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Calculator for Field of View

of a Camera and Lens

Computes Field of View seen by camera and lens, both the

dimensional size of the Field Of View seen at a specified distance,

and also Angle Of View, for any sensor size (film or digital). The

Angle of View applies to this focal length on this size sensor, and the

angle is independent of distance. But the dimensional field of view is

calculated at the one specified distance from camera.

There is also a large table of angular Field of View (degrees) for

many lens focal lengths and a few popular sensors lower down on

this page (or Option 1 or 3 shows more specific cases).

This calculation works when sensor

size and focal length are known.

These values may be difficult to

determine for compact cameras and

phones and camcorders, but DSLR

should be easy. Some Field of View

calculators assume only one default

sensor size or ratio, but this one is

general purpose, offering 3:2, 4:3,

and 16:9 too. Or entering the sensor

or film size can be any ratio.

The calculator is NOT for fisheye

lenses (their view will be wider), and

it is not for macro distances (at end

below). Field accuracy will be better at a distance of at least several

feet (say 6 feet or 2 meters), because the lens focal length number

changes with closer distance. The stated value of focal length applies

to Infinity focus.

Enter Focal Length and Distance, select a sensor size in Option 1-4,

then click Compute. FOV is computed from focal length, distance,

and sensor size. Or Options 5-8 are more special purpose.

Numbers only (a NaN result means input is Not A Number).

Periods as decimal points are OK.

Field Dimension

Angle of View

Lens Focal Length mm

28

Width

12.86

Dimension

Width

65.5

Degrees

Subject Distance

10

Height

8.57

Dimension

Height

46.4

Degrees

Diagonal 15.45

Dimension

Diagonal 75.4

Degrees

or meters. Dimension results

are the same units

43.27 mm, Aspect 3:2 (1.5), Crop 1x, CoC 0.029 mm

Sensor size

1 Width mm

36

Sensor size

Height mm

Sensor Width

2 Width mm

23.5

Aspect Ratio

Width: Height

3:2 (DSLR)

Crop factor

3 (multiplier)

1.5

Aspect Ratio

Width: Height

3:2 (DSLR)

Film and

Sensor Size

4 Description

7 Length above,

Compute 1-8

All Focal

All sensors

the 1/x inch number (size is WxH mm).

12

Find Focal Length

giving Field of View Dimension

units in

of

the

For the

subject

5 distance

above,

(this Subject

distance

6 is optional)

24

Size in Option

1

above

Width

Height

giving Field of View angular

of

Degrees in Diagonal

Find Subject

Distance giving

Field of View of

12

Dimension Direction

units in

the

For the measured Field Width and Height Dimensions you enter at top

above, measured AT the Focal Length and Distance entered, compute

the Sensor Size (the distance should be several feet).

Focal length is millimeters, but distance units can be feet or meters,

miles or cubits, your choice. Dimension results are those same units.

If the units are to be feet, then clicking the little Green button

(marked I for inch) will repeat Dimensions in feet ' and inches "

format. You can click the Green button again to toggle this option

off.

lens focal length and sensor is

independent of subject distance,

so if only that Angle goal, you

can just ignore the Distance and

field dimension part.

Sensor size is all important to

know. If unknown, it can be

computed from Crop Factor if

known (see below).

Download Original Stock Photos

correct focal length used. For

that Make You Stand Out!

fixed lens small cameras that do

not zoom, the computed sensor

Diagonal shown by the calculator (click it once) might be a crude

ballpark guess for focal length? Just saying, a focal length equal the

diagonal is considered to be a "normal lens", but many are a little

wider (shorter).

Select an Option, and click the

Compute button (for all Option

numbers).

Option 1 - Best accuracy is when

entering actual exact sensor

dimensions (mm, from camera

manual specifications).

Option 3 - Or, if you can

determine the lens crop factor

(from specifications), sensor size

can be computed. See crop factor

notes and 16:9 notes below.

Special Feature: In Option 3, the All Focal button will instead

show Angular field of view of many focal lengths, used with this

sensor size and aspect ratio. The crop factor (1, 1.5, 1.6, 2.7,

etc) shown in Option 3 computes the sensor size. Or for other

specific numbers, you can just use Option 1 or 3, etc.

