Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

Nanoelectronics in

Radio-Frequency
Technology
Peter Russer and
Nikolaus Fichtner

oday, nanotechnology is a technological


field of paramount importance, covering
all aspects of nanoscale science and technology from a multidisciplinary perspective. It
characterizes the understanding and control
of matter at dimensions from 100 nm down to atomic dimensions in the order of one nm. Dimensions under 100 nm
are called nanoscale dimensions [1], [2]. Nanotechnology not
only yields miniaturization of devices and enhancement of integration density but also features unusual physical, chemical, and
biological device properties. Nanoelectrotechnologies include numerous technologies at the nanoscale, i.e., nanoelectronics, nanomaterials, and other nanodevices, as well as analytical equipment and techniques
for nanoscale fabrication and measurement [3].
DIGITAL VISION & PHOTODISC
Driven by technology and market requirements, semiconductor electronics
already has found its way into nanoscale dimensions. In addition to this, a multitude of
exciting research projects based on unusual materials and novel concepts bring forth novel nanoelectronic devices, providing seminal technologic potentialities. The assessment that nanoelectronics will constitute the dominant research area in electronics in the next twenty years is certainly a valid one.
On the one hand, nanoelectronics influences the development of semiconductor electronics, yielding not only
higher integration densities but also substantially improved RF properties. Beyond this, novel nanoelectronic
materials and devices, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoribbons, spin flip electronic devices, and

Peter Russer (russer@tum.de) and Nikolaus Fichtner are with the Institute for Nanoelectronics,
Technische Universitt Mnchen, Arcisstrasse 21, 80333 Munich, Germany.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077

May 2010

1527-3342/10/$26.002010 IEEE

119

Since many nanoelectronic devices


exhibit their most interesting
properties at radio frequencies from
the microwave up into the optical
frequency range, nanoelectronics
is an enormous challenge for the
microwave engineering community.

120

Baseline CMOS: CPU, Memory, Logic

More Moore: Miniaturization

of silicon (Si) monolithic integrated circuits every 18


months [4]. In this 40 year period, transistor structure
dimensions were scaled down from 10 mm to about
30 nm. In the last 25 years, Si complementary metaloxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology emerged as
the mainstream technology for digital, analog, and
mixed-signal applications [5].
Future semiconductor manufacturing and design
technology capability has developed in response to
economic drivers within the worldwide semiconductor
industry. Since 1999 an industrial consortium has estabsuperconducting quantum interference devices are
lished the International Technology Roadmap for Semiforthcoming on a medium-term scale, i.e., in 1020
conductors (ITRS) [6][8]. The downscaling of CMOS
years. These developments are based not only on new
transistors follows Moores Law and mainly enhances
technologies but also on novel theoretical concepts,
signal processing and data storage in a system-on-chip.
requiring multiphysics simulation, including transport
However, other functional requirements, as, for example,
effects, electromagnetics, and quantum mechanics.
power consumption, RF communication, sensing, and
Since many nanoelectronic devices exhibit their
actuating are not governed by Moores Law. Furthermost interesting properties at radio frequencies from
more, since metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect tranthe microwave up into the optical frequency range,
sistors (MOSFETs) channel lengths are already below
nanoelectronics is an enormous challenge for the
10 nm, it is difficult to imagine how the development of
microwave engineering community. It requires a
nanoelectronics can follow Moores Law for another 20
growing volume of theoretical, modeling and metrolyears. Since 2005 the ITRS has also addressed extensions
ogy foundations, with the aim to help to bridge the
of CMOS technologies and radical new approaches
gap between the nanoscience and a new generation of
including new manufacturing paradigms to further
extremely integrated devices, circuits and systems.
reduce the cost per function [9]. In this document the
main development trends have been categorized as
Silicon Nanoelectronics
More Moore : These developments aim for further
During the past 40 years, the development of the
miniaturization of circuit elements below 100 nm
microelectronics industry has been continuously
down to the physical limits of CMOS technology
driven by Moores Law, an empirical law predicting
and for complete system interaction on chip.
a doubling of component density and performance
More than Moore : This
branch reaches beyond
the boundaries of conventional semiconductor
More Than Moore: Diversification
technology and applications creating and inteHV
Sensors
Biochips
Analog/RF Passives
grating various non-digital
Actuators
Power
functionality to integrated
Interacting with people
130 nm
circuits, combining various
and Environment
types of chips in miniatur90 nm
Nondigital Content
Co
ized systems-in-package
mb
System in Package
ini
(SiP)
[10]. Cross-disciplinary
ng
65 nm
So
areas, such as nanoelecC
Information
an
45 nm
Processing
tronics, nanothermomedS
iP
:
chanics, nanobiology, will
Hi
Digital Content
gh
32 nm
System on Chip
er
contribute.
Va
(SoC)
lue

Beyond CMOS: This area


22 nm
Sy
ste
focuses on innovative dems
vices based on novel principles, novel materials
Beyond CMOS
and novel technologies.
These miniaturization and
diversification trends are illustrated by Figure 1.
Figure 1. Moores Law and more [9] illustrating the main development trends of
According to the material,
miniaturization required for various applications in electronics. (Courtesy ITRS. Used
device, circuit, and system
with permission.)

May 2010

limits of Si technology the potential to achieve terascale integration of more than 1 trillion transistors per
chip has been estimated [11]. This prediction is based
on the application of MOSFETs with gate oxide thickness of about 1 nm, Si channel thickness of about 3 nm,
and channel length of about 10 nm.

Graphene
Graphene Layers
Graphene is a strictly two-dimensional material consisting of a monoatomic layer of carbon atoms ordered
in a honeycomb structure as depicted in Figure 2 [12]
[14]. Graphene is the thinnest and the strongest known
material and exhibits an excellent crystal quality and
unique electronic properties [15]. S.V. Morozov has
shown that electron-phonon scattering in graphene is so
weak that room temperature electron mobilities as high
as 200,000 cm2/Vs can be expected over a technologically relevant range of carrier concentration if extrinsic
disorder is eliminated [16]. Also the carrier saturation
velocity is expected to be six to seven times higher than
that for Si MOSFETs [17][19]. These properties make
graphene layers an interesting base material for field
effect transistors up into the millimeterwave region
and beyond.
The easiest handcraft way to produce graphene is
to split graphite into individual atomic planes [14].
By this so-called scotch-tape technique crystals of
high structural and electronic quality, up to millimeter size, suitable for laboratory experiments, can be
fabricated. Continuous single- to few-layer graphene
films have been grown by chemical vapor deposition
(CVD) on polycristalline nickel (Ni) and then transferred to various substrates [20][22]. In [19] epitaxial
growth graphene has been performed on 2-in Si-face
silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. Graphene layers with
extensions in the order of 100 mm have been realized
[23]. Large-area graphene films have been fabricated
by CVD on copper substrates [24]. Large area passive
graphene structures will have interesting properties
for RF applications from the microwave up into the far
infrared region [25].

Figure 2. Structure of a graphene layer.

Source

Graphene
Layer

Top Gate

SiO2

Drain

Thermal Oxide Layer


Back Gate (Si)

Figure 3. Schematic of a dual-gate graphene field-effect


transistor with a 350 nm gate length and a cutoff frequency
of f T 5 50 GHz [26].
palladium/gold (Pd/Au) source and drain electrodes
were fabricated by e-beam lithography and liftoff.
An epitaxial-graphene RF FET, where the epitaxialgraphene layer is fabricated on semi-insulating SiC substrate is described in [18]. The FET exhibits a gate length
of 2 mm and an extrinsic transconductance per unit gate
length of 148 mS/mm. The measured current-gain cutoff frequency is 4.4 GHz. This corresponds to an extrinsic
fT # Lg product of 8.8 GHz # mm. The on-state current density is 1.18 A/mm at Vds 5 1 V and 3 A/mm at Vds 5 5 V.
Graphene FET technology on a wafer scale is presented in [19]. Figure 4 shows a scanning electron

Graphene Transistors
A dual-gate graphene field-effect transistor with
a 350-nm gate length and a cutoff frequency of
fT 5 50 GHz is reported in [26]. Figure 3 shows the
corresponding device structure. The fT value exceeds
that of Si MOSFETs with the same gate length. The
graphene single-layer with a carrier mobility of 2,700
cm2 /Vs was deposited by mechanical exfoliation on
a high-resistivity Si substrate 1 .10 kV # cm 2 covered with a thermal oxide layer of 300 nm thickness.
By atomic layer deposition (ALD) described in [27] a
12 nm aluminium oxide (2Al2O3) silicon dioxide 1 SiO2 2
layer was deposited on the top-gate dielectric. The

May 2010

Figure 4. SEM photograph of a 2 mm 3 12 mm graphene


FET [19]. The source-drain spacing is 3 mm and the gate
length is 2 mm.
121

The easiest handcraft way to produce


graphene is to split graphite into
individual atomic planes.
microscope photograph of the 2 mm 3 12 mm graphene FET. The graphene FETs were fabricated with
titanium/platinum (Ti/Pt) ohmic metal contacts and
Ti//Pt/Au metal gates. The source-drain spacing is 3
mm and the gate length is 2 mm.
Figure 5 shows the measured common-source I 2 V
characteristics of the 2 mm 3 12 mm graphene FET. The
experimentally determined product of the transit frequency fT and gate length Lg is fT # Lg 5 10 GHz # mm.

