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Furnaces and Refractories

Chapter - 1
FURNACES AND REFRACTORIES
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 1
2. TYPES OF FURNACES, REFRACTORIES AND INSULATION ................. 5
3. ASSESSMENT OF FURNACES ................................................................................. 18
4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITES .......................................................... 27
5. OPTIONS CHECKLIST ................................................................................................ 35

6. WORKSHEETS.............................................................................................................. 35
7. REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 36

1. INTRODUCTION
This section introduces furnaces and refractories and explains the various design and operation
aspects.

1.1 What is a furnace?


A furnace is an equipment used to melt metals for casting or to heat materials to change their
shape (e.g. rolling, forging) or properties (heat treatment).
Since flue gases from the fuel come in direct contact with the materials, the type of fuel chosen is
important. For example, some materials will not tolerate sulphur in the fuel. Solid fuels generate
particulate matter, which will interfere the materials placed inside the furnace. For this reason:
Most furnaces use liquid fuel, gaseous fuel or electricity as energy input.
Induction and arc furnaces use electricity to melt steel and cast iron.
Melting furnaces for nonferrous materials use fuel oil.
Oil-fired furnaces mostly use furnace oil, especially for reheating and heat treatment of
materials.
Light diesel oil (LDO) is used in furnaces where sulphur is undesirable.
Furnace ideally should heat as much of material as possible to a uniform temperature with the
least possible fuel and labor. The key to efficient furnace operation lies in complete combustion
of fuel with minimum excess air. Furnaces operate with relatively low efficiencies (as low as 7
percent) compared to other combustion equipment such as the boiler (with efficiencies higher
than 90 percent. This is caused by the high operating temperatures in the furnace. For example, a
furnace heating materials to 1200 oC will emit exhaust gases at 1200 oC or more, which results in
significant heat losses through the chimney.

Furnaces and Refractories


All furnaces have the following components as shown in Figure 1 (Carbon Trust, 1993):
Refractory chamber constructed of insulating materials to retain heat at high operating
temperatures.
Hearth to support or carry the steel, which consists of refractory materials supported by a
steel structure, part of which is water-cooled.
Burners that use liquid or gaseous fuels to raise and maintain the temperature in the chamber.
Coal or electricity can be used in reheating furnaces.
Chimney to remove combustion exhaust gases from the chamber
Charging and discharging doors through which the chamber is loaded and unloaded. Loading
and unloading equipment include roller tables, conveyors, charging machines and furnace
pushers.
Figure 1: Typical Furnace Components (The Carbon Trust, 1993)

1.2 What are refractories?


Any material can be described as a refractory, if it can withstand the action of abrasive or
corrosive solids, liquids or gases at high temperatures. The various combinations of operating
conditions in which refractories are used, make it necessary to manufacture a range of refractory
materials with different properties. Refractory materials are made in varying combinations and
shapes depending on their applications. General requirements of a refractory material are:
Withstand high temperatures
Withstand sudden changes of temperatures
Withstand action of molten metal slag, glass, hot gases, etc
Withstand load at service conditions

Furnaces and Refractories

Withstand load and abrasive forces


Conserve heat
Have low coefficient of thermal expansion
Should not contaminate the material with which it comes into contact

Table 1 compares the thermal properties of typical high density and low density refractory
materials.
Table 1. Typical Refractory Properties (The Carbon Trust, 1993)
Property
Thermal conductivity (W/m K)
Specific heat (J/kg K)
Density (kg/m3)

High Thermal Mass


(High density refractories)
1.2
1000
2300

Low Thermal Mass


(Ceramic fiber)
0.3
1000
130

Depending on the area of application such as boilers, furnaces, kilns, ovens etc, temperatures and
atmospheres encountered different types of refractories are used. Typical installations of
refractories are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2a. Refractory lining of a furnace


arch (BEE, 2005)

Figure 2b. Refractory walls of a furnace


interior with burner blocks (BEE, 2005)

Some of the important properties of refractories are:


Melting point: Pure substances melt instantly at a specific temperature. Most refractory materials
consist of particles bonded together that have high melting temperatures. At high temperatures,
these particles melt and form slag. The melting point of the refractory is the temperature at which
a test pyramid (cone) fails to support its own weight.
Size: The size and shape of the refractories is a part of the design of the furnace, since it affects
the stability of the furnace structure. Accurate size is extremely important to properly fit the
refractory shape inside the furnace and to minimize space between construction joints.
Bulk density: The bulk density is useful property of refractories, which is the amount of
refractory material within a volume (kg/m3). An increase in bulk density of a given refractory
increases its volume stability, heat capacity and resistance to slag penetration.
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Furnaces and Refractories


Porosity: The apparent porosity is the volume of the open pores, into which a liquid can
penetrate, as a percentage of the total volume of the refractory. This property is important when
the refractory is in contact with molten charge and slag. A low apparent porosity prevents molten
material from penetrating into the refractory. A large number of small pores is generally
preferred to a small number of large pores.
Cold crushing strength: The cold crushing strength is the resistance of the refractory to
crushing, which mostly happens during transport. It only has an indirect relevance to refractory
performance, and is used as one of the indicators of abrasion resistance. Other indicators used are
bulk density and porosity.
Pyrometric cones and Pyrometric cones equivalent (PCE): The refractoriness of (refractory)
bricks is the temperature at which the refractory bends because it can no longer support its own
weight. Pyrometric cones are used in ceramic industries to test the refractoriness of the
(refractory) bricks. They consist of a mixture of oxides that are known to melt at a specific
narrow temperature range. Cones with different oxide composition are placed in sequence of
their melting temperature alongside a row of refractory bricks in a furnace. The furnace is fired
and the temperature rises. One cone will bends together with the refractory brick. This is the
temperature range in oC above which the refractory cannot be used. This is known as Pyrometric
Cone Equivalent temperatures. (Figure 3)

Figure 3: Pyrometric Cones


(Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2004)
Creep at high temperature: Creep is a time dependent property, which determines the
deformation in a given time and at a given temperature by a refractory material under stress.
Volume stability, expansion, and shrinkage at high temperatures: The contraction or expansion
of the refractories can take place during service life. Such permanent changes in dimensions may
be due to:
The changes in the allotropic forms, which cause a change in specific gravity
A chemical reaction, which produces a new material of altered specific gravity
The formation of liquid phase
Sintering reactions

Furnaces and Refractories

Fusion dust and slag or by the action of alkalies on fireclay refractories, to form alkalialumina silicates. This is generally observed in blast furnaces.

Reversible thermal expansion: Any material expands when heated, and contracts when cooled.
The reversible thermal expansion is a reflection on the phase transformations that occur during
heating and cooling.
Thermal conductivity: Thermal conductivity depends on the chemical and mineralogical
composition and silica content of the refractory and on the application temperature. The
conductivity usually changes with rising temperature. High thermal conductivity of a refractory
is desirable when heat transfer though brickwork is required, for example in recuperators,
regenerators, muffles, etc. Low thermal conductivity is desirable for conservation of heat, as the
refractory acts as an insulator. Additional insulation conserves heat but at the same time
increases the hot face temperature and hence a better quality refractory is required. Because of
this, the outside roofs of open-hearth furnaces are normally not insulated, as this could cause the
roof to collapse. Lightweight refractories of low thermal conductivity find wider applications in
low temperature heat treatment furnaces, for example in batch type furnaces where the low heat
capacity of the refractory structure minimizes the heat stored during the intermittent heating and
cooling cycles. Insulating refractories have very low thermal conductivity. This is usually
achieved by trapping a higher proportion of air into the structure. Some examples are:
Naturally occurring materials like asbestos are good insulators but are not particularly good
refractories
Mineral wools are available which combine good insulating properties with good resistance
to heat but these are not rigid
Porous bricks are rigid at high temperatures and have a reasonably low thermal conductivity.

2. TYPES OF FURNACES, REFRACTORIES AND INSULATION


This section describes the types of furnaces, refractories and insulation materials used in
industry. It also gives criteria for selecting refractory types for optimum results.

2.1 Types of furnaces


Furnaces are broadly classified into two types based on the heat generation method: combustion
furnaces that use fuels, and electric furnaces that use electricity. Combustion furnaces can be
classified in several based as shown in Table 2: type of fuel used, mode of charging the
materials, mode of heat transfer and mode of waste heat recovery. However, it is not possible to
use this classification in practice, because a furnace can be using different types of fuel, different
ways to charge materials into the furnace etc. The most commonly used furnaces are described in
the next sections

Furnaces and Refractories


Table 2. Classification of furnaces
Classification method
Type of fuel used

Mode of charging materials

Types and examples


Oil-fired
Gas-fired
Coal-fired
Intermittent / Batch
Periodical
Forging
Re-rolling (batch/pusher)
Pot
Continuous
Pusher
Walking beam
Walking hearth
Continuous recirculating bogie furnaces
Rotary hearth furnaces

Mode of heat transfer

Radiation (open fire place)

Mode of waste heat recovery

Convection (heated through medium)


Recuperative
Regenerative

2.1.1 Forging furnace


The forging furnace is used for preheating billets and ingots to attain a forge temperature. The
furnace temperature is maintained at around 1200 to 1250 oC. Forging furnaces use an open
fireplace system and most of the heat is transmitted by radiation. The typical load is 5 to 6 ton
with the furnace operating for 16 to 18 hours daily. The total operating cycle can be divided into
(i) heat-up time (ii) soaking time and (iii) forging time. Specific fuel consumption depends upon
the type of material and number of reheats required.
2.1.2 Re-rolling mill furnace
a) Batch type
A box type furnace is used as a batch type re-rolling mill. This furnace is mainly used for heating
up scrap, small ingots and billets weighing 2 to 20 kg for re-rolling. Materials are manually
charged and discharged and the final products are rods, strips etc. The operating temperature is
about 1200 oC. The total cycle time can be further categorized into heat-up time and re-rolling
time. During heat-up time the material gets heated up-to the required temperature and is removed
manually for re-rolling. The average output from these furnaces varies from 10 to 15 tons / day
and the specific fuel consumption varies from 180 to 280 kg. of coal / ton of heated material.
b) Continuous pusher type
The process flow and operating cycles of a continuous pusher type is the same as that of the
batch furnace. The operating temperature is about 1250 o C. Generally, these furnaces operate 8
to 10 hours with an output of 20 to 25 ton per day. The material or stock recovers a part of the

Furnaces and Refractories


heat
eat in flue gases as it moves down the length of the furnace. Heat absorption by the material in
the furnace is slow, steady and uniform throughout the cross-section compared with batch type.
2.1.3 Continuous reheating furnace
In continuous reheating, the steel stock forms a continuous flow of material and is heated to the
desired temperature as it travels through the furnace. The temperature of a piece of steel is
typically raised to between 900C and 1250oC, until it is soft enough to be pressed or rolled into
the desired size or shape. The furnace must also meet specific stock heating rates for
metallurgical and productivity reasons.
To ensure that the energy loss is kept to a minimum, the inlet and outlet doors should be minimal
in size and designed to avoid air infiltration. Continuous reheating furnaces can be categorized
by the two methods of transporting stock through the furnace:
Stock is kept together to form a stream of material that is pushed through the furnace. Such
furnaces are called pusher type furnaces.
Stock is placed on a moving hearth or supporting structure which transports the steel through
the furnace. The furnaces include walking beam, walking hearth, continuous recirculating
bogie furnaces, and rotary hearth furnaces.
Table 3 compares the main types of continuous reheating furnaces used in industry.

Figure 4. Pusher Furnace (The Carbon Trust, 1993)

Furnaces and Refractories


Table 3. Comparison of Different Continuous Reheating Furnaces (Adapted from The Carbon Trust, 1993 and BEE, 2005)
Type
Pusher
furnace
(Figure 4)

Walking
beam
furnace
(Figure 5)

Description
The main features are:
Furnaces may have solid hearth, but in most
cases pushers are used to charge and
discharge stock, that move on skids (rails)
with water-cooled supports.
These furnaces typically have a hearth sloping
towards the discharge end of up to 35 meters
divided into five zones in top-fired furnaces.
Firing of furnace by burners located at the
discharge end of the furnace, or at top and/or
bottom to heat stock from both top and/or
bottom
The discharge ends of these furnaces have a
chimney with a recuperator for waste heat
recovery.

Advantages
Low installation and
maintenance costs (compared
with moving hearth furnaces)

These furnaces operate as follows:


Stock is placed on stationary ridges
Walking beams are raised from the bottom to
raise the stock
Walking beams with the stock move forwards
Walking beams are lowered at end of the
furnace to place stock on stationary ridges
Stock is removed from furnace and walking
beams return to furnace entrance

Initially temperatures were limited 1000 0C but


new models are able to reach 1100 0C

Advantages of top and bottom


firing:
Faster heating of stock
Lower temperature
differences within stock
Reduced stock residence
time
Shorter furnace lengths
(compared to solid hearth
furnaces)

Overcomes many of the


problems of pusher furnaces
(skid marks, stock pile-ups,
charge/discharge)
Possible to heat bottom face
of the stock resulting in
shorter stock heating times
and furnace lengths and thus
better control of heating
rates, uniform stock
discharge temperatures and
operational flexibility

Disadvantages
Water cooling energy losses from the
skids and stock supporting structure
in top and bottom fired furnaces
Discharge must be accompanied by
charge
Stock sizes/weights and furnace
length are limited by friction and
possibility of stock pile-ups
Furnace needs facilities to be
completely emptied
Quality reduction by (a) physical
marking by skids or skid marks (b)
temperature differences along the
stock length caused by the water
cooled supports in top and bottom
fired furnaces
High energy loss through water
cooling (compared with walking
hearth furnaces)
Much of the furnace is below the
level of the mill; this may be a
constraint in some applications
Sometimes when operating
mechanism of beam make it
necessary to fire from the sides, this
results in non-uniform heating of the
stock

Furnaces and Refractories

Type
Walking
hearth
furnace
(Figure 6)

Description
These furnaces are designed so that the stock rests
on fixed refractory blocks, which are extended
through openings in the hearth. The stock is
transported towards the discharge end in discrete
steps by walking the hearth, similar to walking
beam furnaces

Continuous
recirculating
bogie
furnace
(Figure 7)

Rotary
hearth
furnace
(Figure 8)

The furnace has the shape of a long and narrow


tunnel with rails inside and works as follows:
Stock is placed on a bogie (cart with wheels)
with a refractory hearth
Several bogies move like a train over the
entire furnace length through the furnace
Stock is removed at the discharge end and the
bogie returns to the charge end of the furnace

More recent developed furnace type that is


overtaking the bogie furnace. The walls and the
roof of the furnace remains stationery while the
hearth moves in a circle on rollers, carrying the
stock. Heated gas moves in opposite direction of
the hearth and flue gases are discharged near the
charging door. The temperature can reach 1300 oC

Advantages
Simplicity of design
Ease of construction
Ability to cater for different
stock sizes (within limits)
Negligible water cooling
energy losses
Can be emptied
Minimal physical marking of
the stock
Suitable for compact stock of
variable size and geometry

Suitable for stock of variable


size and geometry
Reduced heat storage loss
compared to bogie furnace

Disadvantages
Temperatures across the stock are
not uniform because the bottom of
stock cannot be heated and small
spaces between the stock limits
heating of the sides. Large spaces
between stocks can partially alleviate
this. But this increases stock
residence time to up to several hours,
which affects furnace flexibility and
yield
The stock in the bogie has to undergo
a cycle of heating and cooling then
again heating
Heat storage loss through heating
and cooling of the bogies
Inadequate sealing of the gap
between the bogies and furnace shell,
difficulties in removing scale, and
difficulties in firing across a narrow
hearth width caused by the narrow
and long furnace shape
More complex design with an
annular shape and revolving hearth
Possible logistical problems in layout
of some rolling mills and forges
because of close location of charge
and discharge positions

Furnaces and Refractories

Figure 5. Walking Beam Furnace (The Carbon Trust 1993)

Figure 6. Walking Hearth Furnace (The Carbon Trust, 1993)

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Furnaces and Refractories

Figure 7. Continuous Re-circulating Bogie Furnace (The Carbon Trust, 1993)

Figure 8. Rotary Hearth Furnace (The Carbon Trust, 1993)

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Furnaces and Refractories

2.2 Types of refractories


Refractories can be classified on the basis of chemical composition, end use and methods of
manufacture as shown below.
Table 4. Classification of refractories based on chemical composition (Adapted from
Gilchrist)
Classification method
Examples
Chemical composition
ACID, which readily combines
Silica, Semisilica, Aluminosilicate
with bases
BASIC, which consists mainly of Magnesite, Chrome-magnesite, Magnesite-chromite,
metallic oxides that resist the
Dolomite
action of bases
NEUTRAL, which does not
Fireclay bricks, Chrome, Pure Alumina
combine with acids nor bases
Special
Carbon, Silicon Carbide, Zirconia
Blast furnace casting pit
End use
Dry press process, fused cast, hand moulded, formed normal,
Method of manufacture
fired or chemically bonded, unformed (monolithics, plastics,
ramming mass, gunning castable, spraying)
2.2.1 Fireclay refractories
Firebrick is the most common form of refractory material. It is used extensively in the iron and
steel industry, nonferrous metallurgy, glass industry, pottery kilns, cement industry, and many
others.
Fireclay refractories, such as firebricks, siliceous fireclays and aluminous clay refractories
consist of aluminum silicates with varying silica (SiO2) content of up to 78 percent and Al2O3
content of up to 44 percent. Table 5 shows that the melting point (PCE) of fireclay brick
decreases with increasing impurity and decreasing Al2O3. This material is often used in furnaces,
kilns and stoves because the materials are widely available and relatively inexpensive.
Table 5. Properties of typical fireclay bricks (BEE, 2005)
Brick type
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage other
SiO2
Al2O3
constituents
Super Duty
49-53
40-44
5-7
High Duty
50-80
35-40
5-9
Intermediate
60-70
26-36
5-9
High Duty (Siliceous) 65-80
18-30
3-8
Low Duty
60-70
23-33
6-10

PCE oC
1745-1760
1690-1745
1640-1680
1620-1680
1520-1595

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Furnaces and Refractories


2.2.2 High alumina refractories
Alumina silicate refractories containing more than 45 percent alumina are generally termed as
high alumina materials. The alumina concentration ranges from 45 to 100 percent. The
refractoriness of high alumina refractories increases with increase in alumina percentage. The
applications of high alumina refractories include the hearth and shaft of blast furnaces, ceramic
kilns, cement kilns, glass tanks and crucibles for melting a wide range of metals.
2.2.3 Silica brick
Silica brick (or Dinas) is a refractory that contains at least 93 percent SiO2. The raw material is
quality rocks. Various grades of silica brick have found extensive use in the iron and steel
melting furnaces and the glass industry. In addition to high fusion point multi-type refractories,
other important properties are their high resistance to thermal shock (spalling) and their high
refractoriness. The outstanding property of silica brick is that it does not begin to soften under
high loads until its fusion point is approached. This behavior contrasts with that of many other
refractories, for example alumina silicate materials, which begin to fuse and creep at
temperatures considerably lower than their fusion points. Other advantages are flux and stag
resistance, volume stability and high spalling resistance.
2.2.4 Magnesite
Magnesite refractories are chemically basic materials, containing at least 85 percent magnesium
oxide. They are made from naturally occurring magnesite (MgCO3). The properties of magnesite
refractories depend on the concentration of silicate bond at the operating temperatures. Good
quality magnesite usually results from a CaO-SiO2 ratio of less than two with a minimum ferrite
concentration, particularly if the furnaces lined with the refractory operate in oxidizing and
reducing conditions. The slag resistance is very high particularly to lime and iron rich slags.
2.2.5 Chromite refractories
Two types of chromite refractories are distinguished:
Chrome-magnesite refractories, which usually contain 15-35 percent Cr2O3 and 42-50
percent MgO. They are made in a wide range of qualities and are used for building the
critical parts of high temperature furnaces. These materials can withstand corrosive slags and
gases and have high refractoriness.
Magnesite-chromite refractories, which contain at least 60 percent MgO and 8-18 percent
Cr2O3. They are suitable for service at the highest temperatures and for contact with the most
basic slags used in steel melting. Magnesite-chromite usually has a better spalling resistance
than chrome-magnesite.
2.2.6 Zirconia refractories
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is a polymorphic material. It is essential to stabilize it before
application as a refractory, which is achieved by incorporating small quantities of calcium,
magnesium and cerium oxide, etc. Its properties depend mainly on the degree of stabilization,
quantity of stabilizer and quality of the original raw material. Zirconia refractories have a very
high strength at room temperature, which is maintained up to temperatures as high as 15000C.
They are therefore useful as high temperature construction materials in furnaces and kilns. The
thermal conductivity of zirconium dioxide is much lower than that of most other refractories and
the material is therefore used as a high temperature insulating refractory. Zirconia exhibits very

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Furnaces and Refractories


low thermal losses and does not react readily with liquid metals, and is particularly useful for
making refractory crucibles and other vessels for metallurgical purposes. Glass furnaces use
zirconia because it is not easily wetted by molten glasses and does not react easily with glass.
2.2.7 Oxide refractories (Alumina)
Alumina refractory materials that consist of aluminium oxide with little traces of impurities are
known as pure alumina. Alumina is one of the most chemically stable oxides known. It is
mechanically very strong, insoluble in water, super heated steam, and most inorganic acids and
alkalies. Its properties make it suitable for the shaping of crucibles for fusing sodium carbonate,
sodium hydroxide and sodium peroxide. It has a high resistance in oxidizing and reducing
atmosphere. Alumina is extensively used in heat processing industries. Highly porous alumina is
used for lining furnaces operating up to 1850oC.
2.2.8 Monolithics
Monolithic refractories are single piece casts in the shape of equipment, such as a ladle as shown
in Figure 9. They are rapidly replacing the conventional type fired refractories in many
applications including industrial furnaces. The main advantages of monolithics are:
Elimination of joints which is an inherent weakness
Faster application method
Special skill for installation not required
Ease of transportation and handling
Better scope to reduce downtime for repairs
Considerable scope to reduce inventory and eliminate special shapes
Heat savings
Better spalling resistance
Greater volume stability
Monolithics are put into place using various methods, such as ramming, casting, gunniting,
spraying, and sand slinging. Ramming requires proper tools and is mostly used in cold
applications where proper consolidation of the material is important. Ramming is also used for
air setting and heat setting materials. Because calcium aluminate cement is the binder, it will
have to be stored properly to prevent moisture absorption. Its strength starts deteriorating after 6
to 12 months.

Figure 9. A Monolithic Lining for Ladel


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Furnaces and Refractories

2.3 Insulating materials


Insulating materials greatly reduce the heat losses through walls. Insulation is achieved by
providing a layer of material with low heat conductivity between the internal hot surface of a
furnace and the external surface, thus keeping the temperature of the external surface low.
Insulating materials may be classified into the following groups:
Insulating bricks
Insulating castables
Ceramic fiber
Calcium silicate
Ceramic coating
Insulating materials owe their low conductivity to their pores while their heat capacity depends
on the bulk density and specific heat. Air insulating materials consist of minute pores filled with
air, which have a very low thermal conductivity. Excessive heat affects all insulation material
adversely, but at what temperatures this takes place varies widely. Therefore the choice of an
insulating material must be based on its ability to resist heat conductivity and on the highest
temperature it will withstand. One of the most widely used insulating materials is diatomite, also
known as kiesel guhr, which consists of a mass of skeletons of minute aquatic plants deposited
thousands of years ago on the beds of seas and lakes. Its chemical composition is silica
contaminated with clay and organic matter. A wide range of insulating refractories with wide
combinations of properties is now available. Table 6 shows important physical properties of
some insulating refractories.
Table 6. Physical properties of insulating materials (BEE, 2005)
Type

Diatomite Solid
Grade
Diatomite
Porous Grade
Clay
High Alumina
Silica

Thermal
conductivity at
400oC
0.025

Max. safe
temperature (oC)
1000

Cold crushing
strength
(kg/cm2)
270

Porosity
percent
52

Bulk
density
(kg/m3)
1090

0.014

800

110

77

540

0.030
0.028
0.040

1500
1500-1600
1400

260
300
400

68
66
65

560
910
830

2.3.1 Castables and concretes


Monolithic linings of furnace sections can be constructed by casting refractory insulating
concretes, and stamping lightweight aggregates into place that are suitably bonded. Other
applications include the bases of tunnel kiln cars used in the ceramic industry. The ingredients
are similar to those insulation materials used for making piece refractories, except that concretes
contain either Portland or high-alumina cement.

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Furnaces and Refractories


2.3.2 Ceramic fiber
Ceramic fiber is a low thermal mass insulation material, which has revolutionized furnace design
lining systems. Ceramic fiber is manufactured by blending and melting alumina and silica at a
temperature of 1800 2000oC, and breaking the molten stream by blowing compressed air or
dropping the molten stream on a spinning disc to form loose or bulk ceramic fiber. The bulk
fiber is used to produce various insulation products including blankets, strips, veneering and
anchored modules, paper, vacuum formed boards and shapes, ropes, wet felt, mastic cement etc.
Fibers are usually produced in two temperature grades based on Al2O3 content. A new product is
ZrO2 added alumino-silicate fiber, which helps to reduce shrinkage levels and thereby making
the fiber suitable for higher temperatures. Continuous recommended operating temperature for
fibers are given in the Table 7.
Table 7. Continuous recommended operating temperature for fibers (BEE, 2005)
SiO2
ZrO2
Al2O3
o
1150 C
43 47 percent
53 57 percent
o
1250 C
52 56 percent
44 48 percent
o
1325 C
33 35 percent
47 50 percent
17 20 percent
Ceramic fibers are generally produced in bulk wool form and needled into a blanket mass of
various densities ranging from 64 to 190 kg/m3. Converted products and over 40 different forms
are made from blankets to suit various requirements.
The characteristics of ceramic fibers are a remarkable combination of the properties of
refractories and traditional insulation material.
a) Lower thermal conductivity
Because of the low thermal conductivity (0.1 kCal/m per hour per oC at 600 oC for a blanket with
128 kg/m3 density) it is possible to construct thinner linings with the same thermal efficiency as
conventional refractories. As a result of thinner lining, the furnace volume is higher. It is 40
percent more effective than good quality insulation brick and 2.5 times better than asbestos.
Ceramic fiber is a better insulator than calcium silicate.
b) Light weight
The average density of ceramic fiber is 96 kg/m3. It is one tenth of the weight of insulating brick
and one third of the weight of asbestos / calcium silicate boards. For new furnaces structural
supports can be reduced by 40 percent.
c) Lower heat storage
Ceramic fiber linings absorb less heat because of their lower density. Furnaces can therefore be
heated and cooled at faster rates. Typically the heat stored in a ceramic fiber lining system is in
the range of 2700 - 4050 kCal/m2 (1000 1500 Btu/Ft2) as compared to 54200-493900 kCal/m2
(20000 250000 Btu/Ft2) for conventionally lined systems.

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Furnaces and Refractories


d) Thermal shock resistant
Ceramic fiber linings resist thermal shock due to their resilient matrix. This also allows for
faster heat up and cool down cycles, thereby improving furnace availability and productivity.
e) Chemical resistance
Ceramic fiber resist most of the chemical attack and is unaffected by hydrocarbons, water and
steam present in flue gases.
f) Mechanical resilience
The high mechanical resilience of ceramic fiber makes it possible to manufacture fiber-lined
furnaces off-site, transport them to the site in assembled form without the risk of damage.
g) Low installation cost
As the application of ceramic fibers is a standardized process, no special skills are required.
Fiber linings require no dry out or curing times and there is no risk of cracking or spalling when
they are heated after installation.
h) Ease of maintenance
In case of physical damage, the section of damaged ceramic fiber can be quickly removed and
replaced with a new piece. Entire panel sections can be prefabricated for fast installation with
minimal down time.
i) Ease of handling
All product forms are easily handled and most can be quickly cut with a knife or scissors.
Vacuum formed products may require cutting with a band saw.
j) Thermal efficiency
Thermal efficiency of a furnace lined with ceramic fiber is improved in two ways. First, the low
thermal conductivity of ceramic fiber allows the lining to be thinner and therefore the furnace
can be smaller. Second, the fast response of ceramic fiber to temperature changes also allows for
more accurate control and uniform temperature distribution within the furnace.
Other advantages offered by ceramic fiber are:
Lightweight furnace
Simple steel fabrication work
Low down time
Increased productivity
Additional capacity
Low maintenance cost
Longer service life
Higher thermal efficiency
Faster response
2.3.3 High emissivity coatings
Emissivity (i.e. the measure of a materials ability to both absorb and radiate heat) is often
considered as an inherent physical property that does not normally change (other examples are
density, specific heat and thermal conductivity). However, the development of high emissivity

17

Furnaces and Refractories


coatings allows the surface emissivity of materials to be increased. High emissivity coatings are
applied on the interior surface of furnaces. Figure 10 shows that the emissivity of various
insulating materials reduces with increasing process temperatures. The advantage of high
emissivity coatings is that the emissivity remains more or less constant.
The emissivity of furnaces that operate at high temperatures is 0.3. By using high emissivity
coatings this can go up to 0.8, resulting in an increase of heat transfer through radiation.
Other benefits of high emissivity coatings in furnace chambers are uniform heating and extended
life of refractories and metallic components such as radiant tubes and heating elements. For
intermittent furnaces or where rapid heating is required, use of such coatings was found to reduce
fuel or power by 25 - 45 percent.

Figure 10. Emissivity of Refractory Materials at Different


Temperatures (BEE, 2005)

3. ASSESSMENT OF FURNACES
This section describes the various methods and techniques used to quantify the losses from the
furnace and the methods to carry out performance assessment of typical furnaces.

3.1 Heat losses affecting furnace performance


Ideally, all heat added to the furnaces should be used to heat the load or stock. In practice,
however, a lot of heat is lost in several ways as shown in Figure 11.

18

Furnaces and Refractories

Heat input

FURNACE
Heat in stock

Other losses

Furnace surface/skin

Openings in furnace

Hydrogen in fuel

Moisture in fuel

Flue gas

Figure 11. Heat Losses in a Furnace


These furnace heat losses include (BEE, 2005 and US DOE, 2004):
Flue gas losses: part of the heat remains in the combustion gases inside the furnace. This
loss is also called waste-gas loss or stack loss.
Loss from moisture in fuel: fuel usually contains some moisture and some of the heat is used
to evaporate the moisture inside the furnace
Loss due to hydrogen in fuel which results in the formation of water
Loss through openings in the furnace: radiation loss occurs when there are openings in the
furnace enclosure and these losses can be significant, especially for furnaces operating at
temperatures above 540C. A second loss is through air infiltration because the draft of
furnace stacks/chimneys cause a negative pressure inside the furnace, drawing in air through
leaks or cracks or when ever the furnace doors are opened.
Furnace skin / surface losses, also called wall losses: while temperatures inside the furnace
are high, heat is conducted through the roof, floor and walls and emitted to the ambient air
once it reaches the furnace skin or surface.
Other losses: there are several other ways in which heat is lost from a furnace, although
quantifying these is often difficult. Some of these include
Stored heat losses: when the furnace is started the furnace structure and insulation is also
heated, and this heat only leaves the structure again when the furnace shuts down.
Therefore this type of heat loss increases with the number of times the furnace is turned
on and off
Material handling losses: the equipment used to move the stock through the furnace, such
as conveyor belts, walking beams, bogies etc, also absorb heat. Every time equipment
leave the furnace they loose their heat, therefore heat loss increases with the amount of
equipment and the frequency by which they enter and leave the furnace

19

Furnaces and Refractories


Cooling media losses: water and air are used to cool down equipment, rolls, bearing and
rolls, but heat is lost because these media absorb heat
Incomplete combustion losses: heat is lost if combustion is incomplete because unburnt
fuel or particles have absorbed heat but this heat has not been put to use
Loss due to formation of scales

3.2 Instruments to assess furnace performance


Furnace efficiency is calculated after subtracting the various heat losses. In order to find out
furnace efficiency using the indirect method, various parameters must be measured, such as
hourly furnace oil consumption, material output, excess air quantity, temperature of flue gas,
temperature of furnace at various zones, and others. Date for some of these parameters can be
obtained from production records while others must be measured with special monitoring
instruments. Table 8 lists the instruments that are needed to measure these parameters.
Table 8. Instruments for Measuring Furnace Performance Parameter (BEE, 2005)
Parameters
to be measured
Furnace soaking zone
temperature (reheating
furnaces)

Location of
measurement
Soaking zone and side
wall

Instrument
required
Pt/Pt-Rh thermocouple
with indicator and
recorder

Required
Value
1200-1300oC

Flue gas temperature

Chromel Alummel
Thermocouple with
indicator
Hg in steel thermometer

700oC max.

Flue gas temperature

In duct near the discharge


end, and entry to
recuperator
After recuperator

Furnace hearth pressure


in the heating zone

Near charging end and


side wall over the hearth

Low pressure ring gauge

+0.1 mm of Wc

Oxygen in flue gas

In duct near the discharge


end

5% O2

Billet temperature

Portable

Fuel efficiency monitor


for oxygen and
temperature
Infrared pyrometer or
optical pyrometer

300oC (max)

3.3 Calculating furnace performance


A furnaces efficiency increases when the percentage of heat that is transferred to the stock or
load inside the furnace increases. The efficiency of the furnace can be calculated in two ways,
similar to that of the boiler: direct method and indirect method. Both methods are explained
below.

20

Furnaces and Refractories


3.3.1 Direct method
The efficiency of a furnace can be determined by measuring the amount heat absorbed by the
stock and dividing this by the total amount of fuel consumed.

Thermal efficiency of the furnace =

Heat in the stock


Heat in the fuel consumed for heating the stock

The quantity of heat (Q) that will be transferred to stock can be calculated with this equation:
Q = m x Cp (t1 t2)
Where, Q = Quantity of heat of stock in kCal
m = Weight of the stock in kg
Cp= Mean specific heat of stock in kCal/kg oC
t1 = Final temperature of stock in oC
t2 = Initial temperature of the stock before it enters the furnace in oC
An example calculation is given in section 3.3.3.
3.3.2 Indirect method
The furnace efficiency can also be determined through the indirect method, similar to the
evaluation of boiler efficiency. The principle is simple: the heat losses are substracted from the
heat supplied to the furnace. Different types of heat losses are illustrated in Figure 11. Typical
thermal efficiencies for common industrial furnaces are given in the Table 9.
Table 9. Thermal Efficiencies for Common Industrial Furnaces (BEE 2005)
Furnace type
Typical thermal efficiencies (percent)
1) Low Temperature furnaces
a. 540 980 oC (Batch type)
20-30
o
b. 540 980 C (Continous type)
15-25
c. Coil Anneal (Bell) radiant type
5-7
d. Strip Anneal Muffle
7-12
2) High temperature furnaces
a. Pusher, Rotary
7-15
b. Batch forge
5-10
3) Continuous Kiln
a. Hoffman
25-90
b. Tunnel
20-80
4) Ovens
a. Indirect fired ovens (20 oC 370 oC)
35-40
b. Direct fired ovens (20 oC 370 oC)
35-40

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Furnaces and Refractories


An example calculation using the indirect method is given in the next section.
3.3.3 Example calculation of furnace efficiency
Calculate the efficiency of an oil-fired reheating furnace with the direct and indirect method
using the data below.
Operating temperature:
Exit flue gas temperature after preheater:
Ambient temperature:
Preheated air temperature:
Specific gravity of fuel oil:
Average fuel oil consumption:
Calorific value of oil
Average O2 percentage in flue gas:
Moisture in 1 kg of fuel oil:
H2 in 1 kg of fuel oil:
Theoretical air required to burn 1 kg of oil:
Weight of stock:
Specific heat of billet:
Furnace wall thickness (D):
Billet extraction outlet (X):
Average surface temperature
of heating + soaking zone:
Average surface temperature of area
other than heating and soaking zone:
Area of heating + soaking zone:
Area other than heating and soaking zone:

1340oC
750oC
40oC
190oC
0.92
400 liters / hr = 400 x 0.92 =368 kg/hr
10000 kCal/kg
12 percent
0.15 kg
0.1123 kg
14 kg
6000 kg/hr
0.12 kCal/kg/0C
460 mm
1mx1m
122 oC
80 oC
70.18 m2
12.6 m2

Direct method calculation


The heat input is 400 liters per hour. The specific gravity of fuel is used to convert this into kg.
Therefore: 400 l/hr x 0.92 kg/l = 368 kg/hr
The heat output is calculated as follows:
= m x Cp x T
= 6000 kg x 0.12 x (1340 40)
= 936000 kCal
The efficiency is:
= (heat input / heat output) x 100
= [(936000 / (368 x 10000)] x 100 = 25.43 percent
The approximate heat loss is 100% 25% = 75%

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Furnaces and Refractories


Indirect method
The different heat losses are calculated below.
a) Heat loss in flue gas
Excess air (EA)
= O2 percent / (21 O2 percent)
= 12 / (21 12)
= 133 %
Mass of air supplied
= (1 + EA/100) x Theoretical air
= (1+ 1.13) x 14
= 32.62 kg/kg fuel oil

% Heat loss in flue gas =

m x Cp x T x 100
GCV of fuel

Where,
m = weight of flue gas (air + fuel) = 32.62 + 1.0 = 33.62 kg/kg oil
Cp = specific heat
T = temperature difference
% Heat loss = {33.62 x 0.24 x (750 40)} x 100 = 57.29%
10000
b) Heat loss from moisture in fuel

% Heat loss from moisture in fuel =

M x {584 + Cp (Tf Tamb)} x 100


GCV of fuel

Where,
M = kg of moisture in 1 kg of fuel oil
Tfg = Flue gas temperature, 0C
Tamb = Ambient temperature, 0C
GCV = Gross Calorific Value of fuel, kCal/kg
% Heat loss = 0.15 x {584 + 0.45 (750 40)} x 100 = 1.36%
10000

23

Furnaces and Refractories


c) Loss due to hydrogen in fuel

% Heat loss due to hydrogen in fuel =

9 x H2 x {584 + Cp (Tf Tamb)} x 100


GCV of fuel

Where,
H2 = kg of H2 in 1 kg of fuel oil (= 0.1123 kg/kg of fuel oil)
% Heat loss = 9 x 0.1123 x {584 + 0.45 (750 40)} x 100 = 9.13%
10000
d) Heat loss due to openings in furnace

(Black body radiation factor x emissivity x


% Heat loss from openings in
factor of radiation x area of opening) x 100
furnace =
Quantity of oil x GCV of oil

The factor of radiation through openings and the black body radiation factor can be obtained
from standard graphs as shown in Figure 12 and Figure 13.
Factor of radiation (refer Figure 12) = 0.71
Black body radiation at 1340 0C (refer Figure 13) = 36 kCal/kg/cm2/hr
The area of the opening is 100 cm x 100 cm = 10000 cm2
Emissivity = 0.8
% Heat loss from furnace openings = 36 x 0.8 x 0.71 x 10000 x 100 = 5.56%
368 x 10000

24

Furnaces and Refractories

Figure 12. Radiation Factor for Heat Release through Openings relative to
the Quality of Heat Release from Perfect Black Body (BEE, 2005)

Figure 13. Black Body Radiation at Different Temperatures (BEE, 2005)

25

Furnaces and Refractories


e) Heat loss through furnace skin
To determine the heat loss through the furnace skin, first the heat loss through the roof and
sidewalls and through other areas must be calculated separately.
i). Heat loss through roof/ceiling and sidewalls (= heating and soaking zone):
Total average surface temperature
= 122oC
o
Heat loss at 122 C (Refer Figure 14)
= 1252 kCal /m2 hr
Total area of heating + soaking zone
= 70.18 m2

Heat loss through furnace roof =

Heat loss from roof and walls


Area of roof and walls

Total heat loss = 1252 kCal / m2 hr x 70.18 m2 = 87865 kCal/hr


ii) Heat lost from area other than heating and soaking zone
Total average surface temperature = 80 oC
Heat loss at 80oC (Refer Figure 14) = 740 kCal / m2 hr
Total area
= 12.6 m2

Heat loss through other areas =

Heat loss from roof other areas


Area of other areas

Total heat loss = 740 kCal / m2 hr x 12.6 m2 = 9324 kCal/hr

% Heat loss through furnace skin =

(Heat loss i + heat loss ii) x 100


GCV of oil x Quantity of oil per hour

% Heat loss through furnace skin = (87865 kCal/hr + 9324 kCal/hr) x 100 = 2.64%
10000 kCal/kg x 368 kg/hr
f) Unaccounted losses
The unaccounted losses cannot be calculated unless the other types of losses are known.
Furnace efficiency
Adding the losses a to f up gives the total losses:
a) Flue gas loss
= 57.29 %

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Furnaces and Refractories


b) Loss due to moisture in fuel
c) Loss due to H2 in fuel
d) Loss due to openings in furnace
e) Loss through furnace skin
Total losses

= 1.36 %
= 9.13 %
= 5.56 %
= 2.64 %
= 75.98 %

The furnace efficiency calculated through the indirect method = 100 75.98 = 24.02%

Figure 14. Heat Loss from the Ceiling, Sidewall and Hearth of Furnace (BEE, 2005)

4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITES


This section explains the various energy saving opportunities in furnaces. 6 Typical energy
efficiency measures for an industry with furnace are:
1. Complete combustion with minimum excess air
2. Proper heat distribution
3. Operation at the optimum furnace temperature
4. Reducing heat losses from furnace openings
5. Maintaining correct amount of furnace draft
6. Optimum capacity utilization
7. Waste heat recovery from the flue gases
8. Minimum refractory losses
9. Use of ceramic coatings
10. Selecting the right refractories

27

Furnaces and Refractories

4.1 Complete combustion with minimum excess air


The amount of heat lost in the flue gases (stack losses) depends on the amount of excess air. To
obtain complete combustion of fuel with the minimum amount of air, it is necessary to control
air infiltration, maintain pressure of combustion air, fuel quality and monitor the amount excess
air. Too much excess air will reduce flame temperature, furnace temperature and heating rate.
Too little excess air will result in an increase in unburnt components in flue gases that are carried
away through the stack and it also causes more scale losses.
Optimizing combustion air is the most attractive and economical measure for energy
conservation. Potential savings are higher when the temperature of furnace is high. The air ratio
(= actual air amount / theoretical combustion air amount) gives an indication of excess air air. If
a reheating furnace is not equipped with an automatic air/fuel ratio controller, it is necessary to
periodically take a sample of gas in the furnace and measure its oxygen contents with a gas
analyzer.

