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The Music

12/20/16, 10:03 PM

The Music
(please also scroll down for and explanation and history of each style)

Cha Cha Cha


Musician

Instrument

Modesto:

Congas and Guiro

Osmani:

Timbales

Danzon
Musician

Instrument

Eugenio:

Guiro

Modesto:

Conga

Osmani :

Timbale

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The Music

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Son Montuno
Musician
Rafael:

Instrument
Clave

Eugenio:

Guiro, Maracas, Cowbell and Bongo

Modesto:

Congas

Osmani:

Timbales

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The Music

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Bolero
Musician

Instrument

Osmani:

Drums, Congas, Maracas and Timbales

Eugenio:

Bongos

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The Music

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Pilon
Musician

Instrument

Modesto:

Congas

Osmani:

Timbales

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The Music

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Traditional Son
Musician
Rafael:

Instrument
Clave and Cow Bell

Arrango:

Bongos

Osmani:

Maracas

Guaracha Son
Musician
Rafael:
Arango:
Osmani

Instrument
Clave, Cow Bell, Udu and Conga
Bongos
Maracas

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The Music

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Guajira Son
Musician

Instrument

Osmani:

Maracas

Arango:

Bongos

Rafael:

Udu and Cowbell

Mambo
Musician

Instrument

Arango:

Guiro

Modesto:

Congas

Osmani:

Timbale and Drums

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The Music

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Songo
Musician
Rafael:

Instrument
Clave

Modesto:

Congas (A)

Eugenio:

Guiro and Congas (B)

Osmani:

Drums and Timbales

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The Music

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Conga Habanera
Musician

Instrument

Modesto:

Campanas (Cow Bells) and Quinto

Osmani:

Conga, Salidor and Carnival Snare

Eugenio:

Bombo

Conga Moderna
Musician

Instrument

Arango:

Congas

Osmani:

Drums and Campanas (Agogo Bells)

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The Music

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Timba
Musician

Instrument

Eugenio:

Cow Bell and Bongos

Modesto:

Guiro and Congas

Osmani:

Drums and Timbales

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The Music

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The Music (Criollo) - A short history.

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The Music

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The styles selected for this collection are the twelve most generic styles of
the "Ritmos Cubano de Origen Criollo". Translated meaning the Cuban
Rhythms of Criollo (or Afro - Hispanic) descent.
The origins of these styles come from a mix of the rhythms and songs of the African
slave workers, brought to Cuba to work the Sugar Cane plantations, and that of the
Spanish traders and land owners of the time. The styles include the various folk songs,
the ritual dances of celebration, religion and voodoo. Added to this are the consequent
influences from around the world throughout the years including the American jazz
boom in the 1920's and 30's,and the big bands of the 40's and 50's, as well as the UK
beat generation of the 60's and 70's. Even now Cuban music is developing with many
acts incorporating Hip Hop and rap styles to the Afro/Latin beat.
Since Cuban music began, the Cuban musician has been innovative in his interpretation
of musical expression. It is with pride that the Cubans emphasise the importance of the
Clave as the root of Cuban rhythm (It is worth noting that the literal translation for Clave
is key, and that certainly applies to the Clave being the reference point when studying or
playing the complex interweave of patterns within Cuban music). The purported origin of
the Clave is that of the wooden pegs used to nail the wooden hull planks together on
sailing ships, which docked at Havana and Santiago for repairs many years ago. The
local slave workers, presumably improvising a rhythm to their singing whilst working on
these old galleons, developed the pins into an instrument and accompanying their
African (and inherited Spanish) songs, created the basic rhythms of what has become
fundamental in Latin percussion today.

The Sons
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Son's are a style of song and dance, influenced by the guitar and other stringed
instruments like the "Tres" and the "Laud" etc. They come generally from rural folk song
and verse. Styles of Son are influenced by the different areas of the country and vary
slightly in percussive content, although in general the percussion is made up of small
'hand' percussion as interpretation is generally of a minstrel type manner with artists of
this genre. The most traditional of the Cuban styles in a folkloric sense, the styles
included include: Son Traditional, and La Guajira and La Guaracha.
Although this group of styles is generally regarded as from a rural background, it is
worth noting that it is in the urban areas, where the collective consolidations of
musicians best form to complete the arrangements. Traditionally a group would consist
of a sextet or "Septet Havanan" of Guitar, Tres Maracas, Bongos, Claves, Udu and
Marimbula. The Udu (A modified earthenware oil pitcher) and Marimbula (African Bass
sounding instrument similar to the Sanza) was later replaced by the more modern and
flexible Contra Bass.
Reference Artists: Eliades Ochoa y la Cuarteta Patria. Compay Secundo. Cheo
Feliciano. Chala.
Songs: "Chan Chan", "La Carretera" and "El Cuarto del Tula"

