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Exercises & Solution Finance

- Ch6 Class Outline
- Ch 5 Time Value of Money
- Time Value of Money
- pv
- ch06.pptx
- DBS 1 FM 2
- The Time Value of Money
- CF.B21.TV.pptx
- Ch04 Petty FinMagm 6e
- F-Fin Analysis-Class 1 & 2
- lecture06a
- Time Value of Money
- Finance Chapter 9 Questions and Solutions
- A PROBS
- Interest Rates in Financial Analysis and Valuation
- Time Value of Money Unit 2
- Assignment on Time Value of Money
- ACCT550 Week 4 Practice Question Solutions
- Lec_8
- Capital Investment and Financial Decisions sgg.pdf

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3-1. I. Present Value of a single Amount: Calculate the present value of Tk. 6000 to be (a) received

one year from now; (b) received at the end of five years; (c) received at the end of fifteen years.

Assume 8 percent discounting rate.

II. Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity: Determine the present value of Tk. 700 paid at the

end of each of the next 10 years. Assume 12 percent rate of interest.

III. Present Value of a Stream of Cash Flows: Assuming 10 percent discount rate, compute,

the, present value of Tk.ll00; Tk. 900; Tk.1500 and Tk. 700 to be received at the end of one

through four years.

SOLUTIONS:

I. a).

PV FV

1 i

FV

1 i n

Here,

6000

Tk.5556 ( Ans.)

(1 .08)1

FV= Tk.6000

i = 8% = .08

n=1

b).

PV

6000

Tk.4083.5 ( Ans.)

(1 .08) 5

c).

PV

6000

Tk.1891.45 ( Ans.)

(1 .08)15

II.

III.

1 1 i n

PVAn (Ordinary Annuity ) PMT

1 1 .1210

Tk.700

.12

PV n

FV n

1 i

CF3

CF1

CF2

CF4

1

2

3

(1 i )

(1 i )

(1 i )

(1 i ) 4

1100

900

1500

700

1

2

3

(1 0.1)

(1 0.1)

(1 0.1)

(1 0.1) 4

1000 743.8017 1126.9722 478.1094

Tk. 3348.88 ( Ans.)

Here,

Here,

PMT= Tk.700

i = 12% = .12

n = 10

CF1= Tk.1100,

CF2= Tk.900

CF3= Tk.1500

CF4= Tk.700

i = 10% = .10

3-2 Compute the present value of each of the following cash flows using a discount rate of 16

percent

(a) Tk. 12,000 cash outflow immediately.

(b) Tk. 16,000 cash inflow one year from now.

(c) Tk" 16,000 cash inflow two years from now.

(d) Tk. 14,000 cash outflow three years from now.

(e) Tk. 17,000 cash inflow three years from now.

(f) Tk. 13,000 cash inflow four years from now.

(g) Tk. 14,000 cash inflow at the end of each of the next five years.

(h) Tk. 14,000 cash inflow at the beginning of each of the next five years.

SOLUTIONS:

a). Present Value = 12,000 because cash outflow occurs immediately.

b).

PV FV

c).

1 i

FV

1 i

Here,

n

16,000

Tk.13793.10 ( Ans.)

(1 .16)1

PV

16,000

Tk.11,890.61( Ans.)

(1 .16) 2

Here,

d).

14,000

PV

Tk.8969.21( Ans.)

(1 .16) 3

e).

17,000

PV

Tk.10891.18 ( Ans.)

(1 .16) 3

f).

13,000

PV

Tk.7179.78( Ans.)

(1 .16) 4

FV= Tk.16,000

i = 16% = .16

n=1

FV= Tk.14,000

i = 16% = .16

n=3

Here,

g).

1 1 i n

PVAn (Ordinary Annuity ) PMT

1 1 .165

14,000

.16

45,840.11

FV= Tk.17,000

i = 16% = .16

n=3

Here,

Here,

FV= Tk.13,000

i = 16% = .16

n=4

PMT= Tk.14,000

i = 16% = .16,

n=5

Here,

1

1

h). PVA n ( AnnuityDue ) PMT

1 i

n

i i 1 i

PMT= Tk.14,000

i = 16% = .16,

n=5

1

14,000

1 .16)

5

.16 .16 1 .16

53,174.53

3-3 Your father has promised to give you Tk. 2,00,000 in cash on your 25th Birthday. To day is your 16th

birthday. He wants to know two things:

A. If he decides to make annual payments into a fund after one year, how much will each year have to

be if the fund pays 10 percent?

B. If he decides to invest a lump sum in the account after one year and let it compound

annually, how much will the lump sum be?