Carbon Nanotubes
CNTs are cylindric structures of carbon (C) atoms
arranged in a honeycomb pattern. Figure 6 shows the
structure of a single-walled CNT. A CNT can be considered as a graphene layer rolled up to form a seamless cylinder. The diameter of a CNT varies between
1 nm and 10 nm and lengths up to several mm have
been realized. The quasi-one-dimensional structures
of CNTs yield exceptional electron transport properties [28]. For instance, CNTs exhibit ballistic carrier
transport at room temperature with a mean free path of
around 0.7 mm and a carrier mobility of 10, 000 cm2 /Vs
or more [29]. Besides single-walled CNTs exhibiting
a single graphene shell also multiwalled CNTs exist,
composed by several nested CNT cylinders [30]. CNTs

1,000
Vgs Step = 2.5 V

lds (A/m)

800
600
Vgs = +5 V

are interesting components for further miniaturization


of electrical circuits and have the potential to be used
in a multitude of nanoelectronic, nanoelectric, and
nanoelectromechanical devices, such as sensors and
antennas, field-emission sources, energy and data storage elements, nanotube FETs, and many more.
Every CNT can be characterized by a pair of indices
1 n, m 2 that define the chiral vector
C 5 n # a1 1 m # a2,

(1)

where a1 and a2 are the unit vectors of graphene in


configuration space, as shown in Figure 7. The chiral
vector describes how the graphene sheet is wrapped
around while the translation vector T is in direction of
the CNT axis [31].
Using the index pair 1 n, m 2 , three different CNT
configurations are identified: 1 n, n 2 define so-called
armchair CNTs (see red line (a) in Figure 7). 1 n, 0 2
define zigzag CNTs (see yellow line (b) in Figure 7) and
any other configuration 1 n, m 2 that does not belong to
the class of armchair or zigzag is named chiral. Due to
the chirality, i.e., the way the graphene sheet is rolled
up, an additional quantization in the circumferential
direction is introduced in CNTs. This yields an energy
gap that is only dependent on the geometry of the
CNT. Therefore, the way the graphene sheet is rolled
up results in an energy gap which varies between 0
and 1 eV. CNTs with vanishing energy gap are denoted
as metallic or zero-gap nanotubes and the others are
semiconducting nanotubes. The possibility to adjust
the electric transport properties without the need of
doping as required in conventional semiconductors
makes CNTs so attractive for future electronics. Moreover, CNTs exhibit an extremely high modulus of elasticity and a high thermal conductance [31].
Different techniques for the synthesis of CNTs have
been developed over the years including arc discharge,
laser ablation and CVD [31]. The first and still most

400
(b)

200
Vgs = 10 V
0

Vds (V)

T
4

5
(a)

Figure 5. Measured common-source I 2 V characteristics


of the 2 mm 3 12 mm graphene FET [19].

a1
a2

Figure 6. Structure of a carbon nanotube.

122

Figure 7. Two-dimensional-graphene sheet to be


rolled up to form a carbon nanotube. (a) Represents the
circumference line of an armchair carbon nanotube and (b)
of a zigzag carbon nanotube.

May 2010

widely used technique is based on an arc discharge


process where high currents are applied to graphite
electrodes [30], [32]. A better yield and purity can be
achieved if laser ablation is used. Therefore, a pulsed
laser beam is used to vaporize a graphene target. On a
cooled surface, the vaporized graphene condenses and
forms nanotubes [33], [34]. CVD is a common method
for the production of CNTs and, in particular, CNT
arrays. In CVD, nanotubes are grown on catalyst particles using a process gas (e.g. ammonia, nitrogen or
hydrogen) and a carbon-containing gas (such as acetylene, ethylene or methane) [35], [36]. The configuration of the CNT array is controllable via the catalyst
arrangement. The chemical reactions that yield to the
build-up of CNTs are yet not fully understood in all its
details, and, thus, CNT fabrication is an active field of
research [31].

Carbon Nanotube Antennas


In 2004, Wang investigated the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with random arrays of aligned
CNTs [37]. Interestingly, two major effects, well known
to the antenna community, were observed. First,
the intensity of the reradiated electromagnetic field
depends on the polarization of the incoming field. And
second, the response of the individual CNTs varies for
different nanotube lengths and exhibits a maximum at
multiples of half the wavelength of the incoming field.
This clearly demonstrates that CNT antennas resemble
the properties of macroscopic dipole antennas at optical frequencies [38].
The results of Wang stimulated the investigation of
the fundamental properties of nanotube antennas and
the question for wireless data transfer at the nanoscale
[39]. For the case of dipole antennas, the well-known
Halln and Pocklington integral equations are typically
used for the computation of the antenna impedance,
its efficiency, and the radiation pattern. These integral
equations, however, assume that the dipoles are perfect
electric conductors, which is too much simplification in
the case of nanoscale dipoles, where the finite electric
conductance is of fundamental importance. From [40]
an analytic expression for the surface conductance of a
single-walled CNT was given that can be incorporated
into the integral equations to account for the specific
electron transport properties. In [41][43] copper and
carbon nanoantennas are investigated using the modified integral equations which incorporate the CNT surface conductance. It was found that CNT dipoles start
to go into resonance at much lower frequencies than
assumed initially. This can be explained from the fact
that electromagnetic waves are propagating along CNTs
forming surface plasmons which have a reduced propagation velocity and thus shorter wavelengths. So CNT
dipoles with several mm in length start to resonate in
the low THz region where the wavelengths are 50100
times longer compared to the length of the CNT dipole.

May 2010

A very interesting phenomenon is the slow-wave


propagation of electromagnetic waves in CNT structures occurring due to the quantum capacitance and
kinetic inductance in addition to the geometric inductances and capacitances [44], [45]. These additional
inductances and capacitances occur due to quantum
transport effects in the CNT. Consider a single CNT
above a metallic ground plane depicted schematically
in Figure 8. In [44][46] a simplified equivalent circuit
model of a CNT over ground according to in Figure 9 is
presented with a kinetic inductance per unit of length
LK and a quantum capacitance per unit of length CQ
in addition to the geometry based inductance and
capacitance per unit of length LG and CG, respectively.
The phase velocity for the modified equivalent circuit
is around 0.02 # c0, which is in accordance with the
reduced wavelength of the surface plasmons [47]. The
appearance of slow-waves makes CNT antennas interesting for wireless communication between circuits at
the micro- and nanoscale or between nanocircuits and
the macroscopic environment [46], [48].
Intrachip and interchip communication via integrated circuits has already been discussed in [49], [50].
CNT antennas may also find important applications as
detector elements of THz radiation [51][54].

Carbon Nanotube Capacitors


for Energy Storage
CNTs can have extremely interesting applications
as supercapacitors to store large quantities of electrical energy, comparable with storage energy-densities
provided by batteries. In supercapacitors, the nonFaradayic double-layer capacitance of electrode interfaces is utilized [55], [56]. Supercapacitors built from
different kinds of multiwalled CNT electrodes have

CNT

Metallic Ground

Figure 8. CNT a distance h over a metallic ground plane.

LG

LK

LG

LK

LG

CG

CG

CQ

CQ

LK

Figure 9. Equivalent circuit model of a CNT over a


metallic ground plane.

123

been investigated in [57]. The value of the obtained


specific capacitance varies from 4 to 135 F/g, depending on the type of nanotubes. This yields an energy
storage capacity one order of magnitude higher than
best batteries.

Carbon Nanotube Transistors


for Radio Frequency Applications
The potential for scalable integration of CNTs and
CNT based devices is a major source for research in
the field of CNTs. Especially logic circuits based on
CNTs may be important in the future as silicon-based
CMOS technology is approaching its intrinsic physical
limits [11]. Dense integration of CNT-based transistors,
however, is challenging because of the difficulties of
spatial positioning and the control of individual CNTs
as well as arrays of CNTs [58].
Promising experimental results on the use of individual CNTs in logic circuits are presented in [59]. A
single CNT is positioned on an insulating Al2O3 layer
with only a few nanometers in thickness. Below the
insulator the aluminium (Al) gate is attached. The ends
of the CNT are connected with two Au electrodes. This
configuration has a local gate that allows the integration of multiply connected devices. In [59], one-, twoand three-transistor circuits are demonstrated that are
used in digital logic operations such as an inverter, a
logic NOR, a static RAM cell or an ac ring oscillator.

Gate
Dielectric
Source
Drain
Quartz

Array of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Figure 10. RF transistor using a parallel aligned array of


single-walled CNTs.

The individual transistors exhibit remarkable device


characteristics such as high gain (greater than ten)
and high on-off ratios 1 .105) at room temperature.
This is certainly a big step towards future CNT-based
logic circuits.
CNT transistors for analog applications have to fulfill linearity requirements [58]. In [60], it has been shown
that single-walled CNTs exhibit linearity properties
far superior to Si or III-IV-based devices. The performance and implementation of transistor structures in
electronic device applications using either randomly
distributed or aligned arrays of single-walled CNTs is
discussed in [61][65]. Using CNTs in high-frequency
transistors is nevertheless difficult due to the high
impedance and the low on current of the CNT FETs
[66]. However, if the gate, source, and drain contacts
are realized in a multifinger-like geometry along an
individual CNT, a single transistor with a cutoff frequency of 7.6 GHz can be assembled [67]. A dc power
of .1 mW and a transconductance of more than 1.5 mS
are achievable. Using align arrays of single-walled CNTs
in RF transistors is described in [58], [68]. Figure 10
shows an exploded view of an RF transistor fabricated
with an array of single-walled CNTs. Parasitic gate capacitances are reduced by aligned source, drain, and gate
electrodes. The transconductance is maximized by short
gate length and high permittivity gate dielectrics.
Very interesting for future consumer applications
are films of single-walled CNTs on flexible substrates. In [69] CNT solutions (inks) are used to print
CNT thin-film transistors on different carriers. Even
heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics can be
realized in this way as shown in [70]. Medium-scale
CNT thin-film integrated circuits consisting of submonolayer, random networks of single-walled CNTs
have been described in [65]. Figure 11 shows such a
circuit fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate. Films
of single-walled CNTs are interesting base materials for flexible integrated circuits, especially for consumer applications.

