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aXI

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005

Designing, Testing
and Insta/Jing
Turbocharger Systems

WAlt NING-l mporlanL Sure ty NoLice

C1'P":3uf Ihl~ bOllk m:l y t'C 1)Un:h;'<O;d fmm ...:.::l.:cl~1 ho)lI~.,cllcl'. Uf


illrcclly rrullllhe pubhslICI by mall nll.: puhh\11c.1 cnI.OIlr;~\ ,",\l1Il
01<:'UI.s fr ....mlhe f<:;tler of Ih" hoc!k 11Ic,< I.UUll lllln,,alll.'~ hll"C bccn
:m\1 \\ I1I be cun~ldcf"Cd lO Ihe PfCJ1:lIilIM., "r Ihi1l and Illbe, III:IUU:!S
t'1e:...-.c: Ylrlll! 111 R. ullell l:lcnlley. lnl. .. I)uhh~hcr~ :'llhe :lIld rc,~ h ~1I.'<I fin
dI(' "'''hMn \lf Ihi~ p;a;t::.
Sin... c 111I~ p,se CIInnl,lllqpbly :ac~"'lmml'lldl .... ,lIth~ ~'op)'rI~lu f1Illtcc~.
lhe al! t'l't!dl l ~ :u Ihe j};1C1: uf Ihe bClok I'llIlg Ihe SUIIJt'c uf lhe phum
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illlIs lnlll un~

II-.ell COU\ll l ule\ ,111 cAle"\'IM1 tl( Ihe el'fJYfi;hl

1l:1;t'
I.ihrury

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Udl. C,uky
MIIXIIIIUlII boclsl : 1k:.\lgmog.II':\11I1;. ,lIld 1Ii~1:llhng III .. t'I!. ..... hOlr,:el

Jby Curly UcU


p, cm,

s)'~lems

I lIcJ\I\e~ II\dc~

ISBN I)'K.HI)C)16Q.6 (:dl.;.I"'IIr)


I AULOl1lob.1elt.Molul"l'i- "urbocIHlrl!c~

Tl,.21 .... n78 45


I):!iJ.2,'n)4-t!c21

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menls ur Ihe N.I1ilmal t:md..rtl r\lr IIIFIIIIIKu,un SClcrlt:o- PCllmmCI1l'C'
or Paper (ur Pmlled Llbmly "-lalen..l:..

MWIII/IIJU IJ(X,.~I /J~S.Il(/j")l. ti''" ',~ _ ,1/141/".1/111/(11":


S\.'/(I'O.

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upyrighl !1}()1 C'urky lidl. KIlI)!'rI UCluley, 1m:.

,1,11 n;ht, re'>CrIlL"'1. Allln(\I(111:11I"n "'''III:.. no:d 111 Iht, h,,"ll~ 1:>;,-..::0.1 1111
thc m(orllla,iUII :'lY:ul:lbtc lit tlK: pubJ~hcr :,1 Ihc 'tille uf c.htnnal cllI~
111', 'nlC n;hl t~ rc...er~cd IU nulc ~'h;n~t!\ al ,111\ lime ",lIhoYI 111,111(('
No II.:.n uf 1111" pul)lk ..111I11 111:1)' ht n:llrudlK.'CJ .!O ltl1'etl In:t R:tflcvaJ lt.);\.
lem, IJoIlrJn"nllllcd 111 !1II) rtKfl1 ot hy any mean., . cJnHI)IIIC. UlI.'t"h:ulI
cal. phulU(.oIJ)'ing. rL"CorJlllg. IIr nthcN ,.,.r, ~Ut'l!.1I1 1 lile J'flIlr \\-flnen
ClIll<;cnl 01 thc publ "hcr 1111' Irn:lude~ le),l. IIgu rr.:", :!!lo.! rahle.\" Al!
nghL\ rc:s.:rv~llI"dcr 8cnlC and 1'~nA IIIC rlC3l1 ('''Jl)ri~llI C(l,,~ellllOl"
~ 1 :UJUf;Clurcd

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in litO UIlJU.-o St:ll;::.. uf Aruellc:

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I!:lck cu~er~ (cloo.:J.WI-":: rmm 1<111 t:c nler);) Tltrl.JCl('h;tf1!Cr ullnway


cC"lI1e\) or MiLSubbhi , h) m~l;tlhll~ ,111 allcnuarlcllllmllllllol M ll/.lj
\lllII:', lht)/I) hy Ihe muhm, c. ti) \'ulk~\\a~~'n (';Ihrin IlIIhuo.; h.lr&nl h)
.... cw DmlL"fI~lOn~ , I>hOlPs hy oO.u A ho:dn<.:h; c. " IlIrbl'l HOflII,
CRX c"lInt'~) uf 1'urhll :,"d H.,\!h Ilcrf"tl1l:IIlC."C''' 1II:1;.v.iIlC. ph,"o\ hy
EVill1 G l lflcy; g. h) b,.turhoLhar::cd !'1I!'!>Che ('.IICml, phlllll\ h) 1:111
Ku:,h; il Il,llmch;'rt:et! R~IW 5'''il Cllj;inc. ('MI/le,)' ofOmOlIl

[s]

BE NTLEY PUBlISHERS

AYlomoll't'O Books & ManuaIa

8encIIty PullW>e>s, r.i_ DI Robiw1lbllkry.'nc


1734 M~o.ehl.l$tl". A _
C.mbllclg.. MA 02138 USA
Inl()(malKJ1llhul
800-423 ~ 'en.SoIo7..a 170
tI'oo dillcrcrx;o

www,

BentleyPubllshers
com

1)0 nOL use t his book UIlIt!S8 yoo urc fllmhnr wlLh basic
au lumotive repnir prnc~.-dun'S und sufe \\'orkshop p ractices..
T h ia book ll Mlll s ub!;.t,itul.e rQr rullllnd up-to-da te
inrQrmation rrolll the vehicle rJ1 Ullllructu rc r o r nfie rl1l llrkct
lIupp lier, or ror proper training II!S un aut.OInoLivtl leclmieian,
Not.o Lhat L is nOl po$ible ror us tIJ anticpate a1l or the ways
or conditions under which vchicles may he modified or lo
p rovide Cflutions as 10 nll oflhe po88ible hn'lards t hlt muy
result. 'I'he vchicle manu racturor ulld after11l nrkcLs u p pliel's
wi ll continuc lo iSAlle service inrorllUlLioll llpdnws and par la
rclrofil8aner tho cdi t.orial closing o r Lhis book. Someorthese
updntcs nnd rctrofit.s \VIII apply t.o procedures a nd
s pccificatons in this book, Wc rcbrrel lhaL we ClIflI10t lfupply
UpdBtCll lo purcnnsers or lh is book.

\Ve have elllleavored to cnSllrc the accuruey orlhe


mrorllllluolI in Ulis bonk. Piense flote , howuver. t hll t
considcring the vnj:L qtlulltity lInd lhe complexity o r lhe
infOl'fnntiol1 involvl.'f.I , YliC cllnnol warranL lhe nccu rucy or
romplcteness o( lhe infortnation OOllluillOO in lhis book,

Uelltlc) Sl<l('k NII. (; '1 K


(I'i

1'he tn(ol'/lwliO-!I 111 tJlia hook repf"($Cllts iI gClleral s unun:\J'y


o( cnginCt:l'ing prino:ipk-s involvl.'CI in turbochar;cr systcm
dcsign Ulld t:onSlrucliOI1 nnd lhcir nppliclltion lO vch i cl ~,
us mg cxumplcs nnd lII!llruelion5 whch we ix!Jieve lO be
tll.'Curate. lIowcvcl', Lhe cxamplcs, instr uctio ml, and olhcr
InrormnLion uro intended 80Iely as illuslrltions IInd sholl!d be
used In lny l>urLiI.ular applicution ol1ly by pcrsonnel who are
eXlxlfIcnccd in the rcp"'Iir :Iml modificllion ur v~hid~s flnd
who hnve indepcndently cm/unted the modifiC(ltion or
aeceS80ry. IlIl p lclllcnt..ation ur a Illodifictltioll or ULhlc hmcnL or
un IICCCSl1C) ry dt.'SCribcd in tJlia book lIlay render Lhe vehiclc,
II LLnchment , or 1lCC,.'(!S30r)' lIII8Ufc ro r u se in tcrt.'lin
cirt,'umSIli.nccs,

rroke..

10' 0 11 1'1I,I;;S ": U.EASONS, TIl E AUT HUII A..~ O " UIJI. IS HEIl MAKF.
NO WAlUlA.V I'IES. I::.Xl'lUlSS o n 11IWI. a :n . 'nLAT , 'IIE 1N"OH
MA'f'ION IN , 'HlS DOO K IS nU:E O f' RlmoR, on T IIAT IT WILL
MEET T HF. REQUlltErrl E"T S t'Q n ANY l'AHTICUl.\,1t At' PLICA
, 'ION. THE ALTr IlUR AN I) PU8W s u ..: n EXJ>Rt:SSL Y O ISCl.A IM
" II.E I fllI' L H;n WAllUAN'n ,.;s OF MF; IlC UANTAlHLlTY AN O Ot'
. 'I'I'N":"c.;S t'O It AXV 1.urn CU LAIt I' UIUOS.:. Evt:N If' 'rilE AU
'rllon ANO J> u m . IS II EIlII AVE O,.:f.N ADVI $ EI) o ,." f'Altrl CU
LAR P URPOS.:, ANO En :N IP A I'M f l'l CULA k l'U U.POSt: IS
O..::SClII lIt; n IN T it E IJOOK, 1 ) 11;: ALTrIl OU ANO rU81.IS llEn
ALS O OISCLAIM AI.I. I. IMIILI'I'Y f'Ort DIH F.C'I'. INOIllF.C'1', INe l,
ot!.vrA .... on CO!llSEQU""TlAI. 1}i\."L\ GES Tl IAT R&SU L'r
1;'110 /'11 /\XV USE O,. T I IE t:XAl'oIl ' LES ,

U'\I&~nlUCTIONS ,

0 11 OTII

t~1l IN~'O IlMATION

IN T ItIS IIOOK, IN NO t;VEhMr S UALL oun


I.JAII ILI'I"Y, wlu: S'l n m IN TO lt'1', CO ...."tACT. O R O'nn:RW1S . ;,
';X(;F."~O T II E COS" (W '1'111 8 IJI)QK.

YlIur oomman 5(l . IJ;C lllld b"OO<ljudgmcnL aro c rucml lo Imrc und
sllcccssful ilulOlIlOlivc work. Rcnd JlI'OCl.>dures through bcrore
stnnn g Lhcm. 'I'hink nbout huw talertyolI ar recling, IIlId
whcther the contltlon oryoLlr \'chicle, your level ur
mcchnnicnlskill, or your level or readlllg' oomprehenson
might rI.'Sult in ur COlllribule IIL sollle way to an OC(,'Ul'renc:\l
which mighl. caU\Ie you ,"jur)', di\lllltge your vehicle, or resul t
In IIn uns.--.(c modificnllon, If you hove doubts (or lhese or
other rCilSQns:loout you r ubility lO pcrrorlll AArC work 011 your
vchicle, hrlVe Llttl work done lit fUI ullthorizl.'f.I vehicle dcalcr or
olher tuliOed shol)
' I'his l1IX1k ill only illlcllded for perSOI1S who are cxpencm,'cd in
rl;:l.mirl ng utllomobl lell, lino who are secklOg s p.'Cific
nfornllLliOI1 abuut 1urbochnrj,!'r syslelllS [t ilO flol for lho!>C
who are looking ror ~.'cncra[ in rormn tion ollllulomobilc rep.ni r,
1lt::,J>A tIt ANIJ MOO If'ICNI'ION Of' AUl'OMOUILES IS
1,,\Nta;1I0US UNI.ESS UNOEIITAK....N WTnI"ULI. KNOWL8I)W~
Uf' 1' m : C;ONS~:QUf';NC.:S,

Ilerl)ft, utU!mpllllg any wC1I'k!ln )'our vchlcle, rena the


WUI'lllllb'8 :lnd ClUtlon!( <on tire inSldc fronl (':0\.'01' nmlltllY

warning Or caUI il)lI lhal i1t.'\.'oll1)xuliCS Il rrocedurtl or


tlt.'SCrlpliol1 In the btlok, ltc\'ic\1 Ih(' Wtlrnin,os ond Cmlli.)os
l!<tch lime

.\1'\1

pn'>l.\1't" tll wOl'k Gil .yuur I'chldl'.

INTRODUCTION

Autlwr Corky Bell

turbocharger is a simple device. lt ig nothing more tban an


air pump driven by ellergy remaining in the exhausto gases as
they xit an engine, Of the energy released in t..he combuslion
process, approximatc ly one-tbird goes into the cooling system,
onc-third becomes power down the crankshaft, and one-third is
dumped out the tailpipe as hea'. lt is this last third that we can
use to power the turbo. Consider that a 200 bhp engine dumps
approximately 70 bhp equivalent. of raw heat straight out the
tailppe. That is a tremelldolls amount of energy t.hat. couJd be
pul lo betler use. By comparison, when was the last time you
saw an air fru'! operated at 70 horsepower? Tbus, it is oot so hard
to imagine Lhe tu_rho's potential for Illoving huge amounLs of airo
A turbocharger system consists of a turbochal'ger and the
parts necessary lo inteb'rate it into the engine's operation, A
turbocharger system is not a simple device, Nowhel'e in these
pagos, however, do 1 discuss such things as the shapes ofvol'tices
created by the tips of the co mpressol' wh eel. Thercfol'e, you may
!'cad on with confidence th8t this is 110t an engineering treatise on the mys
t.eries of the inner workings of the Lurbocharger, r['h e specific contTibution I
intend this book to makc is s a handbook 011 Lhe practica! aspects of applying the tu rboc hal'ger to the ntcl'Ila! combustion engine, Tile tUl'hochul'ger

An illtel'cooled twil1turbo blg-block is a


serio/ls power proposition, Th.e big Pollliac

V-S has a liquid-lo-u,/'


illlel'cooler (md came
with in 1 mph (}( e.y.ceedi7lg 300 mph wilh a

stock F'il'cbird IxxIJ"

vi

INTRODUCTlON

hns, pl1l'e and simple, greatel" potcntial fol' improving the power oulput of nn
enginc !".han any ot.her dcvice.
Whallhe turbo s, how it does ilS magic, unel lhe equipmenL necessary Lo
civilize it are the focaJ points arou nd which lhjs book is written.

A modenl {uel'/lIjectcd
twm turbo syslem crea/o
ed by luan TI/ll o{ San

Antonio for lite smallblock Cheuy. 7'!te system


{entu res GMe Bonks
ex/wus! !lLot/i{olcLs,

Garrelt AiResccUl:h
turoos, Dean Moon
c:ross-{lolJJ in ta/u! manifold, an,1 TWi\'1 tJrottle
&odies. 'I'/Lf; leuelof
prepara/lO1/. (iud. inlereoa/u, nol shoum ) is capable o{ 800 + bhp VII
slrcel gn.~()lilte.

1'he {nd)' ca,. lS


besl example
01' Mgl ftecring o{ turoocharged power planta
tOlICJy.~

lVithin lhe re.<rtr:lIut!

rllles o{ lile racitlg

series SllllC/iolli"g
clubs.

AN ENGINEERING LOOK
Al lHE BASICS

T he power-enhancing capability 01' Lhe lUl"bocharger has beeo mosl tho!'oughly demons traLcd by thc Grand Prix racing cars of the 1977 lo 1988 era of
Formu la l .
The comparison ofLhe power ouLpuL ora top fue! dragsLer with that ora Formula 1 race car wi ll cstablish Lhe turbo's cl'edentials. Current. output of lop
fuel cars with 500 cid (cubic neh displacemenf.,) engines is suggested Lo be in

the 5000- 6000 bhp rango, which calculaies io around lO bhp per cid. Those
numbers are lloL favorable compal'cd lo lhe 1300- 1400 bhp, 90 cid quali(ying

engines orihe 1987 Pormul .1 cars. These outpuis represeni 14 io 15 bhp per
cubic nch. That. Lhe champion is crowned is obviolls even lo casual observel's.
Howeverl for the potential strect turbo user, largc qucstions remain, Answers
to t hese questions \ViII indieate why t llrbocharging is equa l1y useful to tlle fasi.
carenthusiast who rclies on bis cnl' r()I' dnily tommuting, to the racer, and cven
to lhe ollter frin ge ofst reel.. power frcaks.
Turbo Power
Output

Why does t he turbo prod uce mOl'e power than othel' forms or cnhancement?
The poweroulp ut potenlial of'any supcrcharger is measllred by lhe amount
of airfl w the device erealos aftel' facloring out the power rcquired lo drive il..
ami the exlent to which it. heats up thc sil' while cl'cating the flow and press urc, While i1 mighl appetlT that lhe turbo daes not dl'ain power rl'om the en
ginc, since lhe ex haust energy is 1051 anyway, I..his is fm' from conect.. HeaL and
airOow drive lhe turbinc. When air is rorced thl'ough lhe turbine sec1ion of a
turbo, reduced-fJow areas inhcrenL in lhe design crente back prcssul'c. This

Fig. ~-~. Porsclu: TAG


turbo Formula 1 ellgine

CH APTER 1: AN E NGINEERING LOOK AT THE B ASICS

causes a smal l 1055 in power that. would Ilo l occur ir thc turbo had a pOWCl'
SQu rce ot-he r ihan lhe engi ne inLo w hich it. is pUlllpin g. The powcr loss ncreas
es as the size oflhe tu rbo decrcascs, bccause the decrcased size croa tes greatcr
back pl'essu l'C. Conversely, larger turbas create 1TI1Ich less back pressure nnd
thel'efore loss power 1055. 'fhe powel')oss inherenl in a turbocharged engin a is
s ubslantialiy less than lhe 10515 ncurred by dri vin g a supcrchm'gcr with tI bell
or by sorne other means.
T hat an air pump alwnys heaLs nir it compresses is a thermodynamic fact
wilh which we a re stuck. DifTerent kinds of air pumps heal a ir differenl
a mounts for lhe sam e How rates and pressure ralios. 'I' hesc difTerences are due
largcly lo the diffcl'enl elliciencies of various types of pumps. 'rhe c1assic
Rootslype supercharger usuaJly rates efficiencies of about 50%, whereas Lhe
turbo fun s efficiencies in lh e mid70s. 'rile highcr the efficiency, the less the
heating efTect on lhe ni r. Efficiency is or paramount importance Lo Lil e real
power enthu siasL, si nce heaL in lbe intake charge is lhe enemy of performance.
The density of an intake charge is less as lhe temperature rises; thus, an engine actually t:onsumes less nir al lhe higher Lemperature, even if the pressures are the samc. A second problem is Lhat higher temperatures Pl'om ole
dclonalion oHhe rul'/fucl mixture. Engines C8nnol withstand the thermal and
pressure s hocks 01' delonation fOf more than very shorl periods.
Withstanding
Power Output

How can lhe engi ne sll'uclUl'e withstand tbese huge powcr outpu t.s?
'ro understand why lhe struclure of an engine is not scriousl.y affected by
the increased power OU Lpul permilted, within 10gicaJ li mits, by Lhe turbo, it is
necessary to look aL the basic loads in an engine while it is in operalion.1'wo
bas ic loads are relev31lL lo engi nc sLructut'e: in ertialload and power load. lnertiaJ loads can be tensi le (produced by pulllng) or comp ressive (produced by
pushing). Power loads can only be compressive. T hey muSl be undersLood bolh
indiv idually and in thei r interaction. This is necessary for a clear vic\Y ofwhy
Lhe t.urbo does noL send the eran k south .
INERTlA L LOAD. An inert.ial load resu1ls (rom an objcct 's rcsis tance Lo motian.
1'0 exam ine lhe inertial londs, it is convcnienl Lo divide a cy linder assembly
inlo a n upper half and a lo\\'el' halr. lmaginc lhe Lwo halves separalcd by an
imubrinary line called the cenLcr stroke.
'rhe pistan always ilcce lerates loward Lhe center s t.rokc. eve n whcn Uavel
ing 8\Yay from the center sLroke. In olher \Yords, when the pistan is aboye the

TOp dead center

Rg. 1-2. Tite I'elalio rJ

ship o{ eng/ne loada lo


fmgillc compr)nent.. has

/hree slgnifica /t! piston!


~'rall k shafl

positiofls.

Ir-~:~I Top dead cel1ler

Cenler stroke

IF-~~~~I Y.t 51foke


!

Bollom dead cenler

FuI! slroke

WITH STANDING P OWER O UT P UT

Top dead
center

Fig.

~-3.

Top dead

cantor

COlllleclillg-

rOll ineriiaL loads.


lllerlialloads app/iccJ.
lO the coIIl/ectillg
I'od a"e clolicly
approximaled by the
si/ut. wcwe curue o( loacl
uersWi crallk angle.

Cenler
slroke

O'
Crank angla -

Tenslte
toad

1800

Cenlel
stroke

360 or O

-1\- _

Compressive
load

Bonom dead
center

center stroke, il will always be acceleratin g downward. When it is be low Lhe


eente r stroke, even al bott.om dead center, it will be acceleraLing upward. Acceleratian is grealcsLaL top dead cent.er a nd botLam clead center, when the pista n is actually sitting sti ll. When acceleration lS greatesL, lhe loads wilI be
highesL. Simila rly, accclerat.ion is zero and velocity is grca tesl as t he pista n
passes t he cen ter stroke.
The s ize or the loads bre nera tecl by lhese mot.ions is propal'tional to the l'pm
ofth e engine squared. For example, if engi ne speed is increased threefold , the
inert iaJloacl will be nine times as great. The action oHhe piston's being pulled
(rorced to 8ccelerate) to a stop al top dead center and the n pulled clown the
bore loward t he ccnter stl'oke wi ll put a t.cnsilc inerlial load nto lhe conrocl!piston assembly. Similarly, as t.he pistan is pushecl lo a stop at boltom dead
center and then pushed back up t he hore t.oward t.he ccnler st.roke, lhe inertial
load will be compressive. Thus, a ny time the piston is aboye the cent.el' stroke
t.he inerLialload will be tensile, ane! belw t.he ceoler slrokc, il wiJl be compressive. The la rgest ten sile load induced into a con rod is al lop deael cente r 0 11 tbe
exhaust. sLroke (because at top deacl cent.er on the com pression stroke, lhe gas
is already burning and creating combust.ion presslll'c lo oppose lhe illcrLiaJ
load). The Inrgest. com press ive load is ge nera!ly at bottom dead con ter a ftel' either l he nt.ake 0 1' power stl'oke.
Thesc inertia1loads a re hu ge. A largedisplacement engine runnillg 7000
rpm can develop con- rod inertialloads grcater t.han 4000 pounds. tThat's like
a Cadillac sit.tingon YOllr rQd bcal'i ng.)
POWfR LOAD. A power load resulcs rrom lhe pl"es~tlre ofl he burl1inggases applied lo t.he piston. An example would be the compl'e&<i"c load puL into a conuecting rod as the burning gases for\!e the pi~lon down lhe bore of the cyli nder.

CHAPTER 1: AN ENGINEERING LOOK AT THE BASICS

Bumlng gas pressure

Fig. J..-4. Bllrnillg gas

"duces a compressive
1()(j(I/1l the ('ollnee/",c

1111111111

rocl.
_

Area 01 bore

Compressive load

Pressure created by the expansion of the burning gases applies a force Lo the
Lop of the piston cquallo the area of Lhe bore Limes the chambcr pressure. For
example, a cylinder wiLh a bore m'ea of 10 square inches (3.569-inch bore) with
800 psi of pressure would be subjccted lO a. compressive powcr load of 8000
pounds.
Top dead

Top dead

cenler

cenler

Ag. i-5. Combill.cd


power nnd incrtial
loads. Note Iho/ powel'
and "erlial {o(l(ls
generally sub/rael rrom
Ol/e

Connecling-rod
inertial load

aflothe,:

Tensile
loads

180"

Crank angle

Compressive
loads

valva
opeos

Powerload
.......... Irom cornbustion
pressure

Bollom dead
conter

360 '

WITHSTA ND ING POWER OUTP UT

The peculiar l'olationship oftho inertial and power loads is of mosl inleresl
in t.he upper halfoCt.he powe r stl'okc . Here we h ave the odd circumsLlnce th"t.
Lhe Lwo londs acti ng on the con rod are doing so in din"erent direction s, Remember that un inerLi aJ load is tensi le aboye thc centCI' stroke, whil e a powel'
load is compl"essive in all cases. Powel" load peaks aL lhe torque peak anel Cades
a LiUle as rpm incl"eases btlt. is gencrally grente!' than lhe incrtial load, 'fhe dif4
ference bet.ween Lhese two loads is Lhe !"eal load in t.he con roo (fig, 1-5},
Clell1"iy, thc inerLial load Orrset5 some ofthe power load, 1t i5 furLller apparcnt, as indicated above, that on the exh nusl stl'oke, whcn the con rodlpiston
reaches top dead center and is unopposed by combusUon pl"essure (bccnuse
both valves are opan), the highest tensile load is reached , This load is the most
damaging or a ll, beca use tensile loads induce rat.igue failure, whereas co mpressive onds do noto FOl" this rcason , when a designcr sits down to do the stress
analysis on th e con rod nnd con-rod bolLs, Lhe top dcad conter and bouom doad
center inertial loads are virtual ly th e on ly ones he is inlet'ested in knowing.
4

Flg. ,1-6. Torqu e i"put


into lite crnnkshaft
versus eran/.>. cl.Ilgle al
approxmalely lwo
atmospheres of pressure. Note that for Ihe

turbo engine. m.a:ctmllm

Turbocha rged
9
e n ')

'500

Atm os pherlc
englne

pressure 0<."C1lI"S

al abolll, 20 ArDe,
yet only about 20% of

lhe mixlure will hove


bttrned, Euell with !tig"
baos! pressures, tlle
small amouut bUnled
will nol resul1 itl (orge
maximutn preSS1re
c!tallges. As tite bum
Ilears complelioll . Ihe
grealer mixture c'!lu;lly
ca" mise the pre~jS llre
lhree- lo fourfold al
crarlk tU/gles ruwr 90 ~
such lhal Jorque input

o-+______-+______
45
TOC

-L~

__

~-+-

'35

90

Crank angla CO)

lO lhe crallk 01 thal posi/ion can be tunce os

g r-eal,
Almo

Turbo
Pressufe al 90"

The thought oC doubling lll engine's lorque (doubli ng the powcr at the same
rpm ) easily gives one t.he idea Lh allhe power load will double. Thank goodness
Lhis i5 ooL true. To sho\V how power can double with oul thc combustion chamber pressll.re's doubli ng is mueh cas ier donegraphicolly, Any s ignificAntdesign
10ad cha ngcs would be buscd 011 peuk pl'Pssul'e in lhe chambel's, a nd L can be
seen in figure 1-6 that with twice the nllxtUl'e in lhe chamhm'. ppak pressul"C! is
up onJy abou L20'i(. ')'here 3rt' lwo reusotll for thi:: di~p!' r ty,

CHAPTER 1: AN ENGINEERING LOOI\ AT THE BASICS

First. powcr is a fundion of the nverngc p,oessurc over the l!ntire stroke of
the piston, nOLjust. peak pressurc. The average pressHre can be dramulically
increased due to the much higher relativo pressures neal" the middlc o .. cnd of
the strokc, while Lhe peak does 1101. goin significa ntly.
Second, peak prcssul'e IS ge nel'aJly reached afier only 18--20% of t.he mixt.ure has burncd. fthe mixturequantiiy isdoub lcd, l820%ofit. too, wi ll have
bUl'ncd by lhe time peak p-r cssure is reachcd. Sincc the t.ota1 chambor pressure
consislS ofLhe compression prCSSlIrc plus the buming gas pressum, it is impossiblc Lo double the toLftl pressure by doubling only one of ls constituenls.
(Clerly, mot.ber naLure has a 50ft. spot. in hel" heart fOI" con rods unel con-rod
bcarings.)
A carcful study of figure 1-6 will s how t.hat at. cra nk angles nearing 90,
chambc!' pressul'c is pcrhaps t.hree to four t.imes as !,'ieat wben operating under boost, This is, however, noticeably less than peak pl'cssure. 1'hercfo rc, it
does noL create 8 dUlllllging load. 'rhe pal't of t.be power stroke near 90 is
wherc Lhe rcal turbo engin e pOWCI' inereases take place. lfa physics t.ype looks
at the !,'l'aph, he will t.el! you that the arca under the respect.ive curves rcpresenLs t.he power. Thus, the diTerence in t.he two areas rcpresenls power gajn
duc 1.0 the t.urbocharger, n. ceJ'tai nly is a neatdeal thnt we can double the power but not thc load!
The prcccding discuss ion esta blishes that t he incrcasoo comhustion chambel' pressure due Lo n turbo, and thus the powcr load, will have on ly a mod erate
adverse efTect. on the st.rllcture ofthe engine.
u,. RULE: Power loads gcnerally won't. tickle the engine strucLtll'e's tumrny.

Long-Term
Durability

Long. tcl"m durabilit.y : Is it. th el"e, and how is it. aLt.ain cd? '['he a nswe r t.o " I8 it
ihere?" is I'elatively easy lo show by citing a few examples. Someone at Porsche
on.ce st.at.ed t.hat a racing mile was ubout equivalent. in wcar and tear LO LOOO
st l'ccL miles. Porsche's t.utbocharged !"aee cars have \Von SO many twenLy-fourhour c ndurance raecs that only a racing historian ca n kcep up with lh e Illllnber, Thcse cars generally cove r ovel' three thousancl miles in sLlc h races, A
strect. cal" with threc milJion miles on it rnay seem lo be strclc hing thc point.,
hut t.he idea does n't fuil lo impress. 1'0 st.and along t.he banking at. Dayt.ona
when a POI'sclle 962 L.ul'bo comes whist ling by in exeess of200 mph can casi ly
Icave one ughast Lo t hink that. thcse t.hings are going t.o do this for twent.y-four
hours. Tha violen ce and spced can glVC lhe injtial irnpression t hat nobody will
finish ihis race. Vct., chnnces are a t.urbocharged racel" will take t.he checkcl'
firsL. This book is primarily about. s t.reel. t.urbocharging, not race cars, bui the
problcms are the same, even ir diffel'cnt in ma,b1JLudc. StrecL cars, by compal'ison, 81-e a picee of cake. Chl"ysler even pUL a 70,OUO-mi le warranty on some of
i t.s t.u rbo cars.
How durabili ty is attaincd is not. quiLe so easy lo answer as is the lIesUo n of
whet.hel' iL exists. In a bl'ond sense, dlll"abilit.y boils down Lo t.he control of hcat.
in lhe engineiturbo system. Eac:h aspcct. of Lhe syst.em in which heat plays a
parl is u candidale fOI" the Ach.illes heel Fo,-Iong-t.erm durability, each orthesc
fact.ors musL be opt.imizcd. They incJude turbo carnp,'cssor efficiency, inLercooling, cont.rol 01' end-gas tempcrat.ures, turbinc hearing tcmperaLul"cs, llnd
mally OthC1'8, and wil! he cliscusscd in lhe following chupters. We should call
lhe nnswer lo the enlirc heal problern '"thcnnalll1anagement.."ln I"eading this
book, lt. will prove useful lo keep UppCI'Olust in mind thal virtually lhe entire
!jUCCC&i ora lurbocnbrinc ~y.stem li~ in lhernml managemcnt.

POWER GAIN
Power Gain

Where does the power gajn come fi'om'! Wha L is Lhe cquation fOT the power of
any give n engine. and how docs the turbo influence t.hat. equation? (Don 't Jet.
cquations scare you ofT- these are bolh neal and easy.)
lt is revealing to exam in e the s imple equat.ion that. l'clat.es power to t be P04
rClmcters descr ibing t.he internal combust.ion engina.

Powel' = P x L x A x N
Pis bl'ake mean efrective pJ'cssure, 01' bmep. An easy way to imabrine bmep
is as an average pressure pushing the piston down Lbe bore.
Lis the Icngth of the stroke. 'J'his t.ells you how far the pressure is going t.o
push the piston.
A is the area ofllJe borc. l'his is, 01' course, the rea the prcssure has to work
on.
N is the number ofpult.s the engine makes in one minute. This repl'cse nts
how fast the engina is running and how nU\I1y cylinders it has.
rpm
N = number o( cylinders x 2
(Far a 4-stroke engine, the rpm is dividcd by 2 becausc each cylinder fires
onJy on alternate I'evolutions.)
Now, thel'e are seve ra] interesting relationships here! l"al' eX8..ll1ple, take the
P and muJtiply by the A alld yau have a pressure times an area, whieh is noth
ing mOl'C complicated than thc ave rage force pushing down on t he piston. No\\!
rnull.iply l.he PA (force ) by Lhe length oi' t.he stl'oke, L (di stance), and yo u ha ve
a number that repl'esents the torque ouLput of the cyLinder. Then lake lhis fig4
ti re nnd llluJtiply by the N (how fast thcjob is gCltjng done), and t he resul t is
Power, the thing we are really arter.
Please notc that this mea ns
4

Power = t:orque x rpm,

BUfIlH19

gas pressure ("P -)

Fig.:J.47. t;PLAN" ,sfhc


key lo Ihe so /u"(''e of aJJ

power OlltplLl.

1111111111
_I~~~~~ -AreaolborerA")

lenglh 01
slroke tOLO)

,
"-

--

CHAPTER 1: AN EN GINEER IN G L OO K AT THE B ASICS

Since Lbe whote purpose of Lhis exerc ise is t gel more power:.let's examine
what. thisPLAN giVe5US lo \York with.
F'il's t. leL's check out. what. working wit.h t heN can yield. There are two ways
to gel more putts per minute: add more cylinder s or rev tlle enf,rine higher. l'bat
leaves little too work wilh. as t he whote field ofendeavol' l,;oowl1 as blucprinting
s almos1 slely rol' the purpose ofaUowing higher l'pm with sorne dcgrec ofsafety. Cons ide l' that lhose nasty inertialloads go up wiU, the squal'C oi'the rpm incrC~lse. r['hal means that al 7200 rpm , the inertial load will be 144% t,'l'caLer
Lhan at 6000 rpm . Weal' and tero' li es up thet'e. Ultimately, it. is ncither cheap,
pleasant., nor durable long-teJ'm to nerense power output by incl'casing the N
Since we can no!., for pl'aeticall'easons, incl'ease power significantly with N, the
only rcmainingchoice is Lo ncrease torque by doing something with t he PLA.
So we musL go back and look at the PLA a bit more. We C~m change the A.
Dored, it.'s called, hut how much does it. help? ChangeA by an eightb oran nch
and maybe yau ' U gaio 10%. No!. worth the t.l'ouble. We can a1so change L.
St.l'oked . Anothel' 10%, maybe, Obviously, then , ir we'l'e pUJ'suing real pOWCl',
the A and t.heL dOl1 ' t hold Oluch pl'omlse, ChangingP becomes OUl' on ly hope,
H ow to s llccessfuLly change P is t.he crux of this book. P can be changed by
fact.ors of 1.2,1.5, 2, 3,4, 5 . .. . The real poLe ntial is noL koown, si nce engincer
types plIsh lhe e nvelape every year. The Grand Prix 1'8ciog cars of the '87 sea son took turbo development to the bighest level s cver achicved, with powel'
outputs ol' nearly 15 bhp per cubic och. Surfice it to say, then, that dOllbling
the power ol' a street engine, while noL exactly child 's play, is well within Ollr
r easonahle expectation s.
Tt is essential here to make clea!' t h e fact that. we are dramatieally increasingpower without changing rpm . Thel'erore, it is tOl'que (PLAJ thal we are J'eally changing.
B"

Driveability
Limitations

RULE: TlU'bos

make t.orque, and torquc makes fun.

What are tbc driveability limitntions af a tUl'bochal'ged engine?


Th e nice dl'iveabilit.y of most C81'S today is something wc have grown to expect linde l' all condilions. Gel in, LUl'n 011 , dl'ive off smoothly. Not.hing else is
acceptilbl e anyrnol'e-exactly as the s iL-uation sh ould be, 1t is aften pel'ce ived

Flg. ~-8, Qlle lyplC:al

e:wmple o( l!J e
dirrerence. in lorqllt
curves fol' a lllrbo-

charged alld un

almospheric el/gil/e.

300

:;.

250
200

. cal a.lfT\Ospheric engin

,i~\

E"

{' 150

1.

100

ti I I 1I Uselullorque crealed by turbo

50

o
O

345
Rpm x 1000

DRIVEABILlTY LIMIT ATlONS

lhaL real power and nice drivenhility lre nol compaliblc in t.he same automobile. T hi s i5 rreq uently truc in I1Lmosphe ric angines bul dccidedly nol true in
t.urbocharged engincs.
Co ns idcr the faccls oC an engine LhaL crcate driveabilit,y: conservative camshaft profi Jes, small inlake ports, fuel syslem nexibi lit,y and cal ibrot.ion. A
proper t.urbo engin c has a shorldu ralion, low-overJap cmn, gene l'illly referl'cd
lo as an "economy cam," PorL aizes are usually small, lo create good cy linder
flling aL low speeds and Lo Jet the t.urbo pnck it in whcn high pressu l"c i5 wanLFue! system calibration must always be spoL on, aL casi with electl'onic fu el

oo.

injection. Obviously, thcl1, th e fadors crcating nice driveability are pl'csent. in


t.urbocharged cars. The facl that a turbo is 8vailabl e lo push more air in when
desired has no "Auence on "Get in, lurn 0 11 , drive ofTsmooLhly.
Two factofs aITecting drivea biliLy do come into play when tile turbo is in
use: boosL t hres hold and lag, 'rhese do noL significanL1y degrade atmo engine
performance, sin ce thc cam, comprcssion, igllition timing. and fuel mixture remain viltually the same. l fyou stick a rack under the throttle and go fOI" a trip
around the block, youj ust ca n 'L tel l lhe difTerence.
BOOST THRESHOlD. Boost UlI'csho ld, defined in the glossary. is esscntially the
lowcs l cl1 wne I'pm aL which t he turbo will produce boost prcssure when full
throltle is appli t.'<.i. Below l hat 'pm, the t urbo simply is nol supplied with
cnough exhausl gas cncrgy lo spin fasl en ough lo produce above-almospherie
pressures in the inlake manifold (see Hg. 1-8), Up to the bOOSl threshold. the
enginc's to rque curve I'emains vl'l'tually Lhe sa me as th1:lt of an atmospheric engine, 'fa accclerate thl'ough Lhis range aL fuI! throttle, the driver would feel a
surge in power as Lhe torque curve takes an upward swing allhe boosllhreshold. Ir full th1"Ottle is nol used, the turbo makes no conlribu tion to Lhe Lorque
curve, and acce lcnllioll continucs the sallle as wi th a non-turbo angine.
The nonboosted larque curve can somelimes be compromised by an unreasonable I'eduction in thc compre.,",sion ratio (displacemenL volume plus clearanee VOlU Ill C, divided by c1earance voJ ume), causing a soggy feel al low speeds
when noL under boosL. II js here Lhal some of Lhe auLomotive 1l1HnufacLurcl"s
have made a serious engineering (01' eco nomic) error, by nat fitting suitable inlercooling syslems to remove cnough heal frolll Lhe in lake charge. This would
pel'miL the use of highCl' compression ratios, retaini ng that sweet. low-speed
response ofan engi no wiLh an udequate com pression raUo. {"you are s hopping
fo1' a Lurbo car, have sorne fun and ask the sa lesperson to tell you thc efficiency
of the intercooler_ "hal s, of cOtlrse, afier you ask ir it has one. It is certainly
reasonable to assume that low-speed driveabilily issuperior iflhe vehicle is filled wilh all ntercoo lcr and thc compression ralio is keptover 8 to L
Judging the meriL ora turbo sys lem solely on a low boost thresholc1 is a seriOllS error, It \'fallid be tough to al'gue thal boosLal low I'pm is abad thing, bul it
is easy lO 31'guC thal booslatlow speeds achieved by smal l turbas is a potent.ial
problem, dne lo higher exhausl gas back preSSL1J'e. A weJl-designed system th3l
has hacl grcat atlentin paid lo all its param~lers will display good low-spccd
boosl as one of its fcalures.
8mall turbochargcl"s li'equcntly produce nn annoying rc::sponse when the
throttle is applicd in smal! incremcnts, 1'his cllstinctl.v atfocts driveabiliLy, In
thal II smn ll motion of lhe throltle will produce qukk Rnd usually unwanlE'd
slUaU surge ofboost thaL upset~ the smoothm's:; oftht: CRI. 1'0 SOJnI! cxtcnt. this
causeS:l passcnger to think lhe driver in~pl. 'l'his sITIal1 urge frcqw.mtly givcs
tf

10

CHAPTER 1: AN ENGINEERING LOOK AT THE B Asles

t il e d r iver Lhe impr essj ol1 t he ca,' wiIJ reaUy fly whe n ftill t hl'ottJe is fi naJly
l'eached. Instead l he reali z.as sadly that t he s mall su rge was a l! t lle sllrge t he
Ji ttle wimp cou ld make. OEMs do t hi s to liS hopi ng we wil! t hi nk the cal' has
instant response and gobs of low-e nd torque. They ha ve gne l'ally overl ookcd
the raet that it was I'aw powcr \.Ve really were a l"ter. Th.is O EM phenomenon has
left. ma ny journ alists, writers, wouJd-be fas t dri vers, a nd otber socia l outcasts
won del' ing "Where's t he beef?l)
ll\~ RULE:

In gene]'al, OEM t urbo applications ar e a long way from what e n


thu siaSls a nd engi neers would p ro nounce fas t, ru n, a nd fi rst cJass.
Let LI S cal! OEM turb as conservative.

350

Ag. i -9. CQrnparisol/.

graph of lile l.orlJlle-

...- _

300

Large turbo

..-::---- ---- Medium turbo

LJlcreasing capability
o{ ~nnall, medi/LTn, and
large turbos applied lo
lile som.e engine

",-"',f""-

;- 250

~ 200
~

Small turbo

r
o
1- 150

100
50
O
O

4
5
Rpm x 1000

Seldorn are t urbas d iscu ssed without t he mento n of lag, EquaJly seldom , it seems. are dist:u ss ion pa r Lci pnnts really tal king abouL lag. Usua lly
they are talking abouL boost Lh.reshoJd. P lease read l he defi nitions oflag, boost
thresho ld, and throttl e rcs ponse in t he glossary. I n Lhe day-Lo-day use ora turbo, s urc, lagessentially means how lon gyou have to wa it to gel boosLaftc l" you
nai l Lhe th l"ottle. By definitio n, then, it is abad t hin g. But lag has noching lo do
wiLh Lhrottle response. ThJ'ott.le respo nse rc mai ns th e 5ame, turbo 01' no turbo.
CO llsidcr that i(' yotl d id nol have a tu r bo, the br ief lag wou ld be fo llowcd by
no boost. aL a1l. Rcaso nable lo Sc:1y, lhen, that lag would extend fi'om lhe po.int. al
which you apply throlllea ll t he way to the recLUne. What fun t hat wOltld be! The
s iluution bojJ!; clown to some tolerance fOl" lag wit.h a huge LOl'qlle increase as opposed Lo no tolerance rOl' lag accompanied by no lor qu e incl'ease.
Lag decrcases as rpm rises. WhUe lag can be as much as a second 01' mOre aL
low rpm, the de lay in boosl rise vil't uaJly disappears aL revs of abouL 4000 Ol"
greater. Fo!' exal11plc, in a properly configu red tu r bo system. boosL rise wilt follow the pos ition or yOlll' rooL any time Lhe I'evs are aboye 4000 rpm. Response
here is virlll~J_ly instantaneous.
LAG.

u,. RULE: l l'you havc no lag, you have no turbo. Yuu al50 have no huge torq lJ e
increase lo look forward lo.

DRI VEABILlTY liMITATIONS

11

1.0
Ag. :1-:10. ReS}JfClilJe

.9

lag time$ o(small,


mediwn, cmd !arge
turbos

.8

.7

"

.6

'"

~
~

.5

.3

.2
.1

Rpm x 1000

The s hape of the Lorque curve 01' a turbo engine is different enough fram
that or an atmo enbrlne that driveability or a turbo is only slightly aITeded ,
Torque peaks are virtually always at.lower rpm on turbo engines, Churt a.1I t he
Pllblished data and no other co ndll sion is possiblc. The more perronnance-oriented t.he almo e ngine, the greater the difTerence. The net en'ect on the driver
is that he 01' she need 110L r ev the turbo engine as much to move r apid.ly. This is
quite contrary to popular opinon but is indeed facL
Hot and cold starting are frequently perceived to be problems of high-perrormance engi nes. 1'0 someextent this is true in cm'bllreLed turbo systems, but
ihese are rcw and tar between, Fuel inject.ion systems depend solely on various
engine-temperature scnsors for all cold- and hot-st..art air/ruel mixtures and
are completely auLomatic. Cold start ing is particularly a problem ror engines
with lower compression ratios. [1' an engi ne has El problem in this res pect without a turbo, iL wiJllike ly have the same pl'oblem with a turbo, s im:e the turbo
docs not influence these tcmperaLurcs 01" the eleCLl"Onics. Either way, the difTclllLy is not r~lated to the turbo.
CAUISING. 'fhe turbo is ou t. 01' the picture in al l cruisc co ndi t.ions except those
t haL mus t have boost. pressure to ach ieve a particular speed. Cons idc r that a
give n vehic lc may have a top specd ofsay, 130 lllph, no t.ul'bo. Now add a lllrb.
Il is reasonable to say that thc vehicle will sti ll rcach approximately l30 with
out the !leed for additional power j hence, no boost is required. For all practical
purposes, even lhe wildest imaginable crui se s peeds ol"e lInlikely to reqllil'c
any boost pressure t.o suslain.
'fhe idea thaL a s uperpowcrful , ma.'\imum-eOort turbo cal" wOll ld be fun to
drive al full thl'olOe but be a bil of El cant.ankcl"olls beast at low 5peeds i5 not
ullt'easonable on the surface. This idea does no1, however, hold up under closel'
scrlltiny. 1'0 erente a n efTective high-pressure turbo car, one need only do more
or lhe same required to produce lhe tllrbo CM in the first. place: reject more
heaL, nerense fuel flows, mise th e odunc, ;)l1d be certaj n the slructure of lhe
engine il; adeq uaie. The ractors lhat ~l l'e Lhe basis or good low-speed behaviorconservali ve cam profiles, small inlake pol'lsl and fuel ~yHtem calibrnlion-arc
ullchanged by hig her b005t press ures. AH olhcr things r(~ll1aining cqual, nwre-

12

CHAPTER 1: AN ENGINEERI NG L OOK AT THE BASICS

Iy tuming the serw on the boosl knob does Ilol alter driveability. 1L is mosl UI14

reasonable to c1aim thal a 500 bhp street lUl'bo car-whi cll, given ful! t hrottl e
in second genr, has the ability to ereate tire marks in directions perhaps othe!"
than those inlended-has a drivcability problem.

ANO FURTHERMORE
How much power can I expect {ram a lltrbocharged engine?
With cunently availab le fue ls, 7 lo 12 psi boost is a practical upper limitofol'
s lock engi nes (aL sea-Ievel elcvation). Inte rcooling permiLs this when claboralely ~\Od propedy done. Certuinly Ilot all turbo kits 01' systems will perform
the same, due to widely varying engi ncering cfforLs 011 Lhe above tems. Special
prepol'aLion of engi nes specifically fol' turbo appl icatioll5 can fl"eql1cnUy permit. boosLpressures of 15 t;o 20 psi. '['o c1aim, calculate, 01" est.imate a spec iJi c
figure fol' power from a t.urbo angine can be precari ous indeed.
Of known dyno runs on pistan engines with a variety of tUl'bo systems, t he
lowest output. we have aeh ieved is .052 bhp/cid psi and the highest is .077
bhp/cid psi. The vari ancc is due to t he engines' basic designs. To guess aL the
outputofyour Qwn engine, choosea logical boast levcl and multiply eaeh afthe
two vaJues by both displaeemenL in cubic inches and boost pressure plus 14.7.
Example: A 350 cid engine with 10 psi boast
Lower uallle = 0.0,2 x 3,0 x (10 + 14.7) = 449 bhp
H iche,. uallle = 0.077 x 350 x (10 + 14.7) = 666 bhp

Does tite rated boost ofa hit haueany merit ?


tL does if: and only if. the conditions reql1il'cd to achieve that baost are defmed and aecurate. For example:
Was Lhe gasoline usad com mercially HvaiJable pump I:,T8S?
Wel'e ocwme boostcl's used'?
Was detonation presc nt.?
What. was intake sir t.emperaLU1oe?
15 this the sa me boost-prcssure setting the buyc!' \ViII receive?

Considering tite large power illC1'eases o{{ered by tite turbochargef; wh.al


keeps tlle en tire strlLclll re o{ tite engine from going SOtttlt ?
A pl'opcr answer lo this question is a complete analysis ofthe inertial, pow
el~ Hnd thermaJ loads before and after turbo instaJlation. Ifthis is perfonned,
the conclusion will be t,wo intercsLing bits of infol'l118lion:
The inertial loads in a modern inlernal combustion sLreet engine are so
large at maximum powcr lhal Lhe powcr component of the total load is of
litUe s ignificance. Far cxa mple, te induce as much powcr load nto a con
rod bearing as Lhe bearing already sees from inertial londs. the actual
power ofthe engine wou ld need to increase approximately 50%.
'fhe thermalload in an engine noL originally des igned for a turbachargcr
will cause 811 increase in compo nent and coolingsyst.em temperatures
\Vhen opcl'sting under boosl. The componenls nnd cooling system can
han die Lhe lemperatUloe nerense fol' a limited periodo 'fhis is trua lar
Buicks, Porsches. Snabs, Va lvos, Nissnns. ele. Il is also truc for aH
afl.ermal'ket tUiba kits. Tha time lim il is su~iect to nl8ny judgmenls and
conditions. Expelience has led me Lo believc LhuL the timc limil nL full
boost is on lhe DIder of20 to 25 seconds. Tbis is an operational restrietion

DRIVEABILlT Y LIMITATlONS

13

bul nol CIle ofany consequence. Consider, for examplc: How fast will you

be b'aveling if yOll hold fullthl'oUlc in a 325 hhp Toyol. Supra fol' lwenty
seconds? 'rhe nnswer is obvio us ly an impl'actical1y high rate of s peed.
When. shou/d tILe turbo sla,., p,.oducillg boosl?
1n most cases, thera are lnldcRorrs beLween o la,", boosl thresh old a n d maxi mum power. '1'0 bias th e tu rbo s ize towOI'd lowRspcecl boosi capability generally
menns operating Lhe turbo in a very incfficient Row rangc al. lhe enginc's top
end. Conversely, ifma.ximum power is lo be achieved, the turbo willl,lsually be
so large Lhat no boost will be availab le untilthe last half ofth e r ey ran ge. Compl'omise is obviously necessary. I believe Lhe I'easonable ba lance between lowspeed response and top-end power is to s izc th e turbo such that it betrins producing boost at about 30% of th e redline l'pm.
/-/ow will the t"rbocharger alfect driueability ?
DriveabiHty of fuel-injecled engines will r emain the 83me. D rive~'lb ility of
blow-through c31'bureted engines will remain virtuaJly the same. The st.al'ting
or carbureted engines will be degradec! s JighLly. Picase noLe thal draw-throu gh
units \Vill vil'tually always degrade c1rivellbili ty and slarling so mewhaL, wilh
cold weather proving the Achill es' hee! ora draw t hrough syslem.
Willlhe turbocharger hUl'l 'Tl.y mileage?
Yeso The turbo, when inslalled as 3 11 af'termarkel item on a spark-ignition
enginc, is not a n eco nomizer and cannot be eo nsll'u ed ~I S s uch. 'fhere is no enginecring basis for making such cJl ims. If you are lec! iniD purchas ing a turbo
undel' the premise of im proving you)' fuel mi!eage, be sure lo get a wriltcn
guanmtee. When nol ope rating 1.lnder boost, a turboch aJ'gc l' is a s ma l! syslcm
res Lriction. This rcst l'iction causes a s mallloss in vo lumelric efficie ll cy. Volu metl'ic efficiency and fuel economy are deflnitely tied together. If yaur d riving
habits al'e Hboul lhe same as mosl, your mi leagc wi ll drop abouL 10% cityand
5~ highway. No miraeles hcrc.
WiU the turbochargel' arreet elLgine wearand maintenance?
Cel'lru nly the lurbo wi ll an'ect engine \Venr. Do you r eal ly expedlo add powel' and noL inel'easc wear? No miracl as hcrc either. If you drive vigorous ly but
with so me l'espect fol' lhe equipmcn t, you can expect about 90t; of normal engi ne life.

WiU the transm-Ssion (md drivelrain be aduersel.Y af{ected?


Very unlikely. Considcl' Lhal Lhcdl'ivell'ain endures more torque in firstgear
fram the siock engina Lhan almost.any turbo can produce in sceond geaJ'. Oceas iol1 ally a clulch comes a!ong that won't do the ext.ra duty. Most clutch problems are goi ng lo eral' up when shifUng habits are less lhan acceptable. NoL lo
wOl'ry.

Whal does it {eellille lo drillc aproperly selup turbo car?


A turbo can justifinbly be called a tOl'que multiplicr: the more boost, the
more terqueo'rhis situntion is ana!ogou:-:: tn gear l'atios Fol' examp!e, a third
geal' with a tranny ratio 01' 1.4 will c1(>v~l()p 40";; more lorquc al tht:! real' wheel.s
lhon B fourlhgem lutio of 1.0. A boost pr '.~:,urt' of6 ptll ,,111 iOl;I'CU~c lOl'que by

14

CHAPlER 1: AN ENGINEERING L OOK Al TH E BASI CS

aboul 40% (usi ng an intercooled. Thus yau can see t haL 6 psi boosi wl produce rourt h-gear acceleration vil'tually eq ua l to a stock 3utomobile's thil'dgear capabi lity. Imagi ne whai the propcr turbo tal" wi ll do in seco nd gear! Another reasonable comparison is thai a proper turbo e.u operaling al 10 psi
boost will do 0-60 in two-thi_rcls the original time; Le., 6 scconds vers us 9 seconds.

ACQUIRING A
TURBOCHARGED VEHICLE

T he esse nce ofthis book, fsuch cxists, is to provide the performance car enthusiast interested in tw'bocharging with a body of informatiol1 that can be
used Lo evaluate system designs. whether of a factory turbo syst.em or an aftermarket. kit. This book is also intended as a design guide for the hobbyist. who
wants to build rus Qwn t urbocharger syste m. Three viable methods Cxlst to aequi re a t.urbocharged vehide:
buy nn OEM-tlll'bocharged auLomobilc
buy an aftermarket kit. iJ available, for yaur speciflc appl ication
build yOUl' Qwn t.urbo system
tfhe rationale behind the decision t.hat sui ta your needs and requirements
best is no more than a logical summ ary of the following:
What is the in t.ended use of the vehida?
WhaL is the legality with respecl. Lo sl.ate and fedcrallaw and the year oC
the cal'?
How mueh power is required?
Is fear of a failure such that a factory wanant.y is required?
Can you make a reasonnble judgment wiLh respecto to the engineeri ng or
sn aftermarkel. kit?
Do you have the skills, time. pat.ience, and equipment lo build yau r own?

Fig. 2-:1. Tlle


Mitsltbi$hi 30000'1'
turbodwrged 24-ualve
V-G. Two turbos,
two itllercoolers,
fOlLr-wheel cldue. olld

183 cid giue lILe


30ooG7' exlracrdmary
potentiaf.

"
r,

15

16

CHAPTER

2:

OEM
Turbocharged
Automobile

ACQUIRING A T URBOCHARGED VEHIClE

Automobile manuractllrCI'S have built8 variety orturbo cars in the lasldecade.


One ca n casily \Vonder how sorne decisiolls are made. On one h and we have th e
Ford EX? 1'urbo, most Chryslers, and the Nissan NX Turbo. rrhe other hand
hold s somelhing Jike the Porsche 944, Buick GNX, and Lotus Esprit. turbo.
Members or lhe radicaJ middle are large in numbel~ relatively nondescript, aud
noL entirely withoul merit.ln most cil'cu mst.ances, Lhe factory turbo engine is
conservative in power output--easily understandablc in view ofwarranties,li
abilit.ies, and emissions requiremonts. GeneraJly spe.:'1k ing, OEMs will nol
equip a turbocharger systc m with optimum-configul'ation parts. Virtually all
OEM designs wiIJ have 50 me shortcoming, wheth er in bU'bo size, intercooler
capability, or restrictive exhausts. Dccasionally the shortcomi ng isjust a different design, based on the DEM's perception of its buyers' requirements.
Finding and fixing these weak Iinks Lhen becomes the lactas of attent.ion in cfforts al greater performance.
provide you with a vehicle that funcLions nicely
buL is blessed with enough shortcornings Lhut performance is fsr
from optimum.

" ' RULE: OEMs wi11 generally

The firs l step in pursuing more performance i5 a complete analysis of Lhe


sysle m designo Chaptcr 14, Testing t.he Syst.em, i5 your starting poi nt. With
those data accumu lated and analyzcd and the weak Iinks identified, you can
set out to find the necessary component.s t.o improve the syst.em. Keep in mind
that. t.he issue here is Lo improve efficiency, Lhereby opening up the potential
for huge gaio s in power. fncreasing boosL pressure is also a consideration, but
without emciency improvements, thi 8 path to power is rrallght with mechanical risk. Once the system has been test.ed and the merit of each featu"e has
been determined, St.8,"t the improvement process with t he weakest link. Here
is \Vhere foresight becomes import.ant. For example, an inlercooler that loses
only 2 psi at Lhe factory-mted boost ca n bej udged okay. It is okay, bllt only for
the faclory-rated boost. Likely it will lose 3 01' 4 psi al any sign ifican ily incr ensed airAaw. Thut kind of loss is 110t acceptable.
Aftermarket
Turbo Kit

'rhe purchase of an aftermarkel turbocharger system is an ideal occasian to


emp loy thi book as the guide it is in tended to be. An invesligation is necessary
to determine the system that will meet your need.s. Befare a reasonab le decis ion can be made, answers lo a varieiy of questions must be both sought and
understood. The following samples will get you on the righl, traek:

Does tILe system prouide a correel air/fllel ralio al all operation.al conditions ?
'rhe air/fuel ratio is a busic building block of a turbo system. U nccels to be
maintained over the hoost range that th e ma nufacturer cla.ims [or the kit. rt is
not to be expected ihat tite air/fuel ratio will stay corred if the system 's design
limils are exeeeded. In all circumst.ances, it is necessary lo avoid discussing
<tfuel enl'chment." Eilher un air/fuel ratio is corred
ment" required.

01'

it is n'l- l1o "cllrich-

Does tlle system prouide a margin of sa{ety 011 detonat /O fl ?


'fhe atte mpt here is lo determine whether Lhe syst.em inslalled nnd operated pe!' instruetions will yield useful boost and nol be subject to detonalion
problems.

AFTERMARKET T URBO

KIT

17

Flg. 22. T/is tompre


hensiue and complete
a{termarlud system fo,.

Honda CRX cars ensay

s}ows HKS's cuslomary atte"tiol! lo de/nil.


Although mJ/l-inter
cooled, for reasons of
cost, the ~;ystem elljoyL'f:I
many excellent fealu res,
a su.perb exhaust mani
fold designo{uel controls. and compressor
bypass ualuing.

'R4>

Fig. 23. Tite idea of a


complete system taJu!s
on sig"ificance wil.h lhe
HKS Supra turbo. Note
the oil cooler, flywheeJ.
clutch, (ud injedors,
spa rk pillgS, (lItd lhe
entire exhau.'it system.

Does the system. prouide the necessary thermal controls lo operate al the staled boosl pressures ?
Ask 1'0 .. El. description and explanat ion 01' these contrals.

Whal efforts are extended tOWQl'd quality ton/rol?


1"it and nnish are obviollS. Material selections, methods of welding, surface
flnishes, and other fabricalion procedures shou ld al50 be checked oulo

Do tite com.polle.nts carry a reusonable worranty?


Although warranties on performance-oriented componenls a re fl'equelltly
subjecL to severe limjlalions, the buyer cannoL be hungout LD (hoy. It is 1.1sef"ul to
discu5s with lhe kit maker lhe warranty limit.ations and pr<.'cedures neccssary
Lo estublish the besl warl'nnLy tCl'ITIs.

18

CHA PTER

2:

ACQUIRING A TUR80CHARGEO VEH IC LE

Are proper instructions offel'ecl with lhe system.?


Instruclions shou ld provide aH the nccessary infonnation
ouL, and subseQ uently operate and sel'vice Lhe turbo vehicle.

f.O

instaU. check

WiU consulting be p rouided after the sale ?


This is whe.l'e ihe maturity ora tw'bo system manu facture r will t.ruly s how.

ir the system is lO be used on a public highway, is ii designed witl!. ail emssions-I'elaled equipment in prope.r orde/; andlor is the system on EPA - or
CARB exemption-order status ?
In aU sta tes, the emission question will be tll e Illost import.ant one.
When the answers to th e above question s a re satisfactory, it is time to get
down to the fun cletails, such as compressor efliciency with respect io t ll e system flow raLes and boosl pressures.

makel's wilI try to represe nt Lheir systems as Lhe most powerfuI. Absolute power is tbe last r enson to make a decision.

r... RULE: AH kit

Building
You r Own
Turbo System

Rg. 2-4. The CaUawClY


twin.-turbo (ArueUe
{e.atllred a thoroughly
pre.pored cngi.lle, two
Roio-lvJaster Compuct

turbos, and intercooling . Note thc low

mi drains. colleclor
su mp, ami bell-driulJ.n
scawnge pump located
al lhe {OliJe,. right
comer o( fhe engille.

Any reasonably able fabricator s hould have no serious d ifficul ty designing and
building his own tUI'hochargel' system. Fo ret hougbt, planning, caJcu lating,
s ketching, and measuri.ng, all done in considerable detail, will be Lile keys to
the sltccess ofthe project. Perhaps the si ngle greatest problem facing t he do-ityourse lfer is avoidin g getting stuck. Getting stuck is the phenamenon 01" "You
ca n' t get t here from her e.' Fa}" example, you can't ever hape to int.ercool you r
t.urbo system if you build a draw-through carb type. Cr eating a high-performanee piece for a 454 cid Y8 with a si ngle turbo where a twin is c1early ructated wi ll decidedJy put yau in a pasitioo where you are stuck, Avoid going down
these paths leading to "stuck. " 'rhe first requirement is t.o determine the powel' leve l desired. Tra nslate that figure ioto a boost pressure necessary to geL the
job done. That, in itself, \ViJ l determine Lhe equipment needecl. The remainder
of lhe project is the sum ofthe experience contained in t hi s book.

BUILDING YOUR OWN TURBO SVSTEM

ANO FURTHERMORE

19

Why is a corred ail'/{uel ratio lIecessary?


Basically, a corred afi- means lhe engine is getting all the fuel it can emciently burn, bul nol an excess. (fyou err on the rich side (the sarcr side), pelO'
formance declines, hecause a rieh condition leuses up combustion
temperaturas. Lean mixtures lcad lo higher charge (in-cyLinder) temperatu res, promoting delonation.

What does "fuel enrichment" mean?


"Fuel enrichment" mean s, in every alle rmul'ket. sense ever exprcssed, an
indiscriminate dump or fuel nlo the syslem. lt is indiscrirninate because it
does not care what t he actual airRow IS, Any kiL maker who uses t.he phrase
will usualJy supply t he indiscrim ina te dump device. Don'tevel' ask a kit. makel'
what he uses for fual ennc hm.ent; rather, ask, "Haw have yau managed to
maintain a corred afr, to how high a boost level, and can you prave it to me?!!
Every kit maker will l'espond that the neceS5ary equipment to mainLain a COl'rect.. afr is in the kit.. Not necessari.ly so. Be sure the answers are cOl'rect, as this
faeet of turboeharging is of thc greatest importance.

FTg. 25. rile BMW


2002 is a superb street
rod whetl equipped with
a water-oosed intercooled turbo artd two

blow-throllgh Mikuni
448. Ten psi boasl crea/ed 210 bhp and stock

lJehicle driueability.

