Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

This article was downloaded by: [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho]

On: 30 April 2012, At: 08:10


Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,
37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Journal of The Textile Institute


Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjti20

The formation and performance of auxetic textiles.


Part II: geometry and structural properties
a

Samuel C. Ugbolue , Yong K. Kim , Steven B. Warner , Qinguo Fan , ChenLu Yang ,
c

Olena Kyzymchuk , Yani Feng & John Lord

Department of Materials and Textiles, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth (UmassD),


MA, 02747, USA
b

Advanced Technology and Manufacturing Center, UmassD, MA, 02747, USA

Department of Knitting Technology, Kiev National University of Technologies and Design,


Kyiv, Ukraine
Available online: 15 Feb 2011

To cite this article: Samuel C. Ugbolue, Yong K. Kim, Steven B. Warner, Qinguo Fan, ChenLu Yang, Olena Kyzymchuk, Yani
Feng & John Lord (2011): The formation and performance of auxetic textiles. Part II: geometry and structural properties,
Journal of The Textile Institute, 102:5, 424-433
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2010.486183

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE


Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic
reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to
anyone is expressly forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents
will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should
be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims,
proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in
connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

The Journal of The Textile Institute


Vol. 102, No. 5, May 2011, 424433

The formation and performance of auxetic textiles. Part II: geometry and structural
properties
Samuel C. Ugboluea*, Yong K. Kima, Steven B. Warnera, Qinguo Fana, Chen-Lu Yangb, Olena Kyzymchukc,
Yani Fenga and John Lorda
a

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

Department of Materials and Textiles, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth (UmassD), MA 02747, USA;
Advanced Technology and Manufacturing Center, UmassD, MA 02747, USA; cDepartment of Knitting Technology, Kiev
National University of Technologies and Design, Kyiv, Ukraine
(Received 19 November 2009; final version received 9 April 2010 )

Taylor and Francis

10.1080/00405000.2010.486183

Some exceptional materials become fatter when stretched and are described as auxetics or having negative Poissons
ratio. Auxetic textiles belong to this class of extraordinary materials that are increasingly attaining some prominence
in many applications of technical textiles. We have sustained the efforts to fabricate auxetic fabric structures based
on non-auxetic yarns. The focus is to combine our knowledge of geometry and fabric structural characteristics to
engineer auxetic textiles and to determine the properties of such auxetic textile fabrics. To realize our objective, we
designed and investigated hexagonal knit structures as auxetic textiles offering optimum performance. The factors
that influence Poissons ratio are identified as yarn type, number of chain courses and strain level. Also, a method
has been developed for quantifying the geometrical structural unit cell of the auxetic structure based on measured
parameters, namely a1, a2, b1, b2, h and c, as detailed in this paper.
Keywords: auxetic textiles; negative Poissons ratio; warp knitting; fabric geometry; structural properties

Introduction
In Part l of this series of papers (Ugbolue et al., 2010),
we presented the theoretical and technical considerations
for fabricating auxetic textile structures. Generally, when
a material is stretched, it becomes longer in the direction
in which the load is applied but narrower in the transverse
direction. Some exceptional materials become fatter
when stretched and are described as auxetics or having
negative Poissons ratio. Auxetic textiles belong to this
class of extraordinary materials that are increasingly
attaining some prominence in many applications of technical textiles (Alderson & Alderson, 2005). Efforts to
fabricate auxetic structures are limited (Gaspar, Ran,
Smith, Grima, & Evans, 2005; McMullan, Kumar, &
Griffin, 2006; Mouritz, Bannister, Falson, & Leong,
1999; Ravirala, Alderson, Davies, Simkins, & Alderson,
2006; Smith, Grima, & Evans, 2000). Based on reported
results, the best structure for auxetic textile production
derives from the warp knitting technology (Ugbolue,
Warner, Kim, Fan, & Yang, 2006; Ugbolue et al., 2007,
2008, 2009, 2010).
The non-auxetic samples are produced by two guide
bars and the knitted structure is hexagonal, as shown in
Figure 1. The knitted fabric structure is formed from only
one type of yarn using a partial set drawing-in of the
*Corresponding author. Email: sugbolue@umassd.edu
ISSN 0040-5000 print/ISSN 1754-2340 online
Copyright 2011 The Textile Institute
DOI: 10.1080/00405000.2010.486183
http://www.informaworld.com

guide bar. To produce such knits, the same combinations


of stitches are used, though in one case, the coupled
wales of tricottricot and chain stitches are formed on
different needles. After knitting and allowing some
fabric relaxation under standard laboratory conditions,
the warp-knit structures form hexagonal nets. The nets
size primarily depends on the machines gauge, the
linear density of the yarn and the knitting parameters

Figure 1.