Carbon Nanotube Field-Emission Devices

5 mm

Figure 11. Single-walled CNT transistors and circuits


fabricated on a thin sheet of plastic [65].

124

Electron emitting devices have numerous applications


for flat panel displays, lamps, x-ray sources, or electron
microscopy. Typically, such electron guns are based on
cathode ray tubes that utilize thermoionically emitted
electrons from hot tungsten wires and require ultrahigh-vacuum conditions and high voltages [71].
Alternatively, electron sources based on field emission from sharp tips could be used as electron sources
as well. CNTs allow the realization of nanostructured
field emission devices. A high-intensity electron gun
based on field emission from a film of aligned CNTs
is described in [71]. With an electron gun consisting of
a nanotube film with a 1-mm-diameter grid approximately 20 m above it, field-emission current densities
of about 0.1 mA/cm2 were achieved at applied voltages

May 2010

of 200 V. Moreover, the CNT based electron gun is only


0.2 mm thick, air-stable, easy and inexpensive to fabricate, and long-time reliable. Current densities as high as
4 A/cm2 for CNT field-emitting surfaces are reported
in [72]. This suggests feasibility of usage in traveling
wave tubes for the amplification of microwave power
where current densities greater than 500 mA/cm2 are
required. This has been discussed in detail in [73].
The nanotube radio described in [74] is based on
a single CNT and combines the functionalities of an
antenna for receiving the electromagnetic signal, a
tuner to filter the received signal and select the frequency band of interest, an amplifier stage, and a
demodulator stage. The CNT radio, shown in Figure 12, consists of a single CNT mounted vertically on
an electrode. The CNT acts as an antenna and receives
the incoming electromagnetic wave. The CNT biased
by a dc voltage is forced to vibrate by the received RF
signal. Due to the mechanical resonance frequency of
the vibrating CNT, the received channel is selected.
Amplification and demodulation are effectuated via
field-emission at the tip of the CNT. Demodulation of
the RF signal is achieved by the nonlinearities of the
field-emission. In the experiment a CNT with 500 nm
length and 5 nm radius was used. The mechanical resonator exhibited a quality factor of 440 and could be
tuned in the frequency range from 74 MHz to 78 MHz
by changing the dc bias from 200 V to 230 V.
In [75] a CNT is used for the demodulation of an
amplitude-modulated signal for a signal frequency of
up to 100 kHz and a carrier frequency of 1 GHz. The
rectification originates from the nonlinear current-tovoltage characteristic of the CNT.

Spintronics
Information in prevalent electronics is carried by the
electron charge, which is being transported, stored, or
in some other way manipulated. Electrons, however,
have besides the charge a second property: The electron spin. Until recently, the electron spin was ignored
in electronic systems [76]. Spintronics (spin transport
electronics or spin-based electronics) has emerged as
a new technology where the electron spin carries the
information and not the electron charge. This new
technology has considerable potential in offering new
devices that combine standard microelectronics with
spin-dependent effects, that result from the interplay
between electron spin and the magnetic properties of
the material [76]. Moreover, most information-storage
devices rely on the usage of multilayer magnetic metals
and insulators, where the information is stored in oriented magnetic domains. Spintronics may offer a way
for the development of hybrid devices that efficiently
combine charged-based information processing with
spin-based storage elements [77].
For charge-based switching devices, the different
states, i.e., 0 and 1, are represented by a small amount

May 2010

of charge at a certain location. A potential barrier is


required to confine the electric charges. In order to
move charge from one place to the other a switching
energy is required to lower the potential barrier. In 1961,
R. Landauer has proven that the minimum switching
energy to move from one configuration to the other
is Ebit 5 kBT ln 2 < 23 meV under the assumption of
adiabatic (slow) charge motion [78]. According to the
forecast by the ITRS, the projected switching time of
low-standby-power CMOS transistors with a gatewidth of 10 nm is about 15 eV, and thus far from the
theoretical minimum [77]. In spin-based devices, the
change from state 1 to state 0 is attained by applying a
small magnetic field which requires much less energy.
The switching energy in spin-based devices thus may
be much closer to the theoretical limit.
The speed of charge-based devices is limited by
the capacitance of the device and the driving current.
The speed limitations in spintronic devices are due
to the precession frequencies of the electron spins
and range from GHz to THz [77]. As an example, the
rotation of a spin by 180 at THz frequencies would
require energy in the order of 3 meV, which is below
the thermal energy. However, this demands for special consideration because thermal equilibrium may
destroy the information in the spin-state.
In [77], [79] the fundamental physical properties
of spin-based FETs are discussed. These spin-FETs
use spin-selective barriers instead of potential barriers. This yields to sufficiently small spin-FETs that
may outperform charge-based FETs at room temperatures in terms of threshold voltage, gate capacitance,
switching energy, and source-drain leakage currents
[79]. In Figure 13, the schematic of a spin-based FET
is shown. The spin-dependent barrier, indicated by
the purple region in Figure 13 has different potential
energy levels for up- and down-spin carriers. Such
spin-dependent barriers may be realized using halfmetallic ferromagnetic contacts or spin-selective resonant tunneling diodes [79], [80]. In the off-state in
Figure 13, the carriers can move through the first barrier but not through the second. In the on-state, the
carriers in the channel have different spins and the

+
+
+

Figure 12. Arrangement of the carbon nanotube radio.


A CNT is mounted vertically on an electrode and vibrates
due to an external RF field. A second electrode collects the
electrons emitted from the CNT tip.

125

Gate

Source

Oxide

Channel

Drain

Magnetic Semiconductor
E

Long T1

Off

E
E

E
E

Short T1

On

Operating Principle of
Single-Electron Devices
E
E

Figure 13. A spin-based field-effect transistor [77], [79].


down-spin carriers can move from the channel to the
drain. Switching of the FET is performed by changing the spins of the carriers from fully polarized to
unpolarized using a gate field. For a gate length of
10 nm and a width of 1 mm the gate capacitance is
Cg 5 5 # 10 217 F, which is five times lower than projected low-standby power (LSTP) CMOS transistors will have in 2018 [6]. The power-delay product
will be 500 times larger compared to the 2018 LSTP
CMOS transistor.

Single-Electron Devices
The down scaling of MOSFET devices has been the
basis for the development of the semiconductor industry

Electrode

Quantum Dot

Tunneling Junction

Gate Electrode

Capacitor
(a)

Vg

+Qg
Qg
+Qt
Qt

Cg

Capacitor

ne
Ct

Tunneling
Junction

(b)

Figure 14. (a) Schematic structure of a single-electron


box. (b) Equivalent circuit of a single-electron box [81].

126

for the last 40 years [81]. The scaling of complementary


MOSFETs is entering the sub-30 nm regime where
quantum mechanical effects are unavoidable. Effects,
such as tunneling, impose fundamental limits to a
further down-scaling of traditional MOSFET architectures. Thus, it is reasonable to look for new devices and
architectures that have an operational principle that is
effective at smaller dimensions and that utilize quantum mechanical effects [82]. Single-electron devices
are very promising new nanoscale devices that retain
their scalability even at the atomic scale. Extremely
high integration and very low power consumption will
be the main attributes of such devices.

The smallest configuration of a functional single-electron device is the single-electron box, composed of a
quantum dot connected with two electrodes, as shown
in Figure 14(a). One electrode is connected to the quantum dot through a tunneling junction. The other electrode, called the gate electrode, is coupled with the
quantum dot via an insulator region through which an
electron cannot pass by tunneling. The equivalent circuit of a single-electron box is shown in Figure 14(b).
If the quantum dot is sufficiently small, the charging
energy Wc, given from the capacitance CS 5 Ct 1 Cg as
Wc 5 e2 /2CS

(2)

is much greater than the thermal energy kBT. No thermally excited electrons will tunnel to and from the
quantum dot [81]. In this case the number of electrons
on the quantum dot takes a fixed integer value. The
charging effect, which prevents electrons from tunneling to and from the dot, is called Coulomb blockade
effect. Applying a positive bias to the gate electrode,
electrons are attracted to the quantum dot. The Coulomb blockade, however, allows electron tunneling
only in a step-wise manner. That is, the number of
electrons in the quantum dot is increased/decreased
one by one. The gate voltage required for a change in
the electron number is CgVg /e [81].
In order to have well-localized charges on the quantum dot, quantum fluctuations must be suppressed.
This is achieved by having a quantum resistance Rt at
the tunneling junction that is large compared to the
resistance quantum h/e2. From the uncertainty relation DWDt . h, where DW is the charging energy and
Dt is the charge lifetime RtCS, the condition to keep the
quantum fluctuations low, is Rt W h/e2.

Single-Electron Transistors Versus MOSFETs


From the single-electron box shown in Figure 14(a), a
three-port single-electron transistor (SET) is obtained
by attaching a third electrode forming a tunneling junction with the quantum dot. Key advantages

May 2010

of SETs are low power consumption and excellent


scalability. On the other side, SET operation requires
low temperatures. To operate a SET circuit at room
temperature, the dimension of the quantum dot must
be below 10 nm, which is hard to fabricate, especially if many quantum dots with high accuracy are
needed. Moreover, the high output impedance limits the operating frequency of SETs. For instance, the
charging time of an interconnect of 100 mm length
through a 100 kV impedance is on the order of 1 ns.
High clock rates for SET architectures are thus not to
be expected [82].

