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# -

2010

-
25 2010 ., 5

. . , . . , . . , . .

- .-. ,
. .

4 .

010701

1.

2.

15

29

3. .

29

4. .

36

46

1.
,
w(p, q), dw(p, q) =
= w(p, q)dpdq (q, q + dq) (p, p + dp),
, p q. ,
( )
w(p, q) = e

F H(p,q)
kT

(1.1)

H(p, q) , F . , (1.1),
p q, ,
.

(),
[6]. , (1.1)
..
, H(p, q) H,
= e

F H
kT

( H
):

kT
X

F H
F En

wnm = hn | e kT |m i = e kT =
= exp
mn .

l!
kT

l=0
, , wnn = wn
( n ) , 4

F En
wn = exp
kT

:
X
f=
wn hn| f |ni .

(1.2)

(1.3)

1
En
wn = exp
,
(1.4)
Z
kT
Z (), .

X

wn = 1 :
n

Z=

En

e kT

(1.5)

( |ni)
X
En
Z=
gn e kT

(1.6)

En

( En , gn En ).
,
. Z, ,
:

F = kT ln Z,
ln Z
U = E = kT 2
,
T
S = (F/T )V ,
p = (F/V )T ,
CV = (U/T )V .

(1.7)

.
1

.

, .

, ([2], 26)
En = ~(n + 1/2),

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
m 1/2
2 /2
,
n () = Nn e
Hn (), = x
~
Hn (x) , Nn .

.
,
. n n , gn = 1. Z ( (1.6)):
Z=

X
n

n
E
kT

gn e

~
kT
(n+1/2)

=e

n=0

en =

n=0

= e 2 1 + e + e2 + + en + . . . ,

~
.
kT

q = e a0 = 1. S = a0 /(1 q), :

1
en = 1 e

(1.8)

n=0

Z=

e 2kT
~

1 e kT
6

(1.9)

(1.7):

~
E = kT 2
ln Z = kT 2

ln 1 e kt
=
T
T
2kT

!
~
~
kT
kT
~
e
~
~
e
= kT 2
+
=
+ ~
~
~ .
2kT 2 1 e kT
kT 2
2
1 e kT
, :
E=

~
~
+ ~
.
2
e kT 1

(1.10)

, E = kT
( ).
T , , .. , , .
(1.10). , kT ~ ( ). ~/kT 1,
ex 1 + x, ..
~

e kT 1 +

~
.
kT

kT ~

kT,

(1.11)

.. (, (1.11)
(~/kT )2 ). , , T0 = ~/k, .
, kT ~ ( ~
). ~/kT 1 e kT 1,
(1.10) :
E

kT ~

~
~
~
+ ~e kT
,
2
2

.. .
,
CV = (E/T )V 0.
T 0

(1.12)

,
.
, 1, , Z.
, , , . 2.
2
,
I.

,
2
L

H= ,
2I

(1.13)

. L
2 :
L
2 Ylm (, ) = ~2 l(l + 1)Ylm (, ),
L

(1.14)

Ylm (, ) , l = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; m = 0, 1, . . . , l,
:
= E
H
(1.13). (1.14),
: = Ylm (, ),
El =

~2 l(l + 1)
;
2I

l = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; m = 0, 1, . . . , l.

(1.15)

(1.15) ,
m gl = 2l + 1.
:
Z=

X
l=0

gl e

kTl

X
T0
=
(2l + 1)e 2T l(l+1) ,
l=0

(1.16)

T0 = ~2 /Ik. (,
, T , .
, , , T T0 . 1
T0 = ~/k). (1.16) ,
.
) (T T0 ).
T0 /T 1 eT0 /T 1.
(1.16) , .. ,
(l = 0 l = 1):

T0 /T
T0 /T
3eT0 /T
Z 1 + 3e
;
ln Z ln 1 + 3e
( : ln(1 + x) x x 1).

E = kT 2
ln Z = 3keT0 /T
T

2
T0
eT0 /T 0 .
CV = (E/T )V = 3k
T 0
T
) (T T0 ).
(1.16)
T0 /T 1, p

l l T /T0 .
p
l T /T0 (
T0
e T l , .. ), . ( 1.16)
,

=1
Z

X
z}|{
T0
T0
Z=
(2l + 1)e 2T l(l+1) l (2l + 1)e 2T l(l+1) dl.

l=0

x =
2T
Z=
T0

Z
ex dx =
0

T0
l(l + 1),
2T
2T
.
T0

E = kT 2

ln Z = kT
T

CV = (E/T )V = k
,
( !).
.
3
N
. :
0 1 . g0 g1 . T . .
.

