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Image and Video Compression

EE398A
Bernd Girod
Information Systems Laboratory
Department of Electrical Engineering
Stanford University

Winter 2011/12

Image and Video Compression Everywhere

Fax machines
Digital still cameras
Digital camcorders
Digital television broadcasting
Digital cinema
Digital video/versatile disk (DVD)
Personal video recorder (PVR, aka TiVo)
World Wide Web
Internet video streaming
Video conferencing
...
Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 2

Motivating Image Compression

Binary image (facsimile Group 3)

8.5 x 11 in document scanned at 7.7 lines/mm (fine mode),


1664 pixels/line, with 1 bit/pixel
3.255 Mbits for 1 page = 5.65 minutes over 9600 baud connection

Color photo

35 mm film scanned at 12 resolution (3656x2664 pixels)


Corresponds to digital still camera with 10Mpixel sensor
With 3 color components (RGB) and 8bits/color: 233 Mbits total
For digital cinema: 24 times per seconds

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 3

Motivating Video Compression

Digital video studio standard ITU-R Rec. 601


Y
13.5 MHz
8 bit

Sampling rate
Quantization
Raw bit rate
w/o blanking intervals

Cb
6.75 MHz
8 bit
216 Mbps
166 Mbps

Cr
6.75 MHz
8 bit

Some interesting bit-rates (some evolving with time)

Terrestial TV broadcasting channel


DVD (4.717 GB/length of movie)
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet
DSL downlink
Wireless cellular data

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

~20 Mbps
5...20 Mbps
<10/100/1000 Mbps
0.2 ... 10+ Mbps
0.02 ... 1+ Mbps

Introduction no. 4

How does compression work?

Exploit statistical redundancy

Take advantage of patterns in the signal


Describe frequently occurring events efficiently
Lossless coding: only statistical redundancy

Introduce acceptable deviations

Omit information that the humans cannot perceive


Match the signal resolution (in space, time, amplitude) to the
application
Lossy coding: exploit both visual and statistical redundancy

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 5

Visual Redundancy

For images to be viewed by humans, no need to represent


more than the visible resolution in

space
time
brightness
color

Required resolution might depend on image content


(masking)
For some applications, only a specific region of the image
might be relevant, e.g., in

medical imaging
surveillance

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 6

Typical Image Coder and Decoder


image x

Transform coefficients y Quantizer

yT x
reconstructed
image x

Inverse
transform

x T 1 y

indices q

qQ y
coefficients y

Dequantizer

indices q

y Q 1 q

Encoder

Entropy
coder
cC q

bit-stream c

Entropy
decoder
q C 1 c

Decoder

Transform T(x) usually invertible


Quantization Q y not invertible, introduces distortion
1
Combination of encoder C q and decoder C c
lossless

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 7

Discrete Wavelet Transform

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 8

Example: JPEG 2000 Compression


uncompressed: 786Kbytes

75:1 compression (10.6 Kbytes)

512 x 512 Pixels, 24-Bit RGB


Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 9

EE398A Outline
1.

Basic building blocks


1.
2.
3.

2.

From transform coding to JPEG


1.

2.

3.

Orthonormal transforms, coding gain, KLT, separability, DCT


Baseline JPEG, quantization matrix, run-level coding

From wavelets to JPEG-2000


1.
2.

4.

Entropy coding: Huffman codes, Golomb codes, arithmetic coding


Quantization, Lloyd algorithm, high-rate performance
Predictive coding

DWT, perfect reconstruction filter bank, 5/3 wavelet


JPEG-2000, EBCOT, embedded quantization, bit-plane coding

From motion compensation to MPEG and H.264


1.
2.

M.c. prediction, hybrid coding, block matching, subpel accuracy


Video coding syntax, macroblocks, GOPs, MPEG1/2, H.264/AVC

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 10

EE398A People

Instructor

Co-instructor

Teaching Assistant

Co-Teaching Assistant

Bernd Girod

Thomas Wiegand

Mina Makar

Haricharan Lakshman

Office hours:
Fr, 1:30-3 pm
Packard 373

Office hours:
Tu, 2:30-4 pm
Packard 369

Office hours:
We, 4-6pm
Packard 021

Office hours:
We, 4-6pm
Packard 021

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 11

EE398A Organisation

Class home page: http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee398a


Homeworks

Late homework policy

7 problem sets, require computer + Matlab (Image Proc. Toolbox)


Handed out Thursdays, due one week later, 4:15 p.m.
0-24 hours subtract 10%
24-48 hours subtract 25%
48-72 hours subtract 50%
After 72 hours subtract 100%

Grading

Homeworks: 50%
Term project: 50%
No mid-term, no final

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 12

EE398A Term Projects - General

Work in groups of 2-3 students, 50 hours per person


Competitive project: develop a stereo image coder,
performance will be evaluated for the same set of test images
Testing framework will be released early in February
Submission of Matlab code: March 9
Class-room presentations of projects: March 13/15
Written report due: March 15
Presentations and reports will be posted online
Project grade based on

Originality/technical quality 25%


Competitive performance 25%
Written report 25%
Class-room presentation 25%

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 13

ISE laboratory

Created by equipment grants from Hewlett-Packard, Xerox,


and Intel
Exclusively a teaching laboratory
Location: Packard room 021
20 Linux PCs, scanners, printers etc.
Door combination for lab entry will be provided by TA

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 14

Review & Further Reading

Selected papers posted on Web site


Slides available as hand-outs and as pdf files on
the web
Books (recommended, but not required)

T. Wiegand and H. Schwarz: Source Coding: Part I of Fundamentals


of Source and Video Coding, Foundations and Trends in Signal
Processing, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 1-222, 2011. (pdf online)
D. S. Taubman, M. W. Marcellin, JPEG2000 Image Compression
Fundamentals, Standards, and Practice, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2002.
Y. Wang, J. Ostermann, Y.-Q. Zhang, Video Processing and
Communications, Prentice-Hall, 2002.

Bernd Girod: EE398A Image and Video Compression

Introduction no. 15