Prospective Application Fields


Although SET based devices may not be suitable to
completely replace MOSFETs in future electronics,
there are several interesting application fields for
SETs. So can single-electron systems be used for the
detection of electromagnetic radiation with frequencies f ~ Ec/h due to photon-assisted tunneling (see
[82] and references therein). Further, SETs have been
used as ultrasensitive electrometer devices for the precise measurement of electric charges. In [83] a constant
gain from dc to 100 MHz has been reported. These
SETs can also be used as read-out devices for quantum
bits, as outlined in [84].

Memristor Devices
The memristor (memory resistor) is the fourth fundamental electric circuit element besides the resistor R,
the inductor L, and the capacitor C. It was proposed
already in 1971 by L. Chua for the sake of logical completeness of circuit theory [85]. Table 1 summarizes
the four elementary circuit elements including the
memristor M suggested by Chua. These circuit elements relate current i or charge q with voltage v or
flux f, respectively.
The memristor actually would be a nonlinear resistor because the resistance value depends on the timehistory of the current flowing through the resistor. Thus,
the resistance value can be controlled by the duration
and the amount of current flow and, importantly, the
resistance is nonvolatile. This makes memristors very
attractive for usage in future memory technologies.
In 2008 the HP research group of R.S. Williams were
the first to demonstrate the realization of a memristor

v 5 Ri

v
c

f 5 Li

q 5 Cv

May 2010

f 5 Mq

Interconnects between electric circuit elements and


transistors are a limiting factor in increasing processor clock rates due to thermal and signal delay
issues [90]. Optical interconnects on the other side
have extremely large bandwidths and thus channel
capacitance. Though their miniaturization is limited
by diffraction effects and optical waveguides typically have transverse dimensions in the order of half

TiO2x
S

f 5 #vdt

Plasmonics

4050-nm Platinum Strips


23-nm Thick

TABLE 1. The four fundamental


two-terminal elements.
i

[86]. From a simple analytical model they have shown


that the memristance effect arises naturally in nanoscale systems where solid-state electronics and ionic
transport are coupled under an external bias voltage.
Figure 15 shows the memristor, composed of two layers of titanium dioxide of different resistivity with
electrodes connected to it [86], [87]. The lower titanium
dioxide (TiO2) layer exhibits a perfect 2:1 oxygen-totitanium ratio, making it an insulator. By contrast, the
upper TiO22x layer exhibits a deficiency of 0.5 percent
of oxygen, so x < 0.05 and is therefore metallic and
conductive. When electric current flows through the
device, the boundary between the two layers is shifted
and thus, the net resistance is changed. Such memristor switches already have been arranged in a crossbar
memory architecture [87].
Molecules with hysteretic current-voltage characteristics also behave as memristive devices with possible applications in cross bar nonvolatile memories.
In [89] large-scale crossbar memory arrays built from
molecular switches are investigated. The achievable
storage capacity of these arrays is estimated.
Besides the indisputable importance of the memristor device for all kinds of nonvolatile solid-state memories and programmable logic, potential RF applications
of memristors are in progress.
In [88] the usage of memristors in multicarrier
ultrawideband (UWB) receiver systems is proposed.
In this case the memristor could store a received UWB
pilot waveform that is required for the demodulation
and the despreading of consecutive data signals. A
reduction in complexity is expected because frequency
diversity is exploited without the need of error correction decoding and without the processing of UWB signals at the Nyquist rate [88].

q 5#idt

TiO2

Switch
330-nm Thick

Figure 15. Memristor switch.

127

a wavelength [91]. Plasmonics is a new exciting field


trying to exploit the unique properties of metals at
optical frequencies to guide and manipulate light signals at the nanoscale [92].

Light Transport in Nanowires


It can be shown that a local electric field at optical frequencies oriented parallel to a CNT or a thin metallic wire
with a diameter in the order of some nanometer, causes a
local charge separation, as illustrated in Figure 16. Further, this charge starts to propagate along the wire in the
form of a nonlocal surface plasmon [91]. Such a surface
plasmon consists of coherent oscillating electrons and an
optical near-field which is bound to these electrons. The
phase velocity of a surface plasmon is typically 0.5 # c0
to 0.9 # c0 [91]. The field intensity transverse to the nanowire decays exponentially in the free-space direction and
inside the wire. The typical half-width for the field in air
is in the order of 100 nm. Thus, at a distance of 100 nm
in the transverse direction the field has decayed to 37%

Dielectric
E

Metal

Figure 16. Surface plasmon along a metal-dielectric interface.

A
5 m
(a)

(b)

20 m
(c)

Figure 17. Plasmonic light transport in a silver nanowire.


(a) Injection with focused laser beam at l 5 785 nm.
(b) Microscope picture of the 18.6 mm long nanowire.
(c) SEM picture of the nanowire end [91].

128

of its initial value. Experiments have shown that there


is practically no cross-talk between parallel nanowires if
the separation is at least 300 nm.
The excitation of a surface plasmon is not straightforward. In order to have a high coupling efficiency
of the exciting light source to the nanowire, the wave
vectors of the surface plasmon and the excitation
must match. This is usually achieved by putting the
nanowire on top of the surface of a dielectric medium
with appropriate high-refraction index. A laser beam
irradiates the dielectric layer from below at a certain
angle u. This angle can now be properly tuned to have
matching of the wave vectors of the surface plasmon
and the light beam in direction of wave propagation.
However, the coupling efficiency is never perfect
and the interfacing of classical optics and nanooptics could be solved more elegantly if nanoscale light
sources and detectors would be available, which is
not yet the case [91].
In Figure 17, light propagation along a silver nanowire is shown. A 18.6 mm long monocrystalline silver
nanowire is excited at one end with a laser beam operating at a wavelength of 785 nm. Figure 17(a) shows
the operating principle and, in (b) and (c), microscopic
and scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures are
taken from the wire end, clearly illustrating the light
transport. In (c) a standing-wave pattern is observable
at the wire end due to the interference of the incoming
surface plasmon with the reflected part.
Until now, light transport has been experimentally demonstrated only for short distances which
are in the order of several mm [91]. This is due to the
damping of the electron oscillations and structural
defects inside the wire and on its surface. Further
improvements in nanoscale fabrication will certainly
increase the propagation distance. However, considering nanowires as optical waveguides inside integrated circuits, the distances to bridge are very short
and surface plasmons on nanowires will become
extremely interesting.

Nanoparticle-Based Wave Propagation


In several applications, it might be advantageous to
use nanodots in comparison to nanowires. Examples
are power combiner or divider structures which are
difficult to realize using nanowires only. As surface
plasmons can be observed in metallic nanodots in the
same way as in nanowires, electromagnetic waves can
be guided along an arrangement of nanodots. However,
the gap between the nanodots is an additional degree of
freedom that needs to be adjusted carefully. In [93] the
finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used
to model electromagnetic wave propagation along a
nanodot waveguide. The particular material properties
of metals at optical frequencies are modeled using the
Drude model. Using a FDTD simulator complex structures such as the front-end of a THz receiver that consists

May 2010

dw 1 t 2 2e0v 1 t 2
5
.
dt
U

of several parts (condensor, collector, waveguide and


power divider), constructed by silver (Ag) nanodots
only, can be modeled and optimized [93], [94].

Superconductive Devices
According to the Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer (BCS)
theory, superconductivity originates from paired electrons, called Cooper pair, where each of the electrons
in the pair has opposite spin and opposite wave vector [95], [96]. Different from single electrons which
are Fermions, the paired electrons exhibit Boson-like
properties since a large number of them have therefore condensed in a ground state with vanishing total
momentum. The superconducting ground state may
be described by a coherent macroscopic wave function.
This causes numerous interesting physical effects,
where a vanishing dc resistance is the most prominent
one [97], [98]. The electron condensation in a quasicoherent state yields superior high-frequency and lownoise properties making superconductors promising
candidates for RF applications.

(4)

The maximum Josephson current Imax depends on the


coupling of both superconductors and the density of
the superconducting phase.
Over the Josephson junction a dc current may flow
with a maximum value of Imax without a voltage across
the Josephson junction. If a constant voltage V0 is
applied to the Josephson junction, a sinusoidal ac current will flow with amplitude Imax and frequency
f0 5

2e0V0
5 483.6 V0 3 GHz/mV 4 .
U

(5)

We can apply these results to the case of voltages that


slowly vary in time and are applied to the Josephson junction. In this case we can replace V0 by the
time-varying voltage v 1 t 2 . If a voltage v 1 t 2 is applied
to the Josephson junction, the current i 1 t 2 flowing
through the Josephson junction is a function of the
integral of the voltage over time. The Josephson

The Josephson Effect


A Josephson junction is an arrangement of two
weakly coupled superconductors [99][102]. Figure 18 shows a schematic representation of a Josephson junction.
The weak coupling of superconductors 1 and 2
is achieved either across the tunnel barrier of some
nanometer thickness [Figure 19(a)] or across a narrow
conducting bridge [Figure 19(b)]. Josephson junctions
usually are realized in thin film technology [102].
A tunnel junction can be fabricated by sputtering
or evaporating a first thin film of superconducting
material followed by growing an oxide tunnel barrier and then sputtering or evaporating the second
electrode. A narrow bridge consists of a single superconducting film with nanoscale constriction in width
and thickness.
The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of superconducting current flowing between the weakly coupled superconductors, where the quantum coherence
of the superconducting electron phase is maintained
over the barrier or narrow bridge, respectively, and
when a dc voltage is applied to the junction.
The voltage v 1 t 2 applied to the Josephson junction
determines the change of the quantum phase difference between the two superconductors with time. The
current i 1 t 2 from side 2 to side 1 is proportional to the
rate of change of the Cooper pair density on side 2.
We obtain

i (t )
1

v (t )

Figure 18. Schematic representation of a Josephson junction.