Option 4 - You may be able to select one of the general sensor

descriptions. Film sizes should be accurate, and the larger

sensors with actual WxH dimensions too, but the 1/x inch sensor

numbers are Not meaningful. The 1/x inch description is NOT the

sensor dimension, not even related to the sensor. It seems like

fraud, it compares the sensor to the picture size of an old glass

vidicon tube (1950s, even before CCD). But the 1/inch dimension

was that outer glass tube diameter, and there is nothing about

the digital sensor that is that dimension (its diagonal is probably

no more than 70% of that dimension, if that). It is an inflated

x H size in mm. Or an accurate Crop factor can compute it here.

The list here tries to substitute some known sensor sizes for the

1/x numbers, but there are are usually a few different sensor

sizes claiming the same 1/x number, so it can be wrong. The

correct calculation really needs the correct sensor size, WxH in

mm.

Special Feature: In Option 4, the All Sensors button will instead

show summary of all sensors in the Option 4 list.

Option 6 for angular field does not depend on distance, so you

can enter a known angular goal, like 0.5 degrees for the Moon,

and just ignore entering any distance. Or if there is a distance,

the field dimensions will be computed for that distance.

Option 8 - Probably not practical, but technically, if you can

measure the field of view dimensions at a specified distance, and

know the focal length accurately, sensor size can be calculated.

(the diagonal will be computed for you, from your horizontal and

vertical dimensions).

The Circle of Confusion (CoC) is

not used here, but is shown as

the

standard

diagonal/1500

value used in Depth of Field

computation, just mentioned

here for the various sensors.

The biggest risk to accuracy is

not actually knowing the specific

sensor size, and not actually

knowing the specific accurate

focal length. DSLR cameras do

better

describing

those

specifications. Compacts and

phones may be difficult to know

(and Crop Factor might be your

best tool).

Download Original Stock Photos

that Make You Stand Out!

lengths (for a given sensor, and a medium or

length. not too short) is that the resulting image

ratio of the two focal lengths. A 400 mm lens will

view 4x the subject size and 1/4 the field of view

(100/400 = 1/4).

to compare focal

longer lens focal

size is the simple

show an enlarged

of a 100 mm lens

subject area. You know you need to stand back six or eight feet for

proper portrait perspective. What focal length is that field size going

to require? And the background may be five feet further back, how

large does it have to be? This calculator can plan or verify your

choice. If you want to see fractions of inches better, you can enter

distance as inches (ten feet = 120 inches), but realistically, the

accuracy (of the focal length) may not be up to fractions of an inch.

Determine Crop Factor: Field of View requires knowing focal

length and sensor size. In some cases, focal length is in the Exif

data. Sensor size can be computed from Crop factor.

Crop Factor is the ratio of

(Equivalent focal length with 35mm film that sees the same view)

divided by the

(actual focal length with this camera's sensor size).

For example, the specification for a compact camera's zoom lens

might say:

Focal Length: 4.5 - 81.0 mm

450 mm)

81mm, both equal to 5.55 crop factor.

or

450mm /

Or, crop factor is also the ratio of the 35mm film diagonal divided by

this sensors diagonal. We know 35 mm size, so knowing crop factor

can tell us sensor size. So computing sensor size will be as accurate

as your data numbers. However, the focal length actually used in

compacts is probably not known except at the extremes that the

zoom spec mentions (and default power up zoom is probably some

unknown intermediate point).

Smart phones don't zoom, but official specs are rare. Sensor size

can be computed from crop factor, if known. Sources differ, and

Apple specs don't say, but one estimate is that an iPhone 5 sensor

size is 4.54 mm * 3.42 mm and crop factor 7.93x. If you can

determine either sensor size or crop factor, the calculator above will

compute the other. iPhone 5 Exif reports focal length of 4.2 mm.

Crop factor is often specified as a slightly rounded number. For

example, the 35mm film frame is 36 mm wide, and if the DX sensor

is 23.5 mm width, then it is actually 36mm/23.5mm = 1.53 crop,

but called 1.5x. But, the focal length number is also approximated

anyway.

Entering exact sensor dimensions above would be the most precise.

The camera manufacturers specify the equivalent 35mm crop factor

from the diagonal ratio to 35mm film (because many of us are very

familiar with 35mm film, and crop factor tells us what view to expect

now). We may not know sensor size or focal length on compacts,

except at either end of the zoom range, but then we can determine

crop factor, for example, if they specify their 6.1mm lens is

equivalent of 24mm lens on a 35mm camera, then obviously their

crop factor is 24/6.1 = 3.93. And after the fact, the Exif

(Manufacturers Data section) often shows the zoom focal length

used for the picture (see a viewer that will show this).

HDTV

movies:

Special

considerations.

