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8085 Microprocessor Complete Tutorial


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WhatisaMicroprocessor?

Microprocessor is a programcontrolled device, which fetches the


instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions.
Most Micro Processor are single chip devices.
Whataretheflagsin8086?
In 8086 Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary carry flag, Zero flag, Overflow
flag, Trace flag, Interrupt flag, Direction flag, and Sign flag.
Whycrystalisapreferredclocksource?
Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency
that doesnt drift with aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of
the times.
In8085whichiscalledasHighorder/LoworderRegister?
Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is called as High
order Register.
WhatisTristatelogic?
Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance
state. The high and low are normal logic levels & high impedance
state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tristate logic has a third
line called enable line.
WhathappenswhenHLTinstructionisexecutedinprocessor?
The Micro Processor enters into HaltState and the buses are tri
stated.
WhichStackisusedin8085?
LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack
the last stored information can be retrieved first
WhatisProgramcounter?
Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next
instruction to be fetched for execution or the address of the next byte
of a multi byte instruction, which has not been completely fetched. In
both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the
instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the address
of the next instruction.
Whatarethevariousregistersin8085?

Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack


Pointer, Program Counter are the various registers in 8085
WhatsthespeedanddevicemaximumspecsforFirewire?
IEEE 1394 (Firewire) supports the maximum of 63 connected devices
with speeds up to 400 Mbps. Wheres MBR located on the disk? Main
Boot Record is located in sector 0, track 0, head 0, cylinder 0 of the
primary active partition.
WheredoesCPUEnhancedmodeoriginatefrom?
Intels 80386 was the first 32bit processor, and since the company
had to backwardsupport the 8086. All the modern Intelbased
processors run in the Enhanced mode, capable of switching between
Real mode (just like the real 8086) and Protected mode, which is the
current mode of operation.
Howmanybitcombinationsarethereinabyte?
Byte contains 8 combinations of bits.
Haveyoustudiedbuses?Whattypes?

There are three types of buses.


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Address bus: This is used to carry the Address to the memory to fetch
either Instruction or Data.
Data bus : This is used to carry the Data from the memory.
Control bus : This is used to carry the Control signals like RD/WR,
Select etc.
WhatistheMaximumclockfrequencyin8086?
5 Mhz is the Maximum clock frequency in 8086.
WhatismeantbyMaskableinterrupts?
An interrupt that can be turned off by the programmer is known as
Maskable interrupt.
WhatisNonMaskableinterrupts?

An interrupt which can be never be turned off (ie. disabled) is known


as NonMaskable interrupt
Whatarethedifferentfunctionalunitsin8086?
Bus Interface Unit and Execution unit, are the two different
functional units in 8086.
Whatarethevarioussegmentregistersin8086?
Code, Data, Stack, Extra Segment registers in 8086.
WhatdoesEUdo?
Execution Unit receives program instruction codes and data from
BIU, executes these instructions and store the result in general
registers.
WhichStackisusedin8086?kisusedin8086?
FIFO (First In First Out) stack is used in 8086.In this type of Stack
the first stored information is retrieved first.
Whataretheflagsin8086?

In 8086 Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary carry flag, Zero flag, Overflow
flag, Trace flag, Interrupt flag, Direction flag, and Sign flag.
WhatisSIMandRIMinstructions?
SIM is Set Interrupt Mask. Used to mask the hardware interrupts.
RIM is Read Interrupt Mask. Used to check whether the interrupt is
Masked or not.
Whatisthedifferencebetween8086and8088?
The BIU in 8088 is 8bit data bus & 16 bit in 8086.Instruction

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discussedthatthereare6interruptpins
inthemicroprocessorusedasHardware
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queue is 4 byte long in 8088and 6 byte in 8086.


GiveexampleforNonMaskableinterrupts?
Trap is known as NonMaskable interrupts, which is used in
emergency condition.
GiveexamplesforMicrocontroller?

Z80, Intel MSC51 &96, Motorola are the best examples of


Microcontroller.
Whatisclockfrequencyfor8085?
3 MHz is the maximum clock frequency for 8085.
Giveanexampleofoneaddressmicroprocessor?

8085 is a one address microprocessor.


Giveexamplesfor8/16/32bitMicroprocessor?
8bit Processor 8085 / Z80 / 6800 16bit Processor 8086 / 68000
/ Z8000 32bit Processor 80386 / 80486
Whatismeantbyabus?
A bus is a group of conducting lines that carriers data, address, &
control signals.
Whatarethevariousregistersin8085?
Accumulator register, Temporary register, Instruction register, Stack
Pointer, Program Counter are the various registers in 8085
Whycrystalisapreferredclocksource?
Because of high stability, large Q (Quality Factor) & the frequency
that doesnt drift with aging. Crystal is used as a clock source most of
the times.
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In8085whichiscalledasHighorder/LoworderRegister?

Flag is called as Low order register & Accumulator is called as High


order Register.
Name5differentaddressingmodes?
Immediate, Direct, Register, Register indirect, Implied addressing
modes
Inwhatwayinterruptsareclassifiedin8085?