T0 = /k = (1 0 )/k. ( ) ,
,

g
1
Z = g0 e0 /kT + g1 e1 /kT = g0 e0 /kT 1 + eT0 /T .
(1.17)
g0
:

g1 (1 0 )eT0 /T
E = N 0 +
,
g0 + g1 eT0 /T

g1
CV = N k
g0

T0
T

2
e

T0 /T

g1 T0 /T
.
1+ e
g0

(1.18)

(1.19)

, (T T0 )
g1
CV N k
g0

T0
T

2
eT0 /T .

, 1,2, CV 0 T 0,
.

10

(T T0 )
g1
CV N k
g0

g1
1+
g0

T0
T

2
,

.. CV 0 T .
. , (1.4), (1.17) ,
0 1 ( ),
g0 e0 /kT
W0 =
,
g0 e0 /kT + g1 e1 /kT

g1 e1 /kT
W1 =
.
g0 e0 /kT + g1 e1 /kT

(1.20)

:
E = N (0 W0 + 1 W1 ).

(1.21)

(1.18), , , .
W0 =

g0
,
g0 + g1

W1 =

g1
g0 + g1

(1.22)

( T ,
). , (W1
, (1.22)). ,
W0 W1 ( 1.22) (.
(1.21)), . ,
(. 1.3).
4
( ) .

11

,
( , ..) ;
.
:
1X
H=
Jij si sj ,
(1.23)
2 ij
i, j , si , 1; Jij ,
i, j. , (1.23)
, j = i + 1. ,
!
N 1
X
X
(1.24)
sj sj+1 ,
ZN =
exp A
s1 ,...,sN =1

j=1

A = J/kT , N . , sN
.

!
N 2
X
X
sj sj+1 exp (AsN 1 sN ).
ZN =
exp A
s1 ,...,sN =1

j=1

, sN = 1 (1.24)
. , sN 1 , :
X
exp (AsN 1 sN ) = 2 ch(AsN 1 ) = 2 ch(A).
sN =1

:
X
X
N 1
ZN = 2 ch(A)
exp(A
sj sj+1 ) = 2 ch(A)ZN 1 .
s1 ,...,sN 1 =1

j=1

X
X
Z2 =
exp(As1 s2 ) =
2 ch(As1 ) = 4 ch(A),
s1 ,s2 =1

s1 =1

12

:
ZN = 2N [ch(J/kT )]N 1 .
(N ):
kT ln Z
= kT [2 ch(J/kT )].
N
N

F = lim

, T > 0,
- . , N i > k, ( )
E = 2J. N , S = k ln N , F = 2J kT ln N (
). , ( ) N F < 0,
.
:
1) ,
;
2) Z
;
3) , , (1.7).

1.1. ,
N . .
: .
Z (1.8)
.
1.2. .
13

: En = ~(n + 3/2),
n = 0, 1, 2 . . . , gn = (n + 1)(n + 2)/2. 1.1.

: E =

3~
3~
+ ~
.
2
e kT 1

1.3. En = n (n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , p 1).

.

p
1
: E =
p

e kT 1 e kT 1

e kT kT ,

(p 1) kT .
2

1.4. ,
N z
= L
2z /2I, L
. H
z- , I .

: E 2N kT0 e

TT

1
E N kT
2

~2
T T0 =
,
2Ik

T T0 .

1.5. N (
a, m).
T

: E N kT0 e T0
1
E N kT
2

T T0 =

2 ~2
,
2ma2 k

T T0 .

1.6. 1 S0 3 S1 3, 18 1011 .
, , ,
6 103 K.

14

: 1 S0 3 S1 ,
.
: 6 1011 .
:
[1, . III, 13], [3, . 1], [5, . 2], [6, 5, 6], [10, 39, 40].