Whal are sorne af tite deuices for maintaining a corred air/fuel ratio ?
The warstdeviee is none. It is perhaps the most popular. [t is also the easiest
to install. Another equally bad device is the boost-pressurc-sensitive switch
that sends a false water-temperature si.gnal to the EFI brain. rr h is is a whoJly
unworkable gizmo. Il atLempts lo add fual when under boost by lengthening
injectol' pulse dul'ation, While it Can double fuel flo\Y at mid-range rpm, it con
ad d only aboul 1.0% more fuel at the l'edline. The natul'c ofLimed injection (like
EFJ) !'csult,s in a situation where Lhe length oran injcctor pulse fol' R maximum
torque cycJe remruns cssentially constant, regardJess of rpm. r'hat fixed inje.,'ctor pulse lcngth becomes a greater percent.age of engine cycle time as rpm increases. The point is finally reached where engine cycle time is thesame as Lhe

20

CHAPTER 2: A CQUIRING A TUR BOCH ARGED VEHICLE

maximum-torq ue injector pulse time, a ncl then the injector is open continua}Iy. rrhi s is why an injctor dlll'ation increase, by a ny device whatsoever, Cilnnot
supply e ll ough fu el fOI" a turbo engine ni any upper-range rpll1.
Fu rth er, all additions 01' su btractions orrue! are instanta neous incremental
changes as the switch i5 activated, and nothing with a large instantancous
change in th e afr ca n be correcto The result orthe " fuel enrichmen t swi tch" i5
al best a poody running, detonationprone engine. The EPI fuel cnr ichment
swit.ch is the source of perhaps 75% of turbo-related horror sLories. Avoid it..
Anoth er popular scheme is to proportion I< fuel enrichment" according to
boosl pressure. While th.is sounds better and is bettel~ it is still technicaJ 110nsense. The situa tion is created whel'ein the same amoun lof fu e] wOllld be added at 3000 rpm and 5 psi boost /;lS at 6000 rpm a nd 5 psi boosl. Obviously, fuel
requirements would doubl e at twice the rprn. but the boost-proportioned fue1el' would deliver the same quantity of fuel regal'dl ess of rpm. Not a workable
mechanism.
The change lo larger injectors is a valid approach to add ing fueL Thi s genera Uy requires other changes to reduce the larger injectors' ftow at 10\\1 speeds, so
off-boost operation wiU nol be too ri ch. This can be done by reprogramming
the ecu al' altedng flowmete r signa ls. With boost pressurcs greater t han 8 to 10
psi, the larger-injectar approach is a necessity,
An other popular device is to send the lambda (lailpipe oxygen sensor) systero to full rich when unde!" boost. Lambda systems have co ntrol of approx..i~
mately 8% of t he fu el delivery. Combin e that with 50% more air (7 psi boost)
and the engine becomes intolerably lean. This method is unfortunate, at best.

Flg. 26. A straigh-t


forward, IOUJ-cost
design /i'om Perforn1(IIlCe Techniques fo,.
the Mn.ula Miata,
Tlle absence of an in.lcreoo/e,. nud cOlrlpressor

bypass ualue keep boost


dowlI and the cosl more

affordable.

What;s compressor surge, and how ca.n it be coulltered?


Compressor surge is t he rapid Auctuatiol1 of turbina speed caused by the
Lhrottle's beingclosed under baost. Rapidly spinnin g air compre S01'S <turbas)
can ga unslable briefly when tls OCCurs. The nuctuating specd can be damag~
ing lo the turbo, ancllhe accompanying naise is obnoxious. The condition can
be alleviated with a compressol' bypass valve thaL opcns as the lhrotlle clases

BUILDING YDUR OWN T URBO SVSTEM

21

and allows air exiting the turbo to vent back to t hc fronl. 1'his keeps thc How
up. Many modern turbo cars are cquippcd wiLh s uch va lving, but seldom are
they big enough to ha nd le high-now, high-boost systcms. A useful fringe bene
nt to th ese valves is t,haL thcy reduce lag a ncl percepLibly inerease fitel ccono my.

What is a reasonable price lo pay {or a lurbocharger syslem?


The lowesL-pr icecl sysLe m thaL otTcrs

a correcUy s ized turbo


a carrccl ai r/fuel raiio under boosi
boost con trol by conll'olJing turbin e speed
proper ignition liming
proper thel"lllal conlrols
a ma rgi n of safcty on detonation
qu a liiy componenLs
SUcJl a system can pu Llogether a good argumenL fOI" being t.h e besLval ue. It.
is popular to believe Lhal you gel what. you pay fOI", but. there ar e tlll'bo kits
costing nearly $4500 thaL do not have a co rrect a ir/fuel ratio or even an iron
exhau st manifold , Conversely, kits are avai lable that havc a1l the aboye at a
price less than $2500. A reasonable price? 'l'his ml.l st remaln Lhe prospectivc
buyer'sdecision, based on a thorou gh kn owledge ofwhuL he gels fOI" his maney.

What pap er wor}l shou,ld be included with a turbo hil ?


lnstructions and warranLy are self-explanatory. Cautions and operaLing
procedul"cs musl be well detailed and conservative.

Whal a.re Ihe warranty implications of inslalling alllrbo in a II ew oulomobile ?


AlI factory warranly on dri vetrai n componenLs will be voidcd. "hcr c are,
bowever, several circumstanccs lo conside roVou can purchase an aftermarkeL
warl"anty io covcr yaur vehide for all nonturboinduced or -related problerns,
Jl is currently in vogue Lo seH t hese policies with turbo sysLcms undel" t.he inFlg . 2-7. A simple.
effecliue, low-boosl
Bystem {or tite smallblock Cheuy. Note
the additionol {Ile'

Jljeeto,.s, lack o(
i"tercooliflg, atl(/
warm-air pickup for

tite filler.

22

CHAPTER

2:

A CQ UIR ING A T URBOC H A RGED VEH ICLE

tended misconception that your dri ve train is warranled agains t "turbo-in-

duced" failu!"es. NoL so.


lf one breaks his t urbo engi oe. it is oot going to be paid for by anyo ne's warranty-exactly the same situation as waitiog unlil the factory walTanty ex
pires and then adcng the turbo. Wh ich means that waiting out the factory
warranLy before in stalling a tu rbo accomplishes nothing except insul'ing that
the mechanism is one-third used up pre-turbo. Furthcrmore, it eliminales the
run of eve .. awning a nice new automobile with enhanced powcr. H. is rare rol' a
modern automobile to have an engi ne/drivetrain problem within the warranty
duration . 'fhose problems that do appear "re genel'ally minor snd willlikely
cost under a hundred do llar. to repair. 'ro preserve the warranty for mru,y
thousa ncls ofmles to avoid a possible hundred-dollar component ra lure rath
er than enjoying the e..xt.ra performance seems to me the pOOl"er choice. To assuage your concerns l call the car makerls regional affice and discU55 with a

service rep the areas 01" the drivetrain tbat have been a warranty problem .

Fig. 28. Turbo


Engineering proouced
this low-moLLflled turbo

specificnlly for tile


Clteuy Camara. Wi l /
mtercooling, a large
series '1'0-1 lllrbocharger and gerzerolLs flow
pallts, litis syslemCOllld
power leuels in
excesS o( 500 bhp.

orrer

SELECTING T H E
T URBOCHARGE R

T he size ofthe turbo selected ror a glVen applicalion wiU strongly influence
the degree of success enjoyed by the system. lt is not al all a case of only one
size workingin a specific situation; rather, there isjustone tha1 wiU work best.
The trade-ofTs al' lag, boost tbresbo ld, heat, low-speed torque, and power are
the variab les in the decision process of matching the turbo to the requirements. To optimize the trade-ofTs, tlle requirements must be defined first.
These requ irements can be spelled out. by listing the performance objectives
fo1' the particula r vehic Je.
Objectives can vary for day-to-day commuter cw's, Bonneville maximumspeed ca rs, drag cars, supe r-performance s treet cars, real race cars, and even
lar the ouler fringe ofvehicles called pickup trucks. Specific performance objectives will be tems such as des ired boost threshold, lorque peak, and esumated power ou tput. Higher-speed vehides require larger turbos, street cars
respond well lo mid-range torque, and )ow-speed vehides need srualler tu.rbos.
How lo select the right turbo for the job anci how to choose sorne oC the more
advantageous featu res are discussed in the fallowing paragraphs.
To illustrate the degree to which turbo sizjngcan vary for the particular job,
compare the 1988 Nissan 300ZX Turbo and the Porsche 911 Turbo, These two
cars are similar in size, weight, and engine di splacement, yet the turbes are
vast ly difTerent in size. F'rom the size of the Porsche's turbo, it is relatively
easy to conclude that the Porsche design stafT did exactly what. they needed to
do, They fitted a lru'ge turbo to lhe 911, for three specific reasons;
Lubrlcaling
011 nlel

Fig. 3-1 . Tlle classic

Bearing
housing

lurbocharger: a /Jery
simple, high/.yellgi
lLeel'ed, high-quality,
preciseiy malwfac
tllred nir pump.

Turbine
housing

Alr inlel

ExhauSl o ullel

r--,--"

TurbIna
rolor

Compressor
w heel
LubriC!lllng L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---'

Cornpressor
cov8r

011 aulle!

fi

EICh1lJst (nlel

23

24

CHAPTER 3: SELECTING THE TURBOCHARGER

When oper~ting at maximum load, the large compressor puts less heat.
inLo the int.ake charge.
The lal'ge L1.ll'bine creates less exhaust manifold back preSSlIl'C, furthcr
I'educing Lhe hcat load.
The design staffwanted a powerful automobile.
The Nissan staff, on the oiiler hand , with a much more heatAolcrant engin e
(water.cooled ), was frce to use a smalJ tUl'ba fol' virLlla l1y il11l11cdial.c ofTidle re-

sponse. 1'his smaH turbo gives quick boost response at the extreme expense of
high backpressure and high intake-charge temperatures. Nissan was obviousIy 110t looking fOl' scl'ious power. as they did noL see fit to offset these high temperatures with any fo rm of intercooling. Their objective appears to have becn
aimed aL a 0-30 mph performance caro Certainly they hacl a dHlcre nt buyer in
mind from Porsch e. Although the Porsche has been proclaimed by al! its !"cad
testers t.he prime example of a high ttlrbo~ lag design oil had to be that way be~
cause ofthe low heaL allowables. Asmall turbo cOtlld not have been usad on t he
911 because orthe thermal restrictions ofthe air~cooled enginc, and certainly
not when sel'iaus power is a n objectivc. Porsche. thereforc, should be crediled
with doing a nejob. Niss8 n shouJd be credited w1th selling a large numbel' a f
cars lo a large nllmber ofpeople.
r.I"

General
Guidelines

RULE:

Never send el chi ld lo do an adult'sjob.

The influence of compressor and turbine sizes 011 syst.em perl"or'mance will
gencl'ally follow t hese guidel ines:
C OMPRES SOR. A compressor has a particlllar combi.nat.ion of ~tilnOW and
boost pressure al which il is most eff:i:cient. The tdck in choosing optimum
comp ressor size Ies in positio ningth e point ofmaxil11llm emcienc.Y al the l110sl
usefu l part ofthe r ey range. Ch oosing ihe most useful parl ofthe rev range is
where some judgmenL needs to be exercised. Keep in rnind al all limes that
when efficiency drops off, heai produced by the turbo gocs up. Lf a turbo were
sized such thai Illaximlllll efficiency occurred at one~third orthe rey range, er..
ficiency aL 0 1" near theredline would taper ofrto where the charge lempe ralure
would be scol'ching hoL Al lhe olber extreme, ir maximum efficiency were al
1.he redl .nc, mid-range temperatures could get out ofhand. This pl:l1't.icula:r s ize
would then be useful only for running fiat out al thall'pm; .e. , the Bonneville
cal'. Somewhere in lhe micldle of lhe useful rey range 01' the engine Jies the best
place lo locate t.he maximun1 eflic.iency point.
Larger 01' smaller compressors do not have a huge efrec. 011 lurbo lag 01'
boost threshold. 'rhe compressor whect is lhe ligbtest rolati ng part. ofthe tUl'''
bo; hence, its conlribution to the tota l inertia of the rotaLing assembly is fairly
low. Boost lhreshold is mostly a function 01" the t.urbo's apeed, which is con~
t,'olled by the tUl'bine,
Onen, a choice of lurbo(s) i5 influencccl by factors oLher than those opLi~
mized by t.hermodYllamics 01' maximllm power. Vehicle tost can det.ennine the
numberoft.urbos, rOl" example. One would noL expecL to sce aFerrad V. 12 wiLb
one turbo and a Mazdo. Miat.a wit..h two. Cast. also plays a large par1. in desig:n.
ing a syslem. Tflow cost is impenltive. perhaps even lhe waler~cooled bearing
fcaLurc \Vould be del elad in favor ol' lUore frcqucnL oi! cbanges.
UltimaLely, lhe valuC' of the eq uipmenl selected wiJI nol He jU!il with cosl,
powel; thermodYllftmic factol"s, 01" lhe nu mber of turbas. RaLh el~ it wiJI be de~

GENERAL GUIDELINES

25

- - - - - - - lowrpm max. eHiciency pI

Flg. 3~2. Wilh " smnll

turbo. the maximum


effic:ieucy point pcnJn;
early, o"d lempemtw"f!s
will be lowesl otloUJ
boost p ressures. 7'0 kecp
temperolures dowlt al
high power oulpulS, a
large turbo is dearl.)'
necessary.

~ Highrpm max. elfiClency pI.

.-

Midrpm max efhciency pI.

/'

\
\

/'

/'

4
5
7
6
8o0s1 pressure (psi)

10

_ __ ___ NormaUy asplraled

Flg. 3-3. A s Ihe I1wxi


mum effi.cie1lCJ poinl
QCCurs nl higher and
Itigher rpm , coo/c,.lel1l~
peratures oLso oceto:
Cooler1emperalu res
mean denser a: which
keeps torquc pealls al
high er rpm.

- - - - - - - lowrpm max efficlency pl


Midrpm max. efficiency pi
~ Hlghrpm max. efficlency pI.

'"

,,"/
/"/'
/
.

~-/-.:-::._-.
. ---~~.~---::;Q~-<~":~<>--. /
--'"""-

--

--- ----

4
Apm x 1000

tcrmined by Lhe way Lh is baby behaves on lhe road . 15 il ACLually fast, ami c10es
it feel fast? Does it fee l rcsponsive ancl eager lo run? 15 il crisp and sharp? Does
it. pull s moolb ly with ease and gracc lo lhe recHine? DOS il make you s mile
when no one is arouncl to see?
Sta]"L by selecti ng two 01' th ree candidales whose pressure ratio and cfm ap~
pem', from Lhcir Aow maps, io be in the righl rango, wit.h efficiency not below
60%. Om.:e th is is accomplished, it is m"Cessary
..
lo pcrform calculations lO
c:boose hetween them. (Sec Chapter 17 10r an example ofthese calculalons ap
plied lo a s pecific inslaJ lali onJ
TURBINE. 'T'he turbine's role is to power the compressor. In doing so. it l11usl
make Lhe compl'esso r s pin fasl enough lO produce the c1esired ai tnow rates al
the designnted boost. pressUles. A smrul lurbine will spin faster than a larger
turbine, given the samo exhausl gas energy to work with. Furlhet; H smalJ tll1'~
bine will ofTer. in essence, a greater reslriclion lo lhe Aow of the exhallsL gases.
This restriction CHuse:) back pl'essurc betwee.n the LUrbine and the combustion
chnmbcr. This bac.k pressure is an ev il siclc p.neci Qflh~ lurhochal'ger and rnllst
be denlt with accol'di ngly. In reahly, lhcn, selection uf lhE' turbine m\lst focus on
lhe principIes of spinning tile lurbin!' f::lst c llough tu produce thc d~il'ed re
sponsf' Mld boost prcssurl.'syet kep.ping back prcsstlr~ t. l. nhsolutpminimum.

26

CHAPTER

3:

Selecting
Compressor

Size

SElECTING THE TURBOCHARGER

A few fundame nLal s must be unders tood pl"i or lo the actual process ofchoosing
compl'cssor sizc. 1(. is necessary lo develop El fee l for the co ncepts of pressu re
ralio, airlow rate. dcnsi ty ,"atio, nnd compressor efflciency befare Dne ca n be
comfortable with the logic behind choosing a comp ressor s izc.
PRESSURE RATIO. 'fhe pressure ratio is Lhe lotal absolute pressure produced
by lhe lurbo dividcd by atmospheric pressure. Absolutc pressure mean s the
amoun t ofpressure aboye nothing a l all. Nothing al al l is zer o absolut.e, so almosphe ric is 14.7 absolute. 'rwo psi boost becomes 16.7 absol ule, 5 psi boost is
19.7 absolut.e, a nd so on. Tot.aJ ab50lute pressure is then whatever the gau ge
reads plu s 14 ,7. ','he pr'essul'e ratio thu s becom es a refleclion of the number of
atmospher es of pressure generated .

Pressure ratio =

14.7 + OOost
14.7

Example:
Far 5 psi boost :
PR ;

14;.; 5; 1.34

In lhis exam ple, app l'oximalely 34% tnQr'e air will go into the engine than
lhe en&rine could have consu med by iLse1f.
For l 2 ps i boost :
PR ; 14.7 + 12 ; 1 82

14.7

Be re, appl"Oximately 82% more air wilI be going Ulroug h the system. Pressure is also measured in bar, short for bar ometric (l bar = 14.7 psi). i n the
above example, a pressure ratio 01' 1.82 eqllates to a n intake pressure of 1.82
bar. 1'his LerlTI is lIsed in high-class turbo cil'c1es (which explains why it does
nOL appear again in this book).

Rg. 3-4. Compressor


delLStty ratIO uersus
pre88"re rallO.

Compressor elliciency

g ~ ~
~.(bRo
~

CO'

40

Density recovery wlth inlercooling

Dellsily is degrade</. by
lemperaJ.ure; lhel'e{ore.

actual ail'-mass
iftcrease

IS

aLways less

titan lhul mdicated by


the preSSltre r(aio.

2.0

1.0 I;,--~-'-;"';;-'-'"~-;;,-;;~.......,c';'-~~;;1.0

1.5

2.0
Densily ratiO

2.5

(Ec>

3.0

SELECTlNG COMPRES SOR Sll E

27

Ultimately. powcr produced by tu r boch al'gillg depends on the


numberofai r molecules packed nio each cubic inch ofvolulllc. This is referred
to as the density of the alr charge. This densiloy t.akes a bit of a bealing in passing th rough the f.UI"boc ha rgcl' system. When t.he air molecu les a re rorced dosel'
togcther by the turbo to a CCI"min p,"essure rat.io, dcnsity dDes nol increasc by
lhe sarne rat.io. This is because comp l"ession makes lhe temperature d sc, and
t he nir molecules expund back aparto bascd on how hot the air gels. Although
t he ai r chargc winds up denser, densit,y is always less than the pressure ratio, as
indicated in figure 3-4. (Si nce the nir intake syst.em LS 1101 a fixed volwnc, air
density can decrease without t he pressul'C ratio decreasing.) The eITon expend.
ed by a designer to use eflicient L"Ompressors a nd intercoolers aUows the den sity
ratio to get closer and claser Lo t he pressul'e ratio but never quite reueh L.
AIRFlOW RATE. The airf-low rate tllI'ough an engine 15 us ually referred to as
cubic feet per minute (crro) of air aL standard atmospherie pressurc. 'rhe tech
nically correct but lessused term i5 pounds of ai r per minute. This book will
use Lhe semiincorrect term "cfm."
To calculare the airflow rate of nn engi ne without. a turbo--i.e. no boos t :
cid x rpm x 0.5 x E
Airflotu rale =
1728
...
DENSITY RATIO.

Here, flow ratc is in erm and displacement is in cub ic ioches. The .5 is due to
the faet that a four-strokec.:ycle engine 6Jls its cylinclers onJy on one-half the
revolutions. Ev is volumetl'ic efficiency. The 1728 co nverts cubie ioches Lo cu
bic reel.
Example:
In a s mall-block Fard, letsize = 302 cid, rpm = 5500, and Ev = 85%.
T hen

Airflow rate =

302 x 6500 x 0.5 x 0.85


1728

= 408 c(m.

Rg. 3-5. Tlle uolume

rote orflow (crm) ror


rOltrstroke-cye[e
engines. Choose all
ellgi,te size (tlle x-a:ci$)

;[
~

(wd an rpm, afld lile


erm is shown on tlle

.!!!

y-axis.

i,
~
~

:ll

;;

()

350
Olsplacemenl (CU IN .)

400

450

28

CHAPTER 3: SELECTING THE TURBOCHARGER

With the basic engine now rateestablished, the flow 'a le under bOOSl can be

determined. The pressure ratio times the basic engine Row rale lhen becomes
Lhe appl'o:dmate ftow rale under boosL (neglecting volumeLric effic iency): the
number we ' re rcally after. In t he small block Fard opel'atingaL 12 ps i bocsL:

Ai,-flollJ rale = pressure ratio x basic engille crm


= 1.82 x 408 = 743 cfm

'1'0 convert cfm to thc more cancet term oC pounds of air per minute, erm
mus Lhe multiplied by Lhe density OfaiT aL the working altitude (soe tablc 31).
COMPRES SOR EFFICIENCY. In concept, compre5501" efflciency is a measure of
how well the comp ressol' wheel can pump air without heating the nir mOre
than thermodynamic Jaw says ii s hould. 'l'herrnodynamics says thcail' tcmpcralure should rise a tertain amount based on the pressure ratio. That temperature rise would be ealled the ideal temperature rise. When the temperature is
aetuaJly measured, it is always higher than the t hel'modynamie eaJculation indieates itshould be. The measured temperature rise s, of(.'Ourse, the real temperature rise. The efflcieney is the calculated temperature rise divided by the
real temperature rise. In essenee. efficiency is how wel! the compressor reaUy
behaves with I'cspect to how weH thermodynarnics says it should behave.
Al! compressor whee ls operate with peak percenlage elliciencies in lhe seve ntieso Choosing compressor size becomes mostly a question
where that
compressor's efficicllcy peaks with respect to the now capabili tics of the engine/tul'bo system.
With nn llndcl'slanding of the terms pressure ratio, density ratio, airRow
rate, and compressor efficiency, the basic information necessal"y to selecl a
compressor fOl' a given application is al hand. l n genera l, lindel' 7 psi is low
boost. 7- 12 psi is medium boosl, ami over 12 psi is high boosl. Working
through the example of the small-block Ford with several choices of compres501'5 wilI iIIustrale lhe pl'ocess of calculatioll as well as the imporlante afplacemcnt of lh e efficiency peak. A s tudy of Fig. 3-6 indicates t he efTect of a
compressar's efficicncy on charge tempel'alures. In general, compressor effi-

or

Altit.udc (fL!
rabie 3-1. Vario/joll o(
ai,. pressltl'e QJld lemperall/re UJilh allitucle

BOOO

Air pressure
li n. hg)
29.92
28.86
27.82
26.81
25.84
24.90
23.98
23.09
22.23

9000

21.39

10.000
11.000
12.000
13.000
14.000
15.000

20.58

Sea leve!
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000

19.BO

19.03
18.30
17.58
16.89

Temperahtre
1"1')
69.00
55.43
51.87
48.30
44 .74

41.17
37.61
3l1.05
3M8
26.92
23.36
19.79
16.23
12.67
9.11
5.5:')

Relat ive
de-n sit
1.00
.997
.993
.989
.986
.982
.979
.975
.972
.969
.965
.962
.958
.95.
.951
.947

SELECTING T URBIN E SIZE

Flg. 3-6. Compreslior


discharge lemperalure
versus p ress/lre ruJio.
Why one wants lO
sec/J,re the Jighesl
compressor efficicllcy
possiblc: lile greoler
the efficietlcy, lhe lower
tite temperalure.

29

3 .5

3.0

'~
CII

2.5

a.

2.0

1.5

1.1~

__

~~

150

__

200

__

~L-

250

__- L____J -__

300

350

400

Compressor discharge temperalures (OF)

ciency withoul an ini.ercooler should be at easL 60%. Ift.he syst.em ineludes an


intercooler, minimum efficiency can be somewhat less (seo Chapter 5).
With the calculated vnluesofthe cfm and pressure ratio for tho Ford 302 example, one isr-eady lo go to the comprosso!' maps to check where the emeieneies lie in order to det.ermine a suitable comp rosso!'. PloL lhe caJculaLcd data of
cfm = 743 and PR = l.82 on the axes ofthe compl'Cssor maps. The intersection
or the two lines represents the maximum flo\\' the compl'cssor can produce at
lhe pressure ratio fOl" l.his application , and thaL poinL falts into a particular efficicncy percenLile on eaeh map. ll. is largely the ef'ficiency ot this poinL that establishes the s uitability or that compressol' fOI" the purLiculnr applica Lion. In
figure 3-7, the intel"section of these points fall s along the 67% line, In figure 3
8, lhe inlersection fa lls lo lhe righl of lhe 60% line. which indicales lhallhe
erficiency will be somewhat less-pcrhaps 50-55%. Therefore, the H 3 would
be a less satis fact.ory choice for tbis application .
'fhe s urge characteristics of Lhe compresso l" with I"egard to the a pplication
Illlls1 also be examincd befare finalizing a selection. This can be appl'oximated
in a simple manner. A sslIme lhat the desired pl'esslIl"e ratio is reached :lt 50"k
ofthe redline rpm and plot th is point. nn the compJ'cssol" map. The aboye exam~
pie with 1'1'111 = 2750 lhen establishcs a poinl al cfm = 371 and PR = 1.82.
Dl'a\\' a line fl"om thi s poinL lo a point. al PR = 1 and crro = 20% of maximum,
01' 149 crm in lhis example. It is imperat.ivc thal t hls line He completely lo the
righL of"the line on the flow map called the surge limit, Su rge limits are not al
ways labelcd On Bow maps, bul you ca n assu me they are lhe leftmosl line. Thjs
exam ple indicates thaL the 60-1 com pressor, aL 67% effic iency, is bettet" suited
fol' thi s application than Lh e H3. al. 551fl..

Setecting
Turbine
Size

T he inl.ended use ofthe engine/turbo syslem is ngrull the I)rimary inAuence on


~election 01' turbine sizl? l nLpnd,..d use dletales a choice 01' lowsptY'd. mirl
range, or lop.end torqut:. Thf' Ch01Cl' can easil.v oncomp;1"'" two ofth{'ljl! rallges.

30

CH~PTER

3:

SELECTING THE T URBOCH ARGER

3 40
AIf. 3 -7. NeClr(v yOV

l.'m ore auclah/e {mm


tite Turbonellf;s 60- J
;'mnpressor uwh u

3.20

300

prc$..o.;lI.re ntli.o aI2.8.


Thc sleep Lndi"c ofllle
..urge {WIII /tlle deari.y
Incllcate."i Ihal fhe 60- J
wdl produce Illgh

boo.'il "ressllres (I( luw


c(m befo,.e :surge lS
produc.:cl The , u mbcrs
ell I hl! extrme ncht nre

2.80
2.60
Q

~ 240

eo

~ 2.20

e
a.

2.00

lhe turblllc rpm .


180

96400

160~~

1.40

120
46100
lOOL-~",~~,"~~,,~~~~<~~~t,,'*'~~~>ot,,~

150 200 2SO 300 3SO 400 450 500 5SO 600 550 700 750 800 850 900
Alrtlow (cfm)

3.40

Rg. 3-8. 'fhe 'furbom:tics H 3 compressur


will produce 750 cfm
ul Cl prcssu rc raJU) ol
2.8. bId IJus yil.'/d$ 011

3.20
3.00
2.80

4ficLcmey o{ ollly 6()1f..


Natf] hou; Ihcsurgc 11Iu~

0,,: H-3

,~

al
111

work

htJih />(Jos! pres.SlJres


Il/tL airfluw m tes.

1204"9
/

2.60

leclIl:J sharpl:J fU lhe


rilllt, indicall1l!! thal.
will/Wl

I 2500!}

t!' 2.40
o

~ 2.20
,

Q.

2.00

105500

1,80

96600

160
I 40
I

20 ~'--~c::;;::::;;2;:
46200

1 OO!

'1

150 200 _\o 1CO ,SO "00150 500 550 500 550 700 7SO
l\irllow (clml

SELECTlNG T URBINE SI Z E

Ag. 3-9 . Dc/irutLOII of

31

Eltduce bofe

lile e.rduccr oore

Turtllne
wheel

5hafl

T U/bine oUllel

\ _ _ _ ExhaUSl hOUSIIlg

Turblne

miel

In making Lh is selcction, Lwo quantiti es muslo be dealt. wiLh: basic Lurbinc $IZe
and area/radius <NR) ratio.
BU1C TURBINE SIZE . Consider basic Lurbine size a measul'C of the tUl'bin c's
abi li ty lo generate lhe shaft. power required to dri ve lhe compl'CSSOI' al. the flow
raLes dcsired. Larger t.ul'bines, thcl'cfol'c, generaUy olfer higher power ouLputs
tha n s mallCl' Lm'bi nes. For a large mensu re ofsimplicity, t.urbine size can gen
el'ally bejudged by lhe tul'bine's exducer bore, Whil e this is a gross s implificatio n ofLhe science ofturbines, iL is nevcl'lheless a reasona ble repl'csenlation 01'
the lw'binc 's flow capability,
Tha graph of exduce r ho re versus intake cfm is nOL a selection t.ool bul. an
approxi m:.l te size l1ldicatol', A reasonable Lurbine selecLion melhod is LO con4

Flg.3-.10. ilppro.xwwtt:

3.5

exducer bol'e required (o


power a oompressor io a
give,~ flow mte

3.0
.S

2.0

S
,5

50

-....- -

100

MI

100

--t--

e ~mp(e~r 111. .....

~--

00

:.00

e',

.~-~

81JO

~()O

32

CHAPTER

3:

SELECTING THE TURBOCHARGER

sult the sallrce from wholll yau are purchasing the turbocharger. Certainly a
choice will cxist whether to err on the high side 01' the low sicle. Again J lhis
choice falls within the scope ofthe original objectives ofthe turbo syste m. 1 wiU
go for the higher side every time.
CHOOSING AH AJ R RATIO. WhiJe basle turbine sizc renecis a mensure orthe tur
bine's f-low capabili ty, t he NR ratio is a rnethod oC fine tuning between basic
sizes. To easily grasp the idea of a n NR ratio, imagine the t urbine hOllsi ng as
nothingmore than a cone wrapped a round a shaft to look Ike a 5nail. Unwrap
t hiscone and cu l ofTthes mall end a shortdistance fl'cm the tipoThe ha le in the
cnd of the cone i5 Lhe discha rge a rea. The area ol' this hole is the A of the NR
ratio. The size of the hale is significant, as it determi nes the velocity with
which exhaust gases exit the turbine sCl'oll and enter t he turbine blades. For
any given rate of OO\V, a smaller exit \Viii require that the gases llow faster.
1'hus, the arca ofthc exit 15 imporLant in controll ing tbe velocity ol'the gases as
they enter the turbine blades. Th is velocity has much to do with controll ing
the actual speed ofLhe turbine. It is necessary to keep in mind tballbe arca of
this exit is the conlroUing factor in the bad side-cfTect ol' exhaust gas back pressure and, thus, rcversion into the combustion chambers.
The R ol' the NR ratio is the distan ce from the center of the seclion arca in
t he cone to the cen ter ol' th e turbine s han. AH As divided by t heir respective R s
wil! give the same dividend:
Al

A2

R = No

Aa

A"

= R. 3 = R4

A6
= Rs = R6
A5

or

Area

";-:'-:F", = t'Ofl.sI.O.llt

Radius
The R also has a slrong nflu ence in controlling turbi ne s peed. Ifone imag.
nes that the turbinc blade tips will trave l abouL a fast as Lhe gas is moving

Fig. 3--11. Dcfiuitioll o{


tite

NR

rollO

SPLlT-INLET E XHAUST HOU SING

33

when it elllers the tip area, il iseasy t.osee lhata sOlallcr R wi ll imparl a higher
I'otating speed to t he turbine.
Flg. 3 1.2. To increose
tltrbilfe spced, which
uaries witl, chonges o{
lhe NR ratio, il is
almost a/wa)'s tJr.e
discharge aroo tllat is
chollged, with the
radius remailli"g

Discharge area

~
;

----

Exhausl

IIow

colIstall.J.

ExhauSI
lIow

It is 01' furthel' value lo noie thal a larger R will efTectively give t he turbine

shan gl'cater torque with which to dl'ive lhc compressor wheel. 'rhe same force
(ex haust gas) app lied wilh a grealel' lever arm (R) puts more torque in oo the
shaft. This, on occasion, can aJlow a biggel' compressor wheel ir conditiol1S so
require . .In pl'8ctice, however. it is almost always thc A that is changed, whi le
the radius remains constant. A simplifled approach lo choosing the NR ratio is
su mmed l1p in F'ig. 3 l3.
Selecting what appeal's to be a 10gicaJ starLing point fol' an NR ratio is one
lhing, but aclually getting the right ane syel anolher. rrriaJ and error is usualI,V necesS31'y. A I'casonable choice can bcjudged by Lhe numbel's, 01' 1.0 some exlen!. by performance ami responS. Judging by lhe numbers I'equires
meaSUl'ement of cxhausl manifold pl'essul'C, 01' turbine l1let pl'essure, amI
compsl'ison with boosl p,cssul'e.
'fhescat-ofthe-punts feeJofan impropcl' NR selection is sluggish booal rise
ifthc ratio is too lal'ge. 'rhe ratio can be so big as to kcep lhe turbo fl'om tu,'ning
fast cnough lo produce tho desil'cd boost. Ifthe ratio is on the small s ide, the
turbo response can be so ql1ick as lo seernjumpy and difficultlo dl'ive smoolh
Iy. rt will also show up as fadi ng power in the uppel' thil'd ofthe engine's rey
range. 'rhe feel is simihll' to that of l nOl'lTInlly aspirnted engine with a VCl'y
small cal'burelor. "Choked" is a reHsonable description.
Split-lnlet
Exhaust Housing

A split.-inlct exhaus l hou s ing permita the exhaust pulses lo be grou ped fol' separated) by cylindel' a1l the way to lhe lurbine. 'l' hc mel'il of doing this is in
keeping the individual package of cnergy, {In exha ust pull, inlact and unrna
lested by othel' pUlts all the way to I he t urhine. Th cnn give the turbine a lit
tlt! better kick to get i t moving. When you ronsuif'1' t.hi~ nbsoluie barrage of
pulses and enel'gy crnning clown IhC' luhe fmm 011 eight~l. dinder engine. the

34

CHAPTER 3: SELECTlNG THE TURBOCHARGER

Ag. 3--1.3. l'he t:ffect o(


var,.rtg lhe AlU ralw,
all olher factors
rcmai.!wlg cOll stanl

A
A

A
Ralo
15

_ 1.4

14

12

A
A :.7

6
4

10

12

14

16

16

20

Turbina lnlel pressure (psi)

Lurbine will get more energy than il needs fOI" almost any given situation .
'l'hus, a split hous ing wiJl make zip fOI" improvement on a s ingle-t.urbo VB. A
rour-cylinder, by compar iso n, which sees only ane putt every 1800 0f crank rotation, needs al! the energy iL can gel from esch pulse. Keeping them sepa rate
and undisturbed wiU Lh erefore pay some dividends,

Flg. 3-1.4. 'file splilin/el exhousf housirg

tlteorelt.eally offers a
small performance
uduQntage by keeping
e.xAausl pulses In CJ
tighl bundle all the
way ro the lur{)/ ne.
1'his is mor effeclwe
{or engines wlth fetucr
c:ylillders, and Iltu s
{ewer pulses, per cugme
cyclc.

Two Turbos
or One?

Several reasons exisL for giving falsc considcl'at.ion Lo lIsing two Lurbos whel'c
One mighl othel'W;RC do tbe job, Pl'ohably the most populHr notion of the ad-

DESIRABLE FEATURES

35

vantage of two turbos is rcduc(."<i lag. T his notio n is gencra Uy hard to jusLiJY.
HaJItheexhaus t cnelgy put through each oftwo turbines, wilh inertia propor-onal to the squ8re and Aow proportionalto the cube, is not necessurily condu cive to produ cing less lag. Multiple turbos imply more power. Power lS, in parl,
a runction of eiliciencies. AJI otber things equal, a big turbo is more efficient
lhan a small one. Pizwzz is a rcasonable consideratlon whcn tUlbocharging a
F'errari, but the same logiccannotbe applied lo a turbo installation on a pickup
truck. Good reasons do exist. for usin g t.wo tu rbas. 'rhis is particularly t rue
with respect to V-style or horizont.ally opposed cylinder layouls.
Exhaust manjfo ld design is one or the keys to high power outpu t, and lhe
Lwo-turbo layout inh erently ofTers superior manifold des ign o'1'he heat 1088 of
the cross tube in V-style engles can be cons iderable. Remcmber, it is in part
lh is heat that. powers the turbine.
A two-lurbo design wiIJ usually require two wasteb~Les . Other than the minor problem of synchro oing the Lwo gaLes, much gr eater co ntrol oI" hubine
speed aL Jow boost pressures can be achieved. The stabiJity ofboost pressure aL
high Bow ra tes is also improved. lfremote wastegates ale usad rather than integrals, the acLua1 exhau sL gas How area can be enlarged by giving the gaLes
t beir own tailpipes.
Greater Lurbi.ne di scharge a rea is always an improvement to "he syste m.
'rUlbine disc harge pipes from two turbos will vir tual ly always give a laJ'ge now
increase. Far example, lwo 2 1/4-inch-diameter tubes ofTer s uhs tantially more
How area thanju sLone of 3 inches.
A rurther reason two turbas oITer superiority under certaio condi tions is
t.hat the heat is divided bet.ween two mec hani slUs, allaw ing each to operate
w1th lower heat input. 'l' he heat.a bsor bed into the matarials of the turbo is proportionaJ to the temperature ofthe gases and their mass rate of flow. The temperature will remain the same, but tbe mass rate al" How wUl be halved. rrhus
the operating telllpelaturc orthe Lurbo will be red uced, and ils life expcctancy
somewhat improved.
Desira b le
Features

Tbe wate r-coo led bearing is a feature that


problbly exlends tll e average lurbo's usefullife by a factor of lwo. T he presence of wuter How through a jacket surrounding the bearing chambel' greaL ly
reduces temperature rise of the lubrica ting oil as it passes Lhrough t he bearings. The rcduced temperat,ures keep lhe oil from looking ke Brand X i11 the
Mobill commercials. Charred oil residue accll mulating: inside the turbo and
even lual1y blocking lhe oil Aow, thlls killing the turbo, is the dread disease
ca.lled IIcoked-lIp beari ngs." (See chapLer 4. ) ihe watercooled bearing was erealed becausc t.oo many end usel"!; refused to change oil on a schedule dict.ated
by the turbo. Ironically, the pr esence ofthe water-cooled bearing does notofTer
ser ious exte ns ion of oil-changa intervals. Go straight. to the best combinatiol1
possib le: water-coo led bca rings and frequent oil changes.
TURB O SECTlON CLOCKING. ihe rotation of one turbo section relat.ive LO anothcr
is called c1ocking. AJth ough integral wastegates oITer a measure of conveme nee in the des ign of noncompetition turbo systems, Lhey usua11y do not 81low the t.hrce sections of the t.urbo (lurbine, bearing, flnd cmpressor) to be
rolated 3600 wilh respect lo each othCl'. Res trictions 0 11 c10cking can serious ly
handicap packaging the turbo system inlo nn cngine cnmpartm e-nt.
CONHECTIONS TO THE TURBO. The Ranges on lhe turb i m~ hou~ing thuL I,;f)J1nt:t.l
the turbo lo the exhsust manifold and t.ailpipe are tWIJ IIr lhe ruosL CO llllllon
W AlE R-C OOlEO BEARING SECTtONS.

36

CHAPTER

3:

SELECTlNG THE TURB OCHARGER

failul'C localions in the elllire syslem. Heat-induced warpage, faslener, and


gasket problems are relalively ca min an. In general, fhmge configura tions with
more fasteners ami thi cker sedians will endure the hcal wilh fewel- problems.
Sorne t.ul'bas use a mate l'ial callcd Ni-Resisl fOl" the cxhausl housing. Ni-Rcsist
is high in nickel and a rfers a wOl'thwhile improvemenl in hjgh-tempemture
slability, 81ld thus durability, ofthe exhaust. hou sing.
The compressor outlcl is aLmost a lways a hose-style connectioll. Flexibi lity
in thisjoint is usunlly desirable, toaccornmodate the movingaround ofthe lurbo caused by a stack-up oCthermal expansions. High-boost-pressure systems
may still need to add a connecting bar to the discharge tube, to keep the hose
connection intact lInder tile high tensile loads caused by higher boost levels.
Compressor in lels are ruso generally canfigured with hose eonnecLions.
These prave entirely adequate where fue l is noL inLroduced before the turbo.
In a draw~t h rough earb app li cation, the use of sny hose between Lhe carb and
the turbo should be avoided, as fuel will puddle at the hose. A large-diamete!'
hose boss permits a larger-diameter inJeL syste m. Large-diameter, low-flowloss inJeLs Lo the eompressor are vital. lnsure thaL all hoses are sufficie ntly stiff
to avoid eollapse due to the small vacuum ereated by Lhe ni.r ftIte r and any associated ni .. fiowmeters.

ANO FURTHERMORE

fIow important is lllrbocharger sizing?


Tha turbo has goL Lo be the right one for thejob. Tha right turbo will ofler a
low rpm boost threshold, low system restriction,low charge tempe ratu res, and
low exhaust manifold pressurc_ Anyone \ViLh the abiliLy Lo -ead and use a telephone can arrive at the right s ize turbo. No science, no magic,jusl a litt]e R&D.
For example, do you want the very lowesi boost threshold? Well, maybe, ifyou
drivc only in five o'clock trame. That is the only valu c a low boost lh,eshold
has. Be asSUl'ed , the lower the boosL th reshold, the less the horsepower. 00 the
other hand, ir maximum power is yau!' bag, the turbo size requircd probably

Flg.

3-~5.

Tite turbo

oc'Oring secJiolL fUil" a

tuater jadet o/Ters


extended turbo Jire and
l Oftger oil-cltaflge

i"/erlJals.

DESIRABLE FEATURES

37

won't produce lny boosl until the upper halfofthe rev range. IJ'his is impJ'acti
cal fOl" thc flexible requirements ora streeL turbo. Compromisc al bolh ends is
necessory. Don't fal! for the journalistic gag 1hat the mcrit of a tlll'bochargcl'
systcm is how SOOI1 it will produce boosl.

Does lhe brand of'l"rbod,arger af'fecl pe/formance?


No. Vh'tually all turbo units al'e durable, responsive, alle! cfflcient. The per
formunce of a kit is in no way relntcd to the turbo brand unJess that. bl"a nd is
lhe only proper size availablc fol' the applicat.ion. Sorne designs Ccalure integral wastegates. These wasiegates tenel to I'cquire a bit. more work to makc
lhcm as efTective as remote wastegates. rn 1ha1 situation th e brand affecls performance, but il's because ofthe integraJ wastegate.

Do twi" lurbos alTer a"y a.duanlage ?


Sometimes. An engine with flow capabilities greater than 300 cfm (roughly
180 cid) can benefit fram two turbas. Two litUe turbos can slightly cut turbo
lag, as opposed to one large turbo, and allow a better balance of low-speed and
Lop-end boost perfonllance. Over 350 cid) twin turbas become a virtual necess ity. Do not acce pt the iden that lwin turbas are inherently more powerrul , as
loo many olher factors are involved.

What does compressorefficiency mean, and why is it important?


Compressor efficiency means nolhing more than the r ea l temperature or
lhe air cOIlling out of the turbo uncier boost re lal.ive to a caJculated number
based on thCl'Illodynamic equations. Calculate one, measure the olhel~ dividc
the calcu tatad by the measured, and yau have compressor efficiency. Matchjng
a cOlllpressor's efficiency to a particular enbri n e is important, in thai gett.ing
maximulll efficiency somewhere near th e powcJ' peak 01' maximum rpm m eans
thal t he compressor has induccd the lowest possiblc the rmall oad. "High ly efI1cient" is a goofy expl'ess ion invenled by casual wJ'ilel's ahout. turbas to mean
nolhing more than that whatever vehiele a lurbo is on gets boost at low s peecls.
Ir something ca n be exactJy wrong, this is an example of iL Low-speed boosl
means small compl'essors Lhal are inefficienl at high s peed. Thus, they produce high Lemperatul'es and are quile thc opposite of "high ly cfficient."

Does exhausl manifold press"re i{luente performance?


Yeso Exhaust ll'l.anifold press ul'e is a measure ofhow well thc turbin e uniL is
slzed for the e ngin e. Exhaust manifold pressure should nOL excccd approximately twa a nd H ht11ftimes lhc boosl pressure. It is tempt.ing 1'01' l<il makers 1,0
use turbines too sma ll for the job just to show a psi of boost at low rpm. Low
I'pm boost. can be nice, bul to overdo il means asevere (20% 01' so) loss ofpower
above mid-rango rpm. A proper balance of low verSlIS top end is a devclopment.
problem every kit make, should go through. Gene"ally, less exhaust manifold
pressurc me.:'1ns moro bhp. In olher wOl'ds, bigger Lurhines go rasler.

TURBOCHARGER
LUBRICATION
The problem of lubri catjn g a shun s pinning inside a s leeve-t..y pe journa)
bearing wAs Slved IllBny years ago. No new scicnce \Vus necessary whon the
turboch81'ger came along, even though it presenied a couple of new t.w i sLs. The
new twists were t.he tremendous heaL in the turbine side a nd t he cumulative
dsmage t.o the oil by t.he migration 0 (' th.is heat. int.o Lhe bearing secti on. 1'he
bea deteriorates the oil and quickly makes it. unusable. Solutions f.o these new
t.wists on the oiling pl'oblem have a1wa.Ys been rendily I;lvai lable but. havej ust
rece nt.ly becn implement.ed. Reasons for delay, one presulll.es. wer e eco nomics
and fear of sales resistance. The eco nomic aspect of Lhe oil problem was th e
OEMs' reludance Lo incr ease prices by the amount necessary Lo pul a waLer
cooling jacket around the bearing section. The sales problem was th e reluc
tance of'the sales departm nt. to tel! the cons umer he must ch('nge the e ngine
oi! with greater frequen cy- feal~ 1 suppose, that. the end user would shy away
n'om what incorrectly appeared to be a highmaintenance product.. lt'sj ustanother example of the sad stat.e of affairs when sales and accou nt.ing ovel'l'we
sound engineering. The st.ory ends on an upbeat note, however, as virt.u ally a1l
OEM turbo cars now have water-cooled bearings and Lhe recom mendation of
frequent. oil changes. H ad Lh is state ofaffairs existed from the start ofproduction ofOEM turbes, Lhe English language would be missi ng Lhe less-than-colorful phrase "cokedup turbo bearings." Pity.

Flg.

4-~.

A ix.,(lring

section ami ... hall. wilh

/oouy deposts of
charred oU ccm expecJ
imuUTuml de.mise.
A coked-up bearillg is
lhe result of using oil
IUUh insufficient hightempera/ lire stabilily
a1l.cllor "ol challgl l/g oil
(viiI! sufficielll
(reqwmcy.

or,

39

40

CHAPTER 4: TURBOCHARGER LUBRICATlON


Wh at Cau~es
a Cokedup

Bearing?

Coking is nothing mOI"e thnn charred oil residuo accurnu lating in Lhe turbo
beruoing secLion Lo such an extcnl th.a1 the proper fta\\' of oil Lo the bearing is
eventuaJly blocked. The seriously comprom ised oil flow will ki1J Lhe turbo in
sbort older. F'ourlhings gnng up on the turbo Lo cause a coking problem:
Oil wilh inadequate hightemperature capability
.. O I wilh a wide multiviscosity range
Extended oil-change inLer vals
.. Excessive heat in the bearing sectio n
DeaHng with these problems and the mechanics of a clean, cool oil supp ly is
the focus of this chapter.
Q'

RULE: Ifyour turbosurTers a coked bearing failure, checkyou r own ma in-

tenance diligence befare cursing th e tu rbo.

Seleding a
lubricating Oil

' I' he selection of a type, grade, and brand of engin e oil should be done with
some forethought and perhaps even a little R&D. Please weed out all oJd family
biases toward Rosie's Red Re-Refined 'cause Dad used it back on the farm and
wouldn't hear ofusin' nothin' elsc. Dad may noL have cha nged much ove r the
years, but engine oil and traclors have made progress measured in ordel's of
magniludc.
Here's what yau need lo do: First, get a reel for whaL the lubricant is supposed 10 do for your engine and wbat special requirements your si tuati oll imposes on the Jube. These dala will tell you what type af oil will best fit your
needs. Secand, can5ider Lhe climate and operating conditians the lube must
endure. Thls info tells you wh at viscosity and level af scvel'ity (grade) lube wil!
do the bestjob fOI" you.In general, it is besL to avoid wide-range, multiviscosity
oils, as the matcriaJs added thaL create the mult.iviscosity capabilily al'e the
same materials lhat cause th e coking. Thus 20W-50 is c1early betLer turbo oil
than lOW- 50. A straight viscosity is best of a ll, with a t.en-poinL higher viscos1ty in summer. If it is possible to determine the dctergent rating a nd antioxidizing rating, good turbo oil will be h.igh in thosc two catego ries.
Now you know the type and grade of lube thal lS you!" best choice. The one
remaining facto l" is t he brand Lo buyo T his boi ls down to availability, pricc, and
what you r R&D efforts teH you i5 truly the lubricant fOI" your engine. One can
be relalivcly cer tain t hat an oil formu lated for turbo use, and so adverl.isecl,
will be an adequate lubricant.

Types o,

There are two choices herc: syntbetic-based or mineral-based lube.


Sy nthetic lubes are manufactured fluids (nol. necessarily fTom oil) in wh ich
th e basic structure of the lube ls much morc rigidly controllcd than in slandard hydrocarbon oils. The resultant product is a very cons is ten!., slablc fluid
wilh unH'orm molecubtT stl"ucture, whose properties are highly predictable.
Synthelics have c1endy dcmonstrated their capability with res pect to frictional Iosscs. high-tempcrature st.ability, and basle toughncss of the molecular
5lruCLure. Mineral-bascd lubes are less expcnsive and mor e likely Lo coke.

Lubricants

Water-Cooled

Bearing Housings

'rhe turbo bcaring hous ing with a water jacket around the bearing chamber
has virtually eliminated theproblem ofoil coking . The cooling capability ofthe
water is such Lhal the oil seldom reaches t-he temperatul'e al which it begin s to
break down . Of cOUJ'se. all a il s ubject lo high-temperature use breaks down
slowly over ti me, so the need for pcriod icoil changcs s ti ll exists. 1'heoil-change
int f',"vul th us becomes onl y sli gh t1y less tha.n with an atmosphericengine.

OIL FL OW ANO PRES SU RE R EQUIREMENTS

41

Odln

Ag. 4-2. A water Jacket


i"corporated nlo thf!
turbo bearing hOl/sinC
arld connecled lo the
el/gil/e cool.ing system
carries away mosl o{lhe
heal that migra/es {mm
lhe exltaltst side lo the
bearing section. LubricutinO oil is guorded
{rom temperalllre levels
high enough lo l.'OU5e
coking.

Beaung
Waler

cav'ly
Water 0111 + -

+-- Water in

Qitoul

F1g. 4-3. Temperature


comparison o{ watercooled (wd non-watercooled bcarings, illustra/lng tempera/un!
magnitudes and
distributions ':'1. lite
trbo bearing section.

400
Coking temperature range

The fl.On-waler-cooled

hOllsing tan cause sorne


constanl damage lo lhe
oil. With 2000-mile oil
change in/cilla/s, Ihe
damaged partidas ofoif
will be rem.oued (Uul nol
cause cohillg.

100

.5

10

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Dislance lrom exhausl houslllg (in.)

Oil Flow and


Pressure
Requirements

Tbe turbo slll"vives with su rprisingly low oil pl'ess ul'e nnd flow. Ii is virtually
cerlain thnl all engin s in prodllction today have enollgh excess oil-pumping
capacity to adequately take on the additional requircment 01' lubricat.ing the
turbo.lfyou know a particular enginc was shortchanged in the oiling area on
original design. ii is ccrtainly a good idea lo fix il. However. fix it fa, the en
gine's sake and no1. fOI" lhe ndditional bllrden al' the turbo. Obser ve lhe basic
lower limits aroi l pressure nnd Uow publishcd by lhe t.urbo manufacturer and
yau can'l go wrong as far os lubricalion is concerned.
Too much oil pressure can create prablems with turbas. Il is possiblc lo
force oil pos t oil senls that are in perfecl condition ir oil pressure exceeds 65 to
70 psi al the turbo. Ir a particular engine crea tes more oil pressurc lhan the
seals can bundle. it Inay be necessa ry Lo inslall a resLricto!' 01' bypass systenl t,u
reduce preSSUl'e al. the turbo.
Problerns o' oil pressurc overpowerlllg' lho seal arE:! evident in a frequent ir
not quile constant smoking problem. Anytime oil prl" '1lr exceeds lhe 65-70

42

CHAPTER 4: TURBOCHARGER LUBRICATION


Oil hne lrom englne

Fig. 44. Otl prcssflre


reduclioll ui the turbo
by Cl reslnclor. Use o( a
resinelor r(.'C/lures lhal
pre~sure

cwailable (o
lhe turbo beorillgs be
meas ured (J.nd provell

Pressure before
Ihe res trictor

,055-.065. reslriClor
P - 30

Pressure after
lhe rosirictor

ad('(/uale.

Turbo

011 hne from angina

FIg.4-5. Ollpressure

redllction al tlle tllrbo


by a bypctss. 1'lu8 lS
more relUlble ihan a
restnctor ilL lhe oil {c.>ed
hne, bui Ihe pressure ni
t},e bcal'lllgs musl sJiIl
be kllown .

I / Aes'''c'~

Pressure
check gauge

0iI relum
10 engine

Turbo

psi range sud smoking persisls, a restricto!" or by pass s houlcl be ins taJ led prior
lo any other changes.
These are good gujelelines for virtually aU turbos:

ldle, hol
Maxitnlllll !(k'ld
Oil Coolers

Min. pl"essurc ( si)


5
z;

Min. flow (gaUlIlin )

0.1

0.5

Adding an oil cooler Lo a high-perforlllance cngine is ol'ten contemplaLed in Lhe


expectation 01' lmproving engine durability. AILhough it usually does, don 'L be
too hasty to rush out and buy a buge oil caaler withouL investigating the reaJ
requircrncnls 01' your engine. Oil prefers Lo opera te in a given temperature
,'angc thatsupplies the viscosity neE..ds for protecting lhe e ngine, doesn't overheal the oil on the high end and, when cool, docsn't, add more drag to lhe sysLem than neccssary. 'rhese rcquirements ar e aU easily meL by the right oi! type
und viscos ity opcl'ating in lhe conceL temperat.ure range.
Minerat-based oil5 are nol as Lolerant ofhigh temperatures as are synthetic

oils. FOI" sll"cel engines. bolh synlhelic and mineral-bawd oils have lhe same
lower lcmpl:!ratu rc rec!uiremt:nl (150"'F mi nimuIn ), b\lt. syntheti cs con operat.e
\.11 nhflllL 10"F higher /270'}<~ Vf' IT l l~ 230F rOl' minp l'a l-bascd ). 'l'here rore, yO ll

OIL FILT ERS

43

Rg. 4-6. Da system


fittillgs alld tines musl
wi1hstalUI hiCh tempero
ature.'! arld prssure.'i,
lhe hydrocarbon erwi
ronment, alld vibratiorl.
This oil feedlilLe instaLo
laliOIl, with immlation
and supporling brcu:ket
removed. reveals lhe
slurdiness required,
such thai oil feed to Ihe
turbo is Ilever a
problem.

may need a n oi! ceoler fyou use mineralbased oil and perhaps not if'you use
synthet.ic.
lt. need s to be lIJlderstood that oH t.emperatures below these minimums will
dCb"Tade dl.lrabi li ty just. as s urely as excecdi ng the maxilllulTIs. The installation
or an oil temperature gaugc will tell the whole swry. Do that berore installing
a n expensive oil cooler system. 'fhere are occasions when both oil and water
tempera tu res are on tbe high side but neither is out. of bouncls. Tbis situation
is ideal for an oil cacler, which wi ll remove enough extra heat from the entire
system to also reduce the water tempera tu re. l'he presence of a good oil cooler
can easily drop the water temperature by 15"The thermostatically controlled
oil syslem is a good idea: the oil must reach a certain preset. temperature befare
the thermostat divelts it to Ule oil cooler. Do keep in mind Lhat unlike water
cooling systems, ihe ther mostatically controUed oil system will not require t.he
oil to reach the minimum acceptable operoling temperature, because the oil
thermostat. does not. block the oi l Clow but merely djverts it. Tt has nothing t.o do
with the maximum t.empc.ratul'cs eiiher.
Oil Filters

The t.urbo creates no s pecial f1ltering requirements. lt is ccr t.ainly within the
acccpt.ablc range ol' reason, howevez~ t.hat. the real motorhead may want to care
rol' his highperfo,"mance engine a bit bctLer than relying on the stock filiT8
tion equ ipment. A wide val'iety ofgood component.s are avai1ab le.

Oil to
and from
the Turbo

The plumbingthal feeds oil t.o the turboand drains it back lO the engi ne is pel"
haps ihe weak link in the enUre schemc ofturbocharging. 'l'his is definitely the
place for a fiftee n~ cent par t. to fail anel take out a sevenhundled-dollar turbo
- 01', \Vorse yet, an engine bearing. The following should be considered mini
mum requjre menis. Do a thorough job, and don 't hesitat.e a mjnute to s pend
even more $ attemptin g to esLablJsh bragging rights on bujlding the fail-safe
turbo lu be system.
'l'he oillines feeding the turbo must meei the requlrements of pressure and
temperatura (use twice the oil-tc m>erature maximum allowable) and be hydrocarbooproof. Metalbraidprotected liDes are hjghly desi1'8ble {'rom the
standpointofabrasion. chafing, and vibration resistance. Use caution in allow
ing the metal braid Ene Lo touch allyth ing, as it will J'requclltly damage t heothel" item .ir relativo motioD e:Ost5. Far c.xample, a st.uinle::;s sleel braid linembbing on an a1uminulI1 valve caver will abrade a slat right into Lhe cover. }\n.
chal' lhe oill ine in severa I places lo elimi nate relalive 1111'( ion. 3ud support. the

44

CHAPTER 4: TURBOCHARGER LUBRICATlON

Fig. 4-7. Top: 7'/u.! oil

/i'te bracc al lhe Ji'ame

{orces the oilline ond


fiUings lo carry loacls
induced by engine rock

ing. rile motion musl


be absorbed by the ::;lIor'

Frame

distal/ce ':;4"; therefore,

tite Joocls are potenaUy


lorge and damagillg.
Boltom: Wilhthebrace
attached lo lile engilll!.
'he fillings wiU no(
experrence un.y bendmg
load. All flexillg of lite
oi/Une occurs over lhe
long, flexible portion
"8", illdllcing ollly low
stresscs and helping lo

eliminale failltrcs.

Engtn8

/
end fittings. Supporl oftheoillines near lhe end fittings will eliminate fatigueinduced failures of these fittings.

Oil Drain System

OH return Hne design is even more stringent thao oil leed line design, Even the
position ofthe turbo relativeto the cngine shou ld take intoaccouni the require
ments of positioning the oil drain line. The turbo must be positioned high
enough to allow a downhill drain lo the oil sump. The focu s of the Pl'oblem is
Lhat t11e oi! seals in the turbo do not ope'r ate well if they are complctely bathed
in oi!. Oil thal has passed through the turbo bearings musl be free lo drain out
quickly and without any serious restriction . Gravity is t.he only force available
lo oid the bearing section oi" oil, ~md gravity s, by alltclaLive s tandards, a wimp.
The layout oftho oi1 drain syst.em has a few fundamentals Lhal shou ld be ob
served:
EXIT "HGlE FROM THE TURBO. Virluslly aH turbas allow a 360 I"otation of th e
bearingsection relative to the ex hau sl and intake housings. '1'his is to permila
nearverlical downward ali!,'T1menl of tbe oil drain hal e. Vertical is the ideal
alignment, but. where necessary, lhe deviation Illay be as great as 30.
SIU Of DRAIH HOSE. Whe.re possible, a minimum nside diameter 01' 112 ineh
shou ld be observcd. lt. is frequcntly necess8ry to compl'omise the J/2inch TD,
and this is permissible when othe!' factol's are favorable. Fo!' exa mple, a ] /4
inch ID I'estriction al the fitting where the oi! passes back into the enginc may
workjust fine, but it is unJikely to work al all at the turbo cnd oflhc lineoKeep
in mind that no oil pressure ex.ists afier the bearing, and low-presslll'e flow reqllires much greatel' flow area 1'01' equnl flow rates.
ROUTlNG Of THE DRAIN HOSE. ldeally, t he drnin hose ShOllld swoop smoothly
downward and are gently ovr into the oi l pan with no k.inks, sharp bends, or
rises. r:quipment hanging off the side of the engine rarely permits the ideal lo

SPECIAL REQUIREMEN TS FOR Low - MOUNTED TURBOS

Fg. 4-8. Dil in/el cmd


oulle! draill positiolls.
Thcse mus! aJways be
within 300ofuerticol Jo
assure a grauity droi"
(ram tite bearillg SectiO/1
bcck Lo the ni' swnp.

45

30' I

30

/\/~
\

,,

\ ' , I
\ 1II

\1 11

). ~1\

11
I

'\

Ag. 4-9. A uaety o{


methods exist Jo aUne"
the oil draill fitting lo
lhe Sllmp. Stu rdinesft
ond the lea si nu.mber o(
parts determine tite
joint's merito

llLsegmen,
n~'we'd 0'

01 tube

b.a,e

TI

ltJ=o
D

Pipe thread on caSI ol pan

A1rcraft bulkheadstyle fitting

v~

<lU!1(3

~ Shee' metal sc'ews

~'

Segment 01 lube

Seal wllh bon<lLng agenl


sllllable for use on sllel

be achicved. Effort and forethoughl are neccssary herc. Kccp the hose clcar of
heat radiated fram lhe cxhaust housing and mnnifolding. Insure lhat il is not
subject lo damagc rroln road debris or is suila bly pl'otecled.
Special
Requirements for
Low-Mounted
Turbos

Situations frequently dictate mounting the turbo so low in the chassis thal
gravity drain back to lhe oil pan is out oflhe question. While gravity i5 slillthe
prime mover to gel lhe oil out of the bearing cavily, A sump 01' small reservoir
illlmedil1lcly below the lurbo will be necessary lo coJ1ecl the oil , which can lhen
be relurned to the engine oi1 sump via a pump system. Pcrhups lhe d everest device in thi5 circumstance is lhe oil-pres5ul'e- powcred scavenge pump. The oi!
Aew to Lhe turbo i5 lIsed lo power n pump lhat in Lurn scavenges the oi! sump.

Oil System Aids

A \Vide vnriety o fd evice~ on lhe markel endeuvol' to pl'ovide oil no,"" lo Lhe tUl'
bo bearings when the cngina i5 nol running. These m('rhanisms are D.ttempting Lo solve three bnsic problems. as perceived by lh~'ir , \r.~ igners:

46

CHAP TER 4: T U RB OC HARG ER L UBRI CATION

Rg. 4-:10. AlJ oLl sump

I I

Lil

I I
I I

rcqul/w for a wwmcJ/tIlJed 111 robo when IJ


g rY!vIJ..v drain IS nol
possible. Electru;al atul
mechanical plLmps can
do IheJob well. High
{lo", capabilily shollld
be auoldl!d. as lhe ril;k
o( CU.uLtaJioll will be

Q
I
I
I

I
I

Pump Quipo! hile


relUm lO englne

g~aler

Orl pump
$ump

supplying lubricant 1.0 Lhe LW'bo prior lo start- up. lo repl3ce oil t.hat.
drains away while lhe lUl'bo is s\.uliollary
supplying lubricanl LO t he turbo afl.er englnc shuL-oITstops the oil pump
p llmping a ;,rive n amoun l. of oil Lhl'ough Lhe t urbo rutCI' s hut-ofT, lo hclp

remove heat. from the beal'ing cavit.y. reducing Lhe oil's tendency lo cake
While aJl t hese intentions are honorable enough, Lhere are a few fla ws in th e
schemc:
AH of lhe oil does nol. flaw out or the Lurbo bearing. Fu rthcr, the turbo
does not eap int.o act.ion on st.art-up. Uather, ii. achieves a roLational
speed ai die similar lo tbal ofyour ceili ng fun ,
When sn enf,ri:ne i8 turned off. t.he instani the sp8rk is discontinued, heal..
Avnilable lo tbe t urbo fol' it.s driving power is I'etnovcd, and t.ho turbo
stops, Generally, Lhe t.urbo \ViII st.op befare Lhe cngine's roLntion ceases,
A non rotat.i ng turbo needs no lubrication,
Removing heaL fram Lhe ttu'bo i5 a1wnys a good idea, Hawcver, el turbo
Lhal i5 already air cooled, oi l coolOO, aud probably wat.cl' cooled is going
lo enjoy ILtl e extra bene(it. f l'om one more qU81't 01' so of oil pumped
t.hrough it t.o coal ii. Not (."'Ost.-errective,
Dclcl'lnine precise!y whut. a n oil system aid will do for you and for the manne r in which you aperate your automobile. Ir the aid suits yow' needs , buy iL,
a nd good uck Lo you.

