Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 54

IT Project Management

Foundations

Welcome to Project Management Foundations!

This 4-hour workshop describes the fundamentals


of IT project management at Harvard
Designed for all IT staff, regardless of experience
with projects
Sets a One-Harvard language and definition for
what it means to manage IT projects at Harvard

because project management affects


everyone in IT sooner or later!
2

Administrative notes

Breaks and End time

Electronics Please mute

Restrooms and Fire Exits

Introductions

Name

Where you work

Your experience with projects


as a manager, team member, scrum master,
support desk, infrastructure engineer, business
analyst, developer, architect, other stakeholder

Course Objectives

Understand the value and benefits of IT project


management at Harvard
Describe the concepts, roles and responsibilities, and
phases of IT project management
Understand the essential elements of IT project
management at Harvard
Know the project management tools used, and
resources available at Harvard.

What do you hope to get out of this course?


5

Project Management & the T Shaped Professional

The T Shaped model is about depth


& breadth of expertise

Keeping up with changing technologies


and their impact on higher education

Maintaining a service mindset


and
T-shaped
Professional
trusted advisor relationships

Project Management is a T Shape


core practice

Cuts across all disciplines Impacts


the what and the how of providing IT
services

Agenda

Project Management Fundamentals

6 Essentials for Success

What is a Project?
What is Project Management?
Why IT Project Management?
Roles
Phases

Vision, Objectives, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)


Estimating & Planning
Risks
Governance
Communications
Change Management

Perspectives on IT Project
Management

The Kitchen Remodel


You and your spouse/partner are considering a major remodel to expand
and modernize the kitchen in your 115 year old home. You are thinking
about opening up the space, upgrading all appliances, and adding stateof-the-art wi-fi and surround-sound that ties into the existing systems -all without disrupting the character of the historic home.
What must you do to determine:
a.
b.
c.
d.

whether or not to go ahead with the remodel idea?


a plan for the remodel, if you decide to proceed?
how to live in the house, while the remodel is underway?
how to ensure completion in time for Thanksgiving, just 3 months away, when
you will host 50 guests?

In answering each of the questions above, you should also answer:


1. who is involved or affected by this project? In what way?
2. What constraints (listed or not listed) must be considered?
3. what additional concerns (listed or not listed) must be addressed?
9

Break

10

IT Project Management
Fundamentals

11

What is a Project?
A project is a temporary endeavor to deliver a unique
product or service.

Temporary: has a start and an end

Unique: a different, never-seen-before-thing, a change

Projects are the means by which we bring new products and


services to users at Harvard projects involve change

We essentially do two things in IT: operate & maintain existing


capabilities and bring in new products and services. Projects are the
way we bring new capability into the environment.
12
12

Is this a Project?
Develop a new software application
Fix a bug
Implement a system enhancement
Build a new website
Perform weekly backups
Install a network in a building

Select a software application


Construct a new building
Host a wedding

Upgrade servers in a data center


Increase storage capacity

13

Yes or
No?

Is this a Project?

14

Yes or
No?

Develop a new software application

Fix a bug

Implement a system enhancement

Build a new website

Perform weekly backups

Install a network in a building

Select a software application

Construct a new building

Host a wedding

Upgrade servers in a data center

Increase storage capacity

What is Project Management?


Project Management is a disciplined approach to plan,
schedule and coordinate the work to successfully achieve
a projects objectives.

15

Involves various roles and responsibilities for the project


activities

Carried out across a set of phases over a project


lifecycle.

Copyright 2015

Does Project Management Apply in


every Project?
Develop a new software application
Implement a system enhancement
Build a new website
Install a network in a building
Select a software application
Construct a new building
Host a wedding
Upgrade servers in a data center

16

Yes or
No?

Does Project Management Apply in


every project?
Develop a new software application

Implement a system enhancement

Build a new website

Install a network in a building

Select a software application

Construct a new building

Host a wedding

Upgrade servers in a data center

Why is project management so important?

17

Yes or
No?

Why IT Project Management?

The United States economy loses $50-$150 billion per


year due to failed IT projects. (2012 Gallup Business Review)

1 in 6 IT projects have an average cost overrun of


200% and a schedule overrun of 70%.
(2013 Harvard Business Review)

61% of IT projects were challenged or failed (cancelled


or never implemented). (2012 Chaos Report)
The more complex the project, the greater the need for an
experienced, skilled project manager.

18

Project Manager
The Project Manager (PM) -- leads the planning,
management and execution of all aspects of a project
to ensure achievement of the projects objectives

19

Sets expectations on what benefits can be delivered within


established timeframe and budget
Ensures the project operates within the approved budget
Identifies and manages project risks, dependencies, constraints
Reports on activities, status and results to sponsors, steering
committees, and other affected stakeholders
Acts as the Chief Communicator and Change Agent

Project Manager Reflection

How often are they informally assigned?

