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com
Calculator for Field of View
of a Camera and Lens
Computes Field of View seen by camera and lens, both the
dimensional size of the Field Of View seen at a specified distance,
and also Angle Of View, for any sensor size (film or digital). The
Angle of View applies to this focal length on this size sensor, and the
angle is independent of distance. But the dimensional field of view is
calculated at the one specified distance from camera.
There is also a large table of angular Field of View (degrees) for
many lens focal lengths and a few popular sensors lower down on
this page (or Option 1 or 3 shows more specific cases).
This calculation works when sensor
size and focal length are known.
These values may be difficult to
determine for compact cameras and
phones and camcorders, but DSLR
should be easy. Some Field of View
calculators assume only one default
sensor size or ratio, but this one is
general purpose, offering 3:2, 4:3,
and 16:9 too. Or entering the sensor
or film size can be any ratio.
The calculator is NOT for fisheye
lenses (their view will be wider), and
it is not for macro distances (at end
below). Field accuracy will be better at a distance of at least several
feet (say 6 feet or 2 meters), because the lens focal length number
changes with closer distance. The stated value of focal length applies
to Infinity focus.
Enter Focal Length and Distance, select a sensor size in Option 1-4,
then click Compute. FOV is computed from focal length, distance,
and sensor size. Or Options 5-8 are more special purpose.
Numbers only (a NaN result means input is Not A Number).
Periods as decimal points are OK.

Field Dimension

Angle of View

Field of View Calculator


Lens Focal Length mm

28

Width
12.86
Dimension

Width
65.5
Degrees

Subject Distance

10

Height
8.57
Dimension

Height
46.4
Degrees

Diagonal 15.45
Dimension

Diagonal 75.4
Degrees

Any units for Distance, feet I


or meters. Dimension results
are the same units

Option 1 Result, Sensor: Width 36 mm, Height 24 mm, Diagonal


43.27 mm, Aspect 3:2 (1.5), Crop 1x, CoC 0.029 mm
Sensor size
1 Width mm

36

Sensor size
Height mm

Sensor Width
2 Width mm

23.5

Aspect Ratio
Width: Height

3:2 (DSLR)

Crop factor
3 (multiplier)

1.5

Aspect Ratio
Width: Height

3:2 (DSLR)

Film and
Sensor Size
4 Description

1/3" iPhone 5S & 6

For the Focal


7 Length above,

Compute 1-8

All Focal

All sensors

Mostly this is Film Size. The size of a CCD sensor is NOT


the 1/x inch number (size is WxH mm).
12
Find Focal Length
giving Field of View Dimension
units in
of
the

For the
subject
5 distance
above,
(this Subject
distance
6 is optional)

24

And the Sensor


Size in Option
1
above

Width
Height

Find Focal Length 45


giving Field of View angular
of
Degrees in Diagonal
Find Subject
Distance giving
Field of View of

12
Dimension Direction
units in
the

For the measured Field Width and Height Dimensions you enter at top
above, measured AT the Focal Length and Distance entered, compute
the Sensor Size (the distance should be several feet).
Focal length is millimeters, but distance units can be feet or meters,
miles or cubits, your choice. Dimension results are those same units.
If the units are to be feet, then clicking the little Green button
(marked I for inch) will repeat Dimensions in feet ' and inches "
format. You can click the Green button again to toggle this option
off.

Angle of View (degrees) for a


lens focal length and sensor is
independent of subject distance,
so if only that Angle goal, you
can just ignore the Distance and
field dimension part.
Sensor size is all important to
know. If unknown, it can be
computed from Crop Factor if
known (see below).

High Quality Stock Photos

Computing also must know


Download Original Stock Photos
correct focal length used. For
that Make You Stand Out!
fixed lens small cameras that do
not zoom, the computed sensor
Diagonal shown by the calculator (click it once) might be a crude
ballpark guess for focal length? Just saying, a focal length equal the
diagonal is considered to be a "normal lens", but many are a little
wider (shorter).
Select an Option, and click the
Compute button (for all Option
numbers).
Option 1 - Best accuracy is when
entering actual exact sensor
dimensions (mm, from camera
manual specifications).
Option 3 - Or, if you can
determine the lens crop factor
(from specifications), sensor size
can be computed. See crop factor
notes and 16:9 notes below.
Special Feature: In Option 3, the All Focal button will instead
show Angular field of view of many focal lengths, used with this
sensor size and aspect ratio. The crop factor (1, 1.5, 1.6, 2.7,
etc) shown in Option 3 computes the sensor size. Or for other
specific numbers, you can just use Option 1 or 3, etc.
Option 4 - You may be able to select one of the general sensor
descriptions. Film sizes should be accurate, and the larger
sensors with actual WxH dimensions too, but the 1/x inch sensor
numbers are Not meaningful. The 1/x inch description is NOT the
sensor dimension, not even related to the sensor. It seems like
fraud, it compares the sensor to the picture size of an old glass
vidicon tube (1950s, even before CCD). But the 1/inch dimension
was that outer glass tube diameter, and there is nothing about
the digital sensor that is that dimension (its diagonal is probably
no more than 70% of that dimension, if that). It is an inflated