2.
N
( , , ):
N
X
k ,
=
H
h
k=1

k k- .
h
= E
H

() = ()
h
( , ,
) ([2], 72):
X
E=
ni i ,
i

ni i ( );
X
= (N !)1/2
(1) P {1 (1 )2 (2 ) . . . N (N )}

(-);
X
= (N !)1/2
P {1 (1 )2 (2 ) . . . N (N )}

(-). P , . ni : ni = 1, 2, 3, . . . - ni = 0 1.
15

:
P
1
1
g(n1 , n2 , . . . )e kT i ni i .
(2.1)
Z
( 2.1), , , ni ,
i E N , ..
. :
) - ( )

w(n1 , n1 , . . . ) =

ni =

1
e

i
kT

+1

(2.2)

;
) - ( )
ni =

1
e

i
kT

+1

(2.3)

.
(2.2), (2.2) ,
, ,
:
X
ni = N .
(2.4)
i

, :
dn() = f ()g()d,

(2.5)

f () =

(2.6)
e 1
( + ,
) g()d
, + d. g()d, s ( ~) V ,
p p + dp:

kT

(2s + 1)

V dp
.
(2~)3

16

(2.7)

, , d.
p2
=
,
2m
(2s + 1)m3/2
g()d =
V d.
2 2 ~3

(2.8)

:
Z
dn() = N.

(2.9)

:
Z
X
E=
i ni

E = dn().
(2.10)
i

.

5
kT .

- ( ), , , .
, (2.5)
dn() = f ()g()d,

f () =

1
e

kT

+1

(2.11)

(2.8),
s = 1/2. (2.9):
Z

3/2

dn() = N

(2m) V
2 2 ~3
17

Z
1/2 f ()d.
0

(2.12)

Z
1/2 f ()d -

,
0

f (), (2.11).
Z
F () = f ()d , > 0 ,
(2.13)
0

. (2.13)
:

+1
1
f ()0
F () =
+1
+1
=

1
+1

+1
=
+1

Z
+1
0

f
d =

( + kT x)+1 f 0 (x)dx =
/kT
Z

kT
1+
x

(2.14)

+1
f 0 (x)dx.

/kT

. kT
( 2.14) , .
kT / 1, .
1

f () f 0 (). ,
f 0 ()
| | . kT
, ,
f 0 (x) 6= 0 . 1
x . 1.
0
|x| > 1, , f (x) 0, (2.14)
. ,
1 6 x 6 1. (2.14)
, f () = 0 x =

18

kT
(
1),

+1
kT
1+
x
,

+1
2
kT
kT
( + 1) kT
1+
x
1 + ( + 1) x +
x2 .
(2.15)

(1 + x) 1 + x +
x1

( 1) 2
x.
2

(2.15) (2.14) (

1,
kT

1 6 x 6 1), :
"
2 #
+1 Z

kT
( + 1) kT
F ()
x2 f 0 (x)dx. (2.16)
1 + ( + 1) x +
+1

, :
Z
f 0 (x)dx = f (x)|

Z
0

xf (x)dx = 0,

1
= x
= 1;
e + 1

ex
=
f (x) = x
(e + 1)2
0

=
Z

Z
2 0

x f (x)dx = 2

1
;
(ex/2 + ex/2 )2

x2 e x
2
dx =
(ex + 1)2
3

( - , . 8,
). :
"
2 #
+1
2

( + 1) kT
F ()
1+
.
(2.17)
+1
6

kT ,
() = (T ) 0 T = 0 (.
19

(2.20) ):
+1

F ()

"

( + 1)

1+
+1
6

kT
0

2 #
.

(2.18)

.
(2.12), :
"
2 #
3/2
3/2
3/2
2
(2m) V
(2m) V 2
kT
N=
F
(1/2)
=
1
+
,
2 2 ~3
2 2 ~3
3
8 0
:
"
2/3 "
2 #2/3
2 #
2
2
kT
~
N
kT
0 1
, (2.19)
(T ) =
3 2
1+
2m
V
8 0
12 0
2

2/3
~2
2N
,
(2.20)
3
0 = (0) =
2m
V
2
kT
1 (1 + x) 1 + x.

x1
0
, T = 0 ( ) ( 2.6) : f () = 0
> 0 f () = 1 < 0 . , T = 0
( ) F ( ),
:

2/3
~2
2N
F = 0 =
3
.
(2.21)
2m
V
6
, kT , S .