The

differences

in

the

Aspect

menu

in

Option 3 above is

that

DSLR

and

compacts take 3:2 or

4:3 photos, and their

diagonal fits in the

diameter of the lens

circular view. True of

camcorders too, and

HDTV movies are of

course resampled to

1920x1080

or

1280x720 pixels. But

16:9 movies in still

cameras

are

constrained

within

that

still

camera

sensor size, limited to the same width. Whereas camcorders fit the

full diagonal, not constrained by any 3:2 or 4:3 sensor width. In this

image at right, the blue circle represents the diagonal of the image

that the lens projects. 16:9 in camcorders is wider, but not if

constrained within smaller frame sizes. I suppose there could be

some exception, but camcorders should have a 16:9 sensor, and

DSLR, compacts and phones typically have 4:3 or 2:3 camera

sensors. Their 16:9 width will be the same as the 4:3 width of

course, but then the height is less. Another page also describes this

effect numerically.

Determine aspect ratio by dividing image width by the height (both

in pixels), which is its aspect ratio. 3:2 divides as 1.5, 4:3 divides as

1.33, and 16:9 divides as 1.78. So if your movie mode takes still

pictures of aspect 1.78, then it is probably a camcorder with a 16:9

chip.

Typically photo cameras will use their full sensor width for their HD

movie width (D7100, D600, D750) and that is assumed here, but for

example, the Nikon D800/D810 use slightly less width (these D8xx

manuals specify the sensor image area for HD movies is 32.8 x 18.4

FX, and 23.4 x 13.2 DX).

But actually knowing the actual sensor size is the key.

sensor sizes

Here's a chart of Angular Field of View (Width, Height, Diagonal, in

degrees) for many lens focal lengths ("Lens mm") on popular sensor

sizes and common aspect ratios. One example of the chart use

might be to compare the width of view on two cameras.

The calculation is NOT for fisheye lenses (their view will be wider),

and it is not for macro distances. Field accuracy will be better at a

distance of at least several feet, because the lens focal length

number changes with closer distance. The stated value of focal

length applies to Infinity focus.

The top row marked WxH shows the sensor dimensions in mm,

computed from the crop factor. Also 16:9 image size can be limited

to be no wider than camera 3:2 or 4:3 sensors (or left at full size for

camcorders). See HD movies above.

The 4:3 sensors are missing here, but there are so many sizes, and

some web screens are so small. Phones normally don't zoom, and

we probably don't know focal length for compacts except at end

extremes. The Pentax Q7 with 1/1.7" sensor is mentioned because it

is a smaller sensor, but with interchangeable lenses (its normal

zoom is 5-15 mm). Tiny sensors require very short focal length to

achieve any usable field of view, but the short focal lengths can be

included.

You can easily add another sensor into the chart (specify crop

factor), which will replace the last sensor. (that original default 4.65

crop in last column now is for the Q7 mentioned.) Numbers only.

See Determine Crop Factor above.

Replace sensor Crop Factor in last column

Crop: 5.5

Aspect:

