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# Md Monowarul Islam| 132029 | ME 3101 |

, 2016
Assignment Based on
Class Lecture 5
One Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation

Technology

## One Dimensional Heat conduction Equation

Plane wall
Consider a thin element of thickness x in a large plane wall
as shown in figure 1.1
Let,
The density of the wall =
The specific heat = C, and
The area of the wall normal to the direction of heat transfer
=A

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## Fig.1.1: One dimensional heat conduction through a volume

element in a large plane wall

## An energy balance on this thin element during a small time

interval t can be expressed as
Rateof
heat
conduction
at x

Rate of
heat
conduction
at x + x

( ) ( ) (
QQ x - QQ

x+x

+ G

element

Rate of heat
generation
inside the
element

Eelement
t

) (
=

Rateof chane
of the energy
content of the
element

(1.1)
The change in the energy content and the rate of heat
generation can be expressed as
E
G

element

element

=gV

element

=gAx

## Substituting into Equation 1.1, we get

T T
QQX - QQx+x + gAx = CAx t +t t
t
Dividing by Ax , taking the limit as x
from Fouriers law:

1
A

KA

T
x

+ g = C

0 and t

0 and

T
t

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## The area A is constant for a plane wall, the one dimensional

transient heat conduction equation in a plane wall is

T
T
k
+ g =C
x x
t

( )

Variable conductivity:

T g 1 T
+ =
2
x k t

Constant conductivity:

k
C

## material and represents how fast heat propagates through a

material.
The one dimensional heat conduction equation may be
reduces to the following forms under special conditions

d 2 T g
+ =0
2
dx k
(2) Transient, no heat generation:
2

T 1 T
=
2
x t

dT
=0
2
dx

## One Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation

Long Cylinder
Consider a thin cylindrical shell element of thickness r in a
long cylinder as shown in Figure 1.2

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Assume,
The density of the cylinder =
The specific heat = C, and
The length = L
The area of the cylinder normal to the direction of heat
transfer, A =2

## Fig.1.2: One dimensional heat conduction through a volume

element in a long cylinder
An energy balance on this thin cylindrical shell element
during a small time interval t can be expressed as
Rateof
heat
conduction
at x

Rateof
heat
conduction
at x + x

( ) ( ) (
QQ r - QQ

r+r

+ G

element

Eelement
t

Rate of heat
generation
inside the
element

) (
=

Rateof chane
of the energy
content of the
element

(1.2)

PAGE 4

## The change in the energy content and the rate of heat

generation can be expressed as
E
G

element

element

=gV

element

=gAr

## Substituting into Equation 1.1, we get

T T
QQr - QQr+r + gAx = CAr t + t t
t
Dividing by Ar , taking the limit as x
from Fouriers law:

1
A

KA

T
r

0 and t

0 and

T
t

+ g = C

A=2

## equation in cylinder becomes

Variable conductivity:

1
T
T
rk
+ g =C
r r
r
t

Constant conductivity:

1 T g 1 T
r
+ =
r r r k t

( )

( )

k
C

material.

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## The one dimensional heat conduction equation may be

reduces to the following forms under special conditions

1 d dT g
r
+ =0
r dr dr k

( )

1 T 1 T
r
=
r r r t

( )

d dT
r
=0
dr dr

( )

## One Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation

Sphere
Consider a sphere with density , specific heat C, and outer
radius R. The area of the sphere normal to the direction of
heat transfer, A =4

## Fig.1.3: One dimensional heat conduction through a volume

element in a sphere

PAGE 6

## An energy balance on this thin spherical element during a

small time interval t can be expressed as
Rateof
heat
conduction
at x

Rateof
heat
conduction
at x + x

( ) ( ) (
QQ r - QQ

r+r

+ G

element

Eelement
t

Rate of heat
generation
inside the
element

) (
=

Rateof chane
of the energy
content of the
element

(1.3)
The change in the energy content and the rate of heat
generation can be expressed as
E
G

element

element

=gV

element

=gAr

## Substituting into Equation 1.1, we get

T T
QQr - QQr+r + gAx = CAr t + t t
t
Dividing by Ar , taking the limit as x
from Fouriers law:

1
A

( KA Tr )

+ g = C

0 and t

0 and

T
t

A=4

## equation in sphere becomes

PAGE 7

Variable conductivity:

1 2 T
T
r
k
+
g
=C
2
r
t
r r

1 2 T
r
r2 r r

( )

Constant conductivity:

g 1 T
=
k t
where the property =

k
C

material.

## The one dimensional heat conduction equation may be

reduces to the following forms under special conditions

1 d 2 dT g
r
+ =0
r 2 dr dr k

( )

1 2 T 1 T
r
=
r2 r r t

( )

d 2 dT
r
=0
dr dr

( )

PAGE 8

## Combined One Dimensional Heat

Conduction Equation
The one dimensional transient heat conduction equations for
the plane wall, cylinder and sphere reveals that all three
equations can be expressed in a compact form as

1 n T
r
r n r r

( )

+ g= C

T
t

## Where n=o for a plane wall

n=1 for a cylinder
n=2 for a sphere
In the case of a plane wall, it is customary to replace the
variable r by x.

The End

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