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III

3
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: 010701


1.
4
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
2.
2.1. . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . .
2.4. - .

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3.

9
9
12
14
16
17

4. . . - 19
5.

21

6.
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23
23
24
27
30

7.
7.1.
7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5. . . . . . . . .

32
32
34
36
38
40

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1.

1.1.

. ,
,
. , , , ,
. (, 1 3
1019 ) .
, , .
, , , ,
, . , ,

e
mr = eE + [vB] + Fext
(1.1)
c
( Fext
, , ) .

, , ,
.
, ( )
, , . .
, , , ,
. , , - .
, .
, , ,
.
f (r, t) (, ) :
1
f (r, t) =
V t

+t/2
Z

dV 0
V

dt0 f (r + r0 , t + t0 ) ,

(1.2)

t/2

V
r t t. V :
4

(i) , ..
;
(ii) V , .
. , t
, . ,
, ,
.
(1.2) t ( x), , , :
f
1
=
x
V t

+t/2
Z

dV 0
V

dt0

f (r + r0 , t + t0 )
,
x

t/2

f
f
=
.
(1.3)
x
x
. , , . , -,
,
(, , , ..)
.
(1.22). , , ,
.
:
(1.4.1)
(1.4.2)
(1.4.3)
(1.4.4)

1 Bm
rot Em =
,
c t
4
1 Em
(jm + jext ) +
,
rot Bm =
c
c t
div Bm = 0 ,
div Em = 4(m + ext ) .

(1.4)

Em Bm . ( 1.4) .
m jm ; ,
Em Bm , . .
, Em Bm , ext jext 1 .
(1.4).
Em = E ,

Bm = B ,

m = ,

jm = j .

(1.5)

( )
.

(1.3), ,
rot Em = rot E ,

div Bm = div B ,

Em
E
=
t
t

..

(1.6)

ext jext , ,
1 B
rot E =
,
c t
1 E
4
(j + jext ) +
,
rot B =
c
c t
div B = 0 ,
div E = 4( + ext ) .

(1.7.1)
(1.7.2)
(1.7.3)
(1.7.4)

(1.7)

: [1] .II,1; [3] 42.

1.2.
(1.7) j ,
(1.7) . , j ,
, .
j .
P
= div P

(1.8)

P.
.
Z
Z
dV = div PdV = 0 .
( ).
-
Z
I
div PdV = PdS = 0.
(1.9)
= 0, (1.9) , . ,
P = 0 . ;

.
Z
rdV . (1.8)
Z

Z
rdV =
6

rdiv PdV

(1.10)

, , .
(1.10),
Z
Z
I
r div P dV = P dV + (dSP)r .
(1.11)
-
Z
I
div a dV = a dS,

(1.12)

a = (cr)P (c ) ,
div (cr)P = (cP) + (cr)div P .
(1.11) (1.10) , P = 0,
Z
Z
rdV = PdV .

(1.13)

, P 2 .
( 1.8) P
, . (1.8) ,
S,
V = Pen S Pn S
, Pen = 0,
Pn =

(1.14)

P ( )
.

P1n P2n = ,

(1.15)

.
j .

+ div j = 0 ,
t
(1.8)

P
div j
= 0.
t
2

(1.16)

, (1.8) P ,
P rot f . P
.

(1.8) ,

P
= c rot M ,
(1.17)
t
c ( ) . (1.17) ,
j . ,
P/t, , , .
M .
, P/t = 0,
j

j = c rot M.
, ,
Z
jdS = 0,

(1.18)

(1.19)

. (1.19), (1.18)

I
Mdl = 0,
(1.20)
, . , M = 0 .

Z
Z
1
1
[rj]dV =
[r rot M]dV.
2c
2
(1.12),
a = [[cr]M], c .
div a = 2(cM) ([cr] rot M).
div a , , , (1.12) ( M = 0 ),
Z
Z
1
[rj]dV = MdV.
2c
, M
. (1.18)
.
, P/t 6= 0, M
. , (1.17),
P
+ c rot M ,
(1.21)
t
, M .
(1.7) (1.10) (1.18)
,
j=

(1.22.1)
(1.22.2)
(1.22.3)
(1.22.4)

1 B
,
c t
4
1
rot(B 4M) =
jext +
(E + 4P) ,
c
c t
div B = 0 ,
div (E + 4P) = 4ext .
rot E =

(1.22)

(1.22) ,
D = E + 4P

(1.23)

H = B 4M .