false number. Instead, we need to know the sensors actual real W


x H size in mm. Or an accurate Crop factor can compute it here.
The list here tries to substitute some known sensor sizes for the
1/x numbers, but there are are usually a few different sensor
sizes claiming the same 1/x number, so it can be wrong. The
correct calculation really needs the correct sensor size, WxH in
mm.
Special Feature: In Option 4, the All Sensors button will instead
show summary of all sensors in the Option 4 list.
Option 6 for angular field does not depend on distance, so you
can enter a known angular goal, like 0.5 degrees for the Moon,
and just ignore entering any distance. Or if there is a distance,
the field dimensions will be computed for that distance.
Option 8 - Probably not practical, but technically, if you can
measure the field of view dimensions at a specified distance, and
know the focal length accurately, sensor size can be calculated.
(the diagonal will be computed for you, from your horizontal and
vertical dimensions).
The Circle of Confusion (CoC) is
not used here, but is shown as
the
standard
diagonal/1500
value used in Depth of Field
computation, just mentioned
here for the various sensors.
The biggest risk to accuracy is
not actually knowing the specific
sensor size, and not actually
knowing the specific accurate
focal length. DSLR cameras do
better
describing
those
specifications. Compacts and
phones may be difficult to know
(and Crop Factor might be your
best tool).

High Quality Stock Photos


Download Original Stock Photos
that Make You Stand Out!

Possibly the most usable general understanding


lengths (for a given sensor, and a medium or
length. not too short) is that the resulting image
ratio of the two focal lengths. A 400 mm lens will
view 4x the subject size and 1/4 the field of view
(100/400 = 1/4).

to compare focal
longer lens focal
size is the simple
show an enlarged
of a 100 mm lens

One example: Suppose you want a portrait to include a 2x3 foot


subject area. You know you need to stand back six or eight feet for
proper portrait perspective. What focal length is that field size going
to require? And the background may be five feet further back, how
large does it have to be? This calculator can plan or verify your

choice. If you want to see fractions of inches better, you can enter
distance as inches (ten feet = 120 inches), but realistically, the
accuracy (of the focal length) may not be up to fractions of an inch.
Determine Crop Factor: Field of View requires knowing focal
length and sensor size. In some cases, focal length is in the Exif
data. Sensor size can be computed from Crop factor.
Crop Factor is the ratio of
(Equivalent focal length with 35mm film that sees the same view)
divided by the
(actual focal length with this camera's sensor size).
For example, the specification for a compact camera's zoom lens
might say:
Focal Length: 4.5 - 81.0 mm
450 mm)

(35mm film equivalent: 25 -

That case makes crop factor be 25mm / 4.5mm


81mm, both equal to 5.55 crop factor.

or

450mm /

Or, crop factor is also the ratio of the 35mm film diagonal divided by
this sensors diagonal. We know 35 mm size, so knowing crop factor
can tell us sensor size. So computing sensor size will be as accurate
as your data numbers. However, the focal length actually used in
compacts is probably not known except at the extremes that the
zoom spec mentions (and default power up zoom is probably some
unknown intermediate point).
Smart phones don't zoom, but official specs are rare. Sensor size
can be computed from crop factor, if known. Sources differ, and
Apple specs don't say, but one estimate is that an iPhone 5 sensor
size is 4.54 mm * 3.42 mm and crop factor 7.93x. If you can
determine either sensor size or crop factor, the calculator above will
compute the other. iPhone 5 Exif reports focal length of 4.2 mm.
Crop factor is often specified as a slightly rounded number. For
example, the 35mm film frame is 36 mm wide, and if the DX sensor
is 23.5 mm width, then it is actually 36mm/23.5mm = 1.53 crop,
but called 1.5x. But, the focal length number is also approximated
anyway.
Entering exact sensor dimensions above would be the most precise.
The camera manufacturers specify the equivalent 35mm crop factor
from the diagonal ratio to 35mm film (because many of us are very
familiar with 35mm film, and crop factor tells us what view to expect
now). We may not know sensor size or focal length on compacts,
except at either end of the zoom range, but then we can determine
crop factor, for example, if they specify their 6.1mm lens is
equivalent of 24mm lens on a 35mm camera, then obviously their