4:3

Add sensor

Show 10-500 mm

Show 2-1000 mm

Show 1-2000 mm

WxH

36x24

37.7x21.2

mm

3:2

16:9

24x16

3:2

16:9

3:2

16:9

W 96.7 W 99.4

10 H 100.4 H 93.4

H 77.3 H 70.5

H 73.7 H 67.1

D 130.4 D 130.4 D 110.5 D 110.5 D 107 D 107

4:3

16:9

W 40.8 W 44.1

H 31.2 H 25.7

D 49.9 D 49.9

W 117.1 W 119.5 W 95

W 97.6 W 91.3 W 93.9 W 37.4 W 40.5

H 28.5 H 23.4

11 H 95

H 87.9

H 72.1 H 65.5

H 68.6 H 62.1

D 126.1 D 126.1 D 105.3 D 105.3 D 101.7 D 101.7 D 45.9 D 45.9

W 92.7 W 86.3 W 89

12 W 112.6 W 115.1 W 90

H 90

H 82.9

H 67.4 H 61

H 64

H 57.8

D 122

D 122

D 100.5 D 100.5 D 96.8 D 96.8

W 34.5 W 37.3

H 26.2 H 21.5

D 42.4 D 42.4

13 H 85.4 H 78.4

H 63.2

D 118

D 118

D 95.9

W 88.1

H 57.1

D 95.9

W 81.7 W 84.4

H 60

H 54

D 92.3 D 92.3

W 32 W 34.6

H 24.2 H 19.9

D 39.4 D 39.4

14 H 81.2 H 74.3

H 59.5

D 114.2 D 114.2 D 91.7

W 83.8

H 53.6

D 91.7

W 77.6 W 80.2

H 56.4 H 50.7

D 88

D 88

W 29.8 W 32.3

H 22.6 H 18.5

D 36.8 D 36.8

W 100.4 W 103

W 77.3

15 H 77.3 H 70.5

H 56.1

D 110.5 D 110.5 D 87.7

W 79.9

H 50.5

D 87.7

W 73.7 W 76.3

H 53.1 H 47.7

D 84.1 D 84.1

W 27.9 W 30.3

H 21.1 H 17.3

D 34.5 D 34.5

W 96.7

16 H 73.7

D 107

W 73.7

H 53.1

D 84.1

W 76.3

H 47.7

D 84.1

W 70.2 W 72.7

H 50.2 H 45

D 80.4 D 80.4

W 26.2 W 28.4

H 19.8 H 16.2

D 32.4 D 32.4

17 H 70.4 H 63.9

H 50.4

D 103.7 D 103.7 D 80.6

W 73

H 45.2

D 80.6

W 67

H 47.6

D 77

W 69.5

H 42.6

D 77

W 24.7 W 26.8

H 18.6 H 15.3

D 30.6 D 30.6

W 90

W 92.7 W 67.4

18 H 67.4 H 61

H 47.9

D 100.5 D 100.5 D 77.4

W 69.9

H 42.9

D 77.4

W 64

H 45.2

D 73.8

W 66.4

H 40.4

D 73.8

W 23.4 W 25.4

H 17.6 H 14.4

D 29

D 29

W 86.9

19 H 64.6

D 97.4

W 89.6

H 58.3

D 97.4

W 64.6

H 45.7

D 74.4

W 67

H 40.8

D 74.4

W 61.3 W 63.6

H 43.1 H 38.5

D 70.9 D 70.9

W 22.2 W 24.1

H 16.7 H 13.7

D 27.5 D 27.5

W 84

20 H 61.9

D 94.5

W 86.6

H 55.9

D 94.5

W 61.9

H 43.6

D 71.6

W 64.3

H 38.9

D 71.6

W 58.7 W 61

H 41.1 H 36.7

D 68.1 D 68.1

W 21.1 W 22.9

H 15.9 H 13

D 26.2 D 26.2

W 78.6

22 H 57.2

D 89

W 81.2

H 51.5

D 89

W 57.2

H 40

D 66.5

W 59.5

H 35.6

D 66.5

W 54.2 W 56.4

H 37.6 H 33.5

D 63.1 D 63.1

W 19.2 W 20.9

H 14.5 H 11.8

D 23.9 D 23.9

W 73.7

24 H 53.1

D 84.1

W 76.3

H 47.7

D 84.1

W 53.1

H 36.9

D 62

W 55.3

H 32.8

D 62

W 50.2 W 52.3

H 34.7 H 30.9

D 58.8 D 58.8

W 17.6 W 19.2

H 13.3 H 10.9

D 21.9 D 21.9

W 69.4

26 H 49.6

D 79.5

W 71.9

H 44.4

D 79.5

W 49.6

H 34.2

D 58

W 51.6

H 30.4

D 58

W 46.8 W 48.8

H 32.2 H 28.6

D 55

D 55

W 16.3 W 17.7

H 12.3 H 10

D 20.3 D 20.3

W 65.5

28 H 46.4

D 75.4

W 67.9

H 41.5

D 75.4

W 46.4

H 31.9

D 54.5

W 48.4

H 28.3

D 54.5

W 43.8 W 45.6

H 30

H 26.6

D 51.6 D 51.6

W 15.1 W 16.5

H 11.4 H 9.3