(1.24)

D , H . .
(1.22) (, (1.25.2)
jext jcond )
(1.25.1)
(1.25.2)
(1.25.3)
(1.25.4)

1 B
rot E =
,
c t
4
1 D
rot H =
jext +
,
c
c t
div B = 0 ,
div D = 4ext .

(1.25)

(
) : E, B, D, H. (1.25)
,
: D = D(E, H), B = B(E, H) D = D(E, B),
H = H(E, B).
(1.25) , ,
. ,
( ) .

D = E ,

B=
H .

(1.26)


, , ,
, ( ) ( ).
.

.
: [1] .II,2; [8] 1,3.

2.
(1.25) , ,
(D/t=0) (B/t=0)
. .

2.1.
( ext ),
9

, Ein = 0 ( ,
). Ein = 0, div E = 4
, ..
.
,
.

div E = 4ext ,

rot E = 0 ,

.. ,
E =
= 4ext .

(2.1)

E rot E = 0, , .
, l .
E
I
Z
Edl = rot EdS = 0 ,

E l (Ein ) l = 0 ,
, . Ein = 0, (Ein ) = 0. , E |S

E |S = 0 ,

(2.2)

.. .
: , . (2.2) ,

,
= 0,

= const,
(2.3)
S

.. .
,
, .
E . , .

div E = 4 ,

10

, , . -
, E = 0, ,
En |S = 4

(2.4)

(. ( 1.8) ( 1.14)). ,

1
1
(2.5)
=
En |S =
4
4 n S
( n ).

I
1

e=
dS ,
4
n
.
, ,
(2.1) . :
1)

Si = i ;
(2.6)
2)
I

1
dS = ei .

4
n

(2.7)

Si


(2.5) .
, (2.1) (2.6), (2.7) ( ).
, 0 (2.1) (2.6) (2.7).
= 6= 0,
E
(2.8)
= 0 , , ,
= 0

(2.9)

Si

I
=0

dS = 0.
n

Si

2 dV
E

Z
2 dV =
E

Z
div ()dV

dV =

XI
i

11

Si

dS.


= div () ,
(2.9) .
(
),
.
Si = i = const,
.
Z
X I
2

i dS.
E dV =
i

Si

,
I i = 0,
i- ,
dS = 0,
Si

0 (2.8).
i- . , E
, (r), , ,
, .
, , . ,

= 0 .

(2.10)

, , .
,
.
, E .
, (2.10)
I
1

dS = 0 .
(2.11)
4
n
S

, (2.10), (2.11) = const, E = 0,


. . ,
. , , .
- .
: [1] .II,12; [2] 2.2-2.5; [8] 1.

2.2.

.
12

, .
, ,
.
,
e, ,
. z = 0
e a .
.
. , (2.1) ext = e(r a)
|z=0 = 0, e e ,
(0, 0, a) (0, 0, a) . , e
, e . e e
=

e
e

.
|r a| |r + a|

(2.12)

|r a| = |r + a|, , . z > 0 , (2.12)


. , e,
.
, e,

a
1
1
e
=
=
=
.

2
2
4 n S
4 z z=0
2 (x + y + a2 )3/2
,

Z

Z
dS = ea

(2

d
= e .
+ a2 )3/2

,
, , . ,
( ) , , e +e,
, ,
.
, , ,
, () . , ,
( ). ,
.
: [2] 2.2-2.5; [7] . 10; [8] 3.

13

2.3.
. .
(. (1.25))
div D = 4ext ,
rot E = 0 .

(2.13)

(. . 1.2), D = E + 4P E ,

= div P .
,
,
= Pn .
( 2.13) D E, . E
E E 109 / , D = D(E) . Di = Di (E1 , E2 , E3 )
Ei , (
)

Di
Di D0i +
Ek .
Ek E=0

Di
ik =
, (. Ek E=0
(1.26))
Di = D0i + ik Ek .
(2.14)
D E , ik , , ,
. (2.13) (2.14)
.
D0 , , D 6= 0
E = 0 , , P 6= 0 E = 0. D0 = 4P0 , P0
. ,
. , , . , .
, P0 6= 0
T < T0 . .
,
Di = ik Ek .
,
ik = ki .
14

(2.15)