20

z S. , , ..
vz > 0. vz ,

. , vz vz + dvz ,
S vz . , dp = dpx dpy dpz =
= m3 dvx dvy dvz , (2.7) V = Svz ,
dv:
2

## m3 dvx dvy dvz

.
(2~)3

(2.22)

(2.6) (2.22)
vx , vy , dvz :
2m3 Svz
d(vz ) = dvz
(2~)3

Z Z
dvx dvy

1
e

kT

+1

m
= (vx2 + vy2 + vz2 ). vz ,
2
S:
2m3 S
=
(2~)3

Z Z

Z
vz dvz

1
e

kT

+1

dvx dvy .

(2.23)

(vz =
= v cos , dvx dvu dvz = v 2 sin dvdd) , :
3

2m S
(2~)3

Z
0

Z/2
Z2
Z 3
v dv
2m3 S
v dv
cos sin d d =
.

(2~)3
e kT + 1
e kT + 1
3

= mv 2 /2, (2.13):
=

4mS
(2~)3

Z
0

d
e

kT

+1

21

4mS
F (1).
(2~)3

F (1) (2.18),
kT ,
"
2 #
2
mS
kT
= 2 3 20 1 +
.
4 ~
6 0
, , ,
. ,
2mvz , , 2mvz ,
(. (2.23)):
4m4 S
p=
(2~)3

Z Z
vz2 dvz

1
e

kT

+1

dvx dvy .

, , :
"
2 #
2N
5 2 kT
p=
.
0 1 +
5V
12 0
7
,
, W . ,
W kT .

,
W . ()
,
. ,
( z) .
, , , , ,
(. (2.23))
2m3
=
(2~)3

Z Z
vz dvz

vz0

22

1
e

kT

+1

dvx dvy ,

(2.24)

2
mvz0
= W.
2

m
= (vx2 + vy2 + vz2 ),
2
(2.24) vz :
2m3
=
(2~)3

Z Z

Z
dvx dvy

dvz
vz0

vz
e

kT

+1

(2.25)

2 +v 2 )/2
m(vx
y
mvz2
kT
x =
A = e
,
2kT

Z
dvz
vz0

kT
=
m
+1

vz

e kT

1
kT
dx x
=
Ae + 1
m

W/kT

ex
dx
=
A + ex

W/kT

W
m
kT
kT
2
2
x
ln (A + e )
=
ln [1 + e kT e 2kT (vx +vy ) ].
=
W/kT
m
m

(2.25)
W
e kT ,
3

2m kT
e
(2~)3 m

Z Z

WkT

## dvx dvy e 2kT (vx +vy ) =

4m
2 WkT
.
(kT
)
e
(2~)3

e,
( ):
j=

4me
2 kT
,
(kT
)
e
(2~)3

=W

( 1 , /kT 102 ).

8
- -.

23

p2
( =
),
2m
:
dn() = f ()g()d,

f () =

1
e

kT

(2.26)

s = 0 ( ),
(2.8) :
(2m)3/2 V 1/2
g()d =
d.
4 2 ~3

(2.27)

- T0
(T0 ) = 0,
(2.9):
Z

(2m)3/2 V
dn() = N
4 2 ~3

1/2 d

e kT 1

= N.

(2.28)

, (T ) (2.28), (T0 ) = 0
T0 . , ,
(2.28) . ,
T0 (2.28), T = T0 = 0,
-. .. (2.28)
(2m)3/2 V
N=
4 2 ~3

1/2 d

e kT0

(2mkT0 )3/2 V
=
4 2 ~3
1

Z
0

x1/2
dx,
ex 1

(2.29)

, , T0 .
:
Z
x
G() =
dx, > 0.
(2.30)
ex 1
0

(ex 1)1 :

(e 1)

=e

X
1
x
2x
3x
=
e
+
e
+
e
+

=
enx
x
1e
n=1

24

Z
x

G() =
0

enx dx =

n=1

Z X

n=1

t t dt X 1
e
=
n
n
n+1
n=1

Z
et t dt =
0

(2.31)

= ( + 1)( + 1).
t = nx Z

X
t a1
(a) =
e t dt - (k) =
1/nk .
0

n=1

- , .
(k), :
(3/2) = 2.61,

(5/2) = 1.34,

2
(2) = ,
6

(3) = 1.20,

4
(4) = .
90

## , G() . (2.31), (2.29) :

N=

(2mkT0 )3/2 V
(2mkT0 )3/2 V
(2mkT0 )3/2 V
G(1/2)
=
(3/2)(3/2)

2.31
.
4 2 ~3
4 2 ~3
4 2 ~3

~2
T0
2mk

4 2 N
2.31 V

2/3

~2 2/3
3.31
n ,
mk

n = N/V .
9
- -.
, -
, - , .