ANO FURTHERMORE

Whot tS aLlthalJuzz abOla cokillg yau,. lllrbo beal'lngst


Alt.hough 1 t.elld lo t.hink journalisll:i are respons ibtc fO I' coked turbo benr~
ings. iL mir;ht be lhat. never changing the oi l is a more li kely culpl'it.. In actual
practicc, if on c Ic Ls th e e nginc die fOl" 30 seco nds befare s hutdown , changes

t he l)il evcry 2000 miles, and uses high-<Iualit.y oil , turbo lubrication failurc~
ore"'l gll lllg lo happen. Water'cooled bcaring:> .",uro l!tal beariog housiog
wmp~ l 'atul'es never l'cacb lhe oil bl'cukdow n LIm pt'l'al ure. Please resist t he
irll:<'lllr~oih'I'$ and lube!'s" foi l syst.cm a idsl a~ thl' S;!VIOl' ofturbo bcm.l"in gs, The
lIuver tl:icd meril. of tht~~( dcviccs i.8 bas~d UIl rHllac:it1lCi informatio n, In lIly
opinion, thl!Y fU'( ' worlh lesti,

INTERCOOllNG

A l intercoolel' is sJowly but surely bccomi ng reCOb'llized as a fundamental


pal't of a Lurbocharger systcm. lt never has bcen, nar should ever be. consid
ered icing on the cake. A propcr intercoole r is more cake.
'rhe intercooler is a l'sdiator--or, more cOl'rectly. a heae exchang' r- posi.
Liolled between tbe tw'bo and the intake manifold. Its sole purpose is Lo gel lhe
heat out of the ntake chal'ge that the t urbo pul inLo the charge while compressing it. On the sUlface thcn, the merit. of an intercooler should be judged
by ts SUl:cess in removing t hal heat. Unfortunalely, this is only part. orthe slofY, as t.he mere prescnce or che intercooler creates a variety of ot,her complications. Maximizingthe merits ora n intercooler whi.le minimizing lhe problems
t can bring is the cngineel'ing problem that. must be solved befare cne can Cl'enle an intercooled turbo systcm.
Airftow meler

Rg. S-~. General


layout afihe intercoolcd

./
_

II1IVochorger system

(
1

-L~ ___ Compressor bypass valve

Compressor

Alrfiller

_(

I I~
Turbine

Exhaus! manifold -...,

f-III ~\'\uDJ
<,.

~
.I
I

Tailplpe

I ~ RULE:

Wastegate

Inlerc:ooler

'--

0000

'--

~
)

'-'

JI:..

"- Plenum

H is absolulely incor recl lo think thaL "any intercoolcr is baLLer


than no inlercoolcl',"

Remov ng heal fram Ule nLake charge has two huge al" as 01' merit. Pil'l:> t.,
Lhe reduction al' t.emperature makes tlle intake chal'ge dense!', 'fhe increa~e 111
density is pl'oportionol to the change in temperature (measLtrcd on Lhe ab:5l1'
1ute scale), Denser intakc charges moke rnOl'C power. ~con d. bu\. no l es~ 1m
portanl, 1S the lerrific belldit lo t.l1P combuli lion pr(Jt:~' brought nbCJul h~

47

48

CHAPTER 5: INTERCOOLlNG

Ag. 5-2. Tlle (ron!mO/Ul/ed IfItercooler is

a typical a{lermnrhel
repLclCemeftt. {or Ih e

Buicll GNIGNX senes


cars.

recluced temperatures in the intake char ge. Detonation is reduced by any reduction in intake temperatures. 'J'hese two areas of merit are the reasons a
proper inlercooler can ncrease the power a ndlor margin ofsafety orthe tUI'bacharged engi na. For a discussion orihe testingprocedures nvolved in evalualing an intercooler systcm, please refer Lo Chapter 14.
Design Criteria

Fig. 5-3. A tl/oter-based


/t eal exchollgel' has
beeu added lo ' !lis
Lol flS

Esprit.

Design criteria for cl'cati ng sn int.ercooler are many and varicd. These critcl'ia
will out1ine the considerations fOI" bu il dingan inte1'coolel' thai maxi mizes hcnl
removal and minimizes boost-pressure loss and any lag nerenses.
HUT TRANSFER "'REA. Heailransfer a rca is the sum ofall i he plates and shells
in the heatexehanger core t.haL are responsible for Lransmitting hentoulofthe
system . Easy to see thal ihe greater the heat ll'ansfer atea. the more efficient
the intercooler. This is nol a case, howevcr. where twice the area doubles lhe
emciency. A 10% inerease in core wilJ nelyou ubout 10% orihe amountyou did
not get oul the first lime. Therefore, every 10% !lcrease will become less ami
less importanl. Far example, ir an existing intercooler core mensures 70% cm

DESIGN CRITERIA

49

cienL, a LO% core ncrease should yield about 10% ofthat missi ng 30o/r, 0 1' a new
efficiency of 73%.
INTERNAl Fl OW ARE A. Streamlining inside 8 core is bad by designo The harder
il. js fol' air to find its way thl"ou gh a core, the more likely it will give up ts
heat-obvious ly the major objective. But Lhe bad side is that th is pool' sLreamIiningcan cause large boosL-pressure dl'ops. To compensalc rOl' bad sLrcamlining, the internaJ Row a rca mllst be made large enough to I'eally slow the air
down inside the intercoolCl-, so as to reduce now dl'ag and kcep pressu re losses
to acceptable levels.

Ag. 54. The lwo I1wsl


popular illtercooler eore
slyies ore piole-alldshell (IOp) olld extruded-I'ube (boltom). Tite
piule styie generally
offers less {low /"Csistance, whereas lhe
extruded-lube slyle
tefld.s lo be more efficiento 'rILe "tubes n are
typically 1/4" wide by
1 1/2-3" long.

Plate-and-shell core

~ ~~ ~

Extruded-tube core

I~

RULE: The si ngl e most important as pect ofinlercooler design is low internal presslIt'e loss.

AlI of the volume internaJ to the intercooler syslem musl


be pressurized befol'(~ thal amount of pressul'e will exisi in lhe intake mani fold . Allhough this volul11e is noi a urge conlrihution to lag, it is neverthel css
a design factor to optimize in the process ofcreaLing a good intcrcooler sysleru.
U is a good idea to keep h'ack ofthe volume and constantly aLtempl Lo keep lhe
excess down. A reasonablejudgment ofthe volume's relaLionship lo lag can be
made by d ividing the internal volume by the now rate lhrough the system al
lhe rpm al which lhrollle is applied and multiplying by 2. (The factor of2 results frcm the approximate doublingofairfiow t.hrough tile systcm when going
n'o m cruise lo hoosU The approximate lag time is givcn by
INTERNAl VOlUME.

T lme
:;

fl 010Vrote x 2

50

CHAPTER 5: INTERCOOLlNG

Fig. 5-5. Alt air dUCl


CQlt

prouide culequale

ambient nirllow to a
horiu)Illally mounted
intercooler.

Example:
Let volume of intake = 500 cu in. and ftow rate = 150 crm at a cnuse speed
of approximately 2000 rpm.
Thon

Time =

500 in

l50

ft

mm

60 sec
mm.

. 3 x 2 = 0,23 sec

1728 ~
ft3

11 is distinctly possible Lo upset Lhe basic lhrot.tle respoll!5e ir ,ln engine is


equipped wiLh en airfiow meter positioned Loo fal' from lhe throttle body.
Opening the lhroLUe causes a low-pressure pulse lo be creaLed that. travels upstream toward th e airflow meter. The time it takes this pulse to l'each the flowmet.er and cause it. to reael is indeed the delay in throttle response. TypicaJly,
suth a pulse lnust t.ravel from the throttle body lo tbe intercooler, through the
intercoolcl', back Lo the Lurbo, then to the nowmeter, in arder fOl" the fiowme ter
Lo regist.er a response. lt is 1'I0t. until the Uowmeter receives Lhis pulse that Lhe
rur/fuel ratio can changa Lo aCCOlm t fol' new load conditions in tbe engine. T
sbould point. out Lhat ihere are exceptions here, based on the sLyle of t.hrottl e~
position sensor wit.h which ihe engine is equipped. Nonetheless, it is generally
true that. Lhe fruther the throt.tle is from ibe nirflow meLer, the poorer the
throtlle response. Thus, this path length s hould receive some consideration in
the desibrn process.
Whcn an cngine is equipped with a speed densit.y type ofEFI system, wherein no airHow meLer is utilized , 01' a blow-through carbureted turbo system, the
length orthe intake tract can extend inLo the nexl.counLy with no negative results nsofar as throttle response is concemed.
The overall problem in designing an inLercoolcr system, then, Hes in maximizing t.he abil ity of the syslem lo remove h at from Lhe co mprcssed air while
nol adversely afTecting boost pressure, losing throttle response, 01' contributing lo any delay in boost rise.

Calculating the
Value of an
Intercooler

The change in densil.y of the intake charge can be measured relative to the
temperature change brought abouL by t.he intercooler. For example, suppose a
tlubo has a compressor: discharge l.ernperalure of 200C1f' aboye atmospheric
tempera 'ul'., thaL s, abouL 740 absolu'o on 0.11 80'F day, (Zero degrees aboolule is a bout 4601': ; add 80 lo gel 540: 200 aboye lba l tempcraLllre s, the rcfore, 740" ab~o lu te. t lf wc Insert .a 60"{ efficent in tercooler into l he sysLem. we

CALCULATING THE VALUE OF AN I NTE RCO OLER

51

would I'e move 0.6 x 200 F = 120F' from t he system, leaving a gain of just
80F rather than 200F: Or a n absolute of5400+80 = 620. The density change
can t.hen be determined by the ratio ofthe original absolute temperature to the
fmaJ absolute temperatu re:
Density change

= original absolll.te lemperature _ 1

final absolute tem.perature

= 540 + 200 _ 1 = O 19 = 19 '1<


540+80

"

'fherefore, this intercooler will yield a gain of about 19%. 'fhis means tbat
19% more air molecules will be in the combustion chamber t han otberwise
would have been . AH other things remaining equal, one would expect a simil ar
gain in power. This, unfortunately, doesn 't come ahout, because of pressure
losses caused by the aerodynamic drag in side the intercooler.
T he corresponding power loss due Lo boostpressure 105s can be e5timated
by calculating the ratio of absolute pressure with the illtercooler to that with
out the intercooler and subtracting iL fTOro 100%.
Example:
If2 psi out of 10 a re lostdue to intercooler drag,
POlUer

loss

= 1-

14.7 + 8
14.7 + 10

= 0.08 = 8 %

This indicates that ftow losses through the inoorcooler amount to 8%.
The idea that the lost boost can easily be recovered by adjusting the wastegate, while attractive, is nat quite correcto Certainly, ir baost is increased the
pawer wiU rise, but one cansequence ofthis is that t UTbine inJet pressure wiIl
rise iryo u attempt to drive th e turbo yet harder. More turbine inlet pressure
Cl'cates more reversion, which creates more cambu stion chamber heat., which
reduces charge densilies-and on and on. Thus, ane can see Lhat to sorne ex
ten t, recovering 105t power by turning up tbe boosl is in parl un exercise in
chasing ane's tajl. 'Ti s far superior lo design and buiJd the l11ythical zel'oloss
intercooler.
Flg. $6. Jnlercooling
token seriously.

52

CHAPTER 5: I NTERCOOLlNG
Intercooler

Temperature out 01

Rg. 5-7. Calculating


inlcrcooler e{firiency

Temperature out o,
interCOOler (TieJ

turbo compressor

Tu","

ro engine

Alr temperature inlo turbo (T a)


temperature amblenl

Calculating the
Effjciency of
an Intercooler

The idea hel'c IS to compare the temperature z'ise of the intake air caused by
the turbo lo the amou.n l of heal removed by the intercooler.
Temperature r ise thr.ough the compressor is compressol" outlet temperature (T col minus ambienL temperature (Ta ).

Temperature rise :; T eo - T a
Heal removed by the intercooler i5 the temperature dirrerence between air
cxiting the compl'essor (Too) anel air exiting Lhe int.ercoolel' (TIO ).
Tempera/are removed = T c-o - T .o

Intercooler efficiency (E) is thcn lhe lempe rature removed divided by the
temperature rise:

E = 1'co - T ,O
,
7' - 7'

'"

FIg. 5-8. An airlair

intercooler mounled in
the Nisson 280 ZX.

"

CH OOSING THE TVP E OF INTE RCOOLER

53

Ag. ~9. A water~based


inlcrcooler I'rlQwlted in
an '87 Mazda RX7.

Example:
Lec To = 80' F, Tro = 250"F, and Too = 110' [\
Then
250 - 110
E, = 250 _ 80 = 0.824 = 82.4%
Choosing
the Type of
Intercooler

Plale-slyle
illtercooler rores
a
good ba/om:e
ambien/ IJS . cJUlrge a;r
flowarea.s.
Fig.

~:1 0.

or

Curren tly, there are lwo t,ypes of intercoo lers s uitable for ~t reet. use, the air/ail'
unit. and the air/water unit. E3Ch has its OWIl a reas of merito 'fhe decision
about. which is most suit.able fol' a particular a ppUca tion is based on the merils
of e8ch wiLh regard to Lhe configuration 01' Lhe vehide.
The ail'/air unit. will gellerally have greater simplicit.y, greaLer thel'mal ef'fi~
ciency aL hj gh specds, greatel- reliability, lowcr mai nic nnnce, and lower cost.
The air/wat.er unit. will gencraUy ha ye betLer t.hermal elliciency at.low speeds.
beiter thl'ottle response when a m ass-fJ ow m etor~eql1i pped EF'I syst.em is
present., lowcl' boost-pressure loss, and less compressor surge. Space requ iremenLs 01" plumbingcomplications may dicLaLe thaL a n adequateJy sizcd a ir/air
unit. cannot. be used. Thus the choice is sometimos made withoul a ny fUl'ther
considerat.ion.

arre,.

54

CHAPTER 5: INTERCOOLlNG

Deslgn of the

Air/ Air
I"tereooler

A variety 01' facto rs must receive equal and adequate atte ntion whe n (.."Ollfigul'ing the air/air le. A truly baJanced and optilllUID design isjust a case oC work
ing at the details LLntil a1l racets oCthe layout. are within Lhe specifications
outlined in lhe following paragraphs.
INfERNAl FLOW A.REA. A large parL of the pressure los th rough Lhe le systcm
is determined by the internaJ flow al'et ofthe heal exchanger eo res.
1nlenwl flow a.rea = channellengt,h x channel width x Itll.lnber of channel~

Charge-ait channels

Flg.5-ll. Nomenclalure
o{ tILe luiercoo/er eDre.
rile charge nir

roce

Internal end bars

receWf!$ clwrge air

Charge-alr channels

fro m tite turbo, The


ambieTlI air {aee lS
po~utiof/ed lo rtCeiue

oncoming cooltng au:

Inlemal turbulalOf's

Eftd OOI'S anrlplales

(typ,cally l/S" (hlCk ).


brazed lO the outside
llur{cu:es, prouide
spacing alLd rigidtty.
Turblllators prom.ote

__- -1--

exchange of Ju.:at (mm


Jhe tttbes lo tite channel

diuider piales and from


there lo amblent all"
through lhe cooling alr
t;hal1l1els.

Cooling air channels

Amblenl!ace

End

p""'" -'><

' - - E,:I.'nallurbulalors

External end bars

Chargealr lIow direc!lon


Rg.5-1.2.'v1.C(l$uI'em.elll

uf core /low urea

Channel
wldlh

__, X
Channel lenglh

>-------

(Core heighl)

Core

Ihickness

Amblenl Ik>w dICe(:IIOfl


Core wldth

DESIGN OF THE AIR / AIR I NTERCOOLER

55

'fhere is no magic formula fOI" calctLluLing a correCL tlow area fOI" a given cfm
capability, but expel"ience has shown lhal Ilgure 5-13 cOl1sistentIy yields satisfactory reslIlts.
Ir it were not. fm' the tu rbuJators. which are double-edged swords herc, we
could make do witb much less llow area, but we wOllld experience considernbly
less heat. transfer. The lurbulatol"sjob is lo see that no laminar ftow ever exisls
inside the coreo When this is done well , each charge air molecule will get its
chance to snuggle up to the eore walls and exchange it.s heal energy with the
wall. lf turbulators ar e dense, heal exchaoge is better, but flow loss is greater.
Conversely, na turbulator s at all would yield minimal tlow losses, but heat exchanga would be lousy. Ifspa.ce is nvailable for a large anlount ofcore material,
one can logical1y choose a l."Ore with dense ttlrbulalors and trade high turbulalor drag for large internal flow areas. 'l'he reverse is e(IUaUy correct: where
space is severely limited, a care with law-density tUl'buJators shouJ d be selected.
CORE SIZING . Once intern<.u f10w a.reH has beeo calculated, actuaJ care size and
shape can be delermined. Wilh most cores, approximately 45% ofthe charge air
face is available fOl" entry into the air tubes. To find the I'equjred aren of the
chargc air face, divide the intenla! flow area by ihis 45% figure. Cores are typieaJ ly available in trucknessesof2 and 3 inehes, channel lengths (heightsJ of6, 8,
LO, a nd 12 inch es, ami widths 01"9, LB, and 24 inches (which can be cul to ruly
intermediate width with a bandsaw ). Cores with longer channels a re available,
but they lend to reduce internal flow area, as indicated in figs. 5-20 and 5-21.
Example:
Le flow n'lte = 500 cfm . .Pig. 5-13 indjcates lhaL a iypical intercooJel" would
requi re ~Ul internal ftow area 01" approximaLeJy 25 sq in.

LowdellSlty lurbulalOfS

Flg.5-1.3. EsttlllatLIIg

intemal floUJ orea

467

700

re(luil'ed

400

600

_ 333

_ 500

II!

lhe ,.ore
o-

1
Hlgh-dsnSlfy turbu)alOrs

E
].."00

267

200

po

133

u. 200

b7

100

'

Typcal lnlercooler

Intemal f\ow ama

~sq

T hercfore,
>

Aren ot charge atr tace

1''or a 3 lOch-thick coreo


fi

W,dlh = 56 '"

Lll

1~t

50

30

10

lit.

25 iTi. 0,45

= 56 al. .~-

In.)

56

CHAPTER 5: t NTERCOOLlNG

For a 2-inch-thi ck core,


?

urd'
rr L

56 in.28 .
II = 2 ,/l..
'
=
'".

l f space i8 available fOI" the 2-inch-thick core, eITiciency wi ll prove slighUy


su perior, du e to t.he ,'1"eater width and co nsequent greater frontal area. Although the thnner core i5 a betLer choice, the thicker core i5 e ntil'cly adequate.
The length ofthe a ir channe)s (height) multiplied by the width oflhe core i8
the actuaJ frontal area.
FRONTAL "HU. In many l'espects, frontal area reflects the amount ofambienl
air that goes thl'ough the core to cool the intake charge. The greater the mass
of ambien!. a ir t hat ca n get through the cm"e, t he great.er t he cooling capability.
The actua l rate of flow 15 th e product ofth e forward speed and the frontaJ area
ofthe coreo

Fig.

5-~4.

Estimaig

cooling ail' ouailable lo

the illtercooler

Core frontal area

Airflow rale = s x a

Exomple:
Le 5= 60 mph and a = 2 sq ft
.
mi
2
fi
1 /tr
_
AI.I{low rate = 60 -, x 2 fl X 5280 -. x 60 - . = 10.060 cfm
tI"
mi
mw
Thus, it is obvious Lhat. oftwo Co res with virLually cqual internal Aow ar ea,
the one with the greater frontaJ area s hould prove superior.
eORE STREAMUNING. StreamHnin g represe nts the case with which ambien t
ai .. can get through Lhe coreo Certain ly, the easier the air moves through the
COl'e, the greatel' will be t he rate of fJow a nd , hence, the greatcr the cooJing errecto Far example, if the charge ail" tubes in the oore present a l"ounded edge to
incoming ambient air, the rate of Row is Iikely to be somew hat greatel'. An engineeringfactor missing from all core data publishcd is an ambientairdragcoetcienl.
DUCTS. A duct is, in a large sense, a forn1 of streamlining of thc coreo The
ducts prescnt Lhe ai!" moleculcs with no alternative bllt to go on Uu"ough thc
core, Do l10 l underestimate the ability a duct to improve thc efficiency oftbe
intercooler. 1 wOll ld suggest thal an improvernent of20% is possible. good duct

or

DESIGN OF THE AIR / AIR INTERCOOlER

Rg. 5-15. This extrlld.


ed tube style COre lS desi'glled {O,. lhe air/air

I&terrooler applicaJion.

iiii

Flg. 5-:1..6. Ambielll

airflow tAroug" lite eore

;:::;

is proportional lo lhe

;:::;

i i i

external clrag coefficlenl

o/the coreo Tlle round_


wged extrudecl_type
care will permit mOre
coolillg oir/Jow.

iiiiii
Cooring alrflow

iiiiii
COOIing airllow

ve,'S US none. When eonstruetingduets, it is decided/y worth Lhe extra elTorL lo


insure LbaL the air moleeules ha ve no altel'Oative buL Lo go through Lhe eore.
That s, seaJ aU edge corners, andjoinls.
J

It is noL nc'Cessary for the duet inlet to be as big as the frontal area ofthe le
Coreo A I'ule of Lbumb is thaL the duet inlet should be at leasL one-fourth lhe
COI' area. 'I'his rather stmnge situation is brought aboll! by the fae! that less

Ag. 5-:1..7. Minimum

ducl n/el area should


flol drop beloUJ Ollequarier o{ Ihe t.;'Ore urea.

Cofe Mea

Inl61 area

57

58

CHAPTER 5: INTERC OOLING

Fig. s.1.8. p,.oper

duclLIIg wilJ. {orce more

coolillg Olr through lite


inlercoolel:

lt--==========

Poor
Air can easiJy 90
around core

Belter
Some alr finds it easy
10 come out 01 ducl
and 90 around

II~~~~~~~~~~~

Air finds It mos! diflicult

lo come out and 90 around

Besl

tban one-fourth ofthe ail' molccules wouJd get through the core wil.h littl c 01"
no att.ention lo ducting.
CORE l HICKNESS. Choosing Lhe t hkkness of the intcl'cooler eare is a bit of a
juggling ud similar lo the Lurbu lators. 'fhejuggling act is brought. about by the
fact Lhat. t.he se<:ond half ofany core docs on ly one- fou rth t he \York.
Adctingthickness lo the core wiJl indeed improveefficiency. bu t. th e gajns be-

come less and less. Anothe r negat.ive em~ct. is brough t. into play by increasing
the Lhickness: tile increasing difficulty of get.ting t he ambicnt. air to pass
through the coreo ES5entially, lhen , the drag coefficicot 01' the core gocs u p as
thickness ncreases. A elever way to package cores wherc rl"Olltal area is scar ce
and depth ahundant is the staggered-eol'e le, di scusscd later.
~- RULE: Whcn

viewing intercooler des i~Jn s, rega rd tbick (.'Ore layouts asless


thal1 well though t out.

When adequate space exists [01' Q largc le, the decisioi1


must be madc about t.he clirection in which to orienl the coreo Unless averwhelming reasons dictatc othcrwisc, the eore should always be conslructed to
provide the greatest possib le interna! flow arca. 'fhe c rection or Aow is untmportanl. Forexample, Lhe lCs in figure 5-15lakc up thesame space, but l he vertical-Aow unit has more internal area and, hence, considerably loss rcslriction.
CORE FLOW DIRECl IOH.

DESIGN OF THE AIR / AIR I NTERCOOLER

59

Flg. 5-19. b tcreasi,ng


eDre

thickness does

1/01

proportionally " crease


heat trans(er capabilily.
Eaeh illcremellt 01 (.'Ore

thickness will receive


hoUer cooling air.
Air al ambient
lemperalure

Largar care thlckness

Flg. 5-20. The IOp clltcl


boUom cores hove the
sorne fronta l orea, !leal
tronafer area, and
efficiency, bu,t the

boUom eOre has ni w.:h


greater itlternal {loUJ
oree, dile lo the [urgel'
flIlmber o(tubesand, lhere{ore, JOUlC,.
presSllre {oss.

Censfderably
hener air

60

CHAPTER

5:

I NTERCOOLlNG

Rg. 5-2.1, ,[,his is tire


proper LUay lo make a

bigger inlercooLer.
A/ways increase the
core area by ocldi"C a
grealer "umber of
interntll passagcways.
Do nOl.just make tite
sam.e n/llnber of
passages longer.

Several de lails in t he design of t he end tanks


fitled to the le cores can both improve the nnal efficiency and dec rease Aow
losses. 1t is ce rtainIy not a good idea lO suggesllhat aH those moleculcs of air
INTERCOOLER END TANK DESIGN.

Fig. 5-22. Propcr

illternaL &oflling call


create more unifol'ln
airfloUJ flistriblLlioll
through Ihe eore (md,

tllltS, greale,. Jzenl


rejecliolt. Add lILe baffle
fa (orce ha!f fIL e charge

lo ga lhrough t}e /irst


hal! of lIJe core and lile
remainder Ihrough
lile s(!C()lId half.

Flaw

Lenglh

Balite

Flow

Length

DE SIGN OF THE AIR/AIR INTERCOOL ER

61

can easi1y and convenienL)y ftnd their Qwn way jl1to and out ofthe intercoolcr.
Think in terms 01' hm'ding sheep. Givc lhem di,.eclion and guidancc and make
ihejow'ney casy 1'01' them .
IN-CAP DESIGN. 1t is fund a mental that therrnal efficiency wi l1 improvc ir we
ca n gel cqual distribution of a irftow through the core tu bes. A serious attempt
al accomplishing this can be mnde by suitable barnes built iota the in-cap.
The pasition orthe nJel to ihe in-cap sho uldreceive attention in severa] areas. Keep uppermosi in mind the requirements of ail' distribution and ease of
fl ow.
OUT-CAP DESIGN. Afie r the distribuiionjob is done by ihe in-cap, ii is th e out
cap's 10L to gather up all the molecules and point ihem towa rd t he engine. 1'his
musL be done with equal at.tcnlion to strcamlining, to keep Oow losses lo a
minimum. Point the sheep in the diredion of the ex , give thcm room, and
don't, make them do anything sudden. Do not olrer them any ubrupt changes in
directian .

Flg. ~23 . Good .lId


bad cncl-cap clesigns

Good

ea.

~IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII.
TU8E SIZES AND SHAPES. 'rhere is probably a magic numller that airflo\V velocity in a tube should nal exceed, for reasons of rapidly increasing drag and consequcnt flow losses. I suspecl lhis number is around Mach.4, 01" about450 reet
per second, since dlag, and there l'ore flow 1055, incl'cases significanily afl er
lhis. Tuba size can easily be checked by calculating tho maximum airnow uttainable, diviel ing by Lbe area orlhe tube in squa re reel, and dividing again by
60 to convert lo reel per secQnd. An ;lpproximalc value 1'01' maximum airflow
can be oblaincd by mulli plying lhe elesired bhp by 1.5.

62

CHAPTER

5:

INTERCOOLlNG

Example:
Let power = 400 bhp, forwhich ma.ximum airtlow is apPl'oxnaiely 600 cfm ,
and a ir t ube dinmetcr = 2.5 in.
T hen

"1
ve DC t'/y = air{Zow

area

{l '
600 _._

1 flun

; .,.,,-;:n<-',,!n,,- x 60 sec = 293 l!...


" ( 2.5)'"
-2 lTL ,

see

1 tt'

--

144 !n.
. 2

'rhe speed of sound is approximately 1100 feet per secand oThercfore,

293

Mach ; 1100 = 0 .27


T hus, Lhe

2.5~ inc hdiameter

tube will be adequate io ftow 600 cfm without

unreasonable drago
Resisi the temptatiol1 lo use larger diamcter Lubes than nCessary. as little
drag ia created in smooth tu bes with gentle bends. Larger tubes will only add
lo t he volume of the le syslem, a nd that i5 noto a good thing to do .
... RULE: A la rgc tube is nol necessarily better Lhan a small Lube.
BENDS AN D SECTION CHANGES. Any bend in a tube or sudden change of cross
scction mu st be viewed as a polential flow 1055 or source of increased drago lt
would be reasona ble to estimale that every tim e the airflow must turn 90, a
loss ofl %of the flow will occur. T hree 30 0 bends will add up to a 90. Always use

Rg. 5-24. M illor IlolV

illlerrttptiolls call exisl

(0)

10

allube inlersections.
Poo r

Bener

Connocl'ng hose

::....Connecling hose --____.

Belter

7'

DESIGN OF THE AIR / AIR INTERCOOLER

Flg. 5-25. A cone angle


grealer lhafl1 5C> carl

cause disrllptioll o( lhc


air stream 's bowulary
layer. irlcreas;ng drago

.----\
--====~.:
~.

15'" maximum

63

~-_.

the largest possible radius for BOy change ofdirectioo. Certainly a short- I'udi us
900 bend wilJ lose more flow thau a lal'ge 90. "he change from one size tube to
another is frequently necessary for purposes of getting iota a throttle body, out
ofthe turbo, and intoand outofthe intercooler. These changes ofsection upset
smooth ftow and crente losses.
Gradual changes of section can best be created by conical segment..s. A re8sonable rule of thumb for the angle of the cone would be one diamete l' change
in four cliameter lengths.
HOSES AN.O CONNECTlONS. AlJ hases aud con nections spell tl'ouble. At the outset
of designing a turbo system, co nsider all hoses and connections the weak links
ofthe intake system . Failure of a hose cO llnectio n will certaioJy mean a loss of
boost pressure. However. whcre a mass-Rowmeter-controlled EFl is used, the
engine will no longer runo When a hose fails, the engine can get air arou nd t he
mass flowmeter. and thus lhe meter loses its ability to generate lhe prope r signal. Witbout the proper signaJ, Lhe engine will run poorly or oot at all. The
problem with hose joints stems from the fad thal eachjoint has a load tl'yingto

Flg. 5-26. Tie ba.rs


on intercooler tubes
relieve lension 0" tlle
connectillg hose.

64

CHAPTER

5: INTERCOOllNG

Fig. 5-27. IIdequate


ajrflow lo a,n. oir/ai,.
in/ercooler is a must for
good efficiency. ThilS
ill.lercooler would
bellefit (mm a SCOOp

rather tito n lhe ai,.


dam.

push it apart equal lo t he cross~sect ionaJ area of the lube times the boost pres
SU re. Ira syst..em runs 20psi boost lhrough a 2-nch lO hosejoint, ii. will have 63
pounds offOl'ce ll'yi ng to pulllhcjoint aparto'fhis load will pull a hose off a tube
unless some farm ofbarrier is presented Lo the hose or the load is [oreed to take
another pat.h . In many instances l he hose may stay nUached to the Lube, only to
have the hose worked aver so badly that the hose it.self fails. An easy cure fOI"
this is a tie bar between tubes to carry the load, rather than letting thc hose carry ii. The hose's Jife then becomes a much simple!" proposi tion.
The poor hose is trying to do all this load-carrying in a hoL, hydrocarbonfucl-rich environme nt. It is necessary. Lhen, to seek hose material impervious
to hydrocarbon f'ucls and cxh ibiting IitUe degradation at the temperatures involved. Such hoses are general ly made of silicone-based materiaL
PUCEMENT OF THE INTERCOOLER. The place to pul an intercooler so orte n boi ls
dow n to FlI1dng availablc space fOI" a bi g enough unjt. 'l'hal doesn 't take rnuch
scie nce. A few rules, howevcl', should receive sorne forethought. Try hard not
lo pulan nir/a ir intercoolel' in the same compartment as the engine. P lacing it
behind the coolingsystem I'adiator is also out. Considcr t hat rol' havng passed

Ag. 5-28. Dev;olls

plwnbing is somel lmelS


required /0 lit Gil olrJair
inlercooler 'tic) lile
system. Keep labes a
li/tie larger an.eI tire
numbe,. of Ixmds /0 a

m ;rumum.

STAGGERED - CORE I NTERCOOLER

65

Ag. 5-29. A drf.'el oir

path lO tite air/oir


intercooler is necessary,
even sJols must be cut
in the body pane/s.

ir

th rough the cooling system radiaior is generally 40F, al' more, hottcr than am
bie nt ancl t he refore does a lousy job oftrying lo cool anything.
Indeed, l he lurbo, in low boost l'anges, may nol heat lhe inlake chal'ge up io
the temperatu re levc l of the underhood air thal i5 being asked lo cool the in
take charge. 'When thi s happens, the intercoolel' becamos an "intcrheater"not a good turbo partoWhen the boost rises lo the point that the temperature
of lhe charge excccds lhe undcl'hood temperature, the le will bcgn doing
some work but will forever sufl'er from asevere efficiency \055. Not what we
want. Undcrhood I'adiation of heat to the le can also be a problem. lnsulation
and ducting can he lp these problems, buL, fundamentally, the engine compart
ment is no place for an intcl'cooler.
~ RULE:

Staggered-Core
Intercooler

Rg. 5-30. Tite al/


conqueri /lg Toyota. G1'P

car rrom Dan Gurney's


shops. Endllrancr!
rocers will always lelld
tOUJard (lirlair illter"

cooUng.

Always be on t he lookoul rOl' the vi ll nin called the Uintel'hcatel'./t

in a situation where frontal al'ea spacc for an IC is limi ted but abundant depth
ex:ists, t he stagge-red-core le should he considered. Basical1y, the staggercd"
eDre IC isjust a thick co re unit with the back haJr moved aft a bit. Some fresh
rol' is dueled to il, while the lIsed air from t ile fl'onl core i5 enl around the sec

66

CHAPTER 5: I NTERCOOLlNG

ond coreo A co mpacto high-How le can be built with Lhe stngge red.core concepto
Efficiency can be high, because the I'ear halfofthe le is made to do ita shareof
lhe workload .

Fig.

5-3~.

Fronl

walercoolers for Owaler-basccl intercooler


:;yslem

Air-to-Water
Intercooler

Ag. 5-32. T Jws nstalinllon of /he waJer-lx,sed


tntercooler onto the MaSrati bi tllrOO clellrly il

lustrales !ls
oompactlles,,>_

'rhe waler-bused intercoo lcr system beca mes sn atLractive alternative lo the
air/air unit when space 01' plumbing restrictions precludeuse ortbe tatter. The
logic behind most orthe design criteria fol' the air/air le applies as \Vol! to the
water-based le. Obviously, there are difTel'ent considerations rol' handljng tll e
water. Although compl ex, the waler-based le enjoys the one t.erriJicadvantage
of t.he far greater (fourt.cenfold) heat transfer coefficicnt betweell water and
aluminum than between ai r and aluminum. This huge difTcrcnce is of huge

AIR-TO - WATER I NTERCOOLER

67

Inlercooler , - - - - - - -......

Flg. 5-33. Geru:rcll


layout of a waler-based
intercooler

o
Turoo
ReselVoir

12-voll
water pump

value on ly if all the heat transfer barriers can be optimized such that the 14-to1 rate can be ofbenefit. This is the path to the intercooler system that exceeds
100% for lh ermal efficiency. Presently this is not practicaJ for any situation except a drag car, Bonnevil1 e runner, or marine application. 'fhe solution Lo the
problem is in need of the services of a genius inventor type. Without. any ingenious solutions, the waler-basad le reverts te nothjng more than a11 air/air
unit. in which the int.ake charge heat is carried to t.he front of the ve hicle fol'
exchange nto the atmosphere by water ra Lher t han by the intake charge itself.
The focus ofthe problems on h~U1CUillg the water is large1y centered around
rale of water flow, amount ofwater in the system, and the suhsequent removal
of heat fl'om t he water.
CHARGE-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER. it is easy to geL a large interna! flow al'ea inside
tbe water re, since the most usable COl'es for this purpose are often air uruLs
with the flow reversed.
Coohng waler

Rg. 5-34. W} en uSlIlg


a lypical air/air core as
a water lleal exchullget;
rerJer8e l/U! dircclioll of
charge air f10w lo
obtaill grea1er flow
orea,

Amblent
cooling air

Typical air core

Charge ait

Typieal water eore

Alt hough aluminum is by fa r Lhe most conve nienL material to use in any le
application, copper eore clcments, s hould che situation allow them, can yield a
gl'ealer heat. transfer raleo Thc large OO\V areU5115Unlly tlssociated wiLh the waler le readily slIggesl thol core thickness shollld be expanded as fa!' as space
permit.s.

68

CHAPTER 5 : INTERCOOLlNG

Ag. 5-35. A variation


a water-bascd
illlercoole,: Th e copperelernent !tea! exchonger
is illside (he plt.!/UW1.

0 '1

Water willlikely find equaJ acccss to alJ tbe core tubcs, butattention should
be given lo tl'apped air in the top regions orthe eore. Asimplcair bleed can prevenl air pockets. A belter answer is to put the water in al the low point and
take ii out al the hi gh point..
Small nir leaks in an rul'/a ir unit are unim por tant, butany water leak in the
main heat exchanger core can be a disastcl'. Th us i t is imperative that the unit
be prcssure checked rOl' leakage prior lo use. Ten psi with the core underwa ler
is ade<unte. Don't be s urprised to see air bubbles coming right throllgh cast
aluminum.
WAJER PUMPS. Easily the most usable pUmpS31'C 12-voll marine bilgc pumps.
Thesc can begangcd in series or parallel, dependingon pl'essure and Aow C<;"lpability ofthe pumps. The fundamental should not be overlooked that Lhe more
waLer ci rculated. t he great.el' lhe le efficient.y. Consider a water Aow rale of 10
gall ons per minute a rcasonable minjmum. 'fhere is a t.racle-off in pump life
ve rsus le efficiency ifthe pu mps are requ ired to nIn ull the timc.With pel'fol'mance the focus ofall this work. Lhe answer should be thaL t he pumps ,'un continuously. Jf lhe pumps run conLinuously, the interesling thing happens that
when olTboosL,lhe! intake ail' \Viii be coolillg the walor in lhe IC.
Wiring lhe pu mps t.o n swilched 12-volt. source will pennit. un audible inspection of theil' fun cti on ev I'y tim e the ignition is tUl'I1ed on. T he pllmps
shoulcl be mounled as the 10w points ofthe lC systcm , so t,hal they will a lways
be pl'imed and thus preclude the chance oflh eir runnin gdry.
COOLANT. Water is by far the besL cooling medium. Glycol and other antifreeze Inalerials degrade the! ability of water to han.sport heut and should be

AIR-TO - WATER INTERCO OLER

69

Flg. 5-36. An offslwre


racing boat is lile ,~deal
situotioll for a wulerbased inlercooler. Tite
seowater coolcwl with a
temperat"re below
ambient air offers the
megalwrsepower racillg
boats un ifltercooler
with lile potelltial lo
exceed 100% e{ficienL"y.
This unil wus designed
for a 1500 bhp lwillturbo, big-block Chevy.

used only in quantities requ ired lo prevenl freezingand corrosion. Essentially,


pul t hesame ratio ol'water nnd antifreeze inlo t he le lhalis used in lheengine
cooling system. Use 01' a modern coolant can offer lhe furlher benefil ol'prolectio n frorn aluminum corrosion. Distilled or demnerali zed water wiIl keep lhe
system clean.
RESERVOIRS. The sb:e 01' the resel'voir i5 01' prime importanee to lhe cfficiency
of the wat.er-based le. Considcr lhal most applic~:\tion5 of boost willlast only a
few seconds-say, 15 as a high average. Then it is rcasonable lo be s uro in this
interval thal any given piece al' water will not see lhe le unit twice. A pump
capabi li ty 01' 10 gall ons per minute will move 2.5 gnllons in 15 seconds; thus.
the ideal size ofthe rescl'voir here i5 2.5 gallons. Unreasonably large, obvious
IYI but the point i5 made that. the biggerthe reservoir, thegreater the lime unlil
the water takes 15 second lap lhrough the le. II is nol too diflicult lo see that
as a larger reservoir i8 used, t.he need for Il fronl coolel' decreases. Consider
that the greater the mass oC water, the greaLer the thermal nertia.
FRONT COOlER. 'I'he [mnl cooler is lhe leasl imporlanl parto of the le system,
as it is doing mostofits work when the vehicle is nol opcrating under boosl. Al
lhe starl of a boost I'un, the enLirc system will be at approximatcly ambienl
temperature. A s boost rises, healing the waler in lhe main core, this heated
water must gel to the f!'ont eOl'e befm'e i1 has any temperature diTerence wilh
which te drive the heal out. 'l'his lime delay can be 85 long as 7 01' 8 second s.
depending on the sizeofthe rcscr voi l'. That a rnount ol'til11e i5 typical ora boost
applicalion. [t is c.Icar. lhen, that the fl'ont coolel' will do most of ts work after
the boos1l'uo. Since lhe temperalure differe nce betwcen the watel' and t.he
front core is small compared to the temperalm'e difTel'ence betweeo lhe booSl
charge and the water, tile time reQuired lo cool t he walcl'down is l11uch greater
than the time "equired lo heat it up.1'his is another reason fol' I'unningthe wa
te!' pumps a11 the time. The front core does nol need to be AS big as it may seem
al first glance, because the relali\'c cfm rates through the t.wo cores wiJI usual
Iy be heavily biased tOW81'd th a f'ront. coolel'. Fol' cxamplc, 8 fOl'WBJ'd velocity ol'
jusl 60 mph could pOlcntially pul 5280 cfm t h,-ough 3 eoolco" of 1 square fool
area. Surely it is anolher case ofbiggel' is hetter, hut nat l'e-ally enough beller
to gel calTicd away with huge fronL coolers.

70

eHAPTER

5:

I NTERCOOllNG
f

Ag. 5-37. 1'he wateroosed inlercooler m.ust


hove a {ronlmounted
hea/. exchaugel: The
compaclncss cmd
e{ficiettcy o( oil coolers
malles thern ideal for
litis application,

Water Spray
onto Intercoolers

Spraying water ooto an le core, presumably an air/air unit, is a method of improving lhermal efficieney of the le. Preliminary testing of sueh a oneehanism
has been shown to ofie r an easy improvement of 5 to 10%. The de.ign and use
of any eooling sy.tem. based on a eonsumable Huid is best eonsidered for special
events only.

Water Injector

Tho water injector is noL a very inte resting device. Ll has Httle place in a propc rIy conceived turbo system . Two circwnstances are viable for a water injee-

toro a 1970 home-built Vega turbo with a draw-through eurb, or a Roots


Sllpereharger sitting between a huge engine . nd two huger (reaUy big) carbllretors. '1'0 st.ake the mmgin of safety of a tllrboeharged engine on an inherently
unreliablc device is an idea whose time has long since passed. RlP.
C~

RULE: A water injector on a turbo cal' is a poor-excuse band-aid

fOI"

nol do-

ing Lhejob eorreelly Lhe first time.


One-Shot
Intereooler

Special-pllrpose events like drag raci ng or top-speed triaJ. lend a note of k.en
interesL to lhe one-shoL, super.fficient intercooler. While not yet p,acticaJ ror
evelyday use, intel'coolcr ope rati ng weIJ in excess of 100% efficiency can easi

Iy be ereaLed anel used lo greal adva ntage fO I" short durations. The principie bemnd the 100 +% efficie nt jntercoolcr is tbat. of providing a cooling medium fOl"
t.he heat. cxchangel' core that is e ith cr below ambie nL l.emperature or that can
absorb huge amounts ofheat by Lhe evaporat ion proccss when in contad wiLh

the eore. Exrunples 01" eaeh would be an iee-waler-bathed eore 01" one sprayeel
with liquid nitrogen. Keep in onind t hal whatever the eooling medium , it must
be kept in motion al all times, to avoid bow1dary laye r formation. A stat.ionary
boundary layer will gel wa rm a nd severely restriel the How 01" heat I"rom the
coreo Don'tgetcarried away with gleeful thoughts ofhow great a 100 +% intereoole, will be and overlook that equally impOltant design a peet of pressure
loss lIu-ollgh lhe eore.

ONE-SHOT INTERCOOLER

71

Flg. 538. An ice--chesl

heat exchanger fo,. o


onesltol intercooler rOl"

drag racing. l ee is
packed arowul the
water tubet>. afld lhe

container is titen filled


wilh waler:.

~ND FURTHERMORE.

What is an intercoolel; and why is it o{ m erit ?


The intcJ'coolel' is a heat exchangel' (J'udiator) placed on the turbo compl'essor outlet..lts purpose is t.o reduce the temperature of the campresscd IDI' coming out of the turbo, increasing air deusity and alIowing higher boost
pressures.
This change in temperat.ure has two distinct advanlages: it increases power
and it slaves off detonaLion to considerubly higher boos!.. pl'esslll'cs. Cooling a
gas makes it denser-Le., more molecules per cubic inth. The density increase
\ViU generally be around 10 to 15%, dependingon boost level and cooler efficiency. Power inc.reases pl'oportional todensity. This iscertainly a userul lncrease in
power but nowhere near a11 that is safel'y available. The incl'eased margin of
safely on delonation is so great, due lo the temperature reduclion, lhot a portian orthat margin ofincrease can be used to raire the operaling boost level. ln
my experience, detonation will be suppressed a fw-ther 4 to 5 psi boosi with a
proper intcl'cooler (provided a corred air/ruel rat.io i.s prescllt). Operating boosi
pressures can and should thcn be raised 3 01' 4 psi. Thc illlprovement in performance as a resul t or th is additional 3-4 psi intercooled is app roximately the
same as the performance provided by tite first 5-6 psi ofboost.
}Jowever, there can be pitralls. First, ii is currently in vegue lo orfer an inlercooler as a substitute fol' a correct air/fuel ralio. Call't do L. A co rrect. air/fu-

72

CHAPTER

5:

INTERCOOLlNG

Ag. 5-39. Iru;reased in lercoolinH for {aclory


turbo cars should be occompanied by mooest
boost "creases.

el ratio is imperative. Must have. Ifyour choice is ane or the other, yau musl
choase the correct aiT/fuel ratio. Both are th e best situatioJ1, by fal'.
Secand , too great ti pl'essure 1055 pumping through an intercooler can raise
exhaust manifold pressure by such a large amoun1. as to demolish virtllal1y a ll
the powel' neTease ofTered by lhe intercooler. A zero-resistance intercooler is
ideaL Get as clase as you can. Know whatyou buyo Ask what the pressure dl'op
is aL 1.5 times the erro rating ofyour engine, lt shou ld be less than 2 psi. Few
will be, OEM nelude<!.

What configu.rations do in.tercoolers com,e in ?


There are two basic styles of intercoolers: airtoair and airlowater. Eneh
has distinct meril, yet each has sorne problems. Alltoair is the simplest. It

Fig. 540. An elaboraLe


yet effectwe wall!r-oosed
jlltercooler buill by Jim
McFarlarul , Mechlch

MOlorsports, fOI" Itis


IlIliqlll! Nissoll V-6
twm-t/lrbo-powered
(our-seater sand car.

ONE -S HOT INTE RCOO LER

73

Flg. 541.. Euen alL old


XKE Jagua r can sport
an intercooler; bul dOIl'l
bloch aIl lhe cooli flg
syslem a.irllow.

has no mov ing parts and lS as reliable as a brick. Heat-Lransfer capabili ty is adequatc, but pressure I05ses can be high, parLicularly with tbe small cores generally used, A given pressurc 1055 through Lhe in tercooler \Viii show up as an
incI'case of twice that in the exhausl manifold pressure--onc of the devils of
tu rbocharging, AJI in al1, El good unit if sized for adequate heat rcj ection and
mn imu m pressure 1058,
The air-to-watcr uni t s ufTers a bit fram complexiLy, but it does pClform. It is
com posed oftwo radia tors, one between t he turbo and the engi nc and a smaBer one in ont. of' thc sta nd a rd cooling-system radiator, The water is circulated
by a n eleelrie pump.
Decisions on which unit to use Illust be based 011 Lhe engine, avaHable space,
fuel inject.ion tIow sc nsors, an d a variety 01" other factors, An example of cach:
the obvious choice rOl' 6-cylinder BMWs is a water-bascd urut, si nce no space
exists for adequat.ely sized air/air COI' es, FUl'lher complicating the air/air unjt.
in the BMW 6 is a compl ete lack of high-velocily air in lhe on ly spaee where
even a small eore wi ll fll. On l he Olhor han d, lhe Ford Mustang 01' offers an
ideal s,iLuation fol' th e air/a' unjl in nlll'espects, 'rhe space exists fol' a tru ly
buge ai r/air unit (thl'ec fu 11 cOl'es), and il sits in a greal air now spolo

Whal is water injecti.on, and whell is it neecled?


Water injection is lhe spraying of a fine stream 0('1-1 20 into lhe intake systemo Hcat absorbed upon vaporizution ofthe water has a strong cooling effect
on the hot compressed air exlting lhe turbo. The reduclion in intake air tempcrature reduces the Lenden<.:y to knock,

74

CHAPTER 5: INTERCOOLlNG

Don't be too hasLy Lo crea te a margin o" safety on detonation based on an


unreliable device. Water injection is best used whe n boost levels aver 6 psi a.re
desired but no intercooler is prese ntoDo not aJlow a situation to exist where
toe water injedor is used as an excuse for improper air/fuel ratios. Al! things
cOnsidered yau would be faT ahcad neve!" to have heard 01" a water injector.
J

INTAKE MANIFOLD

G uidance of airflow into the f..'Y1inder hea d is thejob orihe .intake manifold.
Co ntro l orthe amounL offlow is the function orthe throttle.
A fuej-injection-equipped engine will usuaJly ftow an air/fuel mixture over a
short portion of the intake man ifold passages, whereas a carbureted enginc
wiJI flow the air/fuel mixture through Lhe enUre length of t he manifold. These
two different characteristics create vastly different design requirements.

FUEL INJECTlON MANIFOLD


'rhe basic layout of t he fuel injection manifold will be determined by 1t5 appl i.
cation. Ar8cing application will generally tend toward a design with one throttle plate per cylinder. rI'ypically, a strect manifold will em ploy just. one t.hrottle
pIale or one rnultiple-plate progressive throttle body, attached t.o a plcnum
t.h aLwill reed all cyli.nders. The one-plat.e- per-cylinder style wil! exhibit lower
flow loss and is thus more suitable for maximum power. Withjust one plate total (or one pro&'Tessive throttle body), a considerably crisper intake manifold
vacuum si&rnal is generated. 'rhis greatly ncreases the accuracy with which
low-speed fuel and ignition ca n be ca1ibrated and is thus better suited 1.0 a

Flg. 6-1 . Tire CoslUorth


\'-8 is one uflhe grealest
racing ellgines in
history. / tL its tu.rbocharged lndy car form,
it shows lhe way lo
high -performolU:e
intake manifoldinK,
throW;'lg, and plenum
sizes and shapes. Note
lhe thmttle positiolL at
lhe lower fronl 01 tite
plenllm. Th e lltrottle
inlet sweeps Ilpwctrd
into tlle center o{ lile
plenllln.

75

76

CHAPTER 6: I NTAKE M ANIFOLD

Fig. 62. Top: Log-st)'le


intake manifold w;th (/
single IhroUle inlel.
Bottom : Plenum
manifold with multiple
111 rOUle pIntes

street-d,-iven automobiJc. Synchronizing thc How, cylinder Lo cylinder,


thl'ough Olultiple throttle plates is enathar maLLer a lLogelher.
1'he two vastly cLi fTerent applications have many feaLures in comman . 80th
I"cquire sn ideal shnpe for nir in lcLs inlo the runners lo Lhe c:ombustion chambers. Both requil'e considerable though t as Lo th e rato 0(' taper ofthe port r unners. ln a1l applications, it is desirable to accelcl'ate mI" Loward the combustion
chomber. This i5 done by gradually reducing the scction area ofthe I'u nncr as
iL ncal'S the chambel". Accelcrating the ail' to a l'easo nably high ve locity i5 ben
efieial, because it promotes chamber turbulence, yie lding beitcl' combu sLion.
Bctter chamber fill ing, which cren tes more pOWC 1~ \ViII also oeeul'.

Ag. (;..3. Tlle big-block


Chl!uy Super Ram
mani{oltllplelluml

throttle a~embly.
A compact desigll with
sllorl rWlIlcrs (Ind good

inlel shapes tlwl wOl'k


well al high flow rales.

FUEL I NJECTlON MANIFOLD

77

Ag . 6-4. The symmelri.


cal ir'tal,e marLifold
(top) has a higher
prvbabilityo{elJual flow
lo eaclt cyliuder Iha"
lhe more compaclll on
symmetrical design o

'rhe length orthe runner has a st.ro ng efTect on the amount of air that actu
ally gets inlo lhe chamber duringthe intake valvc cycJe when the engine is nol.
under boost. Due t.o ils complexity. this phenomenon i5 best st.udicd separalely
from turbo design oHere, it. is sunicient lo say thal. higherspeed engines v.rill
tend towru'd shortcr intake runners. Low-speed and rnid-range torque gener
al1y shows gains froln longer runners. Turbo applicat.ions will generally find

F1g. 6-5. A modest


performance EFI
mallifold crealed from
the classic \'-8 lItalle
manifold.

Ag. 6-6. [,uli viduCl[


illlake rwuters (mm
a plellum are

/lsf~(/l1

desigll {eatures. A good


examplft of a symmelri
cal (lesign.

78

CHAPTER 6: I NTAKE MANI FOLD

Ag. 6-7. A (ournjrttor; single-throule


wtahe manifold fo ,. lile
Mazda I'olary engme.

Tlus is a "onsymmetrical designo

besl results with long runners, which provide a brcad, Aal. torquc curve at.low
s pceds, while the turbo keeps the top end suang. In Lhe fuel injection appli catioo wh ere only air is moving nside the runners, the runn er design becomes
fre e to go up, clown, or sideways.
Symmetry of design is a desirable characteristic, either race or stl'eet.. as it
fac il itaLes equaJ distribuLion of airHow to each cylinder.

Flg. 6--8. Ullgninly,

1-

3d---

perhaps, this LS the


shape of afl ideal ai,.
miel.

Radlus 01 are equal 10 d - - - . / "


,

1_'- _.'_1-__

Flg. 6-9. An ill lalU!

plelllult sholl.ld be
scueraJ times lurge,.
th(l.lI a cyUnder 's
displm:emt:ILl. Tls
Ford GTP car !Jatisfies
lhat rcqUlremrml well.

Throat diameter a

PLENUM
Pl e num

Virt.uallyall fuel injection manifolds wilJ ha ve a plenum. The ple nUJll vo lllme
s hould be a fundion of engi nc displaccme nt-in general, 50 - 70%. One of the
critica1 design points in the manifold is tho plenum -to-rllnner inlersection.
'rbis is the point at which a bell-mouth-shaped inlet to lhe runner must be
carefully made.

Ag. 6-~O. 'fhe shape o{


the intersectiofl. between
plenum and intake
l'unller must approach
the ideal ai,. inlel
. hope.
Ideal Inlel shape

Intersect10n 01 two equalradius


tubes yields good flow

Fig. 6-.1.1. This Porsche


lndy engille clearly
i/lustrales plenum size
,.equirem enls.

79

80

CHAPTER 6: I NTAKE MANIFOLD

I"jector Locat ion

Only twa basic rules apply lo lhe location ofan njector. First, it musl beaimed
as sLruigh t down the cen ter of a port as possible. Second, it. should discharge nl
a poinl where ai r veloc ity is al or near it.s highest.
Occasionally a sysl.em w iIJ have such a large airftow 01' rey ranga t hat a single njector cannol pl'avide enough fuel. In s uch circumstances, al leasl. a secondary fuel inject.or will be requi.red, and sometimes evcn a l hird. Alignmcntof
the secondary njector is nol as critical as the prirnary, beca use the sccondary
is gencral ly nol used until the system has achieved a I'elatively high raie ofai rRow. J n street applications, it is still desirable to poini lhe secondary njector
downstream . Race applications, however, have occasionally aimed t he secondary back upstream. Although data are scarcc, this may o fTer slight ly heller alomization and is worthy of conside ration .

FIg. 61.2. A standard

injector. The njector

20 maximum

ollgle wilh respecl lO lile

inlet por!. s'ould be O.'i


shallow as possible.
C011.';ider 200 lhe
I1UlX.,num.

Fg. 6-~3. Aflllp$trrom

injeclor

o
ThroUle Bodies

The throt.-tle body is usually o ne orthe se rious airflo\\' l'cst ri ctions in the turbocharger system. Simply making the t hrottle bigger will alleviaie lhe problem,
hut low-speed driveabi lity can becom e an on/off, jumpy proposition. A big
throttle plate open (1 small amOlmt con let in a lot of nir, and sl1looth low-speed
t-hrotUc response wil! s uffer. A maximul11 air velocity 01' approximntely 300
ft/sec will kcep flow losses acceptable.
Aj, volocily can be calcu lated by
Ve/oei/y

air/low rote
- arca o{ sectior

Exam ple:
Le l crOl = 500 and t hl"ottle lhl"oa llD = 2.5 oches.

THROTTL E BODIES

81

Ag. 6-14. EFl lhrolll.


bodies on a Cheuy
smallblock manifold.
With olle lhrollle piafe

per cylillder. litis LS one


of tite loweslrestrictLOII
lhrottling lo.yollls.

L3

500
V ; -,...",-",",.,'",/./,,-'_ x
11 ( 2.5 )2 in 2
2

_1 m
_ ,_'
1l
60 see ; 245 fl
_1_
, rl'
see
144 , 2
Lll.

lf 300 Nsec is exceeded and lhe single lhroltl. plate is not accompanied by a
progressivc linkage, it would be time lo consider a lwo-pJate progressive lholtle body,
For race applicalions where Ol1e throttle plate per runner is employed, il is
quite adequate lo sum
throttle plate areas and calcuJale accordingly, 01'
simply to use one cylinder and one throltle, The 300 fUsec figure should still
offer a suitable guideline.
The beautifuJ race hardware utilizing slido-valve throttles sbould generaIJy
be avoided, becallse lhe area limes prossuro usually yields forces of large magnitude, Special bearings and linkages can make lhe slide valve workable. In
general, life is vastly simplified wilh lhe standard old twist-shall throtU.
plate.

ti,.

82

CHAPTER

6:

I NTAKE MANIFOLO

Mechanical

Cable

Fig. 6-1.5. 'rhe


progreS$LVe lh mute
linllage is a simple
concept cnd efTectwe al
prodltCillg smooth
opel'aOI/ cIl low engilll!
spceds.

Pu1l cable
Al decreases lo R2 as cable is puHed

Flg. 6-1.6. Neus{Jed's


large VW lhrottle body
is a progressiue unit
with obuious vaLue {or
cuslom. turbo
applicalions.

Progressive
Throttle Bodies

The attracLio n or. two- (or IDlIltiple-) plate progre.siv. lhrottle body can be
strong. 1'he application needs carefu l anruysis. since the progressive is not aJways ofthe benefit it may seem. Tbe best place lo use the progressive is with
large engines thal accelarate weU at low speeds \Vith little Lhrottle opening.
Generally, avoid th. progressive on small engines thaL require a lot orthrotUe
just lo make them move.

CARBURETED MANIFOLD
Although scriously 00 thc decline, and wi th good reason, a few more carburet-

ed lurbo systems will certainly be blliJt. Such a hugo number 01' intake m.nifolds are in production t.oday that. sclecting :l good one amounts to ittle more
Lhan a literat.ure sec:uch. In general, manifolds emp loyiug one throat per cyli n ~

del' will yield lhe mosl perrormance. 1'hose with less will usually orrer slightly
beller low-speed driveabi lily.
'l'hese are, o[course, all orthe blowthl'Ough style. A discussion on eoUectors
plenums fol' blow-through carburetol' appli cations would be much thc same
as the discussion relative to the fuel injection plenulUs. Follow the same prin01'

cipies, alld yOll will be on the right track.

PROGRESSIVE THROTTLE BODI ES

83

Flg . 6-J.7. AIl example


of a carbllreted irttake
manifold conuerted lO
EFloll. the Maserali
Boro.

ANO FURTHERMORE

Will a turbo work with my slock carburelor or stock fuel injection?


stock carb: nO
stock fuel inject.ion: no, nol quite
No fuel injection in use today wiU nutomatica.lly provide fuel fol' the increased airftow created by the turbo. However, stock electronic fuel injection
systems work so welJ in a11 nonboost modes that it. is advisable t.o retain the
system and keep it absolutely stock, for easeofrepair.
Whal constitllles aproper intahe m,anilold?

Stl'enmli ning, aboye al!. Unifol'ln port shapes, smooth section changes, and
insulation frorn heai. Syrnmetry and runner length are important.

Flg. 6-:18. The strong

be".jits o{ o gaed
intche manifold
design for turbo
applicatiolLs haue
prompted mally people
lo enate inferf!sting
a,ul complex desiglls,
sl4ch as lhe Dile made
for lhis Mitsubi.shi
3-liter V-6 wlt h twill
turbas amI
iltlercoolers.

ELECTRONIC
FUEL INJECTION

T he atomization of fuel nto Lhe air charge i5 extremely signicant to the


functioning of lile internal combu ,tion e ngine. Ir any s ingle as pect of engine
performance can be lahaled "most. important.." fuel contro l is a slron g candidate fO'I' the honor. EJectroll.ic fuel injection, in particular, can do thatjob betle r
Lhan any atber forrn of [ue] injection or fuel mixing device. Principies, applicatio ns, and rood.ification ofEFI wiJI be dealt w1th in the discussion that. follows.
Ne ither clS ("continuous injection system"), a lype of fuel injcction th81 uses
pneumatic and hydrau.lic cont.rals, nor throttle-body fue! injection is discussed
in this book. EFI has prQve n t8 superio riLy a.ll Lhe \Vay I'rolU economy s hoeboxes to Indy champ Cars, It has been a long time s ince a majol' ,'oad race winner
was equipped with a fuel systc m other than EFL 8u'cly, then , aoy serious tur,
bo will be accompanied by EFl. Nolhi ng cisc even comes close. 8tal't with the
best there is. and you wan 't wind up s luck or cornel'ed laLer on,

Fig. 7-1. TILe modem


engille-mallagement

==

syslem.

_ _ _ ...1-___......

85

86

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRONIC FUEL I NJECTlON

Ag. 7-2. AII adopJalioft

ortlle Electromotiue
TEC 11 EFl to arl ultra/1Ioderll engine i" the
Acum Integra.

Principie
of EFI

An EFI system is composed of electrical1y aduated fuel vaJves tha t apen by a


voltage signa!, pel'mitting fuel Lo Aow. '['he air/fu el ratio is controJled by the
amount oftime the injectors are held apen pe r com bustion cycle. This is called
pulse dUl-ation. Thc EFI computer gathers data from a group of sensors that
teJl it how fas t Lhe cngine is running and the load at that instan L. With that data, the com pu ter start.s looki ng through its stored in[ormation t.o find how long
it should hold Lh. injecLors open Lo satisfy the fuel requiremenLs dictated by
those load conditions. When that infol'mation is lou nd, it lS pulled out 01' t,he
memo)"y and reJayed to the illjectors as a voll.age plllse of a specific duration .
These duration s are measlI l'ed in thousandt.hs of a second, or milliseconds
(msec). When Lhat cycle is co mplete, the programming of t he co mpu ter tclls it
1.0 go do it aU over again but lO be a lert for new condi t ions. All thisdaLa acqlli sition, analysis, and distrihutian Lakes ahout 15% of the computer's attention.
The remainde r ofthe time iljuslsits, Too bad iLcan' tbe rcconcilingyour checkbook in its offholll'S. The senso rs th e compu ter relles on lo keep it. informed a re
an nLegra! part ofEF I and are anaJogous LO the eyes and ears ofthc systcm:
Air~ mass/air(lo w sellsol: An EFI system configured with an air-mass or a ir fiow sensor is caJled a "mass flow" EFl system, The se nsor attempts lo measure tll e number of sir molecu les flowing throu gh the system al any instant. Ir
t.his numbar is div ided by the speed of t.he engin e, it gives en accura t.e reflection orthe amOllnt. (JI' fuc l nceded per combuslion put.t. in th e engine.
Air t.em peratllre sellSOf: Aj r density changcs as a functjan of t.empe l'alure.
T hereforc, the compu ter must. know to change lhe pulse durations slighUy ir
l he air lemperature sensor detects a changc in the ai1' temperatul'c.
Barometric sensor. Ai r dcnsity al so changes with altitude. An atmospheric
pressure sensor-a barom et.er- provides th e compute!' a varyillg signal wit.h
changes in a ltilude.
Coolant lemperatu re senSO/: Thc am oun l orfuelt.he engi ne nee Is is invcl'seiy propor tio nal to cngine lem peratu re, The coolan l lem peratu re senso l' I'eflects Lhe enginc's opel'a ling Lempel'atu re. With a cold engine, a hu ge a moun t

FUEL INJECTORS AND PUL SE DURATI O N

87

offllel is requiredjust lo gel. enough to v~porize, so itcan burn. The haLter the
engine, the easier vaporization becomes, and the less fu el required.
Manifold uacuwn/pl'essul'e SeI1.S01: Not all EFl systems will be equipped
with a manifold pressure sensor. 'rhose that. are, are pl'opel'iy called "speed
density" EFI systems. When the manifold a bsolute pressure (MAP) sensor is
used, an air- mass sensor 0 1' airflow meter is not necessary. The manifold vacuum or manifold pressul"e at any given instant is a good reflect.ion ofthe e ngi ne
load at that t ime. Hence, the MAP sensor provides t he co mputer with another
bit of ope rati ng condi tion data.
Oxygen sensor. The oxygen sensor mensures the a mount ofaxygen left over
from the combustion process. lt is mounted in the ex ha ust manifold and thus
becomes the afier-the-fad watchdog for the computel'.lfthe sensor detccts too
much oxygen, the compu ter will know by referring to its stored information
t hatit is time to lengthen t he injection pulses slightly, thus adding fuel a nd using sorne ofthe excess oxygen. By rnonitoring the leftover oxygen, t he computer can conti nuously horne the pulse durations in on the air/fuel ratio it was
prOb'Tarnmed to give. The oxygen sensor's purpose in Iife is lO keep l.he s ir/fuel
ratio in t he ranges needed by t he threc-way catalytic converter. It is not a power or economy device.
Tachomeer circu.it. The pulsing 01' the njectars every combustion cycle
musl, ofcourse, a1ways be referenced to the enginespeed. 1~ h e tach circuitdoes
trus by monitoring the low-voltage pulses to the coil.
Throttle position sensor. The actual output of an engine lS largely depcndcnt
upo n throttle position. Full throttle is obviously asking fol' cverythin g the engine has, tlnd fuel flow Illust rise to the occasion. Thcrefore, th rottle position
becomes a signi6cant bit of data for the computer. A fUlther data input thal
the throttle-position sensor oTers is the rate of change or t he t hrottle posilion.
This function becomes the cquivalent al' an accelerator pump in a earburetor.
'fhe accelerator pump arrers a sudden rieh condition to allow a smoother load
lTansition.
Support pieees rOl' t he El?! system are fuel pumps, fuel pl'essure regulators,
fuellines, ail' vaJves, id le controls, and relays .
Fuel Injectors
and Pulse
Duration

A good working knowledge ofEFl must include an understanding ofhow njector sizes vary with difTering requirements or cylinder size, power output, and
operating range al' manifold pressure. F'irst it is nccessary to understand t he
int rin sic naturc of the timed injector and the available time in which it must
wor k. The available time is Hmited to the lime required for one comple te engine cycle. Ln a four-stroke-cycle engine, available injector time ls the time requil'cd to complete twO revolu tions or the engine. As the speed of th e e ngine
increases, avai lable illjector time decreases. Thus the njecto r inhel'enLly takes
up a greater a nd greate' portian ofth e avrulable time as Lhe engine speed5 up.
EvenLually, the point 8lTivesat whieh e ngine cycle time is equaJ to the tim e tlle
injector nceds to deli vel' the required amount of fueJ. Trus point is the 100%
duty oyele point.
1'wo typcs of EFI systems are available: sequenlial and l1onsequ e ntia l. SequellLial, which is Lhe most common, pulses an injectol' in the same ol'de!' as
the firingorder ofthe engine. In so doi ng, sequen.tial pu lses each injcc tor every
other revolution ; tha t s, once pe r cngi ne cyclc. The notlsequential style usually pulses all the injectors aL the same t ime and on every revolution. Sequential

88

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRONIC FUEL I NJECTION

Ag. 7-3. Moximum


{uel i njectiofl 1)U/~c
time auailabLe per
I'evolutioll is a {tU/elio"
of engill e "PIn.