Non-auxetic structure.

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

The Journal of The Textile Institute

Figure 2.

auxetic yarns, nine types of fillet warp-knit fabrics were


produced. These fabrics were made on a 10-gauge
Muller crochet knitting machine (RD3MT3/630)
equipped with eight guide bars and one needle bed. The
fillet warp-knit fabrics were made from a polyester yarn
as ground. The linear density of the polyester yarn is
275 dtex 2. It is manufactured by Du Pont and its
tenacity is 13.1 gf/tex based on a test gauge length of
25.4 cm (10 in) and a cross-head speed of 10.16 cm/min
(4 in/min). Table 1 gives an overview of the different
types of fillet warp-knit non-auxetic fabrics with optimum machine settings.
The same yarn type was used as ground in the
auxetic structures. The production details for the
auxetic structures were given in Part 1 of this series
(Ugbolue et al., 2010). The 165-dtex (96 filaments)
polyester sheath, serving as the cover yarn for the polyurethane core yarn, provided a high elastic inlay
component. The yarn was supplied by Unifi, Inc. In
order to study the effect of yarn linear density, two
polyurethane core yarns with different linear densities
were used, namely 44 and 77 dtex. The warp-knit structure with an inlay yarn is determined by the number
and direction of shifting behind the needles of filling
and ground bars. Two different positions of the inlay
yarn in a fillet knitting structure are shown in Figure 3.
The filling yarn is laid between neighboring wales and
wraps, at the junctures of the ground loops, type A
(Figure 3(a)) or between the guide bars, as shown in
type B (Figure 3(b)).
For this study, the auxetic structures, each having
seven tricot courses and different numbers of chain
courses, namely 1, 2, and 3, were designated as 7X-1B,
7X-2B and 7X-3B, respectively.

Auxetic structure.

(yarn tension and drawing-off force). It is possible to


create honeycomb fabrics with different net sizes on the
same machine by changing the repeat of interlacing
elements (number of tricot and chain courses).
It is necessary to change the disposition of the ribs
in the net in order to form a functional auxetic knit
structure (shown in Figure 2). It is also necessary to
employ a highly elastic yarn (polyester-covered
Spandex) in the base structure. In this structure, two
guide bars are used to inlay the polyester-covered
Spandex yarn. This yarn must be placed between the
stitch wales in the knitting direction to insure that the
fabric structure will retain the required configuration
after relaxation. The filling yarns are laid between
neighboring wales to wrap the junctures of the ground
loops and provide better stability to the fabric structure.
Figure 1.

Figure 2.

425

Non-auxetic structure.

Figure 3.

(a) Inlay type A structure, and (b) inlay type B structure.

Auxetic structure.

Experimental
Production of warp-knit fabrics
To enable us to undertake the detailed study of nonauxetic and auxetic knit structures produced from nonTable 1.

Production data for fillet warp-knit non-auxetic structures.

Fabric
designation
3C-1
3C-2
3C-3
5C-1
5C-2
5C-3
7C-1
7C-2
7C-3-

Measurement of Poissons ratio


Experiments were conducted on all samples in unistrain. The gauge length and test speed of each specimen along the walewise direction were 7.62 cm (3 in)

Number of
tricot courses

Number of
chain courses

Loop length
(mm)

Stitch density
(loops/in2)

Stitch density
(loops/cm2)

Basis weight
(g/m2)

3
3
3
5
5
5
7
7
7

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

6.52
6.35
6.79
6.63
6.70
6.42
6.71
6.28
6.60

83.4
71.6
62.7
82.1
67.7
58.8
76.6
65.8
54.2

12.9
11.1
9.7
12.7
10.5
9.1
11.9
10.2
8.4

97.91
83.70
76.61
99.00
80.80
70.35
84.78
70.85
57.04

426

S.C. Ugbolue et al.