In 8085 the interrupts are classified as Hardware and Software


interrupts.
Whatisthedifferencebetweenprimary&secondarystorage
device?
In primary storage device the storage capacity is limited. It has a
volatile memory. In secondary storage device the storage capacity is
larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. Primary devices are: RAM / ROM.
Secondary devices are: Floppy disc / Hard disk.
WhichStackisusedin8085?

LIFO (Last In First Out) stack is used in 8085.In this type of Stack
the last stored information can be retrieved first.
WhatisProgramcounter?
Program counter holds the address of either the first byte of the next
instruction to be fetched for execution or the address of the next byte
of a multi byte instruction, which has not been completely fetched. In
both the cases it gets incremented automatically one by one as the
instruction bytes get fetched. Also Program register keeps the address
of the next instruction.
WhatistheRSTfortheTRAP?
RST 4.5 is called as TRAP.
Whatareleveltriggeringinterrupt?
RST 6.5 & RST 5.5 are leveltriggering interrupts.
Whichinterruptisnotlevelsensitivein8085?

RST 7.5 is a raising edgetriggering interrupt.


WhatareSoftwareinterrupts?
RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3, RST4, RST5, RST6, RST7.
Whatarethevariousflagsusedin8085?

Sign flag, Zero flag, Auxiliary flag, Parity flag, Carry flag.
In8085namethe16bitregisters?
Stack pointer and Program counter all have 16 bits.
WhatisStackPointer?
Stack pointer is a special purpose 16bit register in the
Microprocessor, which holds the address of the top of the stack.
WhathappenswhenHLTinstructionisexecutedinprocessor?
The Micro Processor enters into HaltState and the buses are tri
stated.
WhatdoesQualityfactormean?
The Quality factor is also defined, as Q. So it is a number, which
reflects the lossness of a circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the
losses.
Howmanyinterruptsaretherein8085?
There are 12 interrupts in 8085.
WhatisTristatelogic?
Three Logic Levels are used and they are High, Low, High impedance
state. The high and low are normal logic levels & high impedance
state is electrical open circuit conditions. Tristate logic has a third
line called enable line.
Whichinterrupthasthehighestpriority?

TRAP has the highest priority


WhatareHardwareinterrupts?
TRAP, RST7.5, RST6.5, RST5.5, INTR
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CananRCcircuitbeusedasclocksourcefor8085?

Yes, it can be used, if an accurate clock frequency is not required.


Also, the component cost is low compared to LC or Crystal

WhatisaMicroprocessor?
Microprocessorisaprogramcontrolleddevice,whichfetchestheinstructions
frommemory,decodesandexecutestheinstructions.MostMicroProcessorare
singlechipdevices.
Whatisthedifferencebetweenmicroprocessorandmicrocontroller?
Themajordifferenceismicroprocessordoesnthaveinbuiltmemorybutmicro
controllerhasinbuiltmemory.InMicroprocessormoreopcodes,fewbit
handlinginstructions.ButinMicrocontroller:feweropcodes,morebithandling
Instructions.Microcontrollercanbedefinedasadevicethatincludesmicro
processor,memory,&input/outputsignallinesonasinglechip.
Giveexamplesfor8/16/32bitMicroprocessor?
8bitProcessor8085/Z80/6800
16bitProcessor8086/68000/Z8000
32bitProcessor80386/80486.
Why8085processoriscalledan8bitprocessor?
Because8085processorhas8bitALU(ArithmeticLogicReview).
ExpandHCMOS?
HighdensityntypeComplimentaryMetalOxideSiliconfieldeffecttransistor.

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Whatdoesmicroprocessorspeeddependon?
TheprocessingspeeddependsonDATABUSWIDTH.
WhatistheMaximumclockfrequencyin8086?
5MhzistheMaximumclockfrequencyin8086
Istheaddressbusunidirectional?IsthedatabusisBidirectional?
Theaddressbusisunidirectionalbecausetheaddressinformationisalways
givenbytheMicroProcessortoaddressamemorylocationofaninput/output
devices.
ThedatabusisBidirectionalbecausethesamebusisusedfortransferofdata
betweenMicroProcessorandmemoryorinput/outputdevicesinboththe
direction.
Whatisthedisadvantageofmicroprocessor?
Ithaslimitationsonthesizeofdata.MostMicroprocessordoesnotsupport
floatingpointoperations.
Whatisthedifferencebetweenprimary&secondarystoragedevice?
Inprimarystoragedevicethestoragecapacityislimited.Ithasavolatile
memory.Insecondarystoragedevicethestoragecapacityislarger.Itisa
nonvolatilememory.Primarydevicesare:RAM/ROM.
Secondarydevicesare:Floppydisc/Harddisk.
DifferencebetweenSRAMandDRAM?
StaticRAM:Norefreshing,6to8MOStransistorsarerequiredtoformone
memorycell,Informationstoredasvoltagelevelinaflipflop.
DynamicRAM:Refreshedperiodically,3to4transistorsarerequiredtoformone
memorycell,Informationisstoredasachargeinthegatetosubstrate
capacitance.
Whatisaninterrupt?
Interruptisasignalsendbyexternaldevicetotheprocessorsoastorequest
theprocessortoperformaparticularwork.
Whatarethedifferenttypesofinterrupts?
MaskableandNonmaskableinterrupts.
Whatiscachememory?
Cachememoryisasmallhighspeedmemory.Itisusedfortemporarystorage
ofdata&informationbetweenthemainmemoryandtheCPU(center
processingunit).ThecachememoryisonlyinRAM.
ExpandDMA?
DirectMemoryAccess
DifferentiatebetweenRAMandROM?
RAM:RandomAccessMemory.Read/Writememory,HighSpeed,Volatile
Memory.ROM:Readonlymemory,LowSpeed,NonVolatileMemory
WhatisNVRAM?
NonvolatileReadAccessMemory,alsocalledFlashmemory.
Whatisaflag?
Flagisaflipflopusedtostoretheinformationaboutthestatusofaprocessor
andthestatusoftheinstructionexecutedmostrecently
Whataretheflagsin8086?
In8086Carryflag,Parityflag,Auxiliarycarryflag,Zeroflag,Overflowflag,Trace
flag,Interruptflag,Directionflag,andSignflag.