_ .l ___ _

30

25

e
o

20

.~

"R

I
I
_+-

15

____

I
I
I
I
..J _ _ _ -I __ _
I

.~

I
I
I

------t----

il
~

I
I

-T - - - - - , - - - , - - - 1 - - - - - -

10

-~:_::::_=~~--

- T- ---4--- ' --- , -------~----I


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

::;

.6

Rpm )t 1000

EPI theref'ol'c has a pulse durabon Lwice as long as nonsequ cntial, bu nanse
qu ential pulses lwice per engi ne cycle, thereby c10sely approximatin g delivery
orsequential EF1. A c1ever variation on seque ntial injection is the ability to adjust exactly when t he pulse OCcurs relative to the openin g ofthe inta ke va lve.
'1'he t\vo convenient points to rcmembe r are a l:. 600 l"pm and 6000 rpm. 1'hese
two poinls take 100 msee and 10 msec, respectivcly, per revolution, 0 1" 200 rnsec
and 20 msee for complcteenginc cycles. Again, it is important to remember that
20 rnsec total time available, whelher it is in two pulses ofnonsequcntial E I;'l 0 1"
one pulseol'seq uenlial EFI. The fundamenlal idea behind alllhis analysis slun'
is thaL the injcctor must. be b ig enough to del.ivcr all the fuel the eylinder requ il'es in 20 msec at 6000 rpm (or even less ifthe cngine run s faster),
Modifying Stock
EFI Systems

Within the scope of low-boost-pressure (under 7 psi) turbo sys tems added Lo
normally aspirated engi nes, adequatc fuel deliveri es can be achi eved with
modification to the stock EFI equipment. Tbe basic l'eq uil'cmenl of knowing
thal the fu el delivcrcd through the injector nozzle is the righl a mounl 1'01' the
conditions s till exists a nd must be sa tisflcd. lncl'casing fuel Aow thl'ough th e
EFI systc m islimited Lo one of th ree choices:
lengthening injector pulse dllralion
increasing noz zle si7.e
nct'easing fue l pressUl'e
LENGTHENING INJECTOR P ULSE DURATlON. Prior to any attempt to inereasc fue l
flow by longer pulse duration l it is necessary lo determine the lime of a n e ngi ne revolution aL redline (peak horsepower) and the Illa'(imum dUJ'aUol1 of an
njector pulse. This wilI allow us to ealcalate whether ad ditional time is available to lengthen pulse durabon. lnjector pulse dllralion can be dclennined by
an oscilloscope 01' pulse duration meLer, 1.' his mcasurement must. be take n
while the cal' is moving al fulllhl'ottle nea!" lhe tOl'que peak, whieh is apl)roximate1y lwo-t hirds ofl'cdline rpm.

MODIFYING STOCK EFI SVSTEMS

89

As rpm incrcases "ram about 3000 rprn ..md injecLors are open a 1m-gel' per-

ccnlage of each revolution, 5eQuential Efl reverta LO nonsequential. The distinction between the tWQ types can therefore be ignored in ca1culating
additional fuel flow as long as pulse dura tia n is checked aboye 4000 rpm . The n
it is accurate to analyze available pulse ncrease based on one pulse pel' revolulion.
The time requ i red for one revo lution al cnginc redline determines wh ethcr
time is avai lable for Jonger I~FI pulses. 'J'his CHn be obtained fram figure 7-3 or
by ca lculation :
60 see

T ime o{ Olle reuolution

m,n
= redline
::::-:;7''':::'::'':':-:::
rpm

Example:
Lel redline rpm = 5500.
'rhen
60 sec
mt11

Time of olle revolutioll :; 5500 rpm = 0.0109 = 10.9 m sec


Once the time of one revo lu tion al lhe recHine is known and redline pulse
duration has been mensured. the avai lablc ncrease can be calcu1ated.
In msec,

Auailable iltcrease =- time of one reuollllion - recllilte pulse cllIration


As a pcrcentagc,

lime of Ofle reuoution J


./ b/ .
Aval a e lllcrease = .
.
redltne pulse duratloll
Example 1:
LcL redlille rpm = 5500 and redline pulse duration = 6.2 msec.
Then
Auailable illcrease :; 10.9 msec - 6.2 msec = 4.7 msec
As a percentage.

Auai/able i"crease =

~Oi - 1 =

0.758 = 75.891

Example2:
Let recUine rpm = 7500 and redJine pulse duraLion = 8.0 msee.
60 se.c

Tim.e of Olle reuolutio fl.

= 7500nun
rpm = 0.08 = 8.0 msec

Aualoble increase:::; 8.0 msec - 8.0 m.se<: = O

In this example, redline pulse duration takes up all the avail able time at the
rcd line rpm thereforu, no increase is avajJable.
Ir invcs tigat ion s hows an increase in injcctor pulse duru tion is available,
the n the methods of ext.endin g those pulses can be examined :
Sensor signa! alteralion. Pulse dlll'aLions can be extended by increasing the
resistance in Lhe coolanL tempernlure senso r circult. Thp alTIount ofresistance

90

CHAPTER 7 : ELEC TRONIC FUEL INJECTION

is determined by lrialund error. 'rhe resistance must be added in incremcnts


andonJy when under boosl. T his requ iresa messy seriesof potentiomcLers and
swit.ches and will always p rove less than accepLabJe.
Water temperature sensor

Ag. 7-4. 7'he coolantlemperalure-signalECU

chonge-based fuel
syslem. Note: Th! s is
nol a wQrkable fuel
syslem.

Switch normalty closed, apens


al specified boos! pressure

BooSl

Reprog1'curuned computer chip. ' ['00 many problems exisi to expect. a chip
change to ofTer a means 01' supplying additional fuel How. This methad IS t.ough
to work out. on flapper-door-style nowmeters, for example. lt wili noi work on a
speed density sysl.em unless lhe MAP sensor is designe<! lo operate at pressures
aboye atmospheric. 'I'hc tuner with the knowledge to dccode an OEM computer
program and the equipmenl lo repr0.brram the system can do the jobo T hese
,b'Uys are real sharp and real starcc. AH in a1l, t his is a toughjob to can 'y out.
Pulse signal interceplor. Currently, the ol11y viable means of extending 811
injector pulse is lo intercept t, modify it ba.sed on manifold pressure conditions, and send il. on lo the injector in place of t he original pu.lse. Good technol ogy and IOLs of experience are required for succes.!> with ihis approach. Such
devices exist in limited applications.
INCREASING NOZZLE SIZE, A change in nozz le size crea les a situation whcrcin ,
ir len. alane, the EFl will delive r more fucl all t he t ime under all condilions,
This is noL accept.ab le; thus, a mealls of returning fue l flow to it.s original level
at low speeds is necessary. lt is possible to do this either by modifying ihe a'flow meter's signallo the ECU oro with Aapper-door-siy le Howmeters, by incl'easi ngthc I'cturn springtension. The latle r done insidc the nowmeLer und is

Fig. 7-5. "file IIKS


ptggyback t:ompltler is
designed lo opera/e CL

(Clclory turbo car al


higher-thClIl;iock boas!
pressures.

MOOIFVING STOCK

EFI SVSTEMS

91

Fig. 7-6. The F-CON

compute,. aLters lhe EFI


signal bascd on the
magnitude o{ the OOos!
pressure signal.

Stock
ECU

FCQN

Fuel injectors

Boosl-pressure ssgnaJ

Flg. 7-7. Rising-rate


regula.ta,. inslalled in.
a fuel system

Stock regulalor
Injectors

Inlake manifold slQnal


Rising-rale regulalor

Tank

relatively easy_ lnjector nozzles up to 50% bigger can usually be retuned to


good low-speed operation by eithe.. method.
Increasing fuel pressure or adding injectors is only practical up to aboul910 psi (boost pressure), after which larger injecLol's become necessary. Although OEM ECUs a ..e difficult to reprogram, artermarket units, which come
with software and instructions, are a cincho With such units, increasing inj ec ~

FJg. 7-8. '['he risllgrole (",el pressure


regulatol; inuented by
Ron Nash in the
midr'70s, mises {uel
pressure rupidly as
boosl increases.

92

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRON IC FUEL INJECTION

Rg. 79. Tite rsi,ig-

role regulalQr can

deliver siguilican,tly
higlter {uel pressures
os a flmction o{ boast
pressu.re.

'iii

-,
~

;; 3

2
1
O

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Fuel pressure (psi)

tor size becomes the most potent method of supplying additionaJ fue1. When
boost pressure excecdi ng 9- 10 psi is planned, a change ofilljectors is necessary.
INCREASING FUEL PRE$SURE. lncreasing system fuel pressure as a function of
boost pressure is a viab le method of increasing fuel flow to accom modatc boost
pressu res up to about 9 psi. Fuel flow changes through a nozzle "lre proportional to the square rooL of the pl'essure cha nge across lhe nozzle. A boost-pressure-powered fuel pl'essure regulatorcan be made todrive the fuel preSSUl'e up
rapidly io kcep pace with ,'ising boost pressu.re. This type of mechanism is able
to use the original injectors but is limited to fuel pressure available through
the stock pump. Bosch or olhcr high-pressul'e EFI fuel pumps can be substituted or used as supplement.a.l'y pumps. These pumps ge nerru ly offcr fuel presSUTe up lo 130 psi, which give the fue l pressure regulator adequate pl'essu re to
work with. Proportioning fuel pressul'C lo boosl presslIl'c maintains lhe timed
nature of EFI. keeping fuel delivery proper I'elat ive to the a ir-rnass rate of Aow.
Extra Injectors

Some systems attempl to increase power by addi ng one or two injcctors overall. rathel' tban per cylinder. 1'hese injeclors are cllsLomariJy placed in t he air
lube entcl'i ng the throttle body and can be pulsed by a small cont.rol box based
on an rpm and boost-pressurc sibrna1. As is the case with increasing fuel pres
sure) adcli ng injectors ls practical only up Lo about 9 psi. 'llhjs is 110t an idea l
systelll, and , ifused, care must be cxercised in locating the injectol's. to achieve

Rg. 710. Olle o,. two


additional I/jee/ors {DI'

Control

Injector pulse signal

bo,

(he ell/in system CO'1


Boosl-pressure signal

prouide fuel for lowOOost application.'f bul


should ,.ol be collsicl-

erecl for serioils poli/el:

Tach
signal

EXTRA INJECTORS

Ag. 7-l l. Tlle illl',e~


sil: Nissan lna"ifold as
equipped with sir
slaged il/jeclors.
Original illjeclors are
lo lile lefl; seco"daries
are fllrlher Dlllboal'd.
10 lhe righl.

Ag. 7-l.2. 7'he "(l(ld~on


illjector" fuel supply
will indeed add a llseful
doseoffue/. TheQl.ld-oll
is pulsed wilh ellginc
speed; duration is
cOlllroLled by boasl
pressure.

Fig. 7-1.3. Four slaged


secDl/daries call be
programmed LO operate
when. uf/del" boas!.

93

94

CHAPTER 7: ElECTRONIC FUEl I NJECTlON

equal di stribution of fu el to the cylinders in a manifold des igned Lo ftow air


oruy. The injectors mus!. ruso be s ized to deliver t he fuel rcquired fol' the desired airAow rates. [deal1y, one extra injeclOr per cylinder i8 required for se ri ous power. Otbclowise, considc l' t h is a low-boost-power Illechanism .
The preceding paragraphs cover the melhods by which EFI may be modified
lo aperate under boost. Prior lo selecting a method that s u its yau!" requirements, make sura your measurements and cuJculati ons are correcto Oon't get
off on any dopey tangents like t.urning on cold -start spray nozzles, or any ather
equal ly inane schemes, without suitabl e investigation proving that the scheme
meets aH the requirements of n properly conceived fuel syste m.
Calculating
Injeetor Size

'rhe EFI fuel injector has a raLing of fuel ftow per unit t ime. A huge variety of
sizesexist. An equaUy huge number ofunits ofvolume or mass flow are used lo
rate injector flow capncity. The follawing wiJl canvert ce/mi n to lb/hr:

cubic c~ntimelers
mLnute

= pounds x 10.5
hour

The calcul ations rC<luired lo come up with a properly sized injector for a given appli catian are naL rigorous. No rocket sc.ie nce here. One simple calcul ation
and thejob is done:

Pounds of fuel per haur per "jector = expeC::d ~~p ~ 0.55


num r o LnJeclors
The .55 ligure isactuaUy the maximum load brakespecific fuel co nsumption
(bsfc) of a typical turbocharged cngine. In general, the number of injectors is

the same as the numher of cyli nde.rs. Clearly, one should choose the next larger
size Lhan the calculated value. to aITer some margin far future improvements.
Testing
Injedors

An njector can be measured for LS flow capability by apply ing a s uitable vo lt~
age (usuaIly 9, but check the manual) Lo the injector and 36 ps i (sLock fuel presVacuum signal ,---,-,-"
open lo almospllere

Rg. 7-14. A simple {ud


illjectr l/olU-lest rig

r;:=======::::j Regul8l0< r==?l..--,-_


Pump

lnjeclOf

Gradualed burelle

FUEL PUMP REQUIREMENTS

95

sure for mosi cars and standard pressure for measuring injector flow) to the
fuel. Lel the fuell"un inlo a graduated burette rorone minute. The result is the
flow capability measul'ed in ce/mino A couple of 1.5-volt dry cells will h old ihe
injector open just finco
Fue. Pump
Requirements

The fuel requirements ofany enginesystem musi be backed up by a fuel su pply


system. The fuel supply system is the fuel pump, fuel pressure regulator, and
fuellines. 1'he fuel supply system must be able to meet th e ehallenge with a rea
sonable margin oC extra capability. This margin requires a balance between t.he
pump's ftow capability and its pressure capability, All odd feature oC all pumps
is the fad that they produce their greatest flow at their least pressure. Tbe
maximum pressure rating of a pump lS when your thumb is on the outlet ofthe
pump, nolleUing anyth.ing out. In other words, no flow. On the other side ofthe
coin, the maximum Aow of the pump occurs when il is free to pUTIlp with no restriction (no t hwnh). T he EFI fuel pump is a positive-displacement pump driven by a de motor. As tbe work the pump is asked to do inereases, the motor slows
clown. As the motor slows down, the volume of fuel being pumped faUs off. 1'0
operate EFI systems, we must have fue l pressures of 40+ psi. There fore we
must know, calc:uJate, or measure the fuel flow rates al these pressures. Any

FIg. 7-~5. Turbo {ueJ


systems. especially
thase COfLtrolled by a

rising-rate regltlator,
requ ire high-pressuI'el
high-flow {uel pumps.
This Bosch pump will
supply 130 psi al flow
roLes Sllpporting 500

bIIp.

100

Flg. H6. Typical. {uel

pump flow uerSllS (ud


pressure. Fuel pwnps
deliuer less flow wiJ.h
increasillg pressure.
Tite engille '.'l requiremenis mus! always stay
below (he curve.

90
80
~
~

,e

C.
-;
,

"-

70
80
50
40
30
20
10
O

10

15

20

25

30

Fuelllow (QaVhr)

35

40

45

50

96

CHAPTER 7: EL ECTRON I C F UEL INJ ECTlON

given pump wilJ have a flow-versus-pl'essure t'U l"ve. 'l'hese can be hard Lo come
by, but it is not a roal ehallongc lo measure a particular pump's capabili ty.
Pel'haps the simpl es t method ofdeterming a pump's capabi li ty (pa rticulaT'ly
ifit is ah'eady there) is an actual field test., to see ir it. mai n tains mrudmum J'equi red fueJ pressure to Lhe engine redline. lf it does, fine. Ir not, however, this
test provides no data aboul what is necdcd.

Flg. 7-~7. ApproximaJe


fuel pump {low reqllire
mellls uerSU$ engille
bhp.

1000
900

c:
e.
~

[
~

~
e

800
700

600
500
400
300

200
100

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Fuelllow (gal/hr)

The standard method fOl" measuring en EFI pump's now capacity aL a given
pressure is to connect it to an EFl pressure l'egulator and rneasllre the volume
exiting the fuel retllrn line. This is th e volume of fu el that can be Laken from
t he fu e} system al thal pressure withoul the fuel pressuJ'e's dropping off. Wi th
the fuel pressure regulator's vacuum reference open lo Lhe atmosphere, fue]
pressure will be 36 psi. This ls the pressure used on th e chart todetermine flow
capacity. [t is equally easy to simulate fuel ft ows when opcl'ating undel' boost.
Feed a press we signa.! Lo the fu el pressure regulator equal to lhe bocsl desired
snd again measure How out the regulator return lineo This can be done with
shop mr and ao adjustable air pressure regulator. Fuel pressure wi lJ be eq ual to
boost pressure plus 36 psi. Prom calculalions ofthe injecto r sizes req uired under maxim um load, lhe lotal flow required is known . Thal tota l is njector capacity limes the number ofilljectors. The numbel' orec's per minu te divided by
1000 ls the numbel' oflitcrs per minute. lfthe poinl 0 11 the charll'cprese nting
yaur req uirements of flow capacity versus fuel pressure lies beneath th e line,
aIl is \Vell. Hthe point lies aboye the line, lwo al" more pumps operating in parallel are rcquired.
Fig. 7-l.8. File' pumps
in porallel shouLd haue

--=5i==-J~~=
---+~
rr
=-u

separate. dedicalecl (/lel


pickups.

I---i
Tank

ToEFI

AFTERMARKET EFI SVSTEMS

97

Fig. ' :19. AIl effectil1e


example ofcolluerting a
four-barrel carburetro
manifold lo an EFI
system. A tlu-otlle body
replaces th e carb; fuel
injector bosses are
installed aL tite elld s of
tILe porls.

Aftermarket
EFI System.

Fig.7-20. Electromotiue,
ofCJuutlilly, Va. ,
manufactures lhis
highqllality, hig/ performance I!lIgiflemallogement syslem.

Perhaps not yet recognized fol' what they l'eaHy are and for theil' vast tuning
potential, aftermarket EFl syste ms will prove thc greatest boon fbr hot rod
ders since the small block Chevy. Thjs is the equipmenllhat can make a docilc
lamb and high-economy cruiser out of a twinlurbo Kcith Black 600 cid hami
V-B. AftermarkeLEFI indeed offers the opportunjty to create the 1000 bhp duiIy com11luter aut.omobile. The si ngular aspect of EFI that permils chis is its
fine degree of t.uning 8vailable Qver hugc intakc manifold pressure ranges. By
compal'ison, the Hnest carbu1'etor in the world has rou1' ruelftow cir'cuiLs Lhat
can be tuned ayer t he I'ange in which it is asked lo opeTale. Over t.his same
rnnge. EFl oO'era lite rally hundreds of rue l f10w Cil'cuits-one rOl' virlually every hundl'e<lrpm band and every inch of manifold pressure. les equ.ivalent lo
having 500 mainjeL circuits in a c3l'b, each one ideally seLup ror a certain engine load and rpm.
SeveraJ artcrmarkct companics have introduced EFI syslems in lhe lasL
couple or years. Air Sensors, in Seattle. seem to have becn the pionecrs with

98

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRONIC FU EL I NJECTION

FTg. 7-2i. Th e
AustmJ.iarl Haltech EF'/

has proUf!lt durable and


uersale (or speciaLty

tuuers.

the ir units. More recent development.s, like the Haltech, alfer a completely
programmable EFL Electromotive, in Virginia, and Digi tal Fuellnjection, of
Detroit, offer s imilar hardware plus the feature ofignition controls.
Hardware fo,
Aftermarket EFI

Ag. 722. 7'he llJplOp

computer is a basic
toolj'or creatillg alld
twtiflg fueJ curve.! o{
o{lermarket fuel

illjectioll systems.

Sct.tingu p a funct.ioning EFI system means creatingthe &r tbrottling mechani5m as well as doing the hydraulics. The problems lo be solved are exactly the
same ns the problems discussed earHer i.n t hi chapter, plus a few new twists.
The hydraulic aspects are th e same. Iniake manifolding layout must be considered sec Chapter 6. 'l'hrottle valving, aJong with numbel" and positio ningofinjecton, is a lso discussed in that chapter.

H ARDWARE FOR AFTERMARKET

EF I

99

Rg. 7-23. lntegration


ola flowmeter into
the system cal1 be

compactoNote the
flexible hose lo isolate
engilll! uibrations (mm

the flowmeter.

ANO FURTHERMORE

ls there any benefit to draw-thlu"gh throltle designs on {uel injected cars ?


A noticeable throttle respo nse improvemcnt between gear shifts can be
achieved by placing the throttle in front of the turbo when no intercooler is
lIsed. Slamrning the throttle shut downstream of a pumping turbo simply
causes a greater loss of tW'bo rpm. This lost speed must be reaequired befa re
boost can again be achieved. A downstream throttle with an intercooler wiJI ultimately prove superior if aceompanied by a compressor bypass val ve system.

Why are changes needed to existing {"el systems ?


Carbureted turbocharger systems do Ilot have any requirement. fOl" extra
fuel delivery systems. The more sir drawn through a carb, the greater the
pressw'e drop at the venturi , and thus the more fuel pushed through the main
jet. A properly sizecl and calibrated carb is necessary. and that is a ll.
Fuel injection systems ~u'e a completely ditTerent situation. lt is commonly
claimed that fuel injection systems wil l lakecare ofthemselves when a turbo is
added. This is decidedly not lTlle. A fuel injection syslem is sized for a given engine. A 2-liter unit wil] nol work on a 4liter engine. trhe reason fol' trus is thal
the airflow meters and fu el injectors are sized fol' tlle flow capability ofthe aecompanying engine, and any subsLantial ncrease aver stock flow rate "vill boltom out the airAow meter. A 2jLe, unit a'flow meter subject to an infll1ite
airflow rate mighl think it's a gor illa 2.2 1iter for an insk'ult, but that's aboutas
far as il can stretch . Now add lhe turbo, and yau can easily make a 3-Jiter e ngine out of el 2-l.iter with just 7 psi boost. Obviollsly, the fuel injection airflow
meter is again bottomed olltand can'tcope with the increased flow. A turbo engine can never be allowed Lo rllll lean; therefore, somelhing must be done lo
meter fuel Lo accompany lhe extra a;,. pushed through the system by the turbo.

CARBURETION

Atfil'st glance, the idea ora modern turbocharged engine and carburetors nll
in t he same package appears lo he a conLradiction. A doser inspection I'eveals
that it is indeed a contradiction. Ral.her than ignore these antique devices, thi s
chapter will attempt to outlin e th e operating principies behind carbu.1'etol' integration into a tUl'ba system.
T he reasons carbs do nol completely satisfY the f-u eling requirements of a
turbo engine are basic and cJear-cut.. 'fwQ reasons stand oul: the ail'ftow rango
Qver which a carb can slIccessfully operate, ami lhe ina bi Jity ofa draw~through
carburetor system to fu nction with B U intercooler. A carburetor has three items
controlli ng fuel ftow : idlejet, mainjet, and rur coneeLor jet- and, on occasion,
power jets. Wh ile t hesecontrolling factors wil! allow satisfactory operation over
a ra nge or20 to 25 psi absolute (5 to 10 psi 0005t), thero is litUe hope fOI" acclIrate fuel mixture control to satisfy eithe r peak perfo rmance or any emission
slandards. 'fhe physical principies offluid mechanics si mply do nol allow l.
Two difTe renl setups are possible with carbul'etcd turbo systems, With u
draw ~ th ro ugh type, th o carburetor is po itioned in f-ont orthe tUI'bo, and all

Fg. 8-1.. 7'h!! basic


layout o{ the drawthrough carb syslem

Fig. 8-2. Tlle blou)


t}rollgh carb layout
preseflts a {ar superior

patll for tite airlfuel


mixture lO Jrouerse than
does lhe dmw-throllgh
setup.

101

102

CHAPTER 8: CARBURETlON

the air/fuel mixture flows through the entire system. With the blow-through
lype t he layout is rcversed, to place the carburetor after the turbo . .In the blowthrough type, the air/fue l mixture does nol How through the turbo.
'fhe Lwo types have thei r Qwn a reas of meril. The draw-though system is
si mpler and, because it is a low-pressure system, no change occurs in air densi
ty at the carburetor. Furtber, no compressor bypass vaJve is required.
'l'hat is aH that can be said ror tbe dl'Ow-through system.
a.. RULE:

The dra.w.through system is prone t icing at temperatu res under

50F.
The blowthrough system has better throttle response and cold stalting, reduced emissions, and permits use of an intercoolel".
Weighjng the merits, there is vir tuaUy no reasan to build a draw-thl'Ough
system unless one lives in a year-roun d hot cJimate and never intends to produce serious power.

Ag. 8-3. Barly ca,l'bureted tu,-bos, lihe this

one, generally drew


llirollgh the carb. These
haue nil beCll su.cceeded
bJ' lhe more modertt
blow-throll.gh designs.

Rg. 84. 1'lus bealtli[ul


hardware was crealed
b.y Lol.us for tite Esprit
and {catares two blowthrough Dellol'lo sidedl'afl carbs. Note lhe
/<el pressfLr e regulator
al theclld oftheplcn um
and ls boost-prcssure
sell..<;i!lg ltne.

L AYOUT OF A DRAW - THROUGH SYSTEM

103

Rg. 8-5. 7'hree M ikuni


PH44 carbs (eed this
Nissll Z car engine.
Noll! the arttisurge
ualue below tILe plctwm
and its returll uent lO
lhe air-filter mowlt.

Layout of a
DrawpThrough
System

The primary concero in the draw-through layout is that the air/fuel mixture be
permitted lo flow downhill at aJJ times. This condition is 110t possible due to the
compressor inlet scroll, but no other item should be aJlowed to serve as a low
point. Fuel tends to drop out orthe mixture and puddJe allow poin1.s. PuddJing
will badly upset the cold die and low-speed response.
A water jacket added Lo warm the carb mount and bottom ofthe turbo scroll
will alleviate cold fuel puddJing. However, the mere thought ofpurposely adding heat lo the intake system shouJd be considered nothing short of revolting.
A furtber addition 01' heat may be required to prevent carburetor icing when
operating under boost. TypicaUy, a corred air/fuel ratio will create about a
45F temperature drop when the fuel vaporizes in the carburetol. This temperature drop, combined with a cool, damp day, will frequently cause throttles
to freeze wide open when operating under boost. A fine circumstance, cured
only by addingyet more intake heat.
Sizing the carb for a drawthrough system shou ld take into account. t he basic cfm capability of t he engine without considering the lurbo. Thc reason for
this is thaL cfm ratings of carburetors are bascd On atmospheric pl'essure drops
only, whereas the turbo can vioJate these conditions by changing vacuum conditions after the throttle plates. Consider that the only woy o carb with almosp heric pressure above the throttle plates can flow more ai r 011 a given angine
is to have lowerpressure, created by the turbo, after the tllrottle plates. In other words, the tW'bo creates a bigger pressure drop across the carb.
The draw-through carb system has a hidden piLfaJl in t.he area ofselecting a
suitably sized carburetor. This pitfall is creaLed by the odd ci.rcufi1st.nnce that
allows one cylinder aL a t ime to breathe through the sum of the carb throats
opeo at thatspecific time. For example, imagine a dual-lhroat carb mount.ed in
front ofthe turbo, all ofwhich is mounted on a four-cy)j ndcr engine. Although
the carb cfm rating muy matcll. the system just fine, we ha ve a siiuation wherein eaeh eylinder is breathing through th e two throats. That equates to putting
four dualthroat carbs onto a four-cylinder engine-<..-ertainly a situntion that
would be badly overcarburet.ed, The disasler comes about fram lhe fact that

104

CHAPTER 8: CARBURETION

the one cylinder drawing throllgh two lhroats yields a ver)' s low a.ir ve locity aL
the carburetor vcnturi. This sends a weak vacuum signnl lo the main jet
henee, laus)' fuel meterLng. The situation is somewhal allevialed by having
more cylinders, yet the fundamental problem remains. Tbe propcr solu tion to
the problem is the selection ora carb with a small primary(s) and vacuum-operated secon claries.

Ag. 8-6. Do flol per", it


a layout to exisl where
a singlecyliudercan be
red by two carb th,.oats

simultaneously. This
is akin lo seuere
Duercnrburetiorl and

(uflclions poorly.

000000
Preparin g tlle draw-through carb ror turbo use pl'esents no special probtems. Clearly, thejetLing will need to be developed on 3n in divldual basis. Most
siruaLions wiII call fol' somewhat larger main jets, accelerator pump delivery,
and idlejets than will the norrnally aspirated engine of the same size. The Aoat
needle assembly will usually requ.ire considerable expansion in ol"del' Lo keep
up with the newfound fuel ftow requirements.
Layout 01 a
BlowaThrough
System

The blow-through system permiLs an ideal layout for the distribution of fuel to
the cylinders. AH the classic layouLs of carbureLor position relat.ive to engine
conflguration are llnaffect.ed by the prospect of blowing pressllrized air
through the carbs. 'rhese layouts worked marvelously in their day as norma lly
aspirated engi nes and would certainly do so as blow-through turbo applications. AJthough 8vailable space frequently i!lAuences lhe number and t.ype of
carbs, one carburetor t hroat per cylinder should always be the objedive.
Several design parameters ml.lsl be metin Jayingouta blow-throllgh syslem:
Fuel pressure mllst be controlled as a lunction ofbo osL pressure.
AJI components of the fuel syslem musl withstand the higher fu el pressures.
A compressor bypass v~ll ve is reqllired.
CONTROlLlNG FUEL PRE55URE. The reqllirement for vwying fuel press ure
comes abolll from the fad thaL the carburetor floal bow ls wilJ experience a
pressure change fram rollghJy atmospheric at idle and enlise to the maximum
boosl ofthe turbo. lf'fuel pressure were a cOllstant 4 psi, say, lhen when boas!.
pressure exceeded that 4 ps i, fuel would be driven backward into lhe fuellank.
ObviollSly, the pressu l'e 'equired to get fue l to enter a Roal bowJ occupied by 15
psi of pressure will requiJe [-l.Iel pressure of 18 al' 20 psi. This 18 01' 20 psi, if
held constant al al! condilions, might work fine under boost but would badly
Aoad all known carbs al die 01' cruisc. Tlle answer i5 a fuel pressure reguJator
tha!. varias fuel pressure as a func!.ion ofboost.

LAYOUT OF A BLOW-THROUGH SYSTEM

105

Flg. 8-7. The aflermarket BMW 2002


turbo {eatured twin.
bJow-through Mikullil
So/ex carbs. 1'lli5
cksign illcorporales a
waler-based illlercooler
nlo tite plenum.

R g . 8-8. The bLowthrough syslem must


hove a boost-pressltresensitiue fue/, pressure

Plenum

regula/or.
-

Boost-prossure

signal

"FuellO

carburelor

Fuel __

pressure
reQulator

Fuel /
retum Ime

Tank

Thenccd ta How large quanlities arruel while operaLing under boost is obvious. Fue} pumps, pressure ranges, and Aow capacilies
are discussed in Chapter 7.
BVPASS VAlVE. The com pressol' bypass valvc, or antisurge valve, is cssential
lo t he smooth 11.1nning of the blow-through system. 'fhe particular situalion
that. requir s tha presence orthe valve is when the LhroLUc is suddenly closed
all.er operating undel' boosL. This is nothing more lhan Lhe plocess ofshifi.ing
gears whcll dl"iving lindel' boosl. The problem comes abouL whcn Lltc closed
throLUe creates manifold vaCUllm. '1'he idlejeLdischarge orifice is then in a yac
uurn condition when Lhe dIe jeL ntel is sUlI pressuri zed, va lhe HoaL bowl,
from the Lurbo, which is still trying lo pump airo Thl pressure difTcl'cnce
FUEl PUMP RE QUIREMENTS.

106

CHAPTER

8:

CARBURETlON

across lhe elle jet causes a large discharge ol' fuel out of the jet, produci ng a
sudden rieh condition. When thc gear change is accompHshed and throttle reapplicd. e ngine response deteriorates, due to the sudden air/ruel ratio change
to the rieh condition. Tbe situa tion clears up as soo n as the syste m again
achicvcs a const anl bODst condition, wherc pressure is the same on both cnds
orthc idlejet circuit o
The bypass valve is design ed to dump the pressure upstream of t he thrott.le
when tbe throule is dosed, qujckJy bringing the syslem to a stabilized pressurc. The valve does Lhis by using the vacuum signal ge nerated in t he intake
manifold when lhe throttle is closed lo open a valve that 1ets the pressure ,apidly bleed olI.

Residual boost pressure in ptenum


Immedialely afi ar closing throUle

Flg. ~9. Whell operatlIlg tutele,. baost, the

enlire. carb is tLuder


pressure. As the throttle

is closed. residual

' ,

pressure m the float


and vacuUln below lhe

'-----"