D 18.9 D 18.9

W 61.9

30 H 43.6

D 71.6

W 64.3

H 38.9

D 71.6

W 43.6

H 29.9

D 51.4

W 45.5

H 26.5

D 51.4

W 41.1 W 42.9

H 28.1 H 24.9

D 48.5 D 48.5

W 14.1 W 15.4

H 10.6 H 8.7

D 17.6 D 17.6

W 54.4

35 H 37.8

D 63.4

W 56.6

H 33.7

D 63.4

W 37.8

H 25.8

D 44.8

W 39.5

H 22.8

D 44.8

W 35.6 W 37.2

H 24.2 H 21.4

D 42.2 D 42.2

W 12.1 W 13.2

H 9.1 H 7.5

D 15.1 D 15.1

W 48.5

40 H 33.4

D 56.8

W 50.5

H 29.7

D 56.8

W 33.4

H 22.6

D 39.7

W 34.9

H 20

D 39.7

W 31.4 W 32.8

H 21.2 H 18.8

D 37.4 D 37.4

W 10.6 W 11.6

H 8

H 6.5

D 13.3 D 13.3

W 43.6

45 H 29.9

D 51.4

W 45.5

H 26.5

D 51.4

W 29.9

H 20.2

D 35.5

W 31.2

H 17.9

D 35.5

W 28.1 W 29.3

H 18.9 H 16.8

D 33.4 D 33.4

W 9.5 W 10.3

H 7.1 H 5.8

D 11.8 D 11.8

W 99.4

H 67.1

D 107

mm

3:2

16:9

3:2

16:9

3:2

16:9

4:3

16:9

W 39.6

50 H 27

D 46.8

W 41.3

H 24

D 46.8

W 27

H 18.2

D 32.2

W 28.2

H 16.1

D 32.2

W 25.4 W 26.5

H 17.1 H 15.1

D 30.3 D 30.3

W 8.5 W 9.3

H 6.4 H 5.2

D 10.6 D 10.6

W 36.2

55 H 24.6

D 42.9

W 37.8

H 21.8

D 42.9

W 24.6

H 16.6

D 29.4

W 25.7

H 14.7

D 29.4

W 23.1 W 24.2

H 15.5 H 13.7

D 27.6 D 27.6

W 7.7

H 5.8

D 9.7

W 8.4

H 4.7

D 9.7

W 33.4

60 H 22.6

D 39.7

W 34.9

H 20

D 39.7

W 22.6

H 15.2

D 27

W 23.7

H 13.4

D 27

W 21.2 W 22.2

H 14.3 H 12.6

D 25.4 D 25.4

W 7.1

H 5.3

D 8.9

W 7.7

H 4.4

D 8.9

W 31

65 H 20.9

D 36.8

W 32.4

H 18.5

D 36.8

W 20.9

H 14

D 25

W 21.9

H 12.4

D 25

W 19.6 W 20.6

H 13.2 H 11.6

D 23.5 D 23.5

W 6.6

H 4.9

D 8.2

W 7.1

H 4

D 8.2

W 28.8

70 H 19.5

D 34.3

W 30.2

H 17.2

D 34.3

W 19.5

H 13

D 23.3

W 20.4

H 11.5

D 23.3

W 18.3 W 19.1

H 12.2 H 10.8

D 21.9 D 21.9

W 6.1

H 4.6

D 7.6

W 6.6

H 3.7

D 7.6

W 27

75 H 18.2

D 32.2

W 28.2

H 16.1

D 32.2

W 18.2

H 12.2

D 21.8

W 19

H 10.8

D 21.8

W 17.1 W 17.9

H 11.4 H 10.1

D 20.4 D 20.4

W 5.7

H 4.3

D 7.1

W 6.2

H 3.5

D 7.1

W 25.4

80 H 17.1

D 30.3

W 26.5

H 15.1

D 30.3

W 17.1

H 11.4

D 20.4

W 17.9

H 10.1

D 20.4

W 16

H 10.7

D 19.2

W 16.8

H 9.5

D 19.2

W 5.3

H 4

D 6.7

W 5.8

H 3.3

D 6.7

W 23.9

85 H 16.1

D 28.6

W 25

H 14.2

D 28.6

W 16.1

H 10.8

D 19.3

W 16.8

H 9.5

D 19.3

W 15.1 W 15.8

H 10.1 H 8.9

D 18.1 D 18.1

W 5

H 3.8

D 6.3

W 5.5

H 3.1

D 6.3

W 22.6

90 H 15.2

D 27

W 23.7

H 13.4

D 27

W 15.2

H 10.2

D 18.2

W 15.9

H 9

D 18.2

W 14.3 W 14.9

H 9.5

H 8.4

D 17.1 D 17.1

W 4.7

H 3.6

D 5.9

W 5.2

H 2.9

D 5.9

W 21.5

95 H 14.4

D 25.7

W 22.5

H 12.7

D 25.7

W 14.4

H 9.6

D 17.3

W 15.1

H 8.5

D 17.3

W 13.5 W 14.1

H 9

H 8

D 16.2 D 16.2

W 4.5

H 3.4

D 5.6

W 4.9

H 2.8

D 5.6

W 20.4

100 H 13.7

D 24.4

W 21.4

H 12.1

D 24.4

W 13.7

H 9.1

D 16.4

W 14.3

H 8.1

D 16.4

W 12.8 W 13.4

H 8.6