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WhatismeantbyMaskableinterrupt?
AninterruptthatcanbeturnedoffbytheprogrammerisknownasMaskable
interrupt.
WhatisNonMaskableinterrupt?
Aninterruptwhichcanbeneverbeturnedoff(ie.disabled)isknownasNon
Maskableinterrupt.
Whichinterruptsaregenerallyusedforcriticalevents?
NonMaskableinterruptsareusedincriticalevents.SuchasPowerfailure,
Emergency,Shutoffetc.
GiveexamplesforMaskableinterrupts?
RST7.5,RST6.5,RST5.5areMaskableinterrupts
GiveexampleforNonMaskableinterrupts?
TrapisknownasNonMaskableinterrupts,whichisusedinemergency
condition.
Whatarethevarioussegmentregistersin8086?
Code,Data,Stack,ExtraSegmentregistersin8086.
WhichStackisusedin8086?
FIFO(FirstInFirstOut)stackisusedin8086.InthistypeofStackthefirst
storedinformationisretrievedfirst.
WhatisSIMandRIMinstructions?
SIMisSetInterruptMask.Usedtomaskthehardwareinterrupts.
RIMisReadInterruptMask.UsedtocheckwhethertheinterruptisMaskedor
not.
WhatisTristatelogic?
ThreeLogicLevelsareusedandtheyareHigh,Low,Highimpedancestate.The
highandlowarenormallogiclevels&highimpedancestateiselectricalopen
circuitconditions.Tristatelogichasathirdlinecalledenableline.
Giveanexampleofoneaddressmicroprocessor?
8085isaoneaddressmicroprocessor.
Inwhatwayinterruptsareclassifiedin8085?
In8085theinterruptsareclassifiedasHardwareandSoftwareinterrupts.
WhatareHardwareinterrupts?
TRAP,RST7.5,RST6.5,RST5.5,INTR.
WhatareSoftwareinterrupts?
RST0,RST1,RST2,RST3,RST4,RST5,RST6,RST7.
Whichinterrupthasthehighestpriority?
TRAPhasthehighestpriority.
Name5differentaddressingmodes?
Immediate,Direct,Register,Registerindirect,Impliedaddressingmodes.
Howmanyinterruptsaretherein8085?
Thereare12interruptsin8085.
WhatistheRST
fortheTRAP?
RST4.5iscalledasTRAP.

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In8085whichiscalledasHighorder/LoworderRegister?
FlagiscalledasLoworderregister&AccumulatoriscalledasHighorder
Register.

1. What is a Microprocessor?
Answer

A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that


incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semi
conducting integrated circuit (IC). Instructions are fetched from memory, the
they are decoded, and finally executed.
2. Why does microprocessor contain ROM chips?
Answer
Microprocessor uses ROM chips to store instructions, which are used to execute
data.
3. What is the difference between a microprocessor and a microcontroller?
Answer
Microprocessor contains more opcodes, and few bit handling instructions. Where
as a microcontroller contains few opcodes and more bit handling instructions. It
can be called as a computer on a chip. In addition to all arithmetic and logic
elements of a general purpose microprocessor, the microcontroller usually also
integrates additional elements such as readonly and readwrite memory, and
input/output interfaces.
4. Give examples for 8, 16, and 32 bit microprocessors.
Answer
8bit processors: MC6800, Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Z80.
16bit processors: MC68000, Intel 8086.
32bit processors: Intel 80386, Intel 80486, Z8000.
5. Give an example of a microprocessor, whose structure is pipelined.
Answer
All x86 processors have pipelined structure. Intel 8086, Intel 80386, etc.
6. What is flag? Give some examples of a flag.
Answer
7. What are most common registers present in a microprocessor?