crop factor is 24/6.1 = 3.93. And after the fact, the Exif
(Manufacturers Data section) often shows the zoom focal length
used for the picture (see a viewer that will show this).
HDTV
movies:
Special
considerations.
The
differences
in
the
Aspect
menu
in
Option 3 above is
that
DSLR
and
compacts take 3:2 or
4:3 photos, and their
diagonal fits in the
diameter of the lens
circular view. True of
camcorders too, and
HDTV movies are of
course resampled to
1920x1080
or
1280x720 pixels. But
16:9 movies in still
cameras
are
constrained
within
that
still
camera
sensor size, limited to the same width. Whereas camcorders fit the
full diagonal, not constrained by any 3:2 or 4:3 sensor width. In this
image at right, the blue circle represents the diagonal of the image
that the lens projects. 16:9 in camcorders is wider, but not if
constrained within smaller frame sizes. I suppose there could be
some exception, but camcorders should have a 16:9 sensor, and
DSLR, compacts and phones typically have 4:3 or 2:3 camera
sensors. Their 16:9 width will be the same as the 4:3 width of
course, but then the height is less. Another page also describes this
effect numerically.
Determine aspect ratio by dividing image width by the height (both
in pixels), which is its aspect ratio. 3:2 divides as 1.5, 4:3 divides as
1.33, and 16:9 divides as 1.78. So if your movie mode takes still
pictures of aspect 1.78, then it is probably a camcorder with a 16:9
chip.
Typically photo cameras will use their full sensor width for their HD
movie width (D7100, D600, D750) and that is assumed here, but for
example, the Nikon D800/D810 use slightly less width (these D8xx
manuals specify the sensor image area for HD movies is 32.8 x 18.4
FX, and 23.4 x 13.2 DX).
But actually knowing the actual sensor size is the key.

Angular Field of View of focal lengths on popular


sensor sizes
Here's a chart of Angular Field of View (Width, Height, Diagonal, in
degrees) for many lens focal lengths ("Lens mm") on popular sensor
sizes and common aspect ratios. One example of the chart use
might be to compare the width of view on two cameras.
The calculation is NOT for fisheye lenses (their view will be wider),
and it is not for macro distances. Field accuracy will be better at a
distance of at least several feet, because the lens focal length
number changes with closer distance. The stated value of focal
length applies to Infinity focus.
The top row marked WxH shows the sensor dimensions in mm,
computed from the crop factor. Also 16:9 image size can be limited
to be no wider than camera 3:2 or 4:3 sensors (or left at full size for
camcorders). See HD movies above.
The 4:3 sensors are missing here, but there are so many sizes, and
some web screens are so small. Phones normally don't zoom, and
we probably don't know focal length for compacts except at end
extremes. The Pentax Q7 with 1/1.7" sensor is mentioned because it
is a smaller sensor, but with interchangeable lenses (its normal
zoom is 5-15 mm). Tiny sensors require very short focal length to
achieve any usable field of view, but the short focal lengths can be
included.
You can easily add another sensor into the chart (specify crop
factor), which will replace the last sensor. (that original default 4.65
crop in last column now is for the Q7 mentioned.) Numbers only.
See Determine Crop Factor above.
Replace sensor Crop Factor in last column
Crop: 5.5

Aspect:

4:3

Add sensor

Limit 16:9 to 4:3 or 3:2 chip width

Show 10-500 mm
Show 2-1000 mm
Show 1-2000 mm

Camera Field of View (width, height, diagonal, in degrees)


WxH

36x24

37.7x21.2

Lens Full Frame, crop 1x


mm
3:2
16:9

24x16

25.1x14.1 22.5x15 23.6x13.3 7.4x5.6 8.1x4.6

DX, crop 1.5x


3:2

16:9

APS-C, crop 1.6x


3:2

16:9

W 121.9 W 124.1 W 100.4 W 103


W 96.7 W 99.4
10 H 100.4 H 93.4
H 77.3 H 70.5
H 73.7 H 67.1
D 130.4 D 130.4 D 110.5 D 110.5 D 107 D 107

1/1.7" Q7, 4.65x


4:3

16:9

W 40.8 W 44.1
H 31.2 H 25.7
D 49.9 D 49.9

W 117.1 W 119.5 W 95
W 97.6 W 91.3 W 93.9 W 37.4 W 40.5
H 28.5 H 23.4
11 H 95
H 87.9
H 72.1 H 65.5
H 68.6 H 62.1
D 126.1 D 126.1 D 105.3 D 105.3 D 101.7 D 101.7 D 45.9 D 45.9