4.2 Proper heat distribution


A furnace should be designed to ensure that within a given time the stock is heated uniformly to
a desired temperature with the minimum amount of fuel.
Where burners are used to fire the furnace, the following should be ensured for proper heat
distribution:
The flame should not touch or be obstructed by any solid object. Obstruction causes the fuel
particles to de-atomize, which affects combustion and causes black smoke. If the flame
impinges on the stock scale losses will increase. If the flame impinges on refractories,
products from incomplete combustion can settle and react with the refractory constituents at
high temperatures.
The flames of different burners should stay clear of each other, as intersecting flames cause
incomplete combustion. It is also desirable to stagger burners on opposite sides.
The burner flame has a tendency to travel freely in the combustion space just above the
material. For this reason, the axis of the burner in small furnaces is never placed parallel to
the hearth but always at an upward angle, but the flame should not hit the roof.
Large burners produce longer flames, which may be difficult to contain within the furnace
walls. More burners of less capacity ensure a better heat distribution inside the furnace and
also increase the furnace life.
In small furnaces that use furnace oil, a burner with a long flame with a golden yellow color
improves uniform heating. But the flame should not be too long, because heat is lost of the
flame reaches the chimney or the furnace doors.

4.3. Operation at the optimum furnace temperature


It is important to operate the furnace at its optimum temperature. Operating temperatures of
various furnaces are given in Table 10. Operating at too high temperatures causes heat loss,
excessive oxidation, de-carbonization and stress on refractories. Automatic control of the furnace
temperature is preferred to avoid human error.

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Furnaces and Refractories

Table 10. Operating Temperatures of Various Furnaces


Slab Reheating furnaces
1200oC
Rolling Mill furnaces
1200oC
Bar furnace for Sheet Mill
800oC
Bogie type annealing furnaces
650oC 750oC

4.4. Prevent heat loss through openings


Heat can be lost by direct radiation through openings in the furnace, such as the charging inless,
extracting outlet and the peephole in the wall or ceiling. Heat is also lost due to pressure
differences between the inside of the furnace and the ambient environment causing combustion
gases to leak through the openings. But most heat is lost if outside air infiltrates into the furnace,
because in addition to heat loss this also causes uneven temperatures inside the furnace and stock
and can even lead to oxidization of billets.
It is therefore important to keep the openings as small as possible and to seal them. Another
effective way to reduce the heat loss through furnace openings is by opening the furnace doors
less frequent and for the shortest time period as possible (another option is described under item
4.5). This heat loss is about 1 percent of the total quantity of heat generated in the furnace, if
furnace pressure is controlled properly.
Section 3.3.3 already explained one way of calculating heat loss through openings. But an
alternative way is calculating heat loss with the following equation:

Where,
Q = heat loss
T = absolute temperature (K)
a = factor for total radiation
A = area of opening, m2
H = time (hours)
For example, a reheating furnace with a temperature of 1340 oC, the wall thickness is 460 mm
(X) and the door is 1 m high (D) by 1 m wide. D/X = 1/0.460 = 0.71, and in Figure 12 this
corresponds with a factor for total radiation of 0.71. The heat loss from openings in therefore:

29

Furnaces and Refractories

4.5. Control of furnace draft


If negative pressures exist inside the furnace, air can infiltrate through cracks and openings and
affect the air-fuel ratio control. This in turn can cause metal to not reach the desired temperature
or non-uniform temperatures, which affects the next processes like forging and rolling. Fuel
consumption and product rejection rates increase. Tests conducted on seemingly airtight furnaces
have shown air infiltration up to 40 percent. To avoid this, slight positive pressure should be
maintained inside the furnace (in addition to the measures mentioned under 4.4).
But the pressure difference should not be too high because this will cause ex-filtration. While
this is less of a problem than infiltration, it can still result in flames reaching out of the furnace,
overheating of refractories leading to reduced brick life, increased furnace maintenance, and
burnout of ducts and equipment.
Proper management of the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the furnace is
therefore important to minimize heat loss and adverse impacts on products.

4.6. Optimum capacity utilization


One of the most vital factors affecting the furnace efficiency is the load. This includes the
amount of material placed in the furnace, the arrangement inside the furnace and the residence
time inside the furnace.
a) Optimum load
If the furnace is under loaded the proportion of total heat available that will be taken up by the
load is smaller, resulting in a lower efficiency. Overloading can lead to the load not heated to the
right temperature within a given period of time.
There is a particular load at which the furnace will operate at maximum thermal efficiency, i.e.
where the amount of fuel per kg of material is lowest. This load is generally obtained by
recording the weight of material of each charge, the time it takes to reach the right temperature,
and the amount of fuel used. The furnace should be loaded to the optimum load at all times,
although in practice this may not always be possible.
b) Optimum arrangement of the load
The loading of materials on the furnace hearth should be arranged so that
It receives the maximum amount of radiation from the hot surfaces of the heating chambers
and flames
Hot gases are efficiently circulated around the heat receiving surfaces of the materials
Stock is not placed in the following position:
In the direct path of the burners or where flame impingement is likely to occur
In an area that is likely to cause a blockage or restriction of the flue system of the furnace
Close to any door openings where cold spots are likely to develop

30

Furnaces and Refractories


c) Optimum residence time of the load
Fuel consumption is kept at a minimum and product quality is best if the load only remains
inside the furnace until it has the required physical and metallurgical properties.
Sometimes the charge and production schedule does not correspond with the capacity of the
furnace. If this is the case, either the
Load is higher or lower than the optimum load
Residence time is longer or shorter than the ideal residence time. Excessive residence time
will increase oxidation of the material surface, which can result in rejection of products. The
rate of oxidation is dependent upon time, temperature, as well as free oxygen content
Temperature is increased to make up for shorter residence time. The higher the working
temperature, the higher is the loss per unit of time.
All three result in fuel wastage and sometimes in reduced product quality. Coordination between
the furnace operator, production and planning personnel is therefore essential.
Optimum utilization of furnace can be planned at design stage, by selecting the size and type
(batch, continuous) that best matches the production schedule.
The overall efficiency of a continuous type furnace will increase with heat recuperation from the
waste gas stream. If only batch type furnace is used, careful planning of the loads is important.
Furnace should be recharged as soon as possible to enable use of residual furnace heat.

4.7. Waste heat recovery from furnace flue gases


In any industrial furnace the combustion products leave the furnace at a temperature higher than
the stock temperature. Flue gases carry 35 to 55 percent of the heat input to the furnace with
them through the chimney. The higher the amount of excess air and flue gas temperature, the
higher the amount of waste heat that is available. However, the primary objective should be to
minimize the amount of waste heat generated through energy conservation measures. Waste heat
recovery should only be considered when further energy conservation is not possible or practical.
Waste heat in flue gases can be recovered for preheating of the charge (stock, load), preheating
of combustion air or for other processes as described below.
a) Charge pre-heating
When raw materials are preheated by exhaust gases before being placed in a heating furnace, the
amount of fuel necessary to heat them in the furnace is reduced. Since raw materials are usually
at room temperature, they can be heated sufficiently using high-temperature flue gases to
noticeably reduce the fuel consumption rate.
b) Preheating of combustion air
For a long time, fuel gases were only use for preheating of combustion air for large boilers,
metal-heating furnaces and high-temperature kilns. But preheating using heat from flue gases is
now also applied to compact boilers and compact industrial furnaces.

31

Furnaces and Refractories


A variety of equipment is available to recover waste heat. External recuperators are most
common, but other techniques are also used, such as self-recuperative burners. For example, a
modern recuperator use furnace exhaust gas of 1000C can preheat the combustion air to over
500 oC, which results in energy savings of up to 30 percent compared with using cold
combustion air entering the furnace.
Since the volume of combustion air increases when it is preheated, it is necessary to consider this
when modifying air-duct diameters and blowers. It should be noted that preheating of
combustion gases from high-density oils with a high sulphur content, could cause clogging with
dust or sulphides, corrosion or increases in nitrogen oxides.
c) Utilizing waste heat as a heat source for other processes
Other process (to generate steam or hot water by a waste heat boiler)
The temperature of furnace exhaust gas can be as high as 400- 600 C, even after heat has been
recovered from it for preheating the charge or combustion air. One possibility is to install a waste
heat boiler to produce steam or hot water from this heat, especially when large quantities steam
or hot water are needed in a plant. Sometimes exhaust gas heat can be used for heating purposes
in other equipment, but only if the heat quantity, temperature range, operation time etc are
suitable for this. Fuel consumption can be greatly reduced. One existing example is the use of
exhaust gas from a quenching furnace as a heat source in a tempering furnace.

4.8. Minimizing furnace skin losses


About 30 to 40 percent of the fuel used in intermittent or continuous furnaces is used to make up
for heat lost through the furnace skin/surface or walls. The extent of wall losses depend on:
Emissivity of wall
Thermal conductivity of refractories
Wall thickness
Whether the furnace is operated continuously or intermittently
There are several ways to minimize heat loss through the furnace skin:
Choosing the appropriate refractory materials
Increasing the wall thickness
Installing insulating bricks. Outside wall temperatures and heat losses of a composite wall
are much lower for a wall of firebrick and insulation brick compared to a wall of the same
thickness that consists only of refractory bricks. The reason is that insulating bricks have a
much lower conductivity.
Planning operating times of furnaces. For most small furnaces, the operating periods
alternate with the idle periods. When the furnaces are turn off, heat that was absorbed by the
refractories during operation gradually dissipates through radiation and convection from the
cold face and through air flowing through the furnace. When the furnace is turned on again,
additional fuel is needed to heat up the refractories again. If a furnace is operated
continuously for 24 hours in three days, practically all the heat stored in the refractories is
lost. But if the furnace is operated 8 hours per day all the heat stored in the refractories is not
dissipated. For a furnace with a firebrick wall of 350 mm thickness, it is estimated that during

32

Furnaces and Refractories


the 16 hours that the furnace is turned off, only 55 percent of the heat stored in the
refractories is dissipated from the cold surface. Careful planning of the furnace operation
schedule can therefore reduce heat loss and save fuel.
The quantity (Q) of heat loss from the furnace skin is the sum of natural convection and thermal
radiation. In addition to the method explain in section 3.3.3, the following equation can also be
used:

Where,
Q = Quantity of heat released (kCal/hr)
a = factor regarding direction of the surface of natural convection ceiling = 2.8,
side walls = 2.2, hearth = 1.5
tl = temperature of external wall surface of the furnace (C), based on the average of as
many measurements as possible to reduce the error margin
t2 = temperature of air around the furnace (C)
E = emissivity of external wall surface of the furnace
The first part of the equation gives the heat loss though natural convection, and the second part
the heat loss through radiation. Figure 14 shows the relation between the temperature of external
wall surface and the quantity of heat release calculated with this formula.
An example calculation of the heat loss from a furnaces surface is as follows:
A reheating furnace has a ceiling, sidewalls and hearth with a 20 m2, 50 m2 and 20 m2 surface
area respectively. Their average measured surface temperatures 80C, 90C and 100C
respectively. Based on Figure 14, the quantities of heat release from ceiling, sidewalls and hearth
per unit area are respectively 650 kCal/m2h, 720 kCal/m2h and 730 kCal/m2h.
Therefore, the total quantity of heat release Q
= loss through ceiling + loss through sidewalls + loss through hearth
= (650 x 20) + (720 x 50) + (730 x 20)
= 13000 + 36000 +14600= 63,600 kCal/hr

33

Furnaces and Refractories

Figure 15. Relationship between Surface Temperature and


Quantity of Heat Loss (BEE, 2005)

4.9 Use of ceramic coatings (high emissivity coatings)


Ceramic coatings in the furnace chamber promote rapid and efficient transfer of heat, uniform
heating and extended life of refractories. The emissivity of conventional refractories decreases
with increase in temperature whereas for ceramic coatings it increases slightly. This outstanding
property has been exploited by using ceramic coatings in hot face insulation. Ceramic coatings
are high emissivity coatings and a have a long life at temperatures up to 1350oC. There are two
types of ceramic coatings: those used for coating metal substrates, and those used for coating
refractory substrates. The coatings are non-toxic, non-flammable and water based. Applied at
room temperatures, they are sprayed and air-dried in less than five minutes. The coatings allow
the substrate to maintain its designed metallurgical properties and mechanical strength.
Installation is quick and can be completed during shut down. Energy savings of the order of 8-20
percent have been reported depending on the type of furnace and operating conditions. High
emissivity coatings are further described in section 2.3.3.

4.10 Selection of refractories


The selection of refractories aims to maximize the performance of the furnace, kiln or boiler.
Furnace manufacturers or users should consider the following points in the selection of a
refractory:
Type of furnace

34

Furnaces and Refractories

Type of metal charge


Presence of slag
Area of application
Working temperatures
Extent of abrasion and impact
Structural load of the furnace
Stress due to temperature gradient in the structures and temperature fluctuations
Chemical compatibility to the furnace environment
Heat transfer and fuel conservation
Cost considerations

5. OPTIONS CHECKLIST
It is difficult to make a checklist of general options for furnaces, because options to improve
energy efficiency vary between furnaces. But the main options that are applicable to most
furnaces are:

Check against infiltration of air: use doors or air curtains

Monitor O2 /CO2/CO and control excess air to the optimum level

Improve burner design, combustion control and instrumentation

Ensure that the furnace combustion chamber is under slight positive pressure

Use ceramic fibers in the case of batch operations

Match the load to the furnace capacity

Retrofit with heat recovery device

Investigate cycle times and reduce

Provide temperature controllers

Ensure that flame does not touch the stock

35

Chapter - 2
FUELS & COMBUSTION
1. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................1
2 TYPE OF FUELS ............................................................................................................1
3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FUELS ...............................................11
4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES...................................................17
5. OPTION CHECKLIST..............................................................................................20
6. WORKSHEETS ...........................................................................................................23
7. REFERENCES..............................................................................................................24

1. INTRODUCTION
This section briefly describes the main features of fuels.
Energy from the Sun is converted into chemical energy by photosynthesis. But, as we know,
when we burn dried plants or wood, producing energy in the form of heat and light, we are
releasing the Suns energy originally stored in that plant or in that wood through
photosynthesis. We know that, in most of the world today, wood is not the main source of
fuel. We generally use natural gas or oil in our homes, and we use mainly oil and coal to heat
the water to produce the steam to drive the turbines for our huge power generation systems.
These fuels - coal, oil, and natural gas - are often referred to as fossil fuels.
The various types of fuels (like liquid, solid and gaseous fuels) that are available depend on
various factors such as costs, availability, storage, handling, pollution and landed boilers,
furnaces and other combustion equipments.
The knowledge of the fuel properties helps in selecting the right fuel for the right purpose and
for the efficient use of the fuel. Laboratory tests are generally used for assessing the nature
and quality of fuels.

2 TYPE OF FUELS
This section describes types of fuels: solid, liquid, and gaseous.

2.1 Liquid Fuels


Liquid fuels like furnace oil and LSHS (low sulphur heavy stock) are predominantly used in
industrial applications. The various properties of liquid fuels are given below.

2.1.1 Density
Density is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to the volume of the fuel at a reference
temperature of 15C. Density is measured by an instrument called a hydrometer. The
knowledge of density is useful for quantitative calculations and assessing ignition qualities.
The unit of density is kg/m3.
2.1.2 Specific gravity
This is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of oil to the weight of the same
volume of water at a given temperature. The density of fuel, relative to water, is called
specific gravity. The specific gravity of water is defined as 1. Since specific gravity is a ratio,
it has no units. The measurement of specific gravity is generally made by a hydrometer.
Specific gravity is used in calculations involving weights and volumes. The specific gravity
of various fuel oils are given in Table below:
Table 1. Specific gravity of various fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.)
Fuel Oil
L.D.O
Furnace oil
L.S.H.S
(Light Diesel Oil)
(Low Sulphur
Heavy Stock)
Specific Gravity
0.85 - 0.87
0.89 - 0.95
0.88 - 0.98
2.1.3 Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. Viscosity depends on
the temperature and decreases as the temperature increases. Any numerical value for
viscosity has no meaning unless the temperature is also specified. Viscosity is measured in
Stokes / Centistokes. Sometimes viscosity is also quoted in Engler, Saybolt or Redwood.
Each type of oil has its own temperature - viscosity relationship. The measurement of
viscosity is made with an instrument called a Viscometer.
Viscosity is the most important characteristic in the storage and use of fuel oil. It influences
the degree of pre- heating required for handling, storage and satisfactory atomization. If the
oil is too viscous, it may become difficult to pump, hard to light the burner, and difficult to
handle. Poor atomization may result in the formation of carbon deposits on the burner tips or
on the walls. Therefore pre-heating is necessary for proper atomization.
2.1.4 Flash Point
The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be heated so that the
vapour gives off flashes momentarily when an open flame is passed over it. The flash point
for furnace oil is 66 0 C.
2.1.5 Pour Point
The pour point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow when cooled
under prescribed conditions. It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which
fuel oil is ready to be pumped.

2.1.6 Specific Heat


Specific heat is the amount of kCals needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of oil by 10 C.
The unit of specific heat is kcal/kg0 C. It varies from 0.22 to 0.28 depending on the oil specific
gravity. The specific heat determines how much steam or electrical energy it takes to heat oil
to a desired temperature. Light oils have a low specific heat, whereas heavier oils have a
higher specific heat.
2.1.7 Calorific Value
The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced, and is measured either as
gross calorific value or net calorific value. The difference is determined by the latent heat of
condensation of the water vapour produced during the combustion process. Gross calorific
value (GCV) assumes all vapour produced dur ing the combustion process is fully condensed.
Net calorific value (NCV) assumes the water leaves with the combustion products without
fully being condensed. Fuels should be compared based on the net calorific value.
The calorific value of coal varies considerably depending on the ash, moisture content and
the type of coal while calorific value of fuel oils are much more consistent. The typical GCVs
of some of the commonly used liquid fuels are given below:
Table 2. Gross calorific values for different fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.)
Fuel Oil
Gross Calorific Value (kCal/kg)
Kerosene
- 11,100
Diesel Oil
- 10,800
L.D.O
- 10,700
Furnace Oil
- 10,500
LSHS
- 10,600
2.1.8 Sulphur
The amount of sulphur in the fuel oil depends mainly on the source of the crude oil and to a
lesser extent on the refining process. The normal sulfur content for the residual fuel oil
(furnace oil) is in the order of 2 - 4 %. Typical figures for different fuel oils are shown in
Table 3.
Table 3. Percentages of sulphur for different fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.)
Fuel oil
Kerosene
Diesel Oil
L.D.O
Furnace Oil
LSHS

Percentage of Sulphur
0.05 - 0.2
0.05 - 0.25
0.5 - 1.8
2.0 - 4.0
< 0.5

The main disadvantage of sulphur is the risk of corrosion by sulphuric acid formed during
and after combustion, and condensation in cool parts of the chimney or stack, air pre-heater
and economizer.

2.1.9 Ash Content


The ash value is related to the inorganic material or salts in the fuel oil. The ash levels in
distillate fuels are negligible. Residual fuels have higher ash levels. These salts may be
compounds of sodium, vanadium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, aluminum, nickel, etc.
Typically, the ash value is in the range 0.03 - 0.07 %. Excessive ash in liquid fuels can cause
fouling deposits in the combustion equipment. Ash has an erosive effect on the burner tips,
causes damage to the refractories at high temperatures and gives rise to high temperature
corrosion and fouling of equipments.
2.1.10 Carbon Residue
Carbon residue indicates the tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot
surface, such as a burner or injection nozzle, when its vaporizable constituents evaporate.
Residual oil contains carbon residue of 1 percent or more.
2.1.11 Water Content
The water content of furnace oil when it is supplied is normally very low because the product
at refinery site is handled hot. An upper limit of 1% is specified as a standard.
Water may be present in free or emulsified form and can cause damage to the inside surfaces
of the furnace during combustion especially if it contains dissolved salts. It can also cause
spluttering of the flame at the burner tip, possibly extinguishing the flame, reducing the flame
temperature or lengthening the flame.
Typical specifications of fuel oils are summarized in the Table below.
Table 4. Typical specifications of fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.)
Properties
Fuel Oils
Furnace Oil
L.S.H.S
L.D.O
Density (Approx.
0.89 - 0.95
0.88 - 0.98
0.85 - 0.87
g/cc at 150C)
Flash Point (0C)
66
93
66
Pour Point (0C)
20
72
18
G.C.V. (kCal/kg)
10500
10600
10700
Sediment, % Wt.
0.25
0.25
0.1
Max.
Sulphur Total, %
Up to 4.0
Up to 0.5
Up to 1.8
Wt. Max.
Water Content, %
1.0
1.0
0.25
Vol. Max.
Ash % Wt. Max.
0.1
0.1
0.02
2.1.12 Storage of Fuel oil
It can be potentially hazardous to store furnace oil in barrels. A better practice is to store it in
cylindrical tanks, either above or below the ground. Furnace oil that is delivered may contain
dust, water and other contaminants.

The sizing of the storage tank facility is very important. A recommended storage size
estimate is to provide for at least 10 days of normal consumption. Industrial heating fuel
storage tanks are generally vertical mild steel tanks mounted above the ground. It is prudent
for safety and environmental reasons to build bund walls around tanks to contain accidental
spillages.
As a certain amount of settlement of solids and sludge will occur in tanks over time, tanks
should be cleaned at regular intervals: annually for heavy fuels and every two years for light
fuels. Care should be taken when oil is decanted from the tanker to the storage tank. All leaks
from joints, flanges and pipelines must be attended to at the earliest. Fuel oil should be free
from possible contaminants such as dirt, sludge and water before it is fed to the combustion
system.

2.2 Solid Fuel (Coal)


Subject not detailed

2.3 Gaseous Fuel


Gas fuels are the most convenient because they require the least amount of handling and are
used in the simplest and most maintenance-free burner systems. Gas is delivered "on tap" via
a distribution network and so is suited for areas with a high population or industrial density.
However, large individual consumers do have gasholders and some produce their own gas.

2.3.1 Types of gaseous fuel


The following is a list of the types of gaseous fuel:
Fuels naturally found in nature:
Natural gas
Methane from coal mines
Fuel gases made from solid fuel
Gases derived from coal
Gases derived from waste and biomass
From other industrial processes (bla st furnace gas)
Gases made from petroleum
Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG)
Refinery gases
Gases from oil gasification
Gases from some fermentation process

Gaseous fuels in common use are liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), Natural gas, producer
gas, blast furnace gas, coke oven gas etc. The calorific value of gaseous fuel is expressed in
Kilocalories per normal cubic meter (kCal/Nm3 ) i.e. at normal temperature (20 0 C) and
pressure (760 mm Hg).

2.3.2 Properties of gaseous fuels


Since most gas combustion appliances cannot utilize the heat content of the water vapour,
gross calorific value is of little interest. Fuel should be compared based on the net calorific
value. This is especially true for natural gas, since increased hydrogen content results in high
water formation during combustion.
Typical physical and chemical properties of various gaseous fuels are given in Table 9.

Fuels and Combustion


Table 9. Typical physical and chemical properties of various gaseous fuels
Fuel Gas Relative
Higher
Heating Air/Fuel
Flame
Flame
3
o
Density
Value kcal/Nm
ratioSpeed m/s
Temp. C
m3 of air to m3
of Fuel
Natural
0.6
9350
10
1954
0.290
Gas
Propane
1.52
22200
25
1967
0.460
Butane
1.96
28500
32
1973
0.870
2.3.3 LPG
LPG is a predominant mixture of propane and Butane with a small percentage of unsaturates
(Propylene and Butylene) and some lighter C as well as heavier C fractions. Included in the
2

LPG range are propane (C H ), Propylene(C H ), normal and iso-butane (C H )and


3

10

Butylene(C H ). LPG may be defined as those hydrocarbons, which are gaseous at normal
4

atmospheric pressure, but may be condensed to the liquid state at normal temperature, by the
application of moderate pressures. Although they are normally used as gases, they are stored
and transported as liquids under pressure for convenience and ease of handling. Liquid LPG
evaporates to produce about 250 times volume of gas.
LPG vapour is denser than air: butane is about twice as heavy as air and propane about one
and a half times as heavy as air. Conseque ntly, the vapour may flow along the ground and
into drains sinking to the lowest level of the surroundings and be ignited at a considerable
distance from the source of leakage. In still air vapour will disperse slowly. Escape of even
small quantities of the liquefied gas can give rise to large volumes of vapour / air mixture and
thus cause considerable hazard. To aid in the detection of atmospheric leaks, all LPGs are
required to be odorized. There should be adequate ground level ventilation where LPG is
stored. For this very reason LPG cylinders should not be stored in cellars or basements,
which have no ventilation at ground level.
2.3.4 Natural gas
Methane is the main constituent of natural gas and accounting for about 95% of the total
volume. Other components are: Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Nitrogen, Carbon
Dioxide, and traces of other gases. Very small amounts of sulphur compounds are also
present. Since methane is the largest component of natural gas, generally properties of
methane are used when comparing the properties of natural gas to other fuels.
Natural gas is a high calorific value fuel requiring no storage facilities. It mixes with air
readily and does not produce smoke or soot. It contains no sulphur. It is lighter than air and
disperses into air easily in case of leak. A typical comparison of carbon contents in oil, coal
and gas is given in the table below.

10

Fuels and Combustion

Carbon
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
Water

Table 10. Comparison of chemical composition of various fuels


Fuel Oil
Coal
Natural Gas
84
41.11
74
12
2.76
25
3
0.41
1
9.89
Trace
Trace
1.22
0.75
Trace
38.63
Trace
5.98
-

3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FUELS


This section explains the principles of combustion, how fuel performance can be evaluated
using the stochiometric calculation of air requirement, the concept of excess air, and the draft
system of exhaust gases.

3.1 Principles of Combustion


3.1.1 Combustion process
Combustion refers to the rapid oxidation of fuel accompanied by the production of heat, or
heat and light. Complete combustion of a fuel is possible only in the presence of an adequate
supply of oxygen.
Oxygen (O 2 ) is one of the most common elements on earth making up 20.9% of our air.
Rapid fuel oxidation results in large amounts of heat. Solid or liquid fuels must be changed to
a gas before they will burn. Usually heat is required to change liquids or solids into gases.
Fuel gases will burn in their normal state if enough air is present.
Most of the 79% of air (that is not oxygen) is nitrogen, with traces of other elements.
Nitrogen is considered to be a temperature reducing diluter that must be present to obtain the
oxygen required for combustion.
Nitrogen reduces combustion efficiency by absorbing heat from the combustion of fuels and
diluting the flue gases. This reduces the heat available for transfer through the heat exchange
surfaces. It also increases the volume of combustion by-products, which then have to travel
through the heat exchanger and up the stack faster to allow the introduction of additional
fuel-air mixture.
This nitrogen also can combine with oxygen (particularly at high flame temperatures) to
produce oxides of nitrogen (NOx ), which are toxic pollutants. Carbon, hydrogen and sulphur
in the fuel combine with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide, water vapour and sulphur
dioxide, releasing 8,084 kcals, 28,922 kcals and 2,224 kcals of heat respectively. Under
certain conditions, carbon may also combine with oxygen to form carbon monoxide, which
results in the release of a smaller quantity of heat (2,430 kcals/kg of carbon). Carbon burned
to CO2 will produce more heat per unit of fuel than when CO or smoke are produced.

11

Fuels and Combustion


C
2C
2H 2
S

+ O2
+ O2
+ O2
+ O2

CO 2 + 8,084 kcals/kg of Carbon


2 CO + 2,430 kcals/kg of Carbon
2H2O + 28,922 kcals/kg of Hydrogen
SO2
+ 2,224 kcals/kg of Sulphur

Each kilogram of CO formed means a loss of 5654 kCal of heat (8084 2430).
3.1.2 Three Ts of combustion
The objective of good combustion is to release all of the heat in the fuel. This is
accomplished by controlling the "three T's" of combustion which are (1) Temperature high
enough to ignite and maintain ignition of the fuel, (2) Turbulence or intimate mixing of the
fuel and oxygen, and (3) Time, sufficient for complete combustion.
Commonly used fuels like natural gas and propane generally consist of carbon and hydrogen.
Water vapor is a by-product of burning hydrogen. This removes heat from the flue gases,
which would otherwise be available for more heat transfer.
Natural gas contains more hydrogen and less carbon per kg than fuel oils and as such
produces more water vapor. Consequently, more heat will be carried away by exhaust while
firing natural gas.
Too much, or too little fuel with the available combustion air may potentially result in
unburned fuel and carbon monoxide generation. A very specific amount of O2 is needed for
perfect combustion and some additional (excess) air is required for ensuring complete
combustion. However, too much excess air will result in heat and efficiency losses.
Not all of the fuel is converted to heat and absorbed by the steam generation equipment.
Usually all of the hydrogen in the fuel is burned and most boiler fuels, allowable with today's
air pollution standards, contain little or no sulfur. So the main challenge in combustion
efficiency is directed toward unburned carbon (in the ash or incompletely burned gas), which
forms CO instead of CO2.

Figure 1. Perfect, good and incomplete combustion


(Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2004)

12

Fuels and Combustion

3.2 Stochiometric Calculation of Air Requirement


3.2.1 Calculation of stochiometric air needed for combustion of furnace oil
For combustion air is needed. The amount of air needed can be calculated using the method
given below.
The first step is to determine the composition of the furnace oil. Typical specifications of
furnace oil from lab analysis is given below:
Constituents
% By weight
Carbon
85.9
Hydrogen
12
Oxygen
0.7
Nitrogen
0.5
Sulphur
0.5
H2O
0.35
Ash
0.05
GCV of fuel
10880 kcal/kg
If we take these analysis data, and considering a sample of 100 kg of furnace oil, then the
chemical reactions are as follows:
Element
Molecular Weight (kg / kg mole)
C
12
O2
32
H2
2
S
32
N2
28
CO2
44
SO2
64
H2O
18
C
H2
S

+
+
+

O2
1/2O2
O2

Constituents of fuel
C
+
O2
12
+
32

CO2
H2O
SO2

CO2
44

12 kg of carbon requires 32 kg of oxygen to form 44 kg of carbon dioxide therefore 1 kg of


carbon requires 32/12 kg i.e 2.67 kg of oxygen
(85.9) C

2H2
4

O2
32

+
+

(85.9 x 2.67) O2

315.25 CO2

2H2O
36

4 kg of hydrogen requires 32 kg of oxygen to form 36 kg of water, therefore 1 kg of hydrogen


requires 32/4 kg i.e. 8 kg of oxygen.

13

Fuels and Combustion

(12) H2

S
32

O2
32

+
+

(12 x 8) O2

(12 x 9 ) H2O

SO2
64

32 kg of sulphur requires 32 kg of oxygen to form 64 kg of sulphur dioxide, therefore 1 kg of


sulphur requires 32/32 kg i.e. 1 kg of oxygen
(0.5) S

(0.5 x 1) O2

Total oxygen required


(229.07+96+0.5)
Oxygen already present in
100 kg fuel (given)
Additional oxygen required

1.0 SO2

325.57 kg

0.7 kg

=
=

325.57 0.7
324.87 kg

Therefore quantity of dry air needed =


(air contains 23% oxygen by weight)
=

(324.87) / 0.23

Theoretical air required

(1412.45) / 100
14.12 kg of air / kg of fuel

=
=

1412.45 kg of air

Therefore, in this example, for each kg of furnace oil burnt, 14.12 kg of air is required.
3.2.2 Calculation of theoretical CO2 content in the flue gases
It is necessary to also calculate the CO2 content in the flue gases, which then can be used to
calculate the excess air in the flue gases. A certain amount of excess air is needed for
complete combustion of furnace oils. However, too much excess air points to heat losses and
too little excess air points to incomplete combustion. The CO2 in flue gases can be
calculated as follows:
Nitrogen in flue gas

=
=

1412.45 324.87
1087.58 kg

Theoretical CO2% in dry flue gas by volume is calculated as below:


Moles of CO2 in flue gas
Moles of N2 in flue gas
Moles of SO2 in flue gas

=
=
=

(314.97) / 44 =
(1087.58) / 28 =
1/64
=

7.16
38.84
0.016

Theoretical CO2 % by Volume

= (Moles of CO2 x 100) / Total Moles (Dry)


= (7.16 x 100) / (7.16 + 38.84 + 0.016)
= 15.5%

14

Fuels and Combustion


3.2.3 Calculation of constituents of flue gas with excess air
Now we know the theoretical air requirements and the theoretical CO2 content of flue gases.
The next step is to measure the actual CO2 percentage in the flue gases. In the calculation
below it is assumed that the measured %CO2 in the flue gas is 10%.
% Excess air

=
=
=

[(Theoretical CO2%/Actual CO2) 1] x 100


[(15.5/10 1)] x 100
55%

Theoretical air required for 100kg of fuel burnt


Total quantity of air supply required with 55% excess air

=
=
=

1412.45 kg
1412.45 x 1.55
2189.30 kg

Excess air quantity (actual theoretical excess air)

=
=
=
=
=
=

2189.30 1412.45
776.85
776.85 x 0.23
178.68 kg
776.85 178.68
598.17 kg

O2 (23%)
N2 (77%)

The final constituents of flue gas with 55% excess air for every 100 kg fuel is as follows:
CO2
H2O
SO2
O2
N2

=
=
=
=
=

314.97 kg
108.00 kg
1 kg
178.68 kg
1685.75 kg (= 1087.58 in air + 598.17 in excess air)

3.2.4 Calculation of theoretical CO2% in dry flue gas by volume


Now that we have the constituents by weight, we can calculate the constituents on a volume
basis as follows:
Moles of CO2 in flue gas
Moles of SO2 in flue gas
Moles of O2 in flue gas
Moles of N2 in flue gas

=
=
=
=

Theoretical CO2% by volume =


=
=
Theoretical O2% by volume =
=

314.97 / 44
1/64
178.68 / 32
1685.75 / 28

=
=
=
=

7.16
0.016
5.58
60.20

(Moles of CO2 x 100) / Total moles (dry)


(7.16 x 100) / (7.16 + 0.016 + 5.58 + 60.20)
10%
(5.58 x 100) / 72.956
7.5%

15

Fuels and Combustion

3.3 Concept of Excess Air


For optimum combustion, the real amount of combustion air must be greater than that
required theoretically. Part of the stack gas consists of pure air, i.e. air that is simply heated to
stack gas temperature and leaves the boiler through the stack. Chemical analysis of the gases
is an objective method that helps to achieve finer air control. By measuring CO2 or O2 in flue
gases (by continuous recording instruments or Orsat apparatus or some cheaper portable
instruments) the excess air level and stack losses can be estimated. The excess air to be
supplied depends on the type of fuel and the firing system.
A faster way to calculate the excess air is by using the figures 2 and 3, provided the
percentage of CO2 or O2 in the flue gases have been measured.

Figure 2. Relation between CO2 & Excess Air


(Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2004)

Figure 3. Relationship between residual oxygen and excess air


(Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2004)

16

Fuels and Combustion


For optimum combustion of fuel oil the CO2 or O2 in flue gases should be maintained as
follows:
CO2 =
14.515 %
O2
=
23 %

3.4 Draft System


The function of draft in a combustion system is to exhaust the products of combustion, i.e.
flue gases, into the atmosphere. The draft can be classified into two typ es namely natural
draft and mechanical draft.
3.4.1 Natural draft
Natural draft is the draft produced by a chimney alone. It is caused by the difference in
weight between the column of hot gas inside the chimney and column of outside air of the
same height and cross section. Being much lighter than outside air, chimney flue gas tends to
rise, and the heavier outside air flows in through the ash pit to take its place. Draft is usually
controlled by hand-operated dampers in the chimney and breeching connecting the boiler to
the chimney. Here no fans or blowers are used. The products of combustion are discharged at
such a height that it will not be a nuisance to the surrounding community.
3.4.2 Mechanical draft
It is draft artificially produced by fans. Three basic types of drafts that are applied are:
Balanced draft: Forced-draft (F-D) fan (blower) pushes air into the furnace and an
induced draft (I-D) fan draws gases into the chimney thereby providing draft to remove
the gases from the boiler. Here the pressure is maintained between 0.05 to 0.10 in. of
water gauge below atmospheric pressure in the case of boilers and slightly positive for
reheating and heat treatment furnaces.
Induced draft: An induced-draft fan draws enough draft for flow into the furnace,
causing the products of combustion to discharge to atmosphere. Here the furnace is kept
at a slight negative pressure below the atmospheric pressure so that combustion air flows
through the system.
Forced draft: The Forced draft system uses a fan to deliver the air to the furnace, forcing
combustion products to flow through the unit and up the stack.