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

and 5.08 cm (2 in/min), respectively, and in the coursewise direction, the values were 2.54 cm (1 in) and 2.54
cm (1 in/min), respectively. The test process was
observed with a Sensicam QE camera. The camera took
pictures of the displacement of the sample as it was
stretched and the data were captured using the Sensicamera control software. Three specimens were tested
for each structure, and 55 pictures were taken for each
specimen. The displacement perpendicular to the test
direction was obtained using the Photoshop software.
All the samples were tested along the y-direction.
Poissons ratio was calculated using the equation,
v xy =

x
y

where xy is Poissons ratio, x is transverse strain and y


is axial strain.
Poissons ratio is the ratio of transverse contraction
strain to longitudinal extension strain in the direction of
stretching force.
Measurement of tensile properties
The standard tensile test method, ASTM D5034-95
(2001), for breaking strength and elongation of textile

Figure 3.
Table 2.

fabrics (grab test) was followed. To check for specimen


slippage, the specimen was marked across at the front
inner edge of each jaw. It is noted that the mark will
move away from the jaw edge if slippage occurs. The
test result was discarded and another sample was taken
if the specimen slipped in the jaw, broke at the edge of
the jaw or in the jaws, or the test results fell markedly
below the average for the set of specimens. Instron 5569
test machine was used to conduct the tensile tests.
Results and discussion
Results of computed structural parameters are given in
Table 2. It is observed that the number of wales and
courses per 100 mm and the basis weight vary as the
number of tricot, nt, and chain, nc, courses per repeat
varies. Also, the number of wales increases as the
number of tricot courses increases while the number of
chain courses decreases. Similarly, the number of
courses increases as the number of both tricot and chain
courses increases. The thickness of the fabric remains
virtually independent of the changes in the repeat,
barely constant at an average value of 0.94 mm for the
auxetic structures.
A method has been developed for quantifying the
geometrical structural unit cell based on measured

(a) Inlay type A structure, and (b) inlay type B structure.


Structural parameters of auxetic warp-knit fabrics.

Type of inlay and yarn


denier
Number of wales per
100 mm (Nw)
Number of courses per
100 mm (Nc)
Thickness (mm)
Basis weight (g/m2)

A-40 den Spandex

A-70 den Spandex

B-40 den Spandex

B-70 den Spandex

Nw = 22.6 + 7.0nt 8.2


nc 0.8 nt2 + 1.1ntnc
Nc = 75.1 + 8.8nt + 19.6nc

Nw = 31.8 + 1.3nt
2.9nc
Nc = 169.9 + 9.1nc

Nw = 32.2 + nt 3.1nc

t = 0.90 0.06
ms = 140.5 + 44.6nt
21.1nc 5.3nt2

t = 0.96 0.02
ms = 226.6 25.1nc

Nw = 50.2 2.9nt 10.1nc


+ 1.5ntnc
Nc = 77.6 19.1nt + 111.8nc
5.2ntnc + 3.9nt2 + 21.2nc2
t = 0.99 0.09
ms = 226.5 66.6nt + 66.0nc
3.5ntnc + 9.2nt2 17.3nc2

Nc = 108.4 + 7.5nt
+ 32.8nc 3.8ntnc
t = 0.93 0.01
ms = 172.5 + 10.2nt
5.9nc 3.8ntnc

The Journal of The Textile Institute


Table 3.

Unit cell size of warp-knit auxetic fabrics.