C. If in (A) the payments are made in the beginning of the year, how much will be the value of

annuity?

SOLUTIONS:

A. Deposits needed to accumulate a future sum:

PMT

FVAn

1 i n 1

2,00,000

1 .109 1

.10

PV FV

1 i

Here,

FVAn= Tk. 2,00,000, PMT= ?,

i = 10% = .10, n = 9

Ordinary Annuity

Here,

FV= Tk.2,00,000

i = 16% = .10

n=9

FV

1 i

2,00,000

Tk.93301( Ans.)

(1 .10) 8

PMT

FVAn

(1 i ) 1 i n 1

2,00,000

Tk.13386.88

(1 .10) 1 .10 9 1

.10

Here,

FVAn= Tk. 2,00,000, PMT= ?,

i = 10% = .10, n = 9

Annuity Due

3-4(A) IFIC Bank pays 12 percent and compounds interest quarterly. If Tk. 21,000 is deposited

initially, how much shall it grow at the end of 5 years?

(B) How much it will accumulate if the interest is compounded monthly?

SOLUTION:

A. Future Value of a Single Amount:

Here,

Quarterly Compounding:

mn

PV= Tk.21,000, FV=?

i

FV n PV 1

i = 12% = .12

m

m = 4, n = 5

.12

21,000 1

Monthly Compounding:

FV n PV 1

m

45

Tk. 37,928

mn

.12

21,000 1

12

125

Tk. 38,151

Here,

PV= Tk.21,000, FV=?

i = 12% = .12

m = 12, n = 5

3-5 You have committed to your younger sister to present a computer after her graduation at the end

of 5th year from now. The computer will cost Tk. 60,000 at that time. How much should you

deposit at-the beginning of every period during the next 5 years? The deposit should be made

in a savings bank account at 12 percent. How much should be deposited i) Quarterly, ii) Half yearly

and iii) Monthly

SOLUTION:

i. Quarterly Compounding: Deposits needed to accumulate a future sum:

PMT

FVAn

(1 i ) 1 i n 1

60,000

45

.12

.12

) 1

1

(1

4

4

.12

Here,

FVAn= Tk.60,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n = 5, m = 4

Annuity Due, Quarterly Compounding

FVAn

(1 i ) 1 i n 1

60,000

25

.12

.12

) 1

1

(1

2

2

.12

Tk. 4294.41

PMT

Here,

FVAn= Tk.60,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n = 5, m = 2

Annuity Due, Half Yearly Compounding

FVAn

PMT

Here,

FVAn= Tk.60,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n = 5, m =12

Annuity Due, Monthly Compounding

(1 i ) 1 i 1

60,000

125

.12

.12

) 1

1

(1

12

12

.12

12

Tk. 727.39

n

3-6 A bank granted you Tk. 350,000 to buy a car at 15 percent interest p.a. repayable, at the end of

every period over the next 3 years. How much should you pay i) Monthly ii) Quarterly iii) Half yearly

iv) Bimonthly v) Yearly

SOLUTION:

i. Loan Installment at the end of every month Present value of an ordinary annuity

PMT

PVAn

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,50,000, PMT= ?, i = 15% = .15, n = 3, m =12

Ordinary Annuity- Monthly Payment

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,50,000

1

1

.15 .15 .15 123

12

1

12 12

12,133 ( Ans.)

ii. Loan Installment at the end of every quarter Present value of an ordinary annuity

PMT

PVAn

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,50,000, PMT= ?, i = 15% = .15, n = 3, m =4

Ordinary Annuity- Quarterly Payment

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,50,000

1

1

.15 .15 .15 43

4

1

4

4

36,754 ( Ans.)

iii. Loan Installment at the end of every six month Present value of an ordinary annuity

PMT

PVAn

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,50,000, PMT= ?, i = 15% = .15, n = 3, m =2

Ordinary Annuity- Half Yearly Payment

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,50,000

1

1

.15 .15 .15 23

2

1

2

2

74,565 ( Ans.)

PMT

PVAn

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,50,000, PMT= ?, i = 15% = .15, n = 3, m =6

Ordinary Annuity- Bimonthly Payment

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,50,000

1

1

.15 .15 .15 63

6

1

6

6

3,50,000

1

63

.025 .025 1 .025

3,50,000

24,384 ( Ans.)

40 25.65

v. Loan Installment at the end of every period Present value of an ordinary annuity

PMT

PVAn

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,50,000

13

.15 .15 1 .15

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,50,000, PMT= ?, i = 15% = .15, n = 3, m =1

Ordinary Annuity- Yearly Payment

1,53,284 ( Ans.)