, T (,
2/3
2~2 N
0
T T0 =
, T00 )
km V
a = exp(/kT ) ( ) , a 0,
25

(. 2.6).
T T00 , , .
, , , .
a,
Z

1/2 d
= AV
exp(
)

N = AV
0

Z
0

1/2 d
,
1

exp

1
a

, a:
Z
N = aAV
0

= kT ,

1/2 e/
d .
1 ae/

(2s + 1)m3/2
A=
. a 1, 2 2 ~3

1
1 x,
1x

Z
Z
N aAV 1/2 e/ d a 1/2 e2/ d .

(2.32)

(2.32) (3/2) =

/2,

2N
a
a=
1 3/2 .
AV 3/2
2
a
0 3/2
2N
1
T0
a0 =
=
;
2s + 1 T
AV 3/2

a0
a0
= a0 1 3/2 .
a=
2
1 a0 /23/2

(2.33)
(2.34)

(2.34) = (N, T )
:
= ln a = ln a0
26

a0
.
23/2

: ln(1 + x) x
x. , - , - , .
:
Z

Z 3/2 /
e
3/2
d
=
aAV
d
E = AV
1 /
/ )
(1

ae
e

1
a
0
0

Z
Z
aAV 3/2 e/ d a 3/2 e2/ d =
0

0
5/2

= aAV

(5/2) 1

a
25/2

, (5/2) = 3 /4, :
3 5/2
a
E = aAV

1 5/2 .
4
2
a (2.34) a a0

3
a0
a0
5/2
E = a0
AV
1 3/2 1 5/2 .
4
2
2
(2.33), :

3
a0
E = N kT 1 5/2 .
2
2
:
2E
N kT
a0
p=
=
1 5/2 .
3V
V
2
+ -,
-. , , -
, , - ,
( -
, - , ).

27

2.1. kT
, .
2
kT
:
.
0
"
2 #
3
5 2 kT
2
kT
: E = N 0 1 +
, CV = N k ,
5
12 0
2
0
"
#
2
2
5 2 kT
p = N 0 1 +
.
5
12 0
2.2. ( =
= cp, c ), kT , , .
"
"
2 #
2 #
2 kT
3
2 2 kT
: = 0 1
, E = N 0 1 +
,
3 0
4
3
0

1/3
kT
N
CV = 2 N k , 0 = 3 2
~c.
0
V
2.3.
. . n.
:

c
= n,
4

c .

, 0.1 0.1
. kT = 0.025 .
f () ?
:

## f> = 1.79 102 ,

f< = 0.98,

1
f0 = .
2

2.5. -
T < T0 , T0 -.
(2s + 1)m3/2
: E =
V (kT )5/2
2 2 ~3
28

Z
0

x3/2
dx,
ex 1

p=

2E
.
3V

2/3
2
2~
N
2.6. , T T00 =

km V

.
:
[1, . IX, 13], [3, . 2], [5, . 3], [6, 53, 54, 57, 58, 62], [10, 4549].

3. .

. ,
,
w(q, p, t),
(q) (p) (, ,
), , w(q, p, t) t. -
,
, w(q, p, t)
H
( w(q, p, t) e kT
) , w(q, p, t) .
.
,
, ( , ), () .
( 3-
, ), w(q, p, t)

f (r, v, t), f (r, v, t) , dw = f (r, v, t)drdv t r, r+dr
v v+dv. ,
f (r, v, t), d(v, v0 ) v
29

v0 .
(r r0 )
( ) .
f (r, v, t)
:

F
+v +
f (r, v, t) =
t
r m v
Z
Z
= n d dv0 |vv0 | (|vv0 |, ) [f (r, v1 , t)f (r, v10 , t)f (r, v, t)f (r, v0 , t)] .
(3.1)
n , F ,
, v v0 , v1 v10 ( ), m ,
(|v v0 |, )
d = sin dd, . (3.1)
J .
( 3.1)
, J (f f0 )/ , f0
, , .
.
: = Av n (n , A ). ,
:

F
f f0
+v +
f =
.
(3.2)
t
r m v

:
) () .
( ) ( f );
) , ,
f ,
. , , (), ..
- ( , f (r, v)
30

), .
.