Type of inlay
and yarn denier

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

427

No inlay yarn

A-40 den Spandex

A-70 den Spandex

B-40 den Spandex

B-70 den
Spandex

a1

a1 = 0.33 + 1.54nt

a1 = 0.04 + 0.89nt + 0.56nc

a1 = 2.36 + 0.69nt

a1 = 1.99 + 0.59nt

a2

a2 = 1.24 + 1.22nc

a1 = 1.02 + 0.65nt
+ 0.78nc
a2 = 2.78 + 0.60nc

a2 = 2.22 + 0.67nc

a2 = 2.64 + 0.87nc

a2 = 2.2 + 0.76nc

b1

1.80 0.04

2.21 0.17

2.28 0.13

2.04 0.14

2.11 0.12

b2

1.16 0.07

h = 0.93 + 1.15nt +
0.81nc + 0.25ntnc
c = 4.12 + 1.11nc

h = 1.33 + 0.43nt

h = 0.27 + 0.27nt + 0.37nc

h = 1.05 + 0.41nt

c = 5.08 + 1.02nc

c = 7.25 0.42nt + 1.19nc

h = 3.04 + 2.54nt
0.218nt2
c = 4.24 + 1.27nc

parameters, namely a1, a2, b1, b2, h and c (shown in


Figure 2). According to the results shown in Table 3, the
lengths of the ribs (a1 and a2) and cell steps (h and c)
depend on the numbers of tricot and/or chain courses
per repeat, while widths of the ribs (b1 and b2) are
constant for the non-auxetic and auxetic structures.
The types of inlaying (types A and B) influence the
unit cell size of the auxetic structure, while the linear
density of the polyurethane yarn has some influence
only on the measured parameter h. When a 77-dtex
polyurethane yarn is used instead of a 44-dtex yarn, the
distance h between two vertical ribs becomes shorter by
a factor of up to 25%.
Poissons ratio test results
The measure of Poissons ratio is a main characteristic
of the auxetic ability of materials. The conventional
materials have positive Poissons ratio, whereas auxetic
materials have negative Poissons ratio. Poissons ratio
results of all the samples for the non-auxetic structure (no
inlay yarn) are shown in Table 4 and those for auxetic
structures 7X-1B, 7X-2B and 7X-3B are given in Table 5.
The results in Table 4 indicate that the non-auxetic
structure produced positive Poissons ratio at all strain
levels. The negative Poissons ratio results for the structures shown in Table 5 confirm the auxetic characteristics of the fabrics. When compared at similar strain
levels, structure 7X-3B manifested the lowest Poissons
ratio, 7X-1B the largest and 7X-2B was in between. It
Table 4. Poissons ratio test results for non-auxetic structure,
7C-1 walewise direction.
Strain %
1.38
13.77
27.54
41.311
55.08

Poissons ratio
0.54
0.57
0.57
0.55
0.54

c = 10.46 2.50nt
+ 1.12nc + 0.25nt2

is surmised that Poissons ratio values decrease as the


number of tricot courses increases. This is due to the
fact that more tricot courses lead to larger a1 (length of
vertical rib) values. Thus, unit cell sizes with larger a1
can become wider during stretching.
The plots shown in Figures 4(a) and 5(a) describe
the dependence of Poissons ratio on the strain exerted
in the walewise direction on auxetic structures type A
and type B, respectively. Figure 6 illustrates the variation in the magnitude of Poissons ratio for fabrics
subjected to different directions of deformation. The
plots in Figures 4(a), 5(a) and 6(a) highlight the actual
data and reflect the scatter in the computed Poissons
ratio values. Indeed, the arrays of points show the variations in the measured Poissons ratios at varying strain
Table 5. Poissons ratio test results for auxetic structures of
type B inlay.
Walewise direction

Coursewise direction

7X-1B
Strain %
1.40
2.79
8.37
27. 90

Poissons ratio
0.17
0.15
0.07
0.08

Strain %
2.23
31.21
49.05
89.20

Poissons ratio
0.64
0.05
0.02
0.07

7X-2B
Strain %
2.75
4.12
57.67
68.66

Poissons ratio
0.22
0.26
0.05
0.03

Strain %
2.03
16.27
22.37
120.00

Poissons ratio
0.60
0.07
0.02
0.08

7X-3B
Strain %
4.12
5.49
65.91

Poissons ratio
0.24
0.22
0.01

Strain %
2.03
6.10
113. 90

Poissons ratio
0.86
0.66
0.05

0.0

120.00

0.06

74.15

428

S.C. Ugbolue et al.

negative Poisson ratios obtained for all the structures at


low strain levels (up to 10% strain level), the curves
were displaced at low-strain levels from the original
curves in Figures 4(a), 5(a) and 6(a) and are duly
presented in Figures 4(b), 5(b) and 6(b), respectively.

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

levels for each tested auxetic sample. In order to fully


appreciate the Poissons ratiostrain level profile, these
graphs were plotted from the onset of the experiments,
namely from zero deformation up to the maximum
strain level. Also, to facilitate full appreciation of the

Figure 4. Plot of Poissons ratio against strain % for auxetic structures (a) type A, walewise direction, and (b) type A, walewise
direction, at low strain levels.

429

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

The Journal of The Textile Institute

Figure 5. Plot of Poissons ratio against strain % for auxetic structures (a) type B, walewise direction, and (b) type B, walewise
direction, at low strain levels.

S.C. Ugbolue et al.

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

430

Figure 6. Plot of Poissons ratio against strain % (a) for 7X-1B, 7X-2B and 7X-3B in the two directions of deformation, and (b)
for 7X-1B, 7X-2B, and 7X-3B at low strain levels.