What are the benefits and dangers of either case?

20

How often do the people running projects at Harvard


do not have the job title project manager?

What is risk of having no project manager, or having


project management split among multiple roles?

Other Key Roles


Sponsor

Defines the benefits desired from the project.


Provides funding and resources to the project

Steering
Committee

Guides the project through its phases.


Makes decisions on significant changes (time, scope, budget)
Eliminates any obstacles to success

Stakeholders

Project Team
Member

Affected by the project in some way


Use the products or services the project delivers
Support/operate the products or services of the project
May be in a job that will change as a result of the project
Can slow down or derail a project

Performs the work of the project

All need to be champions of the projects success


21

Project Phase Activities


Phases define the work that occurs in
each step of a project's lifecycle.

Project Lifecycle

22

Discover

Plan

Clarify the
feasibility of a
potential
project.

More in-depth
analysis and
planning;
vendor selection;
high level design.

Implement
Do the actual
work of the
project; build and
release products
or services.

Close
Transition to
operations.

Two Approaches to Organizing the Work

Products delivered in quick,


multiple, iterative releases

23

Products delivered in one release


at the end of the process

IT Project Management Team Exercise


Project Lifecycle

24

Discover

Plan

Clarify the
feasibility of a
potential project.
Should we invest
in full planning?

More in-depth
analysis and planning;
vendor selection; high
level design.
Should we
implement?

Implement

Do the actual work


of the project;
build & release
products / services.
What factors must
be addressed in
implementation?
What is the
meaning of
done?

Close

Transition to
operations. What
will determine
projects success
in operations?

Form teams of 4-5 persons.


Each team is assigned an IT project.
What activities must the team accomplish in each phase?
What information must the team gather in each phase?
Who should the team engage with in each phase?

Break

25

26

6 Essentials of IT Project
Management

27

6 Essentials of IT Project Management


Vision, Objectives, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Planning/Estimating
Risk
Governance
Communications
Change Management

28

Vision
A well formed vision is a clear, concrete statement of
what the future will look like.

29

Vision statements are aspirational. They inspire action


and change. They define why.

What are some of the benefits of having a well defined vision?

Who writes the vision? Who owns the vision?

Do all projects need a vision?

Project Objectives
Project Objectives are the goals that will be

accomplished to achieve the vision.

They are the foundation for product and release


planning; they define the What.
Good objectives are SMART objectives

30

Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timebound

Copyright 2015

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)


KPIs are measurements to confirm that the project

has achieved the objectives

31

If you cant write a KPI to measure that youve


achieved the objective, then there is something
wrong with the objective.
If you cant measure the benefits of a project,
there probably arent any. - Tom DeMarco

Copyright 2015

Match Objectives and KPIs


IT Academy Vision
A comprehensive professional development program of courses and activities that provides
Harvards IT employees with the competencies to excel as T Shaped Professionals to the
schools/units they support.

Objectives
1. Design and implement a T Shaped
Professional competency-based curriculum
and course catalog that staff are motivated to
participate in, starting in FY15.
2. Reinforce formal training with coaching, &
on-the-job (OJT) skills enhancement, starting
in FY16.
3. Integrate course catalog into an enterprisewide learning management system (LMS) that
supports individual development plans, course
registration, and badging by FY17.
32

Key Performance Indicators


1. 70% of staff complete the common, competency
based curriculum within 3 years; no open seats per
class within 60 days of program rollout.
2. All IT Academy courses receive top ratings (above
4.5 on a 5.0 scale) for meaningful, relevant content
within 3 months of each course rollout
3. 50% of all managers are leading OJT skills
enhancement to their staff within 2 years of rollout.
4. Course catalog is integrated into a corporate LMS
within 6 months of LMS implementation.

Vision, Objectives, KPI Template


The Vision for <Project Name>
This should be a succinct statement of what the future state will look like after the project
is delivered.

Objectives
1. List 3 5 objectives that will drive
towards achieving the vision
2. Start with an action verb

Key Performance Indicators


1.For each objective describe how you
will measure success? What metrics or
KPIs will be used to confirm that the
objective has been met?
2.Every objective should have a KPI.

Refer to http://projectstandards.huit.harvard.edu/
33

Planning and Estimating

Why is planning and estimating important to a


projects success?
- Understand cost and schedule implications
- Manage scope; clarify whats achievable; identify constraints

What dimensions affect how we plan and estimate


projects?
- Time
- Funding
- Manpower

- Expertise
- Technical maturity
- Impact of the change

What tools are used to facilitate planning and


estimating?
- Schedule, budget, task map, work breakdown structure prototype

34

Project Risk Management


The process of risk management planning,
identification, analysis, responses, and monitoring and
control on a project.