, ik , ,

1 0 0
ik = 0 2 0 .
0 0 3

1 6= 2 ,

1 6= 3 ,

2 6= 3 ,

, ,
1 = 2 6= 3 .
, ,
.
ik
1 = 2 = 3 = ,
, .. ik
: ik = ik , D E

D = E .
(2.16)
. .
:
= (r), .. .
.
( = const) - ( = const ,
).
= const div D = div E = div E (2.13) ,

4
ext ,

rot E = 0 .

div E =

(2.17)


E = ,
(2.17)

4
ext .
(2.18)

(2.17) (2.18) , , , . ,
. ,
e, , ,
er
e
,
E= 3.
=
r
r
=

15

, > 1,
. , (1.23) (2.16)
P=

DE
1
=
E = E ,
4
4

(2.19)

1
=
. 4
,
P. ( ),
. , P E, , > 0 > 1.
(
),
. , P E > 1.
: [1] .II,13; [8] 6,7.

2.4. -
, , ,
. D E (2.13). , .
rot E = 0
(. (2.2)):
E2 = E1 .

(2.20)


D = 1,2 E, D
:
D2
D1
=
.
2
1
div D = 4ext (. (1.15),
(2.4)):
D2n D1n = 4ext ,
ext . , ext = 0, ( ), D
D2n = D1n ,
E
2 E2n = 1 E1n .
.
E =

(2.20)

(1 2 )
= 0,

1 |S = 2 |S + const .
16

(2.21)

,
.
1 |S = 2 |S .
(2.21)

1
2
1
= 2
.
n S
n S
, -

= 4

ext
,
1,2

1 |S = 2 |S ,

2
1
= 2
.
1
n S
n S

(2.22)

(2.23)

: [1] .II,13.

3.

.
( ), E0 . , ,
; . ( 2.22), ext = 0.

. , ,
, .
: (i) : (ii)
E0 ( ); (iii) r
E0 r.
1
E0 r
1 = E0 r AE0 = E0 r + A 3
r
r

(3.24)

( ). 1
1
1
, , = 0, E0
r
r
r
.
: (i) : (ii) E0 ( ); (iii) r = 0.

2 = BE0 r.

17

(3.25)

A B ( 2.23).

1 |r=R = 2 |r=R
E0 ,
A B:
BE0 R cos = E0 R cos +

A
E0 R cos ,
R3

A
R.
(3.26)
R3
(2.23) , -, r,

2
1
=
,
r r=R
r r=R
B = 1 +

:
B = 1

2A
.
R3

(3.27)

(3.26), (3.27) ,
A=

1 3
R ,
+2

B=

3
.
+2

Ei = 2 ,

3
Ei =
E0 ,
+2
.
(. (2.19))
1
1 3
P=
Ei =
E0 ,
4
4 + 2
,
4
d = R3 P
3
(R ). e = 1 , Ee = e , ,
d,
e = (E0 r) +

(dr)
,
r3

Ee = E0 +

3(dr)r
d
3.
5
r
r



= Pn = (Pn)

3 1
E0 cos ,
4 + 2
E0 .
: [8] 8.
= P cos =

18

4. . .
-
, , j
.
= 0 t
E
= 0.
,
t

div E = 4 E ,
= 0.
t

div j = 0 .

(4.1)

. (4.1)
( ), S1
S2 ,
Z
Z
I
Z
(4.2)
div jdV = jdS = jdS jdS = 0,
S2

S1

J2 = J1 ,

(4.3)

.. .

rot E = 0 .
(4.4)
, j E
rot E = 0 ,
div j = 0 .

(4.5)

,
(. . 2.4)
E2 = E1 , j2n = j1n .
(4.6)
(4.5) j E,
, .
, . ,
j = E .

(4.7)

. . (4.5) (4.7) j E .
, j E
. ,
E D
rot E = 0 ,
div D = 0
19


D = E.
,
D j,

(4.8)

. , 1 ,
E0 , 2 ,

(4.8).
,
1 2 . U
U = ||.
,
U E,

J j.

( 4.5) j E, U J. R,
,
U = JR .

(4.9)

, l
S J. J :
J = jS. ,
. ,
.
Z(2)
U = Edx = El
(1)

, (4.9),
R
R=

l
.
S

(4.10)

. , , . ,

dA
= Fv = Ev = vE.
(4.11)
q=
dt
, , ,
q = jE
(4.12)
20

- . (4.5),
(4.12)
q = E 2 = j 2 /.
(4.13)
, 1 2 . dt
de. , , , . ,
de 1 2 , dt de(2 1 ).
Q,
Q=

de
(2 1 ) = JU = J 2 R = U 2 /R .
dt

(4.14)

- .
: [1] .II,17; [3] 21.