The Journal of The Textile Institute

All the samples showed auxetic ability, especially


during the first period of elongation (up to 10%). It is
noted that the type of inlaying has some influences on
the magnitude of Poissons ratio, with type B inlay
structures giving lower values of Poissons ratios than
type A inlay structures. As expected, fabrics 7X-3B and
5X-3B yielded the lowest values of Poissons ratio.
These samples have negative Poissons ratio at up to
5070% strain levels.

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

Figure 6.
4.
5.

Plot of Poissons ratio against strain % (a)


for for
auxetic
7X-1B,
structures
7X-2B(a)
andtype
7X-3B
A, walewise
B,
in the twodirection,
directions
and
of(b)
deformation,
type B,
A, walewise
walewise
and (b)direction,
direction,
for 7X-1B,
at
at7X-2B
low
low strain
strain
andlevels.
levels.
7X-3B at low strain levels.

Tensile test results


The tensile test results presented in Table 6 show the
maximum load, strain along the test direction and
modulus values of five tested specimens each for three
auxetic structures 7X-1B, 7X-2B and 7X-3B.
The plots of the tensile tests are shown in Figures
7(a), 8(a) and 9(a) for the walewise direction and in
Figures 7(b), 8(b) and 9(b) for the coursewise direction,
respectively.
In the walewise direction, the maximum loads
measured for the fabrics are larger than 100 N but
smaller than 200 N and the strain values are around
300%, while the modulus values are about 100 MPa. On
the other hand, in the coursewise direction, the maximum load values are larger than 60 N but smaller than
Figure 9.
7.
8.

Loadelongation curve for 7X-3B


7X-1B in the (a) walewise direction and (b) coursewise direction.
7X-2B

Table 6.

110 N. The strain values in the coursewise direction are


around 200% and the modulus values are around 50
MPa. Generally, the overall values along the walewise
direction are larger than the observed values in the
coursewise direction.
It must be noted that the tensile and recovery tests
performed on the samples showed that deformations up
to 150% strain levels were completely recoverable.
Conclusions
The factors that influence Poissons ratio are identified as yarn type, number of chain courses and strain
level. Yarn type is found to be the most important
factor. It has been shown that the non-auxetics (base
or net structures) knitted with only a polyester yarn,
without any inlay Spandex, have positive Poissons
ratio, with an average value of 0.54. However, the
other auxetic warp-knit fabrics that are formed using
both polyester ground and inlay Spandex have negative Poissons ratio at low-strain deformation, with
an average value of 0.21. Also, based on factorial
analysis (Feng, 2009; Ugbolue et al., 2009, 2010), it
is surmised that yarn type is crucial for determining
whether samples have negative Poissons ratio or
not.

Tensile test results of auxetic fabrics in the walewise and coursewise directions.

Walewise direction

Coursewise direction

Figure 7.

431

Fabric designation

Load (N)

Strain %

Modulus (MPa)

7X-1B
7X-2B
7X-3B
7X-1B
7X-2B
7X-3B

128.89
150.57
142.35
105.98
69.81
111.96

271.87
303.79
290.94
196.97
195.16
256.22

87.90
106.58
106.78
61.83
55.34
49.86

Loadelongation curve for 7X-1B in the (a) walewise direction, and (b) coursewise direction.

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

432

S.C. Ugbolue et al.

Figure 8.

Loadelongation curve for 7X-2B in the (a) walewise direction and (b) coursewise direction.

Figure 9.

Loadelongation curve for 7X-3B in the (a) walewise direction, and (b) coursewise direction.

Another factor that is considered is the number of


chain courses. It is noted that the unit cell shape of a
non-auxetic structure (base or net structure) is hexagonal (Figure 1), while the geometry of the auxetic
samples is different, as indicated in Figure 2, showing
the effect of inlay Spandex yarn, which has high elastic
properties. During deformation at low-strain levels, the
auxetic samples exhibit lateral dimensional increase
because of the combined effects of structural geometrical design and displacement variations in the unit cell
size ratio (h/a1), to give negative Poissons ratio values.
Also, strain has been shown (Ugbolue et al., 2008,
2009, 2010) to be a factor that influences Poissons ratio
test results and the data show that strain is positively
correlated with Poissons ratio. Our structures do have
auxetic properties due to their structural geometry, but