lhrolllepJate will cause

considerable {low

tltrough the id/e jet,


upseuing throlt.le
response. 7'he bypass

ualue rapidly dissipales


(he /looJlplenunI

Fuel

'---p,essure -

same as boos'

~~~t
~

pressurc.

....

Pressure - sam e as boost

' - - Vacuum due 10 closed Ihrotlle

Carburetor

Flg. B-l,O. 'fhe bypass,


or ollt~ltrge, va/ve is

lIecessary in blowthrollgh designs lo


relieue float-bowl
pressure qickly on
li/~i"g off lILe

Venllube

L-

th,.olUe.
Vacuum signal

Cri ti c;.,.-. to lhe successful operation of the


blow-i hrough carb sysLem is the source of the si&rnals used to control the
wasicgaie and fuel pressu re rcgulator. 'rhis condition ariscs from the absoluto
nced io cont.rol the pressu re di tTerence acrass th e caJ'buretor tloat needle. This
prcssurc dif'f'e'ence is the difference ooLween the rucl pressurC! pushi ng the
fue! inlo lhe Ooal bowl and lhe boosl pressure lhnl c~i sl.s in lhe Aoal bowl al
VACUUM AND PRESSURE DISTR IBUTION .

L AYOUT OF A BL OW-THROUG H S YST EM

107

Fig. B-ll. A typical


antisurge ualue installatio" uentillg frolnj llst
aft o{ lhe turbos Ofl, lILe
compressor discharge
pipes. Note tite air fi ller
on Ih e ualue exit.

any given time.T rus pressure difference musl be held constant u nder all operaLiona! conditions. To accomplish t rus, it is vital that. both control signa Is be
tuen [rom t he intake plenum prior to t he throttle pla tes, lt is best to take the
s.ignals from t he sam e location. To iJlustraLe what can happen if tt s requi.rement is fiat met, imagine hooking both signa ls to the intake manifold a fte!' the
throttle plate oThis is atways the 1a51. place lo see boost pressure, snd it is aJways tb e lowest pressure. Pressure 1055es th ru the carb can be as high as 3 0 1' 4
psi. If t he wastegate sihTflal t hen comes froro t he manifold, t he float bo wl will
see a pressure 3 or 4 psi greater. If fuel pressure is set 5 psi above boost pressure, then the real pl'essure di fTerence across the float neeille wHl be 1 0 1' 2, ce!'tainJy not enough lo run under boos t. ti' fuel pressure i5 raised to compensaie,
the id le setti ng wi ll be off when I.he float bowl sees atm ospher ic pressure. Back
at dJ e, fuel pressure \Vill be 8 0 1' 9 psi, an unstable fuel pressure fol' a float needle assemb ly.
P REPARING THE CARBURETOR. Severa! aspecls of the car buretor need inspection
and/or prepa ra tion tor use in 8 blow-through application.
The blow-thraugh ca rb must have a salid Hoat. Shou ld t he one you choose to
use have a brass-sheet float or other style t hat could collapse under boost pressu re, tbe float must be replaced witb a soUd urut, A variety 01' techniques exisi
to fi.11a hollow ftoa t with lightweight roam. Sorne ofthese come in a liquid and
harden a fte r being injected into th e float, Consult. the Yello\V Pages, under adhesives,
[nspeeL the earb thoroughly fo r load plugs that cap off inLersecting drilled
passages. These plugs are prone to di slodge with boosl pressure, The plug can
be retai ned by sta ki ng it in with a sharp-pointed center pu ncho Set a ring oi'
punches around t he pl ug such thal the base melal of the carb body is faised
enough to create interference shollld the plllg try lO move. Anoth er rnethod of
retain ing t he plugs ls simply Lo cover them with a high-qualiLy epoxy gllle. Be
mindfu] of the fact Lhat. larger plllgs will fail first., as t,hey inherently have a
larger force trying to push them out.

108

CHAPTER 8: CARBURETION

Flg. 8-1.2. Signals fo,.


the wastcgale (uld fit.el
pre.'sure regulalor lIf!ecl

io originate al the sarne


Pressure signal

poinl in lile syslem and

befare the th rollle plateo

To carbu~re:'l:"or'J"""'~\..._ _

+-Fuel In

Pressure signal
Return

lnspect all the gaskets in the carburetor. Any gasket thal appears less than
up to the task must be improved. It is possible to retain a gasket with a very
Iight coating of Loctite applied to one side ouIy. Undcr no circumstances
should yau use a silicone or similar rubberystyle seaJer) as you will be finding
it in the fucl jets ruter the firsL trip around the block. It is especially important
to scaI aUgaskets 01' other items on the flOilt. bowllid to avoid losing boostpres
sure balance across the mainjets. If any pressure leaks whatsoever accur [rom
the floal bowI, fuel delivery will grow lean on rising boost pressure.
The throttle shafts on t he carb will seep fuel under bODst if nol sealed
against pressure. MosL see pagc wi lJ be in the annoying catcgory and willnot
afTect safety or functioll. Cosmeties dictate that the shafts receive sorne form of
seal. Prabably the easiest 3nd most efTective method i5 to oITer a pressure barrier that w iU tend to force the air/fuel mixture bac.k inta Lhe carb throaL. This
can easiJy be d Olle by bleeding so rne boosL out orthe plenum 011 th e face ofthe
carb, down Lo sma Ll fittings placed i!lto the bosses through which th e throltle
shafts pass.
Ag. 8-13. Wltell fue'
lea/mge al tlle throttle
shafi is CI problem, boast
prcssure (rom above tlle
uenlun, which will
always be grea/er thall
tha/. below tite uellluri,
can be chollneJed to I/W
slwft piuot bares lo bloUJ
lhe mixture back inta
lite Ihroat.

Coldstm1. valves ofthe fuel-dump siyle, rather than the air-restricto'" typc,
may need to be pressure balaneed against a reverse f10w when operating under
boost. Should this be a problem, it can be dealL with by creating a cap ofso1'i8
over Lhe coldstad valve and bleeding presSlIre f1'om the plenllm into this cap.
The cap can be b ndcd onto t.he c8.rb with a high-quality epoxy ccment.

109

LA YOUT OF A BLOW - THR OUGH SVSTEM

Plenum

Fig. B-~4 . Cold.,tart


ua/ves can commollly
leak bachward IUlder
baost. A pressure bol
once (JcrOS$ the ualve
fuill salve the pl'oblem .

...---J

p
r-

.......,

/'

l'

(
......

Pressure balance

ValV8

1"

'--,

Capbonded lo valva

r'

SUITABlE CARas FOA BLOW~THROUGH APPLlCATlON.

Almost

any

carburetor

can

be

prepared ror use in a blow-through lurbo system . II js clear, however, thal


sorne carbs present a scriOlls preparation challenge, while alhers al'ejust pJain

easy to use. Manuracturers like Weber, Mikuni , SK, Oel1orto, and Holley all
make carbs thal wi ll, with suitable preparation, runction well in a blowtbrough application. The easiesl unjt to use is certainly the Mikuni series
PHH dua l-throal sidedraft. It should be given consideration in applications
ranging rrom V-Ss a nd V-12s to any inline conliguration. The Mikuni PHH
comes as close to usable righl out orthe box as is avru lable. lt is simple to tune,
responsive allow speeds, nows huge arnounls or air, nnd is long-term durable.
The new SK c8rb is virtually ils .qual, with perbaps even greater fin e-tuning
capability. In siluations where it is not possible lo use dual-throat sidedrarts,
the Weber I OF downdrarts oughl to be given consideration. Allhough the IDF
requires extensive preparatjoll, it is a broad-range, responsive, slllooth-running carb. Perhaps the highesl-quality carb bum in the world today is the 1t81ian Oellorlo series. Avai lable in downdraft and sidedrart configu rations, these
carbs are truly fin e pieces orwork. Prior to seltingyour hearl on using them,
secure your path for parts supply. Holley c3rbs have been used sueeessfully
over lhe years, and Holley ofrer. a wjde variety 01" sizes and shapes. No manuracturer comes close lo Holley in off"" ing special-tuning bjts and pieees to lailor a specilic appJi cation . Motol"cl'aft

two~ barrc l

carburetors are versatile and

easily adapted to blow-through configuration.


PLENUM DESIGN. tfhe plenum IS the component that rocuses air for its trip
thro ugh the carb. Allhough plenums are simple in concept, a rew rules shou ld
be observed in plenum design:
Make the volume ol"the plenum llO- 1209f oflhe engine displacement.
Straighlen oul the airllow befor e lhe air corrector jet assemblies. mr
swirling a round an air corrector prevents thejeL from runctioning.

Have the shape into lhe carb throals npproach thnl oi" an ideal inlet.
Don 'l blow air direcUy across a cru'b throat .
Provide for air bleeds to the Roal bowls.

110

CHAPTER 8 : CARBURET I ON

Ag. 8-15. 'J'he plellum


uenl ports lo lite throttle
bares must incorporale
a bell-moutlted {orm
apprrxu:hing 011 ideal

av inlel shape.

ANO FURTHERMORE
Does an air/fuel mixture haue tl'ouble staying atom,ized throllgh an idling
turbo allow arnbient temperalures ?
Draw-through-carb turbo systems inherently have a long, devious mute fol'
the air/fuel mixture to travel befere reaching lhe cylinders. Ir heat is nol. provided at t.he carb mounL or nea!" the system's low poin!., fuel will pudcUe in t he
botlolll ofthe turbo. In pmctice, carb prehcat a llows the engine to die and run
smooLhly al low speeds whcn ambient t.empcratw'c is less lhan 80F. Under
boosL, su eh a cyclone exists l ha .. puddling is impossible. The prublem can be
avoided complet.ely by blowing t.hrough thc carb.

Are blow-lhrough curb syslems lechnically and functionaJ.ly workable?


Yeso For some hcavy-hitting evidence, drive a Lotus 'fUl'bo Espdt 01' a Maserati Bi-Turbo.

Has the controuersy o{ blow-through uersu,s draw-lhl'ough carb systems


been. resolved ?
NoL only yes, but hell yeso Blow-through sla r ts bcLteI'1 idles bettcl', runs
sJ1100Lher at low speed, and I)roduces quickel' throttJe response and lower
e missions. An intcrcoolel' can only be lIsed with a blow-through application.

Tbe draw-through sysiem is a dead fish.

EVENTS IN THE CHAMBER

T he real test of a tW'bo engine and its ability to produce huge amounts of
powcr (without leaving a trail of pungent b1ue-gray smoke andlor alwni
num/ iran shrapnel) hoiLs clown to what's happening in t he combustion chamber. SparlUng off a controUed temperatu re mixture-<:omposed of the right
stuff at t he right time-is the culmination of aU the design effort put jnto the
system. When this event transpires correctly, the fun begins.
Voltage

Igniting the ai r/fuel mixture in a high-pl'essure tw'bocharged engine is tough.


The cru.x of the matter IS that air is an electrica1 nsulator. The more mr molecules packed into the comhustion chamher, the greate.r the voltage required to
dl'ive the spark across the spark plug electrodes. Large amounts ofvoltage are
required at high charge densities. Not only are high voltages required, but aH
items that carry tbe high voltage musl be insuJated with materials of high di
electric strength. This wllJ insw"e that the voltage really does drive the spark
acrass the plug gap instead of ta the val ve caver. The to lerance for deteriora
tion in these components is small, again due to the hjgh voltages.
Most ignUion systems aITered as OEM in the late eighties have sufiicienl
valtage to (ire off the mixt.ure at l1lodest boost pressures of 6 to 8 psi. Greater
boost pressures wil11ikely require u capacitor discharge ignition Sl1 pplelllent to
supply consislent ignjtion. In any system where spark plug life becomes intol
erably short, a capacitor discharge unit wilJ be necessary.

Spark Plugs

The choice oC a spark plug fOI" a turbo engine application is relat.ively easy. Tbe
heat range of the plllg is lhe key factor to get right. Classifying plllgs by lheir
heat range has nothing to do with when or how they mauage to get the fire go
iug. "Reat range" meaos no more or less than how the features ofthe pll1g are

Flg. 9-1.. Tite difference


belween a cold pI ug alld
o hal plug is the ease
witlt u)hich Iteai is
lmlls(erred out of lhe
celtler electrode.

Lr

(l

'-

TI

'TI

Cold plug

HoI plug

111

112

CHAPTER

9:

EVENTS IN THE CHAMBER

configured to conduct heat. away from Lhe clectrode. Presume for a mome nt

thal il is c1esirable to have the materials of all spark plllgs operate al abollt lhe
same lemperatllre, regardJess ofload conditions imposed by lhe engine. Thon
tlle spark plugofa low-speed, low-Ioad, low-compression engine would need to

conduct heat away from its electrode slowly, al' else the plllg wOllld operate too
eool. This is ealJed a hot plug. An engine of om Jiking, e1early, must have plugs
lhat eonduct lots of heat away from the eleclrode. This plug, lhen, will be referred to as a cold plug. The balance to aehieve is to keep the plug hol enough
to continuously burn the sool and deposits off yet cool enough to keep the matcriaJs fram rapid deterioration. A plug that aperates al too h1gh a temperature can also serve as an ignition souree that actually starts the tire prior t.o th e
spark. 'fhis is pre-ignition, and il can ead to detonation,
1n tlle actual selection of a plug for a high-pressure turbo engi ne, the choice

should sLart with a plug about two ranges colder than stock equi pment. Ifthe
plug deteriorates rapidly

01'

fractures in sny way, try a third range colder.

Should the plug get dirty and aequire too mueh resistanee to Jire, back up one
range holter.
Installation technique will eontribute lo the plugs' eonsisteney and durability. Certainly aUthreads and washer seats must be thoroughJy eleaned. A proper spark plug lube,like Never-Seize al' molysulfide, should be Iightly applied to
the threads and between the washer and plug. Top tbis off with tightening the
plug to the manufacturer's suggested torque, and you will have done aH you
can toward good spark plugperformance. Torque specs are u uaJJy between 10

and 14 ft-Ib for a luminum heads and 16 lo 18 for iron .


Ignltlon Timing

Ignitingthe mixture at the righl time is also a ehallenge. The turbo engine adds
one more requirement. to the design of an ignit.ion curve. Turbu lent turbo mixtw'es burn faste.r than normally aspi rated mixtu.res, but the denser mixtures

slow the burn. While eonlrary and confusing, this generally leaves thesiluation
noL needing to begin the burn quite so soon . The igru tion curve can lherefore
benefil from a small retard fundi on as boosl. rises and the mixture becomos
both de nse,' aud more tU.l'bulent. The con-eel ignition liming under a1l C'CUI11SLances is achievable only if the timiug cw"Ve can be designed right a long with

the fuel cm""e. With today's technology, this can be accomplished only with aftermarket engine management systems, At present, lhe Electromotive and
DFl engine managementsyslcms can contl'Ol both ignition and fu el curves,

Flg. 9-2. Tlle direct{ire. programmable


ignition system {rom
Electromotiu is ideal
for cllstom ignition
curues requircd (O ,.
lurboc!t clrged eng;rl es.

ELECTRONIC I GN I TlON RET ARD

Electronic
Ignition Retard

113

The boos t~ pl"essure- se n s itive igni t ion retard oITers a limited degree oC adjustahility Lo the ignition sysLem operating under boost . This item can also prove
useCul in permi tting grcater ignition advance aL low s peed and eruise condi~
tions wh ile r educing top-end advance at high boost pressure. T he igniti on reLard ca n easily bejudgedjusl a safety device, but t's noL quite so. It a lso alJows
a rough tailoring oC thc high end of lhe ignition curve to the octane rati ng of
the fuel. A si ngular disadvantage exists with t he pTess ure~activated reLard: iL
will pl'ogressively retard ignition as boost rises, even without the presence of
detonation. T herefore, timing is loss than optimum a Lthese mid-tange points,
so that it will be rightat maximum boosl. This translates te a noticeable 1085 of
mid-range torqu e. Less torque + less power = less fun .

Flg. ~. Tite adjust~


oble boosl~pressu,.e
ucluated igltilioTt retard
fromMSD.

Knock Sensor

The pressure-sensit ive ignit.ion reLard could be ca.lled a passive device, in thal
it does not detect the prese nce of the event. it is th ere to prevent. lt retards the
ignition based on boosL and retard rate setting on ly. The knock-sensor ignition
retard should be called an active device, however, beca use iL de lecLs tbe presence of t he eve nt an d t hon is cha rgcd with thejob ofeliminating iL. 'rhe lulock
sensor does an excellentjob oC rctaJ"ding ignition wltcn detonation is dctccted.
This implies lhat maximUlu safe powcr is beingdcvelopt--d undel the operating
conditions at that instant..
For example. add octane, and ignitian tJming stays fOlward wh ile power
slays up. The knock sensor is an aven ide sa f'e ly device that is noL the leasi. bit
concerned with maximum power. [fused in an absolu lelycorrect environment,
the knock sensor would r ema in quietly in the background and never be needed. Neve l; lhat is, until someLhingwcnl wrong, wrong, wrong. A knock-sensorconl roll ed ignition curve can display a less-than-fun characteristic. A check on
t he l"unctioningofthc syste m, as rl"equently stated in scrvice manuals, is to rap
on lhe cylinder block with a ham me!". If Lhe sensor detects the knock and retards the timing, audibly slowing the ellbrine, it is working as designed. Clearly,
harn rnering on the side 01" the block is nat detonation. Why, t hen, should the
I'etard be activated'? ls il possible that 3 I"Ock boullcing oIT the block could also
retard t.he timing? How about a failing hyd r8uli c lirter, a wale' pu mp bcaring,
or a broken a lternato r mount? 1t is necessary to keep in mind lhat. relarding
the igniLion raises exhaustgas temperature. This is decidedly abad thingto do.
unless dctonation really is presento 1l is probab ly sll"ekhing the point a bit tri

114

CHAPTER 9: EVENTS IN THE CHAMBER

Ag. 9-4. Aa active


knock-detection syslem
wLllt control o{ igrlition
tun ing is an excellertl
m.ean,o; of e...tablishillg
a margin o{ safet)' lar
Qtl engillf!, These tems
orlen add power as tuell
Cl s safety, by permiUing
igttilion tinting lo slay
closer lo the knock
tltreshold than LS possible wlrelt tILnifl8 by ear.

suggest that a fast trip down a long gravel eDad might I'clard ignition to the
point of melting an engine.
Mechanical noise of a high-revving engine can cause sorne knock sensors to
actvate when no knock is presento This t hen becomes a rev-based l'ctard,
which is 110t a desirable device.
The developrnent of 8 knock sensor into a full-fledged computer that does
what its software teJls it Lo do is the mosl optimistic development yet secn.
1'hese are in their infancy, but much progl'ess is being made by J&S Electroncs. Prograrnming will, wou ldn'l yau know, be the key. Perceived downsides of
the knock sensor are nol a1ways presento lt is, however. necessary lo consider
these possibilities upon pUTchase, adjustment, and use of a knock sensor.
Mueh can be said about the pluses of a knock sensor. The eontribution it can
make toward pence of mind is not withoul meriL. 'l'he vast majorit,y of turbo
system installations are not maximum-eCTort sysle ms; tberefore, small power
compromises are notcrucial . Therein probably lies lherusLinction ofthe knock
sensor's value in Lhe scheme of th ings. Overall, the knock sensor is probably
the besl thing going rOl' control of ignition timing.
Fuels

The quality ofthe fuel alTered up lO the burnillg process is key to the functioning of smooLh , powerful turbo engines. High octane, quality refinemcnL, and
fast burn rate are t.he distinguishing chnracteristics ofgood turbo fuel. An octane ratingis solely a measure ofresistance to detonation 8S tested in a lab tesL
engine. Quality refmement is the production of gasolines without unwanted
contaminants, often referred to as 'la bad tank of gas." '['he combustion rute is
just the relative rate al which thc fuel burns. Combustion nJte hasa significant
eITect on detonation charactel'istics of Lhe fuel And chamber. Ir the hum !'ate

can be significantly sped up. lhe little pockets 01' mixture hidden 00' iu the extremes of the combustion chamber \Von 'l have time to overheat aud explode.

FU ELS

115

Absolutely wondel'ful changes Lake place as detonation is pushed further


out oflhe picture. A hydrocarbon caUed toluene presents turbacharging with
an intriguing new scope. 'roluene is a distillate of oil commonJy calIed methyl
benzene. It i5 a cousin of gasoline. Df sorne interest is t he fad that it i8 the
third component ofTNT. Thatshould not imply it8 powcr; it isjust a curiosity.
ltdoes ha ve the remarkable ability to speed up burn rateto such an exte nt that
boost pressures defying imagination can be used. Toluene was the fab led Formula 1 car "rocket fuel" of the mid-eighties. Fourteen hundred horsepower
fro m 90 cid at 75+ psi boost indeed required something out of the ordinary.
Think about that for a moment in 50me humorous circumstances. A Mazda
Miata with 1450 bhp comes quickJy to mind. Or a NASCAR Winston Cup stock
ca.... racer with 5800 bhp. An interesting means ofhaving fun , indeed. Prestunably even Richard Petty at rus best would have found that a challenge. In the
practicaluse of street fu el, oetane rating becomes the most importanLaspecto
In general, three oetane points will ofTer about 2 psi of boost-assuming, of
cou rse that aH other factors remain in Line. Reformulated gasolines, whlch in elude alcohol, are not generally suitabl e for use with turbos, Detane mprovers
are readily available and should be considered 8 viable means of permitting
grcater boost-pressure levels. Additive Quantities vary with bl'ands, so followi.ng each manufacturer's I'ecommendations is reasonable. Tbe only downsidc
te octane-improvingadditives, other than costand handling, is th eir disLike for
long-term stol'sge after mixing witb gasoline. An easy situation to remedy.

Ag. 9-5. Proper


gaugillg !ells how
welllhe syslem is
{unctioninc. These
combillation gauges
package nicely and
offer a wealth o{
informaliolL.

ANO FURTHERMORE

Whal sorl o{{uel willl have lo use?


You can use the lowest-oclane fuel that nsures that the detonation threshold wiJl rcmain at a higher boost level tban the setting of lhe wastegate. In reality, this means the highest-octane fu el cUl'l'ently availab le. In engines
equipped with knock-sensor-controUed ignitioll timing. power is highly dependent on oelane. The gl'eatel' tbe octane, the less ihe knock; consequently. the
grealel' the ignition advance.

116

CHAPlER 9 : EVENTS IN THE CHAMBER

ls a special ignitiol~ system n.ecesSGly wilh the lurbocharger?


Stock ignition systems are virtually always adequate for t he tu rbo applicat ion. However, threesigniHcant gains may be made with a spec..i al ignition system :
increased spark plug Jire
smoother running under heavy load by reducing Lhe occasional (too few
to feel) misfrres
pressure-activated ignition retard u ni ts fo1' greater detonation protection andJor higher boos t-pressure levels
Oon't huy 8 s peciaJ ignition unit ror miles-per-gallon reason s. Fee t, maybc,
but noL miles.

10

EXHAUST MAN IFOLD

T he exha ust ma nifo ld plays a key role in aJJ perfo rmance aspects orthe turbo
system. The turbo man ifold has many and var ied duLes to perfo l'm. Direct re
sponsibilitics nelude sUppol't of the turbo, guidance of exhau st gases to th e
turbine, kee ping exhaust gas pressu l'e pulses moving along intact aL a s'Leady
pace, and trying hard noL to Jet. a ny heaL escape t hrough th e manifold waJls. To
accomplis h these chores while glowing cher ry red, tryin g Lo remai n s traight,
not developing CI'8cks, a nd han!,.Ting in there year after y eal' i5 naLexa ctly s n
assignrn ent ror boys. An exha ust manifold leads a hard life.

Fig. 1 0-1.. When

designing exhausl
malti(olding don "
hesi.tate lo copyjusi be s ure you 're copying tILe best.
J

Application

The app lication, wh et her t.'o mpetition 0 1" hi g h ~ pe do r mance strcet, will strongly
influence materia l selection , design styIe, and method of manufacture. Any
maximu m-eITort turbo system will be conflgured al'ound a tube-styIe, fabricat ~
ed mani fold. One-off designs, for cost t easons alanel ll1usl also be fa bricated. A
cast man ifold i5 the obvious choice when a large nu mbcr ofpar tsare lo be made.

Desi gn Cr teri a

H EAT RETENTlOH. Clearly, performa nce of the tu rbi na is in part. deter mined by
the temperaturc al' th e exhau st gases. 1t i5 reasonable, lhen, t.o expend sorne
efTorl towa rd getting the ex haust. gas from lhe combustion chambcr lo t he t.urbi ne with the Icasl possible temperature 1055. This is fundamentally true, although t.he slt-e ngth oCmaterin ls at elevated temperatures musl sometimes be
considered and sorne form of cooli ng provided. The thermal conductivity of a
material i5 a mensu re oftha1 material 's ability lo conducl heal. Since the ohjective here 15 to kecp the heal inside the manifold, it i6 I't'usonable totry to lUie
a mat.erial with lhe pooresl ability to ll'ansfer heal.

117

118

CHAPTER 10: EXHAUST MANIFOLD DE S IGN


MATERIAL SELECTlON.

Slainless sleel. Stainless oITers an interesling combination orpl'operties. It


is low in thel'mal conductivity. which i5 certainly desirable. Staillless grade 304
is an excellent. choice-easiJy welded, crack resistant, and relatively easy to
work with. All stainless material s have a very high coefficient. of t hermal expansion thu s, the design , style, and fit of a stainless manifold must accou.nt for
th.i s ullusual property. For exampl e, a stain less header flange drilled perfectly
fOI" an exhaust bolt pattern with .3125-inch-diam eter bolt holes at.tached to a
cylinder head with .3125-inch-diameter bolts wil1 shear half the bolts on the
frrst warm-up cycle. Larger-than-normaJ bolt holes are therefore Ilecessary.
Stairuess s teel enjoys long-term corrosioo resistance. Be<:ause 01' this and its
low heat transfer capabili t,y, stai nJess deservesstrangconsideration as the material choice for hjgh-performance exhau st manifolds.
Cast iron. Iron a110ys afler a designer many options. While not exactly puity
in a designer's hands, iron alloys do have the ability to be molded into complex

Flg.

~o-2.

Top ef/:

A mu"i{old design foro


lwin lurbos. Note the
wastegate per manifold
and no prouision for a
eros.'> tube. Top right:
Typical exJww;t manifold casting for a V-B.
Note [he cf'O ..,s-tube
cOIlflection enter; 1lg the

manifold {ram directly

below the turbwe iniet.


Cente,.: A simple,
elegant design foro the
VW GTl engines.
BoUom lefl: Single
V-B turbo designo Tite
lower {lange is lhe

cross-tllbe {.'onnection
from the opposite bauk
o{ cylilUlers. Bollom

righl: Big-block Cheuy


single turbo design

wilh a real' inlel {O,. the


eross lube

THERMAL CHARACTERISTlC S

119

shapes. The limi ts lie with the ability ofth~ pattern makers.1'be casting process i8 the only viable way to make an exhallst manifold with a wide var iety of
section shapes a nd wall thickne5ses. An experienced or t houghtful designer
can take udvantage o[ this cha racteristic t.o produce u low-slIrface-area, thinwalled, smooth, constant- ection-passageway manilold.
A wide variety of iron alJoys exist, bul perhaps t.he most useful for ex.haust
manifold design i5 the alloy called "dllctile iron." Ductile iron 's charact.e ri stics
ra nge from good crack resistance and high-temperature shape stability to free
machining, all wlth a reJat.ively high basic strength.
Cast manifolds remain the territory of the volu me producer, due to t.he expense of creating the necessary patterns and tooling.
Mild steel. Althougb mild steel has no particular characteristics that make
it an ideal choice of exhaust. manifold materials, it does, indeed, do aLmost everything welJ. 1'hi5 mate rial ls inexpensive, easy to machine and weld, and
readily available in a wide variety of'sizes and shapes. Perhaps its poorest characteristic is corrosion resistance. This can be helped significan tly by ch rome
plating. Ask for industri al -quali ty plating, which is many times thicker than
decorative chrome. Perhaps better than chrome are sorne of the modern ceramic coatings.
Aluminum. Because of aluminum '5 poor high-temperature strength and
high heat-transfer coefficient, rule it out as a suitable material ror an au tolllotive exha ust manifold. In some boating applications where exhaust outlet. and
manifold surfaee temperatures must be closely controUed, a cast aluminum
manifold with water jackets becomes sn ideal choice.
Therma'
Characteri stics

The wsll thickness of a particular material wiH strongly nfluence the beat
transfer, in that the thicker the material, the raster heat. wiII travel through it.
This seems contrary te logic at first t hought, but consider how fa5t heat wOllld
be drawn out ofa high-conductivity, infi nj tely thick aJuminum manifold, as opposed te a vely thin piece of stainJess sWTounded with a luce insulator like airo
Heat transfer i8 diTectly propOI-tional to surface area. It is therefore reaso nable
to giveconsiderable thought lo keeping the exposed 8urface area ofthe exhausl
manifold lo a n absol ute minimum. Clearly, the less slIrface area, the less heat.
1058. Reducing the amount ofambient air flowingarollnd the exhaust manifold
aud t urbocharger will further reduce heat.loss from thc system . lt is generalJy
Dot feasible lo direcUy wrap the exhaust manifold with nn insuJating material,
as the manifo ld material itselfwill overheat te the point ofstructural failure.
A further eITect on heat transfer oul oftbe exhaust manifold is heat distribut.ion inside the manifold. Hot spots nside the manifold should be avoidoo, because they can quickly pllmp a lot of heat out. They are creat..d by sharply
an,gled intersections or by too many exhaust pulses through onesegment ofthe
manifo ld. Keep in mind that the temperature dill'erence between the inside and
outside of the man ifold is lhe force that pushes heaL through the manifold.

Reversion

ReversaJ of the exhaust gas flow back into the col1lbust.ion chamber during
valve overlap is called rcvel'sion. Creating an aerodyoamic barrier that reduces the reverse How yet does 110t impede outward-fiowing gases can pay dividends in performance.

Style of
Manifolding

In general, mueh gl'eater 'ecdom exists in the choice of manifold styles whell
lhe manifold is fabricated. These choices range froID the simple log styJe t.O Lhe

120

CHAPTER 10: EXHAUST M AN IFOLD DESIGN


Hat -

R g. i0-3. Durability of
(In exllClusl manifold
can be illfluenced by the
basic designo A log-style
manifold is subjecl to
more Iteat abuse alld

high-expanslon manifold

thermal expansiono than


a separate-tube hender.

One p,dse per cyc1e

Ouerlappillg heat
pulses in lhe log style
create extra, Iwt spots
and greater expansio1l.

Three pulses

pe, cycle

Two pulses pe' cycle

Four pulses per cycle

Cooler -

low-expansion manifold

'--_..:::::::.,;;::~:". One pulSe per cyete


Four pulsas

por cyele

Rg. :104. The anti-

l'eUersi.ofl cone can affer

'"

a reduetion in exhaw;t

gas reuersion du.ring

~
~

ualue Duel'lap. Tlle cone


creates a xu-tial ba,.,.ier
lo reuersal

or flow.

'"
equal-length, rnultiple-tube, individual-n..IIlner style. A gl'eat amount of research has been done on the performance benefits of various manifold slyles.
Mosi of this research, plus the tremendotls efforts pul into the recen t era of
turbocharged Grand Prix cars, stron gly indicat.es t hat the best manifold.ing is
multiple-tube, individual-runner style.
TUBING SIZES. Almost all app licat.ions of a bu'bo are to an existing engine.
Therefore, the choice oftube sizes wiU usualJy be dictated by port size and the
size 01' the tUl'bine inlet on the turbocharger. Wbel'e a clear-cul choice does noL
exist, ii is best t.o select tlle smaUer of the sizes available, thus increasing exhausL gas ve locity,
Cilr'

RULE:

When a choice exists as to tube size, always opt fol' the smal1er, to
keep gas velocities high.

STYLE OF MANIFOLOING

F1g . :10-5. Four-inloo/U! des;gfl s fi>r 4- or 8cylirtder ellgilles

Ag. :10-6.

A/l

cmmple

of good, compact
manifolds. These
desigl/.s also
els.

Ag.

~o-7.

LSe

weld

V-12 cuslom

hende!: The shorp


illlersecliol/.S are ItO!
ideal for powel: Lollg

colleetor lubes are going


lo experience large
thermal expaJlsioll,
necessil(ttillg flexible
broces on lhe turbos.

121

122

CHAPTER 10: EXHAU ST MANI FO LD D ES IGN

The strength o[ th e manifold will be controlled largely by the waJllhkkness


oft he matel'ials. [11 a fabricated manifold where waJI thickness dl'ops below .09
i.TIch, it may be necessary to sUppol't tbe turbo by a brae.:e or small tl'USS assembJy. 'l'he thermal expansion ofthe manjfold wiU tend to move the tu r bo a round
as the heat cycles up and down. T hus, a mount must have so me degree el' flexibility wltile s upporting t he weight of the turbo. Mandrel-hent lubes a re aval lable in a wide variety of sizes to meet the needs ol' the custom header maker.
'fhese are generally high-quality tems and can be fab ricated into any bundJeof-snakes style turbo manifold one's imagination ca n co njure up.
A variation 01' the tube manifold can be co nstructed based on a casl-steel
part called a weld el. Weld els are basically industrial bydrauli c equipment,
used commonly in oil well and other simHar heavy duly applications. These els
are avai lable in a variety ofsizes and radi, and in either mild steel or stainless.
Although heavy and expensive, weld els can be used to form a prope r highstrength man.ifold. We ld els a re sized according to pipe nornenclature-lh at s,
inside diameters.

Fig. 1.0-8. Jim.

FeuL~

ng's wild twin-turbo


Quad 4 (eatured sorne
uf l/U! best h.enders euer
bailt. Note the particulariy smoolh coUectors.

Fig, 1.0-9. J\ weld el

manifold. Note euts in


lhe flange lo auoid
warpage

011

expaftswn.

therm.al

S TYLE OF M AN I FOLDING

Flg. ;{O-;{o. \Veld el


manifolds as a
fimctiollal UJorh

ofarl

Flg . .10-1..1. Fitt ing

weul eJs togetlter lo


form tite triple-turbo
Jaguar exhaust
manifolds

lns ide

Wall

pipe size

Bend
radius

Outside

rabIe :10-:1.. Weld el se-

diamete r

dirun etcr

thi ck.ness

lection chart {or 90 elbows (i1U:hes)

1/2

1 1/2

.840

.622

.109

3/4

11/8

\.050

.824

.113

1 U2

\.3 15

\.049

.133

1 U4

1 7/8

\.660

\.380

. 140

1 1/2

2 U4

1.900

1.610

.145

2.375

2.067

.154

21/2

3314

2.875

2.469

.203

41 /2

3.500

3.068

.2 16

Nominal

123

124

C HAPTE R 10: E XHAUST MANI FOLD DESIGN

Table 10..2. Weld el se


Lection cltart for coti ce"

trie and e(:cenlric


reducers (lches)

Nominal pipe

Nominal pipe
size

Lcngth

3/4 x 3/8

1 112

2 x 3/4

3/4 x 1/2

1 1/2

2xl

1 x 3/8

2x 11/4

3
3

1 x 1/2

2xl1/2

1 x 314

2112x 1

3
31/2

1 1J4x 112

2 112 x 1 1/4

a 1/2

1114 x 3/4

21/2x 1112

31/2

1 1/4x 1

2 112x2

3112

1 1/2 x 112

21/2

3x l

3112

I 112 x 3/4

3x l1/4

3112

1112x l

2 1/2
2112

3 x 1112

3 112

I 112 x 1 1J4

2 1/2

3x2

3112

3 x2 1/2

3112

s ize

Len gth

Cast Manifold

T he castingprocess lends itselfto simpler designs, due la rgely to the compli cations and costs or patterns. These designs usually adopt log-style maniroldsgood f OI" production but nat qui te SO good fol' maximu m performance. II is nceessary lo und erstand that a cast ma nifold can deliver very good perfo rmance.
but it is nol race car hardwru"c.

Wastegate

Early in lhe planning ol" the exhaust manifold design, co nsidel'ation must be
given to location of, and bleed-oO'to, th e wastegate. Thc principies nvolved in
integrating the wastegate into the system are t hat bleed-ofl' to Lhe wastegate
J11ust occw' alt er aH exhaust pulses headed fOl' tbe turbo have bec n combined
into one tube, and the ftow path must be stl'eamlined.

Integration

FIg. l.().:l.2. A simple

adaptatiorl of a producJiQ11 ex/must manifole/


fa a./urbo applicatioll ,

Tlle turbo-mOllltl basa


is {abricated from sleel
piales Uf/e/ weldl...,d i n/o
place.

WASTEGATE I NTEGRATION

Flg. 10-1.3. lntegmtion


o{tite wa.stegale inia lhe
exllaust l11(wifold

Poor
Wrong end -

primarily venllng one cytinder only

Poor

Aightangle fainl - dllflcult exil IO make

Good

Easy exi, 10 make -

Fig. 1.0-14. 7'he Toyo/a


G1'P fOil r-cylirlder
engillf! luas one o{ he

masl 8uccessfullltrbocllarged f!ngines

CVf.'r.

Two o{ lhe rewlOns


were the smooth IIeuder
ond integreltiou of the
waslcgate inlo tite
lu,-bine hOllSirlg al 0.1/

ideal angle.

vents all cyllnder'S, will control boost weU

125

126

CHAPTER 10: EXHAUST MANIFOLD D ESIGN


Thermal
Expansion

Changes in tbe shape of a manifold a'5 its temperature rises froln ambjent to opera Ling must be considered during layout. Heat-induced warpage can cause se-

vere problems with constant exhaust gas leaks. Warpage 18 caused by unequal
temperaturc dislri bution through the matedal ol'the manifold. A1:3 an example,
the header nange will not reach the smne temperature as a segmentofthe tubing 0 1' the coUectors; thel'efore, il will not change length as mucho These varying
cha nges in length will induce warpage if t hey are not accounted for in t-he designo Each port Hange, for example, should be separate [rol11 the others.

~__- -

Temperature :: 400F

Ffg. l.o-l.5. 7'emperrz,..


tltre-indllced warpage:
tite header is {orced io

warp due lO

WleuelL

temperat.ure distribution between lhe lubeS

and the fla/~ge. The fU:

,s lo seuer tite {lange

Temperature = IOOO"F

i/lto as m.ally segments


as tlLere are ports.

Temperatura = 1200"F
Temperature ::. 1400"F

d + .060

d+ .12

Fig. .10-.16. 'fhermal


expofL8LOll can fracture

ILeade,. bolts. 7'his can

be auoidcd by making
lIJe boil hales progres-

Higher temperature
allubing creales
more expansion, forcing
Ilange mo ln ate

d + .060

d + ,12

siuely larger as t1u:ir

di.stoJtce (rom the


cnte.r o{ Ihe marfold

illcreases.

Thermal - - - -_
expansion

01 ... 1 in.!11

Thermal expansion characlerisLlCS will requ il'e attention to bolt hale sizes,
parlicularly ai the cyLi ndel' head. Tight, c1ose-tolerance boll paLierns can aclAI aUy cause fastener railure by placing thc fast.eners under severe bincling when
a manifold resehes maximulll operating tem perature. The soJulion to this

FA STENERS

127

problem is enlarging t he bolt. hole size as it gets farther away from the center
of the man.ifold. This is essential when stainless stee! is t hc materi a lllsed. On
long engi nes, Iike six-cylinder nHne, the designer should consider using lwo
manifolds, wth interconnections from a tubular fl ex joint. This Lype of slip
jojnt is common on ail'craft a nd large industrial cOb.oines.
Fasteners

Selection of fasteners is a twofold decision . 'rbe heat illvolved ion a particular


joint dete rmines the choice of material, whil e lhe type of join l det.ermines
whether a bolt or stud is used.
The idea ofholcling parts together at t he operating temperatures ind uced by
a Hat-out turbocharger system is cause for sorne thought. Almost any mild steel
wil1 have its heat treat cooked out ofit. MUd st eel wil.1 eventuaJly oxidi ze to the
point where fasten ers are corroded virtual1y to the base materials. Cadmium
plating wiU burn away at lhese temperatures. The mosl reasonable solution to
fastener problems is stain! ess steel. Stainless stee! boJts work better at temperatures aboye 1200F. BeJow that, stainless i niee but not cost-etrective.

Rg. 1.CJ..17. Cosl ,.on


collectors suitable ror 4and 8-cylillder headers

Depending on the style of joint , three fastenel's are possible: Lhrough-bolt,


sl ud, or bolt. Observe the following b'l.lidelincs:
A through-bolt wi lh a 11 li t. (a cOIH'od boll, 101' example) is a1wuys th e ftrsL
choice.
A stlld anchored in a lhreade<1 receive r (cylinder head lo exhaust
manifold, fo r exam ple) is a decenL second choice.
La5t a nd clearly leasl i5 a balt screwed ioto a threaded receiver. Thcsc
jaints cannot stay tight unless securcd with safety wire. Use only as a last
resarl.
Large, heavy, !lat washers are necessary, as are lockwashers. Forge t t1sing
any form of spring lockwashel', as the heal treat merely geLs caoked out. lnterfercnce-sty le lockwashers, wilh ramps, ridges, 0 1' se rra lio ns, are the only
lockwashe's tha Lare sUTvivors.
Stainless mechan ica1 locknu LS are able Lo keep a positive lock al hjgh t~m
pe rature. Co pper-ruloy locknu ts ca n noL cut the tempera tu re; they ~imply sag.

128

CHAPTER 10: EXHAUST MANIFOLD D ESIGN


v.:.fi"

Gaskets

RULE:

Bolted t urbojoints are troll ble. Give them youl' best 5110t.

Although the function ofa gasket seems obvious, t he gask t can a lso be used as
somewhat of a thermal barriel'. Somejoints need gaskets rOl' sealin g, while otbers benefit soleJy from the reduction of heal transfer. T he mating s urfaces of
two pa rts ope.l'ating al about the same temperature don 't necessarily nced a
gasket. The turbo attachment to the manifold is such ajoint. A wastegate attachment is quite the opposite, however. It is desirable to reduce heat in t he vicinity ofthe wastegate diaphl'agm, to improve the diaphragm '5 life expectancy.
A gasket here serves as a llseflll heat block. T h.is same condition ex.ists al the
tailpipejoint Lo the turbo and the wastegate venL tube Lo tbe wastega te,
Gaskets obviously take a ser ious beat'ing in any e.'(haust system. Thc presence of the turbo doesn't help the situation. ln certain situations where t he
quaHly of t he machining permits, th e best solution to a gasket. problern is to
leave the gasket out. This is particularly viable betwee11 two cast iron su rfaces.
Steel flanges upward of 112 inch thick wiU likely be stable enough to seal longterm withoul t.h e gasket.

Fig. 1.0-.18. Excellent


exhausl plumbing

details 011 a singletnrbo V-8

When a gasket is abviously required, the metal/fiber/metal laminated type


is perhaps the best all-around combinaban or saling gasket s nd insulator for
the high-heat environment of th e turbo. A s imple stainJess-steel-sheet gasket.
01" anneaJed copper gasket is a1so an excellent choice. The latter two are usually .02-.03 nch lhick and can seal well where sur faces are slightly irregular 01'
Lhe join ing parts ar e noL sl;n' enough Lo operate withoul the gasket, AII else
should be considel'ed of only temporal)' val ue. In general, all-fiber gaskets
shou ld be avoided, as none of the fi brous materials exhibi t long-t.el'm durability wiLh respeet to heaL Money spenl on good-qualy. metal-based gaskets wiJI
saya many headaches and ex haust leaks.

GASKET S

129

Eliminating gaskets is a valid design objective. WiLh th.iek flanges and CID'efuI surface machining, by and large, mosL gaskets can be eJiminated . There is
a n elemen t oflogic to the idea Lh8L an absenL gaskei ean' Lblow.

ANO FURTHERMORE

What constitutes a pl'Oper exhallst manifold?


An exhaust man.ifold is a compLicaled design exel'cise involving rnany pa
rameters. The single most important parameter is Lhe material, and cast iron
is the bcsL material fol' typical stl'eet applicaiions. Plain steel is the poorest
choice, becallse it oxidizes rapidJy at rugh Lemperatllres, flakes off, and ultirnately cracks. Internal sLrearnlining is impol'tant, to avoid pumping losses.
Another eritical design feaLure is flow veloeity. Exhaust gas must not be forced
to speed up and slow down, si nee it will lose con iderable energy otherwise
3vailable to the turbine. Smooth, constanl-velocity Aow is ideal. !-leal reten
lion is importrult. The more heat that can be retained inside tIle manifold, the
less the thermal-Iag portio n orthe total turbo lag. A dcsign that " llows exhallst
gas pulses to arrive al the turbine at regularly "paced int rvals is ideal but dU:
flcuJl lo achieve.

FIg_1.0-1.9. Note Ih.

"dQubling back " o{ tite


exhaust manifold 011
this 1986 YB8 enginf!
fi.tted UJith a tu rbo.
This placement has
permittecl an Ulw sual
lycompact layout while
maintainillg a smvoth
4-into- 1 design o

130

CHAPTER 10: EXHAUST MANIFOLD D ES IGN

Ag. ~()'20. Dile o{ 1he


oorly Toyola G'l'P
engines wilh beau(ul
plumbmg in ati
rel)fJec',~. '/'II il> layout
merita slluly. Note the
wastcgate tubes uenling
{rom lhe exhausl
rIlni{oldjlLst befare Ihe
lltrbme housing, and
the relaliuely small
header tubes. Note aiso
lite IherrnaL expansion
joilllsjust above the
wastegale, where the ex
h.ausltubes fit inlo lhe
legs or lhe y
coupling wtlhoui beifll!
welded.

Do thejoints inlerlacing [he turbo haue any reliability problems ?


Gaskets between exhausL mani folds and turbos a re often unreliable due Lo
the extre me heat. 'rhe Illost practical solution to this problem is precision flat
surfaces t.hat seaJ withouL gaskets.

11

EXHAUST SVSTEMS

T he modem turbocharged automobile has brought new meanjng lo the term


"free-flow exhaus t system," with its co nnotation of low back pressu.re. The
modern exhaust system also invariably has a cataIytic con verter, witb its implicawon of high back pressure. At first glance, these twa items are somewhat at

odds with each other. At last gla nce, the situation is a bit better than generally
believed. fth e tur bo could step u p and dictate terms for design of ex.haust systems, it would categorieally state: Non.! fthe red. could step up an d dicta te the
design of exh.aust systems (which they can, have, and will con tinue lo do), they
wouJd state that t he best taiJpipe is one thaLnothing comes out o[ Somewh ere
between these t W Q dissimilar requ ircrnents Hes a real good exhaus t syste m for
street use t ha t \Viii keep both pa rties happy. Well, relatively happy.

Flg. U -l.. 7'he besl


exhaust rol' a turbo is
th e leost exhausto

For our purposes, we shall call the ex haustsystcm everything rut.er the tu r

bo. Virtually all turbos require speeial tailpipes. Stock , non-turbo tailpipes
do n't cut it. Seldom do afterm arket tailp ipes prove satisfactory e ither. An exhaus t sys tem is an accumulatio n of optimizcd, carefuJly thought out features.
The object ive that mu s t be met in correlating these design featmes is the ere
ation of a c1ea nrunning, acceptable noiseleve l, lowest possibJebackpres
su ra tailpj pe.
""" RULE: Back pl'cssure in no exhaust sys t.em is evil.

131

132

Flg.

CHAPTER 11: EXHAUST SVSTEMS

ll~2.

Turbas do

rwt [ihe ba.ck pressltre;


fhe JOUler lile beUer:

Note lhe separa/e


exhausl pipes {or Ihe
waslcg(l~s.

Design

Considerations

This part of the exhausl system is s ubject to tempe ratures ranging up to 1500F, a factor that dictat.es mu ch oftheconfigurat.ion of
lhe components. 1' his 15 perhaps the most h ighly stressed section of the exhaust. system. 'l'herefore, strength 15 of prime importa nce. Strength swrts
\Vith t he t hickn ess or the tUl"bine outlet Range. This flange can arguably be as
th ick as 1/2 inch a nd still caU fo r additional ribs oc bruces.
TURSG-TG-TAILPIPE JOINT.

Fig. 1l.:J. Strenglheni!le ,.ibs between each


{ot)teller UJill greally

increase lhe durability


o{ a {lollge-to-pipejoiflt.

As ftanges do n.ot stay Oa t. d urin g we lding, t he matingsul'face lo the turbine


musl be su r faced priOl' lo insLa llalion. Weld ing is gen el'ally ha r mful Lo lhe base
melal. A weakened condilion lhus exists at the Aa oge/tube weld. An easy way
around this weak po in t is lo weld the tube inside Lhe flange and only inlermitlently 011 thc outside, maki ng the weak segmen ts d iscontiouous.
BASIC TUBE SIZE. TL is easy lo gel Qvereagel' on fitt ing la rge-diameter pipes
nio nn exhausl system. "The lro'gel" t he better" is 110l the case. As ind icated in
Chupler 5, Ihere is an exhaust gas veloci1.y 1.ha1. ough t 110t Lo be exceeded. 1 am
going Lo suggesl thal fol' oxbausl calcu lations, ihis velocity is approxi maLely
250 ftlsec. The considerable expansion of exhausl gas dUB to the temperatnrc
incl'case also l"equil"es a s ignificant lncrease in U1e desll"ed volllme of the
tailpipe. The Lubas rOl' the hol gas on the exhaust sideshou ld therefore be larg-

DE S IGN CONSIDERATIO NS

133

el' than the tubes fol' the cooler inta ke side. Base the calculation on the same

conditions as for intake tubes, bu t use a maximum velocily 01'250 ft}soc "ather
than 450 fl/sec. To size a tailpipe , yau can ad here to this exhaus l gas velocity Ol"

to the simple guidel ine ofselecting a tu be diameter approximately 10% larger


t ha n the turbine outletdiameter. FiguTe 11 -4, exhaust tube sizeveTsus bhp, 01'
fers a good gujde to choosing an adequate tailp ipe size.

Flg. .1.l.-4. Appro:cimate


e:rhausl p ipe Ilow area
for specific power
outpul

4.0

=m

3.0

:.

3.5

.<'

<>
m
-,
e

.~

2.5

m
<>

'0.

3.0

~E

2m

~ 2.5

2.0

i5

2.0

Rg. l l-5 . Tu.rbine


outlet {lange COllnections should not be
welded (I full 360 on
lhe exlernaljoint .
Q

Weld nside for seal

100

200

300

400
500
600
700
Engine power (bhp)

J....,'{

Weld 1/2" increments around


.~_L:;e;:,
xterlor !Iange-to- tube joinl

Q)

Q)

600

900

1000

134

CHAPTER 11: EXHAU ST SVSTEMS

The postion of the cntaJylic co nver tel' LS Jocked in by


Jaw. rfhe converter 1TI1Ist stay in t he original posiLion.. Do youl'self a favor and
leave it. alane. Modern matri.x-style converters are IlOL very restrictive. Most
uuits will contribute less than 2 psi to th e total back press lIJ'c in the tailpipe.
That is acceptable.
When adding a catalytic convertel' to a system nat previously so equipped,
place thecon verter as c10se to the turbo as possib le, to help the COllverter reach
operating temperature quickly.
CON VERTER POSlTION.

Fig. 1.16. A goad


example o{ fitting
cxhat,st tubing i.n. the
auailable space while
mailltaining adeq/Late
lubc siu and mandrel
bends. This aiso shQWS
a good Y COIlnect ion
combining tWD lurbine
oulle/ tabes.

The oxygen sen sor ideally wants to be as clase to


the combustion chambers as temperature permits. In most cil'cumstances
where a turbo is nvolved, the oxygen sensor should be immediately aft of tbe
OXYGEN SENSOR

PosmON.

tllrbo .

'fhe wide te mpe rature Auctuatiolls experienced by tbe


tailpipe or a turbo engina cause somew hat greater thermal expa nsion than
wo uld oLhenvise be the case. Pennitting thc taiJpipc to expand and contract
witho ut resll'arnt t hus becollles vital) to avoid cracking causad by thermal~ ex
pansion -induced bincting,
EXPANSION JOINTS.

Fig. 11 7. Tbcl'mal
4

Engine

Cracking wlll be Induced al turbine aulle! join!

expcl/lsion of the
exJwust system m usl
be allOlucd, lo auoid
cracking.

Aigld anchor lo Iransmissian

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

135

Transmission

Flg. :11.-8. Ajoint al lhe


trall.smis:;ion shoulcl be
flexible.

Rubber flex Joints permt motion on thermal expansion

Flg. :11.-9. The swaged


tailpipe joint is the
simplest aud mosl
uersalile o( all joinls.

\)
Exhausl gas
Ilow direclion

A deb'T'ee of flex can be built into a tailpipe, with swages used as connectors
fol' the pipe segments. Swages pel'lrut easy angular acljustrnent as welJ. The
pipe cla mp can also readily sel-ve as a hanger anchor.
HANGERS. As simple as the idea may be ofhanging a tailpipe under a ca1', you
need only lok under a Ferrar i te get a good feel for the fact that thi8 subject
can be takeu very seriollsly. Severa l prblems erop up in properly locat ing a
tailpipe. Vibration, hea t, engine rocking mations, thermal expansion, and
hanger design are a ll problems that need te be addressed before one has a durable, unobnoxlous tailpipe.
Vibration can usuaJly be damped by frequent hangers and 50ft s pots. Soft
spots are flexjoints that will not transmit vibration. Aswagedjoint is an exampIe of. soll spot.
Reat is only a pl'oblem ifa vul nerable compo nent lS within range. In ge neral, it is far better to insulate the item t hat can get damaged eather than the
tailpipe itself: Heat can damage such things as undercoat.tng, fiber materials,
and painted surfaces. A bit of time spent looking fol' such vulnerable things
and providing a few shields will prove valuable in the longl'un. A simple sheetmetaJ shield will provide a temperatul'e drop ofsevel'al hundl'ed degrees.

Fig.

~1~O.

Swages,

either :;ingly 01' l


multiples, can be llsetl
as lex joints.

2" 01 ,nollon

\\~-----===~~== :

4"of motion

136

CHAPTER 1 1: E XHAUST SVSTEMS

Ag. .1.1.1.1. Simple


" alicer wth clamp

GeneraUy speaking, the mumer will be


the largcst. single restriction in the exhaust syst.em. Unfortunately. the requirements of low back prcssure and silencing are usually at odds with eaeh
ather. Reasonable compromise can be reached most arten with severaJ large
mufllers. The need lo keep large flow areas through all sections ofthe exhaust
system can frequently be meL by instaHing mumer in parallel. lnspect the
ftow area available in eaeh case and be certain the sum of the cross-sectional
al'eas exceeds the basic tube area. lt will pay divdends to make the muffier
flow areas about 25% greater than the basic tube as the drag coefficient inside
the muffi el" is usually pretty shabby.
MUFFLER STYlES , 5 1ZE5, ANO NUMBER.

Ag. 1,112. rile c1euer


yet effective lowres' ricliOIl 111 l~flIer
design (rom Si/per-

Trap.

Ag. ll-13. Tlw Plowmaster nLuffler o(fers


10(1) exhallsl gas reslrictiOft wilh adeqllaJe
noise suppress;on.

DESIGN CONSIDERATlONS

137

The choice 01' muffier styles is limiled lo straighl.t.hl'ough glass-pack types


or the relotiveJy popular 'I turboll mufllcrs. Generally, slraight-through uni t,$
ofTer bet.t.er ftow capability, whiJe bafflestyle t u.rbo mumers provide s uperior
silcncing. Glass- 01' sleel-pack unils have the l'eputation of burning t lle sileneing material out. al an ea rly age. Oddly enough, the turbo dramatically extends
the Jife expect.ancy or these mufllers, ns it. takes oul a gI'cat deal or heat. 1hat
would otherwise do damage.
Two types ofcores are popu lar in the glasspack uni ts: drilled a nd louve red .
Drillcd cores have a much cleaner, thu s Icss rest.ricti ve, f-l ow pat.h. Ir drilledcore unit.s prove scal'cc, IOllvered-core mufficrs wOl'k betlcl' when ftowcd back
ward.

Fig. ll14. Top: Paral


lel gLass-pack mu{llers
fJow welJ wld offcr low

restrictioll. Bo/lom:
This muffler layout
mayofferan adlJontage
in tight spru.'f!S.

Flg. 11-15. Gloss-pack


mufflers are mude n
Iwo di{{eren! slyles.
c{rilled-core cmd
lOlllJen!d-core. DrilledCOI'e are superio/:

-.-'

Nel
size

---.L

Flow direcllon

===;,;:F:J
, :::'=================

e'

Orilled eore

===~~=,ppppppppp

Nel
size

...- - - - Flow dlrection

Louvered eore

138

CH APTER 11: EXHAUST SV STEM S

Fear or excess ive noisc with st.raigh.t-through Ol u fflers 18 us ua lly va lid. This
is not t he case with a tu rbo engi ne, as the t.urbo a lane can be considered approximately one-third ofa mufller.
WA STEGATE INTEGRATlON. Tr he was t.egat e , diSCllSSed more extens ively in Cha pter 12, presents no speciaJ requirements wi Lh respect to si lencing bu t daos Cr eate a n op port.un ity that can benefit perfo rm ance. In an y ca taiytic-col1ve r terequipped car, t he wastegated ischar ge mus t be put back in to t he tai lpipe before
t he conver ter, because a ll the exhau st gas must pass through t he conve r tel'.
Where no conver ter is ret.luired , t he oppor tunity exists to make a completely
separate tailpi pe solely ror the was tegate. A s imple muffl er may p rove n eces~
sary lo keep noi se withi n lim.i ts whe n th e system IS a t max imu m boost. T he
value in creati ng a separate tailpipe here is that it efTeetively increases the ex
hs ust system's total flow area. ln gene ral, a wastegate will be more positive in
response and somewhat mor e effective in contro Uing boost pressure when ae
eo mpanied by its own tail pipe.
The wastegate vent.lube or tBilpipe wil l suITe!' lLOusuaJly large f1uctuatiollS
in ope ra ti ng tempe rature. This sit uation ex ists beca use t he wnstegate 15 clo5ed
mos t of the ti me, a nd lhe ven t tu be will th us be cold , 5in ce no ex ha ust Row 15

Fg. i1~1.6. A separwe


ta i lplpe (O l" t /'e waste-

()

gal e is /)es t.

.,

Slalnless Sleel be lIows 10 resis!


high-Iemperalure and moHon-induced cracking

Ag. l l-.17. The wasl/tgafe (enl [be su/Tcrs

)l

lhe mas! (rom [!termal


e:cpansion; fettgtlt
cho.uges ntllst he
(/Cco", modated. Note

dI f"fCl ion of sU,Jage (O,.

besl seal when I/.ol


operalillg under boasl,
dILe lo norma l back
})I'e:,uwr e i fl l h e la i lplpe.

"

Clamp p,opedy len sioned 10


reduce leakage lo near zero

)~
r

:;::; ,9

~:

TAILPIPE TIP S

139

presento Al; soon as the wastegate opens, the e ntire vent tube experiences a
rapid rise in tempera tu re. This fluctuation will occur every time the wastegate
apeos. T bis requires th e vent tube design to be such that. it can expand and
contract without putting itselfin a crack~inducing bind . Expansionjoints can
take the shape ofswaged or bellowed connections. BelJows, to prave long~ term
durable, must be stainless steel and oC sturdy constl'uction. The material
should be a mininmDl of .03 inch thick. A bellows must be supported so as to
eliminate vibration, or it will fail due to metal fatigue.
MATERIALS AN O AHISHES . Mild steel is sn entircly adequate material for exhaust system construction. Stainless steel, while distinctly superior, presents
the problem of obtaining all the syst.em components {'om this material Staillless tubes welded to mild steel mufflers accompLishes liU.le for long-tarm durability.

Rg. ll-~B. Tltis waslegate Olt a Honda CRX is


moullted remolely {rom
tite e:chaust mani{old
{or ptlckagiflg reasons.

FASTENERS ANO GASKETS. Bolted-togcther joinls are s UI'cly the 0105t Ll'oublesorne palts of any exhaust syst.em. lf properly configured, Lhe fasleners and
gaskets thaL hold the joinl..s togethcl' can go a long way towal'd ins uring th8L
these joints remain in scrvice without trouble. Cl'cating the correcL setup is
largely a maLter ofseveral do 's and don'ts, list.ed in Cbapter LO.
FLANGES. A flange has the twofold I'cspon5ibility of kccping t he gaskeL se~
cllrely cla1l1ped at a1l times and insuring that the tailpipe tube receives adequatc SUppOl't. Th ese rcquirements are easily mel by using flanges 3/8 ineh
Lhick 01' greater. A small flange, stlch as fol' a wastegaLe, can survive as Lhin as
5/16 inch. In general, lhe thicker Lhe flange, the longcr it. and its gasket. will
5tay there.

Tailpipe Tips

Since LheonJy visible segme nL oflhe enlireexhaust systen"t is the last few ineh
es, it is tcmpting lo lel style do a number on eflicicncy. Style IS almost always
niccl but not when it costs power. Make s ure t he exhaust flow arca is mainlained through the Lips. 'rhoughts 01' tip designs Lhat ucxlract" exhaust gases
might. be alluring, but. wait un t il lhey show up on Formula ll'ace cars before
ge tting too entbused about t heir mel'it. Most. Caney tip oTerings will prove less
Lhan satisfaclorv.

140

CHAPTER 1 1: EXHAUST SVSTEM S

Fig. 1.1:19. Nice


cosmelic e."Chaust

detailing (rom Borla.


The outer tube is tlle
ha,Si" pipe. size.

Special
Requirements
for Front-Wheel
Orive Cars

A front-wheel driver is mosl often a transverse engine layoul. This prese nts a
new problem to the designer, in that the tailpipe i5 required to flex up aud
down when the engine moves relative to it5 mounts when transmitting torque.
It i5 Dol feasible to bend a tailpipe and expect il Lo survive mQl'e than one fasl
lap around the block. The flex joint Lakes on a whole new meaning with the
fronl-drive trans verse-engine vehide. Don 't pul youTsclf in10 the posilion of
buildi ng pipe after pipe with the strength to stay in one piece and t..ly ing lO gel
one to Uve. The problem 15 to design in enough flexibility of joints so that the
engine can move virtually anywhere and not overstress the tailpipe. Anticipate 10 of flexibility and provide for il.

AND FURTHERMORE

Do lhejoints inte11acing lhe turbo llave any reabLity probLems?


Ahnost a lways. Stock sys tems are designed fol' Row rates prodnced by stock
engines. 1'0 t ry to pump 50% more now (approxim ately 7 psi boost) through an
exhaust wiJI1-aise tailpipe press ure to an unacceptably high leve!.

12

8005T CONTROL5

T he need for effective and pos itive boos Lcontrols in a tUl'bocharger system is
brought.. ubout by the turbo 's characleristic of incl'casing its rate of ail'ftow
raster than t he abilit.y ofthe enginc to accept that flow. Irunchecked, the t urbo

can quickJy produce damagingly high boost pressures that lcad to engine
knock. The methods and details by which boost pressures are held ln check are
key elements in the success of any turbo system designo
BoosLcontrol devices vary in st.yle and efTectiveness, from t h e angla of the
driver's right foot to the sophjsticated variable area turbine no~ z l es. 'I'he fol
lowing discussion will outli.ne tbe sch emes and their merits for keeping boost
produ ct ion unde!" reasonable lnit.s.
Restri ct or

Fig. .12.1.

Boos ca n be controlled by cr eati ng l restricti on for either int.ake flow or ex


haust Aow. On t ha intak e s ide, s imply drawing through or pumping thro\.lgh l
calibrated (by trial and error) orifice at the compressor nleL or outlet, rcspectively, can lint Lh e flow SO boost won ' t geL out of hand. A sUghtly more c1ever
devi ce varies How arca as boost rises, so nonboostcd operatian is wide open. I ntake charge te mperatw'es wiJl ri se with this control, because thc boost made
will be from less air let in ; th us thepressure ratio and temperatura are gr eater.
The r estrictor will al so \York on the cxha ust s ide. Again , the cali bratcd orifice willlimit the f1ow, as t he turbo i5 free lO make huge amounts ofboost, only

Boost COII

be con! rolled by a
comp/"essor nJet 01'
oullel restrictOI: While

0=

.0 ~1=

ReslrlClor before compreSSOf

effeclive, litis Ilereases


heat and is a bod idea.
AeSlllclor afler compressor

o
Flg. :1,22. A I,ail/Jlpe
restricto/" eOIl control
boaSl, hui " eai goes up.

E(feclive. bul 0150 o bad


iciL'lI.

142

CHAPTER 12: BOOS T CONTROL S

lo scrap Lhe Aow al the orifice. 1'his restl'icl.or Cn lake the farOl al" a large
washer al t.he turbine autlet or eve n a muffier tha1 hates performance. Any rest.ri ctio ll to exhaust. flow will dri ve combustion cham ber tempe ratures up, because exh aust. back pressure, and t hus reversion, will be gr eater.
The fundamental Dolia o of adding a turbocharger to increase flo\\' through
an engine a nd th en adding a restrictol' to control tha!. fiow must, in the final
anaJysis, be considered adopey scheme. No Formul a 1 cars have flow restrictors.
Vent Valve

A rather sophisticat.ed radia t.or cap can be used as a boost-co ntrol device. GeneraUy, these types of c0l1tro15 wi_1I prove inaccurate and often noisy_ While far
superior to any form of restrictor, these valves probably have th eir greatest
value as safeLy cont rol s in the event of a wastegate fai lu re. They can conullonly
be found on produ ction tUI-bo eru's as overboost safety devices. The vent valve
has no bu siness bei ng a primary boost-control device. l;urthermore, it cannot
be used on a draw-t hrough car b system, as 11. would be required to vent a fueV
air mixture.

Fig. 123. Boost


pressure. I.."ttf/ be uented

afler work is done lo


creute it. Effectiue,
bu! a bad idea.

Wastegate

o
'('he wastegate derives ts llame from the faet th,lL il. fULlctions by wasting a
portian of the exhausLenergy. By wasting, 01" bypassi ng, a controll ed amouut
of exhaust gas energy 8mund t be turbine, the actual speed of the turbine,
hence the boosL, can be con t rolled. Imagi ne the wastegate, t hen, to be nothin g
more than an exhaust bypass val ve that aHows on ly en ough exhaus t gas fi ow to
the turbinc Lo produce the desir ed boos t.

r--Ag. 12-4. 'l'he waslegale. 7'h.:; is the way lo

control OOost wiih lile


classic turbocllUrger.

-;- L

\.

~,

'---'

"

Talpipe

(I ~

r ~J

ilo ;r

LJ

ego )...

e.~"-O:

,\..

Pressure signallrom compreSSOf oullet

L! UILr

,"

Il1111 1'
Ir

SElECTlNG THE WA STEGATE

143

Ag. u -s. Two


excellent examples o{
waslegates {rom. . KS

Ag. 1.2-6. Adaplers


Lo place a wasLegule
between the IIrOO and
the manifold

Although the w3stegate is cUl'renUy the hest choice fOI" thejob of boosL cont.rol, it is not a perfect concept. That it runclion s by wHsti ng e nel'gy is obviously
a Aaw. A secon d naw is the need fol' lhe wastegaLe valve Lo sLarL opening quite
early in the hoost rise time, so it will reach a posit.ion t.o st.abilize boosL when
hoost. reaches tho desired maximum. In other words, a wastegatc seL aL 10 psi
wiIl usually starL to open at ahouL 5 psi and dendy w8sle a bunch of energy
that could otherwise he used lo speed the turbo up . 1'rying to gain turbine rpm
while the wastegaLe valve is open s, in part, chasing one'g tail.
1'he thousandhorsepower Formula 1 cru's used wast.egales, and so does evel'Y proper lurbo system in the wodd. Unti l the VATN-controlled turbo becomes widely avai lable aL a reasonahle cost, the wastcgate is the bcsl boost
control.
Selecting the

Wastegate

Two sty les ofwasLcgate CUfl'ently exist: integral and remolco LntegraJ implies
that. thc wa8tegate is hui Il nlo thc lUl"bocharger itselr. The remote can be
placed wherever one feels t.he need. Or, al 1ea8t, in a lUore ideaJ placc.
The decision as to which sLyle f.o e lllploy is one ofb.1.lance betwecl1 economes and performance. The nod on economics goes lo thc integral st'y1e. 'rhc pero

144

CHAPTER 12: B OOST CONTROLS

Fig. 12-7. ~rhe integral


wCl8tegate i$ illexpensiue and easy.

Exhausl

aullel

tt--t----- _ Open
Closed

AClualo r

puSh roo

Exhaust inlet

Fig. 12-8. The remole


wastegaLe is lILe besl o(
tlle boos/-coll trol Solutions.

rOl'manee advantage, while s mall , is usually with the remote wastegatc. Show
me nn integra.l wastegate on a race cal'.
Integrating the

Wastegate i"to
the System

One of lhe key items in integrating the wastegate into the systcm is the locatian of the ex haust gas bleed-ofT from the exhaust manifold. Th is [eatu re is
critical, because it determin es such things as load balance between cylinder s,
accurate and quick response of the gatel and, in part, lurbine nle l pressure.
'rhe bleed-oIT must ve nl from H localion where lh e pu lses ('rom a11 cylinders
have been collected. This virt.uaUy ahvays means the manifold, clase to the turbine mounting Range. Symmetry and easy fiow paths are ideals fol' laying out.
a wastegate system.
It is vital that exhaust. gases be given an easy job ofchangingdirect.ion from
the mute tow8l'd t.he turbine to the bypass through the wastegate. Ir Oow has
any difficulty whatsoever changing direction to exit. th rough the wastegate,
the ahility to control baosL in the higbe r rev ranges may simply disappear.

I NTEGRATING THE WA STEGATE INTO THE SVSTEM

Rg. 1.2-9. 7'he waslegole l/tal does not uellt


{rom all cyh" ders
uni{ormly is a bad idea.
Nor should il cause
reuersal o{ f10w {rom
lile lurbo, as Itere.

(
'n

.::m:

145

1. .

'"
(\

'\..

Rg. U -iD. Bleed


angles inl o wastegales
are important, lo allow
exhausl gas lo flow
easily out o{ tite system.

Poor -

righl ang

,.

l'

H
~

~
11

t<

\..

Better - Shallow angle

Best - symmelry

Exhau!:Il gas relurn rrom lhe wnstegate to Lhe lniJpipc arter lhe turbinc
shouJd r~civ e the same rorethought as gus entering t hf' waslegate. 'fhe principie here 1S to avo id inlerfcring wit h cxhaust. gas Aow e ilin~ the turbine. In-

146

CHAPTER 12: 8 005T CONTROL S

terrerence wiU raise exhaust back pressure. th us reducing powcr. An int.egral


wastegat.e will usu aJly channel bypassed ex hau sL gas back int.o tite system immed iately aftoft.he turbine wheel. rrhis is acceptahle for econolllic reasons bui
is not in th e best interest of power. A few integz-al wastegate design s, like sorne
models of the Japanese lHl, have provided a separate ex haust pipe fOI" the bypassed gases. Wben this separate pipe is avail able, it should be iakE:!n advantage of and routed sorne distance down the tailpipe befo re being dumped back
into the main exhaust systcm. A min imwn distance would be 18 nebes.
As discussed in Chapter 11, the ideal circumstance for bypassed gases from
the wastegale 15 a completely separate tailpipe. This offel"s the mos t posili ve
wastegate response, lowesl back pressure, and no interference with ftow
Turbine housing

Ag. 121.1.. JlLlegral

wastegates us[ally
du.mp uenled gases

Turbine

immediately behimllhe
lurbine and create high
lurbulence, reducing
oueraU flow.

: '~,1;':;v..~.

(t ',-'"
-'." ';' ,'
'~-:'~:," '!~

..

....

.--;~ ."~:,?-o\.~::: .:- ~'''. ':',


-', ~ "':.- .~~ ,
, . ,'~

_...--

:,:", ,~. "'~~'.: ' , .:.


, "' I ~. t..... ' ........

EJI: haus I

!lo

oullel

, ""J' "',-' \ .-,;,..

_-"Jt~P"=:::J'~'~';:!
.~,'/,~--:'_:'_.'-;.,'~. ............. . . . . . . .
::;~" r

Area 01 extreme
!\Jfbutence stighlly
reduces

now

1It-- - _ Opeo
Glosed

Actualor

puSh roo

Exhausl Inlel

Fig.12U. Integral
waslegates l/wl keep
vnted gas awG,.Y (mm

primaly e:chausl gas


prl/lIt

ou tpal.

superior power

/ ,-------.,

/ ,_------,,

,
,,,

, 1\

,
,,
,,
,,

,,

-----.-------l

'--------:1-1
o
,. --(

~--

,,,
,

,
,
,,
,

,,

"~i----------

,
,,

,,

-------------

:,----L r:;:b
---,,----,

=
o

Poor -

directly into exducer boTe

Good -

externa! 10 exducer bore

WAST EGATE A CTUATOR SIGNAl

147

through the turbine. Perhaps not cheap or easy. buL a max.imum-eITort turbo
system will have a separate iailpipe for tbe wastegate, with s uit.able co nsideration given to ther mal expansion ofthe tube without any crackingof thejoint
beLween tube snd tailpipe

Fig. :12-1.3. A uariation


on. l il e irl /egl'cl wastegateo blLt with a
separa1e uellt path

Wastegate
Actuator Signal

Boost pressure applied to the wastegate diapbragm is referred to as the acLuaLOI" signal. '.I'he source ofthi s signa] can i!lfluence wastegute response, u]timate
boost pressure, ancl, under cCltain circumstances, even fuel flow raLes. lt is
thcrefore imporlant to consider where Lrus aduator signal should come om.
[1 is vital lo know and understand that. the wastegate will control ihe pressure
aL the point wh ere ihe actuaiol' signal is taken from thesystem. l ft be sibrna l is
taken at the co mpl'cssor outlct, lhat is the point in l.he system that will expcrience boost pressul'e dicroted by the basie setling of the wastegate. Likewise, ir
ihe signa l is take n from the cxhaust pipe (don 't laugh), pressure in the tailpipe
at that point will, agai n, be dictated by the basie setting of the wastegate. lt is
known thlt pressuJ'e distribution t hrough the engine/turbo system varies due
Lo such flow-restricting devices as in tel'coolers, throttles, sametimes ventu ri s,
and just pJain plumbing problems. Obviously, t,h en, pressul'C through the entire systcm will vary based on t he localion 01' the aduatol' signal SOllrce. So,
where to put thc signaJ saurce?
EssentialJy, three choices exisl fol' soureing the signal : l he compl'cssol' out.Jet, a plenum enterin g the throttle bodics, and the inlake manifold. Each of
lhese has merit and problcms.
T he signal origin ating al. the co mpressor outleL offers the best control over
lhe wastegate with regard to its response and ability lo COllsiste nily conLrol
boost. lo a f,riVCIl valuc.
Thc bad side is that lorque-cul've rise will suffer slighily, as tltis source will
ereate lhe carJiest possible wastegatecr8ckingpoint. This carly cracking point
wi ll offer sorne relief t.hermally, because Lhe entil'e systcm will virlual1y neve!'
see more boost thao the basie seLiing of the wastegate. 'l'his can be importanl
in a voidi ng a quick heut. soak i ng of the i ntercoolel'.

148

CHAPTER 12: B 005T CONTROL 5

Ag. 12i4. Flexible


waslegltle uelli tllbes
allow fol' ext,.eme
expallSiOIl arul
(.'Qnlra cl iOfl caused by
large temperature (lIletuatio1ls through the
waslegate.

Fig. :12-1.5. Tll e waste-

gate sigual source can


affecllhe system with
respecl to hea! load QTld
tllrbine response.

'"

.-#'

,---..
O

1J.1

Co mpressor Qullel leasi heal. slowest response

'- Alter Ihrollle mesl heat, besl response

Alter intetcooler and


belore Ihrollle - compromise

The intake plenuru s ignal SOllrce will slighl1y improve boos t response, since
t he turbo is free Lo make all the boost it can until the pressure reaches the signal saurce and is transmitted Lo the wastegatc. The fad thal the tu rbo is free
to make a briefspike of boos t \ViII cause the inlercooler to be hit by a greater
slug 01' te mperature. Gl'elltcl' tempcraturc is always lo be cons idered a nega
Uve. For a blowlIwough cal'buretor system , where tbe wasleg-ate and fuel
p ressure regulator mma, see the same signal sirnultaneollsly, th e plenllm ig
na! source is besl.
Soll rcing the signal rrom the inlke manirold s hould be considered only
whcn turbo response is 01" the highest impOltance and lhe shol't blast. 01' exlra
heat can be toleraled 0 1" ignored.
Al llhi ngs considered, heat should be lhe controUing factor. Unless u Ilusual
ci'cumstances diclatc, hook t he wastegale s igna) to the compressor outlct. and
caH it a day.
Design Features

of the Wastegate

A variety 01' cles ign lea tu res nfluence th e functioll and ca pabi Jity 01' lhe wastegale. Mosl wastegates on t he market today have a gaod balance ofteatures vers uscosl, but a close analys is ofthese reatu res may show one un it to be superior
lo anoth er rO l" a s peci flc applicalion.
COMMON DIReCTlON. One genera l characteristic all was~egates must have i s a
common dil'eclion 1'01' the pressures applied to the va lve and diaphragm. Ex
h81.1s1 gas pressure applied lo the wastegale valve absolutely must push in the
same direction as boost pressure applied to the diaphragm.

DESIGN FEATURES OF THE WASTEGATE

Rg. 1.2.1 6. Desicn


cOflsideratioHs o{ a

wasteca/.e

r
Feedback pon for
emote baos! control - .

>=-J

,/

r-

149

Spring preload
adjulabilily

J
~
'

La,ge diamelar
diap

h"9~

P,.

ssure
nle.port

,,

. ~H[Dly~~ -'

s, 'he ben.,

: \H
'- ~

""

'-----

\ r

11

The more attaching


bol!

SmaU heaHransfer
area lo diaphragm
section

Thick lIanges

,I
I

Discha,ge a,ea

I '---"""'1

' - Valye area - approxmately


75% 01discharga area

Tlle stabiliLy wilh which a wasLegate controls


boost pressure, a nd the wastegate's day~Lo~day consistency, a re generally rre
laLed to the ratio of th e areas of lh e diaphl"agm and val ve. AIl oiher ihings
equa l, Lhe greato)" th e ra tio, ihe beller t he wastegatc.
HEAT ISO LATlON . Hea!. isa lation is critical lo Lhe life expcclancy al' lhe waste
gateo HenL isolation s, in parl, where you choose to puL the thi ng, but it is also
very mu ch a runcliotl of lile path avaiJab le fOI" heat to gel f'rom thc very ho!
valve area up to t he diaphl'agm area. The idea s, 01' cou rse, to keep the hen!
away from the liagile diaphragm. Hent tnwcls through heavy sections ofmetal qwckly; thus, the less materi al area bctwecn the two. tile better. Alumjnum
conducts heaL superbly, whcreas stain less sleel is lousy al it. Therefore. a
stainless steel wastegate s hould lreat lhe d iaphragm to an easier life.
CRACKING PRESSURE. Thc cracking pressure oC the wastegale lS the pressure
a l which t he valve fi1"st I.ifts off its seal. 'fhis pl'essure is usually one-halflo one~
t hild orthe sta bili zing(max imlllll boost) pressu re. A high cracking pl'essure is
important, bec3use a fair amounL of energy intcndcd for Lhe turbine wi ll be
vented out Lhe wastegate as 50011 as it cracks, yet the turbo 15 not up lo 1118..'(1'
mum boost. Thus the lur bo's ability Lo ga in boos!.. after the cracking point is
reached 15 slighUy dimnished.
ADJUST ABILlTY. Adjustability is a niee feature to have in any wastegate. This is
t1suatly accomplished by a screw that changes tite plcload oflhe valve spring.
Th e nalure ofspring rates, free Icngt,hs. ancl compre!-;!'I~ll Jengths usually dicSTABll1TY AND CONSISTENCY .

150

CHAPTER 12: 8005T CONTROL5

Ag. 1.2~7. 1'hts cleuer


design. by Turoonelics
auoids lhe. crcu;killg
pressllre 'SSIU! by uSlng
(l throUle-plale UJastegafe u(llue.

Lates a range of adjustrncnt ofthe basic wastegate limited to about, 2 psi withou t changing the spri ng itself. VirtuaUy all gate manufacturers arrer a variety
of springs ror diffe re nt boost press ures. Ge ncrally, remote wastegates afTer nn
adjustment feature; integral units do noto
MOUNTlNG FLA NGE. Mounting Range styles can be an important consideratian
when selecting a s uitable gateo Rigid , strong, clamped-up ftanges are long-term
reliable. AH elsc is somewhat. le88.
Fooling the

Wastegate

Turning up the boost. is becoming the favorite pastime al' serious power enthusiasts. lt is simple Lo think in terms ofmaking more power by just turning tbe
boost screw. Alas, this is nol the answer. The premise under which one must
operate ir one desil'es to turn up the boost is lo remove sorne heat from the intake chargc, makc surc the air/fuelmtio sLays correct, and, when possibJe, add
octane. Then, and only then, is one entitled lo lurn up the boost Lo a new level
that adds back to th e system the same 31110unt or heat that was taken out. by
improving the syslcm's efficiency.
For example, a more eflicienl intercooler that can remove anothe!' 45F
from the intake charge will permit the boost. to be raised about 3 psi- provided, or course, that the ai r/fuel rutio I'emajns constant. Arbitrarily tllrning up
the boost. without any pl'ecalltions whatsoever essentially states that you
thin-k the designel's \Vere conservative bordering on fooli sh. We are generaJly
agreed that accountant.s and lawyers determine tolerable boost presslIres, but
suppose fol' a moment t.h8t the cngineer with a graduate degree in thermodynamics was actually the man responsible. 'rhen we are in trouble ir we al'bi
trarily turn up Lhe boosL. Take youl' pick. Chances and logic suggest \Ve would
be advised to lake so me heat out before we Lurn up the boosL With this bit of
soapbox.ingcomplcLe, hcre are Ule schemes by which boost can be tUl'ned up:
AUERED SPRING. A simple modification for a permanentchange of'boost level
i5 lo alter the spring in the wastegate acluatoT. 1'his can be done in Lhree difIerent ways: shim th e origi nal spring Lo a higher preload, replace the ol"iginal
springwit.h a stiffcr one, 0 1" add i;\ supplementary spring to aid the original.
Estimating t.he stifrness of the spl'ing requil'ed fol' a spccific boosL gai n is a bit
of a lengthy calculalion. Perhaps tria! and error is easier fyou are not keen on
calculation. A rclativcly easy app roach to selecting a supplemen&ru-Y spring is

FOOLING THE WASTEGATE

151

FIg. 1.2-:18. A sLmple

irltegral wastegate
modificatiou {O,.

Wind a second sprlng into the actualor

incl'eased boost

Boost presSure

Add an eXlernaltension spring


and adjusl as requlred

to cboose one of approximately tbe same length as the origi nal but about half
as stiff. This will result in a boost setting about one-trurd higher than stock.
DIAl-A-.OOST. Another easy form of variable boost control is tb e concept of
dial-a-boost. This device is nothing more than a controlled leak in the actuator
signal line. Ir, for example, a 2 psi leak can be created in the signalline, it would
t.ake 9 psi ofboost to open a 7 psi wastegate. An adjllstable Jeak can be created
by llsing a pressure regulator as the leak adjustment. Turn tbe knob, vary the
leak, and presto: dial-a-boost.
TW(HEYEl B005T SWITCH. Dial-a-boost with a variation can become a twoboost-Ievel, high-and-low switch. Dial-a- boost works by creating a leak, and
the eak can be turned on and oITby a solenoid controlled by a switch from the
cockpit. This same scheme could be expanded Lo any number of boost levels
deemed necessary. The logic oftwo or Lnree boost levels is not tough, but the
logic o" ten differe nt ones would escape me.
BlEED ORlfICE. Perhaps the simplest means yet devised of upping boosL is the
simple bleed orifice that. lets out. part of the signal the wastegate actuator receives. Start with n bleed hole of approximately .06 ioch. Merely adjust the size
up until the desired boost is achieved. A restrictor Ql'Uice mny be required in
the sibrnalline. as turbo systems generate such huge volumes of air that a bleed
hole of .06 11ch is uSllally meaningless without somchow reducing the overall

Flg. 12-:19. Thc basic


coneept o{ th.e rem.ote
boost-change device.

Controlled leak by orilice.


needle valve, or pressure regulstor

~~j
/'

Reslnetor 10 reduce CFM so hal


leak appears re!a tivety largar

Wastegate
actuator

152

CHAPTER 12 : 80 0 5T C ONTR OL5

Ao,," avai lable to l he acluatol'. 1t is best lo keep the cfm restricto!' hole to ahout
.06 inch also.
EUCTRONIC/P NEUMATlC WASTEGAlE CONTROLLER. Th e electronic conLrols recenlIy available rOl' the wastegate alTer an additiona l benefat. Not onJy do they provide several difTe:renl bODsl pressures aL the pus h oI a button, they a lso kecp
the wastega te valve cloBed until desired bODs l pressure is ronched. This is aecomplished by blocking t he pressure signal to the wastegate, preventing it
from cracking open 5 01' 6 ps i before maximum boost. Boost rise fr om mid
range to maximum is sign ifieantly faster. While diflicult to pc)''(;civc in first
gear, th e benefits aro obvious and su bstan t.ial from th ird goal" up .

Rg. 1.2-20. Tite H KS

Electro",ic VaLue
Conlroller is a multi
level boosl-change
deuice that aLso
produces (aster boast
rise by blochillg lile

signallo tite tuastegale


Imtil nearmaximum
boasl is achieued.

Override
Safety Device

1t is hard to argue against somo form of eme rgency boost control that wi ll t.akc
over s hould the wBst.egate experie nce a failure. Don't thin k fOl" an insta nt,
howcver. that ir this happens. the en gine is destincd to melt. down. Whe n a
wast.egale begi ns to fail. it docs 110t take a rocket scien tisl to see the hjgher
readings on a boost gauge a nd deduce that. something i 5 amiss. 01 does it take
Mario Andretti t.o t.ell that. the vehicle is acceler ating a bit fasler and that per
haps a change has occlIl"l"ed in sO l11cthing thal mel"ls a c1ose l" look. Fundame ntaliy, ir ono bloW5 an engi ne because of a fai lcd wast.egale, one ought lo turn in
one's driver's Iicense. Nevertheless, it i5 easy to have an overridc safe ty, keep
your fooL in t, andjusl not worry about a thin g.
Severa l sehemes fUllction satisfactorily as 5afety devices. In OEM turbo sys
tem s, lhese vary from pop-off r adialor-s tyle vent. va lvcs to eleclronic fu el cut
ofTs or ignition cuts. If one has done onc's homework and wishes to raise the
boost of 8n OEM syste m, the fa ctory overboosl safety device mus l be defcated ,
bul il 15 s lill a good idea to install a ncw o lle to aCCQun t rOl" the highe r boos llevel. The individual approach lo b locking thcso devices is ikely a sca l"ch of the
factory manual 01" consu lli ng someone in the aficlmHrket wbo has done s lI ch
linkering.
lfyou are dcsigni ng yOU1" own t.urbo system, ii is a1so adv isable lo create 811
ovenide salety dcvicc. A boost-pressure-sensitive switch can cullhe J2volt
puJse lo a coil, ignile r, 01" e\lcl pump. Merely idcntify lhc proper wires, inser a
pessu rc-actuated s wilch se t. L- 2 psi above tbe wastegate seLting, and supply ii
with a boost. signa!. K illing the fuel supply ls probably the b eLter of lhe two
choices. These clev ices ca n cau se aje rking on and ofTif the rool is kept in it (as
boost repent.edly <:ome5 clown to a safe level, closi ng the circujt, which causes
boost lo rise agnin ), b\lt safety l hey do oITer. 'l' his approach is nol, of course,

OVERRIDE SAFETY DEVICE

Ag. .12-21.. Ouerboost


pl'olecon can be
achieued by cuUing
power lo lite coil 01' {ud
pllmp.

15 3

Fuel pump

Pressure-aclu8led SWitch,
normally closed. opens al
deslred salety-cul pressure

BooSI pressure

Fuel pump cut switch

+
Coil

Boos! pressure

12v coll-wire cut switch

qui ck enough fo r carbul'eted engi nes and is therefore limiled to those that are
EFI-equipped.

ANO FURTHERMORE
Why is a. waslegale importan!?
A gasol ine-application turbo sys tem Illl1Sl have a boost-contl'ol mechnnism
lo prevcnt the passibiliLy oftaa l11uch boosl causing da maging dctonation, The
wastegate is the standard-configurution turbo's only tcchnical1y corl'ed boosl
control. The only other viable alternative is lhe VATN turboeharger, which
controls Lurbinc spccd, a nd lhus boost, by vane position (seo Chapter 16). This
typeo ft urbocharger has fuI' greater technical merit lhan st.andaJ'd tUl'bos with
wastegates.
How shou,ld a wastegale i n.legrale /llo tite syslem ?
A waslegate has lwo plllmbing l'cqllirements: where il vents fl'om and
where il vents too r[,he wastcgate should dl'aw from tbe same area of the exhaust manifold as t he turbo. The vent. from the wast.egate 51101..l ld ideally have
a separate exhaust pipe and m1..lfficl'. This causes lhe easl disrupUon lo the
now through t he tu rbo and tailpipe. 'rhe vent lubo back inlo Ule lailpipe ought
to be located welJ down the pipe from thc turbo, a minimum of 18 nehes. For
lhese reasons, the remole wastcgalc is alwayssuperiol' to the integral type. Serious tU1'bo people, Iikc POl'sche) haven'l ye t slIccumbcd lo lhe cosl savings of
an integral wastegate. Furlhermore. no race cars have integral waslegates,
ancll doubt lhey ever will. ]ts fun lo see ads rOl' lurbo kits touting one of the
least dcsil'able fcatur~s oro turbo syslem. the inlegral wastegate.

154

CHAPTER 12: B005T CONTROL5

Are lltere any beneficial sa(e/y deuices ?


Overrcv and overboost. back-up safeLy devices are good features. A detonalion indicalo l' is useful fol' tho heari ng impaired. A dosed-loop detonaion detection and correction syst.em is a valuable safct,y addit.ioJl.

13

PREPARING THE ENGINE

S urely onc ofthe deligbtful benefits ofturbocharging is th e [ael that a turbo


can combine rorces with a "good, stock" engine and produce terrific results.
That does not. imply that carerul preparation ofthe engine wou ld nol.. alTer returns commensurate with the efIort expe nded. 1'0 do the job right means preparing the engine only to the extent th8t performance objectives require. Any
engine built anywhere by anybody (OEM, that is) will withstand the rigor. of a
properly set up 5 psi ofbaDst. Therefore, "doingthejob right" at a performance
objective of 5 psi mean s you need a "good, stock" engine. Dne should not, however, expect the "good, stock" engine te s U.rvive the performance regimes of 50
psi Formula 1 turbo engines. FlIrther, one should not wast.e elaborate pl'c paration on an engine only to run wimpy boost pressures. Ba lancing performance
objectives with enb'nc pl'eparation is the subject pursued in this chapler.
Deciding on
Specific
Objectives

Des,il'cd power ll'ans,lates lo a boost pl'CSSlIfe range required to ach.ieve that


power. Engine prep81'ation necded to permit those boosL pl'essures can be l'Cduced lo a group ofgeneralities. Certainly, many engi ncs hove specific requirements and weaknesses. A literaLure search for any given engine \Viii usually
tU fn up a wealth ofinformalion, probably far more Lha n ncedcd.

Compression
Ratio

In outUning engine performance desil'cd, the first decislon is the compl'ession


ratio. Compression ratio afTects a large number of performance a nd dri veability factors. ThrottJe response, economy, bhp per psi ofboost, and that intangible, sweet runningcondition associated with engines eoger for actian are some
ofthe performance factoTs determined in Jarge pru-t by Lh e compl'ession ratio.

Fig. 1.3-1.. Approxl mate

boosl-press"re allow-

15

ables for varyiug {uel


octal/es alld engine
compressiolt ralios
10

O+-----+-----+-----+-----r-----r_--~r_
12
7
8
10
6
9
11
Compressloo r3lio

155

156

CHAPTER 13 : PR EPARI NG THE ENGINE

Do not be hasty lo lower compress ion ratiosjust. because most OEMs ike lo
do so. The proper co mpressio n rat io for the job is detcrmined by lengthy thermodynamic caJcuJation and comprehensive tes Ling. AlI tha1. good technology
has ls place, bul usable numbers can be generated by sorne experience and
wiH bold for most general applications. Th e two larges t influences on compression ratio are boost pressure desil'ed and inlercooler erficiency_ Fuel octanc
ccrtai n1y plays a big part, bul we are usually limited lo using corn merc ially
available pump gaso line.
"' RULE: A turbo engine mllst never be reduced lo a low-compress ion slug.

CR=7101

Ag. :132. Approximaie


boost-pressure uorialio" as a {une/ion o{
comprcssion ratio Uf/ti

20
CR z BIOl

illlercooler cf'ciem;y

---

CA", 10 lo 1

0+--1--1-~r--r--+--+--+-~--1--1--

50

100

Inlercooler efficency (%)

calculate a compression ratio,


we mu sLknow t he displace ment vo lume and clearance volume (see glossary)
C AlCULAllNG A COMPRfSllON RAl lO CHANGE. '1'0

Compression ratio

_ displacement uolwne + clearancf! uolume


clearance volante

or
CR =
where
Vd = displacement volume
Veu = c1earance volume

Some minor manipulation ofth e equstion will pul it into a form thaLallows
easy calculation of c1earance volumes ror specific com pression ralios.

Clearance uolume

_ ol1.e-cylinder displacem,ent
compression ratio - 1

Example:
400 cid V-S with CR of U .O to !

400
Clearonce uolu,me

= lLg - 1 ; 5.0 in.:!

PREPARING THE CYLINDER HE AD

157

flg. 13-3. U,{ining lit.


compression ratio

Clearance
volume (V cv)

o
To chnnge the CR to 8.5 t.o 1, Lhe new c1earance voltlme will be

400
'
Clearo nce uol wne = 8.58- 1 = 667
. <n.
Clearly then, to get from the 11,0 Lo 1 comp ression ratio to the 8.5to 1 ratio,
6.67 - 5.0, or 1.67 cubic nches, must. be added Lo tbe combuslion chamher volume. How olle adds Lhis volume can vary, but the maLh rcmains tho.t ea.sy.
CHANGING A COMPRESSION RATIO. A variety 01' meLhods exisl lo change a compression ratio. AJmost aH are unacceptable. The CI"UX ofthe malter is upsetting
the "squish valume" nrollnd the rim ofthe chambcr. A chamber is designed so
thaL lhe charge is push ed t.ow8rd Ls cent.eras the piston achieves top c1ead center. 'fhis is perhaps the strongcst. deter rcnt. t.o detonation designed int.o tb c
systcm, as it tends t.o cil hcr eliminatc end gas 01' keep charge tu rbul ence high.
T his sq uish volume is a rim abouL .3 to .4 ineh wide around the chamber, and
approximat.ely .04 lhick-a big, washer-s haped volume bet.ween pistan and
head. Cons ider "squi sh volume" sacred and do not.lamper. II is possible to en
so badly in rcmovin g lhe sq ui sh t.hal a res ul l ing 7-to-l compression ratio may
ping worse than a 9-to-l with proper squish. Cleady t.hen, choices fOI" reducing
com pression ratio are limited to opening up selccled parts of the hoad side 01'
t he ehambC1~ inst.alling a new pistan with H dj sh in lhe center, or remachining
lhe original piston to ereale a dis h. 1t. is perhaps n litUe r isky lo underlake remachining a co mbuslian chambcr, because the thickncss af tbe material is
us ually unkllown . FUl'lhcl'mare, chamber shapes are c10scly canlrolled featu res ofmost modern enbrines. Iflh c chambe!" must be recul, ullrasonic inspeclion can detenninc l hc material thickness. Commercial inspection service
companies fl'equelltly afTe!' this se rvice. An cnthely new pistan, with lhe re
quired dish that maintain tlle squj sh volume, i5 a praper appraach. Machining a di 5h ioto lhe original pistan is sound. p1"Ovided the lop lhickness is
adequalo. A I'easom:able rule wouJd rcquire lhe lop thickness to Le al least6P.f
ofthe bore. Approachcs lo lowering the campression ratio that do nol work are
thicker head gaskets oud s horter connecting rods.
Preparing the
eylinder Head

Cylind er head prCptlrulion is once aga in a 1\I1Ict.ion of the enginc's pllrpose. A


gaod st.rect turbo engine is uS\lally quite comfortable with a completl?ly stork
eylinder heRd. On lhe other hand. A fuJl-lip.c.lged turbo nll'mg r:-nglnl! will re
quire complete preparation consistent wilh the type Ollllf'lngintendr.d

158

CHAPTER 13: PREPARING THE ENGINE

1f the opportuniLy to prepare a sLreet head presenLs itselr, atLention should


center lru'gely aJ'ound 8ssu ringLhat t he head is in exce llentcondition. Flatness
of the head gasket sud'ace is of obviolls importance. A rninimum truing cut
would be advisable. AH hales shou ld be chaOlfered and all threads chased with
a s harp tapo Every edge and every corner should be debuned. Inspect for casLing flash and casting process roughness and remove accordingly. The combustion chambers sho uld be deburred and aH edges radiused 0 1' blended into tbe
surrou nding material. AH unengaged spark plug threads should be removed.
The purpose SI of course, to elirn.inate hoL spots that could serve as potentiaJ
ignition sources. 'rhe valves themselves should receive similar attention. T he
quality of the valve seal..i ng surface must be first class. Here is the place to
spend a little extra money and insw'e good sealing against the higher press ures induced by Lhe turbo. Quality work on the valve seats will aIso condllct
slightly more heat out 01" the valves.
Intake and exhallst portsshould receive preparation consistent with tbeob*
jectives of the engine. With a rni.ld sh'eet engine/turbo system. , a cleanup and
matc:hingofports is logical. Competitive situations aredifTe rent. Airfiow rates
through turbo engine pOI'ts far exceed those through atmo por ts; the refore,
impel"fections cause considerably greater drago'l'urbo heads used for competi*
tive events consequently mer it a higher degree of port preparation.
rnspect the manifold mating faces for flatness, ami remachine as required.
Seldom is tbere any requireme nt to improve seaJing at the intake m anifold
gasket. A boost pressw-e of 14.7 psi (on the inside pushingouL) is virLuaUy the
same as the pushing "in " with n manifold vacuum of30 inches (brought about
by backingoffthe throLtle at high rpm ). Vacuum and pressure are, to a limitad
degree, Lhe same th ing-they' rej ust pus hing in diffel'entdir ections.
Preparing the
Cylinder Block

Seldom will a cy linder block need speciaJ attention j ust because a turbo enters
the scenc. A good s tock block will serve most applications well. But somewhere
between higher performance, longer durability, and plain oId pride of workIllanship exists a logica! reason lo give thought to cylinder block p.ep8.ation.
Val lhe block i 11 hot solvent tor conve l1.icnce of handling, deburr everyth ing,
and retap alllhreads. Decks Olust be flat.lnsure that th e decks are equidistant
fmm, and parallel to, the crank centerline. Crank bores must be concentric
and round . lt is cxtremely important that cyli nder bores be round. Val the
block again when 811 the above is done, to make sure il rcally is clean.
Ir one characteristicofa cylinder block could lend a hand to Lhe turbo appli*
cation, ii would be rigidity orthe deck surfsce.

Head Gasket
Improvement

The thoughtoftrying to improve a head gasketshould not imply tha Lthe head
gasket is a weak link. A new stock head gas ket., mated to f1at surCaces and accompanied by properly torqued head studs, is s gaoel jaint. Head gaskets in
general do l10t tend t.o 'lb low." Rathel; one could say thaL detonation will blow
anything, ami lhe heacl gasket is orten the firsL thing slanrung in lineo A1mast
always, the most effective cu re for blown heacl gaskets is conlrol of detonatjon.
Clearly, however, maximu1l1*cffort. engines musi be equippcd wit.h maxl*
mum-efTort head {,'B.skets. Several metbods exist. for subst.anlially improving a
stock head gasket. 'fhe fundamental idea is to oITer some form of motion barrier lhat will help the gasket sLay put ir it is subjected to a. rew detonation blasts.
'l'his barrier llsual ly t.akes t lle form oC an intedock 01' mechanical barrier, as
showll in figures 13-5,6, and 7.

HEAD GASKET IMPROVEMENT

1 59

Ag. :134. Perform.ance


Ilead gaskets. Top: 'l'he
steel wire ring pl'ouides
mcuimum ,:ombustion.
sealabilily bUi muy
brinell alumillum.
hemls. Botto",.. le{l:
The pre-flallelled sleel
wire ring has tlle
strellglh of steel wire
sealing witll. mmum
brilleW" g ofaluminum
heads. Bollom, rigltt:
The copper wire rillg
willllot brinell aluminwn /teads and offers
superior /tea/.
dissipatiofl from.
combustian hal spots.

Flg. :13-5. Head ga.sket


improut!mell.t by a
grooue withoul an

O-ring

1/

Delormation creales a
mechanicallock

LJ

Typical dimensions:

.041 " wlre

Flg. :13-6. flead gasket

strellglhelled byalL
Q-ring

.033-.035 LS...LJ

t
.039-.040

160

CHAPTER 13: PREPARING THE ENGINE

~~~

Rg.1.3-7. flead gasket


streflgthened by a

double Q-ring

Stand each O-ring up out 01

lhe block about

Improving Mead
Clamp-up

'-

===:::===:::===<:;/

.004-. 005~

An improved head-bolt syswm can permit greater clamping loads between


head and block. The first serious improvement should be to replace bolts with
high-strength studs. A pl'operly anchored stud, with its shank bottomed out in
lhe block, will always prove a superior fastener syslem lo a hall tightened inlo
the block.
l it"

RULE:

A head boll is un accounLanl's decision. A head slud is all engineer's


decision.