W 92.7 W 86.3 W 89
12 W 112.6 W 115.1 W 90
H 90
H 82.9
H 67.4 H 61
H 64
H 57.8
D 122
D 122
D 100.5 D 100.5 D 96.8 D 96.8

W 34.5 W 37.3
H 26.2 H 21.5
D 42.4 D 42.4

W 108.3 W 110.8 W 85.4


13 H 85.4 H 78.4
H 63.2
D 118
D 118
D 95.9

W 88.1
H 57.1
D 95.9

W 81.7 W 84.4
H 60
H 54
D 92.3 D 92.3

W 32 W 34.6
H 24.2 H 19.9
D 39.4 D 39.4

W 104.3 W 106.8 W 81.2


14 H 81.2 H 74.3
H 59.5
D 114.2 D 114.2 D 91.7

W 83.8
H 53.6
D 91.7

W 77.6 W 80.2
H 56.4 H 50.7
D 88
D 88

W 29.8 W 32.3
H 22.6 H 18.5
D 36.8 D 36.8

W 100.4 W 103
W 77.3
15 H 77.3 H 70.5
H 56.1
D 110.5 D 110.5 D 87.7

W 79.9
H 50.5
D 87.7

W 73.7 W 76.3
H 53.1 H 47.7
D 84.1 D 84.1

W 27.9 W 30.3
H 21.1 H 17.3
D 34.5 D 34.5

W 96.7
16 H 73.7
D 107

W 73.7
H 53.1
D 84.1

W 76.3
H 47.7
D 84.1

W 70.2 W 72.7
H 50.2 H 45
D 80.4 D 80.4

W 26.2 W 28.4
H 19.8 H 16.2
D 32.4 D 32.4

W 93.3 W 95.9 W 70.4


17 H 70.4 H 63.9
H 50.4
D 103.7 D 103.7 D 80.6

W 73
H 45.2
D 80.6

W 67
H 47.6
D 77

W 69.5
H 42.6
D 77

W 24.7 W 26.8
H 18.6 H 15.3
D 30.6 D 30.6

W 90
W 92.7 W 67.4
18 H 67.4 H 61
H 47.9
D 100.5 D 100.5 D 77.4

W 69.9
H 42.9
D 77.4

W 64
H 45.2
D 73.8

W 66.4
H 40.4
D 73.8

W 23.4 W 25.4
H 17.6 H 14.4
D 29
D 29

W 86.9
19 H 64.6
D 97.4

W 89.6
H 58.3
D 97.4

W 64.6
H 45.7
D 74.4

W 67
H 40.8
D 74.4

W 61.3 W 63.6
H 43.1 H 38.5
D 70.9 D 70.9

W 22.2 W 24.1
H 16.7 H 13.7
D 27.5 D 27.5

W 84
20 H 61.9
D 94.5

W 86.6
H 55.9
D 94.5

W 61.9
H 43.6
D 71.6

W 64.3
H 38.9
D 71.6

W 58.7 W 61
H 41.1 H 36.7
D 68.1 D 68.1

W 21.1 W 22.9
H 15.9 H 13
D 26.2 D 26.2

W 78.6
22 H 57.2
D 89

W 81.2
H 51.5
D 89

W 57.2
H 40
D 66.5

W 59.5
H 35.6
D 66.5

W 54.2 W 56.4
H 37.6 H 33.5
D 63.1 D 63.1

W 19.2 W 20.9
H 14.5 H 11.8
D 23.9 D 23.9

W 73.7
24 H 53.1
D 84.1

W 76.3
H 47.7
D 84.1

W 53.1
H 36.9
D 62

W 55.3
H 32.8
D 62

W 50.2 W 52.3
H 34.7 H 30.9
D 58.8 D 58.8

W 17.6 W 19.2
H 13.3 H 10.9
D 21.9 D 21.9

W 69.4
26 H 49.6
D 79.5

W 71.9
H 44.4
D 79.5

W 49.6
H 34.2
D 58

W 51.6
H 30.4
D 58

W 46.8 W 48.8
H 32.2 H 28.6
D 55
D 55

W 16.3 W 17.7
H 12.3 H 10
D 20.3 D 20.3

W 65.5
28 H 46.4
D 75.4

W 67.9
H 41.5
D 75.4

W 46.4
H 31.9
D 54.5

W 48.4
H 28.3
D 54.5

W 43.8 W 45.6
H 30
H 26.6
D 51.6 D 51.6

W 15.1 W 16.5
H 11.4 H 9.3
D 18.9 D 18.9

W 61.9
30 H 43.6
D 71.6

W 64.3
H 38.9
D 71.6

W 43.6
H 29.9
D 51.4

W 45.5
H 26.5
D 51.4

W 41.1 W 42.9
H 28.1 H 24.9
D 48.5 D 48.5

W 14.1 W 15.4
H 10.6 H 8.7
D 17.6 D 17.6

W 54.4
35 H 37.8
D 63.4

W 56.6
H 33.7
D 63.4

W 37.8
H 25.8
D 44.8

W 39.5
H 22.8
D 44.8

W 35.6 W 37.2
H 24.2 H 21.4
D 42.2 D 42.2

W 12.1 W 13.2
H 9.1 H 7.5
D 15.1 D 15.1

W 48.5
40 H 33.4
D 56.8

W 50.5
H 29.7
D 56.8

W 33.4
H 22.6
D 39.7

W 34.9
H 20
D 39.7

W 31.4 W 32.8
H 21.2 H 18.8
D 37.4 D 37.4

W 10.6 W 11.6
H 8
H 6.5
D 13.3 D 13.3

W 43.6