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Answer
Accumulator registers, Data registers, Temporary registers, Instruction registers,
Stack Pointer, Program Counter and Condition Code Register.
8. Why is address bus unidirectional?
Answer
The address bus is unidirectional because the address is always given by the
microprocessor, to address a memory location of an I/O device. Only
microprocessor can write a value onto address bus, I/O devices can only read
address bus.
9. Why is data bus bidirectional?
Answer
The data bus is bidirectional because the it is used by microprocessor, memory
units, and I/O devices for both to transfer and receive data.
10. Expand RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM.
Answer
RAM: Random Access Memory.
ROM: Read Only Memory.
PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory.
EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory..
EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.

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8085 questions and answers


1.Whatarethevariousregistersin8085?
Accumulatorregister,Temporaryregister,Instructionregister,Stack
Pointer,ProgramCounterarethevariousregistersin8085.
2.In8085namethe16bitregisters?
StackpointerandProgramcounterallhave16bits.
3.Whatarethevariousflagsusedin8085?
Signflag,Zeroflag,Auxillaryflag,Parityflag,Carryflag.
4.WhatisStackPointer?
Stackpointerisaspecialpurpose16bitregisterinthe
Microprocessor,whichholdstheaddressofthetopofthestack.
5.WhatisProgramcounter?
Programcounterholdstheaddressofeitherthefirstbyteofthe
nextinstructiontobefetchedforexecutionortheaddressofthenext
byteofamultibyteinstruction,whichhasnotbeencompletely
fetched.Inboththecasesitgetsincrementedautomaticallyoneby
oneastheinstructionbytesgetfetched.AlsoProgramregisterkeeps
theaddressofthenextinstruction.
6.WhichStackisusedin8085?
LIFO(LastInFirstOut)stackisusedin8085.InthistypeofStack
thelaststoredinformationcanberetrievedfirst.
7.WhathappenswhenHLTinstructionisexecutedinprocessor?
TheMicroProcessorentersintoHaltStateandthebusesaretri
stated.
8.Whatismeantbyabus?
Abusisagroupofconductinglinesthatcarriersdata,address,&
controlsignals.
9.WhatisTristatelogic?
ThreeLogicLevelsareusedandtheyareHigh,Low,High
impedancestate.Thehighandlowarenormallogiclevels&high
impedancestateiselectricalopencircuitconditions.Tristatelogic
hasathirdlinecalledenableline.
10.Giveanexampleofoneaddressmicroprocessor?
8085isaoneaddressmicroprocessor.
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11.Inwhatwayinterruptsareclassifiedin8085?
In8085theinterruptsareclassifiedasHardwareandSoftware
interrupts.
12.WhatareHardwareinterrupts?
TRAP,RST7.5,RST6.5,RST5.5,INTR.
13.WhatareSoftwareinterrupts?
RST0,RST1,RST2,RST3,RST4,RST5,RST6,RST7.
14.Whichinterrupthasthehighestpriority?
TRAPhasthehighestpriority.
15.Name5differentaddressingmodes?
Immediate,Direct,Register,Registerindirect,Impliedaddressing
modes.
16.Howmanyinterruptsaretherein8085?
Thereare12interruptsin8085.
17.Whatisclockfrequencyfor8085?
3MHzisthemaximumclockfrequencyfor8085.
18.WhatistheRSTfortheTRAP?
RST4.5iscalledasTRAP.
19.In8085whichiscalledasHighorder/LoworderRegister?Flag
iscalledasLoworderregister&AccumulatoriscalledasHighorder
Register.
20.Whatareinput&outputdevices?
Keyboards,Floppydiskaretheexamplesofinputdevices.Printer,
LED/LCDdisplay,CRTMonitoraretheexamplesofoutputdevices.
21.CananRCcircuitbeusedasclocksourcefor8085?
Yes,itcanbeused,ifanaccurateclockfrequencyisnotrequired.
Also,thecomponentcostislowcomparedtoLCorCrystal.
22.Whycrystalisapreferredclocksource?
Becauseofhighstability,largeQ(QualityFactor)&thefrequency
thatdoesntdriftwithaging.Crystalisusedasaclocksourcemost
ofthetimes.
23.Whichinterruptisnotlevelsensitivein8085?
RST7.5isaraisingedgetriggeringinterrupt.
24.WhatdoesQualityfactormean?
TheQualityfactorisalsodefined,asQ.Soitisanumber,which
reflectsthelossnessofacircuit.HighertheQ,thelowerarethe
losses.
25.Whatareleveltriggeringinterrupt?
RST6.5&RST5.5areleveltriggeringinterrupts
26.WhichStackisusedin8085?LIFO(LastInFirstOut)
stackisusedin8085.InthistypeofStackthelaststored
informationcanbe...
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27.Whatarethevariousregistersin8085?Accumulator
register,Temporaryregister,Instructionregister,Stack
Pointer,ProgramCounterarethevariousregistersin8085...

28.Whatarethevariousregistersin8085?Accumulator
register,Temporaryregister,Instructionregister,Stack
Pointer,ProgramCounterarethevariousregistersin8085...

29.In8085namethe16bitregisters?Stackpointerand
Programcounterallhave16bits....

30.WhatisStackPointer?Stackpointerisaspecial
purpose16bitregisterintheMicroprocessor,whichholds
theaddressofthetopofthe...