It is rcasonable to instaU head studs of th e nexL sizc up and galn t he additionaJ clamp-up fo rce availahle o'om higher torq\le valucs. Sel'iolls rore

lh oughl should he given to lIppe r-cylinder di storlion caused by largor


fastenc,'s with higher to rqueups.
Torqung the
Mead Fasteners

Flg. 1.38. S/uds will


alwaYIi hold a head on
beUer lhall boLJi;,

Tho pu rpase of tightening a bolt, 01' a nut on a slud, is to put tension into the
shaft. oflhe balt or stud oThe exte nt to which tOloque gcts con verted to tensioo
is almost solely depende nl on the fr iclion between the threads of lhc stud a nd
the lhreaded hal e a nd the friction bet.ween the washer ~U1 d nuL. 1'0 achie\'e

TURB O PSTON S

161

maximu m tension in the shan for a given torque, friction must be rcduced lo a
mi nimum. 'l'his is accom pljshcd by making sure the threads are in perfect. condition and the bot.tom side of t he nut. is smooth. This limits the !lumber of
ti mes a holl. or stud is used , because it becomes scar ed, gouged, ar atherwise
damaged. 'rhree times is pra bably stretching it.
A second and maslo importanl means of reducing fridion is a proper lu bricantan the threads and between the batlom of the nutor ball head and the top
ofthe washer. Molysu lfide lubri cants are best. Light oil wi ll do in a pincho Consu lt the shap manual or fastener suppliers for t.orque values. Unlessot.herwise
specified, these values are for clean, dry threads. When using molysu lfide, all
specified torque values musl be reduced by 10% because 01' mo lysuJfide's extreme lubricati ng quali t ies. Light oill'equil'cs torque values to be reduced by
about 5%. Lubricating tbese surfaces is of such extreme importance that ifforgotten, onc muslredo thejob before start-up.
Compresslon stress

Ag. :13-9. Top: When a


st!ld is torqued l/p. lhe
shallk boUoms out on
the chamfer. The stud's
threads pull Q / l the
shonk, inducing
(;ompressive stress in
lhe surroundirlg base
metal. Bottom: An
upward force appliecl
lo Ih e stud pulls lhe
compressiue stress oock
lo %ero befare inducirlg
tensi.ll! sl.ress. res/J./tillg
in lower /lel tensile
stress.

Turbo Pistons

Tensile stress
oo.

No stress

F+

The piston is the weak link in a turbo engine. Whcn turbo systcm functions go
astray, il is the poor piston that usually gets beal up. Heal. and heat-induced
detonatjon are the two things that. do the most damage ta lhe piston. These
lwo enemies can besl. be I'csisl.cd by high-temperalure-strengt,h material, the
mechanical design oflhe piston, and heal removal.
PISTON MATlERIAL$. Porged aluminum, cast a luminum hypereuteclic, and 'f6
heat-lreated hypereutect.ic allays a re cornmon choices in piston materials.
Forged aluminum is, in somo cuses, cOllsiderably stronge r lhan the cast material. Jt is nat, however, without ts own peculiar problems. Forged alloys are
sim ilar in stl'ength to T6 hypereutectic alloys. witb t.he hypereutectic having
th c advantage in the ri ng land urea, where gl'cat strength is most important.

162

Rg.

CHAPTER 13: PREPARING THE ENGINE

~3:1O.

A good
pistan will haue
thick. strong rillg
l/L1bo

laruls.

Forgings do have the downside characteristic of needing sligblly greater walJ


clearance. Large wall cJearances can destroy a piston in small increments dur
ing the engine warm-up cycle. lf too great a clearance is used, Iife expect.ancy
can about cqual that oC an overloaded casL piston. 80me of the more modern
fo rgings have conquered the wall clearance problem aod make eX(''ell ent pistons. 'l'he problem s, of coursc, knowing exactly what yau have.
HypereuLectic alloy pistons are cast aluminum alloy with a high percentage
of silicon. Their mosto useful characteristics are lower thermaJ expansion and
reduced heat transfer. 'I'hejury is still sequestered. bul it will probably reach a
favora ble decision. Clearly, thcse pistons merit investig-ation prior to choosi ng
the best part for your engin e appl ication .
T he decision should actually be based on three thi ngs: pCl'cent ncrease in
the rpm limit, boost pressure, and the presente of an effective intel'cooler.
Keep in mind that inertial 10ads in pistolls skyrockct with increasing revs,
more boost makes mOre heat, an d good intel'caolers lakc out heat. [t's all a
judgment caB. Unlcss ci rcumstilllccs are highly un usual, stl'eet CaI'S with stock
redlines will prove 1110.re successful wlth cast pistons. FOl'gings should be reserved for lhe high revvers, wh ile ']'6 hypereutecticalloys can caver almost all
requil'ernents.
RULE:

Do noL rllsh lO the forged pisto n stOl'e evcry ti me a Lurbo engillc


needs pl'eparatioll.

A specially designed turbo pistan will be somewhat more


robust ovcrllll than a piston destined fol' lesse r duty, 'rhe area of most coneern
is the thickness of ihc I'ing lands. Ring land arca is tbe focus of mosi of tbe
pounding that knock gives a piston. The thickness of these lands mu si be a
minimu m 01' twice ihat cmploycd on pistons for almo engines. Often ihe de
Lails or a tu rbo piston wi ll include better heat escape mutes from tha pision
crown lo ihe sidcwaUs.
HUT REMOVAL. One wny to incl'case the stl'ength of the piston is to reduce ts
operating Lemperutllle. Two methods seem viab le in accomplishi ng this: ce
ramie coating on the pision top and/ol' oi! spray on the boito m. With ceramic
ba l'rcl's, it is acceptable rOl' chul'ge tempcratures to risc sLighily as a canse
quence of le heat ent.edng the piston. Bear in mlnd thal. charge heat is ihe
cause of detonatol1. Oil spray on the bottom ofthe piston has proven workable
MECHAN ICAL DESIGN.

BAlANCING THE A SSEMBlY

Ag. .1311. Oil spray


onto the boltom 01 tlle
piStOll redilces the
piston '5 operating
temperature, increasing
its slrength.

163

.......-. OH at engine pressure sprayed


onto boltom of piston crown

on vehicles as varied as M~B dieseis and early '80s Grand Prix cars. Although
not all easy installation, oil spray s bould be given the nod first. 1t shouJd be ac~
companied by an increased-capacity oil pump, or aL least by a stiffened oi1
pump relief- valve spri.ng. Nozzle diameters will need sorne experimentatian,
but .03 inch should be a good place to start.
The rush lO ceramic caat everythi ng that sees lire in the engine ls, in tls
writel"s opinion, a bit premaLure. Keeping beat out of tbe piston i5 generally
desirable. Conductingheat out orthe chamber is equally desirable. f fee1 quite
capable ofargui ng both sides eloquent1y. Two things areclear: Frst, ifthe detonatian characteristics ofthe combustion chambe!' can stand more heat left in
the chnmber by ceramic coatillgs, then raise the compression. Second, when
Formula 1 engnes use ceram ic cO<ILings and we are permitted to knaw that, we
should, too. UntiJ that time, ceramic coat the exhaust pOl't froln Lhe valve Lo
the manifold face and get on with other detail s.
Balancing the
Assembly

'l'he turbo has Httle regard rol' mechanical smoolhness. The [act remains that
any engine destined for high-performance preparation gets a complete and
thorough balancing, 01' the end user is simply nat serious.

Camshafts

Make no mistake in the fact that turbo performa nce caros are VC'y different
from atmaspheric performance cams. The characteristics of long duration and
high overlap for atmo cams are unwelcome in a tW'bo system. 'rh e street turbo,
which is generaJly s mall, operates with exhau5t manifold pressw'e somewhat
higher than intake boost p,cssure. 'l'his situation, when presented with longduration , high-overlap CrullS, creates a huge amount of reversion. Thus the
"turbo cam" tencls to become a low-duration. very Limited overlap cam.
l.W'

Related Systems

RULE : It

i5 hard Lo fiJ)d a turbo cam thaL works better than the slock item.

'l'he selection of such items as va lve gear, cOllnecting rods, bearings, and rod
bolt5 is independent al' the twbo. These items should be selected based on expected rpm lirnjts. In general, stock equipment wi ll prove adequate rol' virt.ual
Iy any turbo system that keeps rpm Iimits within the origina l manufacturer's
recommcndaLions.

164

CHAPTER 13 : PREPARING THE ENGINE

,,

,,

Fig. ~31.2. Ouel'lap in.


he turbo cam should be
held lo a minimum.

\\~,I

,-~

V-~

\,--,?-..:::::~,

1'\ ,/'\

ExhauSl lobe

Intake

apens

Inlake lobe

Exhallsl

closes

Exhausl apens

o;,eCH~-~~

Intake clases

cam rotation

ANO FURTHERMORE

What is the besl compression ratio for a lurbocharged engine?


1'here is no such th ing as the best or ideal co mpression ratio. T be simple
fundamentals are

the lower the compression ra tio, the easier it is to produce a lat of boost
with no detonation
the higher the compression )'atio, the greater the fue l efficiency and
nonboosted response
Suppressing detonation is more difficult with a high comprcssion )'atio. Por
all practica1 purposes l one is forced to use the compl'essio n rat.io of 1.he standard engine. Serious efforts with intercooling make this both possi ble an d
practical .

l s it necesSa1:Y lO change lite cant ?


No, decidedly noto S tock cams lIsually work excellently. For the abso lute last
word in a super-baosl (15 psi) performance turbo car, a chan ge of cam will be
oecessary, bul so will seve ral other things. Leave the stock cam alon e and yau
will genen\lly be much happier.
Willl have fo rnodiry tite cylinder head 01' reworll the ualve tra.in?
No on bolh coun ts.
Will T haue lo "se a special head gasket?
Head gaskel strength varies lremendously fl'om engina t.o e ngine. Il is necessary thaL the stock head gasket be in stock condition. 1f' il is in pro pe)" order
and lhe head bolts a re properly lorqued, boosl pressure wi ll seldom dislodge
lhe gasket. Special head gaskets amI O-rings are orten cures to the wrong
problem. They ar e only pOOl' excuses for not deaJingproperly wilh delonaban.
H delonation is the problem, cure ti and a stock hcad gasket willu.;ually perform \Vell.

14

TESTING THE SVSTEM

N othing can bring abou t a beLter understandjng of lhe relationship of the


turbo to the engine than a compl'ehensive test and evaluabon of al1 th e system's parameters. What Lo check, how to do it, t he lools reqwrcd, what it all
means, and how lo evaluate th e num bers will be djscussed in tbe following
paragraphs.
Equipment and

Most of the measurements are oftemperatw'e and pl'essure and will illvolve a

lools

variety of gauges. T heTe are no expensive picees of equipme nt here except a realiy good aiJ'/fu eJ ratio meter. The local hardware stor e wiIl have a variety of

pressw'e gauges, but tempera ture measuring eq uipment usually l'equjres a


specialty house.
Air Filter
Flow Loss
Evaluation

Air filler now losses can gang up on an othen vise healthy engine and produce
llildesirabJe s ide efTects. The simple idea that a restrictive air HHer can cost
power bccause it won't let IDI' in is quite easy to glasp. The presenee of th e turbo, however, co mp lieates this simple sit uation. As far as the t urbo is concerned., after sir has been through the filter, ii is ambiento This situation is
particulru'ly s ignHieant because all caJcu lalions ofternperatuTc changes, presSUTe losses 01' gains, and efflciencies are basad on what the turbo sees as ambient conditions. For example, suppose boost preSSU1'C is sel at 10 psi and the
mythica l zero-Ioss uir fi ller is upstl'cam . Us.ing the fOl'll1ul}1 rOl' pl'CSSUI'C ratio
from Chapter 3,
PreSSlll'e ratio :;: ;:

14.7 + 10
:;: ;: 1.68
14.7

Now insert an air filter that. causes a 2 psi loss ai Lhe same maximuITI load
conditions:
14.7 + 10
Pressa re ratio ;;; 14.7 _ 2 ; 1.94

Flg. .1.4-~ . A vacltum

111

1t2

ga.uge is llsed lo
determille {low losses ill

tite air Illel system..


Gauge 1 indiwtes

pres!m re loss lhmugh


lhe nir filler. Gallge 1
minus gauge 2
indicates pre!jsure lo}:~

through lILe mns,'j


flowmele/:

Air filter

Mass flowmoter

Turbo

/
165

166

CHAPTER 14: TESTING THE SVSTEM

So here Lil e odd circum stance exists thaL now is down, boos t. remains t he
5ame, and the pressure ratio is hi gher. Any t.ime the press ure ratio goes up,
heat goes up , Net result is that. power is clown and heat is up. Sounds rum ost
like a Roots blowe r. 'rhis may seem Like science or 50me such , but t's not really.
1' he idea that the t.urbo is told to make the same a mount ofboost out ofle55 air
logically mean s it must work a bit harde!" to do so. The harder it has to work,
the more heat it makes. We've aU experienced similar siLuations.
To measu_re flow losses through the intakesystem upstream oflhe turbo, inserl a vacu um gaugej ust in front ofthe compressor n let. Then

filte ,. fl ow Ioss =
Atr

Standard barom.etric pressure


Standard baromelric pressure - loss through filler

Standard barometric pressurc i5 29.97 in. hg. In practice, 30 can be used as


an approrimation for 29.97.
Should the gauge rcad 3 nches ofvacuum under maximum load conditions,
the pcrcent 1055 can be judged te be

30
Air filler flow loss ; 30 _ 3 - 1 ; 11 %
Obviouslya zero loss ls elusive, but t he errort to create a low-re5triction intake system will be rewarded with more power and less heat. AlI the same arguments apply to keeping the ai l' filter elemen1 clean.
Compres sor
Inlel
Temperature

T hermodynamics is 1101 everyone's cup of tea, but the equations a re simple,


and a fi rtcen-dallar calculator Crul salve t hem. The value in crunching the
numbel"s i5 to determin e whether the turbo is the corred size. Tbe sir tem perature entering the compreS50r i5 vital infor mation, because it i5 the number
fram which al! otbers are calcu lated. Do not assume thia temperature ia amb ient. If Lhe air nJet is outside the engine compartment, compressor nIet temperaLure may be t he same as ambient. Ifit is in the engine compartment, too
orte n the inJet air is diluted by air that has passed t-hrough the radiator or
looped a round the ex.haust manifold. Mensure compl'essor inlet air temperat ure wiUl. a gauge positioncd as in figure 14-2.
'2

Flg.1.4-2. 'femperlLlure

gattging I.he inlake {O,.


determirling lemperature rise Ihrugh Ihe
furbo. Gallge J illdicales amblent

"
"

al"

lemperature Cluailable
to lhe turbo. GalLge 2
m.irW$ gauge 1 ind-

cates temperatltre I'ise


CIcross the tu "bo.

Mass llowmeler

Turbo

Alr filler

Compressor

Outlet
Conditions

Two qU3nLities must be knowll ai the outlet side of the Lu.r bo: press ure and
temperature. Compro5so!' out let pressure is the true boost produced by Lhe
turbo. Al I meaSlI remcnt.s ofthe f10w as it gels claser t.o the engi ne wi U be rerel"-

COMPRES SOR OUTLET CONOIT I ONS

167

eoced Lo Lhis pressu re for flow 1055 or efliciency calculations. 1"01' example. this
pressure minus the pressure entering the intake manifold willl11casure flow
1055 characteris tics orihe intercooJer a nd associated plu mbing.
Compressor outl eLLemperature i5 the othel' facto!' required in caJcuh:.tting
the turbo size to fit the en gine. It i5 used Lwice in the equation for le efficien
eies, so measure it carefully. Once pressure and temperature aL the compressor
outlet are known, the real pressure ratio can be calculaLed, provided n o in ter caoler is presento With an intercoo]er, prcssure ratio calcuJation s houJd wait

unti1 the intercooler ouUet conditions are known.


T he mos i. significant calcu latia ns lo be made hefe are s poLchecks afthe tur
bo's efficiency range. The tools for these measurements are not adequate lo de
termine lhe entire compressor map. Nevertheless. olle can develop a fcel for
whether ihe turbo is operating in tbe efficiency range that will get the job
done . These calculations are somewhat la borious, bu t there is no other way,
short of calling 00 a thermodynamics buddy.
At least two spots should be checked: somewhere around torque peak and al
maximum rpm- both, oC course, at maximum boost. The check involves calcu latiog the efficiency at whjch the compressor is operating and comparing those
numbers to the efficiency predicted by the compressor flow ma ps.
Compressor efficiency (E e) is ca lculated usin g t he fo llowing form ul a:

E = ( PR o'x T gb. )-Tgb.

T emperature rise

where
PR = pressure ratio
T abs;; compressor nlet temperature on the absolute senle (see glossary)
Because th is is a thermodyuamic formula of general applicabi lity, it is nec
essary to insert the relevant temperature ri se in the denominator (from Chapter 5);

Temperalure rise = T co - 1"(1


The exponenl 0.28 in t he numerntor is determined by t he gas constant, u
number that indicates the extent to which a gas heals up when compressed.
'l'he x y key on the fifteen -do lla r calcuJatol' wiU allow us to find the value of
PRO. 2B .

Example:
Lel cngine displacement = 200 cid, boost = 10 psi, and compressor inlet
temperature = 90F (= 90 + 4600 ; ; 5500 absolute). At or near lorque peak
(4500 rpOl), let outlel temperature = 21O"F; at maximuOl load (6500 'pm), let
outlet Lemperatw'c = 235!':
Usingthe formula for pressu re ratio (ram Chapt.er 3,

.
Pressure ralw

14 .7+10
14.7
;- 168
.

Calculation ofEcator near the torque peak:


Using the formula fO I" temperature l"ise from Chapter 5,

1'emperature rise =- 210F - 90ji' = 120 F

Then

E,

U
( l.6S .28 x 550") - 550
120.

= 0.72 = 72%

168

CHAPTER 14: T ESTI NG THE SYSTEM

Using the formula for airflow from Chaptcl' 3,

fl ow ru.
-,"e ;: 200 x 0.5 x 4500 x 0.85 :;: 221 cfill
AtI'
1728
Calculation ofEe at maximum rpm:
Using the formula fOT temperatul'e riso from Chnptel" 5,
Temperature rise :;: 235 P _ 90F :;;: 145P

rrh en
28

E, =

( 1.68.

550) - 550
145 0

= 0.59 = 59%

Using the formula fo r airflow from Chapter 3.


r
fl QW ra t e :;: 200 x 0.5 x 6500 x 0.85 :;: 320 e/m
Au
1728

These calculations give the pressure ratio a nd airflow for two points tha t
can be plotted on the compressor flow map, with pressur e ratio the ver tical
axis and ai rftow the horizon tal axis (see Cha pters 3 or 17). Compare the efficiency predicted by the cW've on the flow map to t.he ca lculated values. If the
pl'edicted efficiency is two or three points higher or lower than the calculated
values, aIl is wel l. Ifthe numbe rs calculated are four 0 '1" flVe poi.ots higher than
the map, we are in wonderfuJ shape. U they are more than four or five points
lower, performance has been compromised, and t.'s back to the dl'8Wing boar d
Ambient
Temperature

in Front of
the I"tereooler

Accurate determination ofthe lC's real capability i5 in part based on determioation ofthe temperatm'e of the air that cools Lhe cores. AJthough 1his factor is
oot used directly in calculations involving the t urbo system, it is of intel"est in
really get.ting i.o to checking the merit of one core design vers us another with
respecto to heat. transfer coefficients.
Thermomeler

.,--_ ~/_...llO

Rg. 1.4-3. Ambient


temp/"atu re meosure-

menl, necessary {DI'

eleLe,.mining nlercoolel'
efficiency

Intercooler

Intereooler
Outlet
Condltions

Intake Manifold
Pressure

'1'empm'ature tUld pressure rnusl be measured again at lhe 1ntol'ooole1' outlet.


These numbers are significanl, because th ey ar e the condi lions t.he cngine will
experience. This naively aSSll mes that not much will happen in the tu ba from
the in1ercoolar bac.k lo the engine. Witb these data , lVe have enaugh informatian to determine Lhe intercooler's efficiency ancl the power loss clue Lo boost
pressure 1055.
Should any signiHcanL even ts occur in the charge's trip fro m the le to the iniake numif'old, they wiH s how up in the in take manifold pre5sure relitt.ive lo le
outlet cOl1di t.ions. Il is relatively common to have a throttle plate fa l' Loo smaJl

TURBIN E INL ET PR ESSURE

P In!ercooler ouUel
T Inlercooler aullel

P compressor auUet
T compressor aullol

Flg. i4-4. 7'he {iue

poillts of irllerest (or


lempemlure and
preSSctre measuremenl

169

P compressor inlel
T compressor lntel

tnlercooler

o
P intake manilold

Air fitler

ror the job, and he re is the way to fin d it . If more t han 1 psi djfrcren te exists
between tlle
outlet and the in take mani fold, it wil! pl'obably pr ovel'evealing
Lo ch eck the pt'essul'Cr ight in fr on t of the t hrottle plate versus t hat in tIJe mano
ifold. rrhis will determin e fth e loss is in the reLllrn tube 01' ifthe throttle plate
is the problem .
T he boos t gauge in the in5iru ment pa nel is set. IIp to read intake ma nifold
pressure. T his is t he a mount ofp l'essure you have left ofthe original pr eS5ure
cJ'catecl by the turbo less a lllosses incuned on the way to the intake manifold.
rrry to keep the totaJ los5 under 2 psi-OI', beller yel, 10% ofthe boost p reS5ure .

le

Ag, j,4-S. MenJmring


pressure loss acro,'Is
lhe throllle body.
Gallge 1 minus gauge 2
indica tes boastpressure lr:JSS across
the throUle plateo

Turbine Inlel
Pressure

"

Exhaust manifold pressure en n better be descl'ibed as Turbi ne J nIet Pressul"e.


'1'h i5 rl'lP i5 an evil thing. In the final analys is, 1 SlISpect TrP will be called the
only evil thing brought. to boal' by Lhe turbo. Th e renson TIP is an undesirable
quan t.ity is t he fact that it i8 almosl always g reater than the in take manifold
pressu re (IM"P?) gencraled by the turbo. When lhis CClIl'S, a celtain portion of
lhe burncd exhausl gas is pushed back into tlle combustion chambel' during
lhe cam overJap perlod, This s ituation i8 de1.rimcntal to scve rallhing8, all explained elsewhere in this book.
lt is Lhis wr iter's opin100 thal l good s Lreet l.w'bo sys1.em will sho\V t he ratio
ofT!P to lMP 1.0 be approxi mately 2.1fa ratio ofgreater than 2 exists, l he t.UI'
bo 15 too 5111011 8nd is choking l he system down and not pcrmit.ting much power
gai n. Ir the ratio is less than 2, olte n the boost th ..eshold wil l be highe .. thall
desil'able for commutol' car use. This situa1.ion js offset by t.he rad I'hat a~ thl:'
rati o comes clown, power oes lI). In fac t., one of thp df'~;i n pAl'amet.ers of ~

170

CHAPTER 14: TESTlNG THE SVSTEM

race turbo system is that. the'rIPIIMP ratio be less than l. When ihis cl'ossovel'
point is reached, where intake pressure becomes greater than exhaust preso
Bure, a turbo can begin to make serious power. This is oneorthe !"easons lhe '87
FOI'm uJa 1 racers could generate Qver LOOO bhp from 90 cu bic inches. It may
come about one day that we can have our cake and mor e cake again when vari
able area tu.rbine nozzle bu"hos are commonplace. They wilJ permil low bODsl
thresholds while allowing boost lo exceed TIP once boost has stabilized al its
maximu.m setting.
Measuring turbine inlel pressuJ'e requires a bil mo ro eflort than othe r ptessure measw'emenls, as exhaust gases are obviously ver)' hoL.

r.

Flg. 1.4-6. Measunng


["rbitu! i nlel pressure.
Tite steelline will

reduce exhlUJst gas


lemperature to silicoll
hose allowables.

10 01 5132- sleelline

~~=="===u
Silicone hose

17'-'/-<.{, -

o
Tailpip e
Back Pr e ssu re

Flg.

~4-7.

Inlake

Whe re do you supposc the fairy taje slarted that tailpipe back pressurc was
needed to prcvent burned exhaust val ves? Someone ought to quickly inform all
those racers out there thal tbey are in sedous trouble. Tailpipe back pressure
can bejusl as evil as T Lp' bllt at lensL it is easy to do sOlllcthingahout. Pote nbal
gains are more pOWOI' a nd less heat in the system- exactly the r ight th ings to
ach.ieve.
In measuring tailpipe back pressure, iL is also necessary to measure restriction distribution, as indkated in figure 14-7. In so doing, one can determine
wha.t contributjon to the lotal back presslIre is crcaled by the pipe, catalyLic
oonverter, and muffler.
Tailpipe back pressure is partly rcsponsible fOl" the magnitude 01' the turbine inlet pressure. Any decrease in tailpipe prcssure lhat can be brought
about \ViII be reflectcd in a nice decrease in TIP.

Determitung tai.lpipe

#1

#2

'3

restrclion distribution. Gauge


11 1 Lndicales Lotal tailpipe bock
pressure. #2 indicaies back
pressure caused by Ihe pipe ond

mumer. #3 indicates back preso


Sllre cClused by l/U! m.uf{ler. #1

millus #2 is prC:Jsure lass acros.";


#2 lnUtltS # 3 LS

lhe COlLuert er.

pressure loss throuOh Ihe pipe.

Converter

Muffler

AIR j FuEL RA TIO


Air/Fuel Ratio

Flg. 14-8. Le{l: Tile


exccllenl airl{uel ratio

meter {"om. Horiba.


Wh ile expensiue it
offers lab-lesl-qllality
resuLts, and Is sensor
carl be mounted al the
J

elld a{lhe [ai/pipe.


Right: Although 1101 a
[ah lest instrumenl, a
diode-readout mi."cture
illdicator is an exceLlenl
lOUJ -CQsl tlLning guide.

171

l{nowing the air/fu el ratio is somewbat li ke knowing your checkbook balance.


lt teHs you what you ' ve goL and wbere you stand, but not whaL you can do
about it. A wide variety of pieces have recently been introduced to the lTIaJ'ket
fol' measuring afro
The neat litUe oxygeosensorbased unitson the market wil! giveyou a good
guide, if not exact numbe l's, bul rea l accuracy has yet ro come cheap. For serious tuners, the Horiba and Motee meters are perhaps top ofthe lineoCheck the
souree listings at the end ofthe book and gather the information to make a reasonable decision .
Measurement of the numbers is nothing more than equipment and time.
Evaluation ofthose numbers is where a bit of experience helps out. Wheo testing, two significanl numbers will be required : cruise afr and fuHthrottle afro
Crujse afT wiU likely be in the range of 14.0 lO 15.0 to l. Full lhrottle is where
lbe fun i and sbould be clase lo 12.5 or 13.0 to l .
For the home tuner, the oxygen sensor thal fits inlo lhe tailpipe near the
heal souree will do a good jobo It cao be considered a permaJlent installation
and checked as oflen as desired.

15

TROUBLE

Wh en investigating running problems on a LUl'bocharged engine, yau need


lo remcm ber that there are two categories ofp robJems that can arise. 'rhe fll' SL
category includes t hose types of problems that can happen to any engine,
whether turbocharged or nat. Turbo engines can still have problems with
spark plugs, plug wires, coiJsJ ignition control boxes, EF'j computers, timing
chains. water pumps, fan bclts, alte rnators, throwout bcarings. cam bearings,
and ... the picture is obvious. With regard to tl1ese problems, a turbo engine is
no different ('om a normally aspirated engine. Today's attiLude towa rd service
and repair of t he turhocharged performance Cal' generally leads to th e somewhat ridjculous/comical response of, "Whalever t.he prohlem, t' s that clamn
turho's fault." Fixes for bteneral engine pl'oblems can be sought elsewhere and
are nol within the scope ofthjs book.
The second category i5 the malfunction of a component in the turbocharger
system, 0 1' a probIem caused by a malfu nctioning turbo system . This chapter orfer5 a guide to i501ating snd recognizing these prohlems. Also, aL the end of the
chapte r, you'lI find a troubleshooting guide wbic::h offers a lat of infarmation.
8tudy it cal'efully and elim inale the simple things first.
Inspecting the
Engine for
Turbo-Induced
Damage

When you e nco u.ntel' sny pmbIem thal even remotely hints at pos5ible engin e
damage, il 15 best to check it out pronlo. Ge l proo I' lhat lhe cnginc i5 undalllaged, or focus on fixing jt. Wo rrisom e signs are rough running al. die, 1055 of
powel', or bluish-gray or while 5moke i5suing from the lailpipe. Excessive pu fTingof oil vapor from lhe valve cover 01' crankcase breather is al50 cause ror con-

Rg. ~5-~. Worsl case


sce"oJ'ios are neuer
preUy, and lIJe {al/out
{rom a malfullct/on;r1g
turbo s:;slem iI~ 110 (',l;cep/iOfl .

173

174

CHAPTER 15: TR OUBLE

cerno The proper melhod of checkout. is a leakdown LeSl, which indjcales the
condition ofi ndi vidual compl'ession rings, inlake and cx haust valves, and Lhe
head gaskel, and the presence 01' cracks in Lhe block or cylinder head. This is
done by pressw'izing the combustion chamber ami obscrving lhe amount of
lcakage and where the leaks are. 'rhe amounl of leakage is mensured by regu
lating the compressed air going into thechamber to a eonvenient numbcr. One
hundred psi is the most usefuJ pressure, as the pressure remaining in the
cham bcr is the percentage seal orthe chambcr. Tlle oeatioll ofleaks can be de
t.ermined by listening at. the tailpipc for exhaust valve leaks, ai the air fi lter fol'
intake valve leaks, and through the oil filler cap for blowby post the rings.
Damage to the head gaskei or cracks that int.ersect the water jacket will show
up as bubbles in the cooling system .
1'he leakdown must. be done on 8 warm engine, with both val ves closed and
t.he piston al top dead center. Judgme nt of the measured numbers is somewhere in this area:

97- 100

Very good

92-96
89-91
88 or less

Serviceable
OK but impaired
Fix it

'rhe leakdown check is superior to the old compression check in a varie t.y of
ways. The eondition 01' the battery and slacter motor don't maUer. Valve lash
variance won't malter. Cam timing doesn't counl.
Regulalor

Fg. J.~2. 'J'he leakdown


check is lhe mas! sophistLcaled test yet deuised
(or delermutiltg lhe tlegrily o( lhe combustion
chamber. Tlle regula/or
cOllfrols pressllre lo the
cylinder. Cauge 1 indio
cotes lhal preS$ure.
Gauge 2 indlcales pressure remailltng w Ihe
l:.'Ylinder afie,. alllcak
age. With lhe source regulat.ed lo 100 psi,Caug.2
reads t"e perccll lage seal
o( lite chamber.

'2
100+ pSI
air-pressure source

o
Cylinder head gasket sealing can easily be cbeckcd by a chemicaJ process
that idcntifies traces of exhallst gas prodllcts tbat find their way to the coolan L
Check tho parts store for the producto
'l'he area around the eombustion chamber isjust abou l the Iim il for turboinduced engi ne damage. It is ex tremely unlikely that any other damage can be
even remot.ely related to the t urbo.

IN S PECTING THE fURB O SVSTEM FOR MAL FUNCTlON

175

Ag. ~S.3. The airlfuel ra


tio meter is an indispensable tesling Gnd
troubleshooting tool.

Inspecting the
Turbo System for
Malfunction

W IU NOT S TART. The turbo can cause a starting problem only ifthe problem is
related to en air leak in the system. This is even limited Lo EFI cars equipped
with an air-mass flow sensor and to draw-throu gh carb systems. An air leak in
the presence of a mass ftow se nsor will rob the sensor of some of its signal, ereating a lean conditionon s tart.-up. It'sa similar deal for a draw- through carbureted system. Frequently the f10wmeter is responsible far turrung the fuel
pump on. Thus, a large leak can orten appear as a fuel pump faiture. A speed
density EFl, which em plays no air-mass sensor, cannat. fai) to start due to a
tW'bo problem. as air leaks are ofno consequence. A dl'8wthrough carb system
can have one ad.ditional pToblem : trying to gct a rieh cold-start mixture
tbrough a mass of eold metal. Not too bad in Yuma in August, but Duluth in
Decembel' will rule out goi ng anywhere. This is not a turbo problem, but a de
sign problem- reason enough not te build a draw-thraugh piece in the fll'st
place.
Findjng a vaclIum leak LS a stalldard tl'Oubleshooting procedure. The same
technique applies when a turbo is present... except fo r leakage upstream of the
throttle. Leaks upslream must be huge to aITect starting. Look fOI" disconnecl
cd hoses, bigcracks in hoses, tubas dislodged, and items ofthat magnitude.
P OOR IOLE QU ALlTY. Less significant )caks than those generally associated
with hard starting can upset idle qllality. die air/fuel ratio wiU a1ways be a c,-itical adjustment. Consult the proper instruments and adjust accordingly. 'rhese
leaks willlikely be downstream of the throttle.
MISARES. The tW'ba can create two cond.itions in which the engine will misfi re: a lean candition a nd a l'equirement fol' higher voltage to spal'k off the
denser mixture in th e cOl11bustion chamber. The turbo can occasionally cause
a n EFIequipped cal' to suffer e lean spot at 01' near atmospheric pressurc in
the intake manifold. This is brought about by the faet that the turbo wiU .etually be pumping pressure up from . say, 15 inches ofvacuulll to maybe 10 inches. To keep the veh icle {'rom accclerating, the throttlc position must be redueed
sJight1y, thus rcducing the thl'ottle position sensor 's signa! to the EFl comput.el'. This r-cduced signa! will slow down the fuel liow fol' any given air(iow, producing a lean condition,
Any misfires atfull throttle induced by a lean condition are serious and musl
be dealt with prior to ope..ating at that boost level again. A lack of fuel raises

176

CHAPTER 15: TROUBLE

cbamber temperatures dramaticaJly. Heal is the cause o,. detonation, which is


tIJe nemesis of high performance. Don 't be too slow to fix any lean conditions.
Lean I'unning conditions can easily be detected by sorne of t.he portable oxygen sensors. A requircment for increased voltage Lo the spark plllgs is so rnetimes encountered and is due lo tbe fact that t he ai r/fuel mixture in the
combustion chamber is actua11y an electrical resistor. The more nir and fuel
pumped ioto the chamber by t he turbo. the greater the resistance; hence, the
greater tbe voltage required to drive t he spark across tbe plug gap. This prob1em is readily helped 01" cured by addingvoltage to lhe sys tem and!ol" by installing new spark plugs.
POWER LO$S. Troubleshooting power loss sbould be centcred around inspeetion and optimization afbaost pressure, ignitian timing, air/fuel ratio, throttle
opening, and tailpipe back pressure. Except for throttle a ngle, which is self-explanatory, t hese items a re al! covered elsewhere in t hi s chapter.
EXCESSIYE BOOST PAESSUAE. Overboost is worrisome. Since the wastegate is
charged with boost-control responsibili ty, it is certainJy the first item to investigate when overboost is encountered. Several facets ofthe wastegale are subjeet. to failure:
Signalline. The wastegate ean rnalfunction if it. fails to receive a prope:r signal. The signalline can gel clogged, Ol" it can deve lop a leak. Check out both
possibilities. A1so. check the fittings al both ends ofthe signal line.
Actuator. Virtually the only part oran actuator subj ect to failure is the in t.ernal diaphragm. On an integraJ actuator, the si mplest tesL is lo blow into the
signal port. The signa l port should be a complete dead end. Any sign of leakage
15 ev idence of the problem and requires rcplacing the aetuato)'. T h is same test
can be used on remate wastegates, except that presslIre mllst be appUed lo the
atmospheric side of the diaphragm. The valve side of th e diaphragm is almost
always desjgned fol' a s mall amount of leakage around the val ve s tem; t.hus,
testin g from the valve side will measure stem guide Jea k a wel! as the daro aged diapluagm.
Valve, The wastegate valve can become jammed and refuse to open, or be
come otherwise dislodged. This rcquires removal and disassembly 01" t he
wastegate valva mechanism to determine lhe cause and the fix.
Flow. The awner of a homemade turbo system must know that the Aow capa
bility of th e wastegate is up Lo the demands. This can also al11icL kit makers on
occasion. Matching these How requirements is a design prob lem, not a trouble
shooLing problem. lf aU else checks out and the wastegale strokes properly
when given a pressure signa l, investigate its size relative to the application.
TAILPIPE. The tailpipe can frequcntly cause an overboos t problem. Orten, the
wastegate depends on an increment ofback pressure in the ta ilpipe to function
ploperly. This is particula rly t.rue with integral wastegates. The problem can
be fllJ,ther aggr avated by the OEM 's te ndency to use smaller-thanlcasonable
turbos. These factm's can cOO1biJ"Ie to cause overboost whcn somethjng in the
pipe fails and reduces back pressure. Wouldn ' t it be fun to have a rusl hale in
the mufller of your expensive turbo car cause an ovcrboost problem lhaL Icads
to enhrine railure? No wond er Yankees park tbeir performance ca rs in winter. It
cou ld be arguecl that sorne ought to park them regardless.
EXHAUST HOUSING. rra homemade or aftermarket turbo system exhibits overboost bu l. lh e tailpil)e and wastegate are known Lo be in orderl turbi ne speed
may be too high for overal1 e ngine/turbo condi tions. T his means t hat t he turbo

Low OR SLUGGISH BO OST

177

cxhaust housing is too small, Lhus ove. pceding the tUJ'bine and making too
much boost, The answer is to increase t he NR ,'atio or Lhe exhausL housing,
slowing t he turbine, which in lurn "educes the tendency lo overboost.
Low or Sluggish
Boost

Flg. j.5-4. Dile way lo


lighten tite compre$sol'
retaining 'luto Using a
T halldle will elimillote
bending loads in tite
tU/vine shafl.

Severa] aspects orthe turbo can cause low 01' sJuggish boost response.
Most or the causes are applicabJe to either a misbehaving new setllp 01' sn old
system with a new prob Jem.
Size. Ifthe tw'bo is loo big, certainly the response will be sl uggish. ll is possibJe Lo geL the turbo so large Lh8t it does not produce any boost alaJl, because
exhausl gas (rom the engine is insufficient to power il. Although this is highly
unlikely, it. is almost equally un li kely thaL th e oplimum siz a tUTbo was selected
on the first try. The fix is geoeraJly to reduce the size 01' t.he exhausL housing.
Exhausl leaks. Large exhaust gas leaks berare the turbine can contribute to
sluggish response. Leaks this large will noto only be audibl e, lhey wiJI be obnoxiDUS. UnJess a bale is fo und that you can stick a penel thl'ough , don ' t expect
the exhaust leak to flx n response problem.
Compressor nu.l. Thecompressor relainer nut, floase, will allow the shafi to
spin inside tbe compressor wheeJ. Accesslo Lhe turbine wheel is neceSSal-y t.o
anchor the shaft. whi le tighteningthe comprassor retainel' nut. These nuts are
generally tightened to about 25 in.- Ib ortOlque. This can be approximated by
lighteningthe nut unt.il it touchcs lhe compressor wheel and th en an addition
al quarler turno When tjgbtcning a compl'essor nut., iL is important 1101 to permit any side load to rcach the turbine shaft. 1'his eljminaLes the p08sibiJity or
hcnding tbe shaft with the torqu e wrench.
No air filler. Damage lo a compressor wheel can reduce boost.. Operating
withouL an air filter will eveolually cause the compressor wheel lo erode to the
point t hat it can no longer pump airo When the eroding process is occulTing,
Lhe compressor whee'l wi U lose its eITIciency, causing lhe air temperature lo
rise, which in tU1'O can lead to deto nation pJ'oblems.
WASTEGATE. A mechanical pl'oblem that keeps the wastcgate from closing
properly will creat.e a large exhau sto leak Rl'ound the Lurbo, producing sluggish
TURBO.

178

CHAPTER 15: T ROUBLE

lowspeed response. A failed wastegaLe vulve will seldom kcep the turbo from
producing about the normal amounLofboost, but it willlake a tot more I'evs Lo
I'each that normaJ amount. Ir, fol' example. ibe wastegate vaJve seizes at t he
posit.ion it reaches to control ma.xi mu m boost, t he system must produce
enough revsjust to overcome the Icok befare producing sny boost.
TAILPIP E. Any failure in the tailpipe l hat creates a blockage ror the exhaust

gases wiJl tend to produce a higher boost threshold andJor lesB maximum
boost. Check the pressul'c in t he pipe upstream of any possible blockage. In
general, hack pressul'e greatel' t ban 10 ps i will cause aJmost a complete loss of
boost. Back pressure b'Teater lhan 2 psi is undesirable unde r any circumstanc
es, even

ir not of a magnitude to cause 1055 of absolute boost pressure.

An air filler that is too small or too dirty will keep the system
from functioning up lo expectations. This condition will ruso create the bad
side~e1Tect of raising intake temperature.
COMPRESSOR INLEl "OSES. Almost always, t he a ir filter or airflow meter wiU be
connected to the turbo compressor inleL by flexible hose of sorne so r t. If the filter 01" flowmeter is restrictive, i1. is possible for the vacuum th us created Lo col~
lapse the connecting hoses. Usually the symptom oC colJ apsing hoses i5 a
sudden loss of aIl boosL. The forces on large hoses froln small pressu re d ifferences can be decept.ively large.
M ISFIAES. Any m isfire while undcr boost will be causcd by a faiJw"e to ignite
the mixture ar by un air/fuel mixture loo lean Lo burn. FailW'e to ignite the
mixture can be abad plug, wire, coil, ar a1l those stock ignition problems. Ifthe
ignition check5 out properly, then the problem will be found with the air/fuel
ratio.
B OGOINO. A di sti nct. t.ype ol" fu ll ~thl"ott.le malfunction i5 so ovedy r ich wr/
fuel-ratio~induced bogo 1'his 15 manifested in a loss ofpower al. full throttle , often acco mpanied by black smoke from the tailpipe.
Another frequentcause ofbogging, wilh simiJar fu ll-throttle fee l, i5 an overactive ignition retal'd. A failing k nock sensor can induce the same 5ymptom5. A
dangerous s ide effect. of retardad ignition is a d.ramatic rise in exhaust gas temperaturc. Exhaust manifold andJor turbine damage can result fram retarded
timing.
DETO NATIO N. The audible Illctallic pinging 50und ol" detonation i5 n elea .. sig~
naJ that. the cngine's life i5 thlealened. Evel'y eTort must be focused on ridding
a system of detonation problems. Thc wide val'iety of delonation causes can
prave lengthy to troubleshoot, bul a turbo engine that. pings u nder boost must
be considered a pcnding serious expense. In general, a ll detonation problerns
wilJ 5tem from one of the six items discU5Sed in the folJowing paragraphs.
Their likelihood as the saurce of the p roblem i5 approximately the same as the
arder in which they are listed.
Oetall.e. A fuel ' s oclane raiing ls a meas ure of its l'esistance to 5pontaneous
cOlllbustio n, 01' detonation. 'l'he greater the octane, thc greater the resistance.
Fuel quality i5 relatively consistent, bui it is advisable when qualit.y i5 suspect
to change brands.
19nitioTL timing. Improper ignition timing is l'arely u syst.em failure but,
rather, un adjust.l11cnt error. A check of both st.atic and maximu m advance will
virtually always uncover any djscrepallcy in the ignition 5ystem. The knock
AIR FILlER.

sensor-conlrolled ignition timing retard can be subject lo many types of faiJure, one of which is failure lo recognjze knock and do something about it.

Low OR SLUGGI5H 8 005T

179

hould a knock-sensor system failure be suspected, consult the senice manual


for the unit or, in OEM applications, ror the vellide.
Lean air/fuel ratio. A lean running condition will promote detonation, because a lesser quantity of fueJ, when vaporized, will absol'b less heat. Thus a
lean mixture ncreases heat, the root cause of detonation. A turbo e ngine ofrers the freedom to I'un slightly richer mixtures than with a normal1y aspirated engine, permitting the extra fuel to aet a bit like a liquid intercooler. Call
that an OEM intercooler.
Exhaust gas back pressure. A very small turbine, blockage in the e.xhaust
manifold, 01" sorne farm al' restl'iction in the tailpipe wll cause nn increase in
the system back pressure. Back pressure keeps the burlled, hot gas io the COtn
bustioo chamber. A failure oC aoy 50rt that ncreases back pressure seriously
aggravates the detonatiol1 eharacteristics of nn engine.
l nlercooler. An intercooler strongly affects the detonation t1U'cshold of the
turbo engine. Anything thal comes ulong and compronuses the intercooler's
efficieocy willlower the detonation threshold. Other thao rernoving the obvious newspaper stuck in (ront ofthe intercooler, the only periodic service nceded is to clean out the internal oH film that accutnulates in normal use. The oi!
film will noticeably decrease the efficiency ofthe intercooler.
Ambient heat. There are days when nothing works right, and ambient heat
certainly contributes to some of these. Higher-boost-pressure turbo systems
us ually operate somewhere near the detenation threshold and can easi1y cross
over to Lhe dark side when th e ambient temperature takes a turn ror the
worse. David Hobbs, olle or the more able and literate meers, once 5uggested
that turbocharged race cars \Vere so sensitive, he could feel a power 105s when
the su n came out rrom behind a cloud. Engneering ar ound the seaso nal and
daily changes ofambient. temperature is not within the scope ofihis book.

ANO FURTHERMORE

Whal is delonalion, an.d why is il so deslructive ?


Detonation i5 the spontancoU5 combustion ofthe air/fue l mlxtll_re ahead of
t.he name front-combu stion by exploslon rather than co nirolled bunung. lt
occlIrs aCter the combllstion pracess has si~U'ted a nd i5 lIsually lacated in the
area last te burn. As the flame front advances across the chamber, the pres
sure-and thus the t empcl'atlll'e-in the rema.iningunburned mixture rises. Ir
the autoignition tcmperat.ure i5 excecded, this remaining mixt.ure explodcs.
'l'he audible ping lS the exp la5ion's shock wave.
Detonation i5 extremely destructive. Thi5 i5 a Iesult of temperatures that
can J"cach 18.000~ in the center ofibe explosion. The pressure spikes caused
by the explosion can re8ch several thou sand psi, and preSSlue rise i5 l'apid
enough to be considered no impact. load. These lemperaiUle5 and pressurcs
rue almosi ten tim es highcr than those accompanyingcontrollcd combuslion.
No metals in e:.xistence today, no forged pistons, and no special head gaskets
can withstand slIstained deton ation. Virtually nothjng can withstand s us
ta.i ned detonat.ion. Consider also tha!. al. 6000 rpm , fifiy explosions can occur in
cach combustion chamber in one second. Thus:
"-Ji RULE:

lfvou ever hesr ~ ninp-

vnll

lift W

lIlI"

IMI

180

CHAPTER 15: T ROUBl E

Trouble
a lld symptoms

Engine lacks power

Probable causes
cocle nu.mbers
1,4, 5.6, 7,8. 9, 10, 11,
18, 20, 21 , 22, 25, 26,

27, 28,29, 30,37, 38,


39, 40,41,42, 43
Black smoke

1, 4, 5,6, 7, 8. 9, 10,11,

18,20,21, 22,25, 26,


27, 28, 29,30,37,38,
39, 40. 41, 43
Blue smoke

l , 2, 4/ 6, 8, 9, 17,19,

20, 21, 22, 32, 33, 34,


37,45
E:xcessive o
consumption
Excessi ve oil
Lurbine I:!nd
Excessi ve oil
compressor end
lnsufficient
lubrication
Oi l in exhall st
manifold
Damaged
compressor wheel
Damaged
turbine wheel

2, 8, 15, 17. 19, 20, 29,

30, 3J,33. 34, 37,45


2. 7,8, 17, 19, 20,22,

29, 30, 32, 33,34,45


1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 19, 20,
21, 29, 30, 33, 34,45

8, 12, 14, J5, 16, 23, 24,


31,34, 35, 36, 44, 46
2, 7, 17, 18,19, 20, 22,

29,30, 33, 34, 45


3, 4,6,8, 12, 15, 16, 20,

21 , 23, 24, 31,34, 35,


36,44, 46
7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25,

28, 30, 31 , 34, 35, 36,


44,46
Drag 01" bind in
rotating assembly

3.6,7,8, 12, 13, 14,15,


16, 18, 20, 21 , 22, 23,

24, 3l, 34,35, 36, 44, 46


Worn bearings,
journals, bearing
bores
Noisy

Sllldged or co ked
center housing

6, 7, 8. 12, 13, 14, 15,

l6, 23, 24, 31,35, 36,


44, 46
1, 3, 4, 5,6, 7,8,9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,
31, 34, 35, 36,37, 44, 46
2, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18,

24,31, 35, 36, 44,46

Probable cause description by code Olunhe r

1. Dirty ror c1eaner eleme nt


2. P lugged trankcase breathers
3. Air c1eaner element missing, leaking, nOL sealing cor
rectly ; loose connecuons to Lu r bochru'ger
4. Col1apsed 0 1' restricted air tube befare turbocharger
5. Restdctedldamaged crossover pipe, turbocharger to nlet
manifold
6. Foreign object between nir cleaner tlnd t Ul'bocharger
7. Foreign object in exhaust system (fraln enginc; check
engine)
8. 'rurbocharger ftrulf:,Tt'S, clamps, or bolts loase
9. lnlet manifold cracked; gaskets loase DI' missing; can n.ectioos loose
10. Exhaust manifo ld cracked , burned; gaskets loose, blown ,
or missing
11. Restricted exhaust system
i 2. Oillng (oil delay te turbocharger al slart-l.Ip)
13. 'Insufficient lubrication
14. Lubricating oil conlaminated wilh dirt or othe .. material
15. lmproper type lubricating o used
16. Restricted oil feed line
17. Restricted Di] drron li ne
18. Turbine housing damaged 0 1" restricted
19. 1'urbochargcl' sealleakage
20, Wam journal bearings
21. Excessive dirt buildup in compressor hous ing
22. Excessive carbon buildup behind t urbine wheel
23. Too-fasl acce leration at initia! start (oil lag)
24, Too Httle warm-up time
25. Fuel pump malfunction
26, Worn or dnmaged injectors
27. Valve timing
28, Burned val ves
29. Worn pistan rings
30. Burned pislons
31. Leaking oi l-roed tine
32. Excessive engine pl'e-oil
33. Excessive engin e die
34. Coked 0 1" sludged center housing
35. Oil pump malfunction
36. Oil filter plugged
37. Oil -bath. type air cleaner:
3. air inlet sCl'een rest ricted
b. oil pull-over
c. di rty mr c1 eanel'
d. oil viscosity low
e. oi) viscosity high
38. Actuator damaged or defectve
39. Wastegate binding
40. Electronic control module 0 1" connector(s) de fective
41. Wastegate actuator solenoid or conneclor del'ective
42. Egr valve defective
43. Alternator voltage incorrect
44. Engine sh ut off without adcquate cool-down time
45. Leaking valve guide sea ls
46. Lo ..... oillevel

16
Today

DEVELOPMENTS IN
TURBOCHARGING
High-performance a uLomobiles have no right to abuse our environmcnt. No
individual has the right to iHer the atmosphere with emissions, a ny more
th an be would Ii tter th e side ofthe road with becr cansoEveryone living in this
abnosphcre must. exercise a cerlain level oC responsibilily toward kccping it
clean. 'l'hrough tu rbocharbring, the high-performance, emissions-compatible
automobile oC toclay has increased performance more thao aoy other c1ass of
vehicle from a ny era. This situation is not coincidental.
'rhe response orthe automotive e ngineeringcommunity to federal a nd state
e missio ns laws has created a set of co ntrols with such exccptionallechnology
lhal today 's powerfu l street car can achieve more mpg than ycsle,-day's
econobox, and today's econobox can often outrun yeste rday's supercar_ Good
technology appl ied to an urgent pl'oblem, with tbe pcrfOl'mance car en th usiast.
constantly pushjn g the c nvclope, has resulted in a Aeot of ve hicles thaL perfonn bctter, are more cconomical, last l o n ge l~ J-equire less maintenance, don't
pollu te the environment, a nd arejust downright. fun to dri ve. What did technology do to turn this trick? They invented new equipm ent. They optimized ii
well and calibrated ii within tight Iimits. They manufacturcd it unde,- such
control ihnt it lS hu gely durable. No doubt whatsoever exisis as to lhe cxt.reme
durabi lity of electronic cngine-managcment systems relative to bl'caker-poi nl
distl'ibutors and carburelors. ']'he technology developed to contend with to-

Flg. ,16-.1. Tite besl


kf10tUn 0-60 time for

a lurbocha,.ged V W is
~om(!where Ilude,. 3.0
8COllds.

181

182

CHAPTER 16: DEVELOPMENTS I N TURBOCHARGING

day 's necds consisLs primarily of c leciron ic fue] injec:tion, programmed ignition-Lirning control, oxygcn-sensor d osed-loop feedback. and catalytic
convel'ters.
The combination of these foul" teros is the heart of obtani.n g the supel'b
driveability and economy we need while keeping crnissions within necessary
lirnjts. 1'hese items are al) available in t he aftermarket. 1t is t.echnica1ly feasible to use these picees oC equ iprn ent, tune them carefully. and create a fully certi fiable vehicle withi n operational requiremen ts. The first pluee Lo start is
learning the rules. The most stringcnt rules are those orthe California Air Resources Board (9528 Telstar Avenue, El Monte, CA 91731; (818) 575-6800). lt
makes se nse to play by the stricLest set oC rules. These ru les are avai lable upon
request. Secure them, learn them, and let them be the guidelines under which
designs are ereated.
'he Future

Tbese al'e exciting tim es for car performance. Engineering, Quality, performance, econorny, emissions, and durabili ty are a Hexperiencing great impl'Ovements. It seems as though \Ye get acquainted with a great new model ooly to
have another come along in sw ifl. succession, rendering t he first o ne obsoleta.
Predicling the path of developmenl th8t turbo- and engine-related systems
will take then becomes both timely and precarious.
Ifit a ll happens the way 1 t hink it should, much wOl"k will be done in three
distincL categories: the turbocharger, tu rbocharger system-I'elated hardware,
and the engine propel'.

Turbocharger
Improvements

Virtual ly all imp rovements to t he turbo will be aimed at fOl'cingit. to leap up lo


boost-producing speeds in less time. rfa t m'ba could be made instantaneously
responsive, the s ba pe oCthe torque cur ve of a norrnally o.spil'ated e ngine and of
a turbo engine wou ld be essen tially thc same. That is the goal. While it lS not
yet quite possible to achicve that, progress wiIl come in two primar y areas:
bearing losses and variab le AfR ratio turbine housi ngs.
BEARING LOSSES _ Powe.l' wasted in the beal'ings ofthe turbo is simply t he drag
los5 in sheal'ingthe oil film in the bearin g as the shaft rolates. This loss is proportionately ru'go at low s peeds, when little exhaust gas encl'gy is available to
dl'ive the turbine, but wanes to minar importance al high s peeds. At high
speeds, cnough exha usl gas energy ex-ists lo kick tbe turbo so fast as lo seare
mostjournalists. 'rhe uctual power 105t in th e bearing area is, howcver, e nough
to mow your lawn. If lhis powel' loss cou ld be applied to I'cvving the tW'bo up
quickJy from low speeds. t.he rate of acceleration of the turbi.ne would be considerably greater.
Low-friction bearings can come about in Unee ways: sma Ucl'-diametel'
shafts, ball bearings, 01' a.ir bearings. Each approach has pl'oblems. SmalJ er-di a metor shafls create highcl' bearing loads and agg'avate critical vibralion frequencies. Good enginecl'i ng wilJ be l'eq uJl'ed to ffiake tbem work.
Ball bearings hold great promise ror low friction . 'rhe extreme q uaJity co ntroll'equired. of a bearing to operate a l tW'bocharger shaft speeds is not fun for
a manu faclllring engineer to contempla le. 1t. can be aJld is being done, and one
day will be here rOl' us to use. 'rhe wi ll ingness ofsome automakel's to s pencl an
extra twenty-five dollal's pel' car rol' an improvement of lhe magnitude oflow[riction ball bearings in the turbo is a situation that is more likely ever)' day.
Performance is now as competitive as any ot.her aspect of the aulomobi le.

TURBOCHARGER IMPROVEMENT S

ng.

183

~&2.

'fhis cross
seclion shoUJs de/ails
oflhe l.wO oil-wicklflbricaled bcLJ bearillgs
of tite Aerocharger.

Air bearings may see use in selecLapplications where cost becomes less a determining factor. The technology of air bearings is weU established, but quality
conLrolagain beco mes a huge barrier te volume production. 'l'hese are the lowest-friction bearings of alJ and wouJd yield substantial performance gains.
In view ofproduction technology in t he world today, J'1I vote on ball bearngs as the next bearing system for the turbocharger.
VARIABLE A/ R RATIO TURBINE HOUSINGS . AH other things remaining the same,
the smalJer the AlU. ratio oC the turbine housing, th e lower th e rpm at which
the turbo will produce boost. This same low NR t urbine housing will cause increasingly large exhausL gas back pressure a total exhausL flow rises with increasing rpm. Big NRs make large amounLs of power because 01" l'educed back
pressures but are noL exactly sple ndid for low-speed response.
While not yet commonplace, turbochargers are in production wiLh a design
fealu l'e t hat permits the turbine housing Lo act Iike a small NR at 10w speeds
Exhaust gas

Fig. ~6..3 . Closing olle


of Ihe tuja ports crea tes
a smClIl NR ratio,
improui nc low-speed
response. TAe gradual
opf!IIing of lile second
porl al higher speecls
creales a larger AJR

Secondary

//
Pnmary

ralio.

