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Conclusion

As mentioned in the thesis The Participles in Late Egyptian Grammar we are


trying to throw light on the morphology and uses in addition to negation of this
section of the ancient Egyptian Language in one of the most important periods in the
ancient Egyptian Language progress.
As a conclusion for this research, one can summarize the results in the following
main points:
- The prothetic i.

begins to appear before participles (both active and

passive), and its different forms;

and

, while there was still several

examples that appeared in the main form without being attached to the
prothetic, these examples are remained from Middle Egyptian Texts.
- The omission of the prothetic i., when the participle is attached to a
(in)definite article or demonstrative pronoun, and when participle is used in
the forward title.
- The prothetic appears only very late with the verb (wn). During the 18th, 19 th
and 20th dyn., while it is not a rule, that participle of verb (wn) may be
appeared without prothetic.
- There are many examples where the participle remains at the main form
(where the prothetic doesnt appear) without being preceded for as much
(in)defined article, or demonstrative pronoun or adjective.
- Participle of more than three consonants is formed from verb iri followed by
the infinitive of the participial verb; in this case the prothetic might be
appeared.
1

- Unlike participles in Middle Egyptian that show special endings with each
gender, participles in Late Egyptian dont show any particular endings; only
is used in many examples, few examples have

or

as endings.

- Some forms have t attached to the verb-stem, but it no longer has any
morphological value; it is found also with participles masculine singular or
neuters. Its presence is probably due to the influence of spellings of the
infinitive form much used in Late Egyptian.
- There is no difference between singular and plural in Late Egyptian
Participles. The participle is usually not terminated. However, in the 18 th and
early 19th dyn., the ending -w of the plural is sometimes appeared, also

can

refer to the plural.


- The ending

appears more with weak verbs (3ae or 4ae inf.) than others.

- Participles in Late Egyptian no longer agree in gender and number with its
antecedent.
- Participle when formed from transitive verb can be followed by its object,
which always has to be dependent pronoun; but when the participle is formed
from verb iri followed by the infinitive of the participial verb, which is formed
from transitive verb, the participial verbs pronominal object has to be suffix
pronoun

- Tenses of participles in Late Egyptian differ from that of Middle Egyptian;


that perfect participle is formed by i.sDm form and by wn followed by a stative,
while imperfect participle is formed by i.iri sDm also semantically by the
relative clause, in which the subject is identical with the antecedent, nty
followed by I present, and another form by nty followed by qualitative form
(old perfective), the prospective participle is formed by sDm.ty.fy form, which
was used in Middle Egyptian, also semantically by a form nty followed by III
future.
- Participles in Late Egyptian are negated by using verb tm just as the negation
participles of Middle Egyptian, but its use was very rare, so semantically
usage of relative clauses with nty

followed by bwpw

participles in the form bwpw.f sDm for perfect participle and nty
by

in negating
followed

bn in negating participles semantically in the form nty bn sDm for

imperfect and prospective participle.


- Indeed, participles in Late Egyptian have the same usage of Middle Egyptian,
so it is used sometimes as an adjective also a noun.
- In the case that participles are used as participle statement, the particle in of
Middle Egyptian has been changed into m/ n.
- None of Late Egyptian Grammar Literature mentioned the usage of participles
as adjectival predicate, but the research shows several examples that are used
as adjectival predicate, and most of them are perfect passive participles.
- Participle when used as noun, it might be changed into a job or sometimes
into a title.

The next table shows the differences between both active and passive participles in
Middle and Late Egyptian:
Active Participle
M.E.

L.E.

M.E.

L.E.

(i.)

(i.)

Masc. Sing.

(.t) might be used

(.yt) usually used

Fem. Sing.

.t

with masc., fem.

.t

but (.t) might

Masc. Plur.

(.w)

Some times (.y)

(.w)

appear alone or

Fem. Plur.

(.wt)

appears or (.w)

(.wt)

changed by (.y)

Masc. Sing.

mr

(i.)wn+(Hr)+inf.

mry

(i.)sDm

Fem. Sing.

mrt

(i.)wn+old perfective

mryt

Masc. Plur.

mrw

(i.)sDm

mryw

Masc. Sing.

mrrj/mrry

i.ir sDm

mrrw

i.ir sDm

Fem. Sing.

mrrt/mrrt

nty sw (Hr) sDm**

mrrt

nty sw (Hr) sDm**

Masc. Plur.

mrrjw/mrryw

nty+old perfective

mrrw

sDm.ty.fy

sDm.ty.fy*

sDm.ty.fy

Morphology

Prothetic

Ending

Tenses

Perfect

Imperfect

Prospective
Perfect

Negation

Passive Participle

sDm.ty.fy*

nty iw.f r sDm**


tm sDm

tm sDm*

nty iw.f r sDm*


tmw sDm

nty bwpw.f sDm**


tmm sDm

tm sDm*

Imperfect
tm.ty.fy sDm

nty bwpw.f sDm**


tmw sDm

tm sDm*

nty bw sDm.f **

nty bw sDm.f **

nty bn sDm**

nty bn sDm**

nty bn sw Hr sDm**

Prospective

tm sDm*

tm.ty.fy sDm

nty bn sw Hr sDm*

tm.ty.fy sDm*

tm.ty.fy sDm*

nty bn iw.f r sDm**

nty bn iw.f r sDm*

The form nty + old perfective is used equivalent to the participle but without
referring a such a tense.
* Very rare forms
* Semantically expresses the participles