H 7.6

D 15.4 D 15.4

W 4.3

H 3.2

D 5.3

W 4.6

H 2.6

D 5.3

W 19.5

105 H 13

D 23.3

W 20.4

H 11.5

D 23.3

W 13

H 8.7

D 15.6

W 13.7

H 7.7

D 15.6

W 12.2 W 12.8

H 8.2

H 7.2

D 14.7 D 14.7

W 4.1

H 3

D 5.1

W 4.4

H 2.5

D 5.1

W 18.6

110 H 12.5

D 22.3

W 19.5

H 11

D 22.3

W 12.5

H 8.3

D 14.9

W 13

H 7.4

D 14.9

W 11.7 W 12.2

H 7.8

H 6.9

D 14

D 14

W 3.9

H 2.9

D 4.8

W 4.2

H 2.4

D 4.8

W 17.8

115 H 11.9

D 21.3

W 18.6

H 10.5

D 21.3

W 11.9

H 8

D 14.3

W 12.5

H 7

D 14.3

W 11.2 W 11.7

H 7.5

H 6.6

D 13.4 D 13.4

W 3.7

H 2.8

D 4.6

W 4

H 2.3

D 4.6

W 17.1

120 H 11.4

D 20.4

W 17.9

H 10.1

D 20.4

W 11.4

H 7.6

D 13.7

W 12

H 6.7

D 13.7

W 10.7 W 11.2

H 7.2

H 6.3

D 12.9 D 12.9

W 3.6

H 2.7

D 4.4

W 3.9

H 2.2

D 4.4

W 16.4

125 H 11

D 19.6

W 17.2

H 9.7

D 19.6

W 11

H 7.3

D 13.2

W 11.5

H 6.5

D 13.2

W 10.3 W 10.8

H 6.9

H 6.1

D 12.3 D 12.3

W 3.4

H 2.6

D 4.3

W 3.7

H 2.1

D 4.3

W 15.8

130 H 10.5

D 18.9

W 16.5

H 9.3

D 18.9

W 10.5

H 7

D 12.7

W 11

H 6.2

D 12.7

W 9.9

H 6.6

D 11.9

W 10.4

H 5.8

D 11.9

W 3.3

H 2.5

D 4.1

W 3.6

H 2

D 4.1

W 15.2

135 H 10.2

D 18.2

W 15.9

H 9

D 18.2

W 10.2

H 6.8

D 12.2

W 10.6

H 6

D 12.2

W 9.5

H 6.4

D 11.4

W 10

H 5.6

D 11.4

W 3.2

H 2.4

D 3.9

W 3.4

H 1.9

D 3.9

mm

3:2

16:9

3:2

16:9

3:2

16:9

4:3

16:9

W 14.7

140 H 9.8

D 17.6

W 15.3

H 8.7

D 17.6

W 9.8

H 6.5

D 11.8

W 10.3

H 5.8

D 11.8

W 9.2

H 6.1

D 11

W 9.6

H 5.4

D 11

W 3

H 2.3

D 3.8

W 3.3

H 1.9

D 3.8

W 13.7

150 H 9.1

D 16.4

W 14.3

H 8.1

D 16.4

W 9.1

H 6.1

D 11

W 9.6

H 5.4

D 11

W 8.6

H 5.7

D 10.3

W 9

H 5.1

D 10.3

W 2.8

H 2.1

D 3.6

W 3.1

H 1.7

D 3.6

W 12.8

160 H 8.6

D 15.4

W 13.4

H 7.6

D 15.4

W 8.6

H 5.7

D 10.3

W 9

H 5.1

D 10.3

W 8

H 5.4

D 9.7

W 8.4

H 4.7

D 9.7

W 2.7

H 2

D 3.3

W 2.9

H 1.6

D 3.3

W 12.1

170 H 8.1

D 14.5

W 12.7

H 7.1

D 14.5

W 8.1

H 5.4

D 9.7

W 8.5

H 4.8

D 9.7

W 7.6

H 5.1

D 9.1

W 7.9

H 4.5

D 9.1

W 2.5

H 1.9

D 3.1

W 2.7

H 1.5

D 3.1

W 11.4

180 H 7.6

D 13.7

W 12

H 6.7

D 13.7

W 7.6

H 5.1

D 9.2

W 8

H 4.5

D 9.2

W 7.2

H 4.8

D 8.6

W 7.5

H 4.2

D 8.6

W 2.4

H 1.8

D 3

W 2.6

H 1.5

D 3

W 10.8

190 H 7.2

D 13

W 11.3

H 6.4

D 13

W 7.2

H 4.8

D 8.7

W 7.6

H 4.3

D 8.7

W 6.8

H 4.5

D 8.1

W 7.1

H 4

D 8.1

W 2.2

H 1.7

D 2.8

W 2.4

H 1.4

D 2.8

W 10.3

200 H 6.9

D 12.3

W 10.8

H 6.1

D 12.3

W 6.9

H 4.6

D 8.2

W 7.2

H 4

D 8.2

W 6.4

H 4.3

D 7.7

W 6.7

H 3.8

D 7.7

W 2.1

H 1.6

D 2.7

W 2.3

H 1.3

D 2.7

W 8.2

250 H 5.5

D 9.9

W 8.6

H 4.9

D 9.9

W 5.5

H 3.7

D 6.6

W 5.8

H 3.2

D 6.6

W 5.2

H 3.4

D 6.2

W 5.4

H 3

D 6.2

W 1.7

H 1.3

D 2.1

W 1.9

H 1

D 2.1

W 6.9

300 H 4.6