Superconducting Metal Films


Tunnel Barrier

Quartz Substrate
(a)
Superconducting Metal Film

Quartz Substrate

i 1 t 2 5 Imax sin w 1 t 2

(3)

where the quantum phase difference w 1 t 2 is related to


the applied voltage v 1 t 2 by

May 2010

(b)

Figure 19. Josephson junctions: (a) tunnel junction and


(b) narrow bridge.

129

junction behaves like a nonlinear lossless inductor.


Because the current is a sinusoidal function of the
integral of voltage over time, unlike other inductors,
a dc voltage can be applied to a Josephson junction.
Due to its frequency conversion properties, including conversion between ac and dc, Josephson junctions may be applied detection, generation, mixing,
and parametric amplification for frequencies up
into the THz range [102][107]. Josephson junctions
have also been proposed for microwave power generation [108].

Josephson Mixers and Parametric Amplifiers


The Josephson junction acts as a nonlinear lossless
inductor and can be applied for mixing and parametric amplification in the microwave region. Since an ac
current can be generated in the junction by an applied
dc voltage, a dc power flow must be taken into consideration. General energy relations for the Josephson junction have been derived that are similar to the
Manley-Rowe equations, but with an additional term
for the dc power [109], [110]. Applying a voltage with
a dc component V0 and ac components with frequencies f1, f2, cfn yields a Josephson current with frequency components f0 1 n1 f1 1 n2 f2 1 c 1 fn, where
the n1, n2, cnn are integers. If f0 is a combination
frequency of the frequencies f1, f2, cfn the Josephson
current can have a dc component. The general energy
relations are given by
`
`
kP0
mPmn
a a mf 1 nf 5 2 kf 1 lf ,
1
2
1
2
m51 n5 2`
`
`
lP0
mPmn
52
,
a a
kf1 1 lf2
n5 2` n51 mf1 1 nf2

(6)
(7)

where Pmn is the active power flowing into the


Josephson junction at the frequency mf1 1 nf2 and P0
is the dc power flowing into the Josephson junction.
The general energy relations show the possibility of
realizing dc-pumped parametric amplifiers [109].

I01

I10

I11

L01

L10

L11

C01

C10

C11

G01

G10

G11

V0

Figure 20. Frequency conversion with Josephson junctions.

130

Quantum Information Processing


What Is Quantum Information Processing?
Quantum information processing and quantum computing are based on the representation of information
by quantum states. The peculiarity of representing
information by the state of a quantum system is that a
quantum state can be a superposition of states. In this
way, a single run of a quantum information processing system can process all these superimposed problems in parallel. Today we are quite at the beginning
of the development of quantum information processing systems, and RF technologies will play an important role in the development of such systems.
In his publication Simulating physics with computers R.P. Feynman has put the question What
kind of computers are we going to use to simulate
physics? [111], [112] In his work Feynman stated:
the full description of quantum mechanics for a
large system with R particles is given by a function
c 1 x1, x2, cxR, t 2 which we call the amplitude to find the
particles at x1, x2, cxR, and therefore, because it has too
many variables, it cannot be simulated with a normal computer with a number of elements proportional to R or proportional to N. Taking into account that the real world
obeys quantum laws, he argued that a real simulation
of the physical world should be possible where the
computer is operating the same as nature. According
to Feynman, such a computer mapping the laws of
the physical world should be reversible and should
be built by quantum mechanical elements [111], [112].
In 1985, D. Deutsch for the first time has given a fully
quantum mechanical model for the theory of quantum computation [113]. Detailed treatments of quantum computing are given in [114][116].
The quantum simulation of complex classical systems will require quantum computers with a large
number of quantum memory cells, comparable to the
size of classical computers. This will yield problems
with decoherence [117][120]. D. Abrams and S. Lloyd
have suggested that the problems inherent in present
concepts of quantum computation could be overcome
by application of nonlinear
quantum mechanics [121].
According to their suggesImn
tion, any nonlinear operator
that rapidly increases the
Lmn
states with more 0 s than
1 s will enhance the states
Cmn
representing problem solutions in the superposition
Gmn
of states. The main issue for
further investigation is how
Josephson Junction
to design a coefficient booster
module, most likely under application of nonlinear quantum mechanics. Josephson

May 2010

devices are promising candidates for the realization


of nonlinear quantum information processing [122],
[123]. Quantum computing has the potential for finding
a comprehensive solution to the design problem by utilizing quantum parallelism to simulate a large number
of structures in parallel [113], [124]. A quantum computing algorithm for electromagnetic field simulation is
presented in [125].

Quantum Computing with


Josephson Junctions
In the literature, various examples have been given for
hardware realization of quantum information processing systems. Some of the most interesting proposals are
based on the application of Josephson elements which
allow quantum state engineering [126], [127]. So can a
dc-pumped degenerate parametric Josephson junction
oscillator be used to generate entangled microwave
states [128], [129]. The prospects and challenges for
implementing a quantum computer using superconducting electronics have been discussed in [130].
In [132], the basic concepts of Josephson-junction
qubits and quantum computing applications are
discussed. In [133], an experimental method, using
Josephson charge qubits, is proposed to prepare,
manipulate, and measure quantum states. The proposed quantum computer architecture is scalable. Any
two charge qubits can be effectively coupled by an
experimentally accessible inductance.
A Josephson charge qubit has been realized on the
basis of a single-Cooper-pair box (SCB) coupled to a
single-electron transistor electrometer [131]. The circuit
fabricated by e-beam lithography and shadow vaporation of aluminium films onto an oxidized Si substrate
is shown in Figure 21(a), and the circuit diagram

SET Island

is presented in Figure 21(b), The SCB is a small metallic island connected to a reservoir via a Josephson
junction [134]. The state can be controlled via the gate
voltage Vg. The essential property of the SCB is that
quantum coherence can be maintained within the
circuitry and quantum information processing can
be performed.
A quantum computing scheme with atomic Josephson junction arrays is presented in [135]. The system
consists of a small number of atoms with three internal states trapped in a far-off-resonant optical lattice.
Raman lasers provide the Josephson tunneling, and
the collision interaction between atoms represent the
capacitive coupling between the modes.
Superconducting quantum information processing
devices will operate at microwave and millimeterwave
frequencies and will be based on future RF nanoelectronics. Compared with optical quantum information
processing systems their power consumption will
be by orders of magnitude lower. This is an essential
requirement for the future realization of highly integrated quantum information processing systems.

Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA)


Quantum cellular automata (QCA) denote a model for
quantum computation that uses quantum cells to perform logic operations. Most QCA are based on capacitively coupled quantum dots where electric charges can
tunnel from one dot to the other [136] or on magnetically coupled nanomagnets [137], [138]. The basic fourdot QCA unit cell discussed in [136] consists of four
quantum dots that are capacitively coupled through
tunnel junctions. In Figure 22(a) the two possible
polarization states of the QCA unit cell are shown. The
position of the quantum dots is indicated by the circles, whereas a filled circle corresponds to a dot with
electric charges. Because of the electrostatic repulsion

SCB Island
0

SCB Gate

(a)

SnL

1
16,000

15kV

9 mm

Input A

(a)
SET
VgSET Cg
SET Island C1 SCB Island Cg

Output

Input B

Vg

VRF + Vbias

Josephson
Junction

Tank Circuit
RFSET

B C Output
0 0
0
0 1
0
1 0
0
1 1
1
0 0
0
0 1
1
1 0
1
1 1
1

(b)

CooperPair Box
(b)

Figure 21. Josephson charge-Qubit [131].

May 2010

Input C

A
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

Figure 22. (a) Quantum cellular automata (QCA) unit


cell showing the two possible polarizations. (b) QCA
universal majority gate and the corresponding truth-table.

131

(d)
(a)
(e)

(b)

(f)

(c)

(g)

Figure 23. Processing steps used to fabricate organic thinfilm transistors [142].

of the charges, the two configurations shown in Figure 22(a) are the low-energy states. From the QCA unit
cell a majority gate, shown in Figure 22(b) on the left
side can be constructed. The input A serves as control bit to switch between a logic AND or a logic OR
operation, as indicated in the truth-table on the right
side. In the same structure, an inverter operation can
be realized as discussed in [139]. Thus, it is possible
to perform any logic operation using the majority gate
and an inverter. Using nanomagnets or magnetized
domains a QCA unit cell can be established using
magnetic fields to couple and switch the QCA states
[137], [138]. Magnetic QCA even operate at room temperature [140].

Nanoimprint Technology
The industrial production of devices with nanoscale
dimensions requires low-cost fabrication technologies
suitable for mass production. Nanoimprint lithography is an attractive and simple low-cost technology for
fabricating nanoscale patterns. The patterns are created by mechanical deformation of imprint resist and
subsequent processing.
In [141] a nanoimprint process that produces vias
and trenches in polymer material with a minimum size
of 25 nm and a depth of 100 nm has been described.
This nanoimprint process is suitable for mass producing sub-25 nm structures in integrated circuits and
integrated optics. In [142] replicated mold fabrication
for integrated fine patterns based on a Si/SiO2 master mold is described. The replication is achieved
by Ni electroless plating and a Ni electroforming
process. Patterns as small as 250 nm in width and
270 nm could be replicated. In [143] by use of nanoimprint lithography, 5 nm line width and a 14 nm line
pitch have been achieved.