31.WhichStacWhichStackisusedin8086?kisusedin
8086?FIFO(FirstInFirstOut)stackisusedin8086.Inthis
typeofStackthefirststoredinformationisretrieved...

32.HowcanIhandleadestructorthatfails?Writea
messagetoalogfile.Butdonotthrowanexception.The
C++ruleisthatyoumustneverthrow...

33.Inwhatwayinterruptsareclassifiedin8085?In8085
theinterruptsareclassifiedasHardwareandSoftware
interrupts....

34.Whatmethodisusedtoplaceavalueontothetopofa
stack?push()method,Pushisthedirectionthatdatais
beingaddedtothestack.push()membermethodplacesa
value...

35.Whatisclockfrequencyfor8085?3MHzisthe
maximumclockfrequencyfor8085....
36.Whatisclockfrequencyfor8085?
3MHzisthemaximumclockfrequencyfor8085.
37.Giveanexampleofoneaddressmicroprocessor?
8085isaoneaddressmicroprocessor.
38.Giveexamplesfor8/16/32bitMicroprocessor?
8bitProcessor8085/Z80/680016bitProcessor8086/
68000/Z800032bitprocessor80386/80486
39.Whatismeantbyabus?
Abusisagroupofconductinglinesthatcarriersdata,address,&
controlsignals.
40.Whatarethevariousregistersin8085?
Accumulatorregister,Temporaryregister,Instructionregister,
StackPointer,ProgramCounterarethevariousregistersin8085
41.Whycrystalisapreferredclocksource?
Becauseofhighstability,largeQ(QualityFactor)&thefrequency
thatdoesn?tdriftwithaging.Crystalisusedasaclocksourcemost
ofthetimes.
42.In8085whichiscalledasHighorder/Loworder
Register?
FlagiscalledasLoworderregister&AccumulatoriscalledasHigh
orderRegister.
43.Name5differentaddressingmodes?
Immediate,Direct,Register,Registerindirect,Impliedaddressing
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Immediate,Direct,Register,Registerindirect,Impliedaddressing
modes
44.Inwhatwayinterruptsareclassifiedin8085?
In8085theinterruptsareclassifiedasHardwareandSoftware
interrupts.
45.Whatisthedifferencebetweenprimary&secondary
storagedevice?
Inprimarystoragedevicethestoragecapacityislimited.Ithasa
volatilememory.Insecondarystoragedevicethestoragecapacity
islarger.Itisanonvolatilememory.Primarydevicesare:RAM/
ROM.Secondarydevicesare:Floppydisc/Harddisk.
46.WhichStackisusedin8085?
LIFO(LastInFirstOut)stackisusedin8085.InthistypeofStack
thelaststoredinformationcanberetrievedfirst.
47.WhatisProgramcounter?
Programcounterholdstheaddressofeitherthefirstbyteofthe
nextinstructiontobefetchedforexecutionortheaddressofthe
nextbyteofamultibyteinstruction,whichhasnotbeen
completelyfetched.Inboththecasesitgetsincremented
automaticallyonebyoneastheinstructionbytesgetfetched.Also
Programregisterkeepstheaddressofthenextinstruction.
48.WhatistheRSTfortheTRAP?
RST4.5iscalledasTRAP.
49.Whatareleveltriggeringinterrupt?
RST6.5&RST5.5areleveltriggeringinterrupts.
50.Whichinterruptisnotlevelsensitivein8085?
RST7.5isaraisingedgetriggeringinterrupt.
51.WhatareSoftwareinterrupts?
RST0,RST1,RST2,RST3,RST4,RST5,RST6,RST7.
52.Whatarethevariousflagsusedin8085?
Signflag,Zeroflag,Auxiliaryflag,Parityflag,Carryflag.
53.In8085namethe16bitregisters?
StackpointerandProgramcounterallhave16bits.
54.WhatisStackPointer?
Stackpointerisaspecialpurpose16bitregisterinthe
Microprocessor,whichholdstheaddressofthetopofthestack.
55.WhathappenswhenHLTinstructionisexecutedin
processor?
TheMicroProcessorentersintoHaltStateandthebusesaretri
stated.
56.WhatdoesQualityfactormean?
TheQualityfactorisalsodefined,asQ.Soitisanumber,which
reflectsthelossnessofacircuit.HighertheQ,thelowerarethe
losses.
57.Howmanyinterruptsaretherein8085?
Thereare12interruptsin8085.
58.WhatisTristatelogic?
ThreeLogicLevelsareusedandtheyareHigh,Low,High
impedancestate.Thehighandlowarenormallogiclevels&high
impedancestateiselectricalopencircuitconditions.Tristatelogic
hasathirdlinecalledenableline.
59.Whichinterrupthasthehighestpriority?
TRAPhasthehighestpriority
60.WhatareHardwareinterrupts?
TRAP,RST7.5,RST6.5,RST5.5,INTR
61.CananRCcircuitbeusedasclocksourcefor8085?
Yes,itcanbeused,ifanaccurateclockfrequencyisnotrequired.
Also,thecomponentcostislowcomparedtoLCorCrystal
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Also,thecomponentcostislowcomparedtoLCorCrystal

8086 questions and answers


1.What is a Microprocessor? Microprocessor is a programcontrolled

device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and


executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are single chip
devices.
2.Give examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor? 8bit Processor

8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16bit Processor 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32bit


Processor 80386 / 80486.
3.Why 8085 processor is called an 8 bit processor? Because 8085

processor has 8 bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Review). Similarly 8086


processor has 16 bit ALU.
4.What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor? The processor

made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd


/ 3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32
bits.
5.Define HCMOS? Highdensity n type Complimentary Metal Oxide

Silicon field effect transistor.