D 8.2

W 7.2

H 4

D 8.2

W 4.6

H 3.1

D 5.5

W 4.8

H 2.7

D 5.5

W 4.3

H 2.9

D 5.2

W 4.5

H 2.5

D 5.2

W 1.4

H 1.1

D 1.8

W 1.5

H 0.9

D 1.8

W 5.9

350 H 3.9

D 7.1

W 6.2

H 3.5

D 7.1

W 3.9

H 2.6

D 4.7

W 4.1

H 2.3

D 4.7

W 3.7

H 2.5

D 4.4

W 3.9

H 2.2

D 4.4

W 1.2

H 0.9

D 1.5

W 1.3

H 0.7

D 1.5

W 5.2

400 H 3.4

D 6.2

W 5.4

H 3

D 6.2

W 3.4

H 2.3

D 4.1

W 3.6

H 2

D 4.1

W 3.2

H 2.1

D 3.9

W 3.4

H 1.9

D 3.9

W 1.1

H 0.8

D 1.3

W 1.2

H 0.7

D 1.3

W 4.1

500 H 2.7

D 5

W 4.3

H 2.4

D 5

W 2.7

H 1.8

D 3.3

W 2.9

H 1.6

D 3.3

W 2.6

H 1.7

D 3.1

W 2.7

H 1.5

D 3.1

W 0.9

H 0.6

D 1.1

W 0.9

H 0.5

D 1.1

mm

3:2

16:9

3:2

16:9

3:2

16:9

4:3

16:9

FWIW, the size of our full Moon is very near 0.5 degrees (its size

varies slightly in its elliptical orbit).

length shows a view only half as wide. Or 4x is 1/4, etc. But this is

not linear, meaning it is Not true of wide angles. This non-linearity is

due to the angle trig, not the focal length. I am arbitrarily

suggesting that a horizontal view width of the "normal" lens, or

roughly about 40 degrees horizontal reasonably satisfies this, and

then 2x focal length will be near half angle, about 20 degrees. This

is true of full frame at about 50 mm, and true of DX at 30 mm, and

true of the 1/1.7" Q7 at about 10 mm. And really, still "close

enough" if a little wider, within a degree or two. It's another detail of

crop factor. But it is true of longer lenses, that 2x focal length is half

the view width.

There are approximations in calculations. The math is precise, but

the data is less so. Focal length is a little vague, as might be precise

sensor size. However, the results certainly are close enough to be

very useful in any practical case. My experience is that the field is

fairly accurate (at distances at least a meter or two), assuming you

actually know your parameters. Some problems are:

The Marked focal length of any lens is a rounded nominal

number, like 50 or 60 mm. The actual can be a few percent

different. Furthermore, the Marked focal length is only applicable

to focus at infinity. Focal length necessarily increases when lens

is extended forward to focus closer. Also zoom lenses can do

other internal tricks with actual focal length (some zooms can be

shorter when up close, instead of longer). Focal length will be

less accurate at very close distances, and field of view becomes

a little smaller. So macro distances are left out, but any error

should be small if focused beyond one or two meters. You also

have to measure your distance and field dimensions accurately

too. And of course, we are only seeking a ballpark number

anyway, we adjust small differences with our subject framing.

