 0.0 -5.64 25 1 0.0 0.0 /
687 0.0 -152-9 3 1 0.0 0.0 /
703 0.0 -152.9 3 1 0.0 0.0 /
I
SUPPORT OISPLACEMENTS

JNT DOF DISPL (WNT d(JNt) ] /


1
TEMPERATURE LOADS

CONCRETE PRESTRAINS

<NOTE:> UNITS: me
<<c FORMAT >>>>>
ELMT STRAIN [ #M
d(ELMT) d(STRAIN) J [ELMT d(ECMT) d(STRAIN) 1 1
1

INGRESS PRESSURES
<NOTE:> UNITS: MPa
<cc<< FORMAT >www>
ELMT PRESSURE [#ELMT d(ELMT) d(PRS) ] [ELMT d(ELMT) d(PRS) ] 1
1

Horizontal load
LA CASE "
DATA
*

************"

LOAD CASE PARAMETERS


Structure Tiile
(30 char. max.)
:DP Wall
Load Case Title
(30 char. m a ) :Lateral Disp (1 .O mm)
Load Case File Name (8 char. max) :wfdl
Units
(Imperia1 or Metric) :metn'c
No. of Loaded Joints
:O
No- of Prescribed SuppoR Displacements :1
No. of Elements with Temperature Loads :O
No. of Elements with Concrete Prestrain :O
No. of Elements with lngress Pressure :O

<NOTE:> UNITS: KlPS OR KN


<<cc< FORMAT >>>a>
NODE Fx Fy [WWE d(N0DE) d(Fx) d(Fy) ] /
/
SUPPORT DISPLACEMENTS

<NOTE:> UNITS: MM OR 1N
<<c FORMAf >>>>>
JNT DOF DISPL [WNT d(JNT) ] /
669 1 1.0I
/

TEMPERA'RE LOAOS
<NOTE:> UNlS: FOR C
<<c FORMAT sw>>w
ELMT TEMP [ @LWd(ELMT) d(TEMP) J [E L M T d e w d W P ) 1

CONCRETE PRESTRAINS

INGRESS PRESSURES

<NOTE:> UNITS: MPa


<<<cc FORMAT >>w
ELMT PRESSURE [ E L M T d(ELMT) d(PRS) ] [ # M T d(ECMT) d(PRS) 1
1

D.2 Shear wall cracking ~attemsnear failure


In this sedion the cracking patterns and defiected shapes produced by pmgnm

TRlX are both shown for the r e p a i d shear wall at peak and post+peakloading. These

resuits refer to the finite element modd of Mesh-3 (see Chapter 5)-

Figure D1.2 :Mesh-3 :repaired shear wall at peak load, load stage 7.

Figum 02.2 :Mesh-3: repaired sheer wall at failure.