the observed negative Poissons ratio predominates at


low-to-moderate strain levels. Generally, in the coursewise direction, Poissons ratio values are observed at up
to 30% strain values, while along the walewise direction, the negative Poissons ratio is operational at strain
values larger than 30%. In other words, the coursewise
direction shows much lower Poissons ratio compared
with the walewise direction. It is also noted that when
the negative Poissons ratio tends to zero along the
course direction, the observed strain value in the wale
direction becomes much larger. Thus, we conclude that
unit cell size has significant influence on Poissons
ratio. Through this study, a method has been developed
for quantifying the geometrical structural unit cell of the
auxetic structure based on measured parameters,
namely a1, a2, b1, b2, h and c.

The Journal of The Textile Institute

Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful for the funds received from the
National Textile Center under the US Department of
Commerce Grant No. 02-07400 in support of this research.

Downloaded by [b-on: Biblioteca do conhecimento online UMinho] at 08:10 30 April 2012

References
Alderson, A., & Alderson, K. (2005). Expanding materials
and applications: Exploiting auxetic textiles. Technical
Textiles International, 777, 2934.
ASTM D503495. (2001). Standard Test Method for breaking strength and elongation of textile fabrics (grab test).
In Annual book of ASTM standards, vol 7.02 textiles
(11). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
Feng, Y. (2009). The formation and performance of auxetic
warp knit structures. Unpublished MS thesis, University
of Massachusetts, Dartmouth.
Gaspar, N., Ran, X.J., Smith, C.W., Grima, J.N., & Evans,
K.E. (2005). Novel honeycombs with auxetic behaviour.
Acta Materiala, 53, 24392445.
McMullan, P.J., Kumar, S., & Griffin, A.C. (2006). Textile
fibers engineered from molecular auxetic polymers
(NTC project M04-GT21, Annual Report). Philadelphia:
National Textile Center.
Mouritz, A., Bannister, M., Falson, P., & Leong, K. (1999).
Review of applications for advanced three dimensional
fibre textile composites. Composites. Part A: Applied
Science and Manufacturing, 30, 14451461.
Ravirala, N., Alderson, K., Davies, P., Simkins, V., &
Alderson, A. (2006), Negative Poissons ratio polyester
fibers. Textile Research Journal, 76(7), 540546.

433

Smith, C., Grima, J., & Evans, K. (2000). A novel mechanism


for generating auxetic behaviour in reticulated foam:
Missing rib foam model. Acta Materiala, 48, 43494356.
Ugbolue, S.C., Warner, S.B., Kim, Y.K., Fan, Q., & Yang,
C.L. (2006). The formation and performance of auxetic
textiles (NTC project F06-MD09, Annual Report).
Philadelphia: National Textile Center. Retrieved May 5,
2010, from http://www.ntcresearch.org/pdf-rpts/
AnRp06/F06-MD09-A6.pdf
Ugbolue, S.C., Warner, S.B., Kim, Y.K., Fan, Q., Yang,
C.L., Kyzymchuk, O., et al. (2007). The formation and
performance of auxetic textiles (NTC Project F06MD09, Annual Report). Philadelphia: National Textile
Center. Retrieved May 5, 2010, from: http://www.ntcresearch.org/pdf-rpts/AnRp07/F06-MD09-A7.pdf
Ugbolue, S.C., Warner, S.B., Kim, Y.K., Fan, Q., Yang, C.L.,
Kyzymchuk, O., et al. (2008). The formation and performance of auxetic textiles (NTC project F06 MD09,
Annual Report). Philadelphia: National Textile Center.
Retrieved May 5, 2010, from http://www.ntcresearch.org/
pdf-rpts /AnRp08/F06-MD09-A8.pdf
Ugbolue, S.C., Warner, S.B., Kim, Y.K., Fan, Q., Yang,
C.L., Kyzymchuk, O., et al. (2009). The formation and
performance of auxetic textiles (NTC project F06MD09,
Annual Report). Philadelphia: National Textile Center.
Retrieved May 5, 2010, from: http://www.ntcresearch.
org/pdf-rpts /AnRp09/F06-MD09-A9.pdf
Ugbolue, S.C., Kim, Y.K., Warner, S.B., Fan, Q., Yang, C.L.,
Kyzymchuk, O., & Feng, Y. (2010). The formation and
performance of auxetic textiles. Part 1: theoretical and
technical considerations. Journal of the Textile Institute,
101(7), 660667.