45 H 29.9
D 51.4

W 45.5
H 26.5
D 51.4

W 29.9
H 20.2
D 35.5

W 31.2
H 17.9
D 35.5

W 28.1 W 29.3
H 18.9 H 16.8
D 33.4 D 33.4

W 9.5 W 10.3
H 7.1 H 5.8
D 11.8 D 11.8

W 99.4
H 67.1
D 107

Lens Full Frame, crop 1x


mm
3:2
16:9

DX, crop 1.5x


3:2

16:9

APS-C, crop 1.6x


3:2

16:9

1/1.7" Q7, 4.65x


4:3

16:9

W 39.6
50 H 27
D 46.8

W 41.3
H 24
D 46.8

W 27
H 18.2
D 32.2

W 28.2
H 16.1
D 32.2

W 25.4 W 26.5
H 17.1 H 15.1
D 30.3 D 30.3

W 8.5 W 9.3
H 6.4 H 5.2
D 10.6 D 10.6

W 36.2
55 H 24.6
D 42.9

W 37.8
H 21.8
D 42.9

W 24.6
H 16.6
D 29.4

W 25.7
H 14.7
D 29.4

W 23.1 W 24.2
H 15.5 H 13.7
D 27.6 D 27.6

W 7.7
H 5.8
D 9.7

W 8.4
H 4.7
D 9.7

W 33.4
60 H 22.6
D 39.7

W 34.9
H 20
D 39.7

W 22.6
H 15.2
D 27

W 23.7
H 13.4
D 27

W 21.2 W 22.2
H 14.3 H 12.6
D 25.4 D 25.4

W 7.1
H 5.3
D 8.9

W 7.7
H 4.4
D 8.9

W 31
65 H 20.9
D 36.8

W 32.4
H 18.5
D 36.8

W 20.9
H 14
D 25

W 21.9
H 12.4
D 25

W 19.6 W 20.6
H 13.2 H 11.6
D 23.5 D 23.5

W 6.6
H 4.9
D 8.2

W 7.1
H 4
D 8.2

W 28.8
70 H 19.5
D 34.3

W 30.2
H 17.2
D 34.3

W 19.5
H 13
D 23.3

W 20.4
H 11.5
D 23.3

W 18.3 W 19.1
H 12.2 H 10.8
D 21.9 D 21.9

W 6.1
H 4.6
D 7.6

W 6.6
H 3.7
D 7.6

W 27
75 H 18.2
D 32.2

W 28.2
H 16.1
D 32.2

W 18.2
H 12.2
D 21.8

W 19
H 10.8
D 21.8

W 17.1 W 17.9
H 11.4 H 10.1
D 20.4 D 20.4

W 5.7
H 4.3
D 7.1

W 6.2
H 3.5
D 7.1

W 25.4
80 H 17.1
D 30.3

W 26.5
H 15.1
D 30.3

W 17.1
H 11.4
D 20.4

W 17.9
H 10.1
D 20.4

W 16
H 10.7
D 19.2

W 16.8
H 9.5
D 19.2

W 5.3
H 4
D 6.7

W 5.8
H 3.3
D 6.7

W 23.9
85 H 16.1
D 28.6

W 25
H 14.2
D 28.6

W 16.1
H 10.8
D 19.3

W 16.8
H 9.5
D 19.3

W 15.1 W 15.8
H 10.1 H 8.9
D 18.1 D 18.1

W 5
H 3.8
D 6.3

W 5.5
H 3.1
D 6.3

W 22.6
90 H 15.2
D 27

W 23.7
H 13.4
D 27

W 15.2
H 10.2
D 18.2

W 15.9
H 9
D 18.2

W 14.3 W 14.9
H 9.5
H 8.4
D 17.1 D 17.1

W 4.7
H 3.6
D 5.9

W 5.2
H 2.9
D 5.9

W 21.5
95 H 14.4
D 25.7

W 22.5
H 12.7
D 25.7

W 14.4
H 9.6
D 17.3

W 15.1
H 8.5
D 17.3

W 13.5 W 14.1
H 9
H 8
D 16.2 D 16.2

W 4.5
H 3.4
D 5.6

W 4.9
H 2.8
D 5.6

W 20.4
100 H 13.7
D 24.4

W 21.4
H 12.1
D 24.4

W 13.7
H 9.1
D 16.4

W 14.3
H 8.1
D 16.4

W 12.8 W 13.4
H 8.6
H 7.6
D 15.4 D 15.4

W 4.3
H 3.2
D 5.3

W 4.6
H 2.6
D 5.3

W 19.5
105 H 13
D 23.3

W 20.4
H 11.5
D 23.3

W 13
H 8.7
D 15.6

W 13.7
H 7.7
D 15.6

W 12.2 W 12.8
H 8.2
H 7.2
D 14.7 D 14.7

W 4.1
H 3
D 5.1

W 4.4
H 2.5
D 5.1

W 18.6
110 H 12.5
D 22.3

W 19.5
H 11
D 22.3

W 12.5
H 8.3
D 14.9

W 13
H 7.4
D 14.9

W 11.7 W 12.2
H 7.8
H 6.9
D 14
D 14

W 3.9
H 2.9
D 4.8

W 4.2
H 2.4
D 4.8

W 17.8
115 H 11.9
D 21.3

W 18.6
H 10.5
D 21.3

W 11.9
H 8
D 14.3

W 12.5
H 7
D 14.3

W 11.2 W 11.7
H 7.5
H 6.6
D 13.4 D 13.4

W 3.7
H 2.8
D 4.6

W 4
H 2.3
D 4.6

W 17.1
120 H 11.4
D 20.4

W 17.9
H 10.1
D 20.4

W 11.4
H 7.6
D 13.7

W 12
H 6.7
D 13.7

W 10.7 W 11.2
H 7.2