3-7 You have an opportunity to invest Tk. 5 0 , 0 0 0 now. The expected net cash benefits from the

investment over the next 4 years are Tk. 15,000, Tk. 20,000, Tk.7000, and Tk.12000 respectively.

Should you invest your fund if your cost of capital is 15 percent?

Here,

SOLUTION:

FV1= Tk.15,000

Present value of a mixed stream:

FV 2= Tk.20,000

FVn

FV3

FV 3= Tk.7,000

FV1

FV2

FV4

PVn

n

1

2

3

4

FV 4= Tk.12,000

1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i

i = 10% = .15

15,000

20,000

7,000

12,000

13,043.48 15,122.87 4,602.6 6,861.04 Tk. 39,630 ( Ans.)

Comment: As the total present value of future cash flow is less than the initial investment, we shall

not invest in the said project.

3-8 Mr. Abul Barkat is borrowing Tk. 50,000 to buy a low-cost house. If he pays annual equal

installments for 25 years and 8 percent interest on outstanding balance what is the amount of

installment? What shall be the amount of installment if quarterly payments are required to be

made?

SOLUTION:

Here,

I. yearly Loan Installment due at the end of every year:

PMT

PVAn

50,000

n = 25, m =1,

Ordinary Annuity- Yearly Payment

1 1

1

n

25

i i 1 i .08 1 .08

50,000

50,000

4,684 ( Ans.)

12.24

1

12.50

25

.08 1 .08

PMT

PVAn

1

1

n

i i 1 i

50,000

1

1

425

.08

.08

.08

4

4

4

50,000

1

50

1

425

1 .08

.08

Here,

PVAn= Tk50,000, PMT= ?, i = 8% = .08,

n = 25, m =4,

Ordinary Annuity- Quarterly Payment

50,000

1,160 ( Ans.)

43.098

3-9 Determine the future value utilizing a time preference rate of 10 percent

(A) The future value of Tk.15,000 invested now for a period of four years.

(B) The future value at the end of five years of an investment; of Tk. 6,000 now and of an

investment of Tk. 6,000 one year from now.

(C) The future value at the end of eight years of an annual deposit of Tk. 8,000 each year to be

made at the end of each year.

(D) The future value at the end of eight years of annual deposit of Tk. 8,000 at the beginning

of each year.

SOLUTION:

A. Future value of a single amount:

Here,

PV= Tk.15,000, FV=?

i = 10% = .10

m = 1, n =4

FV n PV 1 i

15,000 (1 .10) 4

21,961.50

B. Future value of a single amount:

Here,

PV= Tk.6,000, FV=?

i = 10% = .10

m = 1, n =5

FV n PV 1 i

6,000 (1 .10) 5

9,663.06

Here,

PV= Tk.6,000, FV=?

i = 10% = .10

m = 1, n =4

FV n PV 1 i

6,000 (1 .10) 4

8,784.60

C. Future value of an ordinary annuity:

1 .10 1

(Ordinary Annuity ) 8,000

8

FVAn

.10

8,000 11.436 91,487

Here,

PV= Tk.6,000, FV=?

i = 10% = .10

m = 1, n =8

PMT 1 i 1 i n 1

FVAn ( AnnuityDue )

.

10

.10

1,00,637 ( Ans.)

3-10 Exactly ten years from now Mr. Rahman will start receiving a pension of Tk.50,000 a year. The

payment will continue for five years. How much is the pension worth now, if Mr. Rahman's expected

rate of return is 12 percent?

SOLUTION: Present value of a deferred annuity:

We can take the help of a time line to better understand the problem and finding the appropriate

solution. It is said that Mr. Rahman will start receiving pension ten years from now and it will

continue for five years. So, it will be a payment of annuity format and as after 10 years the payment

will start, it will take the form of a deferred annuity.

0

10

11

12

13

14

15

PV of an ordinary annuity

1 1 i n

PVAn (Ordinary Annuity ) PMT

Here,

1 1 .125

Tk.50,000

.12

PMT= Tk.50,000

i = 12% = .12

n = 5, PV=?

Tk.1,80,239

No, we have to find out the PV of a single amount that is the PV of this ordinary annuity just

calculated, because this amount will result after 10 years.

PV FV

1 i

Here,

FV

1 i

1,80,239

Tk. 58,032( Ans.)

(1 .12)10

PMT= Tk.1,80,239

i = 12% = .12

n = 10, PV=?