Turbine

184

CHAPTER 16: D EVELO PM EN TS IN TURBOCHARGING

and a lar ge A/ R at higher speeds. 'fhis feature is generaHy referred to as t.he


variable NR turbine housing. It indeed offers the merits of both large and
small A/Rs, all in the same package. Witb this feature, the turbo co mes much
closer to t he instant response we want. It also acquires the abiJity to produce a
torque cm've similar to a larger, nOl'mally aspirated engi ne at low engin e
speeds. Two types of variable AJR units are likely to see sorne form of popularity. Tlle relatively si mple tw1n scroll idea is an inexpensive mechanism that
may prove adequate when judged on its Qwn meritoThe ather mechanism is

the VATN (variable area turbin. nozzle). The VATN so rar outshines all other
possibilities that iL will prave to be tbe winning ticket
T win scroll turbine hOllsing. The TST hous.ing derives its name from the ge~
omeb-y of'the exhaust gas oIet into the turbine. Two djffere n t~sized sCl'olls are
generally used, a primary and a secondary. Typically, the pl'imal'y is open rol'
lowspeed opel'stion, and both ror highspeed use. This crea tes the ability of
the TST to be a smaU A/R housing at low speeds and a large Na a t high cl'
speeds.
1'81' designs a re of medt in that they oITer a better combinat ion 01' low
speed response and highspeed powcr. lt wottld be clifficult to con figure the
unit. to contr ol boost by effectively varying N R. A was tegate is t bel'cfol'e still
necesS8J-y to co nt ro1 boost pressul'e. Simplicity ot'the twin scroll turb ine hou sing is its big seU.ing point.
Variable area turbine nozzle. The VATN is a whole new deal. The vanes 01'
the VATN pi vot to pl'csent varyi ng areas to the discharge str eam, changing th e
exhau st gas velocity as it entel's Lhe turbine, permitting the speed of the tUl'bine to va!'y. Th e merit ofthe VATN lies in several areas: ilacts like a s rnall A!R
when asked to do so, a largeNR wh en I'equired, and it produces a srnooth Ll'ansition through all points h e.t.ween tho two extremes. The VAl'N can cl'eate such
a huge NR t hat hU'bine speed ovel' th e entir e range oi' operation can be controlled by varying the NR ala ne. Thus the VATN becomes ts own boosl contro l, a nd no wastegate is l'equil'ed. When no wastegate is present, al! ex hau st

Fig. 3.6-4. Tite {a stestresponse turbo in tite


worl.d is the VATN
AerocJw I 1Jc/:

T URBOC HARGE R IMPROVEM ENTS

/'

F1g . .1 6-5. DelaiLs o{ll//!

185

-.-----.-.......:
- -....

VATN. When tite 1I0Z'


zles are nearly closed,
exhallsl gas uelocily LS
higl/. Whefl they are
apen, ue.locity. (llld

therefore back prcssure,


is [owes/..

Fig. :16-6. Response


time of tite VATN versus
statldard lurbille
response. Tite lime
requirec/ by the VATN is
upproximalely !talftAol
of the standard turbo.

20

18

16

=
.e
~

~
~
~

,.

I
I
I

12

,.c. 108

I
/

'"

/
/

Standard turbo

/
/

VATN turbo

./

.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

TIme (sec)

gas energy is available to powel" the compressor, a nd "waste" becomes a thing


of the paslo TUl'bine performance can take on wh ole new dimen sio ns. Si nce
turbine speed is atways controlled by the VA'fNs, tohe NR ratio is always lhe
largest possible for tbe boost press ure al thal instant. lf the NR were smaller,
turbina speed would rise, creating more boost, wh.ich wouJd raise turbine
speed, which would raise boosl again. 1' his situation will always keep exhaust
gas back preSSUJ'e at its lowest for any given boo 1 pressure. This creates the
wondel'fu I condition or the exhausl back pressure being 1ess th an the boost.
pressure. When this ucrossover" occurs, power production takes on new di
mensions. This condition is nal general1y feasible with conventional turbos

186

CHAPTER 16 : DEVELOPMENT S IN TURBOCHARGING

withoUL the turbine's being SO large that it. beco mes unres ponsive a l low
.peeds.
The success orlhe VA'l'N is directly attributable to having the vanes in the
right pas ition al th e right Lime, which depends on the "inteUigence" oC th e
vane conlrolJer. Vru'ying load conditions wi11 reqwre the contraller ro create
the corred NR for exacUy that situation. The load condjtion of steady-state
cruise will want the vanes fully open for the least possible back pressure. On
application orthroitle, the controller mu st anticipate the pending demand for
boost a nd clase the vanes, 50 as lo bring the turbine up to boost- producing
speeds as quickly as possible. Once the desired boost level is achieved, the
vanes will gradually open as engine speed rises, in arder to control turbine
speed and thus the baost pressure. Sufficienl range of motian for the vanes
must. exist. that. the engine redline can be reaehed befare t.he vanes are fully
open. lt is cleru', then, that the VATN controller is the seeret to the extreme
benefit ofthe VATN concepto

Ag. 1.6-7. 7'hrs cross

section shows lhe


complex:ily o{ lhe
manJclously cra(ted
and engineered Aero-

cJwrger. Corrrplexity is
lhe lrad e-off{DI' lhe
Aerochnrger's exlraord.illary respOfUse.

1. _ .

.-

SELECTlON OF TUR.BOCHARGER SIZE . Few of today's turbochal'ged auLomobiles


are equi pped with t he pl'oper~sized turbo. I remain convineed that. t.he rensan
for t.his is t.he ncorreet. pe rce ption by lhe marketing lypes as lo th e dcsires of
Lbe e nd usel'. 1 contcnd t ha t. the end user wanls a powerful automobi le, not neccssarily one that. makes baost at Lhe lowest possible rpm . When, and if, major
ma nufacturers sizc t he tUl'bo lor the enthusiast, we will see un ncrease in
power, a decrcase in chal'ge temperatul'es, smoother driveabilit:y, a nd an overal! ncrease in margins of safety- all of which is possibJe with simple changes
in size.
CERAMIC TURBINES. A dramatic reduction in the rotational incrtia ofthe turbo
can be brought. to bear by t.he use of ceramic instead of me tal for Lhe turbine
whecl. While a wonderCul idea, yielding a tangible improvc ment in the tUl'ho' s
respon se, the ccl'amie t.lIrbine I'emnins expensive a nd frngi !e. "his wr iter believes that other than fol' brief field tests, t.he cer~Ullic t.urbine is a IEwlul"e fOI"
tbe twent.y-first cenlury.

TURBOCHARGER IMPROVEMENTS

70r---------------------------------,

Fig. ~6-8. tghecrweight cercunics


the clifferencc
illu.straJed by curlJes

arre,.

T25 Ceramic

187

,/

60-

//

//

uerSU8

//

50

T25 Melal.

,/

//

/~T25melal
T25 ceramic

, /, /

,, I
, I
//
//

20

'/

1/

10 -

.1.

7
9
TIme (sec)

13

11

15

Rg. ~6-9 . The

ceram.ic turbil1e wi U

need lo proue its long-

I.erm, durability fo,. its


be an

&elle,. response lo

ouerall benefit.

0
0

7
6

<>
"O

;g
~

E
~

O ceramic lurbine wheel

O melal lurbme wheel

Time (sec)

Carbon composites have I.remendous strength and


stHIness-to-weight ralios. The possibility of compressor-wheel inertia reductiolls brought about by composite mat.erials seems likely. rurth el' l'educing ihe
inertia of the lowest-inertia componeni of ihe turbo is perhaps worthwhile.
But fixing the weak links first has an element oC logic, and the compressor
wheel is not the weak link.
GENERAL REFtNEMENTS. Without the fanfal'e nccorded revolutionary componenls, most ofthe items inside the turbo will continue lo be improved in both
efflciency and dwabi lity. Bcaring losses wil! creep downward, rotational inet~
tias will decrease, h eat rejection \Vi II improve, and turbine ancl compl'CSSOl' ef.
ficiencies will 510wly but surely mprove. SLeady impl'ovcmcnt.s. but no grcaL
COMPOSITE MATERIAlS.

changes.

188

CHAPTER

16:

Rg. J.6-10. Pel'haps Ihe


tWlJocharger o{ lhe
fu.ture wiUlake th e
form o{ lhis innouatiue
desig/l, wilh variable
area tu ,.bine coutrol
alld 011 axial-fLow
compressor allead o{
lh e radial compressol:

Turbocharger
System-Related

Hardware

DEVELOPMENTS IN T URBOC HAR GING

OpliQnal al(ml slago lo,


hlgh-boosl applications
up lo 4,5: 1 prossure 'alIO

Full lloo1ting
bearing syslem

Small-diame' er
.uual-radial lUrbule
Vanable area
turbina control

AJihough lhe science ofintercooling is well known Lo automobi le des ign cl's of the world. the next few years should s how lru"ge improvements in th is ro-ea. The force behind the improvements wil! be 8 change in
a ltitude. When oneofthe world 's gz"eat cal' companies bu ilds a vehicle t hey cal!
INTERCOOLlNG.

a Super Cou pe and places sn intercooler in a position such that the only cooli ng
air il can possibly gel must firsl go thraugh the cooling system radiatal' and the
AC condense!', this is evidence al" an attitude problem. Il is possible t hat Lhe refrigeraLion-cycle gas intel'cooler may ane day be pl'actical. New processes and
techniques will be I'cquired asAC camp l'csso r s consum e more pawcl' lhan better intcrcooJers can offset. 'fhe pUl'l-time intercooler, wherc Lhe air charge is
sent dircctly to the engi ne at a ll boost pl'eSSUTCS below the thl'eshold of nPed
fol' intercooling, may ano day yic ld a tangible improvement in response fol' the
enUre system.
8005T CONTROLS. Smarter wastegate controls can produce more responsive
tUl'bos as wel! as flntte\' torque curves. \oVhile ultimate power may be little infiu enced , a tOl'que curve with one or both ends rsised a bit wi.ll produce a faster
cal'. Electronic control orthe wastegate acLuator signa! will be the concept tbat
permits these improvements. Conventional wastegates crack open at a point
well below the desired boos t und then creep to the position required to control
boost preSS Ule. 1'his early creep robs the turbine ofuseful energy with whi ch it
could gain speed raster. H aving the wastegate open and bypassing substantial
energy aro und t he turbine when the turbine is trying to gai n speed is basically
madness. Electron ics will x that situation. Rais ing the low end of a to rque
curveor smoothing a fiat spot in iL can be accomplished by programming boost
signals. A boosl-pressul'c equivalent of no extl'o. passing genr cou ld be programmed as well.

ENGINE

189

EXHAUST SYSTEM. Virtllally 311 currenl production cxhallsl systems al'e exces
sively I'estrictivG. Tailpipe-induced back p ..essure is L"uly useles. Ido believc
it possible to produce quiet, lowback-prcssure tailpipes aseconomically as thc
CUlTent bad designs. This would perrn il lhe same bU'ba syslems lo aperate al
the same power wilh less heal,less bODst, and a far grealer margin orsarely.
The inverted-sou nd-wave silencer is an idca whose time is yet lo L"Qme. The
principie is lo record the sou nd from the engine, electronically invert it, ancl
play it back, supcrimposed 011 the original The hope is that the two sound
waves wiII cancel each other. eliminating the need for a muffter. Back pressu re
could be way clown, SO we rcmain interested .
5TAGED AND 5UGGERED TURBO$. Many inlercsting sehemos have been created
to couple lwo or more turbas together. Thc pur pose is gcnerally to achieve
gzeate r cflici ency at extreme boost pressures or lo gain lowencl response and
braad. fl at tOl'que curves. Such schem es may be use fuJ in vehicles like the [ab
ulous Porsche 959, but ihe likelihood ofsuch complexity's reacltingthc markei
in significant numbers appealssmal l. 'l'he vaJue or a hobbyist/s trying to recreate such inlricate equipment secms staggering ndeed. Complexity and cost or
this magnitude, accom pa nied by all the serviec and repair pmblems inherent
in that complexity, is mind -boggling. Stick to fundamentals, do thcm very welJ.
and lei perfo rman ce be the staggering factor.
Engine

Fig. 1.&..11.. The Cheu.vl


/tmor Indy engw was
designed (rom sem/c),
as a lit rbochurged
eugine. Tlie camslta{ts,
pon sizes, compressiolJ

ratio, bore/slro!re ra.Lio,


cmd rpm operattllg

rtmges were aU conlig


ured lo complemelLt Out
lurboc/wrger.

A cleansheel.ofpaper e ngine designed specificaUy 101' tu rboch arging would


not be dramatically djfTelcnl.. However, many dctals would change:
ln my view, lhe positions of the turbo nnd catalytic canvcrter would be
reversed, lo improve cold-start. emissio ns. Turbine response would DIdi
narily suffer in t his posi tion , but the VATN turbo would more than
restore any losl response.

190

CHAPTER 16: DEVELOPMENTS IN TURBOCHARGING

Engine speeds \\fallId likely be reduced. With t,he broad-band Lorque


ncreases offered by the turbo, high rotational speed is no longer
nccessary to make adcquate power. Lower en,:,'ine s peeds wallJd reduce
component. weighLs and frict.ion as well.
With lower engi ne speeds comes the ability lo take advantab"e 01' longe rstro ke, smalIer-bore engines. ~"'or rcasaos buried in the raggy dcpths of
thermodynamics, longer-stroke enginas can enjoy ",,,'cater fuel efficiency.
Smallcl' intake and exhaust ports would improve low-rpm lorque by
creating higher intake-air velocities, permitting beLLeT cylinder tilling as
a result ofthe increascd momentum af a faster-moving coluron 01' airo The
t urbo wiII take care of torque fol' the rcmainder of lhe rpm range.
The number of cy linder-head-to-block fasteners shauld ncrease. A greater number of smaller studs, perhaps six per cylindcr, wauld be aJlowed by
reduced port areas.
Heut will be dcalt with by at least twa changes. First , oil spray anta the
bottom of pistons or oH passagcs through pistons can greatly improve
piston strengt,h by redu cing operating temperatures. Second, the
exhau st port will be insuJated to reduce heat transfer to the head aud the
coolant. This will improve catalyst light-ofT (response time for the converter to achieve minj mum operating temperature from a cold start) ,
reduce radiator s izes, and carry more heat te the turbinc for response
benefits.
Electronic controls will play an even gr eater role in rUllning the turbo
cngi ne. Today 's engine-managernent systems will be expanded lo control
VA'fNs, booat prcssures, and, of course, the relation af s park timing and
fue) mixture as they nfluence engine knock.

17

BRINGING
TOGETHER

IT

ALL

Itis easy to gel smugly comfort.able with the idea tbac yau ca n design ideal
pieces to fit into imaginary spaces in a beautiful and artistic manner. The smu g
ness usual1y lea ves ahruptly whenyou are confron ted with t he prospect ofplacing a11 the tems required ror a proper turbo system wlderneath the hood of a
modero automobile. T he reality ofthe problem offinding notjust space, but t he
best space and the logica1 spatial relationsrup ror the components, can humble
the e1everest of designers. The first part of tbis eh.pter olTers guidelines for
bringing a ll the pieees together into a theoretica1, coorctinated, least-compromise system. Hopefully, tbis wiJl help you get past the initia! fright of looking
under the hood. The second pal't ofthe chap ter deals with the design para meter5 of installing a turbo system on a n actual car, the Acura NSX.

DEFINING A THEORETICAL SVSTEM


The first step is to define the spec ific performance objectives. Second is defin ing the sysLem required to meet those performance objectives. Third is creating an outline of the compone nts needed to build t.hat system. A typ ical o utli ne
can take the following form, usinga 300-350 cid Chevy V-S as an example.
Performance objectives:

600 bhp @ 6500 rpm

F1g. .1 7-1. Gaje Ballks


produ.ced this big-block

Cheuy twin wilh a


woter-based inlercooler
flOu sed in lhe casi
alu miu um plenutn alop
a HoUey carburcior.

1.111

192

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

Rg. 1..7-2. Do I/.ol copy

cmy {ealures ofthis old


drnw -lhrollgh
Caprt V-G.

011

650 n-lb (orque @ 3500 rpm


20 mpg @ legal cruise speed
93 octane fuel
System requirements:

30G-350 cid engine


pressure ratio of approximalely 2.0
turbocharger(s)
wastegate(s)
intercooling
pl'ogrammable eJectl'onic fu el injection
high-vollage ignition
bypass va lves

Specilic componenls:
Chevrolet 350 cid V-S (four-balt. mains, tOl'ged -sleel cl'ankshaft, x,x
compressio n ratio, aluminum cy linder heads)
t.urbocharger (brand, water-cooled bearing housing, compr csso'I' size,
turbine size, exhau st housing sLy le)
wastegate (brand, basie boost. seiling, va lve size)
intercooler (8ir 01' water style, charge air flow area, heaL exchange area
This outline shou ld continuc until the components, brands, and s izes are
all defined. V.,hen the outline is complete, the scope of Lhe task will be c1early
spelled ou t.
General Layout

Once tbeoutline ofthejob is clear, the actual component positions can be stud
ied and determined. Papm; pencil, some study nnd skctching wil1 go a long way
lmv8rd eliminati ng problem arcas.
AH aspects of lbe layout mu sl givc full consideration lo the need 01" inlen
Lion to seek a Californ ia Air Resources Board exemption order fol' the system.
A prime fa ctor is the pos ition o" the catalytic con verter a11d the oxygen sensor .
'rhere is no need lo !nove an oxyge n sensor, but traditionally. the turbocharg
er is placed betwecn the engine and convcrler. With respect to any certifica
tion, you need lo consider converlc l' lightoff (the point al which it is hot

DEFINING A THEORETICAL SVSTEM

193

J:ig. 17-3. Jim Peulillg


built litis maruelo/ls
200 mph Quad 4
system. Note integration o{ lite wastegate
afier all exhalLsl pulses
are in one lube.

enough lo start working) as of foremost importance in order lo pass the


wru'm-up cycle emissions tesl.
The firstjob is posilioning the turbo. The faclors contribuling lo lhe choice
01' position are as foUows:
Is exhausl gas entry into Lhe turbo from the engine as clirect as possi ble?
This will nfluence or dictate the manifold or beader pipe des ign o Can a
511100th, lru'ge-radius-bend exhaust manifo'ld fit in the space dictated by
tbe turbo position?
Does t.he position permil space for and easy inslalJation of lhe turbine
out.lel pipe and proximily lo the calalytic converier? The c1osel' f.o lhe
convertel', the beller.
Does lhe compl'essor nlel a llow easy ent.ry from lhe air filler and the
outlet easy exillo the intercooler?
Can lhe w8stegnte be properly ticd in lo Lhe exhaust manifo ld colledor?
Win heat from the turbine damage I;ll1y ncarby components. a nd are heal
shields necessary?
Is the turbo high enough fol' a gravity-powered oil drain to be adequale?
Does the turbo need supporl other thull th e ex haust manifold?
Does the position allow clem'ance lo objects thal could contacL
components of the turbo syslem whcn engine Lorque rorees distortion
inlo engine/drivetrain flex mounts?
Once the best. combi nation (least. compromise) 01' position rcquirements is
determined , the t.urbo ca n be anchored by temporary hangers while installing
cOllnecling hardware.
'rhe scc0l1d job is building Lhe defined inlercooler and placing iL nlo posilian. ConsicleraLions are as follows:
Is the spatial vo lume suffi cienl for a large enough intercooler?
Does Lhe general layout of lhe vehiclc require a waler-based inlercooler
or sorne olber unusual feaLure?

194

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

Ag. H-4. Good


basLe plumbillg (rom
Porsche, as one would
expect. Tite inlercooler
0011

gel excellelLt

ambienl uir {rom


behilld Jhe rear wheel
ufLd lS protected by a
heauy wire-mcsh
screCl1.

Rg. .17-5. The creaL


Ferrari Turbo GTO
lIsed on.e waslegale lo

control tllJO turbas. Note


Ihe itllegralLOrl o{ cmli-

surge ualus itrio both


compN!ssor outlels. rile

lfl/ercooJers sllow good


ul1emol streamliuing
onrLgcnerou.s eOll! area,
bui ambiellt coolirlg ai,.
LS

sparse.

.. Can the ~ubes be rouLed convenienLly to and fl'om the int.ercoo ler, and do
they mee Aow requiremcnts?
Will the cores receivc adequale ambient. airrtow, or will they requirc ail'
duCLS?
.. 15 the position safe f1"Om I'oad hazal'ds'?
.. l s the inlercooler in ft'onL of the radiatol' buJk.head, ir fronL-lIlount.ed?

Does it block Lho lensl amounl of airflow lo lhe radalor (ir applicable)?
The lhirdjob is delining uud posilioning ihe sir ftltr. Use the filtel' man
ufaclurer's rf'Commendalion
lowing:

11

size versus horscpower Kecp in mind the fol-

DEFINING A THEORETICAL SVSTEM

195

Rg. ~7-6. IArger air


fiUers are ttecessary fOI"
performance und Jo
heLp keep lherm.alloacls
i" check. Note the

themwl blunket oue"


the exJwust hOltsing.
Tlle compressor inLct
lex hoses /leed to be
reasonably stiff fo auoid
being collapsed by tilA!
slight pressure drop

through Lhe filler.

The filter requires clean sir but must be protected from puddle 01" s plash
water. However, cool ambient air i5 noL essential ir the sy5tem is properly
int.ercooled.
T hc furthel" the filt.er is froln Lhe vehicle occupanls, the quieter it will be.
A beU-mouLh-sbuped transiLion from the filter to the ftowrneler 01"
compre5sor n tet Lube Is desirable.

Rg.

~ 77.

'I'aklllg

system Gir 1;"0111 direcily


above lhe exhaust
manifold is nol u good
idea, partic/llarly
where no intercooler is
presentoA simple air
duct lo Ihe {ronl WQulcl
lower tite c1wrge lcm
perature abolll 50F.

196

CHAPTER 17 : BRIN GING Ir ALL T OGET HER

The fourth job is Lhe lacation of a mufller \Vith an adequately large now

path. lf the system is rear or mid-e ngined, the muffier becomes key lo the
packaging, due to ts relative size. H front-engined, lh e pos itioning requirements r elax cons iderably.
The ftft:h job i5 cl'cating a connection to the throttle hody. Th is establishes
the destination of the Lubes exiting tbe intercooIera. 'J'he throttle plate in the
throttle hody i5 a relatively high-drag point in the systcm. Far thi5 reason,
particul ar attention must be given to smooth sectiol1 changes in thi5 area and
avoidance of other d rag-producng imperfections.
The sixth job is to design and build the exhaust manjfolding. Factol's to
keep in mind nelude easy oil-line Becess, clearance to heat-s usceptible parts,
compressor inlet snd out let paths, turbine outlet space, and turbo section
c10cking problems due to an integral wastegate (if presen L). Spark plllg and
plug wire access need clase attention.
Fitting.

Where possible, pipe-thread fittings should be chosen for simpljcity anel sm'e
sealing. The less-than-wonderful aesthetics of pipe threads can easily be
masked by sinking fi ttings up to lhe last thread.
All in t.e'r sections of signaJ-line hoses should be made with brass tees. Signal
lines should be sUicane-based material, r esistant to heat and hydracarbons,
The locations of all co mponents in the system must receive clue considero
ation. When that has been done and done well , th e majar hurdle of bringing
the components together inLo a system will have been accomplished.

DEFINING ANO TESTING AN ACTUAL SVSTEM


Bere we will further exam ine the design , developrnent, construction, and testing procedures discussed in the pl'eVioll.!> sections in regards Lo creating a new
twin tur bocharger system fol' 3n Acura NSX. The validity ofthe lessons in lhi.!>
book can be dctermincd by comparing th e defin cd objctive with the fini shed
p.roducL
Objectives

For economy af operation and to more easily keep enginc emi ss ions within
EPAlCARB certification limits, lhe engine has becn kept absolll tely slock.
The obvious hllrdle presented by this prQject is the hi gh compression ralio
ofthe NSX engine, at 10.2 to L Th is value, in an engine powered by str eel fuel
of92 01' 93 oetane, diclates low rnaximum boosl pl'essure to obtain long-te rm
durability.
Any construction efTort of tllis nature must consider the gt.dcJines fol' engine system modificaLions dl'8Wn up by the U. S. Envil'onmental ProlecLion
Agency and Lhe California Air Resou rces Board. The decisie n to apply for an
excmptian order fram CARB fo l' the NSX hu'ba system ror true strectl egal
status diclates several facels oC the design:
AlI electronic engine management flUlctions ru'e lo remain unaltered.
The origi nal catalytic converters must rem ain stock and in tho ori ginal
position.
Fuel system cantl'ols must function only when undel' boost .
Adual engine emissions must remain wilhin eARB guidelines rOl' th e
NSX.

TOI'qlle and power of the system shollld complement the engi ne's broadrange torque curve and substan li al power. Honda/Acura spenl considerab le

DEFINING ANO TESTING AN A CTU AL SYSTEM

197

Fig. i7-8. This mode.'il


5 psi

s'ystem rol' Ihe

BMW 535i was de -

signed with low maxi


In/l.nl boosl pl'essllJY! for
long~le,.m

durability.
In order lo get compa~
rabie dllrability, t/w
ACIU1l NSX engine UJill
dielate a similarly
Inexlest s'yst.em beeause
or ils higl! comp /'essioll
ralio.

money and e ngi neeri ng talenl on creating a bread torque cu rve, blrgely
through use of a elever variable valve~t mi ng mechanism. To preserve th e superb driveabili ty offered by t he NSX 1 s torque curve, it will be necessary to
achieve su bstantial boost at low engine speeds. This is a charaderistic of
s maJJer tu r bos. H owever, achicving high-rpm torque inereases withou t hugc
exhaust gas back pressure losses dicta tes the need fol' a larger~ t hal1 - norma l
turbocharger. These diarnetrically opposed requireme nts can be deaIl. with in
thl'ee ways:
A variable area lurbi ne nozzle t urbo, wh ich has the ability ta acL like a
small turbo at low s peeds and a large t urbo al h igh speeds, t hus
potentiaJly satisfying both requil'emcnls
'l'wo turbas, utilizing one fol' low speed a nc1 both fol' high s peed, whel'e a
twin scroll turb ine is not available in a large enough siz c
A standard turbo ""ith the best possible s izinghe tween th e tWQ opposing
requ irements
OrclinariJy, the factors diseussed in Chapter 3 (vehicle cost a nd class, sys~
tem cost, objectives) would influence whi ch oftbese thl'ec oplions is selected.
Lack of pizzaz'l. rules out a system based on a standard turbo. With a lwin sequenlial layout, pel'formance is good, buL complexily I'i va ls a s pace shuttle's
main engin e.
A complieating faeLor is tbat space restrictions in the NSX dict.ate mounling the turbo low in the chassis. which js inadequate fol' the gl'avity oil~dra.in
requil'ements 01' a s tandard hubo. 'l'he choice is then belween installing
sumps and pum ps fol' return oi! on a standard turbo 01' using Lhe sel f-lubl'i~
cating Ael'oeha l'ger. The add ed attracLions of Lile Aerochal'gel"s fasL response
ami good l ow~J'pm boosl make lhis Sil ca sy decision.
The original pOWCI' rating of t-he NSX1 while s ubstantial, (275 bhp at 8000
rpm), still falls s hol'l orthe desil'es of most buyers with $65,000 to spend 011 a
perfol'mance automobilc. Simple calcuJation of seJ'ious pe rrorU1ance~car
weigh t per hOl'sepower suggesls thatthe NSX can step inlo the high el1c1 of
lhe supereAl' cat.egol'y wit h the addition 01' 100 bhp, which will require lwo
Aerochargel's. s il1ce 110 single unjl is large cnough lo prnvide the desil'cd ai.r-

198

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING I T ALL TOGETHER

Oow. An increase in base enginc oulpuiOf36% will then be necessa ry ihrotlgh


lhe turbo system:
Pcrlonlllll1C<: g311l

lIc.\ired hhp
.. I I I - I
ungllln ) '1)

= 275 ;s")O - 1 = 0.36 = 361}


2

'l'he perccived value of an add-on syslem Iike lhis is alwuys a baJance 01"
powcr gain versus cost, instalJ aLion complex.ity. illcrcased servicc requiremenLS. and expectaLion of long-tcrm durability degradation. l'he relatively
low boost required (performance gain tim es atmospheric pressul'c, 01'
0.36 x 14.7=5.2 psi ) for the anLicipaLed 100 bhp gain suggesLs Lhat Lh e oLhel'
vaJue consideratio ns will fall nto lin e.
As mentioned in Chapter 3, a rter Lhe lI eld of nvailable compressors is narrowed Lo two or three that appear, from thej r f10w maps , to be in the righl
range of'pressure ratio and cfm, with efficie ncy noL below 60%, it is necessary
ta caJculale which of the compressors is the more suiiable. In Lhis case, two
sizes of Aerocharger will be examined: Illodcls 101 and 128.
Preinstallation
Test Data

Fuel Injection

AnaIY$I$

Long-t.erm durabiliLy of an engin e/turbo sysLem is in part keyed to exhausi gas


Lemperature. Alihough a high temperature is abIe lo really kick a turbineup to
speed quickly, performance must bc weighed againstdurabiJity, Thc size ofthe
t.urbine will depend partly on exhausL gas temperat.ure. Heat. distribution
through t.he exhaust syst.ern can be iUust.lated by t.he temperatures befare and
aner the catalytic convertors. These mensured a remarkably low 1100F before and 1040F afLer,
As described in Chaptcr 7, a fuel pump's abilit.y Lo deliver the rate of Oow
reql1 ired for the ant.icipat.ed bhp lllusL be vCI'ified, or the u nit rnust be r eplaced
wiLh one of known capab ility. Here, Lhe fuel pump wil! be t.ested by actual trial. Ir fuel pressure sLays co nsLa nt at mnxirnum load, the pump is adequate.
'fhe pulse duration or a fuel nject.o!' required to ruel a maxlmum-torque
pulse is lIseful informatioll. ~rhis pulse durallon will be compared to the e n
gillC cycle time to deLel'mine Lhe Illcthod of supplying fuel LO aperate under
baost.. WiLh the objective 01' a 36% tarque incrense, the fue! supply must be in
creased by 36% also. lf a 36% i!lerense in pulse duration daes 110t exceed engine cyc1e time, it is possible to achi eve Lhe fllel now ncrease by e1ectronicaJly
extending the pulse durat.ions. 11' lhe pulses are too long t.o permit this, a ris
ingl'at.e fucl pressurc regulator or an ent.ilely reprogrammed fuel curve, liS
illg larger injecLors, will be neceSS81y. The obvious difficll1ty of mat.ching
Acura's accuracy in fuel systclll calibratian \ViII Iikely point lo the risingratc
regulator for thejob. Anothcr rcason noL Lo use Lhe extended-pulse method is
t.he inability ofLhe NSX's ecu Lo interpret above-aLmospheric pressure signals
from the manifold air-prcssure sensor ,
FUTther test data were needed regarding this vehide's emissions. Emiss ions were checked on a fourgas a nalyzer from a cold start and every 10 scconds thereaflcr until t.he vehic1e WHS warmed up. Emissions plot.ted versus
time are shown in gure 17-9.

lt is necessary to know Lhe t ime orono l'evoluLioll, in arder to compa re it to the


pulse duration ofLhe fuel injecLor aL maxirnum loud. Thi5 comparison will deLermine whether Lhe injector can st.ay opon longer to feed the additional si r
supplied by the turbos.

DEFINI NG AND T EST IN G AN ACTUAL SVSTEM

20

Ag. ~ 79. Prior lo lite


expellsiue emissiolls
laboratory cold-slart
leSlS, l was considered
aduisable lO ruft all.
inexpensiue test on a
{our.gas analyzer:.
Results showed cold
start emissioflS essentially II-Ilclwnged.

19
18

co:

199

Slock
Turbo

HC:

17

Stock
Turbo

NO.: Stock - - 0 - - - - - - 0 -

16

Turbo - - 0 - - - - - - 0 -

15
3

"
13
S
o 12
~

:Q

"

11

10
9
8
7
6

3
2

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120


TIme (sec)

As indicated in Chapter 7, th e Lime afa ne rcvol\.1tion can be dctcmlined either fram fib'\lre 7-3 or by forlllula. Using the formula , let. l'pm = 8000.
'l'hen
60 se.e
11111/
Time of olle n:. ... olutoll = --"''''- = O.(X)75 .,cc
S()(XJ

re:"

= 7.5 nlSCC

I11In

The NSX's EFI is sequentiaJ, which revcrts to nonsequentiaJ over approximately 3000 rpm, as ctiscussed in Chapt..el' 7, TherefOJ'e, pulse durali on
shou ld be checked at over 4000 rpm, Act.ual pulse duraLion al maxirnllln load
was measured al 5.0 msec.
I
Dulycycc

stock pulse dumtlol1


= lime
01' Olle rcvohllion

= 5.0 rn SC =- 0.67 =7.5

67 %

Il1$CC

'rhe inver se ofthc duty cycle Illinus one is Lhc avaiJable incl"ease in fuel fl ow
('rom extendinginjedol' pulse duration. 'l'his is .5, 01' 50%, Thererore, wc could
hold thc injectors open alJ th o time and achieve a 50~ increase in fuel flow.
This is adequaLe rol' t he 36% increase in airflow necesSHl'y to achieve the 36%
pel'fOl'mance gain (and. therefore, fuel flow) calculaled earl icr.
The fuel presslll'e requil'ed to operaLe aL a 36% increase in ai dlow can be
approx imated by squal'ing the sum al' one plus the ahnow rat.e increase:

200

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING IT AL L TOGETHER

'l.'his s hows thaL 85% more fuel pressure than stock \Viii be required:
1.85 x 45

p:-;j

= 83 psi

where 45 psi is stock pressure ror the NSX.


Preliminary test and calculation have shown ihat. tlle fue l syslem can supply s ufficient Oow for the powcr desired by either incrc~l s ing pulse duration
01" rai sing fuel pressul'c as a function ofboost pressurc. As tile atter approach
is less expensive, il is the prime candidate unless proven inadequate.
Performance

Testing

Thc Vuricom VC200 acceleration computer \Vas used lo collecL the following
data:

Olo 60: 5.7 sec


1/4-mile time: 14.0 sec
1/4-m;lo speed: 101.0 mph
Estimated bhp: 268
Turbo Selection

Determination of the besl compressor for the job is 8 process of looking al


whether the airAow and efficiency numbers are sufficient to push t he required
Bmount of air through lhe syslem.
Thc ncw pressl1re ratio wiJI generally be close to lhe perfonllanee gain.
Therefore, the performance gain of 36% calculated earlier mcans lhe pressure
ratio must be approx imately the same value, 01" 1.36. Tllis wou ld repl"escnt
the folJowing airnow requirements:
Using the airnow ralc for muJas fro m Chapter 3, with 90% as th e vol umetd e effieicLlcy for H 183-cubie-inch engine,
Airnow rale

m xO,j x 0.90 1 36 _ 5'0 f


= 183 in) x 8000 p .3
x. -wc m
1728 ~

nJ

In a t win -tul'bo system , thi s figure would be divided by 2 to ob lain the required cfm per turbo:
520
2

= 260

Th e prcssure ,atio of 1.36 and the cflll of 260 plotted on th e co mpressor


maps being considered will revenl t he best combination ofpcak efficiency. cffciency al maximum load, and low-specd surge characler islics.
The line on the first Aerocharger compressor map (model 101) crosses the
maximum-effciency island al 78%, As engine rpm increases, and thu s airflow
(cfm) al the samc OOost pressure, enicie ncy drops off te an indicated 50% al
maximum load.
The second Acrocharge r map (model 128) s hows efficiencies of 76% peAk
and approximately 60% at maximum load.
Although t he 101 has highel' peak efliciency, efliciency at maximu m load is
of greater significance and is lhe basis for the decision. Since lhe second map
shows greatcr elTIciency al muximum load, t he model 128 is lhe bettcl' choice
fOI" th is application.
'rhc followingcalculations at these two paints will show the charge oi r temperalure gains through the comprcssor,
As wscussed in Chapter 14, whcl1 lhe air nJel is not in lhe engine comparlment, one can Ssume compressor inlel tempel'ature is equivalent to ambicnl.
In this case, assume nn ambient lcmperatul"c of 80O"f, which wiIJ be an abso-

DEFINING ANO TESTlNG AN A CTU AL SYSTEM

201

2.1

Fig. 1.. 7-1..0. AerQClwrger


modcl 10.1 l..'Ompressor
tow mup. The IU.>tlUy
line indica/es the palh
o{ lhe baos!. Note (hut
al 260 c{ m. IJU! fine

e.t lellds out lO appro:cimalely 50% therma/,


e{ficieIlCY. J'his is too
[aw (O ,. a.n acceptoble

system-.

2.0
1.9

....-

18 1.7

16

1.5

"-

14
1.3
1.2

1.1
1.0

40

80

120
160
200
Airl/ow (cfm)

240

280

320

40

80

120

240

280

320

2. 1
20

Fg. 1.. 7-ll. Acrocharger

model J28 CQmpressor


/low map, The same
dala plotted al! lhis
ompressor ma}) slrow
a maximum load e/ficiency dl'opping {rom (l
peah a{76% to a law af
6OCk. 'rllis i.s 10% grecllerthan lhe m odell01
al ma.t:inwm load and
is l/tus a &elle,. choice,

1.9
1.8

'~ 1.7

,~

1.6

"-

1.5

1.4

1.3
1.2

11
1'0

160

200

360

Alrflow (e /m)

lule Lemperatul"e of 80 + 460 = 540.


Using thc formu la fOl' compl'essol' (}fficiency from Chapter 14, \Ve ca n d'rive the temperattlJ'e rise a l. maximum efficiency;
l~, =

)- r
.:....",==,,",,
'
.'
.
-".,:-"",..,
Tl.!mpcliltufc ri-:t'
(PUU.2K x T

202

CHAPTER 17 : BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

1' hel'cfol'e,
( PNO.
TClllpc. ....lIurc n se m mllXllI1UII1 cfficiency =

28

XT

ahJ

)- T

u/u

-----;i'=----'=
E,

lnserting the aboye vruues,


TcmpcrJlUrc. rise ll lIlaXilllUI1l erlicicllcy

Si nce lhe size of an absolute degree is the samc as that of a l"ahrenheit. de


gree, the rise of 63P al maximum efficiency added to the ambient temperature
01' SO' F equals 143' F
Temperature rse nt maximum load can be derived by multiplying the calcuJaLed value of63 by the ratio of the highest efficiency to tbe lowest. efficiency of the system as previously plotted on the now map:
T cmpcf:lture risc = 63 " x

~:~ =

79"

T he ri se of 79 aL rnaximum load added f.o the ambicnt. temperature of80F


equals 1591;>F.
This calculation predicts a maximum compressor discharge tcmperature
gain of 79P above compresso r inlel temperature.
Intercooling
Value

T he valu of intercooling can be eslimaled by a I'atio of the absolute lempel'abll'es before and after cooling. This ratio represe nts the relative densit.y
clumge. H 15 adequat.e to nSSlIme 8Jl intercoolcr efficiency of 85% fO I" prelim inary calculations. An 85% effi.cient. intercoolel' willre move 85% oCt.he heal pul
in by t hecompres5o l". Thercfore, u5ingthe formula fmm Chapter5 fOI" temperature removed, the cxpected tcmperatw'c ex iting the intercooler wiII be
Tcmpcraturc rcmO\'cd

Us ing the formula

CO I"

= 80

- ( 0.85 x 79) = 13F aboye ambicnt

density change from Chapter 5)

.
540 +79
Ocnsllychange=
O
- 1 = 0. 119 = 11 .9 %

54 + 13

In view of the high comp l't~ssi on ratio 00.2 t.o 1) of t.he NSX engine and a
cha.rge clellsity gain of 11.9%, t.he decision to inelude inlercoolers in lhe syslem is an easy one.
Layout

Refc l' lo eal'lier in thi s chaptcr fOI" the faclors lo consider in deciding layout.
TURBO POSITION. The Aerocharger gives a frceelom of choice not hel'etofore
availabJe in positionjng the turbo. The absence of any oillines lo the self-Iu bricating Aerochargcl' removes the l'eqll'c me nt fO l" eith e l" a graviLy d.l'ain Ol"
a SlImp-pump-aided oi! retul'tl.
Although the tlll"bochargcr is lrad.iti onally placed bct.ween engi ne ancl convertel', the selection of t urbochargers with t he abi lity lo make co nsiderable
boost al low exhallst gas flow suggesls lhat they can be placed al'ter lhe converters. This posit.ion sLill offers a high degree 01' response yet permits the
co n ve rl~ rs lo gel exhausl gas heal undiminished frolll the engine, lo faci li tate
catalysL ligh L-orl'.
Sorne alle nt.ion lo a sy mmetricaJ turbo posit.ion with l'especL lo lhe cxhaus t.
hender will rcquire one heneler pipe lo be 10nger than the other, but t.hig 15 no l
al' majol' significa ncc.
INTERCOOLER DESIGN. Anticipated poWCI' oulpul will dict.aLe the interna! flow
a rea ofthe intercoolel's. As discussed in Chapter 5, when pressu rc loss t.hrough

DEFI NING AND TESTING AN ACTUAL SVSTEM

203

Ag. 1. 7-1.2. Po:~itlO1tillg


the ,.ight turbo req/l red
iemporarily hallgiflg il
{rom fasteners Oll the
lu.'.at shieltl directly
aboV it, tllll makiltg
a mock-llP of ami
buillli"C lhe sllo,.t lue
,ssembl.y between lhe
COfwerter a"d lhe
tllrbiue nlet.

Fig. i7i3. Theleft


turbo hallgs (ro," the
original rubbe.r tailpipe
m Olwf . Tite lurbille
inlel pipe originales ai
the cenler clmuel'ler.
The liber hose runs
(OrLuard lO lile Ilolvecover breath.er.

the cooler is controlled to an acceptable value. temperature dl'ops will always


faH in line, with no other requirel11eni than ao adequate supply or ambie ni airo
The suggested value i5 6 square inches flow area per 100 bbp. Assuming u
desir.d bhp af 375,
. 2
6 111 .
l
' 1
)75 bhp x 100 bhp = _3 Ul.
U5ing the guidelines discussed in Chapter 5, tbe core material with 23
square inches ofOow area will typicaJly be a core with 46 square nches on the
core face exposed ro the charge. beca use about half the face is composed of the
rur tubes. So a core with u depth of 3 inches will need to be 15 inches wide.
A search for space fOI" a core this sizc, 01' two cOl'es half Lhis size, reveals 8
locatian aft of the rear wheels with space fal" cares af 3.5 inches deep by 9 inches wide. 'rwo cores of 31.5 squruoe inches each excccds lhe objective. T he

204

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING

IT

ALL TOGETHER

Rg. 17-14. Tite intercoolers are positioned


behind tite rear wheels.
Heauy mesh screens

orre,. proll!ctioll [rom


rood debris.

Rg. 17-15. Plumbing


{ram lile inlercooLers
ulliles l a single lnIet
lo tite Ihl"oule body. The
mecltanism attClclted '0
tlu! {orward side of Lhe
lltrotlle nIcl caslillg is

cm ouerboost safety uent


ualue.

unique location of the intercoolers. behind the rear wheel. ofTel's abundanl
8mbienl cooling airo Debris throwl1 by the tires is a problem to be resolved.
Heavy screens of stainless \Vire mesh that will allow airflow but. dcreal rock
now ore adequate to pl'otecl the inlel'cooJers fl'om foreign-parti le damage.
EXHAUST SYSTEM. The quality and mate rial of the Borla ta.inless steel muf
ner \Vere fe1i lo be consistenl wiLh the vehicle's qualiiy. As the tu rbinc exit
diameter is 2 inches, the turbinc otlll et pipe lo the Inumer need be no grcaler
than 2 inches. A brief di scl1ssio n with Borla settled the cuesUon 01' the pl'opcr
mumer voll1lne and style. The design settlcd on was a clrilled-core, straightthrough st-yle with two paths froID opposile ends of lhe rnl1fl1er, one fOl" each

D EFINING ANO TESTlNG AN ACTUAL SVSTEM

205

Fg. .17-16. A two.path


lJorla I1lllffler, placed
betweeu lurbinf! oullcl.'i,
giues eoch turbo its own
tailpipe.

Lurbo. Although Lhe exhau st system is q ujte compact, silencing proved to be


adequate, si nce the turbo Lhemselves fl.lnction as approximaLely one-Lhird of
Lhe silencing requiremcnL.
COMPAESSOA BYPASS VAlVE. The need for compressor bypass valves to suppress S Uq,,1C noise on lifting off LhrotLlc is less necessary wilh the Acrocharger
than with standard turbas. lnitial testing showed the noisc 1101 entirely su ppressed by the Aerocharger; thus, valves were incorporaled nto thc design o
Bccause bypass val ves can ofTer their ow n characteristic air venting sound,
they were placed al the farthesl point in the syslem from the driver. The
ava ilable space is directly across th e compressor, rrom outlel to inlet.
'fhe by pass valvcs a re operaLed by int.a.ke manifo ld vncuum signals. For coherent signals, lwo dedi cated lines \Verc run f'rom the intake manirold lo the
valvcs.

Rg. 1.7-1.7. Wit.h tlw


compressor clischarge
t/lbe to tite inlercooler
Insialled, lne bypass
IJ(fJlJe ea'l be se! lo
lJelll directly {mm Ihe
clischarge tuOe lO Ihe

compressor itl/et lube.

206

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

Ag. :17-:18. Because lhe

ECU is not
programmed (01'
p r eSSflre aboue almo-

spheric i" the


illlake manifold, a
signal block is necessary lo keep lhe MAP
sensor rain receiving
preSSllre Whell tlu:
ellgme i8 ,del' boost.

Material

Selection

Material selectio n is critical only with respect to tbe hot. side of tlle turbo syst.em. Because lhe layout will nol cause thermally induced expansio n, s tainless
sleel can be used ror lhe hoL s ide. Stainless grade 304 was chosen ror its combi
nation of high-temperature st.re ngth and long-tcrm corrosion resist8nce. lt is
aIso readi ly weldable with tbe tig process. Mild st.eel was used for flan ges,
which need noL be stainless.
'fubing used in the cold-side plumbing lS aH mandrel-benL, Lhin-walled
mild sLeel, which is easily welded , intcrnaJJy s mooth , and can be fi nished in a
wide varieLy ofprocesses, The ends of the tubes are soft. enough lo permi t n ar~
ing, for beLter hose relenlion, Al) hose connections are of high -temperaLure.
hydrocarbon-proof sili cone hose mater ial.
Thc aJuminum inlercooler eores ro'e welded Lo ca5L 363 alu mi nunl a lloy
caps, AH tabs, mounts, and hose bosses are cut froID alu minum 6063-T3 (hcatLr ted) . !Joy .

Construction
Sequence

Cons LrucLion scquence follo\'l8 tbe a rder given in the li sL of racLors to consider
cru'lier in Lhis ehapLcr.

Fit and Finish

SLainless grade 304 does nal require aoy caatings for 10ng~lenl1 durabiliLy 01'
appearanee, AlI a1wninum alld mild-sLeel componenLs are subjecl Lo corrosion
and discoloration withoul. protect.ive coatings. Ch rome plaLingwas DoL considered, as il i5 difficuJL lo keep hose connections froro s liding off chromed parls,
Powdc r coalings sat.is~y all uppeOl'anee 8nd durnbiJity requirements, wiLh lhe
added benefit or a wrinkle-texLure finish ror improved grip on hose conneelions. Powder coaLing of wdnkle black was applied to all parts thaL do 110t see
Lemperatures in exccss oraOOF. Threade<l conncclions must be pl'otC!cted rrom
the conLing; oLherwise. the Lhickness of the coati ng will pl"evenl asse mbly or
require retapping,

DEFINING AND TE ST ING AN A CTUAL SYSTEM

207

Fasteners

The NSX design offers a series of flanged joints. These are besL se l'ved by
through-bolts. (See earlier discussion. ) The turbina outlet requires a sLud anchored into the cast iron housing with a mechanicallocknut.

Gaskets

Alljoints must be examined as to the need for a gasket.lf a gasket is required,


the choice of style and material rnust be made. The NSX design oITered no ci rcumstances where a gasketcould be omitted froro a boltedjoint. Although it is
cornmon to omit 8 gasket between a turbo and an exhaust manifold with machined flat surfaces, the NSX presented no such opportuni ty.
As djscussed in Chapter 10, th e sandwich-type gasket is preferable, but it
was not ava.Hable. The second choice, embossed stainless, is incIuded with the
Aerocharger.

Testng

Tbe testing process has two primary objectives: tuning the details and checking to see if any major errol'S in the designer'sjudgment have occurl'ed.
Tuning the air/fuel ratio i5 clearly the first necessity. Measurements wCre
made with the Horiba meter. 'rhis meter has an electrically heaLed oxygen
sensor t hat conveniently mounts in the exhaust pipe outlet. lnitial bench caJibration ofthe fuel pressure regulator was for 82 psi at 5 psi boost. This number did not prove quite adequate, as a fuel pressure of 92-95 psi was required
to achieve the desired 13 to 1 air/fuel Tatio. The discrepancy comes from the
need Lo run a richer mixture under boost than the normally asp irated engine
runs at full th rottle. The regulator \Vas thcl'efore adjusted to provide the highel" Oow rateo
Checks on the air/fuel mixture \Vere also made at 1 and 3 psi boost to assure
that the regulator was keepi ng the mid-range mixtures correct as welJ . These
pl'essures measured 55 and 70 psi, respectively. '['he Horiba indicated that
these pressures created a progressive change in sir/fue] ratio f'rom 15 to 1
clown to 12.3 to 1 as boost increased from 1 to 5 psi.
With tlle confidence thaL the air/fuel mixture i5 in the appropriate range,
we wel'e free to test for engine knock. Trust in the ability of the ear lo det.ect
detonation did nat seem appropriate with an e ngine as expensive as the
NSX's, so a J&S EJectronics knock indicator Wa5 used as a supplcment.. 80th

Ag. 1.7-1.9. '['he risillgrole fuel presslI re


regullllor fits f!asily in
tite SJ}oce preuwusly
oocupied b) tite air
filleroox. 7'fU! regulator
has lwo adjltslments.
'he side adjlls(lIIel~t.
a n.eedle ualue. deler.
mws (uel pressure a.t
moximul1l boas/. Tite
sprillg-looded center
screw seis tlle poiut of
onsel o( presslJ re gaifl .

208

Flg.

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER

~720.

Tll e lower

side o{ the ill;Jihed


tJsselllbly.

indicaied no knock was present. in repeated runs to the redline under ma.xi
mum boost. Testing weather was a hot and sunny 1000 August day. Thejudgment that ihis was harsher than most operational conditions suggested 1.h8t
the system would be free of detonat.ion virtually anywhere.
With safety of the system established, lesting of ad hercmcc lo lhe design
objecti ves can begin .

Since a grapb of efftciency of the compressor plotted versus airAow and bODst
pressure i5 always a curve. it i5 necessary to dctemline whether ou .. data
paiots are on the upsJope 01' downslope.
Four terns of informaban are necessary: temperature into and out of the
turbo compressor, bODsl pressure, snd engine rpm. Measurements musl be
made at full throUle yet ",llaL a lso be as near sLcadystate as possible. 'ro do
Lhis, we chose 6000 rpm in third gear and 4000 rpm in rourlh gear. By drag
ging the brakes and not permitting lhe vehi cle to uccelerate, sorne reasonable
dcgree of steady stale can be achieved. From the gauge, iL appears to Lake 6
lo 8 seconds to reach a steady sta le. Three lrials crealed Lhe data shown in the
following tableo The pressure ratio and cfm are calculated as shown earlier in
this chapter. One should always make note of the ambient LemperaLu re.

Verifying Turbo
Compressor
Efficiency

Boost

Temper ature
in ("!,')

1'emperature

Presstu'e

Cnlc ulllted

out ("F)

ratio

efm

171

1.4 ]

298

6000

99
99

173

lAl

448

4000

101

177

l.4l

298

'6

6000

100

177

1.'11

448

'6

4000

98

174

l.4l

298

6000

100

176

1.11

448

(psi)

Rpm

4000

Three lrials are bnrely adequate to establish the best and wOl'sl conditions,
but this is a field lest., 1101 Parsche's reseal'ch laboratory. 'rhe dala wiLh asterisks, which are median numbers, will be usoo fol' Ilnalysis. The pl'ocess is to

DEFINING ANO TESTlNG AN ACTUAL SV S TEM

209

FJg. 17-21. Tite UU CIlIIm lboosl gallge is nol


/tsed rreqllfmtly and is
there.(ore. moltflted in
tiLe gloue box, where. it
can be refe.rred lo

ir

nece.ssol'y.

calcu laLe whaL t he compressol" maps indicate Lhe temperatures oughi to be


and compare those number s with the actual measurements.
The estimate ofLemperaLure gains at the initiaJ selection ofturbo compres0
S01"5 was 61 P and 83F. 'I'estingshowed aIl gains to be hetween 72F and 77F .
Teroperature nlet measurem ents in the aboye table indicate a 2 temperature ri se at t he point. of air pickup by the filLer s. With the Cillers positioned
nside the rear fend ers, air temperature s hould be ambient.. Possibly the temperature sensor was receiving heat radia Led 'iom the exhaust housing, or a
con ve<::tion curre nt. (mj sunderstood airllow) was carrying heat from the turbo
loward Lhe temper ature sensor. Cudus, but insignificant.
Turbine Seetion

1'he exhaust gas prcssure changa across the Lurbines telJ us two things : wheth-

er turbine siz e is clase to that desired , and the amOtll1l of exhal.ls t back pl'essure created by the mumcr and lailpi pc.
T urbine nlet pressure is measured by placing a fitting on one of Lh e hu
bine inJet pipes and attaching a pressure gauge. The expected turbine inlef.
pressure is usually two to th ree times greater t han the boos t pressul"e gen er ated; therefore, we expectccl 12 to 18 psi . SUl"prisingly, 15 psi was the maxi mUIll p,essure deve loped befar e the tu r bine, withjust .5 psi afLcr . AlLhough a
slight. decrease in inlet press ure would be desiruble, it is 11 0 t enou gh s o to install bigger tu rbines llnd produce any less low-s pecd response. The .5 ps i los
through t he mumer and exhau sLplumbing is entirely satisfactOl"Y.
Intercooler
Efficiency

Ver i(ying the vaJue 0 [" the inlercooJer will indicate Lhat temperature drops
across the coolers are s uffi cien t ~lI1d thaL pl'essul"e loss remains below 1 psi a L
maximum load.
Only one pressure-loss check was made al redline rpm: il showed ti t ick
ove r 1 ps i al 7700- 7800 rpm . While this \Vas slightly disappointin g, Lhe decision was made Lo keep Lhe intercoolers as is ifhcat rejection effici ency exceedcel 80%.
'l'e mpe ratllre prohes placed in t he COll1pl"essor outlel and int crcoolcr ou tlet
wiIl colJeet Lhe n eccssary data f Ol" inter cooJer efficiency ca lcul o. tion. including
nmbienL t.emperatura.
Tesling was conduct.ed by holding s t.eady-sta te maximum booet. at 4000
r m in fo ul"th gC81". AfYa in, 6 lo 8 seconds appeare<l to be needed to stabili ze

210

CHAPTER 17: BRINGING I T All TOGETHER


tem peratures and t,h e response times of "he gau ges. 1"ouI" t.est s were made Lo

collect the da ta. as shown in the tableo A1tbough the results are reaso nably
cOllsistent, data collectioll is noL always as one wants it LO be. '1'he real cm
ciency is probab ly clase Lo th e average of t he foul" trinls.
Using re presentative va lues fram t.he table in the formuJa fol' intcrcooler
thcrmal e ffic ie ncy fram Chapter 5,
&"

~,

=-

172 - 114
172 _ 101

:=

OQ?
.<1_

=-

8'%
-

'{'he net. resuli. 01' the intercooli ng efTort. is Lo get Lhe charge temperatu rc to

wit.hin 12 to 140f' ofambient. Press ure loss of 1 psi suggests that Lhese are noL
race-quality intercoolers buL are excell e nL fol' street use.

Emissions
Testing

Test

Ambient
tcm pcrature (COI')

Turbo outJet
tempcratw'c (ar)

J.ntercoole r outlet
te mpc rature (o}<"')

100

171

112

101

173

115

101

172

114

101

177

115

Th c fourgas-analyzer e missio ns tes t was repealed arter syst.cm inst.aJlation


was complete, No surprises were in sto rc. Hydrocarbons and carbon monmcide
showed a slighl decrease, alJ e lse remaining virt.uaJly unchanged. T he odd note
of air/fuel ratios running about 2% richer al all times was observed , No ready
cx planation is ofTered. T he conclus ion is that.lhe syslem s hould not have any

diffieulty passing the CARB test procedures.


Performance
Verifi cati on

The Varicom Ve200 was agai n the instrument of measure rn e nt. fol' post.tlll'bo
performance. Six efTol'ts al. establishing sorne degree of cons ist.e ncy gave the
following da la:
O to 60: besl t 4.4 scc; average) 4.7 sec
l /4-mile time: best. 12.8 sec; average. 13.0 see
1/4-m ile speed: best. 113.0 mp h; averab.... 111.5 mph
Powe!": 390 bhp

ANO FURTHERMORE .

How difficult is il lo illslall a lurbocharger 5yslem ?


Th e skil ll'equircd is com parab le lo thlit. of overhauling a twobarre l carb uretor, The time required is at least lwice the kit maker's c1a im, Vou may be
assured that the lowest. tim e claim wi.1I be the least co mpre he ns ive tu rbo kit.
i t. takes no t.ime al all nol to insta n a wastegate, for examp le. Be assured also
t hal the details determin e lhe s uccess of a turbo insLallat. ion. Anyone can fig
ure out wherc the ex hau si ma nifold goes, but it takes patie nce and cure to gel

aH the small adjllstmenLs made conectly. lt is in this r.sped lhat the do-itYOllrselfer wi ll llsually excel in a tl"Uly qllality jobo

AND FURTHERMORE . . .

211

WiU 1 need any speciaL tooLs ?


NoL Iikely, a lthough a speejal Lool for Lorquing Lhe eylinder-head bolts m.y
be required.
Whal. galtging sholtLd accompany a tltrbo ?
A vacuum/boost gauge is a virtual necessity. An exhaust gas temperature

ga uge is a nice addition, paJ"ticula rly on engi nes \Vitb ebameteristical ly high
e.xhaust temperatures. Diesel e ngines al'e another matter. Their redline is a
function of exhaust temperaturc, and they must have egt. gauges.

WiU 1 have to blty anything eLse lo suppLem ent the tltrbocharger?


Wow, what a loaded question . Evcl'y kit. maker's system is "complete." lf'

the kit is heavily advertised as "complete, " yOll hud bette r be prepared to
bl"ing along yOU!" own wastegaLe, exhausL system, bDost gauge, fuel system,
and detonation contrals. "Compre he nsive" is the descr iptive term yo u are
looking for, not that tired, overworked term "complete."

Are chromed steeL parts necessary ?


Chrome does not rusL and is dlllable. Chrome is a nice touch, provided it is
consistent \Vith the OEM components. It is, ho\Vever, Loo slippery for hose
connections. The general ru le s, Ir ii doesn't \York weU, chrome-plate it.

18

INSTALLlNG A TURBO KIT

It is profoundly unnccess.lry lo know a nyth in g aboul Lile science nnd engi neering of turbocha l"ging to competently install a wcll-desiglled aftel'market
turbocharger sysiem. The insta lJ er need only be la com petent. hobbyist mechanic. T he expericnce leve! is about equivalent. lo 1hat ofchanging a cJutch al'
removi ng and repl acing 811 intake manifold.
A German proverb clearly 5t aLc5 the problem al' acco mplishing s uch a job:
,urhe devil is in the dctails." To illustrate Lhe accuracy of'thi s proverb J it iscasy
to im agine thaL 010St people could install an exhallst manifold COl'l'cct,ly. Yct a
simp le nir hose not properly altached to o fuel pres5ure regu la tol' can keep an
otherwise faultless sy5tem fl-om functioning con-eclly. Therefore, thoughts
about onc's competcnce lo install such lhings should center arol.1nd how conscientiously one can do the details.
'fhis cha pter i5 a walk-thl'Ough of t.he inst.allat.ion of nn afte l111arket. t.UI-bo
system nto a Mazda Minla. The vehi cle is slock. 1' he system carries th e CARB
EO number D-349.
FoJlow instructions failhfully, Whe n a syste m has n streel-Iegal c.xcmption
m-der, it is absolutely necessary lo follo\\' instruction s t.o th e lelter lo mnintain
the lega l st.atu s. F'urt hcl'more, t.he in5tall el' shou ld pre5111ne t.he designer knew
what. he was doing.
'fhere ls sorne logic lo the proccss. Read the instructions and make no les {Ji'
Questions. ir any. t.o pose lo lhe kilmaker. Jt is both easy and natural for inslru ct.ion wl'iters to gloss ove r ma ny poinls ort.he installa1.ion, since lhey kno\\!
al lt.he pieees and pl'ocesses ntimalely. el"vice is supposed to begin alter the
sale. Vou purchased a kit in good faith and were told that. with mod est. a bility,
yau could prope rly inslall i1.. You willlikcly necd many points af lhe instruc-

Flg. 1.8-i. Cloon the


cIlgille compartmcflt

prior to slnrlillg 011


i ftt>tallatioll nlld lhe

experience will be more


pleasol/ I.

213

214

CHAPTER 18: INSTALLING A TURBO KIT

tians addressed befare and during the installation. H i5 entirely fair to rcquire
the kit maker Lo give yau guidance on the procedure where necessary. ClearlYJ
this form of feedback also improves the writer's abiBty Lo Cl'eate proper instructions.
Fami li arize yourselfwith the parts ortlle sysLe m. Learn the name the writer
has given esch parl.. lnvent.ory the parts with resped Lo lhe packing list, to be
certain al! items we r'C included. CnIJ the manufacLurer for short.ages al the CMHest opportunity.
No kit maker should be srupping parts less than spotlessly clean. However,
il. is a serious crror te nssume they are clean and ready to install. Any instaUer
worth aL leasl. his weight in salt. wilJ nsure that ever)' par!. is perfeclly eleao.
'fhe vehicle 5ubject lo the installatioo neecl oot be in perfect condition. A
proper ins ta11at.ion on a 90% vehide will, howevert yield only 90% resu lts.
While clearly superior t.o stock, 90% i5 1101 the objective of this book 01' whaL
lhis writer perceives as the objective of t he fellow hard~core eothusiast. Ir
something i5 mechanically amiss, fIX it befare the iostallatiol1.
Prior to starting the installation, fill Lhe f1.1cl tank with gasoline of the oc
Lane suggested in the instructions. Do not ditule with lesser octalle fuel already in the Lank. Ir nccessaryt drain the tank. Never use octanc boost as 8
testing aid-it wi ll mask many critical characteristics t such as air/fuel ratios
and ignition timing co ntrol s.
lt is co nvenienl to establish directional referentes with respect lo the instruction writer's viewpoint.. lf unspecified, consider left and right (rom the
position ofthe driver.
Afier the instaUalion has begun, the besL procedure is to complet.e the en~
Lirejob prior to driving the vehide. Certainly thejob can be broken up ino segments, )ike instaUing the boost gauge, rue! pump, heat shield, etc. The catch s,
one ca nnoL install only Lhe turbo and associated pipes and Lhen set out lo see
how rast it will go. That will sUl'ely prove a disaster.
Always rcad the statement of w8rranty prior lo starti ng the installation. [f
questions of poliey exist., this is tbe best time to discU5S them.
'rhe speecl wilh which you 8ccomplish the instalJaLion is nol 01' any conscqucnce. A few extra hours mean nothin g.
lools and
Equipment

A I'easonable selection of hobbyist mechanic's tools is all that's required for a


successful installat.ion:
Metric openlbox combination wrenches
Melric socket. sel
SAE open/box wrenches
Assorted slat ancl Phillips screwdrivers
Electric drill and assorted bits
Ignition timing )ight
ealing compound
Never-Seize compound
Loctite #271
Spray Can of c1eaning solvent
Gil filtel' and oil chango
'l'eOon Lape
SaCcty wire
Clean rags

PRELIMINARY

215

Floor jack
Jack stands (4)
Factory shop ffianuaJ
Prellminary

Position the car on four jack stands. Check th e shop manuallbr the suggeslcd
hard points. Be certain tbe car is supported by aU four stands.
Disconnect lhe negative batlery cable. Consult the manual for any special
precautians.
Keep tbe removed parts organi zed, especially the nuts and ba lts.
Majar tems lo remave:
Air filter and flowmeter asse mbly. When removing the electrical connector, do nat pull the wi.res.
Flowmeter from filter box
Cros. tube to the throttle body
Intake resonatorlsilencer box beJow the throttlc
Exhaust manifo ld heat shield
Oxygen sensor frorn exhaust manifold. Avoid touching the element end
of the sensor.
Exhaust manifold
Cruise control actualor and mount. (l.eave cable altached lo linkage and
place actuator on valve caver.)
Valve CQver breather tube at left forward corner
Lower splash pan and black radiator inJet duct
Exhaust pipe hanger balt attach ed to left lower side of tran.smission
Fuel filter covcr beneath car (on passcnger side, ahout 2 reet fonvard of
differential)
Bracket beneatb flowmeter/air filler box. This bracket wiJl unbolt Crom
front gusset at strut towe,r

Miscellaneou s

The water bypass tube located beneath the exhaust manifold l11ust be reposi
tioned slightly to clear the turbo exhaust pipe. Anchor the tab to the seco ndrrom-rear exhaust stud by sandwiching tbe tab betwee n two nuts. Tltis will
force any bending to take place aft oC the tub . With a suitable pry bar, bend the
bypass tube a ft toward the f1rewan . Bend the end ofthe tube appl'oximate ly 3/4
nch.
Wl'a p the heater hose located afl of t he exhaust manifold with insulation.
Safety-wire the insulation securely in place.
Wrap the bra ke linc at the len side of the frame rai l in a similar manner.