.
(f /t = 0)
. ( ), ( ),
( ), (
).
, (3.2).
10

T , . n, =
= const.

je = E,
(3.3)
je ( )
E (.. : E = /r ).
j()
= env
e
:
()

je = je

= env = env

(3.4)

v , E: v = E. (3.4)
(3.3) :
= en.
(3.5)
f (3.2). E , f
(f /r = 0). (3.2) (F = eE):

e
f
f f0

,
E
=
m
v

e
f
f = f0 +
E
.
(3.6)
m
v
31

, v ,
E. ( 3.6) ( E !)
f f0 . (
E, f f0 ). ,
:

e
f0
f = f0 +
E
.
(3.7)
m
v
, f0 :

m 3/2
mv2
f0 (v) =
exp
.
2kT
2kT

(3.8)

m v2
f0
m
v2
= f0 (v)
= vf0 ,
5v v2 = 2v.
v
2kT v
kT
v
,
f = f0

e
(Ev)f0 .
kT

v:
Z
Z
Z
e
v = vf dv = vf0 dv
v(Ev)f0 dv.
kT

(3.9)

(3.10)

( , , , v = 0
!). (3.10) , E z (.. E = Ek):
v(Ev) = Evz (vx i + vy j + vz k).

(3.11)

vz vx vz vx -
( !),
Z
Z
2 mvz2
2 kT
2
mvz2
vz2 f0 dv =
f0 dv =
=
m
2
m 2
m 2

( !). v :
kT
e
e
e
= E E, = .
v = Ek
kT
m
m
m
32

(3.5) :
ne2
.
= ne =
m
11

( ) T . : = const, f0 .

jT
:
jT = T,
(3.12)
.
, ..
mv 2
n
v:
2
()
jT

mv 2
=n
v.
2

(3.13)

, (3.13)
Z
nm 2
nm
()
=
vv 2 f (v)dv
(3.14)
jT = jT
v v=
2
2
(3.14) T ,
(3.12) .
f (3.14)
(3.2) F = 0 f /t = 0 ( !):
v

f
f f0
=
,
r

f
.
(3.15)
r
f0 (3.8).
(3.15) , f f /r f0 , T ,
T r, .. T = T0 + rT .
f = f0 v

f f0
f0 T
f0
=
=
T.
=
r
r
T r
T
33

|rT | T0 r ,
f0 /T T = T0 . f0 /T ,
(3.8):

f0
3
mv 2
=
f0 .
+
T T =T0
2T0 2kT02
:
2

mv
f (v) = f0
(vT )
3 f0 .
2T0
kT0
jT (3.14) :

2
Z
Z
nm
nm
2
2 mv
jT =
vv f0 dv
v(T v)v
3 f0 dv.
2
4T0
kT0

(3.16)

(3.17)

( (3.10)),
v(T v) (3.11) ( z T
: T =
k):
z
T
vz (vx i + vy j + vz k).
z

v(T v) =

vz vx vz vx , (3.10), (3.11),

Z
3nm
mv 2
2 2
jT = T, =
vz v
1 f0 dv.
(3.18)
4T0
3kT0
:
vz = v cos ,

dv = v 2 dv sin dd.

:
Z

Z2
cos2 sin d

nm
=
T0

d =
0

m
2kT0

3/2 Z

e
0

34

mv
2kT

4
,
3

mv 2
1 v 6 dv.
3kT0

3/2
mv 2
kT0
dx
x =
, dv =
,
2kT0
2m
x1/2

Z
2
2
2
2nk

T
2
9
7
2nk T0
0
ex x5/2
x 1 dx =

.
=
3
2
2
m
m 3
0

(3.19)
, -
( 8),

( + 1) = () (1/2) = , :
nk 2
=5
T0 .
m

(3.20)

k
=5
(3.21)
T0
e
( ). (3.21) 2 /3 5.

3.1. , ( 3.1).
.
3.2. t = 0 z < 0 n0 T . f0 .
t > 0 z > 0. n(z, t) t > 0
n = n(z, t ) .
: (3.1)
f
f
+v
= 0, n(z, t) = n0 f (r, v, t),
t
r
.

Zx
n0
z
m
2
n0
2
: n(z, t) =
1
; (x) =
et dt; n = .
2
t 2kT
2

3.3. , = Av.
: 9.
r
4 ne2 A
8kT
: =
v, v =
.
3 m
m
35

## 3.4. , f0 (v) , = Av.

: 11.