5.
, (1.25)
. ,

div B = 0,
4
rot H =
jext .
c

(5.1)

j , .
(5.1) B, H

B = B(H) .
(5.2)
, B M H = B4M,

M = M(H).
(5.3)
(5.2), (5.3) .
B H .

B = H .

BH
1
M=
=
H = H
4
4
,
. . > 0 ( > 1), . .
21

, ,
, .
, < 0 ( < 1), . .
, , (
) . , , ,
. , . ,
,
.
-
, 1.
,
, . . M
H . , , (),
, , .
, . (.. ) .
, ,
(102 ). . ,
, (
). , , ,
. ,
. ,
, , (H 1 ).
104 , 104 . , , B(H)
, ( ). .
(. V.10).
-, (5.1) = const
(5.1)
div B = 0 ,
4
j .
rot B =
c
B = rot A. div A = 0,
A =

4
j .
c

, , A B ,
22

. , ,
j , .
: [1] .II,20,21; [3] 42.

6.
6.1.
( , ),
, , , , .
, , .
. , , , ,
, .
l
l/c. , T l/c,
T .
= 2/T

c
l

(6.1)

. (6.1)

.
, ,
:
4

j 1 D .
c
c t

(6.2)

, .. , , E = E0 exp (it),

E .
t

,
j = E ,
(6.2)

(6.3)

.
, , ,

23

. , , -
.
I
I
dq
= jdS = EdS = 4q ,
dt
q = q0 exp (4t), .. 1/. (6.3)
T
, & 1, , T .

, , , , .

div D = 4ext ,
1 B
rot E =
,
c t

div B = 0,
4
rot H =
j.
c

(6.4)


,
B = rot A ,

E=

1 A
grad .
c t

(6.5)

, div A = 0
=

4
ext (r, t),

(6.6)

4
(6.7)
j(r, t).
c
,
.
, . , , .
: [4] .IV,22; [6] 49; [8] 58.
A =

6.2.

, , , . ,
, , .
, . k- . ,
. ( )
j = (E + E ) ,
24

(6.8)

E
( ) . E
(, )
( ). (6.8) ,
dl Lk :
I
I
I
jdl
= Edl + E dl .
(6.9)

Lk

Lk

Lk

:
j dl
j dl
jS dl
=
=
= JdR .

(6.10)

, : j dl ; dR =
dl/S dl S (.(4.10));
J = jS , .
, , ,


I
I
jdl
= JdR = Jk Rk .
(6.11)

Lk

Lk

Rk k- .

I
E dl = Ek

(6.12)

Lk

(6.9)
(), k- . (6.9)
, E (6.5)
I
I
I
1
A
Edl = grad dl
dl .
(6.13)
c
t
Lk

Lk

Lk

,
I
Z
grad dl = rot grad dS = 0 ,
Lk

Sk


I
Z
Z
I
d
d
d
dk
A
dl =
Adl =
rot AdS =
BdS =
,
t
dt
dt
dt
dt
Lk

Lk

Sk

(6.14)

Sk

Z
k =

BdS Sk ,
Sk

Lk - k- . ( 6.14) , Lk
25

, . , (6.11), (6.12), (6.14), (6.9):


Jk Rk = Ek

1 dk
,
c dt

(6.15)

k- ,
.
k , k- ,
N

1X
k =
Lki Ji ,
c i=1

(6.16)

, N .

. b , a:
Z
Z
I
ab = Bb dSa = rot Ab dSa = Ab dla .
- (6.7), :
I
J
dl0
A(r, t) =
.
c
|r r0 |
ab b:
I I
dla dlb
Jb
1
ab =
Lab Jb .
c
|ra rb |
c
Lab ,
, ( ).
ab ,
1
aa = Laa Ja .
c
N , k-
(6.16). (. .5.3, I), (6.7)

.
(6.16) (6.15), :
Jk R k =

Ek

N
dJi
1 X
Lki
;
2
c i=1
dt

k = 1, 2, . . . , N.

, N N J1 , J2 , . . . , JN .
26

(6.17)

. , L,
t = 0 E0 . (6.17) ,
t > 0
L dJ
+ RJ = E0 .
(6.18)
c2 dt
,
J(0) = 0 .
, (6.18)
J(t) = E0 /R + a exp (Rc2 t/L) .
a ,
t > 0
J(t) = E0 (1 exp (Rc2 t/L))/R .
.