4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES


This section includes energy efficiency opportunities in Fuel Combustion

4.1 Pre-heating of the Combustion Oil


The viscosity of furnace oil and LSHS (Low Sulphur Heavy Stock) increases with decreasing
temperature, which makes it difficult to pump the oil. At low ambient temperatures (below 25
0
C), furnace oil cannot be pumped easily. To circumvent this, preheating of oil is
accomplished in two ways:
The entire tank may be preheated. In this form of bulk heating, steam coils are placed at
the bottom of the tank, which is fully insulated;

17

Fuels and Combustion

The oil can be heated as it flows out with an outflow heater. To reduce steam
requirements, it is advisable to insulate tanks where bulk heating is used.

Bulk heating may be necessary if flow rates are high enough to make outflow heaters of
adequate capacity impractical, or when a fuel such as LSHS is used. In the case of outflow
heating, only the oil, which leaves the tank, is heated to the pumping temperature. The
outflow heater is essentially a heat exchanger with steam or electricity as the heating
medium.
4.2 Temperature control of Combustion Oil
Thermostatic temperature control of the oil is necessary to prevent overheating, especially
when oil flow is reduced or stopped. This is particularly important for electric heaters, since
oil may get carbonized when there is no flow and the heater is on. Thermostats should be
provided at a region where the oil flows freely into the suction pipe. The temperature at
which oil can readily be pumped depends on the grade of oil being handled. Oil should never
be stored at a temperature above that necessary for pumping as this leads to higher energy
consumption.

4.3 Combustion Controls


Combustion controls assist the burner in regulation of fuel supply, air supply, (fuel to air
ratio), and removal of gases of combustion to achieve optimum boiler efficiency. The amount
of fuel supplied to the burner must be in proportion to the steam pressure and the quantity of
steam required. The combustion controls are also necessary as safety device to ensure that
the boiler operates safely.
Various types of combustion controls in use are:
On/Off control: The simplest control, ON/OFF control means that either the burner is
firing at full rate or it is OFF. This type of control is limited to small boilers.
High/low/off control: Slightly more complex is HIGH/LOW/OFF system where the
burner has two firing rates. The burner operates at slower firing rate and then switches to

full firing as needed. Burners can also revert to the low firing position at reduced load.
This control is fitted to medium sized boilers.
Modulating control: The modulating control operates on the principle of matching the
steam pressure demand by altering the firing rate over the entire operating range of the
boiler. Modulating motors use conventional mechanical linkage or electric valves to
regulate the primary air, secondary air, and fuel supplied to the burner. Full modulation
means that boiler keeps firing, and fuel and air are carefully matched over the whole
firing range to maximize thermal efficiency.

18

Fuels and Combustion

5. OPTION CHECKLIST
This section includes most important options to improve energy efficiency of fuel use and in
combustion processes.

Fuel Checklist

Daily check: Oil temperature at the burner and oil/steam leakages


Weekly task: Cleaning of all filters and draining of water from all tanks
Yearly task: Cleaning of all tanks

Troubleshooting for fuels


1. Oil not pumpable
Viscosity too high
Blocked lines and filters
Sludge in oil
Leak in oil suction
Vent pipe choked
2. Blocking of strainers
Sludge or wax in oil
Heavy precipitated compounds in oil
Rust or scale in tank
Carbonization of oil due to excessive heating
3. Excess water in oil
Water delivered along with oil
Leaking manhole
Seepage from underground tank
Ingress of moisture from vent pipe
Leaking heater steam coils
4. Pipeline plugged
Sludge in oil
High viscosity oil
Foreign materials such as rags, scale and wood splinters in line
Carbonization of oil

20

Fuels and Combustion

Combustion Checklist
1. Start up
Check for correct sized burner/nozzle.
Establish air supply first (start blower). Ensure no vapour/gases are present before
light up.
Ensure a flame from a torch or other source is placed in front of the nozzle.
Turn ON the (preheated) oil supply (before start-up, drain off cold oil).
2. Operations
Check for correct temperature of oil at the burner tip (consult viscosity vs.
temperature chart).
Check air pressure for LAP burners (63.5 cm to 76.2 cm w.c. air pressure is
commonly adopted).
Check for oil drips near burner.
Check for flame fading/flame pulsation.
Check positioning of burner (ensure no flame impingement on refractory walls or
charge).
Adjust flame length to suit the conditions (ensure flame does not extend beyond the
furnace).
3. Load changes
Operate both air and oil valves simultaneously (For self-proportioned burner, operate
the self-proportioning lever. Do not adjust valve only in oil line).
Adjust burners and damper for a light brown (hazy) smoke from chimney and at least
12 percent CO2.
4. Shut down
Close oil line first.
Shut the blower after a few seconds (ensure gases are purged from combustion
chamber).
Do not expose the burner nozzle to the radiant heat of the furnace. (When oil is shut
off, remove burner/nozzle or interpose a thin refractory between nozzle and furnace).

Troubleshooting for combustion


The checklist in the Table below can help find the causes and solutions for typical problems
found with fuel combustion.

21

Fuels and Combustion

No
1.

2.

3.

TROUBLESHOOTING CHART FOR COMBUSTION


Problems
Causes & solutions
Starting difficult
1. No oil in the tank.
2. Excess sludge and water in storage tanks.
3. Oil not flowing due to high viscosity/low temperature.
4. Choked burner tip.
5. No air.
6. Strainers choked.
Flame goes out or
1. Sludge or water in oil.
splutters
2. Unsteady oil and air pressures.
3. Too high a pressure for atomizing medium which tends to blow
out flame.
4. Presence of air in oil line. Look for leakages in suction line of
pump.
5. Broken burner block, or burner without block.
Flame flashes back
1. Oil supply left in ONposition after air supply cut off during
earlier shut off.
2. Too high a positive pressure in combustion chamber.
3. Furnace too cold during starting to complete combustion (when
temperature rises, unburned oil particles burn).
4. Oil pressure too low.
Smoke and soot
1. Insufficient draft or blower of inadequate
2. Oil flow excessive.
3. Oil too heavy and not preheated to
4. Suction air holes in blower plugged.
5. Chimney clogged with soot/damper
6. Blower operating speed too low.

5.

Clinker on refractory

6.

Cooking of fuel in
burner

7.

Excessive fuel oil


consumption

1. Flame hits refractory because combustion chamber is too small


or
2. is not correctly aligned.
3. Oil dripping from nozzle.
4. Oil supply not cut offbefore the air supply during shut-offs.
1. Nozzle exposed to furnace radiation after shut2. Burner fed with atomizing air over 300 C.
3. Burner block too short or too wide.
4. Oil not drained from nozzle after shut off.
1. Improper ratio of oil and air.
2. Burner nozzle oversized.
3. Excessive draft.
4. Improper oil/air mixing by burner.
5. Air and oil pressure not correct
6. Oil not preheated properly.
7. Oil viscosity too low for the type of burner used.
8. Oil leaks in oil pipelines/preheater.
9. Bad maintenance (too high or rising stack gas temperature).

22

Fuels and Combustion

6. WORKSHEETS
Worksheet 1: Excess Air Calculation
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Parameters
Carbon (C)
Hydrogen (H)
Oxygen (O 4 )
Nitrogen
Sulphur
H2 O
Ash
GCV of Fuel
Oxygen Required for
burning of Carbon (O 1 )
Oxygen Required for
burning of Hydrogen (O 2 )
Oxygen Required for
burning of Sulphur (O 3 )
Total Oxygen Required
(O)
Stochiometric Amount of
Air Required (S.A)
Excess Air (EA)
Actual Amount of Air
Required

Formula

C x (32/12)

Units
% by Weight
% by Weight
% by Weight
% by Weight
% by Weight
% by Weight
% by Weight
kCal/kg
kg/100 kg of Fuel

H x (32/4)

kg/100 kg of Fuel

S x (32/32)

kg/100 kg of Fuel

O1 + O 2 + O3 O4

kg/100 kg of Fuel

O / 0.23

kg/100 kg of Fuel

S.A x (1+ EA/100)

%
kg/100 kg of Fuel

Value

23

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


Chapter-3

FANS AND BLOWERS


1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................ 1
2. TYPE OF FANS AND BLOWERS..................................................... 6
3. ASSESSMENT OF FANS AND BLOWERS ................................... 10
4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES ................................. 13
5. OPTION CHECKLIST ..................................................................... 18
6. WORKSHEETS ................................................................................. 19
7. REFERENCES ................................................................................... 21

1. INTRODUCTION
This section describes the main features of fans and blowers.
1.1 What are fans and blowers?
Most manufacturing plants use fans and blowers for ventilation and for industrial processes
that need an air flow. Fan systems are essential to keep manufacturing processes working,
and consist of a fan, an electric motor, a drive system, ducts or piping, flow control devices,
and air conditioning equipment (filters, cooling coils, heat exchangers, etc.). An example
system is illustrated in Figure 1. The US Department of Energy estimates that 15 percent of
electricity in the US manufacturing industry is used by motors. Similarly, in the commercial
sector, electricity needed to operate fan motors composes a large portion of the energy costs
for space conditioning (US DOE, 1989).
Fans, blowers and compressors are differentiated by the method used to move the air, and by
the system pressure they must operate against. The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) uses the specific ratio, which is the ratio of the discharge pressure over
the suction pressure, to define fans, blowers and compressors (see Table 1).
Table 1: Difference between Fans, Blowers and Compressors (Ganasean)
Equipment
Specific Ratio
Pressure rise (mmWg)
Fans
up to 1.11
1136
Blowers
1.11 to 1.20
1136 2066
Compressors
more than 1.20
-

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

Figure 1: Typical Fan System Components (US DOE, 1989)

1.2 Important terms and definitions


Before types of fans and blowers are described it is important to first understand terms and
definitions.1
1.2.1 System characteristics
The term system resistance is used when referring to the static pressure. The system
resistance is the sum of static pressure losses in the system. The system resistance is a
function of the configuration of ducts, pickups, elbows and the pressure drops across
equipment, for example bag filter or cyclone. The system resistance varies with the square of
the volume of air flowing through the system. For a given volume of air, the fan in a system
with narrow ducts and multiple short radius elbows is going to have to work harder to
overcome a greater system resistance than it would in a system with larger ducts and a
minimum number of long radius turns. Long narrow ducts with many bends and twists will
require more energy to pull the air through them. Consequently, for a given fan speed, the fan
will be able to pull less air through this system than through a short system with no elbows.
Thus, the system resistance increases substantially as the volume of air flowing through the
system increases; square of air flow.
Conversely, resistance decreases as flow decreases. To determine what volume the fan will
produce, it is therefore necessary to know the system resistance characteristics. In existing
systems, the system resistance can be measured. In systems that have been designed, but not
built, the system resistance must be calculated. Typically a system resistance curve (see

.
2

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


Figure 2) is generated with for various flow rates on the x-axis and the associated resistance
on the y-axis.

Figure 2. System Curve of a Fan and Effect of System Resistance (US DOE, 1989)
1.2.2 Fan characteristics
Fan characteristics can be represented in form of fan curve(s). The fan curve is a performance
curve for the particular fan under a specific set of conditions. The fan curve is a graphical
representation of a number of inter-related parameters. Typically a curve will be developed
for a given set of conditions usually including: fan volume, system static pressure, fan speed,
and brake horsepower required to drive the fan under the stated conditions. Some fan curves
will also include an efficiency curve so that a system designer will know where on that curve
the fan will be operating under the chosen conditions (see Figure 3). Of the many curves
shown in the figure, the curve static pressure (SP) versus flow is especially important.
The intersection of the system curve and the static pressure curve defines the operating point.
When the system resistance changes, the operating point also changes. Once the operating
point is fixed, the power required can be determined by following a vertical line that passes
through the operating point to an intersection with the power (BHP) curve. A horizontal line
drawn through the intersection with the power curve will lead to the required power on the
right vertical axis. In the depicted curves, the fan efficiency curve is also presented.

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

Figure 3. Typical Fan Efficiency Curve (BEE India, 2004)


1.2.3 System characteristics and fan curves
In any fan system, the resistance to air flow (pressure) increases when the flow of air is
increased. As mentioned before, it varies as the square of the flow. The pressure required by
a system over a range of flows can be determined and a "system performance curve" can be
developed (shown as SC) (see Figure 4).
This system curve can then be plotted on the fan curve to show the fan's actual operating
point at "A" where the two curves (N1 and SC1) intersect. This operating point is at air flow
Q1 delivered against pressure P1. A fan operates at a performance given by the manufacturer
for a particular fan speed. (The fan performance chart shows performance curves for a series
of fan speeds.) At fan speed N1, the fan will operate along the N1 performance curve as
shown in Figure 4. The fan's actual operating point on this curve will depend on the system
resistance; fans operating point at A is flow (Q1) against pressure (P1).
Two methods can be used to reduce air flow from Q1 to Q2:
The first method is to restrict the air flow by partially closing a damper in the system.
This action causes a new system performance curve (SC2) where the required pressure is
greater for any given air flow. The fan will now operate at "B" to provide the reduced air
flow Q2 against higher pressure P2.
The second method to reduce air flow is by reducing the speed from N1 to N2, keeping
the damper fully open. The fan would operate at "C" to provide the same Q2 air flow, but
at a lower pressure P3. Thus, reducing the fan speed is a much more efficient method to
decrease airflow since less power is required and less energy is consumed.
4

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

Figure 4. Fan performance curve (BEE India, 2004)


1.2.4 Fan laws
The fans operate under a predictable set of laws concerning speed, power and pressure. A
change in speed (revolutions per minute or RPM) of any fan will predictably change the
pressure rise and power necessary to operate it at the new RPM. This is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Speed, pressure and power of fans (BEE India, 2004)


5

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

2. Type of fans and blowers


This section briefly describes different types of fans and blowers.

2.1 Types of fans


There exist two main fan types. Centrifugal fans used a rotating impeller to move the air
stream. Axial fans move the air stream along the axis of the fan.
2.1.1 Centrifugal fans
Centrifugal fans (Figure 6) increase the speed of an air stream with a rotating impeller. The
speed increases as the reaches the ends of the blades and is then converted to pressure. These
fans are able to produce high pressures, which makes them suitable for harsh operating
conditions, such as systems with high temperatures, moist or dirty air streams, and material
handling. Centrifugal fans are categorized by their blade shapes as summarized in Table 2.
Table 2. Characteristics of Different Centrifugal Fans (adapted from US DOE, 1989)
Type of fan and
blade
Radial fans, with
flat blades
(Figure 7)

Forward curved
fans, with
forward curved
blades (Figure 8)

Backward
inclined fan,
with blades that
tilt away from
the direction of
rotation: flat,
curved, and
airfoil (Figure 9)

Advantages

Disadvantages

Suitable for high static pressures (up to


1400 mmWC) and high temperatures
Simple design allows custom build units
for special applications
Can operate at low air flows without
vibration problems
High durability
Efficiencies up to 75%
Have large running clearances, which is
useful for airborne-solids (dust, wood
chips and metal scraps) handling services
Can move large air volumes against
relatively low pressure
Relative small size
Low noise level (due to low speed) and
well suited for residential heating,
ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)
applications

Only suitable for low-medium


airflow rates

Can operate with changing static pressure


(as this does not overload the motor)
Suitable when system behavior at high air
flow is uncertain
Suitable for forced-draft services
Flat bladed fans are more robust
Curved blades fans are more efficient
(exceeding 85%)
Thin air-foil blades fans are most
efficient

Only suitable for clean service


applications but not for high
pressure and harsh services
Fan output is difficult to adjust
accurately
Driver must be selected
carefully to avoid motor
overload because power curve
increases steadily with airflow
Relatively low energy efficiency
(55-65%)
Not suitable for dirty air streams
(as fan shape promotes
accumulation of dust)
Airfoil blades fans are less
stable because of staff as they
rely on the lift created by each
blade
Thin airfoil blades fans subject
to erosion
6

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

Fig
ure
7.
Ra
dia
l
Bla
de
Centrifugal Fan (Canadian Blower)
Figure 6. Centrifugal Fan
(FanAir Company)

Figure 8. Forward-Curved Fan


(Canadian Blower)

Figure 9. Backward Inclined Fan


(Canadian Blower)

2.1.2 Axial fans


Axial fans (Figure 10) move an air stream along the axis of the fan. The way these fans work
can be compared to a propeller on an airplane: the fan blades generate an aerodynamic lift
that pressurizes the air. They are popular with industry because they are inexpensive,
compact and light. The main types of axial flow fans (propeller, tube-axial and vane-axial)
are summarized in Table 3.
Table 3. Characteristics of Different Axial Fans (adapted from US DOE, 1989)
Type of fan
Propeller fan
(Figure 11)

Tube-axial fan,
essentially a
propeller fan

Advantages
Generate high airflow rates at low pressures
Not combined with extensive ductwork (because the
generate little pressure)
Inexpensive because of their simple construction
Achieve maximum efficiency, near-free delivery, and are
often used in rooftop ventilation applications
Can generate flow in reverse direction, which is helpful in
ventilation applications
Higher pressures and better operating efficiencies than
propeller fans
Suited for medium-pressure, high airflow rate

Disadvantages
Relative low
energy
efficiency
Comparatively
noisy

Relatively
expensive
Moderate
7

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


Type of fan
placed inside a
cylinder (Figure
12)

Vane-axial fan
(Figure 13)

Advantages
applications, e.g. ducted HVAC installations
Can quickly accelerate to rated speed (because of their
low rotating mass) and generate flow in reverse direction,
which is useful in many ventilation applications
Create sufficient pressure to overcome duct losses and are
relatively space efficient, which is useful for exhaust
applications
Suited for medium- to high-pressure applications (up to
500 mmWC), such as induced draft service for a boiler
exhaust
Can quickly accelerate to rated speech (because of their
low rotating mass) and generate flow in reverse
directions, which is useful in many ventilation
applications
Suited for direct connection to motor shafts
Most energy efficient (up to 85% if equipped with airfoil
fans and small clearances)

Figure 10. Axial Fan (NISCO)

Figure 12. Tube Axial Fan


(NISCO)

Disadvantages
airflow noise
Relatively low
energy
efficiency
(65%)
Relatively
expensive
compared to
propeller fans

Figure 11. Propeller Fans (FanAir Company)

Figure 13. Vane-axial Fan


(NISCO)

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

2.2 Types of blowers


Blowers can achieve much higher pressures than fans, as high as 1.20 kg/cm2. They are also
used to produce negative pressures for industrial vacuum systems. The centrifugal blower
and the positive displacement blower are two main types of blowers, which are described
below.2
2.2.1 Centrifugal blowers
Centrifugal blowers look more like centrifugal pumps than fans. The impeller is typically
gear-driven and rotates as fast as 15,000 rpm. In multi-stage blowers, air is accelerated as it
passes through each impeller. In single-stage blower, air does not take many turns, and hence
it is more efficient.
Centrifugal blowers typically operate against pressures of 0.35 to 0.70 kg/cm2, but can
achieve higher pressures. One characteristic is that airflow tends to drop drastically as system
pressure increases, which can be a disadvantage in material conveying systems that depend
on a steady air volume. Because of this, they are most often used in applications that are not
prone to clogging.

Figure 14. Centrifugal Blower (FanAir Company)


2.2.2 Positive-displacement blowers
Positive displacement blowers have rotors, which "trap" air and push it through housing.
These blowers provide a constant volume of air even if the system pressure varies. They are
especially suitable for applications prone to clogging, since they can produce enough
pressure (typically up to 1.25 kg/cm2) to blow clogged materials free. They turn much slower
than centrifugal blowers (e.g. 3,600 rpm) and are often belt driven to facilitate speed changes.

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

3. ASSESSMENT OF FANS AND BLOWERS


This section describes how to evaluate the performance of fans, but it is also applicable to
blowers.3

3.1 What is fan efficiency / performance?


Fan efficiency is the ratio between the power transferred to the air stream and the power
delivered by the motor to the fan. The power of the airflow is the product of the pressure and
the flow, corrected for unit consistency.
Another term for efficiency that is often used with fans is static efficiency, which uses static
pressure instead of total pressure in estimating the efficiency. When evaluating fan
performance, it is important to know which efficiency term is being used.
The fan efficiency depends on the type of fan and impeller. As the flow rate increases, the
efficiency increases to certain height (peak efficiency) and then decreases with further
increasing flow rate (see Figure 15). The peak efficiency ranges for different types of
centrifugal and axial fans are given in Table 2.

Figure 14. Efficiency versus Flowrate


(BEE India, 2004)

Table 4. Efficiency of Various Fans


(BEE India, 2004)

Fan performance is typically estimated by using a graph that shows the different pressures
developed by the fan and the corresponding required power. The manufacturers normally
provide these fan performance curves. Understanding this relationship is essential to
designing, sourcing, and operating a fan system and is the key to optimum fan selection.

10

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

3.2 Methodology of fan performance assessment


Before the fan efficiency can be calculated, a number of operating parameters must be
measured, including air velocity, pressure head, temperature of air stream on the fan side and
electrical motor kW input. In order to obtain correct operating figures it should be ensured
that:
Fan and its associated components are operating properly at its rated speed
Operations are at stable condition i.e. steady temperature, densities, system resistance etc.
The calculation of fan efficiency is explained in 5 steps.
Step 1: calculate the gas density
The first step is to calculate the air or gas density using the following equation:
Gas density (y) = 273 X 1.293
273 + t oC
Where, t oC = Temperature of air or gas at site condition
Step 2: measure the air velocity and calculate average air velocity
The air velocity can be measured with a pitot tube and a manometer, or a flow sensor
(differential pressure instrument), or an accurate anemometer. Figure 15 shows how the
velocity pressure is measured using a pitot tube and a manometer. The total pressure is
measured using the inner tube of pitot tube and static pressure is measured using the outer
tube of pitot tube. When the inner and outer tube ends are connected to a manometer, we get
the velocity pressure (i.e. the difference between total pressure and static pressure). For
measuring low velocities, it is preferable to use an inclined tube manometer instead of U-tube
manometer. See the chapter on Monitoring Equipment for a explanation of manometers.

Figure 16. Velocity Pressure Measurement using Pilot Tube


(BEE India, 2004)

11

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


Calculate the average air velocity by taking number of velocity pressure readings across the
cross-section of the duct using the following equation (note: do not average the velocity
pressure, but average the velocities!):

Where:
Cp = Pitot tube constant, 0.85 (or) as given by the manufacturer
p = Average differential pressure measured by pitot tube by taking measurement
at number of points over the entire cross section of the duct.
= Density of air or gas at test condition
Step 3: calculate the volumetric flow
The third step is to calculate the volumetric flow as follows:
Take the duct diameter (or the circumference from which the diameter can be estimated).
Calculate the volume of air/gas in the duct by following relation

Step 4: measure the power of the drive motor


The power of the drive motor (kW) can be measured by a load analyzer. This kW multiplied
by motor efficiency gives the shaft power to the fan.
Step 5: calculate the fan efficiency
Now the fans mechanical and static efficiencies can be calculated as follows:
a). Mechanical efficiency:

b) Static efficiency, which is the same except that the outlet velocity pressure is not added to
the fan static pressure:

12

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

3.3 Difficulties in assessing the performance of fans and blowers


In practice certain difficulties have to be faced when assessing the fan and blower
performance, some of which are explained below:

Non-availability of fan specification data: Fan specification data (see Worksheet 1) are
essential to assess the fan performance. Most of the industries do not keep these data
systematically or have none of these data available at all. In these cases, the percentage of
fan loading with respect to flow or pressure can not be estimated satisfactorily. Fan
specification data should be collected from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
and kept on record.
Difficulty in velocity measurement: Actual velocity measurement becomes a difficult
task in fan performance assessment. In most cases the location of duct makes it difficult
to take measurements and in other cases it becomes impossible to traverse the duct in
both directions. If this is the case, then the velocity pressure can be measured in the
center of the duct and corrected by multiplying it with a factor 0.9.
Improper calibration of the pitot tube, manometer, anemometer & measuring
instruments: All instruments and other power measuring instruments should be calibrated
correctly to avoid an incorrect assessment of fans and blowers. Assessments should not
be carried out by applying correction factors to compensate for this.
Variation of process parameters during tests: If there is a large variation of process
parameters measured during test periods, then the performance assessment becomes
unreliable.

4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES


This section describes the most important energy efficiency opportunities for fans and
blowers.

4.1 Choose the right fan


Important considerations when selecting a fan are (US DOE, 1989):
Noise
Rotational speed
Air stream characteristics
Temperature range
Variations in operating conditions
Space constraints and system layout
Purchase costs, operating costs (determined by efficiency and maintenance), and
operating life
But as a general rule it is important to know that to effectively improve the performance of
fan systems, designers and operators must understand how other system components function
as well. The systems approach requires knowing the interaction between fans, the
equipment that supports fan operation, and the components that are served by fans. The use
of a systems approach in the fan selection process will result in a quieter, more efficient,
and more reliable system.
13

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


A common problem is that companies purchase oversized fans for their service requirements.
They will not operate at their best efficiency point (BEP) and in extreme cases these fans
may operate in an unstable manner because of the point of operation on the fan airflowpressure curve. Oversized fans generate excess flow energy, resulting in high airflow noise
and increased stress on the fan and the system. Consequently, oversized fans not only cost
more to purchase and to operate, they create avoidable system performance problems.
Possible solutions include, amongst other replacing the fan, replacing the motor, or
introducing a variable speed drive motor.

4.2 Reduce the system resistance


The system resistance curve and the fan curve were explained in section 1.2. The fan
operates at a point where the system resistance curve and the fan curve intersects. The system
resistance has a major role in determining the performance and efficiency of a fan. The
system resistance also changes depending on the process. For example, the formation of the
coatings / erosion of the lining in the ducts, changes the system resistance marginally. In
some cases, the change of equipment, duct modifications, drastically shift the operating
point, resulting in lower efficiency (See Figure 2). In such cases, to maintain the efficiency as
before, the fan has to be changed.
Hence, the system resistance has to be periodically checked, more so when modifications are
introduced and action taken accordingly, for efficient operation of the fan.

4.3 Operate close to BEP


It is earlier described that the fan efficiency increases as the flow increases to certain point
and thereafter it decreases. The point at which maximum efficiency is obtained is called the
peak efficiency or Best Efficiency Point (BEP). Normally it is closer to the rated capacity
of the fan at a particular designed speed and system resistance. Deviation from the BEP will
result in increased loss and inefficiency.

4.4 Maintain fans regularly


Regular maintenance of fans is important to maintain their performance levels. Maintenance
activities include (US DOE, 1989):
Periodic inspection of all system components
Bearing lubrication and replacement
Belt tightening and replacement
Motor repair or replacement
Fan cleaning

4.5 Control the fan air flow


Normally, an installed fan operates at a constant speed. But some situations may require a
speed change, for example more airflow may be needed from the fan when a new run of duct
is added, or less air flow may be needed if the fan is oversized. There are several ways to
14

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


reduce or control the airflow of fans. These are summarized in Table 5 and a comparison of
full load power against percentage full flow by different flow control is given in Figure 17.

Figure 17. Relative Power Consumption among Flow Control Options (US DOE, 1989)

Figure 18. Pulley Dimension Change (BEE India, 2004)


15

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


Table 5. Comparison of Different Ways to Control Fan Flow (adapted from US DOE,
1989, and BEE, 2004)
Type of flow control
Pulley change: reduces the
motor / drive pulley size
Dampers: reduce the amount
of flow and increases the
upstream pressure, which
reduces fan output

Advantages
Permanent speed decrease
Real energy reduction (see Figure 18:
a 2 inch reduction in pulley results in
12 kW savings)
Inexpensive
Easy to install

Inlet guide vanes: create


swirls in the fan direction
thereby lessening the angle
between incoming air and
fan blades, and thus lowering
fan load, pressure and
airflow
Variable pitch fans: change
the angle between incoming
airflow and the blade by
tilting the fan blades, thereby
reducing both the motor load
and airflow

Improve fan efficiency because both


fan load and delivered airflow are
reduced
Cost effective at airflows between
80-100% of full flow

Variable Speed Drive


(VSD): reducing the speed of
motor of the fan to meet
reduced flow requirements
Mechanical VSDs:
hydraulic clutches, fluid
couplings, and adjustable
belts and pulleys
Electrical VSDs: eddy
current clutches, woundrotor motor controllers,
and variable frequency
drives (VFDs: change
motors rotational speed
by adjusting electrical
frequency of power
supplied)

Most improved and efficient flow


control
Allow fan speed adjustments over a
continuous range
For VFDs specifically:
Effective and easy flow control
Improve fan operating efficiency over
a wide range of operating conditions
Can be retrofitted to existing motors
Compactness
No fouling problems
Reduce energy losses and costs by
lowering overall system flow

Can keep fan efficiency high over a


range of operating conditions.
Avoid resonance problems as normal
operating speed is maintained
Can operate from a no-flow to a fullflow condition without stall problems

Disadvantages
Fan must be able to
handle capacity change
Fan must be driven by
V-belt system or motor
Provide a limited
amount of adjustment
Reduce the flow but not
the energy consumption
Higher operating and
maintenance costs
Less efficient at airflows
lower than 80% of full
flow

Applicable to some axial


fan types only
Fouling problems if
contaminants
accumulate in the
mechanical actuator that
controls the blades
Operating at low loads
for long periods reduces
the power factor and
motor efficiency, thus
loosing efficiency
advantages and risking
low power factor charge
from the utility
Mechanical VSDs have
fouling problems
Investment costs can be
a barrier

16

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


Type of flow control
Multiple speed pump

Advantages
Efficient control of flow
Suitable if only two fixed speeds are
required

Disc throttle: a sliding


throttle that changes the
width of the impeller that is
exposed to the air stream
Operate fans in parallel: two
or more fans in parallel
instead of one large one

Simple design

Operate fans in series: using


multiple fans in a push-pull
arrangement

Disadvantages
Need to jump from
speed to speed
Investment costs can be
a barrier
Feasible in some
applications only

High efficiencies across wide Should only be used


when the fans can
variations in system demand
operate in a low
Redundancy to mitigate the risk of
resistance almost in a
downtime because of failure or
free delivery condition
unexpected maintenance
(see Figure 19)
Two smaller fans are less expensive
and offer better performance than one
relatively large one
Can be equipped with other flow
controls to increase flexibility and
reliability
Not suited for low
Lower average duct pressure
resistance systems (see
Lower noise generation
Figure 19)
Lower structural and electrical
support requirements
Suited for systems with long ducts,
large pressure drops across system
components, or high resistances

Figure 19. Fans Operating in Series and in Parallel (BEE India, 2004)
17

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

5. OPTION CHECKLIST
This section lists the most important energy efficiency options.

Use smooth, well-rounded air inlet cones for fan air intake
Avoid poor flow distribution at the fan inlet
Minimize fan inlet and outlet obstructions
Clean screens, filters and fan blades regularly
Minimize fan speed
Use low slip or flat belts for power transmission
Check belt tension regularly
Eliminate variable pitch pulleys
Use variable speed drives for large variable fan loads
Use energy-efficient motors for continuous or near continuous operation
Eliminate leaks in duct works
Minimize bends in duct works
Turn fans and blowers off when not needed
Reduce the fan speed by pulley diameter modifications incase of oversized motors
Adopt inlet guide vanes in place of discharge damper control
Change metallic / Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) impeller by more energy efficient
hollow FRP impeller with aerofoil design
Try to operate the fan near its best operating point (BEP)
Reduce transmission losses by using energy efficient flat belts or cogged raw-edged Vbelts instead of conventional V-belt systems
Minimizing system resistance and pressure drops by improving the duct system
Ensure proper alignment between drive and driven system
Ensure proper power supply quality to the motor drive
Regularly check for vibration trend to predict any incipient failures like bearing damage,
misalignments, unbalance, foundation looseness etc.

18

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers

6. WORKSHEETS
This section includes following worksheets:
Fans and Blowers Specification Data
Fans and Blowers Efficiency Calculation
Worksheet #1: FANS AND BLOWERS SPECIFICATION DATA
No.

Parameter

1
2

Make
Type
(Axial/Centrifugal)
Discharge Flow
Head Developed
Fluid Handlled
Density of Fluid
Dust Concentration
Temperature of Fluid
Flow Control Type
Flow Control Range
Fan Input Power
Fan Speed
Fan Rated Efficiency
Specific Power
Consumption
Fan Motor
Rated Power
Full Load Current
Rated Speed
Supply Voltage
Rated Efficiency
Rated Power Factor
Supply Frequency
Bearing Type
Fan (Driving End)
Fan (Non-Driving End)
Motor (Driving End)
Motor (Non-Driving
End)
Lubricant Grade

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

16

17

Units

Fan/Blower number
1
2

m3/hr
mmWC
kg/m3
kg/m3
0
C
%
kW
RPM
%
kW/(m3/hr)
kW
Amp
RPM
Volts
%
Hz

19

Electrical Energy Equipment: Fans and Blowers


Worksheet 2: FANS AND BLOWERS EFFICIENCY CALCULATION
No.

Parameter

Units

Fluid (medium) flow (Q)


(measured using pitot tube at fan
discharge)
For suction pressure
(measured at fan inlet using U-tube
manometer)
For discharge pressure
(measured at fan discharge using Utube manometer)
Total Static Pressure (P) [34]
Total Differential Pressure (dP)
(measured by pitot tube by taking
measurement at number of points
over the duct cross section)
Pitot tube constant (Cp)
Duct Cross sectional Area (A)
Temperature of fluid medium
(measured at fan inlet using a
thermometer)
Density of fluid medium handled (r)
(taken from standard data and
corrected to operating
temperature/pressure conditions)
Motor input power (P) (measured at
motor terminals or switchgear using
panel or portable energy
meter/power analyzer)
Power input to shaft (P1)
(P x motor efficiency X
transmission efficiency)
Supply frequency
Pump input power
Air/Gas velocity (V)
[= (Cpx(2x9.81xdPxr)]/r
Flow rate (Q) (= V x A)
Fan mechanical efficiency (F)
(QxP)/(102xP1) x 100
Specific Power Consumption (P/Q)
% Motor loading with respect to
power
% Fan loading with respect to flow
% Fan loading with respect to total
static pressure

m3/sec

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9

10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Fan/Blower reference
1
2
3

mmWC
mmWC
mmWC
mmWC

m2
0
C
kg/m3

kW

%
Hz
kW
m/sec
m3/sec
%
kW/(m3/sec)
%
%
%

20

Chapter-4

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY


1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................... 1
2. TYPES OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY EQUIPMENT....................... 1
3. ASSESSMENT OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY................................ 12
4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES ....................................... 15
5. OPTION CHECKLIST.......................................................................... 15
6. WORKSHEETS..................................................................................... 16
7. REFERENCES ...................................................................................... 18
1. INTRODUCTION
This section briefly describes the main features of waste heat recovery.
Waste heat is heat generated in a process by way of fuel combustion or chemical reaction,
which is then dumped into the environment and not reused for useful and economic
purposes. The essential fact is not the amount of heat, but rather its value. The mechanism
to recover the unused heat depends on the temperature of the waste heat gases and the
economics involved.
Large quantities of hot flue gases are generated from boilers, kilns, ovens and furnaces. If
some of the waste heat could be recovered then a considerable amount of primary fuel could
be saved. The energy lost in waste gases cannot be fully recovered. However, much of the
heat could be recovered and adopting the following measures as outlined in this chapter can
minimize losses.

2. TYPES OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY EQUIPMENT


.
This section describes the various
commercial equipment that can be
used to recover waste heat and for
other applications and uses.

2.1 Recuperators
In a recuperator, heat exchange
takes place between the flue gases
and the air through metallic or
ceramic walls. Ducts or tubes carry
the air for combustion to be preheated,
Figure 1. Waste Heat
the other side contains the waste heat
Recuperator (SEAV, 2004)
stream. A recuperator for recovering
waste heat from flue gases is shown in Figure 1.

Recovery

using

Waste Heat Recovery

2.1.1 Metallic radiation recuperator


The simplest configuration for a recuperator is the metallic radiation recuperator, which
consists of two concentric lengths of metal tubing as shown in Figure 2.
The inner tube carries the hot exhaust gases while the
external annulus carries the combustion air from the
atmosphere to the air inlets of the furnace burners. The
hot gases are cooled by the incoming combustion air,
which now carries additional energy into the combustion
chamber. This is the energy, which does not have to be
supplied by the fuel; consequently, less fuel is burned for
a given furnace loading. The saving in fuel also means a
decrease in combustion air and therefore, stack losses are
decreased not only by lowering the stack gas temperatures
but also by discharging smaller quantities of exhaust gas.
The radiation recuperator gets its name from the fact that
a substantial portion of the heat transfer from the hot
gases to the surface of the inner tube takes place by
radiative heat transfer. The cold air in the annuals,
however, is almost transparent to infrared radiation so that
only convection heat transfer takes place to the incoming
air. As shown in the diagram, the two gas flows are
usually parallel, although the configuration would be
simpler and the heat transfer would be more efficient if
the flows were opposed in direction (or counterflow). The
reason for the use of parallel flow is that recuperators
frequently serve the additional function of cooling the
Figure 2. Metallic Radiation
duct carrying away the exhaust gases and consequently
Recuperator (Hardtech Group)
extending its service life.

2.1.2 Convective recuperator


A second common configuration for
recuperators is called the tube type or
convective recuperator. As seen in the figure
below, the hot gases are carried through a
number of parallel small diameter tubes,
while the incoming air to be heated enters a
shell surrounding the tubes and passes over
the hot tubes one or more times in the
direction normal to their axes.
If the tubes are baffled to allow the gas to
pass over them twice, the heat exchanger is
termed a two-pass recuperator; if two baffles
are used, a three-pass recuperator, etc.
Although baffling increases both the cost of

Figure 3. Convective Recuperator


(Reay, D.A., 1996)

Waste Heat Recovery


the exchanger and the pressure drop in the combustion air path, it increases the effectiveness
of heat exchange. Shell and tube type recuperators are generally more compact and have a
higher effectiveness than radiation recuperators, because of the larger heat transfer area made
possible through the use of multiple tubes and multiple passes of the gases.
2.1.3 Hybrid recuperator
For maximum effectiveness of heat transfer,
hybrid recuperators are used. These are
combinations of radiation and convective
designs, with a high-temperature radiation
section followed a by convective section (see
Figure 4).
These are more expensive than simple
metallic radiation recuperators, but are less
bulky.
2.1.4 Ceramic recuperator
The principal limitation on the heat recovery
of metal recuperators is the reduced life of
the liner at inlet temperatures exceeding
11000 C. In order to overcome the
temperature
limitations
of
metal
recuperators, ceramic tube recuperators have
Figure 4. Hybrid Recuperator
been developed whose materials allow
(Reay, D.A., 1996)
operation on the gas side to be at 1550 0 C and
on the preheated air side to be 815 0 C on a
more or less practical basis. Early ceramic recuperators were built of tile and joined with
furnace cement, and thermal cycling caused cracking of joints and rapid deterioration of the
tubes.
Later
developments
introduced various kinds of short
silicon carbide tubes, which can be
joined by flexible seals located in
the air headers.
Earlier designs had experienced
leakage rates from 8 to 60 per cent.
The new designs are reported to last
two years with air preheat
temperatures as high as 7000 C, with
much lower leakage rates.

