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Alla, Raena Rianne
Bagason, Allyssa
Baguio, Angel Jazmine
Camu, Hazelene Jade
Magadia, Charise
Margallo, Janne Erika
Plaza, Shania

Vidal, Anne Kyle

Commensalism is a relationship between two

organisms where one receives a benefit or
benefits from the other is not affected by it. In
other words, one is benefited and the other is
neither benefited nor harmed.

Anemonefishes or clownfishes - These live amid the tentacles of the
anemones which protects them from predators. Predators are poisoned by
the nematocysts of the anemones.

Tree frog - The frog uses plants or trees for protection from the rain.

Orchids - Some orchids grow on trees and that does not harm the tree.

The commensalthe species that benefits from the

associationmay obtain nutrients, shelter, support,
or locomotion from the host species, which is
unaffected. The commensal relation is often between a
larger host and a smaller commensal. The host organism
is essentially unchanged by the interaction, where as the
commensal species may show great morphological
adaptation. This relationship can be contrasted
with mutualism, in which both species benefit.

One of the best-known examples of a commensal is

the remora (family Echineidae) that rides attached
to sharks and other fishes. Remoras have evolved on the
top of their heads a flat oval sucking disk structure that
adheres to the bodies of their hosts. Both remoras and pilot
fishes feed on the leftovers of their hosts meals. Other
examples of commensals include bird species, such as the
great egret (Ardea alba), that feed on insects turned up by
grazing mammals or on soil organisms stirred up by
plowing. Various biting lice, fleas, and louse flies are
commensals in that they feed harmlessly on the feathers of
birds and on sloughed-off flakes of skin from mammals

A remora (Echeneis naucrates) and its host, a zebra shark

(Stegostoma fasciatum).



Phoresy is the act of 'hitching a lift' on

another organism. As invertebrates are small
and not all have wings many travel
comparatively long distances by using other,
more mobile, organisms.

One animal attached to another exclusively

for transport.

Flower mites are wingless and so use foraging bees to travel

to new flowers. When bees enter a flower to collect nectar or
pollen the mites climb on to the bee. The bee then flies to the
next flower and the mites climb off the bee.

Pseudoscorpions are small arachnids that resemble scorpions without

the long tail and sting. When a flying insect lands nearby the
pseudoscorpions grab hold of the larger insect using their pincers. When
the insect flies to a new location they carry the pseudoscorpion with

Inquilinism is the use of a second organism for permanent housing.
In zoology, an inquiline is an animal that lives commensally in the
nest, burrow, or dwelling place of an animal of another species. For
example, some organisms such as insects may live in the homes of
gophers and feed on debris, fungi, roots, etc. The most widely
distributed types of inquiline are those found in association with
the nests of social insects, especially ants and termites a single
colony may support dozens of different inquiline species.

Orchids ,a example of inquilinism, is a epiphytic

plants that can grow on trees.

Birds that live in holes in trees is also a example of


Metabiosis is a more indirect dependency, in which
one organism creates or prepares a suitable
environment for a second.

A form of commensalism in which

one organism creates or prepares a
suitable environment for another.

Maggots which feast and develop by corpses are

example of metabiosis.

Hermit crabs, which use gastropod shells

to protect their bodies.