J(t) =

E0
exp (Rc2 t/L) ,
R

t > 0.

, ,
. = L/c2 R , .
: [4] .IV,24; [6] 50; [8] 61.

6.3.
, C.
,
j = (E + E )
dl

Z2
Z2
Z2
jdl
= Edl + E dl .
(6.19)

(6.10), (6.12) (6.13).



Z2

Z2
JdR = E

1d
grad dl
c dt
Z2

grad dl =
1

Adl .
1

Z2

Z2

d = 2 1
1

27

(6.20)

.
Z2
Adl
1

. , A
,
Z2
I
, ,
Adl
Adl = , L1
1

L1

, ;
Z
I
= BdS = Adl
(6.21)
L1

, L1 .
(6.20) (6.11). (6.20)
JR = E (2 1 )

1 d
.
c dt

(6.22)

1
= LJ ,
(6.23)
c
L . , 2 1 Q
2 1 = Q/C ,

(6.24)

C . (6.20), (6.24) (6.22),


L dJ
Q
+
RJ
+
= E .
2
c dt
C
,
dQ
=J,
dt
C L
dJ
1
d
L d2 J
+
R
+
J
=
E
.
c2 dt2
dt
C
dt

(6.25)

, , , ( 6.25)
.
(6.25), , . :
E = E0 cos t .
28

:
E = E0 eit
(6.25)
J = J0 eit .

(6.26)

(6.26) (6.25),
(

L 2
iR + 1/C)J = iE .
c2

:
ZJ = E ,

Z =Ri

L
1

2
c
C

(6.27)

. J (6.27)
J = E /Z ,

Z = |Z|ei ,

(6.28)

, :
J(t) = p

E0 cos (t )

R2 + [L/c2 1/C]2

L
1
1
tg =

.
2
c
C R

,
(6.29)

, ,
.
(E = 0), ,
(6.27) Z = 0. ,
s
2 2
Rc2
Rc
c2
= i

.
(6.30)
2L
LC
2L

2
Rc
1
<
,
LC
2L
, , eit . .

2
Rc
1
>
,
LC
2L

29

,
s
2
1
Rc
=c

,
LC
2L

(6.31)


eRc

2 t/2L

Rc2
.
2L
(R = 0)
c
=
(6.32)
LC
.
: [5] 89.

6.4. -
( ,
), ()
. , , -.
, . , , ext = 0,
(6.4)
1 B
,
c t
4
rot H =
j,
c

rot E =

div B = 0,
(6.33)
div D = 0.

, ,
D = E,

B = H,

j = E,

(6.34)

, , . , (6.33), (6.34)
rot rot E = grad div E E =

1
rot H.
c t

1
4
4
div E = div D = 0 rot H =
j =
E,

c
c

4 E
.
(6.35)
E =
c2 t
,
4 H
.
(6.36)
H =
c2 t
, E H .
30

,
z > 0, .
x , j = (jx , 0, 0), jx = jx (z, t).
(6.34),
: E = (Ex , 0, 0), Ex = Ex (z, t). (6.35) :
4 Ex
2 Ex
=
.
z 2
c2 t
Ex = E0x (z)eit ,
d2 E0x
4
= i 2 E0x .
2
dz
c

E0x (z) = Aekz + Bekz ,

(6.37)

A B ,
r
r
4
4
1 + ip
k = i 2 = exp i

=
2.
c
2 c2
c

=

c
,
2

(6.38)

(6.37)
h

h
zi
zi
E0x (z) = A exp (1 + i) + B exp (1 + i) .

A ,
,
jx (z, t) = j0 ez/ cos(t z/),
j0 . ,

( ).
, .
- . -
. , 50 , - 1 ; = 105 ,
103 . , ,
- -, ,
, (6.38). 0, .. .
: [4] .I, . IV,30; [6] 52.

31

7.
7.1.

. ,
( ,
). D E B
H , .
,
D = E ,

B = H

(7.1)

. (, , ) ,
.

ext = 0,

jext = 0 .