2.2 Regenerators
Regenerators are suitable for large
capacities and have been widely
used in glass and steel melting
furnaces. Important relations exist

Figure 5. Regenerator
(Department of Coal, India, 1985)
3

Waste Heat Recovery


between the sizes of the regenerator, time between reversals, thickness of brick, conductivity
of brick and heat storage ratio of the brick. In a regenerator, the time between the reversals is
an important aspect. Long periods would mean higher thermal storage and hence higher cost.
Also long periods of reversal result in lower average temperature of preheat and consequently
reduction in the fuel economy. Accumulation of dust and slagging on the surfaces reduce
efficiency of the heat transfer as the furnace becomes old. Heat losses from the walls of the
regenerator and air in- leaks during the gas period and out- leaks during the air period also
reduces the heat transfer.

2.3 Heat Wheels


A heat wheel is finding increasing applications in low to medium temperature waste heat
recovery systems.

Figure 6. Heat Wheel


(SADC, 1999)
It is a sizable porous disk, fabricated with material having a fairly high heat capacity, which
rotates between two side-by-side ducts: one is a cold gas duct, the other a hot gas duct. The
axis of the disk is located parallel and on the partition between the two ducts. As the disk
slowly rotates, sensible heat (moisture that contains latent heat) is transferred to the disk by
the hot air and, as the disk rotates, from the disk to the cold air. The overall efficiency of
sensible heat transfer for this kind of regenerator can be as high as 85 per cent. Heat wheels
have been built as large as 21 meters in diameter with air capacities up to 1130 m3 / min.

Waste Heat Recovery


A variation of the heat wheel is the rotary regenerator where the matrix is in a cylinder
rotating across the waste gas and air streams. The heat or energy recovery wheel is a rotary
gas heat regenerator, which can transfer heat from exhaust to incoming gases.
Its main area of application is where heat is exchanged between large masses of air having
small temperature differences. Heating and ventilation systems and recovery of heat from
dryer exhaust air are typical applications.

2.4 Heat Pipe


2.4.1 Description
A heat pipe can transfer up to 100 times more thermal energy than copper, the best-known
conductor. In other words, heat pipe is a thermal energy absorbing and transferring system
having no moving parts and hence requires minimal maintenance.
The heat pipe comprises
of three elements a
sealed container, a
capillary wick structure
and a working fluid.
The capillary wick
structure is integrally
fabricated
into
the
interior surface of the
container tube and
sealed under vacuum.
Thermal energy applied
to the external surface
of the heat pipe is in
equilibrium with its
own vapour as the
container tube is sealed
under vacuum. Thermal
energy applied to the
external surface of the
heat pipe causes the
working fluid near the
surface to evaporate
instantaneously. Vapour
thus formed absorbs the
latent
heat
of
vaporization and this
Figure 7. Heat Pipe
part of the heat pipe
(SADC, 1999)
becomes an evaporator
region. The vapour then travels to the other end the pipe where the thermal energy is removed
causing the vapour to condense into liquid again, thereby giving up the latent heat of the
condensation. This part of the heat pipe works as the condenser region. The condensed liquid
then flows back to the evaporated region. Figure 7 shows the heat pipe.

Waste Heat Recovery


2.4.2 Performance and advantages
The heat pipe exchanger (HPHE) is a lightweight compact heat recovery system. It virtually
does not need mechanical maintenance, as there are no moving parts that wear out. It does not
need input power for its operation and is free from cooling water and lubrication systems. It
also lowers the fan horsepower requirement and increases the overall thermal efficiency of
the system. The heat pipe heat recovery systems are capable of operating at 315o C with 60%
to 80% heat recovery capability.
2.4.3 Typical applications
Heat pipes are used in the following industrial applications:
Process of Space Heating: The heat pipe heat exchanger transfers the thermal energy from
process exhaust for building heating. The preheated air can be blended if required. The
requirement of additional heating equipment to deliver heated make up air is drastically
reduced or eliminated.
Process to Process: The heat pipe heat exchangers recover thermal energy waste from the
exhaust process and transfer this energy to the incoming process air. The incoming air
thus becomes warm and can be used either for the same process/other processes and
hence, reduce process energy consumption.
HVAC Applications:
Cooling: Heat pipe heat exchangers pre-cools the building make up air in
summer and thus reduces the total tones of refrigeration, apart from the
operational saving of the cooling system. Thermal energy is supply recovered
from the cool exhaust and transferred to the hot supply make up air.
Heating: The above process is reversed during winter to preheat the make up
air.
Other applications in industries are:
Preheating of boiler combustion air
Recovery of Waste heat from furnaces
Reheating of fresh air for hot air driers
Recovery of waste heat from catalytic deodorizing equipment
Reuse of Furnace waste heat as heat source for other oven
Cooling of closed rooms with outside air
Preheating of boiler feed water with waste heat recovery from flue gases in the
heat pipe economizers.
Drying, curing and baking ovens
Waste steam reclamation
Brick kilns (secondary recovery)
Reverberatory furnaces (secondary recovery)
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems

2.5 Economizers
In the case of boiler systems,
an economizer can be
provided to utilize the flue gas
heat for pre-heating the boiler
feed water. On the other hand,
in an air pre-heater, the waste
heat is used to heat
combustion air. In both the
cases, there is a corresponding
reduction
in
the
fuel
requirements of the boiler.
For every 220 0 C reduction in
flue gas temperature by
passing
through
an
Figure 8. Economizer
economizer or a pre- heater,
(Bureau of Energy Efficiency, 2004)
there is 1% saving of fuel in
the boiler. In other words, for every 60 0 C rise in feed water temperature through an
economizer, or 200 0 C rise in combustion air temperature through an air pre-heater, there is
1% saving of fuel in the boiler.

2.6 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers


When the medium containing waste heat is a liquid or a vapor which heats another liquid,
then the shell and tube heat exchanger must be used since both paths must be sealed to
contain the pressures of their respective fluids. The shell contains the tube bundle, and
usually internal baffles, to direct the fluid in the shell over the tubes in multiple passes. The
shell is inherently weaker than the tube, so that the higher-pressure fluid is circulated in the
tubes while the lower pressure fluid flows through the shell. When a vapor contains the waste
heat, it usually condenses, giving up its latent heat to the liquid being heated. In this
application, the vapor is almost invariably contained within the shell. If the reverse is
attempted, the condensation of vapors within small diameter parallel tubes causes flow
instabilities. Tube and shell heat exchangers are available in a wide range of standard sizes
with many combinations of materials for the tubes and shells. A shell and tube heat
exchanger is illustrated in Figure 9 below.

Figure 9. Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger


(King Fahad University of Petroleum & Minerals, 2003)
7

Waste Heat Recovery


Typical applications of shell and tube heat exchangers include heating liquids with the heat
contained by condensates from refrigeration and air-conditioning systems; condensate from
process steam; coolants from furnace doors, grates, and pipe supports; coolants from engines,
air compressors, bearings, and lubricants; and the condensates from distillation processes.

2.7 Plate Heat Exchanger


The cost of a heat exchange
surface is a major cost factor
when
the
temperature
differences are not large. One
way of meeting this problem is
the plate type heat exchanger,
which consists of a series of
separate parallel plates forming
a thin flow pass. Each plate is
separated from the next by
gaskets and the hot stream
passes in parallel through
alternative plates whilst the
liquid to be heated passes in
parallel between the hot plates.
To improve heat transfer the
plates are corrugated.

Figure 10. Plate Heat Exchanger


(Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food)

Hot liquid passing through a bottom port in the head is permitted to pass upwards between
every second plate while cold liquid at the top of the head is permitted to pass downwards
between the odd plates. When the directions of hot & cold fluids are opposite, the
arrangement is described as counter current. A plate heat exchanger is shown in Figure 10.
Typical industrial applications are:
Pasteurization section in a milk
packaging plant.
Evaporation plants in the food
industry.

2.8 Run Around Coil Exchangers


Run Around Coil Exchangers are quite
similar in principle to the heat pipe
exchanger. The heat from hot fluid is
transferred to the colder fluid via an
intermediate fluid known as the Heat
Transfer Fluid. One coil of this closed
loop is installed in the hot stream, while
the other is in the cold stream.
Circulation of this fluid is maintained
by means of a circulating pump.

Figure 11. Run Around Coil Exchanger


SADC , 1999

It is more useful when the hot land cold fluids are located far away from each other and are
not easily accessible.

Waste Heat Recovery

Typical industrial applications are heat recovery from ventilation, air conditioning and low
temperature heat recovery.

2.9 Waste Heat Recovery


Boilers
Waste
heat
boilers
are
ordinarily water tube boilers in
which the hot exhaust gases
from gas turbines, incinerators,
etc., pass over a number of
parallel tubes containing water.
The water is vaporized in the
tubes and collected in a steam
drum from which it is drawn
out for use as heating or
processing steam.
Because the exhaust gases are
usually
in
the
medium
temperature range and in order
to conserve space, a more
compact
boiler
can
be
produced if the water tubes are
finned in order to increase the
Figure 12. Two-Pass Water Tube Waste Heat
effective heat transfer area on
Recovery Boiler
the gas side. Figure 12 shows a
(Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food)
mud drum, a set of tubes over
which the hot gases make a
double pass, and a steam drum which collects the steam generated above the water surface.
The pressure at which the steam is generated and the rate at which steam is produced depend
on the temperature of waste heat. The pressure of a pure vapor in the presence of its liquid is
a function of the temperature of the liquid from which it is evaporated. The steam tables
tabulate this relationship between saturation pressure and temperature. If the waste heat in the
exhaust gases is insufficient for generating the required amount of process steam, auxiliary
burners, which burn fuel in the waste heat boiler or an after-burner in which the exhaust gases
flue are added. Waste heat boilers are built in capacities from 25 m3 almost 30,000 m3 /min.
of exhaust gas.

2.10 Heat Pumps


In the various commercial options previously discussed, we find waste heat being transferred
from a hot fluid to a fluid at a lower temperature. Heat must flow spontaneously downhill,
that is from a system at high temperature to one at a lower temperature. When energy is
repeatedly transferred or transformed, it becomes less and less available for use. Eventually,
energy has such low intensity (resides in a medium at such low temperature) that it is no
longer available to function.

Waste Heat Recovery

Figure 13. Heat Pump Arrangement


(SADC, 1999)
It has been a general rule of thumb in industrial operations that fluids with temperatures less
than 120o C (or, better, 150o C to provide a safe margin), are set as the limit for waste heat
recovery because of the risk of condensation of corrosive liquids. However, as fuel costs
continue to rise, even such waste heat can be used economically for space heating and other
low temperature applications. It is possible to reverse the direction of spontaneous energy
flow by the use of a thermodynamic system known as heat pump.
The majority of heat pumps work on the principle of the vapour compression cycle. In this
cycle, the circulating substance is physically separated from the source (waste heat, with a
temperature of Tin) and user (heat to be used in the process, Tout) streams, and is re-used in a
cyclical fashion, therefore being called 'closed cycle'. In the heat pump, the following
processes take place:
In the evaporator, the heat is extracted from the heat source to boil the circulating
substance;
The compressor compresses the circulating substance, thereby raising its pressure and
temperature. The low temperature vapor is compressed by a compressor, which requires
external work. The work done on the vapor raises its pressure and temperature to a level
where its energy becomes available for use.
The heat is delivered to the condenser;
The pressure of the circulating substance (working fluid) is reduced back to the
evaporator condition in the throttling valve, where the cycle repeats.
The heat pump was developed as a space heating system where low temperature energy from
the ambient air, water, or earth is raised to heating system temperatures by doing compression
work with an electric motor-driven compressor. The arrangement of a heat pump is shown in
figure 13.

10

Waste Heat Recovery


The heat pumps have the ability to upgrade heat to a value more than twice the energy
consumed by the device. The potential for application of heat pumps is growing and a
growing number of industries have been benefited by recovering low grade waste heat by
upgrading it and using it in the main process stream.
Heat pump applications are most promising when both the heating and cooling capabilities
can be used in combination. One such example of this is a plastics factory where chilled
water from a heat is used to cool injection-moulding machines, whilst the heat output from
the heat pump is used to provide factory or office heating. Other examples of heat pump
installation include product drying, maintaining dry atmosphere for storage and drying
compressed air.

2.11 Thermo-compressor
In many cases, very low-pressure steam is reused as water after condensation for lack of any
better option of reuse. In many cases it becomes feasible to compress this low-pressure steam
by very high-pressure steam and reuse it as a medium pressure steam. The major energy in
steam is in its latent heat value, and thus thermo compressing would give a big improvement
in waste heat recovery.

Figure 14. Thermo -compressor


The thermo-compressor is a simple equipment with a nozzle where HP steam is accelerated
into a high velocity fluid. This entrains the LP steam by momentum transfer and then
recompresses in a divergent venturi. A figure of thermo compressor is shown in Figure 14.
It is typically used in evaporators where the boiling steam is recompressed and used as
heating steam.

11

Waste Heat Recovery

3. ASSESSMENT OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY


This section explains how to assess the potential for waste heat recovery and gives examples.

3.1 Determining the Waste Heat Quality


When recovering waste heat, the quality of waste heat must be considered first.
Depending upon the type of process, waste heat can be discarded at virtually any temperature
from that of chilled cooling water to high temperature waste gases in an industrial furnace or
kiln. Usually, higher temperatures equate to higher quality of heat recovery and greater cost
effectiveness. In any study of waste heat recovery, it is absolutely necessary that there is
some use for the recovered heat. Typical examples of use would be preheating of combustion
air, space heating, or pre-heating boiler feed water or process water. With high temperature
heat recovery, a cascade system of waste heat recovery may be practiced to ensure that the
maximum amount of heat is recovered with the highest potential. An example of this
technique of waste heat recovery is where the high temperature stage is used for air preheating and the low temperature stage is used for process feed water heating or steam
generation.
3.1.1 Quality and potential uses
In considering the potential to recover heat, it is useful to note all the possible sources of
waste and their quality and possible uses (see Table 1)
Table 1. Waste Heat Source and Quality
No
1
2
3
4
5

6
7

Source of waste heat


Heat in flue gases

Quality of waste heat and possible use


The higher the temperature, the greater the potential
value for heat recovery
Heat in vapor streams
As for heat in flue gases, but when condensed,
latent heat is also recoverable
Convective & radiant heat lost from Low grade if collected, may be used for space
exterior of equipment
heating or air preheats
Heat losses in cooling water
Low grade useful gains if heat is exchanged with
incoming fresh water
Heat losses in providing chilled 1. High grade if it can be utilized to reduce
water or in the disposal of chilled
demand for refrigeration
water
2. Low grade if refrigeration unit used as a form of
Heat pump
Heat stored in products leaving the Quality depends upon temperature
process
Heat in gaseous & liquid effluents Poor, if heavily contaminated & thus require alloy
leaving process
heat exchanger

3.1.2 Recovery potential for different industrial processes


Waste heat can be recovered from various industrial processes. A distinction is made between
high, medium and low temperatures of waste heat.

12

Waste Heat Recovery


Table 2 gives the temperatures of waste gases from industrial process equipment in the high
temperature range. All of these results are from direct fuel fired processes.
Table 2. Typical Waste Heat Temperature at High Temperature Range from Various
Sources
Types of Devices
Nickel refining furnace
Aluminium refining furnace
Zinc refining furnace
Copper refining furnace
Steel heating furnace
Copper reverberatory furnace
Open hearth furnace
Cement kiln (Dry process)
Glass melting furnace
Hydrogen plants
Solid waste incinerators
Fume incinerators

Temperature (0 C)
1370 1650
650 760
760 1100
760 815
925 1050
900 1100
650 700
620 730
1000 1550
650 1000
650 1000
650 1450

Table 3 gives the temperatures of waste gases from process equipment in the medium
temperature range. Most of the waste heat in this temperature range comes from the exhaust
of directly fired process units.
Table 3. Typical Waste Heat Temperature at Medium Temperature Range from
Various Sources
Types of Devices
Steam boiler exhaust
Gas turbine exhaust
Reciprocating engine exhaust
Reciprocating engine exhaust (turbo charged)
Heat treatment furnace
Drying & baking ovens
Catalytic crackers
Annealing furnace cooling systems

Temperature (0 C)
230 480
370 540
315 600
230 370
425 650
230 600
425 650
425 650

Table 4 lists some heat sources in the low temperature range. In this range, it is usually not
practical to extract work from the source, though steam production may not be completely
excluded if there is a need for low-pressure steam. Low temperature waste heat may be useful
in a supplementary way for preheating purposes.
Table 4. Typical Waste Heat Temperature at Low Temperature Range from Various
Sources
Source
Process steam condensate
Cooling water from:
Furnace doors
Bearings
Welding machines
Injection molding machines
Annealing furnaces

Temperature 0 C
55-88
32-55
32-88
32-88
32-88
66-230

13

Waste Heat Recovery


Source
Forming dies
Air compressors
Pumps
Internal combustion engines
Air conditioning and refrigeration condensers
Liquid still condensers
Drying, baking and curing ovens
Hot processed liquids
Hot processed solids

Temperature 0 C
27-88
27-50
27-88
66-120
3243
32-88
93-230
32-232
93-232

3.2 Determining the Waste Heat Quantity


In any heat recovery situation it is essential to know the amount of heat recoverable and also
its usage.
The total heat that could potentially be recovered can be calculated using this formula:
Q = V x x Cp x T
Where,
Q is the heat content in kcal
V is the flow rate of the substance in m3/hr
is density of the flue gas in kg/m3
Cp is the specific heat of the substance in kCal/kg oC
T is the temperature difference in oC
Example
A large paper manufacturing company identifies an opportunity to save money by recovering
heat from hot wastewater. The discharge of the wastewater from the operation range is 10000
kg/hr at 750 C. Rather than discharging this water to drain, it was decided to preheat the 10000
kg/hr of cold inlet water having a yearly average temperature of 200 C, by passing it through a
counterflow heat exchanger with automatic back flushing to reduce fouling. Based on a heat
recovery factor of 58% and an operation of 5000 hours per year, the annual heat saving (Q)
is:
Q

m x x Cp x T

Where,
Q is the heat content in kcal
m is the mass flow rate
Cp is the specific heat of the substance in kcal/kg oC, in the case water
T is the temperature difference in oC
is the recovery factor
Therefore, for this example
m
=
1000 kg/hr
Cp
=
1 kCal/kg0 C

= 10000 x 5000 kg/yr = 50000000 kg/year

14

=
=

(75 20) 0 C = 55 0 C
Heat Recovery Factor = 58% or 0.58

The calculation of Q is as follows:


Q
=
50000000 x 1 x 55 x 0.58
=
1595000000 kCal/year
Gross calorific value (GCV of oil) = 10,200 kCal/kg
Equivalent oil savings = 159500000 / 10200 = 156372 liters
Cost of oil = 0.35 US$/liter
Financial savings = 54730 US$/year

4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES


Areas for potential waste recovery are dependent on the type of industrial process, and are
therefore covered in other energy equipment modules.

5. OPTION CHECKLIST
The most important options to maximize energy efficiency when applying waste heat
recovery are
Recover heat from flue gas, engine cooling water, engine exhaust, low pressure waste
steam, drying oven exhaust, boiler blowdown, etc.
Recover heat from incinerator off- gas.
Use waste heat for fuel oil heating, boiler feedwater heating, outside air heating, etc.
Use chiller waste heat to preheat hot water.
Use heat pumps.
Use absorption refrigeration.
Use thermal wheels, run-around systems, heat pipe systems, and air-to-air exchangers.
Options to recover waste heat are covered in other energy equipment modules.

15

Waste Heat Recovery

6. WORKSHEETS
This section includes the following worksheets:
Heat Recovery Questionnaire
Matrix of Waste Heat Recovery Devices & Applications

Worksheet 1. Heat Recovery Questionnaire


1. From which equipment do you want to recover heat? Oven, furnace, etc.

Oven
Flue Gas
Dryer
Bake Oven
Furnace
Paint Dryer

Kiln
Melting Furnace
Boiler
Die Cast Machine
Cupola
Exhaust Air
Other (Please specify)

2. Hot Side Flows:


a. At what temperature does hot exhaust leave this equipment?
b. What is the quantity of this hot exhaust?
3. Is this hot exhaust gas clean (natural gas, propane, #2 fuel oil) or does it contain
contaminates or corrodents such as sulphur, chlorides, etc?
Clean:
Exhaust is from:
_________ Air
_________ Natural Gas
_________ Propane
_________ Fuel Oil
_________ Electricity
_________ Other

Dirty:
Exhaust is from and/or contains:
_________ Fuel Oil
______________ Coal
______________ Sulphur
______%
______________ Chloride
______%
_________ Paint Vapours
______%
_________ Other
______%

4. Cold Side Flows:


Entering
Fluid 0 C
Temperature
0
Entering Fluid Volume
C
Leaving
Fluid 0 C
Temperature Desired
Energy to be recovered
kJ/hr
Available Flow
L/s
5. Fuel Cost: (USD/kg)
6. Operating Hours

16

Waste Heat Recovery

Worksheet 2. Matrix of Waste Heat Recovery Devices And Applications


Heat Recovery
Device
Radiation
Recuperator
Convective
Recuperator

Temp.
Range
H

Typical Sources

Typical Uses

Incinerator or boiler exhaust

Combus tion air preheat

M-H

Furnace
Regenerator
Metallic
Wheel
Ceramic
Wheel
Finned
Regenerator
Shell
&
Regenerator

Soaking or annealing ovens, Combustion air preheat


melting furnaces, afterburners,
gas incinerators, radiant tube
burners, reheat furnaces
Glass and Steel melting furnaces Combustion air preheat

Heat L-M
Heat M-H
tube L-M
tube L

Heat Pipes

L-M

Waste heat boiler

M-H

Curing and drying ovens, boiler


exhaust
Large boiler or Incinerator
exhaust
Boiler Exhaust

Combustion air preheat,


Space preheat
Combustion air preheat

Boiler makeup water


preheat
Refrigeration condensates, waste Liquid flows requiring
steam, distillation condensates, heating
coolants from engines, air
compressors,
bearings
and
lubricants
Drying, curing and baking ovens, Combustion air preheat,
Waste steam, air dryers, Kilns boiler makeup water
and Reverberatory furnaces
preheat,
Steam
generation, domestic hot
water, space heat
Exhaust from gas turbines, Hot water or steam
reciprocating
engines, generation
incinerators and furnaces

17

Chapter-5

ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT


OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
1

Introduction

Heat exchangers are equipment that transfer heat from one medium to another. The proper
design, operation and maintenance of heat exchangers will make the process energy efficient
and minimize energy losses. Heat exchanger performance can deteriorate with time, off
design operations and other interferences such as fouling, scaling etc. It is necessary to
assess periodically the heat exchanger performance in order to maintain them at a high efficiency level. This section comprises certain proven techniques of monitoring the performance of heat exchangers, coolers and condensers from observed operating data of the
equipment.

Purpose of the Performance Test

To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient for assessing the performance of the heat
exchanger. Any deviation from the design heat transfer coefficient will indicate occurrence of
fouling.

Performance Terms and Definitions

Overall heat transfer coefficient, U


Heat exchanger performance is normally evaluated by the overall heat transfer coefficient U
that is defined by the equation

Chapter-5

When the hot and cold stream flows and inlet temperatures are constant, the heat transfer
coefficient may be evaluated using the above formula. It may be observed that the heat pick up
by the cold fluid starts reducing with time.
1

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Nomenclature
A typical heat exchanger is shown in figure 4.1 with nomenclature.

Heat duty of the exchanger can be calculated either on the hot side fluid or cold side fluid
as given below.
..Eqn1,
Heat Duty for Hot fluid, Qh = Wx Cph x (TiTo)
Heat Duty for Cold fluid, Qc = wx Cpc x ( toti)
...Eqn2
If the operating heat duty is less than design heat duty, it may be due to heat losses, fouling
in tubes, reduced flow rate (hot or cold) etc. Hence, for simple performance monitoring of
exchanger, efficiency may be considered as factor of performance irrespective of other parameter. However, in industrial practice, fouling factor method is more predominantly used.

Methodology of Heat Exchanger Performance Assessment

4.4.1 Procedure for determination of Overall heat transfer Coefficient, U at field


This is a fairly rigorous method of monitoring the heat exchanger performance by calculating
the overall heat transfer coefficient periodically. Technical records are to be maintained for all
the exchangers, so that problems associated with reduced efficiency and heat transfer can be
identified easily. The record should basically contain historical heat transfer coefficient data
versus time / date of observation. A plot of heat transfer coefficient versus time permits rational planning of an exchanger-cleaning program.
The heat transfer coefficient is calculated by the equation
U = Q / (A x LMTD)
Where Q is the heat duty, A is the heat transfer area of the exchanger and LMTD is temperature driving force.
The step by step procedure for determination of Overall heat transfer Coefficient are
described below
2

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Density and viscosity can be determined by analysis of the samples taken from the flow
stream at the recorded temperature in the plant laboratory. Thermal conductivity and specific
heat capacity if not determined from the samples can be collected from handbooks.

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

4.2 Examples
a. Liquid - Liquid Exchanger
A shell and tube exchanger of following configuration is considered being used for oil cooler with oil at the shell side and cooling water at the tube side.
Tube Side
460 Nos x 25.4mmOD x 2.11mm thick x 7211mm long
Pitch - 31.75mm 30 triangular
2 Pass
Shell Side
787 mm ID
Baffle space - 787 mm
1 Pass
5

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Heat Duty: Actual duty differences will be practically negligible as these duty differences
could be because of the specific heat capacity deviation with the temperature. Also, there could
be some heat loss due to radiation from the hot shell side.
Pressure drop: Also, the pressure drop in the shell side of the hot fluid is reported normal
(only slightly less than the design figure). This is attributed with the increased average bulk
temperature of the hot side due to decreased performance of the exchanger.
Temperature range: As seen from the data the deviation in the temperature ranges could be
due to the increased fouling in the tubes (cold stream), since a higher pressure drop is noticed.
Heat Transfer coefficient: The estimated value has decreased due to increased fouling that has
resulted in minimized active area of heat transfer.
Physical properties: If available from the data or Lab analysis can be used for verification
with the design data sheet as a cross check towards design considerations.
Troubleshooting: Fouled exchanger needs cleaning.
b. Surface Condenser
A shell and tube exchanger of following configuration is considered being used for Condensing
turbine exhaust steam with cooling water at the tube side.
Tube Side
20648 Nos x 25.4mmOD x 1.22mm thk x 18300mm long
Pitch - 31.75mm 60 triangular
1 Pass
The monitored parameters are as below:
Parameters
Hot fluid flow, W
Cold fluid flow, w
Hot fluid Temp, T
Cold fluid Temp, t
Hot fluid Pressure, P
Cold fluid Pressure, p

Units
kg/h

Inlet
939888

Outlet
939888

kg/h
C
C
m Bar g
Bar g

55584000
No data
18
52.3 mbar
4

55584000
34.9
27
48.3
3.6

Calculation of Thermal data:


Area = 27871 m2
1. Duty:
Q = qS + qL
Hot fluid, Q = 576990 kW
Cold Fluid, Q = 581825.5 kW
8

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

2. Hot Fluid Pressure Drop


Pressure Drop = Pi Po = 52.3 48.3 = 4.0 mbar.
3. Cold Fluid Pressure Drop
Pressure Drop = pi po = 4 3.6 = 0.4 bar.
4. Temperature range hot fluid
Temperature Range T = Ti To = No data
5. Temperature Range Cold Fluid
Temperature Range t = ti to = 27 18 = 9 C.
6. Capacity Ratio
Capacity ratio, R = Not significant in evaluation here.
7. Effectiveness
Effectiveness, S = (to ti) / (Ti ti) = Not significant in evaluation here.
8. LMTD
Calculated considering condensing part only
a). LMTD, Counter Flow = ((34.9 18)(34.927))/ ln ((34.918)/(34.927))
= 11.8 deg C.
b). Correction Factor to account for Cross flow
F = 1.0.
9. Corrected LMTD
MTD = F x LMTD = 1.0 x 11.8 = 11.8 deg C.
10. Heat Transfer Co-efficient
Overall HTC, U = Q/ A T = 576990/ (27871 x 11.8) = 1.75 kW/m2. K
Comparison of Calculated data with Design Data

Parameters
Duty, Q
Hot fluid side pressure drop, Ph
Cold fluid side pressure drop, Pc
Temperature Range hot fluid, T
Temperature Range cold fluid, t
Capacity ratio, R
Effectiveness, S
Corrected LMTD, MTD
Heat Transfer Coefficient, U

Units
kW
mBar
Bar
C
C
--------C
kW/(m2. K)
9

Test Data
576990
4 mbar
0.4

Design Data
588430
3.7 mbar

(2718) = 9

(2819) = 9

11.8
1.75

8.9
2.37

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Heat Duty: Actual duty differences will be practically negligible as these duty differences
could be because of the specific heat capacity deviation with the temperature. Also, there could
be some heat loss due to radiation from the hot shell side.
Pressure drop: The condensing side operating pressure raised due to the backpressure
caused by the non-condensable. This has resulted in increased pressure drop across the steam
side
Temperature range: With reference to cooling waterside there is no difference in the range
however, the terminal temperature differences has increased indicating lack of proper heat
transfer.
Heat Transfer coefficient: Heat transfer coefficient has decreased due to increased amount of
non-condensable with the steam.
Trouble shooting: Operations may be checked for tightness of the circuit and ensure
proper venting of the system. The vacuum source might be verified for proper
functioning.
C. Vaporizer
A shell and tube exchanger of following configuration is considered being used for vaporizing
chlorine with steam at the shell side.
Tube Side
200 Nos x 25.4mmOD x 1.22mm thick x 6000mm long
Pitch - 31.75mm 30 triangular
2 Pass
Area = 95.7.m2
10

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

The monitored parameters are as below:


Parameters
Hot fluid flow, W
Cold fluid flow, w
Hot fluid Temp, T
Cold fluid Temp, t
Hot fluid Pressure, P
Cold fluid Pressure, p

Units
kg/h
kg/h
C
C
Bar g
Bar g

Inlet
5015
43500
108
30
0.4
9

Outlet
5015
43500
108
34
0.3
8.8

Calculation of Thermal data:


1. Duty:
Q = qS + qL
Hot fluid, Q = 3130 kW
Cold Fluid, Q = qS + qL = 180.3 kW + 2948 kW = 3128.3 kW
2. Hot Fluid Pressure Drop
Pressure Drop = Pi Po = 0.4 0.3 = 0.1 bar
3. Cold Fluid Pressure Drop
Pressure Drop = pi po = 9 8.8 = 0.2 bar.
4. Temperature range hot fluid
Temperature Range T = Ti To = 0 C
5. Temperature Range Cold Fluid
Temperature Range t = ti to = 34 30 = 4 C.
6. Capacity Ratio
Capacity ratio, R = Not significant in evaluation here.
7. Effectiveness
Effectiveness, S = (to ti) / (Ti ti) = Not significant in evaluation here.
8. LMTD
Calculated considering condensing part only
a). LMTD, Counter Flow =((108 30)(10834))/ ln ((10830)/(10834)) = 76 C.
b). Correction Factor to account for Cross flow
F = 1.0.
9. Corrected LMTD
MTD = F x LMTD = 1.0 x 76 = 76 C.
10. Heat Transfer Co-efficient
Overall HTC, U = Q/ A T = 3130/ (95.7 x 76) = 0.43 kW/m2. K
11

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Comparison of Calculated data with Design Data


Parameters
Duty, Q
Hot fluid side pressure drop, Ph
Cold fluid side pressure drop, Pc
Temperature Range hot fluid, T
Temperature Range cold fluid, t
Capacity ratio, R
Effectiveness, S
Corrected LMTD, MTD
Heat Transfer Coefficient, U

Units
kW
Bar
Bar
C
C
--------C
kW/(m2. K)

Test Data
3130
0.1
0.2

Design Data
3130
Neg

76
0.42

0.44

Heat Duty: There is no difference inferred from the duty as the exchanger is performing as per
the requirement
Pressure drop: The steam side pressure drop has increased in spite of condensation at the
steam side. Indication of non-condensable presence in steam side
Temperature range: No deviations
Heat Transfer coefficient: Even at no deviation in the temperature profile at the chlorine side,
heat transfer coefficient has decreased with an indication of overpressure at the shell side. This
indicates disturbances to the condensation of steam at the shell side. Non-condensable suspected at steam side.
Trouble shooting: Operations may be checked for presence of chlorine at the shell side
through tube leakages. Observing the steam side vent could do this. Alternately condensate pH
could be tested for presence of acidity.
12

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

d. Air heater
A finned tube exchanger of following configuration is considered being used for heating air
with steam in the tube side.
The monitored parameters are as below:
Parameters
Hot fluid flow, W
Cold fluid flow, w
Hot fluid Temp, T
Cold fluid Temp, t
Hot fluid Pressure, P
Cold fluid Pressure, p

Units
kg/h
kg/h
C
C
Bar g
mBar g

Inlet
3000
92300
150
30

Outlet
3000
92300
150
95

200 mbar

180 mbar

Calculation of Thermal data:


Bare tube Area = 42.8 m2; Fined tube area = 856 m2
1.Duty:
Hot fluid, Q = 1748 kW
Cold Fluid, Q = 1726 kW
2. Hot Fluid Pressure Drop
Pressure Drop = Pi Po = Neg
3. Cold Fluid Pressure Drop
Pressure Drop = pi po = 200180 = 20 mbar.
4. Temperature range hot fluid
Temperature Range T = Ti To = Not required.
5. Temperature Range Cold Fluid
Temperature Range t = ti to = 95 30 = 65 C.
6. Capacity Ratio
Capacity ratio, R = Not significant in evaluation here.
7. Effectiveness
Effectiveness, S = (to ti) / (Ti ti) = Not significant in evaluation here.
8. LMTD
Calculated considering condensing part only
a). LMTD, Counter Flow =((150 30)(15095)/ ln ((15030)/(15095)) = 83.3 C.
b). Correction Factor to account for cross flow
F = 0.95
9. Corrected LMTD
MTD = F x LMTD = 0.95 x 83.3 = 79 C.
10. Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient (HTC)
U = Q/ A T = 1748/ (856 x 79) = 0.026 kW/m2 . K
13

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Comparison of Calculated data with Design Data


Parameters
Duty, Q
Hot fluid side pressure drop, Ph
Cold fluid side pressure drop, Pc
Temperature Range hot fluid, T
Temperature Range cold fluid, t
Capacity ratio, R
Effectiveness, S
Corrected LMTD, MTD
Heat Transfer Coefficient, U

Units
kW
Bar
Bar
C
C
--------C
kW/(m2. K)

Test Data
1748
Neg
20

Design Data
1800
Neg
15

65

65

79
0.026

79
0.03

Heat Duty: The difference inferred from the duty as the exchanger is under performing than
required
Pressure drop: The airside pressure drop has increased in spite of condensation at the steam
side. Indication of choking and dirt blocking at the airside.
Temperature range: No deviations
Heat Transfer coefficient: Decreased because of decreased fin efficiency due to choking on
air side.
Trouble shooting: Operations may be checked to perform pulsejet cleaning with steam / blow
air jet on air side if the facility is available. Mechanical cleaning may have to be planned during any down time in the immediate future.
14

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

4.3

Instruments for monitoring:

The test and evaluation of the performance of the heat exchanger equipment is carried out by
measurement of operating parameters upstream and downstream of the exchanger. Due care
needs to be taken to ensure the accuracy and correctness of the measured parameter. The instruments used for measurements require calibration and verification prior to measurement.
Parameters
Fluid flow

Units
kg/h

Temperature
Pressure

C
Bar g

Density

kg/m3

Viscosity

MpaS

Specific heat capacity

J/(kg.K)

Thermal conductivity

W/(m.K)

Composition+

%wt (or) % Vol

Instruments used
Flow can be measured with instruments like
Orifice flow meter, Vortex flow meter, Venturi
meters, Coriollis flow meters, Magnetic flow
meter
as applicable to the fluid service and flow ranges
Thermo gauge for low ranges, RTD, etc.
Liquid manometers, Draft gauge, Pressure
gauges Bourdon and diaphragm type, Absolute
pressure transmitters, etc.
Measured in the Laboratory as per ASTM
standards, hydrometer, etc
Measured in the Laboratory as per ASTM
standards, viscometer, etc.
Measured in the Laboratory as per ASTM
standards
Measured in the Laboratory as per ASTM
standards
Measured in the Laboratory as per ASTM
standards using Chemical analysis, HPLC, GC,
Spectrophotometer, etc.

4.4 Terminology used in Heat Exchangers


Terminology
Capacity ratio

Co current flow
exchanger
Counter flow
exchanger
Cross flow

Definition
Ratio of the products of mass flow rate and specific
heat capacity of the cold fluid to that of the hot fluid.
Also computed by the ratio of temperature range of the
hot fluid to that of the cold fluid.
Higher the ratio greater will be size of the exchanger
An exchanger wherein the fluid flow direction of the
cold and hot fluids are same
Exchangers wherein the fluid flow direction of the cold and
hot fluids are opposite. Normally preferred
An exchanger wherein the fluid flow direction of the
cold and hot fluids are in cross
15

Unit

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

Density
Effectiveness

Fouling

Fouling Factor

Heat Duty

Heat exchanger

Heat Flux
Heat transfer
Heat transfer
surface or heat
Transfer area

Individual
Heat transfer
Coefficient

It is the mass per unit volume of a material


Ratio of the cold fluid temperature range to that of
the inlet temperature difference of the hot and
cold fluid. Higher the ratio lesser will be requirement
of heat transfer surface
The phenomenon of formation and development of
scales and deposits over the heat transfer surface
diminishing the heat flux. The process of fouling will
get indicated by the increase in pressure drop
The reciprocal of heat transfer coefficient of the
dirt formed in the heat exchange process.
Higher the factor lesser will be the overall heat
transfer coefficient.
The capacity of the heat exchanger equipment
expressed in terms of heat transfer rate, viz.
magnitude of energy or heat transferred per time.
It means the exchanger is capable of performing at
this capacity in the given system
Refers to the nomenclature of equipment designed
and constructed to transmit heat content
(enthalpy or energy) of a comparatively high
temperature hot fluid to a lower temperature cold
fluid wherein the temperature of the hot fluid
decreases (or remain constant in case of losing latent
heat of condensation) and the temperature of the cold
fluid increases (or remain constant in case of gaining
latent heat of vaporisation). A heat exchanger will
normally provide indirect contact heating. E.g. A
cooling tower cannot be called a heat exchanger
where water is cooled by direct contact with air
The rate of heat transfer per unit surface of a heat
exchanger
The process of transport of heat energy from a
hot source to the comparatively cold surrounding
Refers to the surface area of the heat exchanger that
provides the indirect contact between the hot and cold
fluid in effecting the heat transfer. Thus the heat transfer
area is defined as the surface having both sides
wetted with one side by the hot fluid and the other
side by the cold fluid providing indirect contact for
heat transfer
The heat flux per unit temperature difference across
boundary layer of the hot / cold fluid film formed
at the heat transfer surface. The magnitude of heat
transfer coefficient indicates the ability of heat
conductivity of the given fluid. It increases with increase
in density, velocity, specific heat, geometry of the film
forming surface
16

kg/m3

(m2.K)/W

W/ m2

m2

W/( m2.K)

Energy Performance Assessment Of Heat Exchangers

LMTD
Correction
factor

Logarithmic
Mean
Temperature
difference,
LMTD
Overall Heat
transfer
Coefficient

Pressure drop
Specific
heat capacity
Temperature
Approach

Temperature
Range
Terminal
temperature
Thermal
Conductivity
Viscosity

Calculated considering the Capacity and effectiveness


of a heat exchanging process. When multiplied with
LMTD gives the corrected LMTD thus accounting
for the temperature driving force for the cross flow
pattern as applicable inside the exchanger
The logarithmic average of the terminal temperature
approaches across a heat exchanger
C
The ratio of heat flux per unit difference in approach
across a heat exchange equipment considering the
individual coefficient and heat exchanger metal surface
conductivity. The magnitude indicates the ability of
heat transfer for a given surface. Higher the coefficient
lesser will be the heat transfer surface requirement
The difference in pressure between the inlet and
outlet of a heat exchanger
The heat content per unit weight of any material per
degree raise/fall in temperature
The difference in the temperature between the hot and
cold fluids at the inlet / outlet of the heat exchanger.
The greater the difference greater will be heat
transfer flux
The difference in the temperature between the inlet
and outlet of a hot/cold fluid in a heat exchanger
The temperatures at the inlet / outlet of the hot / cold
fluid steams across a heat exchanger
The rate of heat transfer by conduction though any
substance across a distance per unit
temperature difference
The force on unit volume of any material that
will cause per velocity

17

W/(m2.K)
Bar
J/(kg.K)

C
C
C
W/(m2.K)
Pa

Cooling Towers
Chapter-6

COOLING TOWERS
1. INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................1
2. TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS ................................................................4
3. ASSESSMENT OF COOLING TOWERS ..................................................7
4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES .............................................9
5. OPTION CHECKLIST ................................................................................14
6. WORKSHEETS ............................................................................................15
7. REFERENCES..............................................................................................17
1. INTRODUCTION
This section briefly describes the main features of cooling towers.