6.What does microprocessor speed depend on? The processing

speed depends on DATA BUS WIDTH.


7.Is the address bus unidirectional? The address bus is unidirectional

because the address information is always given by the Micro


Processor to address a memory location of an input / output
devices.
8.Is the data bus is Bidirectional? The data bus is Bidirectional

because the same bus is used for transfer of data between Micro
Processor and memory or input / output devices in both the
direction.
9.What is the disadvantage of microprocessor? It has limitations on

the size of data. Most Microprocessor does not support floating


point operations.
10.What is the difference between microprocessor and
microcontroller? In Microprocessor more opcodes, few bit
handling instructions. But in Microcontroller: fewer opcodes, more
bit handling Instructions, and also it is defined as a device that
includes micro processor, memory, & input / output signal lines on a
single chip.
11.What is meant by LATCH? Latch is a D type flipflop used as a

temporary storage device controlled by a timing signal, which can


store 0 or 1. The primary function of a Latch is data storage. It is
used in output devices such as LED, to hold the data for display.
12.Why does microprocessor contain ROM chips? Microprocessor

contain ROM chip because it contain instructions to execute data.


13.What is the difference between primary & secondary storage

device? In primary storage device the storage capacity is limited. It


has a volatile memory. In secondary storage device the storage
capacity is larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. Primary devices are:
RAM / ROM. Secondary devices are: Floppy disc / Hard disk.
14.Difference between static and dynamic RAM? Static RAM: No

refreshing, 6 to 8 MOS transistors are required to form one memory


cell, Information stored as voltage level in a flip flop. Dynamic RAM:
Refreshed periodically, 3 to 4 transistors are required to form one
memory cell, Information is stored as a charge in the gate to
substrate capacitance.
15.What is interrupt? Interrupt is a signal send by external device to

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the processor so as to request the processor to perform a particular


work.
16.What is cache memory? Cache memory is a small highspeed

memory. It is used for temporary storage of data & information


between the main memory and the CPU (center processing unit).
The cache memory is only in RAM.
17.What is called .Scratch pad of computer.? Cache Memory is scratch

pad of computer.
18.Which transistor is used in each cell of EPROM? Floating .gate

Avalanche Injection MOS (FAMOS) transistor is used in each cell of


EPROM.
19.Differentiate between RAM and ROM? RAM: Read / Write memory,

High Speed, Volatile Memory. ROM: Read only memory, Low Speed,
Non Voliate Memory.
20.What is a compiler? Compiler is used to translate the highlevel

language program into machine code at a time. It doesn.t require


special instruction to store in a memory, it stores automatically.
The Execution time is less compared to Interpreter.
21.Which processor structure is pipelined? All x86 processors have

pipelined structure.
22.What is flag? Flag is a flipflop used to store the information about

the status of a processor and the status of the instruction executed


most recently
23.What is stack? Stack is a portion of RAM used for saving the

content of Program Counter and general purpose registers.


24.Can ROM be used as stack? ROM cannot be used as stack because it

is not possible to write to ROM.


25.What is NVRAM? Nonvolatile Read Write Memory, also called Flash

memory. It is also know as shadow RAM.

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InterviewQuestionsonMicroprocessor:
1)Whattypeofarchitectureusedin8085microprocessor?Interview
QuestionsonMicroprocessor8085
Ans.8085hasVonNeumannarchitecture.Itisnamedafterthe
mathematicianJohnVonNeumann.Itisbasedontheconceptofstored
programcontrol.Inthisarchitectureboththedataandtheprogramisstoredin
thesamememory.
2)Whatisthefunctionofaccumulator?InterviewQuestionson
Microprocessor8085
Ans.Accumulatorisan8bitregisterwhichstoresdataandperforms
arithmeticandlogicaloperations.Theresultoftheoperationisstoredinthe
accumulator.ItisdesignatedbytheletterA.
3)Whatarethedifferenttypesofflagsin8085microprocessor?
InterviewQuestionsonMicroprocessor8085
Ans.Thereare5differentflagsin8085microprocessor.Thoughtheflagregister
isof8bitbut3bitsarenotinuse.Only5bitsareusedforthedifferentflags.
Theyare:
a)Signflag(s)ThisisdesignatedbytheletterS.Ifsignbitis1thenthesign
flagissetto1andifthesignbitiszerothensignflagisresettozero.
b)Zeroflag(z)Thisisdesignatedbytheletterz.Iftheresultofany
arithmeticorlogicaloperationiszeroi.e.allthebitsarezerothenzeroflagisset
to1elseitissettozero.
c)Auxiliarycarry(AC)Thisflagissetto1onlywhenanyintermediatecarry
isproduced.Elseitisresetto0.
d)Parityflag(P)whentheresultofanyoperationhasoddnumberofones
thenparityflagissetto1elseifithasevennumberofonesthenitisresetto
0.
e)Carryflag(C)thisflagissetto1onlywhenacarryisproducedinthe
resulti.e.thecarrybitis1elseifthecarrybitiszerothentheflagisresetto
zero.
4)Whatarethetypesofgeneralpurposeregistersin8085?
Ans.Thereare6generalpurposeregistersin8085microprocessor.Theyare
designatedbythelettersB,C,D,E,H,andL.Theseare8bitregistersandare
usedtostoredatatemporarilyduringtheexecutionofanyprogram.These
registerscanalsobeusedtostore16bitdatabyusingtheminpairsi.e.BC,DE