H 6.3
D 12.9 D 12.9

W 3.6
H 2.7
D 4.4

W 3.9
H 2.2
D 4.4

W 16.4
125 H 11
D 19.6

W 17.2
H 9.7
D 19.6

W 11
H 7.3
D 13.2

W 11.5
H 6.5
D 13.2

W 10.3 W 10.8
H 6.9
H 6.1
D 12.3 D 12.3

W 3.4
H 2.6
D 4.3

W 3.7
H 2.1
D 4.3

W 15.8
130 H 10.5
D 18.9

W 16.5
H 9.3
D 18.9

W 10.5
H 7
D 12.7

W 11
H 6.2
D 12.7

W 9.9
H 6.6
D 11.9

W 10.4
H 5.8
D 11.9

W 3.3
H 2.5
D 4.1

W 3.6
H 2
D 4.1

W 15.2
135 H 10.2
D 18.2

W 15.9
H 9
D 18.2

W 10.2
H 6.8
D 12.2

W 10.6
H 6
D 12.2

W 9.5
H 6.4
D 11.4

W 10
H 5.6
D 11.4

W 3.2
H 2.4
D 3.9

W 3.4
H 1.9
D 3.9

Lens Full Frame, crop 1x


mm
3:2
16:9

DX, crop 1.5x


3:2

16:9

APS-C, crop 1.6x


3:2

16:9

1/1.7" Q7, 4.65x


4:3

16:9

W 14.7
140 H 9.8
D 17.6

W 15.3
H 8.7
D 17.6

W 9.8
H 6.5
D 11.8

W 10.3
H 5.8
D 11.8

W 9.2
H 6.1
D 11

W 9.6
H 5.4
D 11

W 3
H 2.3
D 3.8

W 3.3
H 1.9
D 3.8

W 13.7
150 H 9.1
D 16.4

W 14.3
H 8.1
D 16.4

W 9.1
H 6.1
D 11

W 9.6
H 5.4
D 11

W 8.6
H 5.7
D 10.3

W 9
H 5.1
D 10.3

W 2.8
H 2.1
D 3.6

W 3.1
H 1.7
D 3.6

W 12.8
160 H 8.6
D 15.4

W 13.4
H 7.6
D 15.4

W 8.6
H 5.7
D 10.3

W 9
H 5.1
D 10.3

W 8
H 5.4
D 9.7

W 8.4
H 4.7
D 9.7

W 2.7
H 2
D 3.3

W 2.9
H 1.6
D 3.3

W 12.1
170 H 8.1
D 14.5

W 12.7
H 7.1
D 14.5

W 8.1
H 5.4
D 9.7

W 8.5
H 4.8
D 9.7

W 7.6
H 5.1
D 9.1

W 7.9
H 4.5
D 9.1

W 2.5
H 1.9
D 3.1

W 2.7
H 1.5
D 3.1

W 11.4
180 H 7.6
D 13.7

W 12
H 6.7
D 13.7

W 7.6
H 5.1
D 9.2

W 8
H 4.5
D 9.2

W 7.2
H 4.8
D 8.6

W 7.5
H 4.2
D 8.6

W 2.4
H 1.8
D 3

W 2.6
H 1.5
D 3

W 10.8
190 H 7.2
D 13

W 11.3
H 6.4
D 13

W 7.2
H 4.8
D 8.7

W 7.6
H 4.3
D 8.7

W 6.8
H 4.5
D 8.1

W 7.1
H 4
D 8.1

W 2.2
H 1.7
D 2.8

W 2.4
H 1.4
D 2.8

W 10.3
200 H 6.9
D 12.3

W 10.8
H 6.1
D 12.3

W 6.9
H 4.6
D 8.2

W 7.2
H 4
D 8.2

W 6.4
H 4.3
D 7.7

W 6.7
H 3.8
D 7.7

W 2.1
H 1.6
D 2.7

W 2.3
H 1.3
D 2.7

W 8.2
250 H 5.5
D 9.9

W 8.6
H 4.9
D 9.9

W 5.5
H 3.7
D 6.6

W 5.8
H 3.2
D 6.6

W 5.2
H 3.4
D 6.2

W 5.4
H 3
D 6.2

W 1.7
H 1.3
D 2.1

W 1.9
H 1
D 2.1

W 6.9
300 H 4.6
D 8.2

W 7.2
H 4
D 8.2

W 4.6
H 3.1
D 5.5

W 4.8
H 2.7
D 5.5

W 4.3
H 2.9
D 5.2

W 4.5
H 2.5
D 5.2

W 1.4
H 1.1
D 1.8

W 1.5
H 0.9
D 1.8

W 5.9
350 H 3.9
D 7.1

W 6.2
H 3.5
D 7.1

W 3.9
H 2.6
D 4.7

W 4.1
H 2.3
D 4.7

W 3.7
H 2.5
D 4.4

W 3.9
H 2.2
D 4.4

W 1.2
H 0.9
D 1.5

W 1.3
H 0.7
D 1.5

W 5.2
400 H 3.4
D 6.2

W 5.4
H 3
D 6.2

W 3.4
H 2.3
D 4.1

W 3.6
H 2
D 4.1

W 3.2
H 2.1
D 3.9

W 3.4
H 1.9
D 3.9

W 1.1
H 0.8
D 1.3

W 1.2
H 0.7
D 1.3

W 4.1
500 H 2.7
D 5

W 4.3
H 2.4
D 5

W 2.7
H 1.8
D 3.3

W 2.9
H 1.6
D 3.3

W 2.6
H 1.7
D 3.1

W 2.7
H 1.5
D 3.1

W 0.9
H 0.6
D 1.1

W 0.9
H 0.5
D 1.1

Lens Full Frame, crop 1x


mm
3:2
16:9

DX, crop 1.5x


3:2

16:9

APS-C, crop 1.6x


3:2

16:9

1/1.7" Q7, 4.65x


4:3

16:9

FWIW, the size of our full Moon is very near 0.5 degrees (its size