1.1 What is a cooling tower?


Cooled water is needed for, for example, air conditioners, manufacturing processes or power
generation. A cooling tower is an equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream
by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere. Cooling towers make use of
evaporation whereby some of the water is evaporated into a moving air stream and
subsequently discharged into the atmosphere. As a result, the remainder of the water is cooled
down significantly (Figure 1). Cooling towers are able to lower the water temperatures more
than devices that use only air to reject heat, like the radiator in a car, and are therefore more
cost-effective and energy efficient.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a cooling water system


(Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2001)

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

1.2 Components of a cooling tower


The basic components of a cooling tower include the frame and casing, fill, cold-water basin,
drift eliminators, air inlet, louvers, nozzles and fans. These are described below.1
Frame and casing. Most towers have structural frames that support the exterior enclosures
(casings), motors, fans, and other components. With some smaller designs, such as some
glass fiber units, the casing may essentially be the frame.
Fill. Most towers employ fills (made of plastic or wood) to facilitate heat transfer by
maximizing water and air contact. There are two types of fill:
Splash fill: water falls over successive layers of horizontal splash bars, continuously
breaking into smaller droplets, while also wetting the fill surface. Plastic splash fills
promote better heat transfer than wood splash fills.
Film fill: consists of thin, closely spaced plastic surfaces over which the water spreads,
forming a thin film in contact with the air. These surfaces may be flat, corrugated,
honeycombed, or other patterns. The film type of fill is the more efficient and provides
same heat transfer in a smaller volume than the splash fill.
Cold-water basin. The cold-water basin is located at or near the bottom of the tower, and it
receives the cooled water that flows down through the tower and fill. The basin usually has a
sump or low point for the cold-water discharge connection. In many tower designs, the coldwater basin is beneath the entire fill. In some forced draft counter flow design, however, the
water at the bottom of the fill is channeled to a perimeter trough that functions as the coldwater basin. Propeller fans are mounted beneath the fill to blow the air up through the tower.
With this design, the tower is mounted on legs, providing easy access to the fans and their
motors.
Drift eliminators. These capture water droplets entrapped in the air stream that otherwise
would be lost to the atmosphere.
Air inlet. This is the point of entry for the air entering a tower. The inlet may take up an
entire side of a tower (cross-flow design) or be located low on the side or the bottom of the
tower (counter-flow design).
Louvers. Generally, cross-flow towers have inlet louvers. The purpose of louvers is to
equalize air flow into the fill and retain the water within the tower. Many counter flow tower
designs do not require louvers.
Nozzles. These spray water to wet the fill. Uniform water distribution at the top of the fill is
essential to achieve proper wetting of the entire fill surface. Nozzles can either be fixed and
spray in a round or square patterns, or they can be part of a rotating assembly as found in
some circular cross-section towers.
Fans. Both axial (propeller type) and centrifugal fans are used in towers. Generally, propeller
fans are used in induced draft towers and both propeller and centrifugal fans are found in
forced draft towers. Depending upon their size, the type of propeller fans used is either fixed
1

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers


or variable pitch. A fan with non-automatic adjustable pitch blades can be used over a wide
kW range because the fan can be adjusted to deliver the desired air flow at the lowest power
consumption. Automatic variable pitch blades can vary air flow in response to changing load
conditions.

1.3 Tower materials


Originally, cooling towers were constructed primarily with wood, including the frame,
casing, louvers, fill and cold-water basin. Sometimes the cold-water basin was made of
concrete. Today, manufacturers use a variety of materials to construct cooling towers.
Materials are chosen to enhance corrosion resistance, reduce maintenance, and promote
reliability and long service life. Galvanized steel, various grades of stainless steel, glass fiber,
and concrete are widely used in tower construction, as well as aluminum and plastics for
some components.2
Frame and casing. Wooden towers are still available, but many components are made of
different materials, such as the casing around the wooden framework of glass fiber, the inlet
air louvers of glass fiber, the fill of plastic and the cold-water basin of steel. Many towers
(casings and basins) are constructed of galvanized steel or, where a corrosive atmosphere is a
problem, the tower and/or the basis are made of stainless steel. Larger towers sometimes are
made of concrete. Glass fiber is also widely used for cooling tower casings and basins,
because they extend the life of the cooling tower and provide protection against harmful
chemicals.
Fill. Plastics are widely used for fill, including PVC, polypropylene, and other polymers.
When water conditions require the use of splash fill, treated wood splash fill is still used in
wooden towers, but plastic splash fill is also widely used. Because of greater heat transfer
efficiency, film fill is chosen for applications where the circulating water is generally free of
debris that could block the fill passageways.
Nozzles. Plastics are also widely used for nozzles. Many nozzles are made of PVC, ABS,
polypropylene, and glass-filled nylon.
Fans. Aluminum, glass fiber and hot-dipped galvanized steel are commonly used fan
materials. Centrifugal fans are often fabricated from galvanized steel. Propeller fans are made
from galvanized steel, aluminum, or molded glass fiber reinforced plastic.

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

2. TYPES OF COOLING TOWERS


This section describes the two main types of cooling towers: the natural draft and mechanical
draft cooling towers.

2.1 Natural draft cooling tower


The natural draft or hyperbolic cooling tower makes use of the difference in temperature
between the ambient air and the hotter air inside the tower. As hot air moves upwards through
the tower (because hot air rises), fresh cool air is drawn into the tower through an air inlet at
the bottom. Due to the layout of the tower, no fan is required and there is almost no
circulation of hot air that could affect the performance. Concrete is used for the tower shell
with a height of up to 200 m. These cooling towers are mostly only for large heat duties
because large concrete structures are expensive.

Figure 2. Cross flow natural draft cooling tower

Figure 3. Counter flow natural draft cooling tower

(Gulf Coast Chemical Commercial Inc, 1995)

There are two main types of natural draft towers:


Cross flow tower (Figure 2): air is drawn across the falling water and the fill is located
outside the tower
Counter flow tower (Figure 3): air is drawn up through the falling water and the fill is
therefore located inside the tower, although design depends on specific site conditions

2.2 Mechanical draft cooling tower


Mechanical draft towers have large fans to force or draw air through circulated water. The
water falls downwards over fill surfaces, which help increase the contact time between the
water and the air - this helps maximize heat transfer between the two. Cooling rates of
mechanical draft towers depend upon various parameters such as fan diameter and speed of
operation, fills for system resistance etc.

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers


Mechanical draft towers are available in a large range of capacities. Towers can be either
factory built or field erected for example concrete towers are only field erected.
Many towers are constructed so that they can be grouped together to achieve the desired
capacity. Thus, many cooling towers are assemblies of two or more individual cooling towers
or cells. The number of cells they have, e.g., a eight-cell tower, often refers to such towers.
Multiple-cell towers can be lineal, square, or round depending upon the shape of the
individual cells and whether the air inlets are located on the sides or bottoms of the cells.
The three types of mechanical draft towers are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. Main features of different types of draft cooling towers (based on AIRAH)
Type of cooling tower
Forced draft cooling tower (Figure 4): air is
blown through the tower by a fan located in
the air inlet

Induced draft cross flow cooling tower


(Figure 5):
water enters at top and passes over fill
air enters on one side (single-flow tower)
or opposite sides (double-flow tower)
an induced draft fan draws air across fill
towards exit at top of tower
Induced draft counter flow cooling tower
(Figure 6):
hot water enters at the top
air enters bottom and exits at the top
uses forced and induced draft fans

Advantages
Suited for high air
resistance due to
centrifugal blower
fans
Fans are relatively
quiet
Less recirculation
than forced draft
towers because the
speed of exit air is
3-4 times higher
than entering air

Disadvantages
Recirculation due to high
air-entry and low air-exit
velocities, which can be
solved by locating towers
in plant rooms combined
with discharge ducts
Fans and the motor drive
mechanism require
weather-proofing against
moisture and corrosion
because they are in the
path of humid exit air

Figure 4. Forced Draft Cooling Tower ((GEO4VA))


5

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

Figure 5. Induced draft counter flow cooling tower


(GEO4VA)

Figure 6. Induced draft cross flow cooling tower


(GEO4VA)

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

3. ASSESSMENT OF COOLING TOWERS


This section describes how the performance of cooling powers can be assessed.3 The
performance of cooling towers is evaluated to assess present levels of approach and range
against their design values, identify areas of energy wastage and to suggest improvements.
During the performance evaluation, portable monitoring instruments are used to measure the
following parameters:
Wet bulb temperature of air
Dry bulb temperature of air
Cooling tower inlet water temperature
Cooling tower outlet water temperature
Exhaust air temperature
Electrical readings of pump and fan motors
Water flow rate
Air flow rate
Hot Water Temperature (In)

Range

(In) to the Tower


(Out) from the Tower

Cold-water Temperature (Out)


Approach
Wet Bulb Temperature (Ambient)
Figure 7. Range and approach of cooling towers
These measured parameters and then used to determine the cooling tower performance in
several ways. (Note: CT = cooling tower; CW = cooling water). These are:
a) Range (see Figure 7). This is the difference between the cooling tower water inlet and
outlet temperature. A high CT Range means that the cooling tower has been able to
reduce the water temperature effectively, and is thus performing well. The formula is:
CT Range (C) = [CW inlet temp (C) CW outlet temp (C)]

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

b) Approach (see Figure 7). This is the difference between the cooling tower outlet coldwater temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature. The lower the approach the better
the cooling tower performance. Although, both range and approach should be monitored,
the `Approach is a better indicator of cooling tower performance.
CT Approach (C) = [CW outlet temp (C) Wet bulb temp (C)]
c) Effectiveness. This is the ratio between the range and the ideal range (in percentage), i.e.
difference between cooling water inlet temperature and ambient wet bulb temperature, or
in other words it is = Range / (Range + Approach). The higher this ratio, the higher the
cooling tower effectiveness.
CT Effectiveness (%) = 100 x (CW temp CW out temp) / (CW in temp WB temp)
d) Cooling capacity. This is the heat rejected in kCal/hr or TR, given as product of mass
flow rate of water, specific heat and temperature difference.
e)

Evaporation loss. This is the water quantity evaporated for cooling duty. Theoretically
the evaporation quantity works out to 1.8 m3 for every 1,000,000 kCal heat rejected. The
following formula can be used (Perry):
Evaporation loss (m3/hr) = 0.00085 x 1.8 x circulation rate (m3/hr) x (T1-T2)
T1 - T2 = temperature difference between inlet and outlet water

f) Cycles of concentration (C.O.C). This is the ratio of dissolved solids in circulating water
to the dissolved solids in make up water.
g) Blow down losses depend upon cycles of concentration and the evaporation losses and is
given by formula:
Blow down = Evaporation loss / (C.O.C. 1)
h) Liquid/Gas (L/G) ratio. The L/G ratio of a cooling tower is the ratio between the water
and the air mass flow rates. Cooling towers have certain design values, but seasonal
variations require adjustment and tuning of water and air flow rates to get the best cooling
tower effectiveness. Adjustments can be made by water box loading changes or blade
angle adjustments. Thermodynamic rules also dictate that the heat removed from the
water must be equal to the heat absorbed by the surrounding air. Therefore the following
formulae can be used:
L(T1 T2) = G(h2 h1)
L/G = (h2 h1) / (T1 T2)
Where:
L/G = liquid to gas mass flow ratio (kg/kg)
T1 = hot water temperature (0C)
T2 = cold-water temperature (0C)

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers


h2 = enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at exhaust wet-bulb temperature (same units
as above)
h1 = enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at inlet wet-bulb temperature (same
units as above)

4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES


This section includes main areas for improving energy efficiency of cooling towers. The main
areas for energy conservation include: 4
Selecting the right cooling tower (because the structural aspects of the cooling tower
cannot be changed after it is installed)
Fills
Pumps and water distribution system
Fans and motors

4.1 Selecting the right cooling towers


Once a cooling tower is in place it is very difficult to significantly improve its energy
performance. A number of factors are of influence on the cooling towers performance and
should be considered when choosing a cooling tower: capacity, range, approach, heat load,
wet bulb temperature, and the relationship between these factors. This is described below.
4.1.1 Capacity
Heat dissipation (in kCal/hour) and circulated flow rate (m3/hr) are an indication of the
capacity of cooling towers. However, these design parameters are not sufficient to understand
the cooling tower performance. For example, a cooling tower sized to cool 4540 m3/hr
through a 13.9 0C range might be larger than a cooling tower to cool 4540 m3/hr through 19.5
0
C range. Therefore other design parameters are also needed.
4.1.2 Range
Range is determined not by the cooling tower, but by the process it is serving. The range at
the exchanger is determined entirely by the heat load and the water circulation rate through
the exchanger and going to the cooling water. The range is a function of the heat load and the
flow circulated through the system:
Range 0C = Heat load (in kCal/hour) / Water circulation rate (l/hour)
Cooling towers are usually specified to cool a certain flow rate from one temperature to
another temperature at a certain wet bulb temperature. For example, the cooling tower might
be specified to cool 4540 m3/hr from 48.9oC to 32.2oC at 26.7oC wet bulb temperature.
4.1.3 Approach
As a general rule, the closer the approach to the wet bulb, the more expensive the cooling
tower due to increased size. Usually a 2.8oC approach to the design wet bulb is the coldest
water temperature that cooling tower manufacturers will guarantee. When the size of the

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers


tower has to be chosen, then the approach is most important, closely followed by the flow
rate, and the range and wet bulb would be of lesser importance.
Approach (5.50C) = Cold-water temperature 32.2 0C Wet bulb temperature (26.7
0
C)
4.1.4 Heat load
The heat load imposed on a cooling tower is determined by the process being served. The
degree of cooling required is controlled by the desired operating temperature of the process.
In most cases, a low operating temperature is desirable to increase process efficiency or to
improve the quality or quantity of the product. However, in some applications (e.g. internal
combustion engines) high operating temperatures are desirable. The size and cost of the
cooling tower is increases with increasing heat load. Purchasing undersized equipment (if the
calculated heat load is too low) and oversized equipment (if the calculated heat load is too
high) is something to be aware of.
Process heat loads may vary considerably depending upon the process involved and are
therefore difficult to determine accurately. On the other hand, air conditioning and
refrigeration heat loads can be determined with greater accuracy.
Information is available for the heat rejection requirements of various types of power
equipment. A sample list is as follows (BEE, 2004):
Air Compressor
- Single-stage - 129 kCal/kW/hr
- Single-stage with after cooler - 862 kCal/kW/hr
- Two-stage with intercooler - 518 kCal/kW/hr
- Two-stage with intercooler and after cooler - 862 kCal/kW/hr
Refrigeration, Compression - 63 kCal/min/TR
Refrigeration, Absorption - 127 kCal/min/TR
Steam Turbine Condenser - 555 kCal/kg of steam
Diesel Engine, Four-Cycle, Supercharged - 880 kCal/kW/hr
Natural Gas Engine, Four-cycle - 1523 kCal/kW/hr (= 18 kg/cm2 compression)
4.1.5 Wet bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature is an important factor in performance of evaporative water cooling
equipment, because it is the lowest temperature to which water can be cooled. For this reason,
the wet bulb temperature of the air entering the cooling tower determines the minimum
operating temperature level throughout the plant, process, or system. The following should be
considered when pre-selecting a cooling tower based on the wet bulb temperature:
Theoretically, a cooling tower will cool water to the entering wet bulb temperature. In
practice, however, water is cooled to a temperature higher than the wet bulb temperature
because heat needs to be rejected from the cooling tower.
A pre-selection of towers based on the design wet bulb temperature must consider
conditions at the tower site. The design wet bulb temperature also should not be
exceeded for more than 5 percent of the time. In general, the design temperature selected
is close to the average maximum wet bulb temperature in summer.
Confirm whether the wet bulb temperature is specified as ambient (the temperature in
the cooling tower area) or inlet (the temperature of the air entering the tower, which is
often affected by discharge vapors recirculated into the tower). As the impact of

10

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

recirculation cannot be known in advance, the ambient wet bulb temperature is


preferred.
Confirm with the supplier if the cooling tower is able to deal with the effects of
increased wet bulb temperatures.
The cold-water temperature must be low enough to exchange heat or to condense vapors
at the optimum temperature level. The quantity and temperature of heat exchanged can
be considered when choosing the right size cooling tower and heat exchangers at the
lowest costs.

4.1.6 Relationship between range, flow and heat load


The range increases when the quantity of circulated water and heat load increase. This means
that increasing the range as a result of added heat load requires a larger tower. There are two
possible causes for the increased range:
The inlet water temperature is increased (and the cold-water temperature at the exit

remains the same). In this case it is economical to invest in removing the additional heat.

The exit water temperature is decreased (and the hot water temperature at the inlet
remains the same). In this case the tower size would have to be increased considerably
because the approach is also reduced, and this is not always economical.
4.1.7 Relationship between approach and wet bulb temperature
The design wet bulb temperature is determined by the geographical location. For a certain
approach value (and at a constant range and flow range), the higher the wet bulb temperature,
the smaller the tower required. For example, a 4540 m3/hr cooling tower selected for a
16.67oC range and a 4.45oC approach to 21.11oC wet bulb would be larger than the same
tower to a 26.67oC wet bulb. The reason is that air at the higher wet bulb temperature is
capable of picking up more heat. This is explained for the two different wet bulb
temperatures:
Each kg of air entering the tower at a wet bulb temperature of 21.1oC contains 18.86
kCal. If the air leaves the tower at 32.2oC wet bulb temperature, each kg of air contains
24.17 kCal. At an increase of 11.1oC, the air picks up 12.1 kCal per kg of air.
Each kg of air entering the tower at a wet bulb temperature of 26.67oC contains 24.17

kCals. If the air leaves at 37.8oC wet bulb temperature, each kg of air contains 39.67
kCal. At an increase of 11.1oC, the air picks up 15.5 kCal per kg of air, which is much
more than the first scenario.

4.2 Fill media effects


In a cooling tower, hot water is distributed above fill media and is cooled down through
evaporation as it flows down the tower and gets in contact with air. The fill media impacts
energy consumption in two ways:
Electricity is used for pumping above the fill and for fans that create the air draft. An
efficiently designed fill media with appropriate water distribution, drift eliminator, fan,
gearbox and motor with therefore lead to lower electricity consumption.
Heat exchange between air and water is influenced by surface area of heat exchange,
duration of heat exchange (interaction) and turbulence in water effecting thoroughness of
intermixing. The fill media determines all of these and therefore influences the heat
exchange. The greater the heat exchange, the more effective the cooling tower becomes.
There are three types of fills:

11

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

Splash fill media. Splash fill media generates the required heat exchange area by
splashing water over the fill media into smaller water droplets. The surface area of the
water droplets is the surface area for heat exchange with the air.
Film fill media. In a film fill, water forms a thin film on either side of fill sheets. The
surface area of the fill sheets is the area for heat exchange with the surrounding air. Film
fill can result in significant electricity savings due to fewer air and pumping head
requirements.
Low-clog film fills. Low-clog film fills with higher flute sizes were recently developed to
handle high turbid waters. Low clog film fills are considered as the best choice for sea
water in terms of power savings and performance compared to conventional splash type
fills.

Table 1: Design Values of Different Types of Fill


(BEE India, 2004; Ramarao; and Shivaraman)
Splash fill
Film fill
Possible L/G ratio
1.1 1.5
1.5 2.0
Effective heat exchange area
30 45 m2/m3
150 m2/m3
Fill height required
5 10 m
1.2 1.5 m
Pumping head required
9 12 m
58m
Quantity of air required
High
Lowest

Low clog film fill


1.4 1.8
85 - 100 m2/m3
1.5 1.8 m
69m
Low

4.3 Pumps and water distribution


4.3.1 Pumps
Areas for energy efficiency improvements are discussed in details in the Pumps and Pumping
Systems chapter.
4.3.2 Optimize cooling water treatment
Cooling water treatment (e.g. to control suspended solids, algae growth) is mandatory for any
cooling tower independent of what fill media is used. With increasing costs of water, efforts
to increase Cycles of Concentration (COC), by cooling water treatment would help to reduce
make up water requirements significantly. In large industries and power plants improving the
COC is often considered a key area for water conservation.
4.3.3 Install drift eliminators
It is very difficult to ignore drift problems in cooling towers. Nowadays most of the end user
specifications assume a 0.02% drift loss.
But thanks to technological developments and the production of PVC, manufacturers have
improved drift eliminator designs. As a result drift losses can now be as low as 0.003
0.001%.

4.4 Cooling tower fans


The purpose of a cooling tower fan is to move a specified quantity of air through the system.
The fan has to overcome the system resistance, which is defined as the pressure loss, to move
the air. The fan output or work done by the fan is the product of air flow and the pressure
loss. The fan output and kW input determines the fan efficiency.

12

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers


The fan efficiency in turn is greatly dependent on the profile of the blade. Blades include:
Metallic blades, which are manufactured by extrusion or casting processes and therefore
it is difficult to produce ideal aerodynamic profiles
Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) blades are normally hand molded which makes it easier to
produce an optimum aerodynamic profile tailored to specific duty conditions. Because
FRP fans are light, they need a low starting torque requiring a lower HP motor, the lives
of the gear box, motor and bearing is increased, and maintenance is easier.
A 85-92% efficiency can be achieved with blades with an aerodynamic profile, optimum
twist, taper and a high coefficient of lift to coefficient of drop ratio. However, this efficiency
is drastically affected by factors such as tip clearance, obstacles to airflow and inlet shape,
etc.
Cases reported where metallic or glass fiber reinforced plastic fan blades have been replaced
by efficient hollow FRP blades. The resulting fan energy savings were in the order of 20-30%
and with simple pay back period of 6 to 7 months (NPC).
The chapter Fans and Blowers gives more information about fans.

13

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

5. OPTION CHECKLIST
This section lists the most important options to improve energy efficiency of cooling towers.

Follow manufacturers recommended clearances around cooling towers and relocate or


modify structures that interfere with the air intake or exhaust

Optimize cooling tower fan blade angle on a seasonal and/or load basis

Correct excessive and/or uneven fan blade tip clearance and poor fan balance

In old counter-flow cooling towers, replace old spray type nozzles with new square spray
nozzles that do not clog

Replace splash bars with self-extinguishing PVC cellular film fill

Install nozzles that spray in a more uniform water pattern

Clean plugged cooling tower distribution nozzles regularly

Balance flow to cooling tower hot water basins

Cover hot water basins to minimize algae growth that contributes to fouling

Optimize the blow down flow rate, taking into account the cycles of concentration (COC)
limit

Replace slat type drift eliminators with low-pressure drop, self-extinguishing PVC
cellular units

Restrict flows through large loads to design values

Keep the cooling water temperature to a minimum level by (a) segregating high heat
loads like furnaces, air compressors, DG sets and (b) isolating cooling towers from
sensitive applications like A/C plants, condensers of captive power plant etc. Note: A 1oC
cooling water temperature increase may increase the A/C compressor electricity
consumption by 2.7%. A 1oC drop in cooling water temperature can give a heat rate
saving of 5 kCal/kWh in a thermal power plant

Monitor approach, effectiveness and cooling capacity to continuously optimize the


cooling tower performance, but consider seasonal variations and side variations

Monitor liquid to gas ratio and cooling water flow rates and amend these depending on
the design values and seasonal variations. For example: increase water loads during
summer and times when approach is high and increase air flow during monsoon times and
when approach is low.

Consider COC improvement measures for water savings

Consider energy efficient fibre reinforced plastic blade adoption for fan energy savings

Control cooling tower fans based on exit water temperatures especially in small units

Check cooling water pumps regularly to maximize their efficiency

14

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

6. WORKSHEETS
This section includes following worksheets:
1. Key Technical Specifications
2. Cooling Tower Performance

Worksheet 1 : KEY TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION


No.

Parameter

Units

Cooling tower
reference
CT 1

1.

Type of cooling tower

2.

Number of tower

3.

Number of cells per tower

4.

Area per cell

5.

Water flow

6.

Pumping power

7.

Pumping head

8.

Fan power

9.

Design hot water temperature

10.

Design cold-water temperature

Design wet bulb temperature

11.

CT 2

m3/hr
kW
m
kW

15

Electrical Energy Equipment: Cooling Towers

Worksheet 2: COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE


No.

Parameter reference

Units

Cooling tower (CT)


CT 1

1.

Dry bulb temperature

2.

Wet bulb temperature

3.

CT inlet temperature

4.

CT outlet temperature

5.

Range

6.

Approach

7.

CT effectiveness

8.

Average water flow

kg/hr

9.

Average air quantity

kg/hr

10.

Liquid/gas (L/G) ratio

11.

Evaporation loss

m3/hr

12.

CT heat loading

kCal/hr

CT 2

kg water/kg air

16

Monitoring Equipment
Chapter-7

MONITORING EQUIPMENT
1. ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS .........................................2
2. COMBUSTION ANALYZERS.....................................................................7
3. MANOMETERS...........................................................................................9
4. THERMOMETERS....................................................................................12
5. WATER FLOW METERS.........................................................................15
6. TACHOMETERS / STROBOSCOPES......................................................19
7. LEAK DETECTORS ..................................................................................22
8. LUX METERS............................................................................................24
9. REFERENCES ...........................................................................................26
Monitoring equipment can be useful to measure the actual operating parameters of various
energy equipment and compare them with the design parameters to determine if energy
efficiency can be improved. Or monitoring equipment can be used to identify measure steam or
compressed air leaks. Parameters that are often monitored during an energy assessment are:
Basic electrical parameters in AC & DC systems: voltage (V), current (I), power factor,
active power (kW), maximum demand (kVA), reactive power (kVAr), energy consumption
(kWh), frequency (Hz), harmonics, etc.
Other non-electrical parameters: temperature and heat flow, radiation, air and gas flow, liquid
flow, revolutions per minute (RPM), air velocity, noise and vibration, dust concentration,
total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, moisture content, relative humidity, flue gas analysis (CO2,
O 2, CO, SOx, NOx), combustion efficiency, etc.
This module provides information for various monitoring equipment that are often used during
energy assessments in industry:
1. Electrical measuring instruments
2. Combustion analyzer
3. Thermometers
4. Manometers
5. Water flow meters
6. Tachometers / Stroboscopes
7. Leak detectors
8. Lux meters
For each type of monitoring equipment the following information is given:
What the monitoring equipment does
Where the monitoring equipment is used
How to operate the monitoring equipment
Precautions and safety measures necessary for the monitoring equipment

Monitoring Equipment

1. ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


1.1 What electrical measuring instruments do
Electrical measuring instruments include clamp-on or power analyzers and are used to measure
main electrical parameters such as KVA, kW, PF, Hertz, KVAr, Amps and Volts. Some of these
instruments also measure harmonics. Instant measurements can be taken with hand- held meters,
while more advanced ones facilitates cumulative readings with print outs at specified intervals.
There are several models available in the market
from different companies. One suc h instrument is the
HIOKI 3286-20 Clamp-on Power Hitester (Figure 1).
It measures the following parameters:
Voltage: 150 V to 600 V, 3 ranges
Current: 200 A or 1000 A, 2 ranges
Voltage/current peak
Effective/reactive/apparent power (single-phase
or 3-phase): 30 kW to 1200 kW, 14 combination
patterns
Power factor
Reactivity
Phase angle
Frequency,
Phase detection (3-phase)
Voltage/current harmonic levels (up to 20th)
Figure 1. Hioki 3286-20 Clamp-on Power Hitester
(Hioko Ltd.)

1.2 Where electrical measuring instruments are used


These instruments are applied on-line to measure various electrical parameters of motors,
transformers, and electrical heaters. There is no need to stop the equipment while taking the
measurements.

1.3 How to operate electrical measuring instruments


The instrument has three leads (wires), which are connected to the crocodile clips at the end. The
three leads are yellow, black and red. Figures 2 to 8 give illustrate the measurement method for
various conditions. However, operating procedures may vary for different types of clamp-on or
power analyzers. For the correct operation procedure the operator should always check the
instruction manual supplied with the instrument.

Monitoring Equipment

Figure 2. Power Measurement on Single-phase Two -wire Circuit (Hioki Ltd)

Figure 3. Power and Power Factor Measurement on Single-phase Three-wire Circuit


(Hioki Ltd)
The power and power factor of a single-phase three-wire circuit are measured similarly to a single phase two-wire circuit. Connect the black lead to the neutral wire as shown, and then switch the red
lead and clamp sensor to the respective wires. Now the power and power factor between the wires can
be measured.

Monitoring Equipment

Figure 4. Power and Power Factor Measurement on Three-phase Three-wire Circuit


(Hioki Ltd)

Figure 5. Alternative Method of Power and Power Factor Measurement on Three-phase


Three-wire Circuit (Hioki Ltd)

Monitoring Equipment

Figure 6. Power and Power Factor Measurement on Three-phase Four-wire Circuit


(Hioki Ltd)

Figure 7. Current Measurement (Hioki Ltd)

Figure 8. Voltage Measurement (Hioki Ltd)

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1.4 Precautions and safety measures


Some precautions and safety measures to be taken while using clamp-on and power analyzers
are:
To avoid short circuits and potentially life-threatening hazards, never attach the clamp to a
circuit that operates at more than the maximum rated voltage, or over bare conductors.
The clamp -on probe should be connected to the secondary side of a breaker, so the breaker
can prevent an accident if a short circuit occurs.
While using the instrument, use rubber hand gloves, boots, and a safety helmet, to avoid
electrical shocks, and do not use the instrument when hands are wet.
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

Monitoring Equipment

2. COMBUSTION ANALYZERS
2.1 What a combustion analyzer does
A combustion analyzer is used to measure the composition of the flue gases after combustion has
taken place. Different combustion analyzers can be ordered to match the requirements at a plant.
Basically all combustion analyzers measure the percentage oxygen (O 2) or carbon dioxide (CO2)
in the exit flue gases and then use an inbuilt programme to calculate the combustion efficiency if
required. The various types of combustion analyzers are given below:
Fuel Efficiency Monitor
This measures oxygen and temperature of the flue gas. Calorific values of common
fuels are fed into the microprocessor which calculates the combustion efficiency

Fyrite
A hand bellow pump draws the flue gas sample into a solution inside the fyrite. A
chemical reaction changes the liquid volume revealing the amount of gas. The
percentage oxygen or CO2 can be read from the scale.

Gas Analyzer
This instrument has in-built chemical cells which measure various gases such as CO2,
CO, NO X, SOX etc.

Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia www.energyefficiencyasia.org

UNEP

Monitoring Equipment

2.2 Where a combustion analyzer is used


Combustion analyzers are used to determine the composition of the flue gases in the duct. The
duct is the large piping arrangement of rectangular configuration and is used to flush out the
combusted gases to the chimney. The values for the different components of the flue gases are
volume-based. Mostly these instruments measure the percentage oxygen and carbon dioxide and
the temperature of the flue gas. During energy audits it is desirable to know the composition of
the flue gases in order to assess the combustion conditions and efficiency and leakages of
atmospheric air into the system.

2.3 How to operate


Different types of the combustion analyzers are operated differently. For all types of combustion
analyzers the probe is inserted into the duct through a small hole made in the duct for monitoring
purposes. In case of a fyrite combustion analyzer, which is manually operated, the flue gas from
the duct is sucked out using a manual pumping device. In most of the other analyzers the flue
gases are pumped out of the ducts using a suction pump. The collected gases react with the
chemical/cells and give readings of % oxygen or carbon dioxide.

2.4 Precautions and safety measures


Some precautions and safety measures to be taken while using combustion analyzers are:
Always calibrate the instrument in open fresh air before taking a set of measurements.
Check for the clogging of the air filters of the instrument.
During measurements, ensure that the rubber tubing carrying the gases from the duct to the
instrument is not bent.
After insertion of the probe into the duct, care should be taken to wrap the left opening space
with cotton rags to ensure that there is no filtration of air into the system or air escaping the
system.
Thick cotton hand gloves, goggles, a safety helmet and other safety gear should be worn
before taking the readings. Remember that the gases you are handling are very hot!
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

Monitoring Equipment

3. MANOMETERS
3.1 What a manometer does
Manometers are widely used instrument in energy audits for measuring the differential pressure
across two points. The oldest type is the liquid -column manometer. A very simple version of a
liquid-column manometer is a U-shaped tube (see Figure 9) that is half- full of liquid (usually
oil, water or mercury) where the measured pressure is applied to one side of the tube whilst the
reference pressure (which might be that of the atmosphere) is applied to the other. The difference
in liquid level represents the applied pressure.

Figure 9. Schematic illustration of a liquid-column manometer


(Dwyer Instruments Inc.)
The principles of how a manometer works are as follows:
Figure 9a. In its simplest form the manometer is a U-tube about half filled with liquid. With
both ends of the tube open, the liquid is at the same height in each leg.
Figure 9b. When positive pressure is applied to one leg, the liquid is forced down in that leg
and up in the other. The difference in height, "h," which is the sum of the readings above and
below zero, indicates the pressure.
Figure 9c. When a vacuum is applied to one leg, the liquid rises in that leg and falls in the
other. The difference in height, "h," which is the sum of the readings above and below zero,
indicates the amount of vacuum.
There are three main types of manometers:
Single- limb liquid-column manometer has a larger reservoir instead of one side of the U-tube
and has a scale beside the narrower column. This column can further amplify the liquid
movement. Liquid-column manometers can be used to measure small differences between
high pressures.
Flexible Membrane Type: This type uses the deflection of a flexible membrane that seals off
a volume with a fixed reference-pressure. The degree of deflection of the membrane
corresponds with a specific pressure. Reference tables exist to determine the pressure for
different deflections.

Monitoring Equipment

Coiled Tube Type: A third variant uses a coiled tube which will expand with increasing
pressure. This causes a rotation of an arm connected to the tube.

3.2 Where the manometer is used


During conducting of energy audit studies manometers are used to determine the differential
pressure between two points in a duct carrying exhaust gases or air. The pressure differential is
then used to calculate the velocity of flow in the duct using the Bernoullis equation. ( Pressure
Differential = v2/2g). A more detailed account of use of manometer is given in section on hoe to
operate a manometer. However the same can be used for measuring the differential pressure
across two points in a pipe carrying any fluid. In this case the precaution to be taken is that the
manometer should be compatible to be used for fluid flows. The velocity of flow of fluid is given
by Differential pressure = f LV2 /2gD where f is the friction factor of the pipe material, L is
distance between two points across which pressure differential is taken, D is the diameter of the
pipe and g is the gravitational constant.

3.3 How to operate a manometer


It is not easy to explain one way of operating manometers. The reason is that there are many
different kinds of manometers that require different ways of handling.
However, some operating steps are the same. During energy audits, air velocity in ducts can be
measured using a pitot tube and flows are calculated using a manometer. A sampling hole is
made in the duct (pipe carrying exhaust gases) and the pitot tube is inserted into the duct. The
two openings at the end of the pitot tube are connected to the two openings of the manometer.
The difference in level of the manometer gives the total velocity pressure. For example, in case
of a digital manometer the readings are displayed as mm of the water column.
Manometer

Pitot tube

Figure 10. Measurement using Pitot Tube and Manometer


(Dwyer Instruments Inc.)

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3.4 Precautions and safety measures

Manometers should not be exposed to very high pressures. In case of high pressures inclined
tune manometers should be used.
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

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4. THERMOMETERS
4.1 What a thermometer does
Thermometers are instruments used to measure the temperature of fluids, surfaces or gases, for
example of the flue gases after combustion has taken place. Thermometers are classified as
contact thermometers or non-contact or infrared thermometers and are described below.
Contact thermometer
There are many types of contact thermometers. A simple clinical thermometer is the best known
example of a contact thermometer. However, for the purpose of energy audits in an industrial
plant we generally use thermocouples for measuring temperatures with a high accuracy. It
consists of two dissimilar metals, joined together at one end. The thermocouple metal alloys are
commonly available as wire. A thermocouple is available in different co mbinations of metals or
calibrations. The four most common calibrations are J, K, T and E. There are high temperature
calibrations R, S, C and GB. Each calibration has a different temperature range and environment,
although the maximum temperature varies with the diameter of the wire used in the
thermocouple. Although the thermocouple calibration dictates the temperature range, the
maximum range is also limited by the diameter of the thermocouple wire.

Figure 11. Thermocouple Thermometer


(Reliability Direct, Inc)
Non-contact or infrared thermometer
A non-contact or infrared thermometer allows the measurement of temperatures without physical
contact between the thermometer and the object of which the temperature is determined. The
thermometer is directed at the surface and immediately gives a temperature reading. This
instrument is useful for measuring hot spots in furnaces, surface temperatures etc.
Infrared thermometer allows users to measure temperature in applications where conventional
sensors cannot be used or cannot produce accurate temperature readings, such as:

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When a fast response or measurement is required, such as moving objects (i.e. rollers,
moving machinery, or a conveyor belt)
Where non-contact measurements are required because of contamination or hazardous
reasons (such as high voltage)
Too large distances or heights
Too high temperatures for thermocouples or other contact sensors
The object is contained in a vacuum or other controlled atmosphere
The object is surrounded by an electromagnetic field (such as induction heating)

The basic principle of the infrared thermometer is that all objects emit infrared energy. The
hotter an object, the more active its molecules are, and the more infrared energy it emits. An
infrared thermometer contains a lens that focuses the collected infrared energy from the object
onto a detector. The detector converts the energy into an electrical signal, which is amplified and
displayed in units of temperature after corrections for ambient temperature variations.