Benefits:
Minimize management by crisis
Minimize surprises and problems
Increase probability of project success
Prevent problems from occurring, or if occur, from
escalating

Risks must be communicated to all Project


Team Members and Stakeholders
35

Project Risk
A risk is something that might happen to jeopardize the
projects success.

Risk Management is a result of


assessing the impact of the risk against
the probability of occurrence

Risk Management starts at the


beginning of the project and follows the
entire life of the project

Suspenders and a
belt? You must be
the guy from risk
management.
36

What if

Contractor bill rates are higher than planned

The PM leaves the project before completion ...

The software vendor does not release the upgrade as scheduled ...

At least 20% of the data does not convert without error

37

The Security project we were depending on does not deliver its


User Authentication software when planned .
More users hit the site in the first 10 days than expected.
A flu pandemic prevents the team from travelling to the planned
locations to install and test the system

What is the Probability and Impact for each of these events . . .

Probability
(Low, Med, High)

Impact
(Low, Med, High)

The lead technical developer leaves the project


team resulting in delays in delivery of critical
functionality

Increased volume of users and transactions than


expected resulting in higher help desk call
volumes

Contractor billing is higher than planned


resulting in potential budget overruns

Probability * Impact = Risk Score


38

Risk Score

Risk Log Template


OVERALL PROJECT RISK SCORE:

6.5

Risk
Action Plan
Risk
Probability (1- Impact (1Risk Category
Name/Descriptio
Risk Score (what to do if Action By Action When
Number
5)
5)
n
risk happens)

10

10

10

11

Refer to http://projectstandards.huit.harvard.edu/
39

Break

40

Project Governance
A management framework within which project
decisions are made

Key project decisions that often need to be made


include:
Scope
Priority
Budget

41

Schedule
Resources
Acceptance/Completion

When does governance start? When does it end?

Copyright 2015

Project Governance Examples

Executive Committee
Executive
Sponsor

UCIO/
DCIO

Functional
VP

Acad/Admin
Dean

What are some


benefits and pitfalls
of project
governance?

Large

Provides accountability

Steering Committee
Sponsor

IT Managing
Director
Functional
Director

School/Center
Director

Medium

Program
Manager

Project
Manager

Small

42

Project
Manager

-The buck stops here

Streamlines decisionmaking, or slows it down


Champion change
Can lose impact if
driven by representation
-Governance is not
government

Project
Manager

Project Governance across the Phases


Governance

Projects requiring or
currently under
governance review

Project Lifecycle
Request
A new project
entry

Discovery
Project reviewed by
IT PM Governance
Board

Plan |
Scope |
Design
In-depth analysis of
scope, resources,
schedule and budget
needs

Short effort to
clarify the
foundation of the
project, sufficiently
for the planning
phase

On Hold
Cancelled

Gate
Should we invest in a
scoping, budgeting,
planning exercise? Are
resources available?

Implement
Traditional
implementation
phase where
project is
executed

Tasks that
transition the
project work to
operational
teams for
ongoing support
Go Live
Project close-out/
de-brief

Gate
Are we prepared to
move forward with
implementation?
Resources? Budget?

Gate
Is this project
prepared for go-live?
Is the Service Owner
ready to support
operations?

* The duration of each lifecycle phase, the nature of the PM review, and the extent of project artifacts
required will vary based upon the project type, size, and risk-level

43

Close

Gate
Are we ready to Close
the project and release
resources?

Project Communications

44

90% of a project managers job is communication


Effective communication with all the stakeholders is
critical throughout the project lifecycle
Project communications are key for helping the
affected people adapt to the changes from the project
Projects should have a communications plan that
details the timing, content and audience

Sample Communications Plan


Information/Report or
Document

Purpose of message

Audience

Author

Format/Media/Transmittal
Method/Channel

When/Frequency/Dis
tribution Frequency

Discovery Phase
Results Review

Communicate results of discovery


phase, recommend next steps, gain
approval to proceed or halt

Project
executive
committee and
sponsor(s)

project
manager

Powerpoint, face to face

at end of Discovery
phase

Project Kickoff
Meeting

Orient project team to project; review


project mechanics, roles and resp,
project goals

Project team
members

project
manager

Powerpoint, face to face

1x when project
starts

Project team status


meetings

Update project status

Project team
members

project
manager

PowerPoint, issue log, face to


face with virtual presence
enabled

weekly

project
manager

PowerPoint, issue log, face to


face with virtual presence
enabled

monthly

project
manager

face to face

Executive Committee
Meetings

Project
Update executive committee on status,
executive
escalate issues, alert to risks, get
committee and
decisions
sponsor(s)