(7.2)


(7.3.1)

div D = 0,
1 B
rot E =
,
c t
div B = 0,
1 D
rot H =
.
c t

(7.3.2)
(7.3.3)
(7.3.4)

(7.3)

(7.1),
(7.4.1)

div E = 0,

(7.4.2)

rot E =

1 B
,
c t
div B = 0,
E
rot B =
.
c t

(7.4.3)
(7.4.4)

(7.4)

(7.4.1)-(7.4.4) ,
. (7.4.2), (7.4.3) , (
),
1 A
.
c t
,
, = 0, ,
B = rot A ,

E=

div A = 0 .

B = rot A ,

E=
32

(7.5)
1 A
.
c t

(7.4.4) (7.5),
2 A
= 0.
c2 t2

,
1 2f
f 2 2 = 0 .
v t
,
c
c
v= = ,

n =
(7.6)
. , .
. ,
x: A = A(x vt).
(7.5),
Ax
= 0,
x
A0x = 0, = xvt . ,
A0 n ,

(7.7)

n . E B
,
E=

1 A
v
1
= A0 = A0 n ,
c t
c

B = rot A = [A] = [(x vt), A0 ] = [nA0 ]n ,


, ,
B=

[nE] .

(7.8)

,
En , Bn , BE, , B 6= E. ,

(7.8) B = E , > 1, 1, B > E. , B = H,


H = E .
(7.9)
.
, . ,
( )
g=

c
[EB] ,
4

E2 + B2
,
W =
8
33


div g =

W
.
t

(7.10)

g W ,
E, D, B, H.
g W , ,
, (7.3) ,
rot E =

1 B
,
c t

rot H =

1 D
,
c t

H, E

1
B
D
H rot E E rot H =
H
(7.11)
+E
c
t
t

1
div [EH] =
c t

E 2 + H 2
2

1
=
c t

ED + BH
2

(7.10), ,
g=

c
[EH] ,
4

E 2 + H 2
.
8
g. (7.9),
r
2
c
c
c 1
c E 2 + H 2
g=
EHn =
E n=
n,
E 2 n =
4
4
4

8
W =

g = vW n .
,
v.
( ) (
) .
: [1] .II,28; [8] 75.

7.2.
E B (7.1) D E, B H.
D B E H
. , , , P
E .
,
34


.
, P E . P(t)
E(t)

Z
P(t) = ( )E(t )d .
0

( ) , . D = E + 4P,

Z
D(t) = E(t) + f ( )E(t )d ,
f ( ) = 4( ) .
(7.12)
0

( ) ,
eit . (7.12) D E
Z
D(t) = E0 e

it

it

f ( )ei d ,

+ E0 e

..
D = ()E ,

(7.13)

()
Z
f ( )ei d .

() = 1 +

(7.14)

, D E,
, .
.
(), , .
0 00 :
() = 0 () + i00 () .
(7.14) ,
() = () .
,
0 () = 0 () ,

00 () = 00 () .

, 0 () , 00 () .
( ) () . 0 ()
, 00 () . 0 () , , ( 0 ).
35

0 () 0 ; 00 ()
, , , .
() .
: , E D, .

() . , (, , )
.

( ) . (, , P())

mr = eE = eE0 eit .
(7.15)
, v
. , v/,
c/. , , , exp (ikr) 1,
. (7.15) r = eE/m 2 .
, P
P=

e2 N
er =
E,
m 2

N . D =
E = E + 4P,
() = 1
r

p2
4e2 N
=
1

,
m 2
2

(7.16)

4e2 N
.
m

.
: [8] 77,78.

p =

7.3.
(), (7.14)
Z
() = 1 + f ( )ei d,
(7.17)
0

, = 0 + i 00 .
() ,
. , (7.17). f ( ) , (7.12)
.
, D(t) E(t) .
36

(7.17) exp [i 0 00 ) ].
> 0, exp ( 00 ) 00 > 0 . , 0 > 0 (7.17)
, .. () . ( 7.17) > 0.
, t E(t0 ) , t0 6 t. ,
() .
() = 0 + i 00
, (0 ) (00 )
() . , ,
0 ) 00 0 00 . 0 00
, .
, , , , ( z) f (z)
, , f (z) , .

(1 ) 1
1

5.1 [1], .
, , ??

1 . ,
1 = CR ,
. ,

I
(1 ) 1
d1 = 0.
(7.18)
1
CR , (7.18) , 1/ 2 .
() . (7.16) () 1 p2 / 2 ,
(7.22) CR || ,
1/||3 , .
, ,
1 = . :
1 = ei , d1 = iei d,
Z
Z0
(1 ) 1
() 1 i
d1 =
ie d = i[() 1].
1
ei

, (7.18)
Z
V.p.