: = 10nkA

2kT
m

3/2
.

3.5. (3.2), .
: f0 (2.11).
5.
: = ne2 /m.
3.6. (3.2), H-
:
Z
dH
6 0, H(t) = f (r, v, t) ln f (r, v, t)drdv.
dt
H S:
S = kN H + const,
N .
: [10], 34, 35.
:
[1, . IX, 13], [4, . 5], [8, 14], [9, 85].

4. .

, (, ),
, (, )
|| . ,
. : , ,
36

f (, t) - ,
. , ,
(A) (B). (
B , nB nA , nX
X). A
A B, A, .
B .
:
) ; (A) (B). p,
,
A B p A : |p| |p|;
) ,
( ). = r (r - );
) . , . ),
= r.
A
F, ( B).
, F = mg ,
E ..

. ,
, t , t, , (
;
).
f (, t), ( , : 1 , 2 . . . . , n )

!
n
n
X
X
f (1 , . . . , n , t)

+
ai
bij f (1 , . . . , n , t) = 0
(4.1)
t

i
j
i=1
j=1
.
:
n

f X ji
+
= 0,
t

i
i=1
37

(4.2)

n
X

ji (1 , . . . , n , t) ai f
(bij f ).

j
j=1

(4.3)

ai bij ; ai ( i ), bij .
, , (3.1),
f (, t), , t ( f )
A B, ,
f
( ai bij (4.1)). (4.1)
, A A ( !)
.
, , (3.1) ( -),
(
A B) ai , bij .
, (4.1) ,
( f /t = 0 : ji = 0), ai bij ,
( 4.3)
f0 () (. 12 13).
B bij : bij =
= Dij (4.1)(4.3) .
1 = x, 2 = y, 3 = z ( = r) ( 1 = px ,, 2 = py , 3 = pz ( = p) .
12):
f (r, t)
= D2 f (r, t) (a)f (r, t),
(4.4)
t

f
+ div j = 0, j = af Df.
(4.5)
t
, (4.4)
F, :
c
= D2 c q(F)c.
t
38

(4.6)

c , D ,
q . ( ,

v = qF,

(4.7)

F). , ,
.
, f (, t) ,
:
Z
d
f (1 , . . . , n , t)d1 . . . dn = 0,
(4.8)
dt
()

( (4.8) 1 , 2 . . . . , n ). ( ),
f (, t) ( f /i )
, ji (, t) . (4.8)

(4.1) (4.2) !
.
12
a D .

i (4.1)
1 = px ,, 2 = py , 3 = pz , (4.4)(4.5) :
f (p, t)
= D2p f (p, t) (ap )f (p, t),
t

(4.9)

j = af Dp f.

(4.10)

39

f (p, t)

p2
f0 exp
,
2M kT

(4.11)

M . (4.11) j = 0 (.(4.10))
,
p
p f0 f0 /p =
f0 ,
M kT
:
D
a=
p.
M kT
, (4.9) :

f (p, t)
p
2
= D p
p f (p, t).
t
M kT

(4.12)

## D ( . [8], 21, 1).

13
a D (4.4): 1)
; 2) U (r).
.

1) , f0 (r, t) = const.
j = 0 (. (4.5)) a = 0. ,
(4.4) :
f (r, t)
= D2 f (r, t).
t

(4.13)

2) f (r, t) :

U (r)
f0 (r) = C exp
.
kT

## f0 (r) = CeU (r)/kT

1
U
kT

40

F(r)
f0 (r),
kT

F = U (r) , . j = 0
:

D
D
af0 Df0 = a
F f0 = 0, a =
F,
kT
kT
(4.4)

f
1
= D 2 f
(F)f .
t
kT

(4.14)

14

, (4.13). ,
t = t0 - r0 .