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andHL.ThesepairscannotbechangedasBcannotpairwithanyotherregister
otherthanC.
5)Whatisthelengthofstackpointerin8085microprocessor?And
whatisitsuse?InterviewSamplepaperquestionansweron8085
Microprocessor.
Ans.stackpointerisof16bitslengthandisusedtopointtothevalueattopof
thestackforthecurrentlyexecutedinstruction.
6)Whatisthememorysizeof8085microprocessor?Placement
InterviewSamplepaperquestionansweron8085Microprocessor
Ans.8085has8datalinesand16addresslines.Thememorysizeofany
microprocessordependsonthenumberofaddresslines.Thegeneralformulais
2^n,wheren=numberofaddresslines.For8085thereare2^16=64Kbytes
memorysize.
7)Howmanybitsis8085microprocessor?SamplePaperInterview
questionanswer
Ans.Microprocessorisnamedonthebasisofnumberofdatalinesinit.8085is
abitmicroprocessorasithas8bitdatalines.
8)Whatarethevariousinterruptsin8085microprocessor?Whichis
thehighestpriorityinterrupt?ImportantquestionsonMicroprocessor
8085
Thereare6typesofinterruptsin8085.Theyare
a)TRAP
b)RST7.5
c)RST6.5
d)RST5.5
e)INTR
f)Interruptacknowledgment(INTA(bar)).
TRAPhasthehighestpriorityamongalltheinterrupts.
9)Whichtypeofcycleisusedforfetchandexecuteinstruction?
SamplePaperInterviewquestionanswer
Ans.Instructioncycleisusedforthefetchandexecuteinstruction.
Inthiscycletheinstructionisfetched,decodedandexecutedtoproducethe
requiredoutput.
10)Howmanyaddresslinesaretherein8085microprocessor?
SamplePaperInterviewquestionanswer
Ans.Thereare16addresslinesin8085.Theyaremultiplexedaddressanddata
lines.Addressbusof8085isof16bits.Duringthefirstmachinecyclethese
addresslinesareusedasdatalinesandinthenextmachinecycleallthe16
linesactasaddresslines.
Themultiplexed8addressanddatalinesrefertolowerorderaddressbitandthe

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rest8forhigherorderaddressbits.
11)WhatisaMicroprocessor?
Ans:Microprocessorisaprogramcontrolleddevice,thatfetchesthe
instructionsfrommemory,decodeit&executestheinstructions.Generally
Microprocessoraresinglechipdevices.
12)Whycrystalisbeingpreferredasaclocksource?
Ans:Reasonshighstability,largeQ(QualityFactor)&thefrequencythat
doesntdriftwithaging.socrystalisusedasaclocksourcemostofthetimes.
13)NameHighorder/LoworderRegisterin8085microprocessor?
Ans:FlagiscalledLoworderregister&AccumulatoriscalledHighorderRegister
in8085microprocessor.
14)DescribeTristatelogic?
Ans:ThreeLogicLevelsareusedandtheyareknownasHigh,Low,High
impedancestate.Thehighandlowaresaidtobenormallogiclevelswhereas
highimpedancestateiselectricalopencircuitconditions.Tristatelogichasa
enablelineasthirdline
15)WhatwillhappenifHLTinstructionisexecutedinprocessor?
Ans:TheMicroProcessorwillenterintoHaltStateandthebuseswillbetri
stated.
16)WhichStackisusedin8085?
Ans:LIFO(LastInFirstOut)stackisusedin8085.InthistypeofStackthe
informationwhichisstoredlastwillbetakenoutorretrievedfirst.
17)DescribebrieflyProgramcounter?
Ans:Programcounterdoeseitherofthetwothingsthatisitholdstheaddress
ofeitherthefirstbyteofthenextinstructiontobefetchedforexecutionorthe
addressofthenextbyteofamultibyteinstruction,whichwasnotcompletely
fetched.Inboththecasesitisincrementedautomaticallyonebyoneasthe
instructionbyteswillbefetched.Programregisteralsokeepsthenext
instructionaddress.
18)Namethe1st/2nd/3rd/4thgenerationprocessor?
Ans:TheprocessoraremadeofPMOS/NMOS/HMOS/HCMOStechnology
whichiscalled1st/2nd/3rd/4thgenerationprocessor,andthatismadeup
of4/8/16/32bitsrespectively.
19)Nametheprocessorlinesoftwomajormanufacturers?
Ans:TheProcessorlinesnamesoftwomajormanufacturersareasfollows:
AtHighend:IntelPentium(II,III,IV),AMDAthlon.AtLowend:Intel
Celeron,AMDDuron.64bit:IntelItanium2,AMDOpteron
20)MentionthespeedanddevicemaximumspecsforFirewire?
Ans:IEEE1394(Firewire)withspeedsupto400Mbpscansupportthe
maximumof63connecteddevices