Figure 12. Non-contact or Infrared Thermometer


(Nitonuk Ltd. 2003)

4.2 Where the thermometer is used


In energy audits, the temperature is one of the most important parameters to be measured in
order to determine the thermal energy loss or to make a thermal energy balance. Temperature
measurements are taken for the audit of air conditioning units, boilers, furnaces, steam systems,
waste heat recovery systems, heat exchangers, etc. During the audits, the temperature can be
measured of the:
Ambient air
Chilled water in refrigeration plants
Inlet air into the Air Handling unit of AC plant
Cooling water inlet and out let at the Cooling Tower

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Surfaces of steam pipelines, boilers, kilns


Input water to the boiler
Exhaust gases
Condensate returned
Pre heated air supply for combustion
Temperature of the fuel oil

4.3 How to operate a thermometer


The thermocouple (contact thermometer) consists of two dissimilar metals, joined together at one
end. When the junction of the two metals is heated or cooled a voltage is produced that can be
correlated back to the temperature. A probe is inserted into a liquid or gaseous stream to measure
the temperature of, for example, flue gas, hot air, or water. A leaf type probe is used to measure
surface temperatures. In most of the cases the thermocouple directly gives the reading in the
desired units( Centigrade or Fahrenheit) on a digital panel.
The operation of a non-contact or infrared thermometer is simple. The infrared thermometer
(gun) is pointed towards the surface where the temperature must be measured. The measurement
result is read directly from the panel.

4.4 Precautions and safety measures


The following precautions and safety measures apply when using a thermometer:
The probe must be immersed in the fluid and the measurement must be taken after 1-2
minutes, i.e. after the stabilization of the readings.
Before using the thermocouple, the temperature range for which the thermocouple is
designed for should be checked.
The probe of the thermocouple should never touch the bare flame.
Before using a non-contact thermometer the emissivity should be set in accordance with the
surface where the temperature is to be measured.
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

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5. WATER FLOW METERS


5.1 What a water flow meter does
A flow meter is an instrument used to measure the linear, nonlinear, mass or volumetric flow rate
of a liquid or a gas. This section deals specifically with water flow meters. The choice of method
or type of water flow meter depends on the site conditions and the required measurement
accuracy.
Apart from water flow meters, there are several methods available to measure water flow during
an audit. Two common methods to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of the water flow are:
Time of fill method: Water is allowed to fill a known volume of a vessel or tank (m3 ). The
time taken to fill up this volume is recorded using a stop watch (seconds). The volume
divided by the time gives the average flow in m3/sec.
Float method: This method is generally used to measure the flow in an open channel. A
specific distance (for example 25 meters or 50 meters) is marked on the side of the channel.
A ping-pong ball is placed on the water and the time it takes for the ball to float to the
marked distance is recorded. Multiple readings are taken to get a more accurate timing. The
velocity of the water is calculated by Distance traveled by the ball / Average time taken.
Depending on the flow conditions and the site characteristics the calculated velocity is
further divided by a factor 0.8 to 0.9 to obtain the peak velocity in an open channel, since the
velocity at the surface is reduced due to drag forces of the wind etc.
Some of the most common types of flow meters are given below:
Rotameter or variable area flow meter for gases and liquids.
The rotameter consists of a tapered tube and a float. It is the most widely used variable-area flow
meter because of its low cost, simplicity, low pressure drop, relatively wide range ability, and
linear output.

Figure 13. Rotameter (Omega Engineering Ltd)

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Variable flow meters - spring and piston flow meters for gases and liquids.
Piston-type flow meters use an annular orifice formed by a piston and a tapered cone. The piston
is held in place at the base of the cone (in the "no flow position") by a calibrated spring. Scales
are based on specific gravities of 0.84 for oil meters and 1.0 for water meters. Their simple
design and the ease with which they can be equipped to transmit electrical signals has made them
an economical alternative to rotameters for flow rate indication and control.

Figure 14. Spring and Piston Flow Meters


(Omega Engineering Ltd)
Ultrasonic flow meters (Non-Intrusive or Doppler) for Liquids
Ultrasonic doppler flow meters are commonly used in dirty applications such as wastewater and
other dirty fluids and slurries which ordinarily cause damage to conventional sensors. The basic
principle of operation employs the frequency shift (Doppler Effect) of an ultrasonic signal when
it is reflected by suspended particles or gas bubbles (discontinuities) in motion.

Figure 15. Ultrasonic Flow Meter (Dynasonics Ltd)

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Figure 16. How an Ultrasonic Flow Meter works


(Eesiflow International Pty Ltd.)
Turbine flow meters
The turbine meter is a very accurate meter (0.5% of the reading) and can be used for clean
liquids and viscous liquids up to 100 centistokes. A minimum of 10 pipe diameters of straight
pipe is required on the inlet. The most common outputs are a sine wave or square wave
frequencies, but signal conditioners can be placed on the top of the meter for analog outputs and
explosion proof classifications. The meters consist of a multi-bladed rotor mounted at right
angles to the flow and suspended in the fluid stream on a free-running bearing.
Paddlewheel sensors
Paddlewheel sensors are one of the most popular cost effective flow meters for water or waterlike fluids. Many are offered with flow fittings or insertions styles. These meters, like the turbine
meter, require a minimum of 10 pipe diameters of straight pipe on the inlet and 5 on the outlet.
Chemical compatibility should be verified when not using water. Sine wave and square wave
pulse outputs are typical but transmitters are available for integral or panel mounting. The rotor
of the paddlewheel sensor is perpendicular to the flow and is in contact with only a limited cross
section of the flow.
Positive displacement flow meters
These meters are used for water applications when no straight pipe is available and when turbine
meters and paddlewheel sensor would cause too much turbulence. The positive displacement
flow meters are also used for measuring the flow of viscous liquids.
Vortex meters
The main advantages of vortex meters are their low sensitivity to variations in process conditions
and low wear relative to orifices or turbine meters. Also, initial and maintenance costs are low.
For these reasons, they have are widely accepted by users. Vortex meters do require sizing.
Magnetic flow meters for conductive liquids
These flow meters are available in in- line or insertion style. The magnetic flow meters do not
have any moving parts and are ideal for measuring the flow of wastewater or any dirty liquid that

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is conductive. Displays are integral or an analog output can be used for remote monitoring or
data logging.

5.2 Where the water flow meter is used


During energy audits, water flow measurements are of significant importance. Generally the
measurements are taken to quantify the amo unt of liquid/water flowing in a pipe. If there is no
flow measurement device attached to the pipe line, then the flow can be quantified using an
ultrasonic flow meter. Typical cases where the measurement of the water flow is absolutely
essential are as pa rt of determining the efficiency of pumps, the efficiency of cooling towers,
chillers and air conditioning plants, heat exchangers, and condensers.

5.3 How to operate water flow meters


There are many varieties of the ultrasonic flow meters available on the market. The functioning
of each model differs from the other. However the basic principle of all remains same. The 2
probes/sensors of the ultrasonic flow meters are placed on the surface of the pipe at some
distance apart along a straight line. The diameter of the pipe determines the distance between the
probes. When the meter is turned on, it generates sonic waves which are transmitted via one of
the probes/sensors and are received by the other. The meter is calibrated to display the velocity
or volume of the flow of liquid inside the pipe, based on the time required by the sonic waves to
travel the distance from one sensor to the other.

5.4 Precautions and safety measures


The following precautions should be taken when using water flow meters:
The probes/sensors should be placed on the surface of the pipes after thorough cleaning of
the spot. Care should be taken that there is no speck of paint etc. Ideally the spot where the
sensors are placed should be filed by a emery paper.
The meter would not give the measurements if the internal condition of the pipe is corroded
or has any alga growth.
The measurement should be taken where the pipe flow is expected to be laminar and the pipe
must be flowing full.
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

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6. TACHOMETERS / STROBOSCOPES
6.1 What tachometers and stroboscopes do
In any audit exercise speed measurements of for example motors are critical as they may change
with frequency, belt slip and loading. There are two main types of speed measurement
instruments: the tachometer and the stroboscope.

Figure 17. A tachometer (left) and a stroboscope


(right) (Reliability Direct, Inc)
Tachometer
A simple tachometer is a contact type instrument, which can be used to measure speeds where
direct access is possible.
Stroboscope
More sophisticated and safer instruments to measure speed are non-contact instruments, such as
stroboscopes. A stroboscope is a source of flashing light that can be synchronized with any fast,
repetitive motion so that a rapidly moving device seems to stand still, or to move slowly.
To illustrate this principle, consider the following example: Assume a white disk with a single
black dot mounted on the shaft of an 1800-rpm motor. When the disk is rotating at 1800 rpm, it
is impossible for the human eye to distinguish a single image and the dot will appear to be a
blurred continuous circle. When illuminated by the flashing stroboscope light, synchronized to
flash once every revolution of the disk (when the dot is at 3 o
clock, for example), the dot will be
seen at this position - and only at this position - at a rate of 1800 times each minute. Thus, the dot
will appear to freezeor stand still.
If the flash rate of the stroboscope is slowed to 1799 flashes per minute, the dot will be
illuminated at a slightly different position each time the disc revolves, and the dot will appear to

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move slowly in the direction of rotation through 360and arrive at its original position 1 minute
later. A similar movement, but in a direction opposite the rotation of the dot, will be observed if
the flash rate of the stroboscope is increased to 1801 fpm. If desired, the rate of apparent
movement can be speeded up by further increases or decreases in the strobe flash rate.
When the image is stopped, the flash rate of the strobe equals the speed of the moving object.
And since the flash rate is known the speed of the object is also known. Thus the stroboscope has
a dual purpose of measuring speed and of apparently slowing down or stopping rapid motion for
observation. The practical significance of the slow-motion effect is that, since it is the true copy
of the high speed motion, all irregularities (vibration, torsion, chattering, whip) present in the
high speed motion can be st udied.
.

Figure 18. Principle of the Working of a Stroboscope


(NPC, 2006)
For audit studies we generally use contact type of tachometers since they are readily available.

6.2 Where tachometers and stroboscopes are used


Tachometers and stroboscopes are used measure the speed of rotation of motors, fans, pulleys
etc.

6.3 How to operate a tachometer and stroboscope


In a contact-type tachometer, the wheel of the tachometer is brought in contact with the rotating
body. Due to friction between the two, after few seconds the speed of the whe el of the
tachometer is the same as the speed of the rotating body. This speed is displayed on the panel as
rpm.
The digital stroboscope is a versatile flashing light source that is used to measure the speed of
fast- moving objects or to produce the optical effect of stopping or slowing down high-speed
motion for purposes of observation, analysis, or high-speed photography. The stroboscope emits
a high- intensity, short-duration flash of light. The instrument features an electronic pulse

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generator that controls the flash rate, a line-operated power supply, and a light-emitting diode
(LED) readout in flashes per minute. The light can be aimed at most moving objects, including
those in otherwise inaccessible areas. When measuring the rotational speed of an object, set the
flash rate initially to a higher setting than the estimated speed of the object. Then, slowly reduce
the flash rate until the first single image appears. At this point, the strobe flash rate is equal to the
rotational speed of the object, and the speed can be read directly from the digital display.

6.4 Precautions and safety measures


The following precautions should be taken when using a tachometer and stroboscopes:
Care should be taken while bringing the wheel of the tachometer in contact with the rotating
body.
From a safety point of view never wear loose clothing when taking measurements with
tachometers.
Avoid being alone when taking measurements.
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

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7. LEAK DETECTORS
7.1 What leak detectors do
As the name implies, ultrasonic leak detectors detect the ultrasonic sound of a leak. You are
probably familiar with the hissing sound a large leak makes. Smaller leaks also emit a sound,
however the frequency is too high for our ears to detect it. An ultrasonic leak detector transforms
the ultrasonic hissing sound to a sound that humans can hear, and thus leads to the source of the
leak.

Figure 19. Leak Detectors (Reliability Direct, Inc)


Some other information about ultrasonic leak detectors includes:
Distance and access. Some leaks can be heard from a several meters away, therefore access
to the leak is not always necessary. As long as the leak is turbulent, there will be enough
sound that can be detected ultrasonically.
Pressure. High pressure of leaks is not necessary. Ultrasonic can detect pinhole leaks with a
pressure as low as 1 psi. However, the more pressure behind the leak, the easier it will be to
locate.
Sensitivity to sound. Ultrasonic leak detectors are very sensitive to sound. A good ultrasonic
leak detector can actually let you hear the blink of the human eye. A leak test can be done in
an enclosed area which is saturated with refrigerant, and the only indication an ultrasonic will
give you is the sound of the leak. A good ultrasonic detector uses an electronic process called
heterodyningto convert this high frequency leak sound to a lower range where the hissing
of the leak can be heard through a set of headphones, and traced to its source. Any turbulent
gas will generate ultrasound when it leaks, therefore it does not matter what refrigerant you
are leak testing. Ultrasonic detectors will even detect air as it rushes into a system under
vacuum.
Background noises. Because the ultrasonic detector is focused on a specific band/frequency
of sound, it will not detect wind, voices, traffic, and most normal operational sounds.
However, larger systems with a multitude of pressure regulating valves and high velocity
flow may produce hissing sounds at frequencies where ultrasonic detectors are most

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sensitive. In this case it would be necessary to shut the system down, or use another method
of detecting leaks.
Choice of leak detector. Always consider the capabilities and the limitations of the leak
detection method used. It is thereby important to consider more than just the sensitivity under
laboratory / testing conditions when choosing a leak detector. For example, a highly sensitive
sniffertype was able to detect a leak of 0.25oz. of refrigerant per year in a controlled
laboratory setting. But the leak detector would give different results when used on the windy
and dirty rooftop where you might be trying to find refrigerant leaks.

7.2 Where leak detectors are used


Ultrasonic leak detectors are used to detect leaks of compressed air and other gases which are
normally not possible to detect with the human ear.
No leak detector will find every leak, every time. It is often a combination of several available
methods which will insure the highest rate of success.

7.3 How to operate a leak detectors


It is not easy to generalize the operating method of a leak detector. The reason is that there are
many different kinds of leak detectors that require different ways of handling. However, some
steps are the same:
The probe of the ultrasonic leak detector instrument is placed near the gas/steam pipe line
where a leak is suspected
The headphone attached to the instrument is placed on the ears
The probe is moved slowly until the person can hear a hissing sound through headphone,
indicating a leak
The position is marked to identify the location of the leakage

7.4 Precautions and safety measures


The following measures should be taken when using ultrasonic leak detectors:
Dust or smoke should not be coming out of the pipe, otherwise dust/smoke will choke the
probe and leads to the instrument failure
Avoid measurement at the places where sound levels are high
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

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Monitoring Equipment

8. LUX METERS
8.1 What lux meters do
Lux meters are used to measure illumination (light) levels.
Most lux meters consist of a body, a sensor with a photo cell, and a display panel. The sensor is
placed under the light source. The light that falls on the photo cell has energy, which is
transferred by the photo cell into electric current. The more light is absorbed by the cell, the
higher the generated current. The meter reads the electrical current and calculates the appropriate
value of either Lux or Foot candles. This value is shown on the display panel.
A key thing to remember about light is that it is usually made up of many different types (colors)
of light at different wavelengths. The reading, therefore, is a result of the combined effects of all
the wavelengths. A standard color can be referred to as colo r temperature and is expressed in
degrees Kelvin. The standard color temperature for calibration of most light meters is 2856
degrees Kelvin, which is more yellow than pure white. Different types of light bulbs burn at
different color temperatures. Lux meter readings will, therefore, vary with different light sources
of the same intensity. This is why some lights seem "harsher" or softerthan others.

Figure 20. Lux Meters (Reliability Direct, Inc)

8.2 Where lux meters are used


Lux meters are used to measure illumination levels in offices, factories etc.

8.3 How to operate a lux meters


This instrument is very simple to operate. The sensor is to be placed at the work station or at the
place where intensity of the light is to be measured, and the instrument will directly give the
reading on the display panel.

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8.4 Precautions and safety measures


The following measures should be taken when working with lux meters:
The sensor is to be properly placed on the work station to obtain an accurate reading
Due to the high sensitivity of sensor it should be stored safely
Check the operating manual of the monitoring equipment for more detailed instructions on
safety and precautions before using the equipment.

25

Chapter- 8

BASICS OF ENERGY AND ITS VARIOUS FORMS

Definition

Energy is the ability to do work and work is the transfer of energy from one form to another. In
practical terms, energy is what we use to manipulate the world around us, whether by exciting
our muscles, by using electricity, or by using mechanical devices such as automobiles. Energy
comes in different forms - heat (thermal), light (radiant), mechanical, electrical, chemical, and
nuclear energy.

Various Forms of Energy

There are two types of energy - stored (potential) energy and working (kinetic) energy. For
example, the food we eat contains chemical energy, and our body stores this energy until we
release it when we work or play.
2.1 Potential Energy
Potential energy is stored energy and the energy of position (gravitational). It exists in various
forms.

Chemical Energy
Chemical energy is the energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, propane and coal are examples of stored chemical energy.
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom - the energy that holds the nucleus together. The nucleus of a uranium atom is an example of nuclear energy.
Stored Mechanical Energy
Stored mechanical energy is energy stored in objects by the application of a force. Compressed
springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy.

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Gravitational Energy
Gravitational energy is the energy of place or position. Water in a reservoir behind a hydropower dam is an example of gravitational energy. When the water is released to spin the turbines, it
becomes motion energy.
2.2.2 Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is energy in motion- the motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules and substances. It exists in various forms.
Radiant Energy
Radiant energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy
includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Solar energy is an example of radiant energy.
Thermal Energy
Thermal energy (or heat) is the internal energy in substances- the vibration and movement of
atoms and molecules within substances. Geothermal energy is an example of thermal energy.
Motion
The movement of objects or substances from one place to another is motion. Wind and
hydropower are examples of motion.
Sound
Sound is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction)
waves.
Electrical Energy
Electrical energy is the movement of electrons. Lightning and electricity are examples of electrical energy.
2.2.3 Energy Conversion
Energy is defined as "the ability to do work." In this sense, examples of work include moving
something, lifting something, warming something, or lighting something. The following is an
example of the transformation of different types of energy into heat and power.
Oil burns to generate heat -->
Heat boils water -->
Water turns to steam -->
Steam pressure turns a turbine -->
Turbine turns an electric generator -->
Generator produces electricity -->
Electricity powers light bulbs -->
Light bulbs give off light and heat

More the number of


conversion stages, lesser
the overall energy
efficiency

It is difficult to imagine spending an entire day without using energy. We use energy to light our
cities and homes, to power machinery in factories, cook our food, play music, and operate our
TV.

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

2.2.4 Grades of Energy


High-Grade Energy
Electrical and chemical energy are high-grade energy, because the energy is concentrated in a
small space. Even a small amount of electrical and chemical energy can do a great amount of
work. The molecules or particles that store these forms of energy are highly ordered and compact and thus considered as high grade energy. High-grade energy like electricity is better used
for high grade applications like melting of metals rather than simply heating of water.
Low-Grade Energy
Heat is low-grade energy. Heat can still be used to do work (example of a heater boiling water),
but it rapidly dissipates. The molecules, in which this kind of energy is stored (air and water
molecules), are more randomly distributed than the molecules of carbon in a coal. This disordered state of the molecules and the dissipated energy are classified as low-grade energy.

3 Electrical Energy Basics


Electric current is divided into two types: Directional Current (DC) and Alternating Current
(AC).
Directional (Direct) Current
A non-varying, unidirectional electric current (Example: Current produced by batteries)
Characteristics:

Direction of the flow of positive and negative charges does not change with time

Direction of current (direction of flow for positive charges) is constant with time

Potential difference (voltage) between two points of the circuit does not change polarity
with time
Alternating Current
A current which reverses in regularly recurring intervals of time and which has alternately positive and negative values, and occurring a specified number of times per second. (Example:
Household electricity produced by generators, Electricity supplied by utilities.)
Characteristics:

Direction of the current reverses periodically with time

Voltage (tension) between two points of the circuit changes polarity with time.

In 50 cycle AC, current reverses direction 100 times a second (two times during onecycle)
Ampere (A)
Current is the rate of flow of charge. The ampere is the basic unit of electric current. It is that
current which produces a specified force between two parallel wires, which are 1 metre apart
in a vacuum.
Voltage (V)
The volt is the International System of Units (SI) measure of electric potential or electromo-

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

tive force. A potential of one volt appears across a resistance of one ohm when a current of one
ampere flows through that resistance.
1000 V = 1 kiloVolts (kV)
Resistance
Resistance =

Voltage
_______
Current

The unit of resistance is ohm ()


Ohm' Law
Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential
difference across it, provided the temperature and other external conditions remain constant.
Frequency
The supply frequency tells us the cycles at which alternating current changes. The unit of frequency is hertz (Hz :cycles per second).
Kilovolt Ampere (kVA)
It is the product of kilovolts and amperes. This measures the electrical load on a circuit or system. It is also called the apparent power.
For a single phase electrical circuit , Apparent power (kVA) =

Voltage x Amperes
1000

For a three phase electrical circuit , Apparent power (kVA) =

3 x Voltage x Amperes
1000

kVAr (Reactive Power)


kVAr is the reactive power. Reactive power is the portion of apparent power that does no work.
This type of power must be supplied to all types of magnetic equipment, such as motors, transformers etc. Larger the magnetizing requirement, larger the kVAr.
Kilowatt (kW) (Active Power)
kW is the active power or the work-producing part of apparent power.
For sin gle phase, Power ( kW ) =
For Three phase, Power ( kW ) =

Voltage x Amperes x Power factor


1000

1.732 x Voltage x Amperes x Power factor


1000

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Power Factor
Power Factor (PF) is the ratio between the active power (kW) and apparent power (kVA).

When current lags the voltage like in inductive loads, it is called lagging power factor and when
current leads the voltage like in capacitive loads, it is called leading power factor.
Inductive loads such as induction motors, transformers, discharge lamp, etc. absorb comparatively more lagging reactive power (kVAr) and hence, their power factor is poor. Lower the
power factor; electrical network is loaded with more current. It would be advisable to have
highest power factor (close to 1) so that network carries only active power which does real
work. PF improvement is done by installing capacitors near the load centers, which improve
power factor from the point of installation back to the generating station.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
Kilowatt-hour is the energy consumed by 1000 Watts in one hour. If 1kW (1000 watts) of a electrical equipment is operated for 1 hour, it would consume 1 kWh of energy (1 unit of electricity).
For a company, it is the amount of electrical units in kWh recorded in the plant over a month
for billing purpose. The company is charged / billed based on kWh consumption.
Electricity Tariff
Calculation of electric bill for a company
Electrical utility or power supplying companies charge industrial customers not only based on
the amount of energy used (kWh) but also on the peak demand (kVA) for each month.
Contract Demand
Contract demand is the amount of electric power that a customer demands from utility in a specified interval. Unit used is kVA or kW. It is the amount of electric power that the consumer
agreed upon with the utility. This would mean that utility has to plan for the specified capacity.
Maximum demand
Maximum demand is the highest average kVA recorded during any one-demand interval within the month. The demand interval is normally 30 minutes, but may vary from utility to utility
from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. The demand is measured using a tri-vector meter / digital energy meter.

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Prediction of Load
While considering the methods of load prediction, some of the terms used in connection with
power supply must be appreciated.
Connected Load - is the nameplate rating (in kW or kVA) of the apparatus installed on a consumer's premises.
Demand Factor - is the ratio of maximum demand to the connected load.
Load Factor - The ratio of average load to maximum load.
Load Factor =

Average Load
Maximum Load

The load factor can also be defined as the ratio of the energy consumed during a given period
to the energy, which would have been used if the maximum load had been maintained throughout that period. For example, load factor for a day (24 hours) will be given by:
Energy consumed during 24 hours
Load Factor =
Maximum load recorded x 24 Hours
PF Measurement
A power analyzer can measure PF directly, or alternately kWh, kVAh or kVArh readings are
recorded from the billing meter installed at the incoming point of supply. The relation kWh /
kVAh gives the power factor.
Time of Day (TOD) Tariff
Many electrical utilities
like to have flat
demand
curve
to
achieve high plant efficiency. They encourage
user to draw more
power during off-peak
hours (say during night
time) and less power
during peak hours. As
per their plan, they
offer TOD Tariff,
which may be incentives or disincentives.
Energy meter will
record peak and nonpeak consumption separately by timer control. TOD tariff gives
opportunity for the user to reduce their billing, as off peak hour tariff charged are quite low in
comparison to peak hour tariff.

41
6

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Three phase AC power measurement


Most of the motive drives such as pumps, compressors, machines etc. operate with 3 phase AC
Induction motor. Power consumption can be determined by using the relation.
Power = 3 x V x I x Cos
Portable power analysers /instruments are available for measuring all electrical parameters.
Example:
A 3-phase AC induction motor (20 kW capacity) is used for pumping operation. Electrical
parameter such as current, volt and power factor were measured with power analyzer. Find
energy consumption of motor in one hour? (line volts. = 440 V, line current = 25 amps and PF
= 0.90).
Energy consumption = 3 x 0.440 (kV) x 25(A) x 0.90(PF) x 1(hour) = 17.15 kWh
Motor loading calculation
The nameplate details of motor, kW or HP indicate the output parameters of the motor at full
load. The voltage, amps and PF refer to the rated input parameters at full load.
Example:
A three phase,10 kW motor has the name plate details as 415 V, 18.2 amps and 0.9 PF. Actual
input measurement shows 415 V, 12 amps and 0.7 PF which was measured with power analyzer during motor running.
Rated output at full load
Rated input at full load
The rated efficiency of motor at full load

= 10 kW
= 1.732 x 0.415 x 18.2 x 0.9 = 11.8 kW
= (10 x 100) / 11.8 = 85%

Measured (Actual) input power

= 1.732x 0.415 x 12x 0.7 = 6.0 kW

Motor loading % =

Measured kW
6 .0
x 100 =
x 100 = 51.2 %
Rated kW
11.8

Which applications use single-phase power in an industry?


Single-phase power is mostly used for lighting, fractional HP motors and electric heater applications.
Example :
A 400 Watt mercury vapor lamp was switched on for 10 hours per day. The supply volt is 230
V. Find the power consumption per day? (Volt = 230 V, Current = 2 amps, PF = 0.8)
Electricity consumption (kWh)

= V x I x Cos x No of Hours
= 0.230 x 2 x 0.8 x 10 = 3.7 kWh or Units

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Example :
An electric heater of 230 V, 5 kW rating is used for hot water generation in an industry. Find
electricity consumption per hour (a) at the rated voltage (b) at 200 V
(a) Electricity consumption (kWh) at rated voltage = 5 kW x 1 hour = 5 kWh.
(b) Electricity consumption at 200 V (kWh) = (200 / 230)2 x 5 kW x 1 hour = 3.78 kWh.

Thermal Energy Basics

Temperature and Pressure


Temperature and pressure are measures of the physical state of a substance. They are closely
related to the energy contained in the substance. As a result, measurements of temperature and
pressure provide a means of determining energy content.
Temperature
It is the degree of hotness or coldness measured on a definite scale. Heat is a form of energy;
temperature is a measure of its thermal effects. In other words, temperature is a means of determining sensible heat content of the substance
In the Celsius scale the freezing point of water is 0C and the boiling point of water is 100C
at atmospheric pressure.
To change temperature given in Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C)
Start with (F); subtract 32; multiply by 5; divide by 9; the answer is (C)
To change temperature given in Celsius (C) to Fahrenheit (F)
Start with (C); multiply by 9; divide by 5; add on 32; the answer is (F)
C = (F - 32) x 5/9
Pressure
It is the force per unit area applied to outside of a body. When we heat a gas in a confined space,
we create more force; a pressure increase. For example, heating the air inside a balloon will
cause the balloon to stretch as the pressure increases.
Pressure, therefore, is also indicative of stored energy. Steam at high pressures contains
much more energy than at low pressures.
Heat
Heat is a form of energy, a distinct and measurable property of all matter. The quantity of heat
depends on the quantity and type of substance involved.
Unit of Heat
Calorie is the unit for measuring the quantity of heat. It is the quantity of heat, which can raise
the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C.
Calorie is too small a unit for many purposes. Therefore, a bigger unit Kilocalorie (1 Kilocalorie

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

= 1000 calories) is used to measure heat. 1 kilocalorie can raise the temperature of 1000g (i.e.
1kg) of water by 1C.
However, nowadays generally joule as the unit of heat energy is used. It is the internationally accepted unit. Its relationship with calorie is as follows:
1 Calorie = 4.187 J
Specific Heat
If the same amount of heat energy is supplied to equal quantities of water and milk, their temperature goes up by different amounts. This property is called the specific heat of a substance
and is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance
through 1C.
The specific heat of water is very high as compared to other common substances; it takes a
lot of heat to raise the temperature of water. Also, when water is cooled, it gives out a large
quantity of heat.
TABLE 2.1 SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOME COMMON
SUBSTANCES

Substance

Specific Heat (Joules / kg C)

Lead

130

Mercury

140

Brass

380

Copper

390

Iron

470

Glass

670

Aluminium

910

Rubber

1890

Ice

2100

Alcohol

2400

Water

4200

Sensible heat
It is that heat which when added or subtracted results in a change of temperature.
Quantity of Heat
The quantity of heat, Q, supplied to a substance to increase its temperature by tC depends on

mass of the substance (m)


increase in temperature (t)
specific heat of the substance (Cp)

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

The quantity of heat is given by:


Q = mass x specific heat x increase in temperature
Q = m x Cp x t
Phase Change
The change of state from the solid state to a liquid state is called fusion. The fixed temperature
at which a solid changes into a liquid is called its melting point.
The change of a state from a liquid state to a gas is called vaporization.
Latent heat of fusion
The latent heat of fusion of a substance is the quantity of heat required to convert 1kg solid to
liquid state without change of temperature. It is represented by the symbol L. Its unit is Joule
per kilogram (J/Kg)
Thus, L (ice) = 336000 J/kg,
Latent Heat of Vaporization
The latent heat of vaporization of a substance is the quantity of heat required to change 1kg of
the substance from liquid to vapour state without change of temperature. It is also denoted by
the symbol L and its unit is also J/kg. The latent heat of vaporization of water is 22,60,000 J/kg.
When 1 kg of steam at 100C condenses to form water at 100C, it gives out 2260 kJ (540
kCals) of heat. Steam gives out more heat than an equal amount of boiling water because of its
latent heat.
Latent heat
It is the change in heat content of a substance, when its physical state is changed without a
change in temperature.
Super Heat
The heating of vapour, particularly saturated steam to a temperature much higher than the boiling point at the existing pressure. This is done in power plants to improve efficiency and to
avoid condensation in the turbine.
Humidity
The moisture content of air is referred to as humidity and may be expressed in two ways: specific humidity and relative humidity.
Specific Humidity
It is the actual weight of water vapour mixed in a kg of dry air.
Humidity Factor
Humidity factor = kg of water per kg of dry air (kg/kg).

10

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Relative Humidity (RH)


It is the measure of degree of saturation of the air at any dry-bulb (DB) temperature. Relative
humidity given as a percentage is the actual water content of the air divided by the moisture
content of fully saturated air at the existing temperature.
Dew Point
It is the temperature at which condensation of water vapour from the air begins as the temperature of the air-water vapour mixture falls.
Dry bulb Temperature
It is an indication of the sensible heat content of air-water vapour mixtures.
Wet bulb Temperature
It is a measure of total heat content or enthalpy. It is the temperature approached by the dry bulb
and the dew point as saturation occurs.
Dew Point Temperature
It is a measure of the latent heat content of air-water vapour mixtures and since latent heat is a
function of moisture content, the dew point temperature is determined by the moisture content.
Fuel Density
Density is the ratio of the mass of the fuel to the volume of the fuel at a stated temperature.
Specific gravity of fuel
The density of fuel, relative to water, is called specific gravity. The specific gravity of water is
defined as 1. As it is a ratio there are no units. Higher the specific gravity, higher will be the
heating values.
Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. All liquid fuels decrease
in viscosity with increasing temperature
Calorific Value
Energy content in an organic matter (Calorific Value) can be measured by burning it and measuring the heat released. This is done by placing a sample of known mass in a bomb calorimeter, a device that is completely sealed and insulated to prevent heat loss. A thermometer is
placed inside (but it can be read from the outside) and the increase in temperature after the sample is burnt completely is measured. From this data, energy content in the organic matter can be
found out.
The heating value of fuel is the measure of the heat released during the complete combustion of unit weight of fuel. It is expressed as Gross Calorific Value (GCV) or Net Calorific Value
(NCV). The difference between GCV and NCV is the heat of vaporization of the moisture and
atomic hydrogen (conversion to water vapour) in the fuel. Typical GCV and NCV for heavy fuel
oil are 10,500 kcal/kg and 9,800 kcal/kg.

11

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Heat Transfer
Heat will always be transferred from higher temperature to lower temperature independent of
the mode. The energy transferred is measured in Joules (kcal or Btu). The rate of energy transfer, more commonly called heat transfer, is measured in Joules/second (kcal/hr or Btu/hr).
Heat is transferred by three primary modes:
o Conduction (Energy transfer in a solid)
o Convection (Energy transfer in a fluid)
o Radiation (Does not need a material to travel through)
Conduction
The conduction of heat takes place, when two bodies are in contact with one another. If one
body is at a higher temperature than the other, the motion of the molecules in the hotter body
will vibrate the molecules at the point of contact in the cooler body and consequently result in
increase in temperature.
The amount of heat transferred by conduction depends upon the temperature difference, the
properties of the material involved, the thickness of the material, the surface contact area, and
the duration of the transfer.
Good conductors of heat are typically substances that are dense as they have molecules
close together. This allows the molecular agitation process to permeate the substance easily. So,
metals are good conductors of heat, while gaseous substance, having low densities or widely
spaced molecules, are poor conductors of heat. Poor conductors of heat are usually called insulators.
The measure of the ability of a substance to insulate is its thermal resistance. This is commonly referred to as the R-value (RSI in metric). The R-value is generally the inverse of the
thermal conductivity, the ability to conduct heat.
Typical units of measure for conductive heat transfer are:
Per unit area (for a given thickness)
Metric (SI) : Watt per square meter (W/m2 )
Overall
Metric (SI) : Watt (W) or kilowatts (kW)
Convection
The transfer of heat by convection involves the movement of a fluid such as a gas or liquid from
the hot to the cold portion. There are two types of convection: natural and forced.
In case of natural convection, the fluid in contact with or adjacent to a high temperature
body is heated by conduction. As it is heated, it expands, becomes less dense and consequently rises. This begins a fluid motion process in which a circulating current of fluid moves past
the heated body, continuously transferring heat away from it.
In the case of forced convection, the movement of the fluid is forced by a fan, pump or other
external means. A centralized hot air heating system is a good example of forced convection.
Convection depends on the thermal properties of the fluid as well as surface conditions at
the body and other factors that affect the ability of the fluid to flow. With a low conductivity
fluid such as air, a rough surface can trap air against the surface reducing the conductive heat

12

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

transfer and consequently reducing the convective currents.


Units of measure for rate of convective heat transfer are:
Metric (SI)

: Watt (W) or kilowatts (kW)

Thermal Radiation
Thermal radiation is a process in which energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves similar
to light waves. These waves may be both visible (light) and invisible. A very common example
of thermal radiation is a heating element on a heater. When the heater element is first switched
on, the radiation is invisible, but you can feel the warmth it radiates. As the element heats, it
will glow orange and some of the radiation is now visible. The hotter the element, the brighter
it glows and the more radiant energy it emits.
The key processes in the interaction of a substance with thermal radiation are:
Absorption
the process by which radiation enters a body and
becomes heat
Transmission
the process by which radiation passes through a body
Reflection
the process by which radiation is neither absorbed or transmitted
through the body; rather it bounces off
Objects receive thermal radiation when they are struck by electromagnetic waves, thereby
agitating the molecules and atoms. More agitation means more energy and a higher temperature. Energy is transferred to one body from another without contact or transporting medium
such as air or water. In fact, thermal radiation heat transfer is the only form of heat transfer possible in a vacuum.
All bodies emit a certain amount of radiation. The amount depends upon the body's temperature and nature of its surface. Some bodies only emit a small amount of radiant energy for
their temperature, commonly called low emissivity materials (abbreviated low-E). Low-E windows are used to control the heat radiation in and out of buildings. Windows can be designed
to reflect, absorb and transmit different parts of the sun's radiant energy.
The condition of a body's surface will determine the amount of thermal radiation that is
absorbed, reflected or re-emitted. Surfaces that are black and rough, such as black iron, will
absorb and re-emit almost all the energy that strikes them. Polished and smooth surfaces will
not absorb, but reflect, a large part of the incoming radiant energy.
Typical units of measure for rate of radiant heat transfer
Metric (SI)
Watt per square meter (W/m2)
Evaporation
The change by which any substance is converted from a liquid state and carried off as vapour.
Example: People are cooled by evaporation of perspiration from the skin and refrigeration is
accomplished by evaporating the liquid refrigerant. Evaporation is a cooling process.
Condensation
The change by which any substance is converted from a gaseous state to liquid state.

13

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Example: Condensation on the other hand is a heating process. As molecules of vapour condense and become liquid, their latent heat of vapourisation evidences itself again as sensible
heat, indicated by a rise in temperature. This heating effect of condensation is what causes the
considerable rise in atmospheric temperature often noted as fog forms and as rain or snow
begins to fall.
Steam
Steam has been a popular mode of conveying energy, since the industrial revolution. The following characteristics of steam make it so popular and useful to the industry:
High specific heat and latent heat
High heat transfer coefficient
Easy to control and distribute
Cheap and inert
Steam is used for generating power and also used in process industries, such as, sugar,
paper, fertilizer, refineries, petrochemicals, chemical, food, synthetic fibre and textiles. In the
process industries, the high pressure steam produced in the boiler, is first expanded in a steam
turbine for generating power. The extraction or bleed from the turbine, which are generally at
low pressure, are used for the process. This method of producing power, by using the steam generated for process in the boiler, is called "Cogeneration."
How to read a Steam Table?
Select the pressure and temperature of the steam at which you want to find the enthalpy. Read
the intersection of pressure and temperature for enthalpy (Heat content in the steam)
First law of Thermodynamics
It states that energy may be converted from one form to another, but it is never lost from the
system.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In any conversion of energy from one form to another, some amount of energy will be dis
sipated as heat.
Thus no energy conversion is 100 % efficient.
This principle is used in energy equipment efficiency calculations.
Law of Conservation of Matter

In any physical or chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed, but it may be
changed from one form to another.

For example, if a sample of coal were burnt in an enclosed chamber, carbon in coal would
end up as CO2 in the air inside the chamber; In fact, for every carbon atom there would be
one carbon dioxide molecule in the combustion products (each of which has one carbon
atom). So the carbon atoms would be conserved, and so would every other atom. Thus, no
matter would be lost during this conversion of the coal into heat.