30 second speech on Benefits message for each stakeholder


benefits of project, 1- to convince them to endorse and key stakeholders
2 page Powerpoint
support project

Stage Gate review

UAT Test Results


Summary

45

Project
executive
committee and
sponsor(s)
Project
executive
Update stakeholders on testing results
committee and
sponsor(s)
Review results of current phase, gain
approval to proceed

Refer to http://projectstandards.huit.harvard.edu/

project
manager

PowerPoint, issue log, face to


As each phase nears
face with virtual presence
completion
enabled

testing
manager

email to all with summary of


critical defects and link to
testing log

daily

Project Communications Reflection

46

Think about a past project you were involved in ...

What communications efforts were established?

In what ways was the communications helpful to the


project?

In what ways did lack of communications derail the


project?

Change Management
Project
Change
Management

47

Service
Change
Management

Process and procedures


by which changes to
project scope are
formally introduced
and approved
.

Standardized methods &


procedures for efficient
handling of all changes
to the IT environment
to minimize the impact
on service quality

Governance

ITIL

Organizational
Change
Management
Process, tools and
techniques to manage the
people-side of change to
ensure realization of
change in order to achieve
the business outcome

Leading Change

Projects with excellent Change Management are 6x more likely to


meet their objectives. (2009 PROSCI benchmark report)

Organizational Change Management Factors *

Build Awareness of the need to change

Encourage Desire to change

Training, resources, additional support needed to implement the


change; integrate into IT Service Management**

Foster Reinforcement to sustain the change

48

Iterative releases, quick wins

Ensure Ability to implement the change

Recognize and address the impact of the change on the


organization and individual comfort-level

Establish Knowledge of how to change

Clarify the value and benefits in partnership with sponsors and


stakeholders (guiding coalition)

Tie into existing systems, processes, cultural norms

*Adapted from ADKAR model for change management, PROSCI,


Inc. 2015

**IT Service Management addressed in


the ITIL Foundations class.

Change Management reflection

49

Go back to your IT project management exercise

What changes will the project introduce into the IT


environment or the organization overall?

What can the project team do to ensure the individuals or


organization successfully adapt to the changes?

Consider the 5 factors of organizational change


management

Tools, Templates and Resources

Tools

CWD courses

Project Management, Building Commitment for Change, Microsoft Project, Embracing


Change and Innovation, and Putting Strategy into Action

Harvard Extension School Project Management

On-line learning: Lynda.com, Harvard ManageMentor, Skillsoft.com

50

Microsoft Project, Excel, Word


SharePoint - http://huit.harvard.edu/services/sharepoint-harvard
ServiceNow Project Management - https://harvard.service-now.com/navpage.do
http://wiki.servicenow.com/index.php?title=Project_Management#gsc.tab=0
Harvard Google: http://g.harvard.edu/
Basecamp - https://basecamp.com/
JIRA - https://jira.huit.harvard.edu/secure/Dashboard.jspa
Pivotal Tracker - http://www.pivotaltracker.com/

https://www.extension.harvard.edu/academics/courses/project-management/14770

HUIT PM website, workshops, & templates - http://projectstandards.huit.harvard.edu/


Harvard Risk Management & Audit Services -http://rmas.fad.harvard.edu/audit-services
Project Management Institute (PMI) - http://www.pmi.org/
The Change Management Pocket Guide - http://www.changeguidesllc.com/

Summary

51

Workshop Summary

52

IT project management affects everyone in IT.

Projects are the way we introduce change new products and


services into the organization.

Project management is a disciplined approach to plan, schedule


and coordinate the work to achieve a projects objectives.

The more complex the project, the greater the need for an
experienced, skilled project manager.

All projects involve common phases and roles.

Projects should start with a clear concise vision, SMART


objectives and measurable KPIs to assess a projects success.

Workshop Summary

Project planning and estimating help clarify schedule, cost,


scope, and constraints before a project begins.

Project risks can jeopardize the success of a project; risk must


be assessed and managed continuously.

Project governance provides a means for decision-making to


guide the project toward its objectives.

Project communication is 90% of a Project Managers job.

Successful project management must include change


management across the project lifecycle.

Numerous tools, templates & resources are available to support


IT project management at Harvard.

53

53

Thank you!
Please complete your class survey :
bit.ly/ITAcademyFeedback

Claim your Badge:

After completion of this course, you will receive an Project Management Level I badge.
Look out for your email notification from Credly.com with instructions on how to:
Click to the site - Create your account - Claim your badge- Share with friends

Project Management Level I

54