132

Polymer organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are


interesting for low-cost large-area applications. The
fabrication polymer OTFTs with channel lengths from
1 mm down to 70 nm using nanoimprint lithography is
described in [142]. Figure 23 shows the processing steps
used to fabricate OTFTs. First, the mold was pressed into
the imprint polymer Figure 23(a), and then separated
Figure 23(b). After this using oxygen plasma reactive
ion etching the residue polymer was removed Figure
23(c). Then the gold source and drain contacts were
evaporated and after lift-off a channel length of 70 nm
was obtained Figure 23(d). Large gold pads and a SiOx
protection layer were deposited Figure 23(e). Then the
entire substrate was covered with a layer of p-type semiconducting polymer Figure 23(f). To protect the polymer
layer and to electrically isolate the devices, a SiOx cap
was evaporated over the polymer and then the substrate
was patterned with photolithography Figure 23(g).
A long-period raised rib waveguide grating was
fabricated using nanoimprint lithography [144]. Spectral transmission exhibits a resonance at 1,585 nm with
about 10-dB rejection and 12-nm line width. The combination of different nanoimprint lithography techniques for the design of optical devices with enhanced
performance is discussed in [145], [146].

Conclusion
In this article we have attempted to give an overview
of the impact of nanoelectronics on RF technology.
Today the development of nanoelectronics is highly
market driven since the push for progress requires tremendous investments. The continuous technological
progress in CMOS technology, following Moores law
and the extensions more and more than certainly offers
large room for progress, however, saturation already
appears on the horizon.
Long-term research and development in direction of novel materials, novel technologies, and novel
device concepts is of great importance to maintain the
competitiveness of electronics industry. Novel devices
based on novel materials and novel technologies will
be required to go beyond Moore. Even circuit and system paradigms will change.
The next 20 years of development of nanoelectronics will be extremely challenging and will be decisive
for the fate of the global players in the field. Although
the reflow of investment can be expected only over a
long period of time a strong engagement in research
and development will be mandatory.

References
[1] (2009). What is nanotechnology? [Online]. Available: http://www.
nano.gov/html/facts/whatIsNano.html
[2] H. S. Bennett, H. Andres, J. Pellegrino, W. Kwok, N. Fabricius, and
J. T. Chapin, Priorities for standards and measurements to accelerate innovations in nano-electrotechnologies: Analysis of the
NIST-energetics-IEC TC 113 survey, J. Res. Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol., vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 99135, Apr. 2009.

May 2010

[3] IEC/TC 113 strategic policy statement [Online]. Available: http://


www.iec.ch/cgi-bin/getsps.pl/113.pdf?file=113.pdf
[4] S. E. Thompson and S. Parthasarathy, Moores law: The future of Si
microelectronics, Mater. Today, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2025, June 2006.
[5] T. H. Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Circuits, 2nd ed.
Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004.
[6] (2007). ITRSInternational Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors2007 Edition [Online]. Available: http://www.itrs.net/
Links/2007ITRS/Home2007.htm
[7] (2008). ITRSInternational Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors2008 Update [Online]. Available: http://www.itrs.net/
Links/2008ITRS/Home2008.htm
[8] A. Thielmann, Blockaden bei der Etablierung der Nanoelektronik, in TAB Brief, Bro fr Technikfolgen-Abschtzung beim Deutschen
Bundestag, June 2009, no. 35, pp. 3640.
[9] (2005). Executive summary. ITRSInternational Technology
Roadmap for Semiconductors2007 Edition [Online]. Available:
http://www.itrs.net/Links/2005ITRS/Home2005.htm
[10] G. Zhang and A. van Roosmalen, Eds., More than Moore. Berlin:
Springer-Verlag, 2009.
[11] J. D. Meindl, Q. Chen, and J. A. Davis, Limits on silicon nanoelectronics for terascale integration, Science, vol. 293, no. 5537, pp.
20442049, 2001.
[12] K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang,
S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films, Science, vol. 306, no. 5696, pp.
666669, 2004.
[13] A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, The rise of graphene, 2007.
[14] A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and prospects, Science, vol. 324,
no. 5934, pp. 15301534, 2009.
[15] K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, Two-dimensional gas of
massless dirac fermions in graphene, 2005.
[16] S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C.
Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 100, no. 1,
pp. 1660216605, 2008.
[17] V. Perebeinos, J. Tersoff, and P. Avouris, Electron-phonon interaction and transport in semiconducting carbon nanotubes, Phys.
Rev. Lett., vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 8680286805, 2005.
[18] J. Moon, D. Curtis, M. Hu, D. Wong, C. McGuire, P. Campbell, G.
Jernigan, J. Tedesco, B. VanMil, R. Myers-Ward, C. Eddy, and D.
Gaskill, Epitaxial-graphene RF field-effect transistors on Si-face
6H-SiC substrates, IEEE Electron Devices Lett., vol. 30, no. 6, pp.
650652, 2009.
[19] J. Moon, D. Curtis, M. Hu, D. Wong, P. Campbell, G. Jernigan, J.
L. Tedesco, B. VanMil, R. L. Myers-Ward, C. Eddy, Jr., et al., Development toward wafer-scale graphene RF electronics, in Proc.
Topical Meeting Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems,
New Orleans, LA, Jan. 1113, 2010, pp. 13.
[20] A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition, Nano Lett., vol. 9,
no. 1, pp. 3035, 2009.
[21] K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.
H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, Large-scale pattern
growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,
Nature, vol. 457, no. 7230, pp. 706710, 2009.
[22] A. Grneis, K. Kummer, and D. V. Vyalikh, Dynamics of graphene growth on a metal surface: A time-dependent photoemission study, New J. Phys., vol. 11, no. 073050, pp. 19, 2009.
[23] R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth,
T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene, Science, vol. 320,
no. 5881, p. 1308, 2008.
[24] X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, et al., Large-area synthesis of high-quality
and uniform graphene films on copper foils, Science, vol. 324, no.
5932, pp. 13121314, 2009.
[25] G. W. Hanson, Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel-plate waveguide, J. Appl. Phys., vol.
104, no. 8, pp. 084314084315, Oct. 2008.

May 2010

[26] Y. Lin, H. Chiu, K. A. Jenkins, D. B. Farmer, P. Avouris, and A.


Valdes-Garcia, Dual-gate graphene FETs with f T of 50 GHz,
IEEE Electron Devices Lett., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 6870, 2010.
[27] S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jo, D. Shahrjerdi, L. Colombo, Z. Yao, E. Tutuc,
and S. K. Banerjee, Realization of a high mobility dual-gated graphene field-effect transistor with AlO dielectric, Appl. Phys. Lett.,
vol. 94, no. 6, 2009.
[28] C. Dekker, Carbon Nanotubes as molecular quantum wires,
Phys. Today, vol. 52, pp. 2228, May 1999.
[29] M. Dragoman, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, D. Dragoman,
D. Neculoiu, R. Buiculescu, R. Plana, F. Coccetti, and H. Hartnagel,
Multiple negative resistances in trenched structures bridged with
carbon nanotubes, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 93, no. 4, July 2008.
[30] S. Iijima, Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon, Nature, vol.
354, no. 6348, pp. 5658, 1991.
[31] R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties
of Carbon Nanotubes. London: Imperial College Press, 1998.
[32] T. Ebbesen and P. Ajayan, Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes, Nature, vol. 358, pp. 220222, July 1992.
[33] T. Guo, P. Nikolaev, A. Rinzler, D. Tomanek, D. Colbert, and
R. Smalley, Self-assembly of tubular fullerenes, J. Phys. Chem.,
vol. 99, no. 27, pp. 1069410697, 1995.
[34] T. Guo, P. Nikolaev, A. Thess, D. Colbert, and R. Smalley, Catalytic growth of single-walled nanotubes by laser vaporization,
Chem. Phys. Lett., vol. 243, pp. 4954, Sept. 1995.
[35] Z. F. Ren, Z. P. Huang, J. W. Xu, J. H. Wang, P. Bush, M. P. Siegal,
and P. N. Provencio, Synthesis of large arrays of well-aligned carbon nanotubes on glass, Science, vol. 282, no. 5391, pp. 11051107,
Nov. 1998.
[36] N. Ishigami, H. Ago, K. Imamoto, M. Tsuji, K. Iakoubovskii, and
N. Minami, Crystal plane dependent growth of aligned singlewalled carbon nanotubes on sapphire, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., vol. 130,
no. 30, pp. 99189924, July 2008.
[37] Y. Wang, K. Kempa, B. Kimball, J. Carlson, G. Benham, W. Li,
T. Kempa, J. Rybczynski, A. Herczynski, and Z. Ren, Receiving
and transmitting light-like radio waves: Antenna effects in arrays
of aligned carbon nanotubes, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 13, pp.
26072609, Sept. 2004.
[38] M. Dresselhaus, Nanotube antennas, Nature, vol. 432, pp. 959
960, Dec. 2004.
[39] P. Burke, Carbon nanotube devices for GHz to THz applications, Proc. SPIE, vol. 5593, pp. 5261, 2003.
[40] G. Slepyan, S. Maksimenko, A. Lakhtakia, O. Yevtushenko, and
A. Gusakov, Electrodynamics of carbon nanotubes: Dynamic conductivity, impedance boundary conditions, and surface wave propagation, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 60, no. 24, pp. 1713617149, Dec. 1999.
[41] G. Hanson, Fundamental transmitting properties of carbon
nanotube antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 53, no. 11,
pp. 34263435, Nov. 2005.
[42] J. Hao and G. Hanson, Carbon nanotube dipoles: Infrared and
optical antenna properties, in Proc. Annu. Review Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society, ACES 2006, Miami, FL,
Mar. 2006, pp. 353358.
[43] N. Fichtner, X. Zhou, and P. Russer, Investigation of carbon
nanotube antennas using thin wire integral equations, Advances
Radio Sci., vol. 6, pp. 209211, 2008.
[44] P. Burke, An RF circuit model for carbon nanotubes, in Proc.
2002 2nd IEEE Conf. Nanotechnology, IEEE-NANO 2002, pp. 393
396.
[45] P. J. Burke, An RF circuit model for carbon nanotubes, IEEE
Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 5558, 2003.
[46] N. Fichtner and P. Russer, On the possibility of nanowire antennas, in Proc. 36th European Microwave Conf., 2006, pp. 870
873.
[47] P. Burke, Lttinger liquid theory as a model of the gigahertz
electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 129144, Sept. 2002.
[48] S. Li, Z. Yu, C. Rutherglen, and P. J. Burke, Electrical properties
of 0.4 cm long single-walled carbon nanotubes, Aug. 2004.
[49] H. H. Yordanov and P. Russer, Integrated on-chip antennas for
chip-to-chip communication, in Proc. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Int. Symp. AP-S 2008, July 2008, pp. 14.