Z
2
(r r0 ) = (r r0 )2 f (r, t)dr.
(4.15)
f (r, t) r t,
(4.13). , : t = t0 f
r = r0 . ,
t ( t = t0 ) Z
f (r, t)dr = 1 (. (4.8)!), ,

f (r, t)|t=t0 = (r r0 ),

(4.16)

(r) - .
(4.13),
(4.16)
Z

:

f (r, t)dr = 1,

2
(r

r
)
0
f (r, t) = [4D(t t0 )]3/2 exp
.
4D(t t0 )

(4.17)

(4.15) = r r0
:
dr = d = 2 d sin dd.
41

4
f (. (4.17)), :
4
(r r0 )2 =
[4D(t t0 )]3/2

exp
4

2
d.
4D(t t0 )

Z
2

e d =

J() =
0

1/2

.
2

(4.18)

, :
Z

2 J()
e
d =
=

2 =[4D(tt0 )]1
0

3 5/2
3

[4D(t t0 )]5/2 .
=
=

1
=[4D(tt0 )]
8
8
2

4 4D(tt0 )

:
(r r0 )2 = 6D(t t0 ).

(4.19)

, t t0
. .
15
r r2
e E. , t0 = 0
.

f (r, t)
eD
= D2 f (r, t)
(E)f (r, t)
t
kT

(4.20)

=r

eDE
t, t0 = t.
kT
42

(4.21)

## ( 4.20) ( u = u(x, u),

u
v

u
v
v = v(x, u),
=
+
,
=
+
), :
x x u x v y
y u y v

t0

=
+
=
,
r
r r t0

t0
eDE

=
+
+
=

,
t
t
t t0
kT t0

=
,
r t=const
t0 =const

eDE
= 0

.
t r=const
t =const
kT t0 =const

(4.20)
f (, t0 )
= D2 f (, t0 ),
0
t
(4.17) ( r0 = 0, t0 = 0) t t0 ,
r . r, t (4.21), (4.20):

!
eDEt 2
r

kT
.
(4.22)
f (r, t) = [4Dt]3/2 exp
4Dt
r r2 .
Z
r = rf (r, t)dr

r0 = r

eDE
t,
kT

(4.23)

r02 /4Dt
Z
e
eDE
t
r=
r0 +
dr0 =
(4.24)
3/2
kT
(4Dt)
Z
Z
02
eDE
er /4Dt 0
3/2
0 r02 /4Dt 0
=
t
dr
+
(4Dt)
r
e
dr .
kT
(4Dt)3/2
( 4.17) (
x0 , y 0 , z 0 ).
43

( , , ,
). :
eDE
t,
kT
..
D
v=
eE.
(4.25)
kT
r2 (4.23), :
2
Z
Z
r02 /4Dt
eDE
0
0
0
02 e
2
r =
r +
t f (r , t)dr = r
dr0 +
3/2
kT
(4Dt)
r=

Z
02
r02 /4Dt
2 2 2 Z
e
er /4Dt 0
2eDt
e
D E 2
0
0
(r E)
+
dr + 2 2 t
dr .
kT
k T
(4Dt)3/2
(4Dt)3/2
6Dt (4.15)(4.19); , (4.24),
(4.17). :
e 2 E2 D 2 2
2
r = 6Dt + 2 2 t = 6Dt + (vt)2 .
(4.26)
k T
, r :
(r)2 = r2 (r)2 = 6Dt,
(4.25) , .
q (4.7) (4.25) :
q=

D
.
kT

(4.27)

,
, D . ,
,
F , F = v
F (
, . (4.25), F), q :
1
F = v,
q

F + F = 0 q =
44

1
.

q (4.27) :
D=

kT
,

.. D T . , R
: = 6R ( ), D :
D=

kT
.
6R

4.1. (r r0 ) .
:

(r r0 ) = 0.

4.2. 15, . n.
:

= ne2

D
,
kT

D=

kT
.
6R

4.3. ,
(r r0 ) . m.
: 15.

2
mgD
mgD
: (r r0 ) =
t, (r r0 )2 = 6Dt +
t2 ,
kT
kT
kT
.
D =
6R
:
[4, . 2], [7, . IV, 6, 10], [8, 21], [9, 82, 83].

45

1. . . /
. . . . : , 1973. 424 .
2. . . / . . . . : ,
1973. 704 .
3. . . : 3 . /
. . . . : , 2002. . 2 : . 432 .
4. . . : 3 . /
. . . . : , 2003. . 3 : . 448 .
5. . . ,
/ . . , . . . . :
, 2007. 256 .
6. . . / . . , . . .
. : , 2001. 613 .
7. . . : 2- . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1971. . 2. 936 .
8. . . / . . , . . . . : , 2002. 535 .
9. . . , /
. . , . . . : - . , 2000. 608 .
10. . . / . . . . : .
., 1994. 350 .

46

,
,
,

. .

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