And a fisheye lens is a different animal, wider view than this

formula predicts. A regular lens is rectilinear, meaning it shows

straight lines as straight lines, not curved. A fisheye is rather

unconcerned about this distortion, and can show a wider view,

poorly purists might say, but very wide, and very possibly

interesting.

Actual focal length can be determined by the magnification

(Wikipedia). Or, the focal length (f), the distance from the front

nodal point to the object to photograph (s1), and the distance from

the rear nodal point to the image plane (s2) are related by this Thin

Lens equation:

If OK with a little geometry and algebra, you can

see the derivation of this classic Thin Lens

Equation at the Khan Academy.

then 1/s1 is zero, so then s2 = f. This says that the marked focal

length applies when focused at infinity.

Also if at 1:1 magnification, then s1 = s2, saying that the working

macro distance in front of the lens is equal to the (extended at 1:1)

focal length of the lens.

measures from lens node to sensor. We compute the right triangle

on center line, of half the sensor dimension, so the half lens angle =

arctan (sensor dimension / (2 * focal length)). The Subject distance

is in front of lens node, with same opposite angle. Field dimension =

2 * distance * tan (center line half angle). The problem is that focal

length f becomes longer when focused at close distances (but the

opposite can be true of a few zoom lenses). That becomes an

insignificant field of view difference at normal distances, 1 meter or

more.

Multi-element camera lenses are "thick" and more complex. We are

not told where the nodes are designed, normally inside the lens

somewhere, but some are outside. For telephoto lenses, the rear

node (focal length from sensor plane) is in front of the front lens

surface. The designer's term telephoto is about the reposition of the

nodal point so that the physical lens is NOT longer than its focal

length. Yet, this rear node is generally behind the rear lens surface

of a wide angle lens (lens moved well forward to provide room to

allow the larger SLR mirror to rise... 12mm lens, 24mm mirror, etc).

This nodal difference is only a few inches, but it affects where the

focal length is measured. And it shifts a bit as the lens is focused

closer. Repeating, the focal length marked on the lens is specified for

focus at infinity.

The Subject distance S is measured to the sensor focal plane (it is

the "focus distance"), where we see a symbol like marked on the

top of the camera (near rear of top LCD). The line across the circle

However, the Thin Lens Equation uses the distance d in front of lens.

This is why we often see in equations: (S - f) used for d.

For Macro, computing magnification is more convenient than focal

length (since we don't really know focal length at macro extension).

Focal length and subject distance determine Magnification, which is

the ratio of size of image to size of actual subject. Or size of sensor

to the size of the remote field. We could compute that here, but

magnification has more significance up closer (easier for macro),

which is where our knowledge of the actual focal length is weakest.

We could measure the field to compute the actual magnification, to

then know the actual focal length. However Magnification is simply:

m = s2/s1. Or m = f/d. Or m = f/(S-f).

So from this, we know macro field of view is simply the sensor

dimensions, divided by the magnification. Let's say it this way:

1:1 macro, the focal length f is same as the distance d in front of

lens (each with its own node).

1:1 macro (magnification 1), the field of view is exactly the same

size as the sensor.

1:2 macro (magnification 0.5), the field of view is twice the size of

the sensor.

1:4 macro (magnification 0.25), the field of view is four times the

size of the sensor.

This is true of any focal length for any lens (or method) that can

achieve the magnification. Focal length and subject distance are

obviously the factors determining magnification (it is still about

them), but magnification ratio is simply easier work for macro.

The easiest method to determine field of view for macro is to simply

put a mm ruler in the field. If a 24mm sensor width sees 32 mm of

ruler, then that is the field of view, and the magnification is 24/32 =

0.75 (this scale of magnification is 1 at 1:1, and is 0 at infinity).

The definition of macro 1:1 magnification is that the focal length and

subject distance are equal (distances in front of and behind the lens

nodes are necessarily equal, creating 1:1 magnification). In this Thin

Lens Equation, if s1 and s2 are equal, the formula is then 2/s1 = 1/f,

or 2f = s1. So lens extension to 2f gives 1:1. And since f/stop

number = f / diameter, then if 2f, then f/stop number is 2x too,

which a double f/stop number is 2 stops change, which is the

aperture loss at 1:1. We know those things, this is just why.

But the point here, if f is actually 2f at 1:1 macro, the field of view

changes with it. None of the FOV calculators are for macro situations

(too close, magnification is instead the rule there). Field of View

calculators expect subject distance to be at least a meter or two,

reducing the focal length error to be insignificant.

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