3-11 Determine the present value of the cash inflows of Tk. 13,000 at the end of each year for next

4- years and Tk. 17,000 and Tk. 10,000 respectively at the end of years 5 and 6. The appropriate

discounting rate is 14 percent.

SOLUTION: Present value of an ordinary annuity and a mixed stream (combined):

1 1 i n

PV (Ordinary Annuity ) PMT

And PV of a stream,

PV n

FV n

1 i

Total PV PV (Ordinary Annuity ) PV of a Stream of CF

1 1 i n

FVn

PMT

i

1 i n

1 1 .14 4

17000

10000

13,000

5

.14

1 .14

1 .146

37,878.26 13,385.14 51,263.40

3-12 Assume an, annual rate of interest of 12 percent. The sum of Tk. 10,000 received immediately

is equivalent to what amount to be 'received in ten equal annual payments if;

A. The first payment to be received one year from now. What could be annual amount.

B. If the first payment were received immediately. What could be the amount?

SOLUTION: PMT associated with Present value of annuity:

A. Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity: Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity formula can be

solved to find out the PMT associated with a PV of a future amount.

1 1 i

PVAn (Ordinary Annuity ) PMT

PMT

1 1 i n

10,000

10,000

PMT

1,769.91

10

5

.65022

1 1 .12

.12

Here,

PV= 10,000, PMT= ?

i = 12% = .12, n = 10

Ordinary Annuity

B. A. Present Value of an Annuity Due: Present Value of an Annuity Due formula can be solved to

find out the PMT associated with a PV of a future amount.

1

1

PVAn ( AnnuityDue ) PMT

1 i

n

i i 1 i

Here,

PV= 10,000, PMT= ?

i = 12% = .12, n = 10

Annuity Due

PVAn ( AnnuityDue )

1

1

1 i

n

i i 1 i

10,000

10,000

PMT

1,580.22

6.32825

1

1 .12

10

.12 .12 1 .12

PMT

3-13 It is estimated that an investment in an item of equipment will cause the following cash flows:

Years

Tk. 60000

20000

2

3

20000

30000

30000

5

6

30000

30000

The firm wishes to earn at least -15 percent per annum on projects of this type. Calculate the

present values of the expected net cash inflows and outflows and comment on the course of

action to be taken.

SOLUTION: In the reference box cash inflows are indicated by positive numbers and outflows are

indicated by negative numbers.

Here,

CF0= Tk. 60,000

Present Value of Cash Inflows:

CF1= Tk. 20,000

FV n

CF3

CF5

CF6

CF2

CF4

CF2= Tk. 20,000

PV n

n

2

3

4

5

6

CF3= Tk.30,000

1 i (1 i) (1 i) (1 i) (1 i) (1 i)

CF4= Tk.30,000

20,000

30,000

30,000

30,000

30,000

CF5= Tk.30,000

2

3

4

5

6

CF6= Tk.30,000

(1 .15)

(1 .15)

(1 .15)

(1 .15)

(1 .15)

i = 15% = .15

79,886.09

PV n

FV n

1 i

60,000

CF1

CF2

0

(1 i )

(1 i )1

20,000

77,391.3

(1 .15)1

Comment: As the PV of inflows are higher that PV of outflows we can invest in the project.

3-14 A company has decided to set up a sinking fund to replace an, asset in 6 years time. The value

of the fund after 6 years must be Tk. 80,000 and, the fund is expected to earn interest at the

rate of 8 percent per annum.

A. What must be the annual payment into the fund, commencing at the end of year 1 and with a final

payment the end of year 6?

B. What will be the total value of annual payments into the fund?

C. Is there any difference between your value in (b) and Tk. 80,000? If so, why does it exist?

SOLUTION:

A. Sinking Fund Requirement: We can solve the future value of an annuity formula to find out the

required payment:

Here,

FVAn= Tk. 80,000, PMT= ?,

FVAn PMT ( FVIFi ,n )

i = 8% = .08, n =6

FVAn

Sinking Fund Ordinary Annuity

PMT

FVIFi ,n

PMT

FVAn

1 i 1

80,000

1 .08 1

.08

80,000

10,905

7.3359

Each PMT will be: 10,905. As there will be total 6 payments,

So the total value will be: 10,905 x 6 = 65,430

C. There is difference between total value and the sinking fund requirement. It happens because of

the interest earnings on each installment.

3-15 A company raises Tk. 75,000 loan at a 10 percent annual rate of interest. The interest payment

is Tk. 7,500 each year. The principal of the loan i.e. Tk.75,000 must be repaid at the end of 5

years. The company decides to provide for this repayment by setting up a sinking fund into which it

can afford to put Tk. 12,000 per annum for 5 years starting at the end of the first year. Interest

earned in the sinking fund will be 9 percent.