(1 ) 1
d1 = i[() 1],
1
37

(7.19)

V.p. ,
. Re () = 0 () Im () = 00 ()
,
Z 00
(1 )
1
0
() = 1 + V.p.
d1 ,

(7.20)
Z 0
1
(1 ) 1
00 () = V.p.
d1 .

, 0 () 00 (),
. (), ,
. , (
()) .
(7.20) , .
, 0 0 ,
1 1 0 () 00 (),
:
Z
1 00 (1 )
2
d1 ,
0 () = 1 + V.p.

12 2
0
(7.21)
Z 0

(
)

1
2
1
00 () =
V.p.
d1 .

2 12
0


. ()
, .
:[1] .II,3, 5; [3] 82.

7.4.
() . ,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
P . , E =
E0 eit . e, E = E0 eit ,
r + r + 02 r =
38

E
,
m

(7.22)

0 , , , E
, . ()
r = Aeit ,
r=

e
E eit
m 0
02 2 i

m(02

e
E.
2 i)

, . . ,
P=

er =

N e2
E,
m(02 2 i)

N .
D = E + 4P E
D = E (. (7.13)),
() = 1 +

4e2
N
.
2
m 0 2 i

(7.23)

(7.6) =
n + i, ,
. ,
k = /v = /c = kR + i/c, ,
x,

E = E0 exp
x exp[i(kR x t)] .
c
1, (7.23),
, ,

n + i = 1 +

2e2
N
.
2
m 0 2 i

,
n=1+
=

02 2
2e2 N
,
m (02 2 )2 + 2 2

2e2 N

.
2
m (0 2 )2 + 2 2

.
n . ,

2 2 (02 2 )2 .
, n
n=1+

2e2 N
1
.
2
m 0 2
39

, n
( ): dn/d > 0.
0 . 02 2 20 (0 ).

0
x=
,
/2

2e2 N x
,
m0 1 + x2
2e2 N 1
=
.
m0 1 + x2
n=1

(7.24)

x = 0 (.. = 0 ) .
( ) 1 < x < 1
, .. : dn/d < 0.
01 ,
02 , . . . , 0i , . . . 1 , 2 , . . . , i , . . . ,

n + i = 1 +

Nk
2e2 X
.
2
m k 0k
2 ik

, .
k , ~ = Ek E0 k- . Nk N fk , N
, fk ( ) ,
k .
, ,
2e2 N
n=1
,
(7.25)
m 2
(7.16). , , ,
.
(7.25), (7.24) , , ,
(n < 1). ,
, ( )
c.
: [4] .IV,34.

7.5.
E, B eit ,
. ,

40


1 B
,
c t
1 D
rot H =
,
c t

(7.26)

i
H = rot E,
c
i
E = rot H.
c

(7.27)

rot E =


div D = 0,

div B = 0

,
(7.27). ,
eikr .
rot E = [(ikr), E] = i[kE]

rot H = i[kH],
(7.27)
H = c[kE],
E = c[kH].

(7.28)

k,
()(kE) = 0.

(7.29)

() 6= 0, (kE) = 0, .. Ek. , Hk
(, , () 1,

), .. . 0
, (0 ) = 0, , (7.29), (kE) = 0
. , Ekk, .. 0 . Ekk (7.28) ,
H = 0, . ,
. , ,
,
, .
, Ek Hk. H (7.28) , ,
; .
2
k = 2 .
c
2

41

,
k=

=n ,
c
c

n = . = (),
: n = n(). c
ei(krt) , v = (,
n
v kx t = const, ..
dx

v =
= ), . ,
dt
k
( ) .
, = 0 + i00 ,
k = k0 + ik00 ,
:
00
0
E = E0 ei(krt) = E0 ek r ei(k rt) .
: [1] .II,28; [8] 83.

42


1. .. / .. , .. , .. . .:, 2003.398 c.
2. .. . / .. . .:
, 2001.352 .
3. .. / .. , .. . .:, 2003.530
c.
4. .. / .. : 2 . .:, 1969..1.912
.
5. .. / .. . .:, 1976.620 .
6. .. / .. , .. . .:. .,
1990.352 .
7. . / . , . , . .
.:, 1977..5.300 .
8. .. / .. , .. .
.:, 2003.651 c.

43


III