The Bolero
The Cuban Bolero is a relatively new style derived from the rhythmical
pattern of the "Habanera" that arose in the 19th Century as a result of the
increasing contact with Mexico and Latin America and a new form of guitar
accompaniment. The Bolero has evolved using modern day elements of song
form and is regarded as the Cuban and Latin American version of a ballad.
Reference Artists: La Viejo Trova de Santiaguera. Patato. A. Sandoval

El Danzon
El Danzon is a musical style that has it's origins in the formal court dances of the
European Creole. It's characteristic element is it's connection to the rhythms of the
Tango and The Habanera. This syncopated rhythm often alters it's form, evolving into a
Mambo or Cha Cha Cha rhythm for the Refrain (Chorus) or Coda that later became
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styles in their own right.


Reference Artists: Giovanni

Cha Cha Cha


The Cha Cha Cha was one of the most "singable" and "danceable" styles of the 1940's
and 50's following the development from the Danzon and the "New Rhythm". The Cha
Cha Cha was created by Enrique Jorrin at the end of the 40's, altering the form of the
Danzon by inserting various collective voices or "Montunos", giving a different sense of
relation between rhythm and melody.
Reference Artists: Climax

El Mambo
The Mambo is another danceable style, initially created by Orestes Lopez in 1938 and
cultivated by his brother Israel Lopez throughout the 1940's. It was universalised in the
1950's by Damaso Perez Prado, who expanded it into the Jazz "Big Band" style that we
know today. In the Mambo, the importance of the horn section plays a major role to the
melody, harmony and rhythm, whilst the percussion plays the necessary base.
Reference Artists: Hermanos Ruiz

Son Montuno
The Son Montuno is a variant of the Son with it's own "Independent Personality" (Jos
Urf). It's origin is from that of the "Shanty Town" suburbs of the eastern cities like
Santiago. The evolution of this style has given rise to what is known as Salsa today.
When Montuno is mentioned, it is generally termed as testimony to the origin and
authenticity of this style, and refers to the mountain people of this type of area. However
a modern day reference to this word also refers to defining a chorus or voices in a
structure of a composition.
Reference Artists: Tito Puente
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Conga
Conga is the definitive Cuban carnival or fiesta (festival) music. It has it's origin in the
festivals of the African slaves, but was taken to the dance halls of Europe and America
and is even used today in large family festivals such as weddings and other
celebrations.
The "Conga Moderna" is a dance hall orientated arrangement, with use of the drum kit,
whereas the "Conga Habanera" is a more street carnival style, where the various
layered variety of Conga Drums play amongst Bombo, Bells and anything else that the
Cuban festival go-ers can place their hands on, including frying pans etc.
Reference Artists: A. Sandoval. NG La Banda

El Pilon
El Pilon is a rhythm invented by Enrique Bonne, in the eastern province of Cuba. Pacho
Alonso went on to make the style famous with his group "Los Bucucos". Allegedly, the
dance of the Pilon is said to imitate the motion one makes when grinding coffee. It is a
predecessor to the Songo, having specific Conga and Timbale parts, which give it it's
identity.
Reference Artists: Pacho Alonso

El Songo
The Songo is a rhythmic form developed in the 1970's by the great Cuban Percussionist
Jos Luis Quintana "Changuito" and Bassist Juan Formell of the group Los Van Van.
The Songo represented a major breakthrough in Latin music by introducing the drum kit
and reflects the influence of Beat, Rock and Funk from the United States and the U.K.
Reference Artists: Van Van

La Timba Cubana
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The Timba Cubana is the most modern expression of Cuban music. Directly influenced
by the Songo, the drum kit also intervenes along side the Timbal and Congas. Likewise
influences of Funk, Rock and Modern Jazz have developed this style. Named groups to
develop this style include NG La Banda, Paulo y la Elite and La Charanga Habanera. La
Timba is used most frequently today with many Latin rap artists, without losing the
authentic seal of Cuban music.
Reference Artists: NG La Banda

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