(A)

(B)

Will the fund be large enough at the end of 5 years to repay the loan?

If not, what should be the annual payment into the fund?

SOLUTION:

A. Future value of an ordinary annuity:

Here,

FVAn=?, PMT= 12,000,

i = 9% = .09, n =5

Ordinary Annuity

1 i 1

n

i

1 .095 1

FVAn (Ordinary Annuity ) 12,000

.09

12,000 5.9847 71,816

B. Sinking Fund Requirement: We can solve the future value of an annuity formula to find out the

required payment:

Here,

FVAn= Tk. 75,000, PMT= ?,

FVAn PMT ( FVIFi ,n )

i = 9% = .09, n =5

FVAn

Sinking Fund Ordinary Annuity

PMT

FVIFi ,n

PMT

FVAn

1 i 1

75,000

1 .09 1

.09

75,000

12,532

5.9847

3-16 A. You won Tk. 10 Lakh from a lottery. You would like to deposit the money with Green

Delta Life Insurance Company at 12 percent interest rate. The insurance company offered you

Tk.10,500 in monthly equal installment over next 20 years. Should you accept the offer? If the

insurance company offers Tk. 11,500 every month instead of Tk. 10,500 what will be your decision?

SOLUTION:

Present value of an ordinary annuity formula can be solved for the requirement:

When the payment is 10,500:

1 1 i

PVAn (Ordinary Annuity ) PMT

i

mn

Here,

PV= 10,00,000, PMT= 10,500

i = 12% = .12, n = 20

Ordinary Annuity

1220

.12

1

240

12

10,500 1 1 .01

10,500

.12

.01

12

Comment: No, I shall not accept the offer, because the total present value of the annual payment is

less than the initial investment.

When the payment is 11,500:

1 1 i

PVAn (Ordinary Annuity ) PMT

i

mn

Here,

PV= 10,00,000, PMT= 11,500

i = 12% = .12, n = 20

Ordinary Annuity

1220

.12

1

1 1 .01 240

12

11,500

11,500

.12

.01

12

Comment: Yes, in this situation I can accept the offer, because the total present value of the annual

payment is higher than the initial investment.

3-17: A Real Estate Company, by an arrangement with BHBFC granted you Tk. 3,00,000 as loan at 12

percent interest rate p.a. you are to pay in ten annual equal installments, twenty yearly equal installments, or in 120

monthly equal installments. Calculate the installment money under the above three methods.

SOLUTION:

i. Loan Installment at the end of every year Present value of an ordinary annuity

PMT

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,00,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n =10, m =1

Ordinary Annuity- Yearly Payment

PVAn

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,00,000

110

.12 .121 .12

53,095 ( Ans.)

ii. Loan Installment at the end of every year Present value of an ordinary annuity

PMT

PVAn

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,00,000

20

.12 .12 1 .12

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,00,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n =20,

Ordinary Annuity- Yearly Payment

40163 ( Ans.)

iii. Loan Installment at the end of every month Present value of an ordinary annuity

PMT

PVAn

1

1

n

i i 1 i

3,00,000

1

1

.12 .12 .12 1210

12

1

12 12

Here,

PVAn= Tk3,00,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n = 10, m =12

Ordinary Annuity- Monthly Payment

4,304 ( Ans.)

3-18 Your elder brother committed to present you a computer on your completion of M.B.A.

program after five years from now. The computer will cost Tk. 50,000. How much should

your elder brother deposit to a bank at 12 percent interest? The deposit should made Monthly,

Quarterly, Yearly at the beginning of every period.

i. Monthly Compounding: Deposits needed to accumulate a future sum:

FVAn

PMT

Here,

FVAn= Tk.50,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n = 5, m =12

Annuity Due, Monthly Compounding

(1 i ) 1 i 1

50,000

125

.12

.12

) 1

1

(1

12

12

.12

12

Tk. 606.20

n

PMT

FVAn

(1 i ) 1 i n 1

50,000

45

.12

.12

) 1

1

(1

4

4

.12

Here,

FVAn= Tk.50,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n = 5, m = 4

Annuity Due, Quarterly Compounding

PMT

FVAn

(1 i ) 1 i 1

60,000

(1 .12) 1 .12 5 1

.12

n

Here,

FVAn= Tk.50,000, PMT= ?, i = 12% = .12, n = 5, m =12

Annuity Due, Yearly Compounding

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