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21)WheresMBRlocatedonthedisk?
Ans:TheplacewhereMBRissituatedisinsector0,track0,head0,cylinder0
oftheprimaryactivepartition.
22)WheredoesCPUEnhancedmodeoriginatefrom?
Ans:Intels80386wasthefirst32bitprocessor,andsothecompanyhadto
backwardsupportthe8086.AllthemodernIntelbasedprocessorsruninthe
enhancedmodewhicharecapabletoswitchinbetweenrealmodeand
protectedmode,whichisthecurrentmodeofoperation.
23)Whatarethetypesofbuses?
Ans:Threetypesofbusesarethere:
Addressbus:ItcarriestheAddresstothememorytofetcheitherinstruction..
Databus:Itcarriesdatafromthememory.
Controlbus:ItcarriesthecontrolsignalslikeRD/WR,Selectetc.
24)WhatdoesEUdo?
Ans:ExecutionUnitreceivesbothprograminstructioncodes&datafromBus
InterfaceUnitandthenexecutestheseinstructionsandtheresultisbeing
storedinregisters.
25)MentionRSTfortheTRAP?
Ans:RST4.5
26)CananRCcircuitbeusedasclocksourcefor8085?
Ans:Yes,RCcircuitcanbeusedasclocksourceifincaseanaccurateclock
frequencyisnotrequired.ThecostofRCislowascomparedtoLC.
Microprocessorinterviewquestionson8086
27)Whatarethetypesofflagsin8086?
Ans:In8086thereare9typesofflagswhichareasfollowsCarryflag,Parity
flag,Auxiliarycarryflag,Zeroflag,Overflowflag,Traceflag,Interruptflag,
Directionflag,andSignflag.
28)Whatarethevariousinterruptsin8086?
Ans:Twotypesofinterrupts:Maskableinterrupts,NonMaskableinterrupts.
29)WhatismeantbyMaskableinterrupts?
Ans:Aninterruptthatcanbeturnedoffbytheprogrammerisknownas
Maskableinterruptsarethoseinterruptswhichcanbeturnedoffbythe
programmerorcanbeignoredbytheprogrammer.
30)WhatisNonMaskableinterrupts?
Ans:Aprocessorinterruptwhichcanbeneverbeturnedoff(i.e.disabled)or
cannotbeignoredbytheprogrammerisknownasNonMaskableinterrupt.
31)Whichinterruptsaregenerallyusedforcriticalevents?
Ans:NonMaskableinterruptsaregenerallyusedincriticalevents.For
examplePowerfailure,Emergency,Shutoffetc.
32)GivesomeexamplesforMaskableinterrupts?
Ans:Someexamplesformaskableinterruptsareasfollows:RST7.5,RST6.5,
RST5.5
33)GivesomeexampleforNonMaskableinterrupts?

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Ans:TrapiscalledasNonMaskableinterrupts,whichisusedduringemergency
condition.
34)WhatistheMaximumclockfrequencyin8086?
Ans:5Mhz
35)Namethevarioussegmentregistersin8086?
Ans:Thevarioussegmentregistersin8085areCode,Data,Stack,Extra
Segmentregisters.
36)WhichStackisusedin8086?
Ans:FIFO(FirstInFirstOut)stackisusedin8086.InthistypeofStackthe
informationwhichisstoredfirstistakenoutorretrievedfirst.
37)WhatisSIMandRIMinstructions?
Ans:SIMisSetInterruptMask.whichisusedtomaskthehardwareinterrupts.
RIMisReadInterruptMaskwhichisusedtocheckwhethertheinterruptis
maskedornot.
38)Whichisthetoolwhichisusedtoconnecttheuserandthe
computer?
Ans:Interpreter
39)WhatisthepositionoftheStackPointerafterthePUSH
instruction?
Ans:Theaddresslineis02lessthantheearliervalue.
40)WhatisthepositionoftheStackPointerafterthePOPinstruction?
Ans:Theaddresslineis02greaterthantheearliervalue.
ThesearesomeoftheinterviewquestionsandanswersonMicroprocessor.If
youwanttoaddsomemore,pleasementioninthecommentsectionofthe
post.

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3 comments:
SHIVOMPANDEYsaid...
awesomebutrepeatedtoomuch..
11October2015at06:03
SHIVOMPANDEYsaid...
awesomebutrepeatedtoomuch..
11October2015at06:04
Unknownsaid...
Good,repeatedthingswerehappened
21March2016at22:43

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