varies slightly in its elliptical orbit).

We can realize from this chart that generally, a 2x longer focal


length shows a view only half as wide. Or 4x is 1/4, etc. But this is
not linear, meaning it is Not true of wide angles. This non-linearity is
due to the angle trig, not the focal length. I am arbitrarily
suggesting that a horizontal view width of the "normal" lens, or
roughly about 40 degrees horizontal reasonably satisfies this, and
then 2x focal length will be near half angle, about 20 degrees. This
is true of full frame at about 50 mm, and true of DX at 30 mm, and
true of the 1/1.7" Q7 at about 10 mm. And really, still "close
enough" if a little wider, within a degree or two. It's another detail of
crop factor. But it is true of longer lenses, that 2x focal length is half
the view width.
There are approximations in calculations. The math is precise, but
the data is less so. Focal length is a little vague, as might be precise
sensor size. However, the results certainly are close enough to be
very useful in any practical case. My experience is that the field is
fairly accurate (at distances at least a meter or two), assuming you
actually know your parameters. Some problems are:
The Marked focal length of any lens is a rounded nominal
number, like 50 or 60 mm. The actual can be a few percent
different. Furthermore, the Marked focal length is only applicable
to focus at infinity. Focal length necessarily increases when lens
is extended forward to focus closer. Also zoom lenses can do
other internal tricks with actual focal length (some zooms can be
shorter when up close, instead of longer). Focal length will be
less accurate at very close distances, and field of view becomes
a little smaller. So macro distances are left out, but any error
should be small if focused beyond one or two meters. You also
have to measure your distance and field dimensions accurately
too. And of course, we are only seeking a ballpark number
anyway, we adjust small differences with our subject framing.
And a fisheye lens is a different animal, wider view than this
formula predicts. A regular lens is rectilinear, meaning it shows
straight lines as straight lines, not curved. A fisheye is rather
unconcerned about this distortion, and can show a wider view,
poorly purists might say, but very wide, and very possibly
interesting.
Actual focal length can be determined by the magnification
(Wikipedia). Or, the focal length (f), the distance from the front
nodal point to the object to photograph (s1), and the distance from
the rear nodal point to the image plane (s2) are related by this Thin
Lens equation:
If OK with a little geometry and algebra, you can
see the derivation of this classic Thin Lens
Equation at the Khan Academy.