133

[50] H. Yordanov and P. Russer, Integrated on-chip antennas for


communication on and between monolithic integrated circuits,
Int. J. Microwave Wireless Technol., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 309314, Aug.
2009.
[51] D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, Terahertz fields and applications, Progr. Quantum Electron., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 166, 2004.
[52] H. Manohara, E. Wong, E. Schlecht, B. Hunt, and P. Siegel, Carbon nanotube Schottky diodes using Ti-schottky and Pt-ohmic
contacts for high frequency applications, Nano Lett., vol. 5, no. 7,
pp. 14691474, 2005.
[53] J. Bean, B. Tiwari, G. Szakmany, G. Bernstein, P. Fay, and W. Porod,
Long wave infrared detection using dipole antenna-coupled metal-oxide-metal diodes, in Proc. 33rd Int. Conf. Infrared, Millimeter
and Terahertz Waves 2008, IRMMW-THz 2008, Sept. 2008, pp. 12.
[54] G. Matyi, A. Csurgay, and W. Porod, Nanoantenna design for
Thz-band rectification, in Proc. 49th IEEE Int. Midwest Symp. Circuits and Systems 2006, MWSCAS 06, Aug. 2006, vol. 2, pp. 197199.
[55] H. J. Becker, Low voltage electrolytic capacitor, U.S. Patent
2 800 616, July 1957.
[56] B. Conway, V. Birss, and J. Wojtowicz, The role and utilization of
pseudocapacitance for energy storage by supercapacitors, J. Power
Sources, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 114, May 1997.
[57] E. Frackowiak, K. Metenier, V. Bertagna, and F. Beguin, Supercapacitor electrodes from multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Appl.
Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 15, pp. 24212423, Oct. 2000.
[58] C. Kocabas, H. Kim, T. Banks, J. A. Rogers, A. A. Pesetski, J. E.
Baumgardner, S. V. Krishnaswamy, and H. Zhang, Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors,
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 14051409, 2008.
[59] A. Bachtold, P. Hadley, T. Nakanishi, and C. Dekker, Logic
circuits with carbon nanotube transistors, Science, vol. 294, pp.
13171320, Nov. 2001.
[60] J. Baumgardner, A. Petsetski, J. Murduck, J. Przybysz, J. Adam,
and H. Zhang, Inherent linearity in carbon nanotube field-effect
transistors, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 91, no. 052107, pp. 13, 2007.
[61] S. J. Kang, C. Kocabas, T. Ozel, M. Shim, N. Pimparkar, M. A.
Alam, S. V. Rotkin, and J. A. Rogers, High-performance electronics using dense, perfectly aligned arrays of single-walled
carbon nanotubes, Nature Nanotechnol., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 230236,
2007.
[62] C. Kocabas, S. J. Kang, T. Ozel, M. Shim, and J. A. Rogers, Improved synthesis of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes and their implementation in thin film type transistors, J.
Phys. Chem. C, vol. 111, pp. 1787917886, 2007.
[63] W. Zhou, C. Rutherglen, and P. J. Burke, Wafer scale synthesis
of dense aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes, Nano
Res., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 158165, 2008.
[64] Q. Cao and J. A. Rogers, Random networks and aligned arrays
of single-walled carbon nanotubes for electronic device applications, Nano Res., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 259272, 2008.
[65] Q. Cao, H. Kim, N. Pimparkar, J. P. Kulkarni, C. Wang, M. Shim,
K. Roy, M. A. Alam, and J. A. Rogers, Medium-scale carbon nanotube thin-film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates,
Nature, vol. 454, no. 7203, pp. 495500, 2008.
[66] S. Li, Z. Yu, S. F. Yen, W. C. Tang, and P. J. Burke, Carbon nanotube transistor operation at 2.6 GHz, Nano Lett., vol. 4, no. 4, pp.
753756, 2004.
[67] D. Wang, Z. Yu, S. McKernan, and P. Burke, Ultrahigh frequency
carbon nanotube transistor based on a single nanotube, IEEE
Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 400403, 2007.
[68] C. Kocabas, S. Dunham, Q. Cao, K. Cimino, X. Ho, H. S. Kim, D.
Dawson, J. Payne, M. Stuenkel, H. Zhang, et al., High-frequency
performance of submicrometer transistors that use aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes, Nano Lett., vol. 9, no. 5,
pp. 19371943, 2009.
[69] P. Beecher, P. Servati, A. Rozhin, A. Colli, V. Scardaci, S. Pisana,
T. Hasan, A. J. Flewitt, J. Robertson, G. W. Hsieh, F. Li, A. Nathan,
A. Ferrari, and W. Milne, Ink-jet printing of carbon nanotube
thin film transistors, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 102, no. 043710, pp. 17,
2007.
[70] J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G.
Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, Heterogeneous three-dimensional elec-

134

tronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials, Science,


vol. 314, no. 5806, pp. 17541757, 2006.
[71] W. A. D. Heer, A. Chatelain, and D. Ugarte, A carbon nanotube
field-emission electron source, Science, vol. 270, no. 5239, pp. 1179
1180, 1995.
[72] R. Baughman, A. Zakhidov, and W. de Heer, Carbon nanotubesThe route toward applications, Science, vol. 297, pp. 787
792, Aug. 2002.
[73] J.-H. Han, T. Lee, D. Kim, J.-B. Yoo, C.-Y. Park, J. Choi, T. Jung, I. Hand,
and J. Kim, Field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown
on Co/TiN coated Ta substrate for cathode in microwave power amplifier, Diam. Relat. Mater., vol. 13, no. 48, pp. 987993, 2004.
[74] K. Jensen, J. Weldon, H. Garcia, and A. Zettl, Nanotube radio,
Nano Lett., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 35083511, 2007.
[75] C. Rutherglen and P. Burke, Carbon nanotube radio, Nano Lett.,
vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 32963299, 2007.
[76] S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S.
V. Molnar, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger,
Spintronics: A spin-based electronics vision for the future, Science, vol. 294, no. 5546, pp. 14881495, 2001.
[77] D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatt, Challenges for semiconductor spintronics, Nature Phys., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 153159, Mar. 2007.
[78] R. Landauer, Irreversibility and heat generation in the computing process, IBM J. Res. Develop., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 261269, 2000.
[79] X. C. Hall and N. E. Flatte, Performance of a spin-based insulated gate field effect transistor, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 162503,
pp. 13, 2006.
[80] J. Coey and S. Sanvito, Magnetic semiconductors and halfmetals, J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys., vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 988993, 2004.
[81] R. Waser, Ed., Nanoelectronics and Information TechnologyAdvanced Electronic Materials and Novel Devices, 2nd ed. Weinheim:
Wiley-VCH, 2005.
[82] K. Likharev, Single-electron devices and their applications,
Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, pp. 606632, Apr. 1999.
[83] R. Schoelkopf, P. Wahlgren, A. Kozhevnikov, P. Delsing, and D.
Prober, The radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET):
A fast and ultrasensitive electrometer, Science, vol. 280, pp. 1238
1242, May 1998.
[84] A. Aassime, G. Johansson, G. Wendin, R. Schoelkopf, and P. Delsing, Radio-frequency single-electron transistor as readout device
for qubits: Charge sensitivity and backaction, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.
86, no. 15, pp. 33763379, Apr. 2001.
[85] L. Chua, MemristorThe missing circuit element, IEEE Trans.
Circuit Theory, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 507519, Sept. 1971.
[86] D. Strukov, G. Snider, D. Stewardt, and R. Willliams, The missing memristor found, Nature, vol. 453, pp. 8083, May 2008.
[87] R. Williams, How we found the missing memristor, IEEE Spectr., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2835, 2008.
[88] K. Witrisal, Memristor-based stored-reference receiverthe
UWB solution?, Electron. Lett., vol. 45, no. 14, pp. 213214, July 2009.
[89] G. Csaba and P. Lugli, Read-out design rules for molecular
crossbar architectures, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp.
369374, 2009.
[90] R. Zia, J. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. Brongersma, Plasmonics: The next chip-scale technology, Mater. Today, vol. 9, no. 78,
pp. 2027, JulyAug. 2006.
[91] H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, W. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F.
Hofer, F. Aussenegg, and J. Krenn, Silver nanowires as surface
plasmon resonators, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 95, no. 257403, pp. 14,
2005.
[92] W. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, Surface plasmon subweavlength optics, Nature, vol. 424, pp. 824830, Nov. 2003.
[93] I. Ahmed, C. E. Png, E. P. Li, and R. Vahldieck, Electromagnetic
wave propagation in a Ag nanoparticle-based plasmonic power
divider, Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 337345, 2009.
[94] I. Ahmed, C. E. Png, E. Li, and H. Lee, Electromagnetic waveguiding in metallic plasmonic structures using FDTD, in Proc.
7th IEEE Conf. Nanotechnology 2007, IEEE-NANO 2007, pp. 494
497.
[95] J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, Microscopic theory
of superconductivity, Phys. Rev., vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 162164, Feb.
1957.