This principle is used in energy and material balance calculations

14

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

5 Units and Conversions


The energy units are wide and varied. The usage of units varies with country, industry sector,
systems such as FPS, CGS, MKS and SI, and also with generations of earlier period using FPS
and recent generations using MKS. Even technology/equipment suppliers adopt units that are
different from the one being used by the user of that technology/equipment. For example some
compressor manufacturers specify output in m3/min while some specify in cubic feet/minute or
even in litres/second. All this cause confusion and hence the need for this chapter on units and
conversions.
Energy Units
1 barrel of oil = 42 U.S. gallons (gal) = 0.16 cubic meters (m3)
1 MW

1,000 kW

1 kW

1,000 Watts

1 kWh

3,412 Btu

1 kWh

1.340 Hp hours

1,000 Btu

0.293 kWh

1 Therm

100,000 Btu (British Thermal Units)

1 Million Btu

293.1 Kilowatt hours

100,000 Btu

1 Therm

1 Watt

3.412 Btu per hour

1 Horsepower

746 Watts or 0.746 Kilo Watts

1 Horsepower hr.

2,545 Btu

1 kJ

0.239005 Kilocalories

1 Calorie

4.187 Joules

1 kcal/Kg

1.8 Btu's/lb.

1 Million Btu

252 Mega calories

1 Btu

252 Calories

1 Btu

1,055 Joules

1 Btu/lb.

2.3260 kJ/kg

1 Btu/lb.

0.5559 Kilocalories/kg

Power (Energy Rate) Equivalents


1 kilowatt (kW)

1 kilo joule /second (kJ/s)

1 kilowatt (kW)

3413 BTU/hour (Btu/hr.)

1 horsepower (hp)

746 watts (0.746 kW)

1 Ton of refrigeration

12000 Btu/hr.

Pressure:
Gauge pressure is defined relative to the prevailing atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa at sea
level), or as absolute pressure:
Absolute Pressure = Gauge Pressure + Prevailing Atmospheric Pressure

15

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Units of measure of pressure:


Metric (SI)
:
kilopascals (kPa)
1 pascal (Pa) = 1 Newton/m2 (N/m2 )
1 physical atmosphere (atm) = 101325 Pa = 760 mm of mercury (mm Hg)
= 14.69 lb-force/in2 (psi)
1 technical atmosphere (ata) = 1 kilogram-force/cm2 (kg/cm2)= 9.806650 104 Pa
Power:
1 W = 1 J/s = 0.947810-3 Btu/s = 3.41214 Btu/hr
Fuel to kWh (Approximate conversion)
M3 x 10.6

kWh

Ft3 x 0.3

kWh

therms x 29.3

kWh

LPG (propane)

m3 x 25

kWh

Coal

kg x 8.05

kWh

Coke

kg x 10.0

kWh

Gas oil

litres x 12.5

kWh

Light fuel oil

litres x 12.9

kWh

Medium fuel oil

litres x 13.1

kWh

Heavy fuel oil

litres x 13.3

kWh

Natural gas

Prefixes for units in the International System


Prefix
exa
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto

Symbol
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m

n
p
f
a

Power
1018
1015
1012
109
106
103
102
101
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
10-15
10-18

Example
pentagram (Pg)
terawatt (TW)
gigawatt (GW)
megawatt (MW)
kilogram (kg)
hectoliter (hl)
dekagram (dag)
decimeter (dm)
centimeter (cm)
millimeter (mm)
micrometer (m)
nanosecond (ns)
picofarad (pf)
femtogram (fg)

16

USA/Other
quintillion
quadrillion/billiard
trillion/billion
billion/milliard
million

Basics of Energy and its Various Forms

Energy
To:

TJ

Gcal

Mtoe

MBtu

GWh

From:

Multiply by:

TJ

238.8

2.388 x 10-5

947.8

0.2778

Gcal

4.1868 x 10-3

10-7

3.968

1.163 x 10-3

Mtoe

4.1868 x 104

107

3.968 x 107

11630

MBtu

1.0551 x 10-3

0.252

2.52 x 10-8

2.931 x 10-4

GWh

3.6

860

8.6 x 10-5

3412

Mass
To:

kg

lt

st

lb

From:

multiply by:

kilogram (kg)

0.001

9.84 x 10-4

1.102 x 10-3

2.2046

tonne (t)

1000

0.984

1.1023

2204.6

long ton (lt)

1016

1.016

1.120

2240.0

short ton (st)

907.2

0.9072

0.893

2000.0

pound (lb)

0.454

4.54 x 10-4

4.46 x 10-4

5.0 x 10-4

Volume
To:

gal U.S.

From:

multiply by:

gal U.K.

bbl

ft3

m3

U.S. gallon (gal)

0.8327

0.02381

0.1337

3.785

0.0038

U.K. gallon (gal)

1.201

0.02859

0.1605

4.546

0.0045

42.0

34.97

5.615

159.0

0.159

7.48

6.229

0.1781

28.3

0.0283

0.2642

0.220

0.0063

0.0353

0.001

264.2

220.0

6.289

35.3147

1000.0

Barrel (bbl)
Cubic foot (ft3)
Litre (l)
Cubic metre (m3)

17

Chapter-9

AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROL


The chain of command for air/fuel ratio controls is usually as follows: The burner or
zone input control responds to T-sensor (or steam pressure sensor in the case of
boiler)The burner input control (also termed furnace input control, kiln input control,
etc.) may actuate burner or zone air valve (air primary air/fuel ratio control) or
burner or zone fuel valve (fuel primary air/fuel ratio control)Air primary air/fuel
ratio control is more common with smaller burners. Many problems are avoided
if each burner is equipped with its own ratio control. Where multiple burners are
ganged in parallel downstream from single air/fuel ratio control, if one burner
has problem with its ratio, all parallel burners of that zone will have the opposite
difficulty, the intensity of which will be divided by the number of burners in the zone.
AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROL MUST BE UNDERSTOOD
Furnace engineers and operators must understand the many aspects of air/fuel ratio
control for safety and for equality. Mass flow control is essential if the combustion
air is preheated. Changing air temperature affects the weight of air passing through
control valve, affecting input rate and air/fuel ratio. Control valves are volumetric
devices, but temperature changes density, which changes the weight of air delivered.
The air volume delivered to furnace should be corrected for temperature changes
because the chemistry of combustion really requires constant weight (or mass) ratio
of air to fuel. The magnitude of the correction will vary as the square root of the
absolute temperature. Most larger modern air/fuel ratio controllers have an input port
for signal from an air T-sensor. This type of air/fuel ratio control is called mass
flow control.
Individual ratio controls at every burner make it easy to modify the input profile
pattern up and down or across furnace without having to reset the ratio of each
burner afterward.
Small burners without preheated air are generally controlled by cross-connected
air/fuel ratio regulators (one for each burner)This arrangement is ideal because it
saves the operator from constantly having to adjust the ratiountil the paint is worn
off the hand dialbecause of changing maldistributions of flows in either air or fuel
manifold.
Air and Fuel Manifolds. It is difficult to correct bad manifold designs; therefore,
it is important to be generous in initial air and fuel manifold sizing, and get it right
the first time. (See fig. 6.10.) Designers should think of manifolds as plenums that
should be sized for low velocities. no uniform air or fuel distribution often changes
its maldistribution as burners are turned up and down. An easy, safe design has the
manifold cross-sectional area equal to the sum of the cross-sectional areas of all of
its offtake pipes.
BENEFITS OF GOOD AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROL
1. Safety from explosions and fuel-fed fires by minimizing the chance of
accumulating rich mixture in the confined space of furnace or duct.
2. Lower fuel consumption because ff-ratio operation leaves fuel unburned if
too rich but sends too much hot gas out the stack if too lean.

3. Better product quality, because the load surface is less likely to be oxidized
when air/fuel ratio is too lean, and less likely to be carburized or have hydrogen
absorption if too rich.
4. Rolled-in sticky scale is avoided by controlling air/fuel ratio to prevent reducing
atmosphere in the furnace. (Rolled-in scale causes pits which generally cannot be
ground out.
5. Less metal loss because less scale is formed.
6. Reduced scrap because poor air/fuel ratio control can result in the load being
scrapped for fear of customer penalties.
AIR/FUEL RATIO IS CRUCIAL TO SAFETY
Air primary control is generally preferred over fuel primary control for safety reasons.
Burners are generally more stable if they should happen to go lean than if they happen
to go rich. Having air lead the fuel (air primary) may avoid dangerous flame-out when
input is rising. If burners go rich, do not try soft shutdown with flame-out hazard
impending. Do FULL shutdown because otherwise unburned fuel may work its way back
upstream into feed pipes and ducts, followed by hot furnace gases, followed by an induct explosion. Soft shutdowns that leave the air on low and do not trip the fuel safety
shutoff valve (to avoid time-consuming total restart) are very likely to move the fans or
blowers into the low end of their pressure curve, where surging may happen. Surging
can pull unburned fuel into air-filled pipes or ducts, forming combustible mixtures, and
then suck in hot furnace gas, providing source of ignition, resulting in an explosion. An
explosion will be much more time consuming than proper shutdown (including fuel
shutoff) than restart.
If the fuel is not shut off immediately to prevent any unburned fuel accumulation or if the
rich atmosphere has already accumulated considerably after loss of ignition, these
situations are potential bombs. Do not open any furnace doors or other openings. Turn
off air to any pilots or other sources of ignition that may still be burning, but do not
change main gas or air flow. Let the furnace self-cool even though smoking Flood the
furnace with steam or other nonreactive gas such as argon, CO2,orN2, which are better
coolants than too-rich-to-burn fuelair mixture.
Figure 6.11 cites two potential hazards leading to explosions and fuel-fed fires from
using constant pilots instead of interrupted pilots when single flame monitor is used to
check both pilot flame and main flame.
The upper time-line diagram of figure 6.11 shows burner startup situation where the
air/fuel ratio control has erroneously been set too rich. The burner may have lighted as it
entered the flammable zone (about 5% gas in gasair mixture, for natural gas)but its
mixture soon became too rich to burn, exceeding the upper limit of flammability (about
15% gas in natural gasair mixture)exiting the flammable zone, with the flame going out.
The pilot has its own controlled air and fuel supply set at an air/fuel ratio between the
flammability limits; thus, it stays lighted even though it is surrounded by nonflammable
atmosphere. The accumulated too-rich-to-burn fuelair mixture will be ignited as an
explosion when someone wonders why the burner went out after an assumed-to-benormal startup and (a) opens the furnace door, letting in air, or (b) turns off the fuel to
the main burners, allowing the continuing air supply to bring the accumulated rich
mixture back to combustible (explosive) mixture.
The lower diagram of figure 6.11 shows situation where burner fuel shutoff valve was
not closed tightly or fuel somehow leaked into furnace or oven overnight. If pilot had
been left running overnight, an explosion would occur as soon as sufficient fuel
accumulated in the furnace to bring the fuel percentage up to the lower limit of

flammability (about 5% gas in gasair mix, for natural gas)If there was no constant pilot
or other source of ignition in the furnace while shut down, the air/fuel ratio could pass
through the flammable (explosible) zone and rise above the upper limit of flammability
(about 15% gas in natural gasair mix)The asterisk marks the point at which someone
trying to light burner the next morning (a) opens the furnace door, letting in air, or (b)
turns on the main air, or (c) turns off the leaking gas valve.
Figure 6.12 shows time line for lighting and shutting down program for one-burner
furnace. The block diagram across the top shows the programmed functions designed
to prevent accumulation of rich or combustible airfuel mixtures. The bottom plot shows
air flow during the programmed light-up and shutdown. This is for system with
interrupted pilot or direct spark ignition with flame monitor that checks for presence of
either pilot or main flame. All such programs should be designed, installed, and
operated in compliance with insuring underwriters requirements, those of government
authorities, and recommendations of the U.S. National Fire Protection Association.

Ref: Industrial Furnaces. W. TRINKS. 6th edition.

Chapter-10

Excess Air and O2 and CO2 in Flue Gas

Approximate values for CO2 and O2 in the flue gas as result of excess air are estimated in the
table below:

Carbon Dioxide - CO2 - in Flue Gas (% volume)


Excess Air
%

Oxygen in
Flue Gas
for
all fuels
Bituminous Anthracite
(%
volume)
Coal
Coal

Natural
Gas

Propane
Butane

Fuel Oil

12

14

15.5

18

20

20

10.5

12

13.5

15.5

16.5

40

10

12

13.5

14

60

10

12

12.5

7.5

80

11

11.5

100

9.5

10

10

Technical Information
Propane
Characteristics

Values

Specific gravity at 70oF/21oC

1.56

Calorific value (kJ/kg)

50,000

Critical temperature (oF/oC

-43.6/-42

Butane
Characteristics

Values

Specific gravity at 70oF/21oC

2.07

Calorific value (kJ/kg)

49,000

Critical temperature (oF/oC)

22.99/-5

Typical values of excess air for some common fuels are shown in the table below:

Fuel

Excess of Air-(%)

Anthracite

40

Coke oven gas

5 - 10

Natural Gas

5 - 10

Coal, pulverized

15 - 20

Coal, stoker

20 - 30

Oil (No. 2 and No. 6)

10 to 20

Semi anthracite, hand firing

70 to 100

Semi anthracite, with stoker

40 to 70

Semi anthracite, with traveling grate

30 to 60

The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion - at constant
pressure and under a conditions known as " normal " of temperature and pressure (i.e. to 0oC
and under a pressure of 1,013 mbar).
The combustion of a fuel product generates water vapor. Certain techniques are used to
recover the quantity of heat contained in this water vapor by condensing it.
The Higher Calorific Value (or Gross Calorific Value - GCV) supposes that the water of
combustion is entirely condensed and that the heat contained in the water vapor is recovered.
The Lower Calorific Value (or Net Calorific Value - NCV) supposes that the products of
combustion contains the water vapor. The heat contained in the water vapor is not recovered.

Fuel

Higher Calorific Value-(Gross Calorific Value - GCV)


kJ/kg

Btu/lb

Anthracite

32,500 - 34,000

14,000 - 14,500

Bituminous coal

17,000 - 23,250

7,300 - 10,000

Butane

49,510

20,900

Charcoal

29,600

12,800

Coal

15,000 - 27,000

8,000 - 14,000

Coke

28,000 - 31,000

12,000 - 13,500

Diesel

44,800

19,300

Ethanol

29,700

12,800

Lignite

16,300

7,000

Methane

55,530

Gasoline

47,300

20,400

Hydrogen

141,790

61,000

Peat

13,800 - 20,500

5,500 - 8,800

Propane

50,350

Semi anthracite

26,700 - 32,500

11,500 - 14,000

Wood (dry)

14,400 - 17,400

6,200 - 7,500

kJ/m3

Btu/ft3

Acetylene

56,000

Butane C4H10

133,000

Hydrogen

13,000

Natural gas

43,000

Methane CH4

39,820

Propane C3H8

101,000

Town gas

18,000
kJ/l

Acetone (kJ/kg)

29,000

Btu/gal

Alcohol, 96% (kJ/kg)

30,000

Ether (kJ/kg)

43,000

Kerosene

35,000

154,000

Gas oil

38,000

164,000

Glycerin (kJ/kg)

19,000

Heavy fuel oil

41,200

Oils, vegetable (kJ/kg)

39,000 - 48,000

Petrol (kJ/kg)

48,000

Petroleum (kJ/kg)

43,000

Tar (kJ/kg)

36,000

Turpentine (kJ/kg)

44,000

1 kJ/kg = 0.4299 Btu/ lbm = 0.23884 kcal/kg


1 Btu/lbm = 2.326 kJ/kg = 1.8 kcal/kg
1 Btu/ft3 = 8.9 kcal/m3 = 3.73x104 J/m3
1 Btu/lb = 2,326.1 J/kg = 0.55556 kcal/kg

177,000

Chapter-11

Heat losses
Excess air
The amount of excess air used in a furnace, dryer or kiln varies according to the application; for
example, a direct-fired drying oven requires large quantities of excess air to remove vapours quickly
from it (see the example preceding). Excess air carries heat away from the process and up the stack,
so this air should be monitored and adjusted to the minimum quantity necessary to do the job.
Even small (0.16-cm, or 1/8-in.) gaps around doors, etc. quickly add up to a large open area, and
substantial amounts of cold air can infiltrate. The excess air takes away from the heat required to heat
the product. Savings will result when the excess air is reduced. Proper maintenance can reduce but
seldom eliminate cold air infiltration (except in new equipment); instead, use furnace pressurization and
burner flame management and control. Maintaining positive pressure at all times inside the furnace will
prevent cold air infiltration through leaks. Technologies that regulate the chimney stack opening and a
variety of pulse-fired combustion methods, together with maintaining steady heat levels (high fire is on
most of the time), can also prevent cold air from entering. Combined energy savings may be as high as
60 percent along with substantial emissions reductions.

Radiation and convection heat loss


Heat losses due to radiation and convection from a furnace, dryer or kiln can be high if the enclosure is
not properly maintained. Heat loss can occur because of deficiencies such as
damaged or missing insulation;
missing furnace doors and covers;
damaged, warped or loose-fitting furnace doors and covers; and
openings in the furnace enclosure that allow passage of air.
Figures 2.8 and 2.9 illustrate the relationship between outside furnace wall temperature and energy loss
from the furnace walls, and between furnace temperature and energy loss through openings in furnace
walls.

FIGURE 2.8 - Energy loss from furnace walls versus outside wall temperature

FIGURE 2.9 - Energy loss by radiation through opening versus furnace temperature

Controls and monitoring


Without adequate controls, energy efficiency improvement efforts will fail. Monitoring equipment should
be installed so that operators can determine energy consumption per unit of output. They can then
identify deviations from this standard and take corrective action.
Furnace efficiency can often be improved by upgrading burner controls and their type, as mentioned
above. Automating systems that include fuel and airflow meters, gas pressure control, flue damper
control through pressure sensors, and tight in-furnace conditions monitoring for sloping control will
permit closer energy consumption control and lower levels of excess air. Systems with oxygen trim
allow for even better control of excess air.
The controlling and monitoring technologies incorporate proportional integral derivative controllers,
feedback and feed forward control, process integration control, dynamic modeling and expert computer
control systems.
Generally, the benefits of monitoring and controlling industrial furnaces, ovens and kilns include the
following:

reduced product losses;


improved product quality and consistency;
improved operational reliability; and
energy efficiency improvements of 50 percent or more.

Chapter-12

HEAT TRANSFER
1 Principles of Heat Transfer
Heat transfer is defined as energy in transit as a result of a difference in temperature. There are
three main mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and thermal radiation.
In the case of conduction, heat energy is transferred on a molecular scale, with no large-scale
movement of matter. Convection occurs when there is a temperature difference between a fluid
and a solid boundary. It is a combination of both heat flow and fluid flow (mass transfer). Two
cases of convection occur: forced convection when the flow of fluid is caused by some external
means, e.g. the action of a fan or pump; natural convection when the flow is simply a result of
differences in buoyancy with the fluid. Radiation does not require the existence of an intervening
medium. It occurs as a result of the energy, in the form of electromagnetic waves, emitted by all
matter. Quantity of energy transferred is dependent on the temperature and emissivity of the
emitting body, which may be a solid, a liquid or, in case of radiative heat transfer from flames/gas.
In practice, all three mechanisms operate simultaneously; however, for the purposes of heat
transfer between the flame and furnace stock, convection and radiation are the main mechanisms.

2 Choice of Heat Transfer Method


Radiation has two main advantages: it has high intensity or power, i.e. high heat input rates can be
readily achieved to suit high-speed production processes; it can be easily spread over a wide area.
Disadvantages are: it travels only in straight lines, with the result that some stock may not be
adequately heated; it cannot be readily controlled. Stock may continue to be heated by the
radiation from the furnace walls and ceiling, even after the flame has been turned off.
Convection can be more readily directed around the interior of a furnace and can penetrate
throughout the load, thus ensuring even heating of the stock. Convective heating is beneficial in
treatments requiring an element of mass transfer, e.g. drying operations.
The heat transfer method chosen depends largely on the application: radiation tends to be more
effective in melting of metal and glass, and holding of the molten metal or glass, and for forging,
galvanising and reheating processes; convection methods tend to be used for processes such as
drying, normalising, stress-relieving, and heating of densely-packed loads, or for high-velocity
flame heating.

3 Influence of Flame Characteristics on Heat Transfer


The shape and characteristics of the flame have a strong influence on the heat transfer between
the flame and the stock, and burner design and choice of fuel can be manipulated to achieve the
desired effect. The design of the burner determines the relative velocities of the fuel and air
streams, and hence the flame length and shape. Good mixing, as a result of high turbulence and
velocity, produces a short, bushy flame, whereas poor or delayed mixing will produce a longer,
slender flame. A turbulent, high-velocity flame will churn up the atmosphere within the furnace and
promote high rates of convective heat transfer, whereas a long, slender flame will have a higher
radiative heat transfer component.
Fuel choice also has a strong bearing on the radiative heat transfer characteristics. Oil firing
produces flames that are yellower and more luminous (with relatively better radiation
characteristics) than a well-mixed natural-gas flame, which tends to be bluer and less luminous.
A poorly mixed or delayed mix natural-gas flame may, however, give a yellower, more luminous
flame due to the incandescence of carbon particles in the flame. These are produced by pyrolysis
of the hydrocarbon compounds in the gas.

Chapter-13

The Nature of LPG Products, Their Storage,


Measurement, and Delivery
Objectives
Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Describe the basic physical properties of LPG products.
2. Describe the conditions under which these products must be stored to maintain their liquid state.
3. Describe the basic elements of an LPG liquid-measuring and delivery system.
4. Identify major types of delivery devices and installations commonly found in the marketplace.

Introduction
The devices used for measurement of LPG products in their liquid state are quite similar in design
and operation to a number of other liquid-measuring devices such as vehicle-tank meters and
loading-rack meters. Except for the special materials used for some internal components and the
differential pressure valve (used to maintain system pressure at levels required to preserve the liquid
state of the product) that LPG liquid-measuring systems employ, they are virtually identical to the
equipment used for tank truck and bulk measurement installations for liquid petroleum products,
fertilizers, chemicals, etc.
What makes LPG measuring equipment different from other liquid-measuring devices and
necessitates different specifications and test procedures for examining them in the field are features
of the delivery systems on which they are installed. The design of the delivery system is in turn
directly related to the physical and, to a lesser extent, the chemical properties of the liquid that is
dispensed and the operating conditions under which it is dispensed.
This chapter provides an introduction to the systems that are used for commercial measurement of
liquid LPG. (Devices used for measuring LPG products by weight or by gaseous volume are not
covered in this manual.) We will first look at the distinctive properties of these products, and then
describe the special requirements for design and operation that arise from these properties. We will
also summarize the major types of systems that are employed for deliveries in various applications.

Anhydrous Ammonia
Metering systems used for the measurement of anhydrous ammonia are very similar in design and
operation to systems used for LPG products. In fact, when applying examination procedures, LPG
and anhydrous ammonia liquid-measuring devices may be considered to be virtually identical.

Page

Appendix C of this manual includes a discussion of the properties of anhydrous ammonia, as well as
points of difference in the conduct of field examinations, especially regarding safety procedures. If
your jurisdiction is involved in examining anhydrous ammonia liquid-measuring devices, your
instructor will discuss this material with you.

LPG Properties And Characteristics


Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is defined as a petroleum product composed predominantly of any of
the following hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof: propane, propylene, butanes (normal butane or
isobutane), and butylenes. These substances are generally extracted from natural gas or produced as
a byproduct of the refining of crude oil. Commercial propane and, to a lesser extent, butane are the
principal LPG products that we will be concerned with. Commercial propane, however, is not a pure
product but a mixture of LPG products, with the primary component being propane (commercial
LPG is generally more than 90 percent propane). It may also contain up to 7 or 8 percent ethane, a
neo-cryogenic hydrocarbon.
A relatively rare combination of physical properties accounts for the prominent place of LPG in the
marketplace. The most important of these properties is that LPG products are gases at atmospheric
temperatures and pressures, but they can be liquefied and maintained in their liquid state with
relative ease.
For example, propane, the hydrocarbon that comprises about 90 percent of most commercial LPG,
occupies approximately 270 times less space as a liquid than it does as a gas: about 270 cubic feet of
propane gas are condensed into 1 cubic foot of propane liquid (at 60 F). Butane has a slightly lower
ratio, but as a liquid still occupies less than 0.5 percent of the volume it would occupy as a gas
(again, at 60 F).
The main value of LPG products results from the fact that they can be stored in their liquid state and
used in their gaseous state. In their condensed, liquid state they can be stored and transported much
more efficiently than they could be as gases. The advantage in reduced transportation and storage
costs is sufficient to offset the cost of liquefying these products and also produce a profit. For this
reason, and because of the value of the products themselves to consumers, production of LPG
products has grown rapidly since they were first introduced in the marketplace more than half a
century ago.
To use LPG in most commercial and industrial applications it must be reconverted to a gaseous state.
This is easily accomplished simply by returning it to atmospheric temperature and pressure. When
we say that gaseous LPG products are easily liquefied, this must be understood in relative terms.
To be liquefied, a substance must be maintained at a temperature below its boiling point. The
boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it will change from its liquid state to its
gaseous state. To bring about the transformation from a liquid to a gaseous state, a certain amount
of heat must be applied to the liquid at its boiling point. This is known as the latent heat of
vaporization. Propane, the principal component of most LPG, has a boiling point of -44 F at
atmospheric pressure, which is approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi). The boiling point
of butane (also at atmospheric pressure) is much higher, +32 F.

Page 2

Even though such temperatures are attained under certain climatic conditions in certain parts of the
country, it is obviously impracticable to transport and store the products as liquids only when and
where these temperatures occur naturally. Furthermore, temperatures sufficiently low to maintain
propane in its liquid state are not attainable using normal refrigeration methods. Consequently, LPG
products are liquefied by refrigeration but maintained in the liquid state by pressurization.
The pressure that must be applied to maintain a contained product in its liquid state at a given
temperature is unique to that product and is a function of temperature. That pressure is known as the
vapor pressure of the liquid. Just as the boiling point of a substance, such as water, varies with its
pressure, the vapor pressure of a contained LPG product varies with temperature.

Temperature and Vapor Pressure


A temperature of 60 F is more or less in the middle of the range of temperatures normal for a
temperate climate. The approximate vapor pressures for the two principal LPG products at 60 F are:
Propane - 100 psig
Butane - 12 psig
For example, at a temperature of 60 F a vapor pressure of 100 psig is needed to maintain LPG in its
liquid state. If the temperature of the LPG is raised to 100 F the amount of vapor pressure required
to keep it in a liquid state would be 172 psig. Thus, it takes considerably higher vapor pressure to
maintain propane in its liquid state at 100 F than at 60 F. At higher temperatures, higher vapor
pressures will be needed to maintain the product in its liquid state. At 100 F the vapor pressure of
butane is approximately 38 psig, more than three times its vapor pressure at 60 F, though
considerably lower than the vapor pressure of propane at that temperature.
Temperatures required to liquefy these products are quite easily produced by refrigeration
equipment, and containers can be fabricated that will securely hold several times the vapor pressure
of propane within normal temperature ranges. As a result, LPG products are stored and transported
in closed containers. LPG is metered from those containers at ambient temperatures, but at pressures
higher than atmospheric pressure. It is obvious that one requirement of any system used to measure
and deliver these products is, therefore, that it be a closed system so that the product can be held at a
pressure sufficient to maintain its liquid state. Since the product is customarily stored by the
purchaser as liquid until it is used, the storage vessel must also be closed and be connected to the
delivery system when product is dispensed in such a way that they function as a closed system.
The properties described above also relate directly to requirements for measurement of liquid LPG
products. Since they are normally metered and sold by liquid volume, it is especially important that
the product be in its liquid state when it passes through the metering device. The reason for this is
that, as mentioned above, a given weight of the product will occupy many times its volume in its
gaseous state as in its liquid state. You may recall, for example, that gaseous propane occupies
about 270 times the volume it would as a liquid. Since the buyer of the product is purchasing liquid

Page

product by volume, any gas in the form of vapor included in the volume measured will result in the
customer paying for more product than has actually been received.

Temperature and Volume Changes


LPG products, either in their liquid or gaseous state, expand when heated and contract when cooled.
Thus, even if it is maintained as a liquid, a given weight of propane, for example, will occupy more
volume if it is warm than if it is cold. Again, since the purchaser and seller complete their
commercial transaction based upon a measured volume of liquid product, the temperature at which it
is sold can make a difference.
In fact, for LPG products the temperature can make a very great difference, since among their
physical properties is a high rate of change in volume with change in temperature. For example,
commercial liquid propane expands or contracts by about 1 percent of its volume for each change of
temperature of 6 F.
Because of this property, sales of LPG products are often (though not always) based upon the
volume sold at a reference standard temperature of 60 F. To avoid the necessity of heating or
cooling the product to exactly this temperature, the quantity indicated by the measuring device is
usually corrected for its deviation from this standard, either by an automatic device called, a
temperature compensator, or by calculations based upon a volume correction table. In later chapters
you will learn how such corrections are actually made.

Storage Vessel Headspace


There must be a certain amount of headspace above the level of liquid in the tank to allow for the
expansion that will occur if the temperature of the tank and its surroundings increases, even by a
small amount. In addition, as product is drained from the tank during normal operation, some liquid
product will vaporize in response to the drop in pressure and will generally remain as vapor, filling
the upper portion of the storage tank. We will see how the delivery system is designed to keep vapor
out of the measuring elements in the next section.

Design of the Delivery System


Now that you are aware of the properties of LPG products that affect their storage and measurement
as liquids, we can turn to the general characteristics of the design of the delivery system. Figure 1
represents, in greatly simplified detail, the design of any LPG delivery system. The system has four
basic components: a storage tank, a pump unit, a metering unit, and the piping (including valves and
other control elements) that connects these components and leads from the metering unit to the
discharge nozzle. As you can imagine, the actual design is considerably more complex and includes
a variety of accessory elements. We will look at these specific details in the next chapter and
concentrate for the moment on the essential functional components of the system.

Page

Figure

1. Basic components of an LPG delivery system.

As mentioned above, the entire system is closed and must permit no leakage of liquid or vapor. It
must also be designed and constructed to withstand high pressure. Specifications regarding
operating pressures that these systems must be capable of withstanding have been developed by the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME: Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8) and have
been adopted as part of most State fire and safety codes. The system must also be equipped with
pressure relief valves, which are designed to permit a controlled venting of product to the
atmosphere when internal pressures exceed safe limits.

Storage Tank
The storage tank is equipped with a liquid fill inlet for supplying the system with product, and the
system has a discharge line with an outlet for delivery. In addition, a vapor port is provided; this
permits the use of a pressure equalization line, which is sometimes necessary for efficient delivery
under certain extreme conditions (as explained below) and for volumetric testing or calibration of
the system .

Pump
The pump provides the pressure needed to propel product through the delivery system and into the
receiving tank. Its design and operating characteristics are determined by its application. If properly

Page

selected, its capacity, in terms of discharge rate and pressure, will meet the requirements of the
systems to which it delivers product.

Metering Unit
Liquid product is measured as it passes through the metering unit. In addition to the measuring
device itself, this component includes an indicating element, which is designed to indicate, or
register, the quantity of liquid that has passed through the meter. The indicating element is driven
directly by the measuring element, so that measurement and registration occur simultaneously. This
allows the operator of the system, and the purchaser of the product, to monitor the amount of liquid
that is being delivered continuously throughout the delivery.

Vapor Eliminator and Differential Pressure Valve


In addition to the measuring and indicating elements, the metering unit also includes two separate
devices, a vapor eliminator and a differential pressure valve. The function of these devices is to
prevent vapor from entering the meter and being measured along with liquid product.
The vapor eliminator separates any vapor that has been produced from the liquid flow before it
reaches the meter and returns it to the vapor space of the storage tank; the differential pressure valve
maintains the product in its liquid state as it passes through the meter. As liquid is drawn from the
storage tank, pressure within the tank falls. When it has fallen below the vapor pressure of the
product -- as will happen almost immediately -- some of the liquid will boil (that is, change from its
liquid state to its vapor state). In doing so, it expands rapidly and rises from the liquid into the vapor
space. This also has a cooling effect (because of the latent heat of vaporization, which must be
absorbed from the product in order to bring about the transformation in state from liquid to gas).
The resulting expansion in volume will restore the equilibrium condition that exists in the tank
almost instantaneously. As a result, whenever liquid product is being delivered, some vapor is being
produced in the storage tank at the same time.
This vapor is generally of no concern to accurate measurement of liquid product since it remains in
the storage tank and does not enter the pump or metering unit. However, vapor can be produced in
any part of the system where even a slight pressure differential occurs. A fall in pressure is likely to
occur at any point where flow is restricted for any reason. This may occur at the pump, at valves,
and at points where different sizes of piping are joined.
Vaporization may also occur if a temperature differential exists at any point. A temperature
differential will occur if one portion of the piping is exposed to direct sunlight, heating product at
that location. Liquid product is also heated by friction as it flows through the system, especially at
points where it must flow against gravity, around bends, or through a restricted passage. Even
though the vaporization that occurs at any one point in the system as a result of any particular factor
may be very small, any accumulation of vapor may have a significant effect on measurement
accuracy.

Page

The design of the system must thus be such as to minimize vaporization due to these conditions. For
example, piping should be no more extensive than necessary, as straight as possible, and should
avoid upward pitches. This is especially important for the piping that leads from the storage tank to
the inlet of the pump. It is also generally recommended that piping leading to the pump be one size
larger than the discharge piping. The number of pipe connections and valves should be kept to a
minimum, and the pump and meter should be carefully selected to match the operating conditions
under which the system must perform, especially in terms of capacity and pressure.
As mentioned above, vaporization of product is also reduced by a differential pressure valve, which
eliminates pressure differentials by restricting flow on the discharge side of the meter, thus
maintaining a uniform pressure in the piping and metering element upstream that is at or above the
vapor pressure of the product. This device is an important part of the system design.
However, it is not always possible to eliminate all sources of vapor production in the system and
deliver product efficiently at the same time. As a result, the system must incorporate effective
means of eliminating the vapor that is produced by collecting it and returning it to the storage tank
vapor space, where its presence is innocuous. A device called a vapor eliminator performs this
function.

In summary, the principal design requirements of the system as a whole are that it must:

Contain product under pressures that are within its safe operating range, and be provided with
means to effect a controlled venting of product when internal pressures exceed those limits.

Be capable of delivering product efficiently (that is, at a rate of flow and discharge pressure
that are appropriate for the receiving vessels to which product is delivered).

It must reduce to a minimum the production of vapor within the system and must be
equipped to eliminate small amounts of vapor that are produced.

Receiving Vessel
Before leaving this general overview, let us look briefly at the problem of moving liquid product
within a closed system from the point of view of the receiving vessel. Figure 2 illustrates how the
factors we have been discussing affect delivery.

Page

Figure

2. Delivery of product.

The receiving vessel, like the delivery system storage tank, will contain some vapor and some liquid
at all times, although at the time of delivery its contents may be mostly vapor. The situation
described above for the system storage tank works in reverse in the receiving tank during delivery of
liquid product as product is pushed into the receiving tank.
As liquid enters the receiving container, propelled by pressure from the delivery systems pump, it
displaces vapor. As the level of liquid rises, it acts like a slow-moving piston, compressing vapor in
the space above it. This compression causes a rise in pressure and temperature. As the pressure
rises, some of the vapor begins to condense and return to the liquid phase. Equilibrium is
eventually, but not instantaneously, restored.
In older vapor return systems, this situation was remedied by connecting a vapor line between the
vapor space of the receiving tank and the vapor space of the system storage tank. Excess pressure
could thus be bled from the receiving tank, and equilibrium would be maintained in both tanks. This
solution, however, meant that some amount of product belonging to the purchaser was being
returned to the seller in the form of vapor.
A far better and more equitable solution involves an adaptation of the receiving tank. A pipe from the
receiving tank inlet is extended into the vapor space. The outlet of the pipe is designed in such a way
that incoming liquid product is sprayed upward toward the top of the tank. The droplets of cooler
liquid spray falling through the vapor space promote condensation of the vapor, thus cooling the
compressed vapor. This in turn lowers pressure and allows the system pump to deliver more efficiently.
This method, called spray fill, may be accomplished in several ways, as shown in Figure3.

Page

Figure 3. Spray-fill method of delivery.


This design of receiving tanks has now become virtually universal and thus has made vapor-return
lines unnecessary, except under the most extreme climatic conditions. As a result, most States have
prohibited the use of vapor-return lines in commercial deliveries, except under very specific and
limited circumstances. This prohibition is also included among the requirements of NIST Handbook
44 .
The effects of temperature expansion of the liquid product must also be considered in determining
how much product should be delivered to a receiving tank. In general, the colder the liquid that is
delivered, the greater the amount of head space that should be allowed for expansion. The reason for
this is that if the product delivered is colder than the tank and the surrounding air temperature, it will
expand as it warms. This process will be gradual, and it may take a number of hours before the
product has warmed -- and expanded -- fully. For this reason, sufficient vapor space must be
preserved in the top of the receiving container to permit expansion of product. Provisions of
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58 (Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum
Gases) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations (Hazardous Materials Regulations,
49 CFR 170-179) for filling cylinders, storage tanks, tank trucks, and tank cars allow adequate vapor
space for liquid expansion as the result of a change in atmospheric temperature.

Types of Delivery Systems


The basic design features described above apply to all types of systems used for measurement and
delivery of LPG. These are not the only design criteria, however. The design of the system must
also reflect its use in a specific delivery application in the marketplace.
Wholesale deliveries are generally made from bulk distribution centers or terminals to tank trucks.
Because of the large capacity of truck tanks, delivery can be made safely and efficiently at relatively

Page

high flow rates, usually in the range of 100 gallons per minute (gpm), and sometimes considerably
higher.
Tank trucks make deliveries either to retail stations or directly to customers. Because receiving
tanks are considerably smaller, these systems generally operate at lower discharge rates, depending
upon the type of service. Trucks delivering to large holding tanks at a retail installation generally
are equipped for maximum discharge rates of about 50-60 gpm. Retail deliveries to smaller tanks
kept by farmers and homeowners are usually still lower, about 30 gpm.
In many parts of the country, retail sales of LPG products are also made from service stations.
Customers may either fill small truck- or trailer-mounted tanks at these facilities or, in the case of
propane products especially, refillable cylinders may be used.
In some parts of the country, LPG is used extensively as a motor fuel. In recent years, filling
stations for LPG-fueled vehicles have been constructed that appear quite similar to gasoline filling
stations, with similar dispensers and controls familiar to motorists. However, most LPG motor-fuel
refilling facilities are nothing more than a tank, pump, meter, and hose. Because receiving tanks and
fill pipes on motor vehicles are relatively small, these systems typically deliver product at
comparatively low flow rates, usually about 10 gpm. The tank, pump, meter, and piping of an LPG
delivery system are selected and designed as a unit, depending upon the purpose of the system.

Summary
The appropriate design of metering and delivery systems used for LPG is determined by the physical
properties of the product, especially its response to changes in temperature and pressure during
delivery. To assure accurate measurement, the design of the system must incorporate means to
minimize vaporization and to eliminate any vapor produced before it enters the metering element.
Receiving tanks must also be designed to facilitate both efficient delivery and accurate
measurement. The design of the metering system also depends upon its use and especially upon the
desired maximum discharge rate. Metering systems for LPG are commonly installed in fixed
locations or on tank trucks and are used in both wholesale and retail service.
Terms to Know:
boiling point. The temperature at which a substance will change from its liquid state to its gaseous
state. The boiling point of a product is a function of pressure.
latent heat of vaporization. The amount of heat that must be applied to a liquid at its boiling point
to bring about the transformation from a liquid to a gaseous state.
vapor pressure. The pressure that must be applied to maintain a contained product in its liquid state
at a given temperature. The vapor pressure of a product is unique to that product and is a function of
temperature.