In this equation, we can see that if the subject at s1 is at infinity,


then 1/s1 is zero, so then s2 = f. This says that the marked focal
length applies when focused at infinity.
Also if at 1:1 magnification, then s1 = s2, saying that the working
macro distance in front of the lens is equal to the (extended at 1:1)
focal length of the lens.

The field of view math is basic trigonometry. The focal length


measures from lens node to sensor. We compute the right triangle
on center line, of half the sensor dimension, so the half lens angle =
arctan (sensor dimension / (2 * focal length)). The Subject distance
is in front of lens node, with same opposite angle. Field dimension =
2 * distance * tan (center line half angle). The problem is that focal
length f becomes longer when focused at close distances (but the
opposite can be true of a few zoom lenses). That becomes an
insignificant field of view difference at normal distances, 1 meter or
more.
Multi-element camera lenses are "thick" and more complex. We are
not told where the nodes are designed, normally inside the lens
somewhere, but some are outside. For telephoto lenses, the rear
node (focal length from sensor plane) is in front of the front lens
surface. The designer's term telephoto is about the reposition of the
nodal point so that the physical lens is NOT longer than its focal
length. Yet, this rear node is generally behind the rear lens surface
of a wide angle lens (lens moved well forward to provide room to
allow the larger SLR mirror to rise... 12mm lens, 24mm mirror, etc).
This nodal difference is only a few inches, but it affects where the
focal length is measured. And it shifts a bit as the lens is focused
closer. Repeating, the focal length marked on the lens is specified for
focus at infinity.
The Subject distance S is measured to the sensor focal plane (it is
the "focus distance"), where we see a symbol like marked on the
top of the camera (near rear of top LCD). The line across the circle

indicates the location of the sensor plane (for focus measurements).


However, the Thin Lens Equation uses the distance d in front of lens.
This is why we often see in equations: (S - f) used for d.
For Macro, computing magnification is more convenient than focal
length (since we don't really know focal length at macro extension).
Focal length and subject distance determine Magnification, which is
the ratio of size of image to size of actual subject. Or size of sensor
to the size of the remote field. We could compute that here, but
magnification has more significance up closer (easier for macro),
which is where our knowledge of the actual focal length is weakest.
We could measure the field to compute the actual magnification, to
then know the actual focal length. However Magnification is simply:
m = s2/s1. Or m = f/d. Or m = f/(S-f).
So from this, we know macro field of view is simply the sensor
dimensions, divided by the magnification. Let's say it this way:
1:1 macro, the focal length f is same as the distance d in front of
lens (each with its own node).
1:1 macro (magnification 1), the field of view is exactly the same
size as the sensor.
1:2 macro (magnification 0.5), the field of view is twice the size of
the sensor.
1:4 macro (magnification 0.25), the field of view is four times the
size of the sensor.
This is true of any focal length for any lens (or method) that can
achieve the magnification. Focal length and subject distance are
obviously the factors determining magnification (it is still about
them), but magnification ratio is simply easier work for macro.
The easiest method to determine field of view for macro is to simply
put a mm ruler in the field. If a 24mm sensor width sees 32 mm of
ruler, then that is the field of view, and the magnification is 24/32 =
0.75 (this scale of magnification is 1 at 1:1, and is 0 at infinity).
The definition of macro 1:1 magnification is that the focal length and
subject distance are equal (distances in front of and behind the lens
nodes are necessarily equal, creating 1:1 magnification). In this Thin
Lens Equation, if s1 and s2 are equal, the formula is then 2/s1 = 1/f,
or 2f = s1. So lens extension to 2f gives 1:1. And since f/stop
number = f / diameter, then if 2f, then f/stop number is 2x too,
which a double f/stop number is 2 stops change, which is the
aperture loss at 1:1. We know those things, this is just why.
But the point here, if f is actually 2f at 1:1 macro, the field of view
changes with it. None of the FOV calculators are for macro situations
(too close, magnification is instead the rule there). Field of View
calculators expect subject distance to be at least a meter or two,
reducing the focal length error to be insignificant.

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