May 2010

[96] J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer, Theory of superconductivity, Phys. Rev., vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 11751204, Dec.
1957.
[97] J. F. Annett, Superconductivity, Superfluids, and Condensates. New
York: Oxford Univ. Press, June 2004.
[98] M. Tinkham, Introduction to Superconductivity: Second Edition (Dover Books on Physics), 2nd ed. New York: Dover, June 2004.
[99] B. D. Josephson, Possible new effects in superconductive tunnelling, Phys. Lett., vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 251253, July 1962.
[100] B. D. Josephson, Coupled superconductors, Rev. Mod. Phys.,
vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 216220, Jan. 1964.
[101] B. D. Josephson, The discovery of tunnelling supercurrents,
Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 251254, Apr. 1974.
[102] L. Solymar, Lectures on Electromagnetic Theory. London: Oxford
Univ. Press, 1984.
[103] P. Russer, Influence of microwave radiation on current-voltage
characteristic of superconducting weak links, J. Appl. Phys., vol.
43, no. 4, pp. 20082010, 1972.
[104] Z. Wang, K. Hamasaki, M. Kinoshita, T. Yamashita, T. Matsui, and B. Komiyama, Millimeter-wave response in NbN(g)/
Al nanobridges, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 27202723,
1991.
[105] W. M. Huber, B. Arendt, P. G. Huggard, and W. Prettl, Squarelaw Josephson detection of far-infrared radiation with currentbiased granular Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin films, Superconduct. Sci. Technol., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 769773, 1995.
[106] M. Sato, G. A. Alvarez, T. Utagawa, K. Tanabe, and T. Morishita,
Characteristics of NdBa2Cu3O7d/PrBa2Cu3O7d/NdBa2Cu3O7d
planar Josephson junctions, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 41, part 1, no.
3, pp. 55725577, 2002.
[107] V. Lacquaniti, C. Cagliero, S. Maggi, R. Steni, D. Andreone, and
A. Sosso, RF properties of overdamped SIS junctions, IEEE Trans.
Appl. Superconduct., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 114116, 2005.
[108] N. Lin and S. Yukon, Maximizing microwave power from triangular Josephson junction arrays, IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconduct., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 43204324, 1999.
[109] P. Russer, Parametric amplification with Josephson junctions,
AE Arch. Elektron. Uebertragungstech., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 417420,
1969.
[110] P. Russer, General energy relations for Josephson junctions,
Proc. IEEE, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 282283, Feb. 1971.
[111] R. P. Feynman, Simulating physics with computers, Int. J. Theor. Phys., vol. 21, no. 6/7, pp. 467488, 1982.
[112] R. P. Feynman, Feynman Lectures on Computation. Reading, MA:
Addison Wesley, 1996.
[113] D. Deutsch, Quantum theory, the Church-Turing principle and
the universal quantum computer, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, Math.
Phys. Sci., vol. A400, no. 1818, pp. 97117, July 1985.
[114] J. Gruska, Quantum Computing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.
[115] M. A. Nielssen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and
Quantum Information. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press,
2000.
[116] M. Hirvensalo, Quantum Computing. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,
2004.
[117] A. Barenco, A. Ekert, K. Suominen, and P. Torma, Approximate
quantum Fourier transform and decoherence, Phys. Rev. A, vol.
54, no. 1, pp. 139146, July 1996.
[118] A. Barenco, Quantum physics and computers, Contemp. Phys.,
vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 375389, 1996.
[119] E. Knill, Quantum computing with realistically noisy devices,
Nature, vol. 434, pp. 3944, 2005.
[120] J. Taylor and M. Lukin, Dephasing of quantum bits by a QuasiStatic mesoscopic environment, Quantum Inform. Process., vol. 5,
no. 6, pp. 503536, Dec. 2006.
[121] D. Abrams and S. Lloyd, Nonlinear quantum mechanics implies polynomial-time solution for NP-complete and # P problems, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 81, no. 18, pp. 39923995, Nov. 1998.
[122] D. Averin, Quantum computing and quantum measurement
with mesoscopic Josephson junctions, Fortschritte der Physik, vol.
48, no. 911, pp. 10551074, 2000.
[123] K. Berggren, Quantum computing with superconductors,
Proc. IEEE, vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 16301638, 2004.

May 2010

[124] D. C. Marinescu and G. M. Marinescu, Lectures on quantum


computing, Comput. Sci. Dept., Univ. Central Florida, 2003.
[125] S. Sinha and P. Russer. (2009). Quantum computing algorithm
for electromagnetic field simulation. Quantum Inform. Process.
[Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11128-009-0133-x
[126] Y. Makhlin, G. Schn, and A. Shnirman, Nano-electronic circuits as quantum bits, in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems,
SCAS 2000, Geneva, Oct. 2000, vol. 2, pp. 241244.
[127] Y. Makhlin, G. Schn, and A. Shnirman, Quantum-state engineering with Josephson-junction devices, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 73,
pp. 357400, Apr. 2001.
[128] F. X. Kaertner and P. Russer, Generation of squeezed microwave states by a dc-pumped degenerate parametric Josephson
junction oscillator, Phys. Rev. A, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 56015612, Nov.
1990.
[129] F. X. Krtner and A. Schenzle, Analytic solution for the dissipative anharmonic quantum oscillator and semiclassical analysis,
Phys. Rev. A, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 10091019, Aug. 1993.
[130] M. Bocko, A. M. Herr, and M. J. Feldman, Prospects for quantum coherent computation using superconducting electronics,
IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconduct., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 36383641, June
1997.
[131] T. Duty, D. Gunnarsson, K. Bladh, and P. Delsing, Coherent
dynamics of a Josephson charge qubit, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 69, no.
140503, pp. 14, 2004.
[132] D. Averin, Quantum computing and quantum measurement
with mesoscopic Josephson junctions, Fortschritte der Physik, vol.
48, no. 911, pp. 10551074, 2000.
[133] J. Q. You, J. S. Tsai, and F. Nori, Scalable quantum computing
with Josephson charge qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 89, no. 19, p.
197902, Oct. 2002.
[134] K. Bladh, T. Duty, D. Gunnarsson, and P. Delsing, The single cooper-pair box as a charge qubit, New J. Phys., vol. 7, no. 1,
pp. 132, 2005.
[135] L. Tian and P. Zoller, Quantum computing with atomic Josephson junction arrays, Phys. Rev. A, vol. 68, pp. 042 32110, Oct
2003.
[136] G. Snider, A. O. I. Amlani, X. Zuo, G. Bernstein, C. Lent, J. Merz,
and W. Porod, Quantum-dot cellular automata, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 13941398, JulyAug. 1999.
[137] A. Imre, G. Csaba, G. Bernstein, W. Porod, and V. Metlushko, Investigation on shape-dependent switching of coupled nanomagnets, Superlattices Microstruct., vol. 34, no. 36, pp. 513518, 2003.
[138] G. Csaba, P. Lugli, A. Csurgay, and W. Porod, Simulation
of power gain and dissipation in field-coupled nanomagnets,
J. Comput. Electron., vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 105110, 2005.
[139] W. Porod, Quantum-dot devices and quantum-dot cellular automata, J. Franklin Inst., vol. 334B, no. 5/6, pp. 11471175, 1997.
[140] R. Cowburn and M. Welland, Room temperature magnetic
quantum cellular automata, Science, vol. 287, no. 5457, pp. 1466
1468, 2000.
[141] S. Y. Chou, Nanoimprint lithography, U.S. Patent 5 772 905,
June 1998.
[142] M. D. Austin and S. Y. Chou, Fabrication of 70 nm channel
length polymer organic thin-film transistors using nanoimprint
lithography, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, no. 4421, pp. 44314433,
2002.
[143] M. D. Austin, H. Ge, W. Wu, M. Li, Z. Yu, D. Wasserman, S.
A. Lyon, and S. Y. Chou, Fabrication of 5 nm line width and 14
nm pitch features by nanoimprint lithography, Appl. Phys. Lett.,
vol. 84, no. 5233, pp. 52995301, 2004.
[144] A. Perentos, G. Kostovski, and A. Mitchell, Polymer longperiod raised rib waveguide gratings using nano-imprint lithography, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 25952597,
2005.
[145] G. Scarpa, F. Brunetti, S. Harrer, and P. Lugli, Nanoimprint lithography for optical components, in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, 2007, ICTON07, 2007, vol. 2.
[146] S. Harrer, S. Strobel, G. Scarpa, G. Abstreiter, M. Tornow, and P.
Lugli, Room temperature nanoimprint lithography using molds
fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.,
vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 363370, 2008.

135