Page

10

Chapter-14

PROPERTIES OF AIR

AIR IS A GAS 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, traces of H2O, CO2 , Ar---Properties
Dimensions
Value (SLS)
Mass, Volume.
Metric
English
3
Density (r)
Mass / volume
1.229 Kg/m
0.00237 slug/ft3
Specific Volume (V)
Volume / mass
0.814 m3/Kg
422 ft3/slug
2
Pressure (P)
Force / area
101.0 kN/m
14.7 lbs/in2
Temperature (T)
Degrees
150C
590F
Viscocity (mu)
Force-time / area 1.73 x 10-5 N-s/m2
3.62 x 10-7 lb-s/ft2
SLS Sea Level Static (Standard Day)

Air is a mixture of gases, 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen with traces of water vapor,
carbon dioxide, argon, and various other components. We usually model air as a uniform
(no variation or fluctuation) gas with properties that are averaged from all the individual
components. Any gas has certain properties that we can detect with our senses. The
values and relations of the properties define the state of the gas.
On this slide you will find typical values of the properties of air at sea level static
conditions for a standard day. We are all aware that pressure and temperature of the air
depend on your location on the earth and the season of the year. And while it is hotter in
some seasons than others, pressure and temperature change day to day, hour to hour,
sometimes even minute to minute (during severe weather). The values presented on the
slide are simply average values used by engineers to design machines. That's why they
are called standard values. We also know that all of the state-of-the-gas variables will
change with altitude, which is why the typical values are given at sea level, static
conditions. Because the gravity of the earth holds the atmosphere to the surface, as
altitude increases, air density, pressure, and temperature (for lower altitudes) decrease. In
deep space, the density is almost zero. The variation of the air from the standard can be
very important since it affects flow parameters like the speed of sound. You will learn that
jet engines do not produce as much thrust on hot, muggy days as on cold, crisp days, and
that lift, drag, and thrust vary greatly with altitude.
A gas is composed of a large number of molecules which are in constant motion. The sum
of the mass of all the molecules is equal to the mass of the gas. A gas occupies some
volume in three dimensional space. For a given pressure and temperature, the volume
depends directly on the amount of gas. Since the mass and volume are directly related, we
can express both the mass and volume by a single variable. When a gas is moving, it is
convenient to use the density of a gas, which is the mass divided by the volume the gas
occupies. The sea level standard value of air density r is
r = 1.229 kilograms/cubic meters = .00237 slug/cubic feet

When working with a static (unmoving) gas, it is more convenient to use specific volume,
which is the volume divided by the mass. The sea level standard value of specific volume
v is
v = .814 cubic meters/kilogram = 422 cubic feet/slug
The pressure of a gas equals the perpendicular (normal) force exerted by the gas divided
by the surface area on which the force is exerted. The sea level standard value of air
pressure p is
p = 101.3 kilo Newton/square meter = 14.7 pounds/square inch
The temperature of a gas is a measure of the kinetic energy of the molecules of the gas.
The sea level standard value of air temperature T is
T = 15 degrees C = 59 degrees Fahrenheit
A gas can exert a tangential (shearing) force on a surface, which acts like friction between
solid surfaces. This "sticky" property of the gas is called the viscosity and it plays a large
role in aerodynamic drag. The sea level standard value of air viscosity mu is
mu = 1.73 x 10^-5 Newton-second/square meters = 3.62 x 10^-7 pound-second/square
feet
The density (specific volume), pressure, and temperature of a gas are related to each
other through the equation of state. The state of a gas can be changed by external
processes, and the reaction of the gas can be predicted using the laws of
thermodynamics. A fundamental understanding of thermodynamics is very important in
describing the operation of propulsion systems.

*********

Chapter-15

What is LPG or LP Gas?


LPG or LP Gas is the abbreviation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. This group of products
includes saturated Hydrocarbons - Propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10), which can be
stored/transported separately or as a mixture. They exist as gases at normal room
temperature and atmospheric pressure.
Why is it called Liquefied Petroleum Gas?
This is because these gases liquefy under moderate pressure. They liquefy at moderate
pressures, readily vaporizing upon release of pressure. It is this property that permits
transportation of and storage of LP Gas in concentrated liquid form.
Where does LPG come from?
LPG comes from two sources. It can be obtained from the refining of crude oil. When
produced this way it is generally in pressurized form. LPG is also extracted from natural
gas or crude oil streams coming from underground reservoirs. 60% of LPG in the world
today is produced this way whereas 40% of LPG is extracted from refining of crude oil.
What is commercial Propane & Butane?
Ideally products referred to as "propane" and "butane" consist very largely of these
saturated hydrocarbons; but during the process of extraction/production certain allowable
unsaturated hydrocarbons like ethylene, propylene, butylenes etc. may be included in the
mixture along with pure propane and butane. The presence of these in moderate amounts
would not affect LPG in terms of combustion but may affect other properties slightly (such
as corrosiveness or gum formation).
How is LPG seen & felt?

It is colorless and cannot be seen


It is odorless. Hence LPG is odorized by adding an odorant prior to supply to the
user, to aid the detection of any leaks.
It is slightly heavier than air and hence if there is a leak it flows to lower lying areas.
In liquid form, its density is half that of water and hence it floats initially before it is
vaporized.
It is non-toxic but can cause asphyxiation in very high concentrations in air.

LPG expands upon release and 1 liter of liquid will form approximately 250 liters of vapor
What is LPG used for?
LPG is used as a fuel for domestic (cooking), industrial, horticultural, agricultural, heating
and drying processes. LPG can be used as an automotive fuel or as a propellant for
aerosols, in addition to other specialist applications. LPG can also be used to provide
lighting through the use of pressure lanterns.
Why are Butane and Propane used in combination?
While butane and propane are different chemical compounds, their properties are similar
enough to be useful in mixtures. Butane and Propane are both saturated hydrocarbons.
They do not react with other. Butane is less volatile and boils at 0.6 deg C. Propane is
more volatile and boils at - 42 deg C. Both products are liquids at atmospheric pressure
when cooled to temperatures lower than their boiling points. Vaporization is rapid at
1

temperatures above the boiling points. The calorific (heat) values of both are almost equal.
Both are thus mixed together to attain the vapor pressure that is required by the end user
and depending on the ambient conditions. If the ambient temperature is very low propane
is preferred to achieve higher vapor pressure at the given temperature.
What are the advantages of LPG?
The advantages of LPG are as follows

Because of its relatively fewer components, it is easy to achieve the correct fuel to
air mix ratio that allows the complete combustion of the product. This gives LPG its
clean burning characteristics.
Both Propane and Butane are easily liquefied and stored in pressure containers.
These properties make the fuel highly portable, and hence, can be easily
transported in cylinders or tanks to end-users.
LPG is a good substitute for petrol in spark ignition engines. Its clean burning
properties, in a properly tuned engine, give reduced exhaust emissions, extended
lubricant and spark plug life.
As a replacement for aerosol propellants and refrigerants, LPG provides
alternatives to fluorocarbons, which are known to cause deterioration of the earth's
ozone layer.

The clean burning properties and portability of LPG provide a substitute for traditional fuels
such as wood, coal, and other organic matter. This provides a solution to de-forestation
and the reduction of particulate matter in the atmosphere (haze), caused by burning the
traditional fuels.
What are LPG properties?
Property

Units

Specific gravity
of Liquid at 15
deg C (Water=1)
Specific gravity
of Vapor at 15
deg C(Air=1)
Vapor pressure Kg/sq.cm
at 38 deg C
Boiling point at Deg C
atm pressure
Ignition
Deg C
temperature in
air
Latent Heat of
Btu/lb
Vaporization

Commercial Commercial
Mixture 50% each
Propane
Butane
0.504

0.582

0.543

1.5

2.01

1.75

13.8

2.6

8.0

- 42

+ 9 to - 42

495-605

480-535

480-605

184

167

175

Chapter - 16

Properties of LPG
Propane

Butane

Liquid Density

0.505

0.575

Gas Density

1.5

1.95

Ratio Gas/liquid

274

230

Atm. Boiling ptc.

-42

-2

Specific heat liquid

0.60 Btu/deg.

0.58 Btu/deg

Latent heat Vaporization

358 kj/kg.

372 kj/kg

Flammability limit

2.2 - 9.5%

1.8 - 8.5%

Auto temp ign

470C

410C

Mole Weight

44.10 kg/k/mole

58.12

Freezing Point

-187.7C

-138.4

Critical temp

96.7C

152.1C

Critical Press

42.5 bar

38.0 bar

Soluble in water

Slight

Slight

Color

Colorless

Colorless

Chapter-17

Excess Air and O2 and CO2 in Flue Gas

Approximate values for CO2 and O2 in the flue gas as result of excess air are estimated in the
table below:

Carbon Dioxide - CO2 - in Flue Gas (% volume)


Excess Air
%

Oxygen in
Flue Gas
for
all fuels
Bituminous Anthracite
(%
volume)
Coal
Coal

Natural
Gas

Propane
Butane

Fuel Oil

12

14

15.5

18

20

20

10.5

12

13.5

15.5

16.5

40

10

12

13.5

14

60

10

12

12.5

7.5

80

11

11.5

100

9.5

10

10

Technical Information
Propane
Characteristics

Values

Specific gravity at 70oF/21oC

1.56

Calorific value (kJ/kg)

50,000

Critical temperature (oF/oC

-43.6/-42

Butane
Characteristics

Values

Specific gravity at 70oF/21oC

2.07

Calorific value (kJ/kg)

49,000

Critical temperature (oF/oC)

22.99/-5

Typical values of excess air for some common fuels are shown in the table below:

Fuel

Excess of Air-(%)

Anthracite

40

Coke oven gas

5 - 10

Natural Gas

5 - 10

Coal, pulverized

15 - 20

Coal, stoker

20 - 30

Oil (No. 2 and No. 6)

10 to 20

Semi anthracite, hand firing

70 to 100

Semi anthracite, with stoker

40 to 70

Semi anthracite, with traveling grate

30 to 60

The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion - at constant
pressure and under a conditions known as " normal " of temperature and pressure (i.e. to 0oC
and under a pressure of 1,013 mbar).
The combustion of a fuel product generates water vapor. Certain techniques are used to
recover the quantity of heat contained in this water vapor by condensing it.
The Higher Calorific Value (or Gross Calorific Value - GCV) supposes that the water of
combustion is entirely condensed and that the heat contained in the water vapor is recovered.
The Lower Calorific Value (or Net Calorific Value - NCV) supposes that the products of
combustion contains the water vapor. The heat contained in the water vapor is not recovered.

Fuel

Higher Calorific Value-(Gross Calorific Value - GCV)


kJ/kg

Btu/lb

Anthracite

32,500 - 34,000

14,000 - 14,500

Bituminous coal

17,000 - 23,250

7,300 - 10,000

Butane

49,510

20,900

Charcoal

29,600

12,800

Coal

15,000 - 27,000

8,000 - 14,000

Coke

28,000 - 31,000

12,000 - 13,500

Diesel

44,800

19,300

Ethanol

29,700

12,800

Lignite

16,300

7,000

Methane

55,530

Gasoline

47,300

20,400

Hydrogen

141,790

61,000

Peat

13,800 - 20,500

5,500 - 8,800

Propane

50,350

Semi anthracite

26,700 - 32,500

11,500 - 14,000

Wood (dry)

14,400 - 17,400

6,200 - 7,500

kJ/m3

Btu/ft3

Acetylene

56,000

Butane C4H10

133,000

Hydrogen

13,000

Natural gas

43,000

Methane CH4

39,820

Propane C3H8

101,000

Town gas

18,000
kJ/l

Acetone (kJ/kg)

29,000

Btu/gal

Alcohol, 96% (kJ/kg)

30,000

Ether (kJ/kg)

43,000

Kerosene

35,000

154,000

Gas oil

38,000

164,000

Glycerin (kJ/kg)

19,000

Heavy fuel oil

41,200

Oils, vegetable (kJ/kg)

39,000 - 48,000

Petrol (kJ/kg)

48,000

Petroleum (kJ/kg)

43,000

Tar (kJ/kg)

36,000

Turpentine (kJ/kg)

44,000

1 kJ/kg = 0.4299 Btu/ lbm = 0.23884 kcal/kg


1 Btu/lbm = 2.326 kJ/kg = 1.8 kcal/kg
1 Btu/ft3 = 8.9 kcal/m3 = 3.73x104 J/m3
1 Btu/lb = 2,326.1 J/kg = 0.55556 kcal/kg

177,000

Chapter - 18
FUEL SAVING IN OIL FIRED FURNACES.

Oil fired furnaces are widely used for heating of various metals, for heat-treatment of alloys &
also for manufacturing chemical products & for controlling process in some production lines.
Practically most of the users of oil fired furnaces are running the furnaces at very low efficiency
& there is lot of scope for fuel saving upto 50%.

Thermal Efficiency of Furnaces.

The characteristics of fuel are as follows :


SpFuel

Gravity

Light Fuel
Oil
Heavy
Fuel Oil

Oxygen +

Calorific

Sulphur

Value

Carbon

Hydrogen

o.792

86.4

13.5

0.1

0.895

86.1

12.3

1.6

0.950

86.0

11.8

2.2

at 600F
Kerosene

Gross

composition

11138
Kcal/kg
10700
Kcal/kg
10500
Kcal/kg

Flash
point
370C
790C
1000C

Carbon burned to CO2 --- 8080 Kcal/Kg of C.


Carbon burned to CO --- 2472 Kcal/Kg of C.
Hydrogen burned to H2O --- 34462 Kcal/Kg of H2
CO burned to CO2 --- 2402 Kcal/Kg of CO
Now, if we know the fuel oil consumption in a process such as melting of metals or heating
metal to a specific temp, we can calculate the heat available in oil say if fuel oil (furnace oil) for
melting 100kgs of copper to 11500C was 25kg oil, then heat available was 25 x 10,500 =
262500 Kcals.

The net heat required to heat a metal or chemical is given by


Weight of metal x temp0C x Sp-Heat.

If metal is melted then latent heat of fusion (LHF) is the additional heat required.
For melting copper to 11500C 177Kcal/kg of Cu required.
For melting aluminum to 7200C 246 Kcal/kg of Al required.
For melting brass to 9500C 144 Kcal/kg of Brass required.

Sp-Heat of copper 0.095.


LHF of copper 180 KJ/kg 43 Kcal/kg

Sp Heat of Brass 0.094.

Sp-Heat of aluminum 0.214.


LHF of Al 386 KJ/kg 92 Kcal/kg. (386/4.187=92).

Sp-Heat of steel 0.117.


LHF of steel 208 KJ/kg 49.7 Kcal/kg.
Thus for melting 100kg of copper to 11500C using 25 kg of furnace oil, the thermal efficiency is
(100 x 177 Kcal x 100) / (180 x 10500) = 6.74%.
If 180kg of oil is required to heat one ton of steel to 9500C, then the thermal efficiency will be
(1000 x 950 x 0.117 x 100) / (180 x 10500) = 5.88%.

Thus only 6% to 7% of the heat of oil is utilized in above processes and 93% heat is wasted. If
we know the causes of the wastage of heat and correct these , we can improve efficiency &
save fuel.

The Main Causes of Heat Wastages:


A) Sensible heat in waste gases :The heat lost due to high temp of waste gases is called sensible heat in waste gases.
It is calculated as
Wt of flue gases x temp0C x sp-heat.
Now theoretically, if 1 kg of oil is burned completely, it requires 14 kg of air. But in practice 25%
extra air is required for complete combustion with cold air and cold oil, i.e. 17.5 kg of air is
needed for 1 kg of oil and this will produce 18.5 kg of flue gas. The temperature of flue gas has

to be more than the process temperature. Thus for melting Copper to 11500C the temperature of
flue gases is 12000C and melting of Brass to 9500C or heating steel to 9500C the temperature of
flue gas will be 10000C etc.

The heat lost at various flue gas temperature and its percentage of the heat available in oil are
Wt of the flue
gas
18.5 kg

Temp0C

Specific-Heat

Heat Lost - Kcal

% of heat of fuel

500

0.283

2167

25.0

700

0.295

3820

36.4

800

0.301

4450

42.4

1000

0.312

5772

55.0

1200

o.320

7104

67.6

Thus 50 to 70% heat of oil is wasted in flue gas due to its high temperature.

B) Latent heat in flue gas :We have already seen in the tables that when Carbon burns to CO2, 8080 Kcal of heat is
produced and if burns to CO, then 2472 Kcal of heat is produced.
Thus in complete combustion gives
CO in flue gas and the (calorific value) x (weight of CO) is the heat lost as latent heat in flue
gas.
Thus if flue gas contains 4% CO, then the heat lost will be
18.5 x 0.04 x 2402 = 1777 Kcal and this will be
(1777 x 100) / 10500 = 17% heat of fuel.
This happens due to inefficient burners and faulty burner operations.

C) Unburned oil in flue gases :If burners are very poorly operated, then the unburned oil can shoot through the flue gas and
heat lost will be directly proportional to the percentage of oil.

D) Excess air used in burner :If excess air used is more than the required for combustion, the weight of the flue gas will be
more and the heat lost will be directly proportional to the excess weight of gas.

E) Heat lost due to convection from outer walls of the furnace :This is given by an approximate formulae
Heat Lost(Kcal) = h x A x (TS - TA) Kcal / hr / m2 / 0C.
Where h = convective heat transfer co-efficient.
A = Area of walls (outside) of furnace m2.
TS = Temperature of outside walls of furnace 0C.
TA = Atmospheric temp 0C.
Where h = 4.3Kcal/hr/m2/0C for still air, and varies according to the air velocity around the
furnace outer walls.
Example
Furnace with outer dimensions as 2mtrs x 2mtrs x 2mtrs has wall temperature of 1000C,
and uses 30kg/hr oil.

Heat lost by walls = 4.3 x (2 x 2 x 6) x 100 = 10320 Kcal/hr


Total heat lost = (10320 x 100) / (30 x 10500) = 3.25%.
Thus the % of heat lost due to outer wall emission may shoot upto 25% if the outer air velocity is
more. Higher outside temperature indicates the poor condition of the insulation inside the
furnace.

Methods to Save Fuel Consumption


As we have seen above, the furnace efficiency is low due to wastage or inefficient use of fuel
used. Now if we control the wastages & increase the input of heat in the furnace without
increasing fuel, the efficiency will go up & we can save fuel consumption upto 30%. The various
methods of fuel savings are

1) Recuperators :
The maximum heat losses (upto 80%) are from waste gases. If the waste heat in the flue gases
is utilized to heat the incoming air required for burner, there will be additional heat input to the
furnace while other parameters remain the same. The additional input of heat is utilized in
heating the metal. This is achieved by a heat exchanger used to heat air by the hot exhaust of
flue gas & this system is called RECUPERATOR.

The higher temperature of the combustion air has the following advantages
a) The flame temperature will increase. In furnace the heating of metal is mainly due to radiation
and heat transfer is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature difference. Thus the
heating is faster and saves fuel.

b) Higher temperature of air improves combustion process which requires less excess air for
complete combustion. Lower the weight of the air, higher is the flame temperature which helps
in saving the fuel.
Flame temperature is calculated as

(Kcal of oil + sensible heat in air)


---------------------------------------------(Wt of flue gas x sp-heat of flue gas)

Thus if 1-kg of requires 17.5 kg of air & cal-value of oil is 10500Kcal/kg & sp-heat of flue gas is
0.33 at expected temperature of flame, then the flame temperature will be

10500
---------------------

= 17190C flame temperature.

(1+17.5) x 0.33
When air is heated to 1500C, the excess air may be less to 10% from 25% normally required or
14 x 0.1 + 14 = 15.4 kg of air is required & this will produce 16.4 kg of flue gas and the flame
temperature in this case will be

10500 + (16.4 x 100 x 0.24)


------------------------------------- = 19530C.
16.4 x .34
Thus the flame temperature has shot up by 2340C with hot air.
A temperature rise of air upto 1500C, can save upto 20% fuel. Hence Recuperator is the best
method to save fuel.

c) As the input of heat is increased due to Recuperator without increase in fuel & the output in
flue gases is reduced due to reduction in weight of flue gas, more heat is used by the metal
resulting into the increased furnace efficiency.

d) As the flue gases are passed through a heat exchanger enclosed in a closed chimney the
pollution of atmosphere near the furnace is controlled. Unburned CO can be burned in
Recuperator.

e) Burner remain cleaner due to better atomisation of oil & better combustion.

2) Burner & Burner Operation :


If an inefficient burner is fitted on furnace & the burner block & blower & oil pump are not proper
& so also oil is not pre-heated, the burner will not burn oil properly & give incomplete
combustion, the complete combustion will give CO in flue gases. The CO in flue gas can be
detected by Zink test & quantitatively determined by the flue gas analyser. Selection of burner,
burner block, blower, oil pump with pre-heating arrangement & air pressure & the passage of
flue gases are very important in controlling fuel consumption & & these factors can cause upto
40% wastage of fuel oil.

3) Fuel Oil Kerosene, High Speed Diesel Oil.


L.D.O. & Furnace oil are used as fuel & each oil has different specifications. If wrong oil is used,
the wastage of fuel can be upto 30%. Most of the furnaces are run with wrong type of fuel oil.
Simply changing the oil can save lot of fuel expenses. Fuel must be pre-heated to correct
temperature. Safety controls must be incorporated in the system to avoid excess temperature &
avoid accidents and explosions. Fuel oil measuring system to be incorporated.

4) Insulation.
If the furnaces are not properly insulated, the heat is wasted to the atmosphere through outside
walls. Proper insulation will save fuel consumption upto 25%.

Chapter 19

Simple Methods to Reduce Energy Costs


by Shobhan Paul
Energy conservation can significantly affect the bottom line of organizations. Soaring
energy prices and expensive capital equipment are a dual challenge today.

Fig. 1. Depiction of heat-transfer process

This paper attempts to identify the low-hanging fruit of energy conservation that can
radically save energy without huge capital outlays. The methodology and its scientific
basis are discussed as simply as possible. Detailed knowledge of mathematics is not
necessary. However, the mathematical basis is discussed for those who want to dig
deeper.
The strategy described here is based on:
Simple methods that add up to energy savings of as much as 50%
Quick returns on investment sometimes a week
No capital investment is required to get at the low-hanging fruit
Practical Example Stress Relieving
The relief of residual stresses is a time-temperature related phenomenon parametrically
correlated by the Larson-Miller equation.
Thermal effect = T(log t + 20)(10-3) where T is temperature (Rankin) and t is hours
For example, holding a piece at 595C (1100F) for six hours provides the same relief of
residual stress as heating at 650C (1200F) for one hour. The energy savings by going to
the higher temperature are in the region of 75% or more. The return on investment is as
long as it takes to use a calculator a good example of low-hanging fruit. The catch is that
it takes a certain amount of finesse to do the arithmetic, and there are metallurgical
concerns that may call for good technical judgment/expertise.
Fundamentals
Energy used = Energy produced - Energy lost
The burning of natural gas is generally depicted stoichiometrically as follows:
CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O + Heat

In industry, excess air is utilized to a great degree. Some furnace operators run their
furnaces with as much as 300% excess air. This can result in huge energy losses as
shown later.
Heat Transfer
Conduction, convection and radiation are the three principal modes for heat transfer.
Conduction
In conduction, the heat flows through the material, from a higher temperature to a lower
temperature based upon the following law of conduction:
Q (heat flow per unit time) = k (thermal conductivity) x A (area perpendicular to the heat
flow) x Temperature Gradient (difference in temperature/distance between the high
temperature of the furnace and outside wall)
Convection
Heat transfer in convection is governed by the following equation:
Q (heat flow per unit time) = h (convective heat-transfer coefficient) x A (area of the
surface) x Temperature Difference
The heat-transfer coefficient (h) will vary with factors such as turbulence, rate of air/fluid
flow, etc. For air, h may vary from 10-100 Btu/hr-ft2-F.
The equation can be used to figure out the heat lost in transporting a piece of metal for
quenching. A piece of steel 1 ft2 at 1700F will lose heat by convection, as follows. Here
h has been assumed to be 18 Btu/hr-ft2-F and room temperature 70F.
Q = 18 Btu/hr-ft2-F x 1 ft2 x (1700 - 70F) = 29,340 BTU/hr
Radiation
Radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in furnaces. The heat transferred is
Q = esAtT4
where e= emissivity of the object radiating (furnace); s = Stefan-Boltzmanns constant =
0.174 x 10-8 Btu/(hour ft2 R4) with R=459.67+F; A = area of the surface radiating; t =
time of the radiation; T = temperature of the object.
For example, a normalizing furnace running at 1700F with a gap between the door and
furnace shell will radiate heat. Assuming it is a car-bottom furnace with a gap of 4 inches
over a length of 6 feet, the area of the gap is 6 x 4/12 = 2 ft2. The emissivity can be
assumed to be about 0.9. Using the law for radiation above we find out the heat lost is:
Q = 0.9 x 0.174 x 10-8 Btu/(hour ft2 R4) (1700+459.67R)4 x 2 ft2 = 68,135 BTU/hr.
Hence, it is important to shut the furnace doors properly. If a gap exists, it should be
covered with a ceramic-wool blanket. If the door is left open, however, the heat lost

depends upon the area of the door. Assuming it is 6 x 6 = 36 ft2, the radiation equation
yields Q = 1,226,433 BTU/hr.

Heat Losses

Fig. 2. Furnace efficiency vs. excess air


In furnaces, heat losses occur in the following ways:
1. Flues More than 50% of the heat may be lost through the flues. This is mainly due to
the use of excess air for combustion. In boilers, the flue-gas heat loss may be as much as
83%. Flue-gas heat loss is the single largest energy loss in a combustion process, and
because the products of combustion are heated by the combustion itself, it is impossible to
eliminate this flue-gas heat loss. Reducing the amount of excess air supplied to the burner,
however, will lessen flue-gas heat loss. ....In heat-treating practice, it is assumed that
excess air will contribute to furnace uniformity by causing turbulence in the furnace. At
higher temperatures above 1400F, however, more than 90% of the heating is done
through radiation. Therefore, increasing turbulence does not help in achieving uniformity. It
is best to go closer to stoichiometric amounts of needed air. This is best achieved by
slowly fine-tuning the process. Start cutting back on excess air at temperatures above
1400F, and use the dampers again, very gradually, to reduce the exit of gases taking into
account safety of the operation first (Fig. 2). This method can reduce the heat losses by
over 33%. It has to be achieved slowly, however, and one builds upon the shop-floor
experience and constraints over time.
2. Conduction through the refractory walls These are generally low, unless the
refractory lining has been damaged. With proper maintenance, many of these losses can
be reduced significantly.

3. Convection and radiation These are generally visible, and the best shop-floor
remedy is to patch the area where hot gases are escaping with a ceramic-fiber blanket.
Pictures can also be taken with an infrared camera to detect heat losses.

Scheduling as a Tool for Energy Conservation

Another method, which does not rely upon costly new capital equipment but good shopfloor management, is scheduling. Smaller loads are very inefficient because the bulk of the
heat is spent in heating the refractory lining and also exits through the flues. Bigger loads
are more efficient because the losses are more or less the same, since the same amount
of energy goes into heating the walls of the furnace.
Flue-gas losses are similar for large and small loads because the rate at which flue gases
escape depends upon the energy of the flue gas. This is primarily dependant on
temperature and factors such as flues and damper position, which are generally the same
for bigger and smaller loads. Therefore, for larger loads the energy consumed per unit
weight is less. Table 1 indicates the increase in efficiency by increasing the load size.
Loads can be combined for better economies, and furnaces should not be kept waiting for
equipment and personnel. Proper scheduling can eliminate down-the-road bottlenecks and
affect energy conservation. An example is an industrial facility that utilized the exhaust
from its annealing furnaces to preheat boiler water. The calculated savings were about
$320,000/year.

Energy Audit
A simple audit can be done, and this will require identifying how much natural gas/fuel is
consumed every month. A breakdown of fuel consumed by each unit is then determined.
These are the steps:
Collect energy-consumption data from each furnace and overall facility.

Collect other technical data needed for analysis. This may include loads heat
treated/melted, exit gas temperatures, excess air use, broken insulation, condition of
equipment, improper calibration of furnaces, fuel-oil leaks, steam leaks, bare hot surfaces
needing insulation, burners out of adjustment, equipment idling when not needed,
compressed-air leaks, gas leaks, product rejects, unnecessary handling of materials,
frequent production interruption/shutdowns, unnecessary pressure-reducing stations,
defective control instruments, defective steam traps, faulty installation of steam traps,
plugged-up filters of blowers/compressors, dirty working environment and lack of
lubrication especially furnace wheel bearings. Fine-tuning can result in significant energy
savings.
Identify improved operating/maintenance procedures.
Identify minor cost improvements.
Identify any steps that can be minimised/simplified to reduce energy use (inter-critical heat
treatments may replace two heat treatments).
Identify any product rejects that can be minimized to reduce energy use.
Can waste heat be recovered for preheating water/material?
Are there any financial/tax incentives provided by the state or utilities?
The previously reviewed calculations can be done to evaluate current efficiencies. The
goals can be set to achieve these targets. The goals, methodology and results should be
shared with the shop personnel. As they get involved, the contributions add up. In one
heat-treating facility where this approach was adopted, the unit stopped losing
$40,000/month and began making a profit of $160,000/month. The following case studies
further illustrate the dramatic impact of this approach.

Case Study Forging Industry


Maintaining good temperature control in hot forging can greatly reduce rework and save a
lot of energy. Flow stress for a material depends upon yield stress, strain rate, etc. Strain
rate is a function of the ram rate. Yield stress is a function of temperature. For a 50F drop
in temperature, the yield stress of some aerospace alloys can double. Therefore, it is very
important to maintain temperature control to reduce rework and save energy.

Case Study Diffusion Bonding in the Aerospace Industry


In the aerospace industry, titanium alloys are used extensively because of their high
stiffness to weight ratio. These titanium alloys are difficult to machine, however. Hence, it
was decided to make large parts some over four feet in length by joining smaller parts
using diffusion bonding. Diffusion bonding can be a simple process. Parts are heated and
mated, and they bond together if proper temperature and pressure is used.
The problem was that in spite of tremendous capital expenditure, the process was having
major problems a reject rate of about 160%. The rejects were even getting rejected after
rework. The energy costs were horrendous. Titanium diffusion bonding is done at high
temperatures under pressure, and the rework required TIG welding and extensive
machining.
A study revealed the problem was improper tooling setup. The parts never really mated in
many areas when put under pressure, resulting in a higher reject rate. Once the tooling

was properly aligned, the process worked and energy savings were tremendous. A multibillion dollar program stayed on schedule as a result of this simple fix.

Conclusion
Energy conservation can be achieved using a well-integrated approach backed with good
engineering skills and shop-floor management. IH

SIDEBAR: Case Study Heat-Treating Industry


The energy lost in operations such as heat treating can be as much as 93%. Hence, if a
heat-treating operation has an energy bill of $100,000/month, it may be wasting up to
$93,000/month.
Here is a simple way of finding the approximate efficiency of a gas heat-treating furnace
where the weight (W) of the steel or metal being heat treated (at 1700F) in the furnace is
1,000 pounds. If weight is not known, make a rough estimate of the volume and multiply it
by the density of the metal. References 1 and 2 are good sources for metals/materials
properties for doing the calculations. The specific heat (H) of the metal = 0.116 BTU/lbF.
The energy needed to heat the metal is:
W x T x H = 1,000 lbs. x 1700F x 0.116 BTU/lbF = 197,200 BTU
Actual gas burnt = Final reading of the gas gauge Initial reading of the gas gauge =
1,643,300 BTU. Therefore, the efficiency of this furnace operation is 197,200/1,643,300 ~
12%, and the dollars wasted (per load) are calculated by multiplying the price of gas,
$7/MMBTU (1 million BTU) or $0.000007/BTU, by the quantity of wasted gas.
Money wasted = (1,643,300 BTU 197,200 BTU) x $0.000007/BTU = $10
When there are a number of car-bottom furnaces heating huge shafts (for instance), the
losses could add up to maybe $200,000/month. Prices of gas will vary as will, accordingly,
the losses.

Shobhan Paul
Starfire Technologies LLC, Malibu, Calif.
Posted: June 11, 2008

Chapter-20

Tips for Thermal Energy Conservation

General
Undertake regular energy audits.
Plug all oil leakage. Leakage of one drop of oil per second amounts to a loss of over 2000
liters/year.
Filter oil in stages. Impurities in oil affect combustion.
Pre-heat the oil. For proper combustion, oil should be at right viscosity at the burner tip.
Provide adequate Pre-heat capacity.
Incomplete combustion leads to wastage of fuel.
Observe the colour of smoke emitted from chimney.
Black smoke indicates improper combustion and fuel wastage.
White smoke indicates excess air & hence loss of heat.
Hazy brown smoke indicates proper combustion.
Use of Low air pressure film burners helps save oil upto 15% in furnaces.

Furnace
Recover & utilize waste heat from furnace flue gas for preheating of combustion air.
Every 210C rise in combustion air temperature results in 1% fuel oil savings.
Control excess air in furnaces. A 10% drop in excess air amounts to 1% saving of fuel in
furnaces.
For an annual consumption of 3000 kl. of furnace oil. This means a saving of Rs 3 Lacs.
(Cost of furnace oil-Rs. 10 per litre).
Reduce heat losses through furnace openings.
Observations show that a furnace operating at a temperature of 10000C having an open
door (1500mm*750mm) results in a fuel loss of 10 lit/hr. For a 4000 hrs. furnace operation
this translates into a loss of approx. Rs. 4 Lacs per year.
Improve insulation if the surface temperature exceeds 200C above ambient.
Studies have revealed that heat loss form a furnace wall 115mm thick at 6500C amounting
to 2650 Kcal/m2/hr can be cut down to 850 kcal/m2/he by using 65 mm thick insulation on
the 115 mm wall.
Proper design of lids of melting furnaces and training of operators to close lids helps
reduce losses by 10-20% in foundries.
Boiler
Remove soot deposits when flue gas temperature raises 400C above the normal. A
coating of 3mm thick soot on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel
consumption of as much as 2.5%.
Recover heat from steam condense. For every 60C rise in boiler feed water temperature
through condense return, there is 1% saving in fuel.
Improve boiler efficiency. Boilers should be monitored for flue gas losses, radiation losses,
incomplete combustion, blow down losses, excess air etc. Proper control can decrease the
consumption upto 20%.

Use only treated water in boilers. A scale formation of 1mm thickness on the waterside
would increase fuel consumption by 5-8%.
Stop steam leakage. Steam leakage from a 3 mm-diameter hole on a pipeline carrying
steam at 7kg/cm2 would waste 32 kl of fuel oil per year amounting to a loss of Rs. 3 Lacs.
Maintain steam pipe insulation. It has been estimated that a bare steam pipe, 150 mm in
diameter and 100m in length, carrying saturated steam at 8kg/cm2 would waste 25 kl of
furnace oil in a year amounting to an annual loss of Rs. 2.5 Lacs.
DG Sets
Maintain diesel engines regularly.
A poorly maintained injection pump increases fuel consumption by 4Gms/KWH.
A faulty nozzle increases fuel consumption by 2Gms/KWH.
Blocked filters increase fuel consumption by 2Gms/KWH.
A continuously running DG set can generate 0.5 Ton/Hr of steam at 10 to 12 bars from the
residual heat of the engine exhaust per MW of the generator capacity.
Measure fuel consumption per KWH of electricity generated regularly. Take corrective
action in case this shows a rising trend.

Tips for Electrical Energy Conservation


General
Improve power factor by installing capacitors to reduce KVA demand charges and also line
losses within plant.
Improvement of power factor from 0.85 to 0.96 will give 11.5% reduction of peak KVA and
21.6% reduction in peak losses. This corresponds to 14.5% reduction in average losses
for a load factor of 0.8.
Avoid repeated rewinding of motors. Observations show that rewound motors practically
have an efficiency loss of upto 5%. This is mainly due to increase in no load losses. Hence
use such rewound motors on low duty cycle applications only.
Use of variable frequency drives, slip power recovery systems and fluid couplings for
variable speed applications such as fans, pumps etc. helps in minimizing consumption.
Illumination
Use of electronic ballast in place of conventional choke saves energy upto 20%.
Use of CFL lamp in place of GLS lamp can save energy upto 70%.
Clean the lamps & fixtures regularly. Illumination levels fall by 20-30% due to collection of
dust.
Use of 36W tube-light instead of 40 W tube-light saves electricity by 8 to 10%.
Use of sodium vapour lamps for area lighting in place of Mercury vapour lamps saves
electricity upto 40%.
Compressed Air
Compressed air is very energy intensive. Only 5% of electrical energy are converted to
useful energy. Use of compressed air for cleaning is rarely justified.
Ensure low temperature of inlet air. Increase in inlet air temperature by 30C increases
power consumption by 1%.
It should be examined whether air at lower pressure can be used in the process.
Reduction in discharge pressure by 10% saves energy consumption upto 5%.

A leakage from a diameter hole from a compressed air line working at a pressure of
7kg/cm2 can drain almost Rs. 2500 per day.
Air output of compressors per unit of electricity input must be measured at regular
intervals. Efficiency of compressors tends to deteriorate with time.
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
Use of double doors, automatic door closers, air curtains, double glazed windows,
polyester sun films etc. reduces heat ingress and air-conditioning load of buildings.
Maintain condensers for proper heat exchange. A 50C decrease in evaporator
temperature increases the specific power consumption by 15%.
Utilisation of air-conditioned/refrigerated space should be examined and efforts made to
reduce cooling load as far as possible.
Utilise waste heat of excess steam or flue gases to change over from gas compression
systems to absorption chilling systems and save energy costs in the range of 50-70%.
Specific power consumption of compressors should be measured at regular intervals. The
most efficient compressors to be used for continuous duty and others on standby.
Cooling Towers
Replacement of inefficient aluminium or fabricated steel fans by moulded FRP fans with
aerofoil designs results in electricity savings in the range of 15-0%.
A study on a typical 20ft. diameter fan revealed that replacing wooden blade drift
eliminators with newly developed cellular PVC drift eliminators reduces the drift losses
from 0.01-0.02% with a fan power energy saving of 10%.
Install automatic ON-OFF switching of cooling tower fans and save upto 40% on electricity
costs.
Use of PVC fills in place of wooden bars results in a saving in pumping power of upto 20%.
Pumps
Improper selection of pumps can lead to large wastage of energy. A pump with 85%
efficiency at rated flow may have only 65% efficiency at half the flow.
Use of throttling valves instead of variable speed drives to change flow of fluids is a
wasteful practice. Throttling can cause wastage of power to the tune of 50 to 60%.
It is advisable to use a number of pumps in series and parallel to cope with variations in
operating conditions by switching on or off pumps rather than running one large pump with
partial load.
Drive transmission between pumps & motors is very important. Loose belts can cause
energy loss upto 1-20%.
Modern synthetic flat belts in place of conventional V-belts can save 5% to 10% of energy.
Properly organized maintenance is very important. Efficiency of worn out pumps can drop
by 10-15% unless maintained properly.

Ref: PCRG