Auxiliary
Fue. Pump
Installation

Attach the high-pressure auxiliary fuel pump lo lhe len. real' frame raiJ, approximately 4 nches in front of the shi pping anchor, as foUows. At tbe fiUer,
the fuellines a re rerouted te a nd from lhe pump.
NOTE -

Remove the fuel tank cap to lel pressure oul--less fuel will be spilled.
lnstall lhe banjo hose harb and con nectin g balt anta the fue l pump. Use the
copper seal ing wasbers. Add the shol't segmonlofhoseand lhe p/n 21009 adapto ro
'fhe fuel pump will hang inside the segment ofr ubber hose. The pump LS re
tai ned in the hose wilh a large hose clamp. See Fig. 18-3.

216

CHA PTER 18: IN STAlllNG A TURB O KIT

Ag. 1..~2. Tite OIUi{jary (uel plllnp is


suspend ed in rulXJer
ulld placed al tite rear
o( tlle Mwto lo ,.educe

"oisc.

Fig. i8-3. A stainless


steel hose clamp holds
the fuel mmp wiJhin
lile mbber /toop .

"rhe pumplhose assembly wiJl hang from the frame ,.ai l by a balL pos itioned
fram insi de the rear deck. A pieee oftape covers a hal e tbrougb which the balt
can be inscl'ted. The hall head must be downward. Use washers on a1l faces.
lnstall the pump/hanger assembly. Use the 5-i nch ball.
Remove the fuel li ne from lhe inlet side of the fHter and route Lo t he ncw
pumpinlet.
Raute the new pump ou tl et lo the fuel filterinlct.
Raute the fuelli nes over the cross member and a nchor wilh tie wl'aps. Keep
t he lines away fram heat, I'oad debris, and any mov ing parLs. Repl ace standard
c1amps with higher -sLrength spiral-lock clamps. See Fig. 18-4.
CAUTlON -

Fuel spFllage wifl occur on remova/ o( lhe fuel fines (rom lIJe filler.

WI,lng the
Fuel Pump

RolI back Lhe carpeL on the shelf behind the seats. Remove the service-hole
cover. 'l'his is Lhe cave r 8nchor ed by six Ph illips-head screws. Sec Fig. 18-5.
Loeate the blue \Vire with lhe red stripe. Splice inlo this wire wilh the co nneclo r provided. 'l'his wit'e allows Lhe OEM rollover fuel pump cuLofTlO be extended lo lhe second pWl1p.

E XHAUST MANIFOLD

217

Fg. :184. 7'h.e higltcrpressure rElel system


reqllires replacillg
slandard fuel-lit1e
clamps with !liglterstrellglh spiral-lock
clamps.

Rg. 18-5. The power


wire lO mainlaill Ihe
rollover fuel pu.mp culoff lo lhe secolld pump
is accessed through the
shelfbehind the sea/s .

Route a 7-foot segment ofwire dO\fnward between the tank and chassis. [1
is helpfu l to pul1 this wire lhrough with a straightened coat hanger.
Replnce the fue l tank service cover and C8rpet.
Add s uitable end terminals lO lhe power and ground wires. Crimp thcse
ca rcfully and tesl with a firm pull.
The fuel pump negat.ive wire mu st be {,"l'ounded. 'rhe real' bumpel' ret.oining
holl is a s uitahle location. Note the terminal dcsignations on lhe pump.
Exhau st Manifold

lnspect lhe nside of the exhaust. manifold for casting debris. Clean as nccessary.
lnstall the two lower mounl sluds into lhe manifold with Neve r-Seize compound on the threads. Use the double-nutjam method. 'fhe front lower stud
must be Lhe shorler of the two. See Fig. LB-S.
InstaJl the exhaust manifold anta Lhe engine. Reuse the oid gasket. lfusing
a t.hin-walled box end wl'ench, tho original center nut. may be reinsLalled. OthNwisc, the center nut must be r placed with the thin l1\1t prov ided, since
wrench clearance is minimal. Reuse the remaindel' ofthc old locknuts. Atlach
the waler tube bracket to an exhaust stud. as it. was originally configured.

218

CHAPTER 18: INSTALLlNG A TURBO KIT

Flg. ~8-6. Tlle turbo l.S


held lo the maf/ifold by
tUlO

studs and two

Ihrough-bolts. Tite
/l/uds musl be wreflched

mto place by the doubleIIl1ljom

method.

Ag. 1.8-7. The exhausl


mallifold's campact
ciil/umsions require a
siim-prolile nul (O,. lhe
cenler fastener.

Turbine
Outl et Pipe

Ag. 1.8-8. Preparaton


of lhe turbmf! out/el

pipe t... limitcd lo


lIlsl.ClUtdioll o{ 'he
sluds Ilceded 1.0 {asten
lo he stoch Miala
e:xhausllteadel' pipe.

TnstaJllluce sLuds into tho lower end of thc turbin e ou tl eL pipe. Use Neve
Seize co mpound. Reuse lhe original gasket.. See Fig. 18-8.

TURBOC HARGER

219

Un hoo k the oxyge n sensor wi,-e from its ancho r al t he bell hou si ng spacer
plate.
lnsert tile turbine outJet pipe nLo position. Leave t he n u ts loose untillh e
pipe is atlach ed to lhe turbi ne.
Attach lhe oxyge n senso r lo the tailpipe.
Reattach t he exh aust clam p at the transmission brackeL Lcave th e bolts
loase.

Ag. l.8-9. Tite turbillf!


outlel pipe must be
plnced /tiOpositiol1
befare lil e turbo is
i rlstalled.

Turbocharger

Ag. l.8-10. Preparing


lhe turbo {or lstalla
lion by adcling signal
tines l O the UUlW
positton adilator

Att.ach three silicone s ignal-line hoses to t he fittings on the t u rbo vane aeLuaLar. T he center fitting "vent " will be t he shor t lineo
Remove the top fitting from t he turboch arger oil reservo ir. Add 120 ce 01' oil
to t he r eservorr. Do not overfil L Replace t he plug. Inspeet t he plugs in the oi!
rese l"Voir te assure that the air breather- plug is Lhe uppermos t of the two.
'['hese are pipe threads and nced only be Ligh tened until s nug.

220

CHAPTER 18 : I NSTALLlNG A TURBO KIT

Fig. l.B-tl. The oil


ri!Servoir is sealed LUilh
a specio.I silltel'ecJ brass
"brealher " pillg.

Fig. 1.8-:12. Turbo prep


incl udes fiLLing the
reservoir wi/" ]20 ce
o( lhe special aircraft
lurbine clIgill.e oiL

Attach the turbo lo the exhausl. manifold. The upper holts muslo be inser ted
from the engine side. Use the mechanicallockn uts.
The mechanicaJ locknuts are criLical, since e ngine vibrations tend t.o loosen
f'aslencl's. Use the gasket provided . Leave t.be nuts finger tight.
NonWhen the turbo is in position. lile cornpressor outlet should point
str3ight up and the actuatar downward and nboard. TIle actuarer needs
only adequate clearance lo other objects. If the posUons are incorrect,
the turbo must be retlJrned lo the kit manufacturer for adjustment.

INT ERCOOLE R

221

Ag. 1.8--1.3. Note proLection o{ tite compressor


aullel while tlle furbo is
being fitted lo tite manifold. Every (a.stener
"lIlslltaue a washer
,,,,der lhe hend and nut.

Temporarily cover the compressol" outlet with somethi ng- fOl" example,
the fuel preSSlIre regulator baggic. Any foreign particle dl"opped into the compressor outlet willlikely darnage the turbo. A1so stufT a clean rag in the compressor nJel. (Do as 1 sayo not as I do in the photo.)
Attach t he outlet pipe to the tUlbi ne. lnsert the studs through the Range.
placing th e gasket in position, and anchor with the double-nul meLhod. Use
Never-Seize compound on all related threads.
Tightcn aH rel ated fasteners: outl et pipe to turbo first, outlet pipe lo tailpipe
second, transmission anchor t hird, and turbo to manifold lasL.

Rg. 1.8-1.4. \Vith the


tudJO in place, {tt tite
I.urbine vutlet gaskel
olld secure lhe {asteners
lo the outlet pipe.

IntarcGoler

InsialJ the inLercooler in [ronLof thecooJing syslem radiaLor and mount. tal two
points. Attach one mount to Lhe lower boll of thevertical supporL bracket for thc>
hood lalch. Use the Jonger bolt provided. For propcr alignmcnt withoul binding,
it may be necessary Lo add a spacer between Lhe mounling plalc and lu!!.

222

CHAPTER 18: I NSTALLlNG A TURBO KIT

Rg. ~8-15. The illlercooler is posllioned fL


{ron,l a{ the cooling
I$yslem radiatar and
AC condel/ser: 7'lIe

bettom is ongled Olal/)(lrd lo cause lhe leasl

blockage o{ airflow lo
lhe cooling syslem.

FIg. i1H6 . As
il1stalled, lile i/tlercooler receiues
sltbslantta.l airllow
tlLrough he sta".dard
alr infel.

1'he sccond inLel'CQoler att.a.chment is the frame e nd ofthe body SUPPO,"t rod.
Place the intercooler bracket between the suppori rOO and Lhe frame. Use the

original fasteners.
NOlE -

Do nOl replace the splash pan. This pan inhibits air tlow 10 the ratliator.
INTERCOOLER TUBES. InsLa ll tha 1032 hose barb nLo the aft. s ide orthe throtlle
body nlet casting. Seal with Loctite. Be very cru'eful with thc small threads. as
they can easily strip in iha casting. Do nol permit LocLitc to clog lhe hose barbo
Inst.alllhe ihroLtle body inlct castjng. Point. the casli ng j nlet st.l"sight down.
Attach the hose [rom Lhe id le air-contro l valve Lo thc Lhrottlc nJet casting.
Secure wilh the original clamp.
As emb le Lhe rcmaindcr of the intercooler Lubes. Leave aH joinls loose nd
adjust the posiLion and lit. f t.ubes fol' dearance and appcarance, t hcn tighten

COMPRESSOR I NlET

223

Rg. 18-~7. With tite


turbo alld l/ercoolcl'
in position. the inler
collf1ting l"bes can be
/ls/oUed.

Ag. 18-18. Tightening


hose clamps OIL pressu.r
ized Iu.bes shou.ld be
done wilh a rolche!
wrench. Screwdriuer
light wiJ( almost assure
a lube 's popping off
llflder boast.

all hose c1amps. Be cCl'tai n each hose propedy overlaps Lh e nside Lubc and
that the retai ning clamp is compl etely ave r the tube.
CAUTION -

The compressor oullet lube can rub (he hood when [he cngme rocks Ir
the tube is no! pushed into rile compressor out/el unrif it [ouches rhe
compressor out/el boss.
NOTE -

00 not replace the plastic Inlet duet.


Compressor Inlet

Jnstall the brass fittings rOl" t he valve cover breather into lhe compressor nlet.
c8sting. Use a 90 0 el snd point the hose barb upward.
lnstalJ Lhe l'ubber O-l'ings nto Lhe grooves on the turbo. Lubricate the 0rings with a smal l amount of gl'euse.
Removc Lhe rag guarding the compressor inlet.. Press lh inlel casting onto
lhe turbo and swivel t.he inlet to point dircctly outboal'd,

224

CHAPTER 18: INSTALLlNG A TURBO KIT

Al, Filler Box

The filler box will attach to two points. One is. tab on lhe afl sheet melal gusset for the left. front strut mounl. 1'his point is immediately below the fTont
end ofthe brake master cylindcl.lnslall the rubber isolalor onto lhis tab. Use
the nylon locknuL and appropriate washers. Leave finger light.
The second mount is an existing hale loealed 3-1/2 inches forward and 41/2
inehes oulboard ofthe left slrul eenterline. Drill this hole to 1/4 ineh.lnstall .
second isolator at this point.
Install the small hose barb inlo the threadcd hole adjacent lo the rear
mounl ofthe filter box.
Attaeh the f10wmeter to the filter box. Reuse the origll.1 gaskel, studs, and
nuts.

Flg. 1.8-:19. The nir


filler botlom case serves
as tILe ni rflow meler
ntOltllL

Ag. :18-20. 7'he [loUJmeter/filler L'ase


assembly mOUTlts lO
Ihe Miala's slrtu:lurc
wilh rubber isolalon;
lo allow for clIgi"e roek.

MISCELLANEOUS

225

Press the filter element into t he filter bax. Ball lhe upper and lower box
halves together with lhe stainless sree) cap screws. Pasit.ion lhe cap such that
Lhe air inlel faces outboar d.
Slip the 2 3/4inchdiameter hose onto lhe campl'essor iolet castillg.
Place two hose clamps aoto t he hose aod leave them loose.
Attach the wire ha r'ness connector to lhe flowrnetel'. The wires are best.
routed bcncath the filter box.
lnsert the flowmeter ioto the hose on t he inlet castingand position t he fi lter
box .
Attach the air filter asse mbly te the inner render weU at the two isolat.ors.
Adjust the position until all alignments a re correcto One or both isolators may
need spacing up. Use the nylon locknuts wld appropriate washers. Check haod
dearance prior to closing the hood.
Tighten a ll related clamps and rastc ne rs.
M i sce lla ne o us

Remove the restrictor from the original valve cover b.renther hose and place inside a 6-1/2-inch-long segment of 5/16-inch bose. Use a slllalJ amount of lu bricant. on the hose barbs for ease orassembly.
Route this hose (rom the hose barb 00 the comp ressor inlet casting to the
vaJve cover brea t he l'.
Attach t he heat shield to the cylinder head. Use su itable washers undcl' tlle
bolt heads.

Flg. ~8-n. Tlle va/ue


CQuer breather has (J
smoll restriclor mside
Ihal must be placed
inside lite neLU brea/her
hose. 7'he breather must
be placed be{ore rhe
turbo lo avoid presl>llr.
izillg tite cratLkcase.

VATN Act u ator


Signa l Li nes

The line from the lower fitting ofthe actuator (small end ) i8 the boost-pl'essu l'e
signal. This signal origi nates at the hose barb on the af't side 01' the throttle
body inleL casting. Check t hi hose barb ror possible LoctiLe blockage by blowing t hrough the hose.
T he upper fitting on the actuat.or i5 lhe vaCUUDl signa!. This line \Viii get. ils
signal from the hose exiting the top 01' the intake manifold approximately 1
inch after t.he throttle body. Sevel' thi5 hose and insert lhe brBss lec. Attach the
sdu"tor signaJline to the leg or the tee.
'The con ter fitting on t.he acrualor i5 a brealher onl)'. It i5 conneded lo t.he
AII i np' ""j t.hp. RO. hof.f.om of t.hp Rir hoy

226

CHAPTER 18: INSTALLlNG A TURB O KIT


CAurlON -

Check these fines c8refuJfy. If Chey are nol correcto Che wrbo wiJ/ be subjecl lo overboosting. Tllis mar overrev the turbo 8nd cause damage.
NOTE -

Prior to final assembly, blow lhrough all acluator slgnal Unes and fitlings
lo assure that none are blocked. crimped. or otherwise plugged.

Relocation of
Cr uise Control
Actuator

Fuel Pressure
Regulator

Vehicles equipped with cruise control must have the co ntrol actu ato r moved. A
(:onvenient location [or t he actuator is the small cavity just in fronl of t he
clutch master cylindcr. A mount. bracket is provided that attaches lo tbe oulboard mast.er brake cylinder Illount. Keep t he actuato r cable as sLrrughLas pos
sible.
Altach lhe !"egulalor to lhe bracket.
InsLaJl the two fue1l ioe hose barbs. Use thread sealant. Do not u e Tcfien
tape. These fittings should only be tightened snug.
CAurlON -

Do not excessvely tighren the hose barbs. otherwise che cas[ing may

crack.

M.ount the regulator and bracket assembly lo t he firewall a t Lhe position


shown. Assu re clearance to the hood.

Rg. 18-22. The ,.ising~


rote (uel pressure
regula/or coll uenieutly
17l00Ulls lo the firewall.
Drilling the II1Qltnt
holes accurately
requrres a drill dimple.

Remove Lhe originaJ cquipment fue l injecLion rcLllrn tine from the stec) re
Lurn Une on the frame ofthe caro Route this Hne to the side litting on the rcg\.!
lato r. This Hne then connccts lhe output oC tbe stock rcgulator to t he input of
lhe new regulator. Secure with proper hose clamps.
CAUTION -

Fuel spillage wlll occur.

lnstaJl a segment orihe new highprcssure Cuelline ("rom t.he center fitting
orLhe regulatol' Lo Lhe sLeellinc aL ihe frame. Secure with propcr hose clamps.
NOTE -

These two preceding steps have inserted the regulalor ioto the EFI relUrn line.

FUEl PRES SURE REGUlATOR

227

Flg. ~8-23. Once the


,.egulaJor is in place,
{u el and sigllol Ulles
complete its llOOktlp.

Locate and sever the vacuum signaJ l.ine to the stock fuel pressure reguJator.
Place n white plnstic or brnss tee in the signalline and route a vacuum hose
from the legofthe lee to the new regulator. Insert the small plastic restrictor
into this signalline.
Add the one-way check valve to tbe exit ofthe needle val ve. This check val ve
elimina tes vacuum leaks yet allows adjustment of the regulator by boost-signalleakage.
Assemble a brass tee from the items provided. Install trus fuel pressu re
check gauge tee into the fue l rai! inlet hose at the trame connection. This i5 lhe
lower fuelline on the right side ofthe engine.
CAUTION -

The fuel in/el line will be under pressure and fuel will spill. Spillage can
be reduced by using fue/Une cfamps.

Tape the fuel pressure check gauge to th e windshield such that itean be obscrved while driving the caro Route a picee of the high-pressure fuel line froln
the brass lee to the fuel pressure check gauge.

F/g. ~8-24. Por reasons


o{ safeiy, the fllel pressure gallge, wltich is
needed lo complete the
tw1ing process, should
Itot be placed itlside
lhe c:ockpit Tape lhe
gallge lO tite oulside o{
the windshield al a
coltuenient localio'l {or
u;cwirrc while driving.

228

CHAPTER 18: I NSTALLlNG A TURBO KIT

Boost GBuge

AU,ach the boost gauge and cup to the lower len windshield pillar. Use the
sheet metal screws provided.
Raute one wire to the red wire wit,h black sb-ipe at t.he dimmer switch. The
switch pulls out of the dash easiJy wit h a sCl'ewdl"iver. The pl llg rnay be disconnected to ease splicing.
NOTE -

Ir you prefer the gauge IIght lo vary brightness with the instrument
lights. wire it lo the rheostat according to the factory manual.

Rou re the otber gnuge wire to a convenient black wire 01' ground.
The pressure Hne to the gauge can easily be routed through the firewaJI by
making a small hole in the grommet located lo the len of lhe throttle cable. A
sharp bit turned slowly will make a hole in t he grommei. Route the gauge line
to the capped fitting located an of the throttle body, atop the plenum.

Ag. 1..1J..25. The sigllal


lifle for the boost gauge
passes tlirough the firewall a.l lite speedometer
roble grommet. A sharp
billumed slowly will
make a hole in lhe
grommet.

Ignition Retard

TnstalI the MSD ignition relard unit in accardance with MSD's illstructions,

Miscellaneous

Reconnect the battery, CIean the terminals ir needed.


A vacuurn check valve musl be insel-ted into the hose to the vacuum canisler. The canisler is located 2 inches outboard of the lhroltle body. The check
vaJve goes into the smaUer 01' t hc two hoses. Scver the hose and inserl the
check valve with the white end toward th e can ister. 'l'his check va lve permits a
vacuum to be drawn on the canister. bu t the canister will nol be pl'cssurized
lInder boosl.

Testing

8tar1. the engineand check for vacuum a nd rucllcak.s. Corred as reqllired.


Sct the ignition timing lo 10 8'l'DC. Open the connector on the wheel well
on the driver's side and place a jumper between terminals I/GND " and "TEN,"
Attach the timing light to the numbel' one plugwire. Change timing by 1005el1ing the halt on the righL side ofthe crank angle senso r at the rear ofthe inLake
cam. Rotate the sensor until the 10 advance is achieved, as checked aL Lhe
fronL engine plIlley, When tite timing is correct, tightell lhe holt and l'emove
lhejumper wire,

TE STIN G

229

Rg. 18-26. Th.e char,,"oa1 canisler rt/.ust be


prolected (rom boost
pressure. A Olle-wtly
ualue placed in the
uacultl11 fine allows lile
engle to purge lhe
canister while blocking
boOlit pressure.

Several objectives rnu st be met in the testing procedure:


Ascertain fuel pressure ri se rate as a fundi on ofboost pressure. 'fhe needle
valve is the fu el pressul'e adjustmellt. Adjust in one-twe nLielh-turn increments
until the desired fueJ pressul'e is achieved according to the following table:
Boost
pressure (psi)

Fuel
pressw'c (psi)

35-39
47-53
60-70

95-100

O
2

Determine t hat no combustion !'oughn ess 01' engine knock occw'S when
opel'ating at maximum boost.
Boost pressure should be between 4 and 6 psi aL rull th roll.le al 2000 rpm.
Ir less than this, call the manufacturer fol' consultaban.
Maxirnum boost pl'essure should be 7 to 8 psi.
CAUTION -

Due lo the sparse sDund Insulation on lhe Miala, knock s difficlIll lo


Ilear. Pay careful attentiofllO che sound of detonation. as it lS very damaging to t/le engine.

lr knock is deteeted, lirl olTthe lhrottle im medialely.


Orive the cal' a few miles prior te applying boost. 11' an syst ems a re ope1'a ting
nor mally, proceed with the tesling. Genel'ally, use third 01' fourth gears, to
keep evcnts aL a slowcl' pace. Apply boost. in small increment.s, so t ht'lt no sudden changes OCCUl:
Circum stances can combine to rnake the Ael'Ochargel' eithe r lesso!' more responsIve than desil'ed. lf either case IS perceivecl during testing, call the ki t
manufacturer fol' fur t her guidance.
When the ngin e rlln s smoothly to the red li nc in fourth gear al 7 to 8 psi
boost preSSUI'C, with cor red fuel pressurc and no hint 01' detonation or )'ough
combustion , the insta llation may be considered complert.

230

CHAPTER 18: IN STALLlNG A T URBO KIT

Rg. ~8-27. Wltel1 testIItg and tuning (tre


done. remoue lile (ud
preslSure gauge. The
irtstallation may be
constdered complete.

Remove the fuel pressure check gauge.


CAUTlON -

Fuel spiJIage may occur.

Review Lhe instructions and instaJlation for any details overlooked, alld cor
rect as requ ired .
General Rules

of Operation

.. Use 92+ fu e) al all times. Higher, ir available.


.. Do nol apply maximum boosl for more than 15-second duration s.
Ir any sounds of rough combustion occu r, cease us in g boost until tlle
cause is identified and corrected,
The oi l must be checked every 10,000 miles in Lhe turbo rescrvo il'. Do not
ove rfUI. Oil re ll nlel'val will be 20,000 miles.
Mobil Oil sy nthetic SH C630 is lhe only acceptable oi! I'or l he Aerochargcr. This is ava ilable [rom the kit ma nufacturer 01' a Mobil Oil
pl'oducts distl'iblltor.
Use extreme caut.ion when dl'iving the vehicle on wet pavcmenl, as lhe
rate of boosL ri se can cause an wlexpectcd loss 01' ll'actioll.
The fo regoing procedul'c is typical of lhe ins tallation al' an afterm8l'kellurbocharge' system. Thel'e are many reasons lO I'espect the process. Th el'c a re
none to feH!' iL.

SUPPLl ERS

Advaneed Engineering

Burns Stainlel5s

DFI

310-327-9336
EFI syst.ems, Fuel injectors,
Fuel pcessure regu lators,
Fuel pumps, Pucl system tema,
Throttle bodies

714-6315120
Flanges, Gaskets, Mumers,
U-bend.

313-3801322
EFl systems, Fuel injectors,
F'uel pressure regulators,
FueI system items

Canton Rac:ing

Ak Mlllur

203 484-4900
Fuel system items

310-949-2858

Canoll Supercharging

'rurbochargers, VVastegates
Alamo Motorsports

201835 1705
Fuel pumps

210-637-0373

Cartech Rac:ing

Boost conLrollc l"s,

2103088464
Fuel pressure regulators,
'll.1rbo kit makers

Fuel pressure regu lators, Fuel


systcm lems, Intel'coolcrs, Surge
valves
Alfied Industries

909-279-5712
F'langes, Gaskets, U-bends
Applied Technologies

864-972-3800
Fuel injectol's, ['\tel pressu l"c
regu lators, Fue! syslem tems,
lntercoolcrs, Muffiers
ARP Fasteners

805-2787223
F'ast,ene..rs
Auto Avionics

201-870954 J
Gallges, ln struments
(testing)
Auto Meter

8J 5-8958141

Gauges, Instruments
(testing)
Bell Engineering

2103496515
Fuel pressure regulaLors, r~ueJ
pumps, Fue! systcm t.ema,
Inlercoolcl's, Tu rbochargers,
Turbo kit makers, Wastegates
Borla

805-986-8600
Mumers

Child. & Albert

805295-1905
Fasteners, Turbo pistons
Coast Fuel Injedion

4082877600
J<"'u el i njectors, F'uel pressure
l'cgulators, Fuel system
items

Dinan Engineering

415-9629401
Turbo kit makers
Duttweiler Auto

8056593648
EFl systems, F'uel injecLOI"S,
Fuel pressure regulators,
lntercoolers
DynoLab

206-2438877
lnstnlments (testing)
Earl's Supply

310609-1602
Al"J fittings, Fuel system tems,
Hoscs, Oillines
Eleclromotive

800-999-0853
Turbo cruns

7033782444
EF'1 systems, Fuel injectors,
Fuel pressure regulaLors,
Knock sensors

Crane Cams

Eurasfan

904-2521151
'rurbo cams

800-444-32i 1
Fuel pumps, Fu I system teros

Competition Cams

Crower

faria Instruments

619422-1191
'furbo cams

203848-9271
Gauges. 1nstrumen.ts
(testing)

Cutler

305653-9098
EPI systems, Fuel injectors, Li'uel
pressure rCf,J"ulutors, Fuel system
items, I ntakc man ifolds, 'l'hrotLle
bodies
Datcon Instruments

7J75695713
Gauges,lnslrulncnts
(testing)

Fel..pro Gaskets

7086747700
GaskeLs
Flow Master

800544-4761
Mume rs
Gale Banks Engineering

818-9699605
Turbo kit makers
Genfe

800227-2242
MulTIel"s

232

SUPPLlERS

Goodridge

K&N Engineering

Oeschner Supply

310-533-1924
AN fittings, Ii'uel syslem ilcms,
I-Joses, Oillincs

909-684-9762

214- 631-0402

Air lters

HoSes

Keith 81ack Racing

Omega Instruments

GReedy Performance

310-861-4765

203-359-1660

714-588-8300
Air filters, Boost. conlrollers,
lntercoolers, Surge valves,

Turbo pistons

Instrumcnts (testing)

Kent Moore Tool Group

Paxton Products

313-774-9500

805-987-5555

Turbo kit makers

InstTUmenls (testing)

Hahn R:lceernfi
Intercoolers, '1'urbochargers

Land. Sea
603-329-5645
lnslruments (lesting)

Haltech EFt

Mallory

214-831-9800

702-882-6600

poly01n Coatings

EFl syst.ems. Fuel injectors,


Fuel pl'essure regulat.ors

Fuel pressure regulalors

713-694-3296

Horiba

908-905-3366
Turbo pistons

708851-5444

313-213-6555
lnstruments (lcsting)

Manley Englneering

Marren Motorsports

Fuel pressure regu lators, Fuel


system ilems
Philllps Raclng Fuels

918-881-7601

Racing fu el

Coatings
Preclslon Turbo

708-418-5227
Fue] injectors

Higll Performance
Coatings

203-732-4565
eFI syslems, Fue! inje<:lors, Fuel

Raclng Beat

800456-4721
Coatngs

pressure regulators, Fuel pumps

Muffiers

Mechtech Motorsports

RC Engineeng

HKS

619-432-0555

310-320-2277

310-328-8100
Air IiIlers, BooSL controlleni,

Boosl conlrollers, Fuel


pressure regulators. Intercoolers

Fuel injeclors, Fuel pressure


regulators, Fuel pumps

Fuel prcssure regulators,

Mikuni

ReclUna/ Weber

818-885-1242
Carburetors, lnLake manifolds

310-604-0124

Int.ercoolers, Mumers, Surge


valves, 'rurbo kit makers,

WasleguLes
Hose 01 North Texas

214-243-1393
AN fitLinl,'S, Hoscs, Oillines
Isspro

503-232-0134
Gauges, InslrumenLs
(testing)
J&M Supply

512-888-9388
Wcld els
JE Pistons

714-898-9763
Tu rbo pistons
Jet Hot Coatings

610-277-5646
Coatings
J&5 Eleetronles

714-534-6975
Knock sensors
Jlm Wolf Raelng

619-442-0680
Air filters, EPI systems, Fuel

injeclors, Fuel pressmc


rcgu1atol"s. lntercoolf'rs

Mitsubishi Turbos

708-238-8510
Turbochargers
Mosselman Turbos

714-779-8677

CarburetoTS, Fuel system tems,


lntake manifolds
76 Racing Fuel

800-345-0076
Racing fuel

(Netherlands)

Spearco

011-311-831-1840
Turbo kit mnkcrs

818-901-7851

Motec

lntercoolers,
'lUrbo kit makers

714-895-7001

Ste rling Instruments

EFl syste.llls, Fuel injeclors,


Fuel pressure regulators

313-471-0990

MSO Ignitlons

Sunoco Race Fuels

915-857-5200

800-722-3427

Fuel injectors

Racing fuel

NO Turbosystems

Super Chips

408980- 1691
Turbo kit !-lokes

407-260-0838

Neely Industries

Swain Coatings

817-274-4300

716-889-2786

Lubricanls (molyl

Coulings

Octane Boost

Tenant Industries

214-289-0631

714-632-8430

Fue!

~lddilives

Instruments (testing)

Boost cont.rollers

Oil pumps

SUPPLlERS
ThermoTec

TWM Induction

419-962-4556

805-967-9478

COtings

Ai r fi lte r's, Cad mretors, FUel


injectors, Fuel pumps, Fuel
system tems, Intake manifolds,
Throttle bodies

Tillon Engineering

805-688-2353
Oi1 pumps
ToyoMoto

VP Rac)"g Fuels

305-378-9325
Turbo kit makcrs

812-238-2084
Racing fuel

Turbo City
714-639-4933

VDD

Gaskets, Ga uges, 'f'urbochargers,


Wastegates

703-665-0100
Gauges, lnstruments
(testing)

Turbo Engineering

Vericom

303-271-3997
Turbochargers

619-933-4256
l.nstruments (testing)

Turbonetics

Vinson Supply

805-529-8995
Fla nges, Gaskcts, Hoses,
1'urbochargers, Wastegates

214-369-1224
Weld el.

Turbo Performance Center

410-766-5215
EFI systems, Turbo kit
makel"s
Turbo Power

916-677-2233
Tul'bochargers
Turbo Technology

206-475-8319
'1\lrbo kit makers
Turbo Tuf

201-773-4200
Muffiers

Warner Ishi

217-774-9571
'l'urbochargcrs
Westberg Manufacturing

707-938-2121
Gauges
Wiseco Manufacturing

216-95 1-6600
Turbo pistons
Worldwide Racing Fuels

800-648-2262
Racing fu e!

233

GLOSSARY

This term refers lo pressure measured on the scale that has


its zero point aL approximately 14.7 psi (al sea leve bcJow atlllospheric pressu rc. It is a Lrue measu rcment oC aH the pressure, rather thanjust the pl'essure
aboye atmospheric. See Gauge pressure.
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE. Simi lar Lo absolule pressure, absolut.e temperature has its
zero point where no heat exists. This i5 approximately 460"F below oG
r. An absolute degree i5 t he srune size as 8 Fahren heit degree. The freezing point oC water (32"F) is about 492F aboye absolute zera, 0 1' 492" absolute.

ABSQLUTE PRESSURE.

(AFR). AFR is t he fati o orthe weight or air to the weight arrue) in


a combustible mixture. AFR i5 critica} in the proper functioning oC 3D e ngine.

AIR/ FUEL RATIO

AMBIENT. Ambient I'cfers Lo the surrounding af.mospheric p ressure and t.emperat.ure.


ATMOSPHERIC. This word has recently taken on the connot.at.ion of an engine opernting without any form ofsupercharger. My Jawn mower has an 8tmospheric enbrine.
BLOW-YHROUGH. 'l'his indicates Lhal t he t hrot.t1e i5 on t he outlet side of the turbo
comprcssor. See DRAW-THROUGH.
BOOST. Boost i5 pressure aboye utmospheric, measu red in Lhe intake manifold . 'l'his
book will use pounds per square neh aboye atmospheric pressure.
BOOST lHRESHOLD 0 1' BOOST POINT. This is ihe lowes Lengine rpm al wh ich boost
from t.he t urbochargel' will increase power over t he engine's atmosphCl'ic eq uiva le nL. More simply, the lowest rpm aL which noticeable boost (usually 1- 2 psi)
can be achieved.
VALVE. The bYI>8SS valve permit.s a bleed ofOow around Lhe turbo when the
enf:,rine is not under boost.
CLEARANCE VOLUME. Combustion chamber volume aboye the piston aL Lop dead ceno
Ler is called cleal'ance volume.
COMPRESS ION RATIO. This is displaccmcnt volume plus cJenrance volwne divided by
c1earnnce volume.

BYPASS

In ths book, the compressor is the air pump itself-the frout. half of
the turbo, through which int.akc nir passes. li is 8150 frequentJy rcferl'ed Lo as
Lhe "cold " side.

COMPRESSOR.

ratio of whull"eaJly happens lo what


should happen. In lh e case ofthe compressor. Oleasuremcnl oftbe temperature
gajn caused by compressi ng the alr exceeds what. thermodynamics says it should
be. Compressor eJnciency converts calcu lated temperaLure gains Lo real t.emperature gains.
COMPRESSOR SURGE. Com prcssor surge occurs when the Lhl'ot.tle is slamlllcd sbut
und nir is caught betwecn a pumping turbo flnd the lhrolt.le plateo 'fhis "ir blasts
its W8y backwurd out the fronL of the turbo. \Vhen Lbis happens, Lhere is suddenly room for more alr in lhe manifold , and nir i5 pumped back in by the sti ll-spinning tU I'bo. The throltle is still closed, SO the nir again blasts back out lhrough
Lhe turbo. 'l'his continues Ullti! the turbo loses enough spcoo fOI" \cakback nround
Lhe compressor lo dampen Lhe nir oscillations. ComprC!ssor surge can also occur

COMPRESSOR EFFICI ENCY (EC>. Efliciency is Lhe

235

l36

GLOSSARY

under boost f too much boost. pressuTe is present wiLh low airf]ow through lhe
system,The chirping sound heard from t he tu rbo whcn lining off Lhe t hrotLle
while operating under boosL rcsults rrom this oscillaLing air volu me. 'ehi s noise
is suppressed by the bypass valve
CROSSOVER POINT. This is Lhe poi n t aL which manifold boost. pressu l'C equals t Ufbine olet. pressure.
DETON AnON. Detonation is spontaneous combustion of t.he airlfueJ mixtu r e ahead
orthe name f l'OOl. Wheo pressure und temperature excced that requj red for controlled combustioll, lhe mixtu re nutoign ites. 'rhe melc'11Jic pinging sound is Lhe
resu lting explosion's shock wave coll idin g with the cylinder waUs.
Note: Ping, knock, and detona tion Iire equivalent. tel'nls. Preigni tion is a ll altogether difTerent. beastie. Do not call one the other.
D'SPLAC EMENT YOLUME. Displaccment volullle m ay be defined in several w ay s: (1)
the swept volumc of the t..-ylinder; (2) the area ofthe bore times the length of Lhe
stroke; (3) total engina displac:ement. divided by the number of cylinder s.
D RAW-THROUGH. T his ndientes that the throttle is on the inlet side ofthe lurbocom
pressor. See BLOW-THROUGH.
END 0.1.5 . The end gas ia the last partofthe air/fuel mi.xture to burn. lts importa nce
to a tu rbocharged engi ne is paramoun t, beca use it lS t his end f,'3S in wh ich detonation usually oecu rs.
GA UGE PRESSURE. Gauge pressure is the scale lhat reads zero at atmospheric pres o
sure. AH references te boost pl'essure in this book wiU rcfer to gauge prcssure.
For exam plc, 5 psi boost wou ld be 5 psi aboye almospheric pressu re.
IN. HG. This phrase reads "inches of mercury" and is a mensure of pressur c on yet
a difTerent sca1e. In Lhis book, in. hgwiH refer to vacuu m in the intake mani fold,
and Ole scale wo rks downward loward atmosphel'ic pressure. For example, id le
speed vacuu m is usually about 18 in. hg, and as throttlc is applied, the vacuum
goes towaro Ogauge, which is atmospher ic pressure.
INTERCOOLER. An inten'OOler
.
is a heat exchanger placed belween thc tu rbo and C ll gine to remove heat from nir cxiti ng the tur bo when oper ati ng under boost. 111tercoolers are also caJled charge a ir coolers .
INTfRCOOLER EFFICIENCY (E.).. An intercooler's ellicicncy i.s measu red by how much
heat it removes relative lo the heal added by the complcssor.
' NERrIAL LOA D. ltlerlialloads are those created by weight and ucceleralio n. A heaver piston crealcs a grealer inertiaJ load. Likewise. nn increase in ..pm means
gre~te r acceleration and, thu s, a grcater iner tial lold.
LAG. Lag is the delay between a change in throUle and the production 01' noticeable
boost when engine rpm ls in n range in wh ich boost can be nchicved.
LEAN. Lean mcans not enough fuel lo achicve a the correet air/fuc l ratio rol' the ex
isting conditions.
NONSEQUENTlAL FUElI NJECTION . EFl that pulses indepcndcntly ofthe intake v~l lve
pos ilion is nonsequenlial.
OEM. Ol'iginal Equipment Manufacturer; the company thal built it in the (irst
place.
POWER. Slrict.ly speaki ng, power is the resulL or how fast a ce.rLHin all10unt of wOI'k
is done. [n the aulomotive context, power is lhe product oft.o rcue Al a ny specific
rpm ti mes that rpm.
POWER LOAD . 'fhis is the l OAd indueed into 011 engine components by pressure created by the burning gases.

GLOSSARY

237

"his is a meaningless phrR5e and shou ld nol be included here or


anywhere cisc.

PnE-DETO NATION .

Pre-ignition refers to sponlaneous combustion oft.he air/fuelmixtlJ re


prior lo Lhe spark.

P RE-IGNITION.

PRESSURE RATIO. Thc ratio of abso lute boost pressure lo atmospheric pl'cssure is

called the pressure ratio.


PULSE DURATION. rrhe amou nl ortime, measured in thousnndlhs ora second (rosee) ,
UloL an electronic fuel injcctor is held open on any single pulse. Pulse duration
is :Jo relativo measurement of the amounl of fuel delivered to one cylinder pel'
combust.ion cycle.
REVERSION. Reversion occurs when sorne of the burned exh aust gases OI'C pushed
back inle) t he co mbustion cha mbcr al1d in La ke system during valve overlap.This
is ca used by ex haust manifold pressurc cxccedi ng intakc prcssu t'e 01' by shock
waves in the cx ha ust ports and manifolds.
RleM. Rich is the (:ondition that. exists when too much fuel is pl'esent lo achieve 8
max.imUlJ14power air/fu e l rauo.
A fuel injecl.or pulse timed to discharge fuel when the
intake valve is in the most advantageous position is ca11ed sequenced. Ji pulses
the injcctors in the same sequence as the liring order.

SEQUEHTIAl FUEL INJECTION.

1'0 force more air into an engi ne than t.he angi ne can bl'cathe by itsalf s to s uperchurge ii. A superchargcl' is the davice thal does thia. [l t may be
driven by a belt, gears, 01' a tUl'bine. When driven by a turbi nc, il is caJled 3 lurbocha rger.

SUPERCHARGE.

THERMAL EFFICIENCY.

See COMPRESSOR

EFFICIENCY , INTERCOOLER EFFICIENCY.

In lhis book, then na l load will Lake the ruLher narrow definilion of
heaL addt."'<i lO tlle system by tlle lurbochal'ger. This comes from heat produced
in lhe air thnl is compressed by t.he turbo and lhe mixture hcat. ncrease due lo
nwersion.
THRonlE RESPONSE. A changa in Lhe s peed 01' torque ofan engine brough l about. by
a change in th rottle position is called throltle response. Thl'oUlc response
s hou ld noL be confused with t.urbo response.
TORQUE. 'fhe nmount of twisLing force providcd by a t.urning shan is callcd torque.
Jl IS measured in foot-pounds, inch-pounds. 01' newton-rneters.
TURB I NE. 1'he tu rbine is the fan driven by lhe engine's ex hulI st gases. It is often
ca lled the " hot. " side of Lhe tUl'bochajger .

THERMAL LOAD.

TURBOCHARGER.

A t.urbocharger is a superchArger driven by a turbine.

Wh e n l syslem has gt'ca t.er-lhn-atmosphcric pressure in the in t.ake


manifold, iL is operating under boosl.

UNDER BOOST.

This is the ratio ofthe number ofmolecules orair lll:lL


actually gel into a combustion chamber to the numbcr of lI\olccules in an equnl
volume nL utlllosphcr ic pressure. Por atmospheric cnginc5, I his ratio 15 al mosl
always less than onc. Supe rcharged engines are C<:'1pflb le of operating al ratios
grcaler than onc.

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY (Ey).

is a boosL - p ressUJe~actllat.ed val ve Lhal allows on ly


enough exhau5l gns nLo lhe Lurbine to achieve desired boosl. The wastegate
routes the I'cmaindcr ofthe cxhausL gas nround tlle turbine and out ihe tailpipe.

WASTEGATE,

The w3stegale

INDEX
A
Absolute pressurc, 26
Absolule temperatun:!. 51
Accclerntor pump delivery, 104
ACluators, 176
AcLuator signal, 147

Acuro NSX
construction sequence for, 206
emissiolls Lesting or, 210
fastencrs fOI", 207
fiL and finiah far, 206
fuel injection analysis for,
198-200
gaskets for, 207
instnllingturbosyst.emon, 191,
196-210
mterooolel' efficiency in,
209-210
mlercooling val ue for, 202
lowcr side of Jinished assclllbly.
208 rfig. 17-20 )
material selection for, 206
performance lesting for, 200
perfoTllll:UlOO vcrification
for, 210
pl-einstallaWon test data
fO/', 198
tcsting 01' syslem in, 207-208
turbinc seciion in, 209

LurboselecLion for, 200-202


turbo system layout. far,
202-205
verifying t.urbo compressor cfficlcncy, 208209

Aerochargcr
com plexity or, l86 (fig. L6-7)
com pressor Aow maps, 201
lfig. 17-10, 17-11)
embossed slai nless gasket with,
207
Mobll OH SHC630 foc, 230
oilwick-Iubricated bearings,
183 rfig. 16-2)
VATN, lB4 (fig. 16-4)
AFR, Se!! Alr/fuelratio

Aft.ermarkcl. turbo kits


buying, 1618
HKS S u pra tu rbo,
17 (rog. 2-3)
ie fuel inject.ion, 86, 87
die, 175
and intercoolcr, 71 -72
meter for, 165, 171 (Hg, 14-8),
175 rfig. 15-3), 207
necessity for correct, 19
t.esLing or, 171
LlIning of, 207
j n wastegatc, l50
rurmasslair flow sensor,
86,175
Alr SCOSCI's, 97

Air temperature se nsor, 86


Ai rto--water intcrcooler
air/air COI"e in, 67 (fig, 5-34)
c.harge-air heat exchu nger,
67-68
coolant., 68-69
fronl. cooler, 69
'onl.-mounied heal. exchanger,
70 (lig. 5-37)
front water coolel"s, 66
rHg. 5-31)
layout of, 67 rfig. 5-33)
inl.ercooler, 22123
tems lo ,'emovc, 215
preliminory steps for, 215
testing or, 228-30
tools a nd cq uipment for, 214- 15
turbine ouUet pipe, 218-19
lurbocharger, 219-21
VA'l'N atuator signal Unes,
22526

Air/rur intercooler
adeqllte air flow LO,
64 (fJg. 527)
bends ~Uld sccLion chrulges in ,
62-63
cooling air estimate,
56Ifig.5-14)

core flow area measul'emenL, 54


lig.5-(2)

core (jow dirccLion with, 58


core s izing fOf, 55-56
core stream lin ing in , 56
core thick ness 01: 58, 59
lfig, 5- 19)
direct air path in, 65
(fig. 5-29)
dl'og nnd air s tream, 63
(fig. 5-25)
duct inlet area in, 57
(fig. 5-17)
d ucts in, 56-58
e ndcap designs in, 6 1
rfig. 5-23)
en d Lank design , 6 0-61
en largingof, 60 (fiC. 5-21)
extrudcd lube stylc coreo 57
(fig. 5- 15)
rrontal area, 56
hoses and co n neclions, 63-64
in-cap design, 61
inlcrcoole r tube lie bars, 63
(fg, 526)
interna l bntlUng in , 60
!fig. 5-22)
internal fl ow aren in , 5455
interna l f10w w'ea meusu r ement, 55 (CJg, 513)
nomenclaLure of core in,
54 (fig. 5-1 1)
outcap design, 61
pla('''ement
6465

oc,

plumbing, 64 (fig. 528)


proper d ustin g, 58 (tig, 5-18)

round-edgcd extl'uded.-

tYPCco1'c, 57 (Hg. 5-16)


slaggered-core, 65
top nnd botLam cores, 59
(hg. 5-201
in Toyota G'I'p' 65 (tig, 5-30)
t.ube intersections all! How,
62, rfig. 5-24)
tube sizca nnd shapes, 61-62

Air bcoring-s, 183


Air COrrector jet, 101

Ajr duct
in hori,..onlally mounterl intercooler, 50 (Hg. 5-5)

INDE X
Air filler box
aftermnrket kit instaJl61.ion,
224-25
botLom cusc funct.ioll,
224 (fig. 18-19)
Air filters
defming and positioning of, 194
lack of, 177
large" 195 (lig. 17-6)
t.rouble with , 178
Airflow rate, 26
formu la for, 27 28, 200
4

Air/fu el ratio meLer, 165, 175


(Hg. 153)
Horiba model, 171
(fig. 14-8), 207
Air/fuel ratios (Af'R)
for afte rmarket turbo
lcits, 16
detonation s nd lean , 179
devices for mainLaining,
19-20
and electron ic ftlel injection,
86,87
id le, 175
a nd intercooler, 71-72
meter for, 165, 171
(lig. 14-8), 175 (fig. 15-3), 207
necessiLy for correct, 19
Lest.ing 01: l71
Luning of, 207
in wnslegat.e, 150

Ai r-mass,lair nuw se nsor,


86,175

WARNING AulOmotive seruice, repa.ir,

Antisurgc valve, 105 106


float bowl pressure I'clief, l06
(fig. S-lO)
inst.al1ation example, 107
(fig. 8-11)
4

Atea/radius (NR) ratio


choosing or, 32-34
ruld c10sing ports. 183
(lig. 16-3)
definition of, 32 (Hg, 31U
a nd dischw'ge a rea, 33
(lig. 3-12)
efl"ect 01" varying, 33
(fig.3- 13)
and turbine housings,
183-84
and turbine size, 29
Atmospheric e ngines
driveabilit}' lirn itaLions wiLh. 8
torque curve fo r, 8
(lig. 1-S), 11
Atmospherie perfomlance
camshafts, 163
Auxiliary fu e! pumps, 215 16
clamp holding, 216
(fig. lS-3)
positioning of, 216 (fig. 18-2)
power wire for, 217
(fig. 18-5)
wirin gof,216- 17
4

Air sensors, 97
Ai r Lempcrature scn SOIj

Air vaJves, 87
Ambicnt heat and
detonaLion, 179

86

Ai r-to-wntcr intcrcooler
a ir/air core in , 67 (lig, 5-34)
charge-a ir heaL e xchangcr,
67-68
(:oolaot, 68-69
fro nt cooler, 69
fro nt-mounLed heat exchanger,
70 (fig. 5-37)
fro nt water coolers, 66
(ng.5-31 )
layout of, 67 (fig, 5-33)
in MasernLi biturbo, 66
(fig. 532) for N isso n V6 sand
ear, 72 (lig. 540)
1.1nd t'Ucing bOClts, 69
(ng. 5-36)
reservoirs, 69
variation on, 68 (fig, 5-35)
water pumps, 68

Back prcSsu,e, 2, 13 1,142


and exhnust gas, 179
and tailpipe, 170, 176, 178
and turbas, 132 Wg, 11-2)
Baflie-style turbo muffters, 137
Ball bearings
improvemcnts in, 182
oil-wick-Iubricated, 183
(lig, 16-2)
Banks, Gale
big-b lock Chevy twin , 191
(fig_ 17-1)
Barometric sensor, 86
Bearings, L63
BeU, Corky

depicted, iv

Bellows
stainless sLcel, 139

239

and modificalioft is serious


business. Yo must b alert,
use comnron sense. alld exercise

goodjudgemerll Lo preuellt
personal illjury,
Before Ilsing this book or
begining any work on your
uehicle, lhoroughly read tite
Warnillg on lhe copyright page,
al/.d any Warnings and
Cautions Usted 01/. the illside
{ront coue,..

SIee<! or fice. l51-52


Blow-through ca rburetor
system
plenum signa! source for, 148
Blow-through turbo a pplicaLio ns,
102,104-109, 1l0_
Bee also
Draw through turbo applica
Lions
anermarkel BMW 2002, 105
(Hg. 8-7)
controlling fuel pressure, 104
fuel pump requirements, 105
plenum design for, 109
plenum vent porta, 110
(fig.8- 15)
pl"eparing of, 107-108
suiulbJe carburetor s for, 109
vacuum and pressul'e
distribution, 1064)07
4

Blue pl'inting, 8
BMEP. See Brake mean effective
pressure
BMW 2002, 19 (fig. 2-5)
Bogb~ng,

178

Bolt fastener, 127

Boost
excessive pressure, 176
low Or sluggish, 177-79
Soosl controls, 188. Sce also
Wastegnte
rooling t he wastegnte,
150-52
need for, 141
ovcrboost protoct ion, 153
Ifig. 12-21)
ovcrride sufety dcvicc,
t52-53

240

INDEX

BaosL contrals. cont'd

remole boost-change dcvice,

and restrictor, 141-42


nnd venl vruvc. 142
wastegnte acluaLor signal,

California Alr Resoll rces BOtlrd ,


182
guidelines from, 196
cxemption orden; from , 192

147-48

Camshaft.s, 163, 164

151 (fg. J2-19)

wastegale description and


sclect.ion, 14244
wastegate design [eaLures,
148-50

Capacitor cscharge unit, 111


Carbon composiles, 187
Carburcled manifold , 82

wastegale inlegration,

Masel'oti Bora EFI

14446

conve rsion, 83 (fig. 6-17)

Boost gauge
placement of, 228
signalline for, 228
(fig. 18-25)

Boost pressure, 11-12, 16, 147, 196


and blow-through carb
system, 107
and comp ression ratio, 156
snd desired power', 155

and enginc knock, 141


cxcessive, 176
nnd fuel pressure, 96
and ignition rctard, 113, 116

Cru'buretion
blow-t.hrough syslem, 102,
104-109, J 10
101 (fig. 8-2)

draw-through system, 101 , 102,


103-J04,110
draw-t.hrough syst.cm layout,
JOl (fig.8-])
early turbo examp le, 102
(fig. 8-3)
Lotus hardware for EspriL, J 02
(fig, 8-4)

Mikuni PH44 carbo, 103

loss across throttle plate, 169

(fig. 8-5)

(fig. 14-5)

over cal'bllretion layollL, 104

maximum, 229. 230

(fig. 8-6)
setup t.ypes, 101 -102

venting of, 142 (fig. 12-3)


Boost-pr'cssul"e-powered fuel pres-

sure reguJator, 92
Boost-pressure-scnsitive switch,

19
Baost threshold (or point), 36
and drivcability, 9, 11-12
tlnd turbo s ize, 23, 36
Borla stainless stccJ Illufflers, 204
1wo-path, 205 (fig. 17-16)

Brake mean eITect.ive


presStlre, 7
Bt'uke speci fic ruel conslImption,

94

Casl aluminum hypereulcclic pis.


Lons, 161, 162
Catnlytic con verter, L31 , L89
positioning of, 134, 192
and wastcb"at.e discharge, 138

Ceram ic
coo lines. 163
lighLer-weight, 187
(fig. 16-8)
long-term du"ability or, 187
(fig. 16-9)
Lurbines, 186

Cl;'M, 8ee Cu bic feet per minute


Charge heaL, 162
Chrome, 21

BSF'C, See Brnke specie fuel consumption

CIS, See Co ntinuous injection syti.

Bmning gas
and compressive loud

Clearance volume, 156


Clock.ing, 35

(I;g. 14)

10m

Coked-up bearings, 35 , 39
(fig. 4-1), 46

Burn nHe
of fue l, 114

Cold plug. I II (fig. 9-1), J12

Byposs, 42 (fig. 45)

Cold-slarLe m issio lls tests . 199

Bypass vn lve, 106

Aulomotiue ~eruice, repair.


and modifical.ion is Sel'iOllS
business, Yo" musl bealerl,
use commOl1 sense, and exerdse
goodjudgemenllo preuenl
personal injw)',

Before Ilsing lbis book 01'


begitu:"g any work on your
uehicle, lhoroughly read the
Warning on lite copyright page,
aud al1y Wamillgs alld
Caui.olls listed O'" lhe illlside
front couer,

blow-through syst.cm layout.,

nnd intercooJer, 50. 53, 71, 72

and turbocharger improvements, 185, 186, 189

WARNING-

(lig. 17-9)

Cold sLurting, 11
Cold starl val ves, 108

pressure balances ncross, 109


(fig. 8-14 )

Combustion chambcr
<.'Ombination gauges 101', 115
(fig. 9-5)
ElecLromotive ibrlition system,
112 lfig. 9-2)
eJectronic ignition retord, 113
events in, 111-]6
and fuels, 114-15
!llld ignition systems, 116
and ign ition liming, 112
knock sensor for, 113
andspal'kplugs, 111- 12
volLage. l 11
Combust.ion raLe

arfuel,114
Compression ratio
a pproxima te boost-pl'essu'e
var iation, 156 ( fig. 13-2)
and boost-pressu rc allowables,
.155 (lig. 13-1)
ca1culating change in,

156-57
chauging, 157
defining, 157 (fig. 13-3)
and perforJnnnce factors, 155

for turbocharged
engi ne,64
Compressor
cfficiency, 28-29, 37
proLection while installing
t.ul'bo,221
sclccting sil.e or, 26-29
and sysLem performance, 24-25

Compl'essor byplilss valves, 99,


104, 105106

I NDEX
for Acu ra NSX. 205

turbo com prcssor, 7

Cylinder block

preparing Dr. 158

Hoatbowl pressu re relief, 106


Ifig.8-JO)
a nd floatlplenum prcssurc, 106
(fig. 8-9)
locotion of, 205 (tig. 17- 17)

Cylinde r hcad
prcpal'i ng 01',

l57~58

Compressor discharge temperature vs. pressure ratio, 29


(fig. 3-6)

Oe nsjty change fOl'mula, 202

Compressor e fficicncy,
28-29,37
formula fo r, 201 -202

Density !'tlt.io, 27, 28


vs. preSS\lfe ratio. 26
(fig. 3-4 )

Compressor inlets, 36, 223

De tonation
and af'termarket t.u rbo
kits, 16
causes of, 178-79
and charge heal, 162
definition and destrucliveness
of,179
and fuels, 114, 115, 178
and high compression
ratio, 164
pis ton a nd hentinduced, 161
and prc-i b'11ilioll. 112
a nd Sc'ety devices, 154
and temperalure, 2, 179
lesLing nll.e rmnrkel tu rbo \cit,
229
Dial-a-boost, 151

Compressor inlet hoses. 178


Compressor inlet tempera tu re,
166
gauge fol' mcasuring. 166
(fig. 14-2)
Compressor ouilet. 147
pressure, 166
temperature, 167
Co mprcssor retnillcr nut
Lighte nin gof. 177 eg. 15-")
trOllble with, 177
Compressor surge, 20-21
Computer chips (E fn
J'eprogramming of, 90
Connecting ro(t 163
and hurning gas pressurc,
4 (fig. J-4)
power and inertialJoads, 3, 4
(fig. 1-5), 5
Conscrvative cn msharL profiJes, 8.
11-12
Con tinuous injcction system, 85
Coolnni. tempcraLure sensor, 86
CoolunL Lemperature sensor
circuit.89

Coo lan t-lempcnlt.ure-signalcha nge-bal;Cd fu el system,


90 (fig. 1-4)
Copper-alloy locknuts, 127
Copper wil'e ri nr-:;
in head gaskcts, 159
(fig.13-4)

Oel1orto carbureLors, 109

OigiLul fu el injection, 98
Diode-readout mixture ind iclllor.
17 J (fi g. 14-8)

yolumetric, 13
EFl. See Elcdronic fue!
injection
ElecLromotive, 98
e ngine-mollllgementsystem,97
(fig. 1-20)
~;lecLronic

fuel injection (E '' 'I)


adaplnLion in Acura Integra, 86
(fi g. 7-2)
afiermarkel syste ms. 97-98
Ct"llculat.ing injcctor s ize, 94
extra injecLors for, 92-94
and flowmeler integration, 99
(fig. 7-23)
fou l"-barrel carbure t.ed manifold conversion, 97
(fig . 7-19)
fue l injectors a nd pulse duraLion, 87-88
fuel pu mp requiremcnts,
95-96
hardwlU'e fol' uftermal'kcL. 98
modern ellt.';ne manabremen t
systcm, 85 (fig. 7-1 )
modirying stock sytems of,
88-92
principie and sensors, 86-87
tesLing injeclors, 94-95

ElccLl'onic ign ition retard, lI S


MSD ignition retard, 113
(fig. 9-3)
Embosscd stni nl ess guskeLS, 207

Ois placment volume , 156

Emissions laws. 181, 182

Drain hose
rou ting of, 44-45
size of, 44

Emissions testing, 210

Oraw-through carburcted sysLem,

175
D raw-th.l'o ugh thrott.lc designs. 99
Dmw-thl'ough turbo applica tion,
101,102, 103-104 , lJO
DriIJed-co res
for g lass-puck mllfflers, 137
(fig. lJ-16)
Driveabilit.y, 8- 1.2, 13

Cruise
air/ fu el ratio, 17 1

Orivet.rain. 13

Cruise conll'ol nctllntor


relocation or, 226

DucL inlel. 57 (fig. 5-17)

Cru ising, 11-12


Cubic feel pel' minule, 27
fol' fou l'-l:ill'okecyc.le engin{:s,
27 (fig. 3-5)

Ouclile iron , 119


Durahility, 6

E
"Economy

cam,~

Efficiency
and power, 2

241

End-gns tempel'atures, 6
Engine
assembly ba lancing, 163
at mospheric, 8, 9
camshafls, 163
ca rbureled . 75
cfm fOl' fou r-slrokc-cycle. 27
(fig.3-5)
Chevymmor Indy, 189
Wg. 1G-Jl )
Cosworth V-8 , 15 (fig. 6- 1)
<,'ylinder block preparntion, 158
cylindcr hc.tld prepar ation ,
157-58, 164
developmenls in turbochllrgcd,
189-90
fucl-injeclion equipped, 75
hend clamp-up impl'ovemenl.
160
hend gosket improvemcnt.
lfi8-60
inspeclllll) for lurbo-induced
rlnm8b>"{>. 173-74

242

INDEX
sySLe I11 a ir rra m aboye, 195

Engine, col/l'd
loada I'clllted lo componenLs. 2
cr.g. 1-2)
modern munagemcnt systcm
for, 85 (fig. 7-1)
preparing or, 155-64
six cylindc r nlinc, 127

(fig. 17-7)

therma l characteristics

Automolive seruice, rcpair,

or,119

culd modifica/ion is serious


business. You must be alerl,

Lhennol cxpansion in , 126


tubing sizes, 120-24
turbo hcld Lo, 22, 218

torquing head fasteners,

( fig. 18-6)

160-61
LUrbo pisLOns. 161-63
wear and mainLenance, 13
wiLhstanding power output, 2-6

twin turbo design , l1 8


(6g. 10-2)
V-8 casting, ) 18 (fig. 10-2)
V-12 custom headcl", 121

Exducer bote
and compressor power, 31
(6g. 3-10)
definition off 31 (lig. 3-9)
a nd turbine size, 31
Exhaust. gas temperature gauge.
211
ExhaU51. hou s ing
Ll'o uble wiLh , 176-77

Exha llsL enu, 177


ExhausL man.ifold, 117

(6g. 10-1)
adapLliLio n of productiol1 , 124
(6g. 10-1 2)
in aftcrmarket turbo
syst.c m, 217-18
aluminum , U9
anLi-rcversion cone, 120
(6g. 10-4 1
npplicntion of, 117

big-block Chevy dcsib1'Jl , 118


(6g. 10-21
casLIng process, 124
cusL ron, 118-19
compact design, 121
(6g. J 0-6), 129 (fig. 10-19)
design criLeria faT, 11 7- 19, 129
designing a nel building, 196
fas lencl"s in, l27
four-into+one design , 121
(fig. 10-5)

gaskets in, 128-9, 130


Jim Fculing's Quad 4, 122
(fig. 10-8)

log-,tyle_ 120 (fig. 10-3)


mild sleel, 119
reversion in, 119
role or, 117
si ngle-turbo V-S ex hau5L
plumbing, 128 (fig. 10-18)
single V-S turbo design, 118
\fig. 10-21
slirn-profde Ilul rol'. 218
(fig. 18-71
~tainJc&.

sLeel, 118
.tylos or. \19-23

WARN/NG -

Wg. l0-7)

VW C'rl d.,.ign, \l8


(fig. 10-2)

wastegnte integration in.


124-25
ExhausL manifold pressure.
See Turbine nlet. pressure
Exhaust sySLems, 131-40.
See also 'l'ailpipes
for Acura NSX, 204-205
best for turbo, 131 (fig. 11-1)
cata.1ylic ,-"Onverter posit.ion in ,
134
design oonsideraLions for,
132-39
expansion joints, 134-35
fitting of exhaust Lubing, 134
(fig. !l-6)
flonges for, 139
flow a rea and power, 133
(fig. 11-4)
from-wheel-drive requiremcn LS, 140
ruture improvements in, 189
hange,s in , 135
muffiers, 13638
oxygen scnsor pos ition in , 134
tnjlpipe tips, 139
wastegHle integration,
138-39

Expansion joints, 13435

use commollsellse, allcl exel'cise


gooclj/lclgement to preuellt
personal il/}",Y.
Be{ore using this book or
begining olly work O" yOllr
uelticle, thorollghly read lite
Wal'll lIg 011 tite copyrigh.t page,
and ony Wamings (l/Id
Coutiolls Jisted 011 the n!lide
{ronl caver.

Flexjoints
for four-wheel drive-vehicles,

140
'~loats

in blow-thl'ough carburetors,
J07

fi'low cnpacities, 105


Flo\\' failul'es, 176
FlowmeLc,, 175
l;' lowmeLer/filter case assembly,
224 (fig. 18-20)
Flow velocity
in exhaust manifold, 129
F'orged aluminum pistons, 161

Formula 1 raee cars, 1


f>"'ucl economy
and volumet.ric cfficien,-y, 13
Fuel enrichment
diSCllssions of, 19, 20
Fue! cnrichme nt switch, 20
fue! flow
in carbul'etor, 101

Fuel injecLion anaIysis,


198-200

F
Fastcllm's
fo r Acura NSX, 207
fOI" exhaust manifold , 127
in exhau s!. system , 139
srcngt.he ning ribs betwecn ,
132 (fig. 11-3)

F-CON computer, 91 (fig, 7-6)


Fcu ling, Ji m
Quad 4 sysLem, 193

Ifig.17-31
F'langcs. 35
in cxhoust !:o-ystf'm, 139

Fuel injection manifold


applications for, 75-76
injector localion, 80
plenum ,79
progress ive lh '"OlLlc
bodies,82
ami mllners, 7778
throUJe boclles, 80-81

w.so

Fue) injecl,ors. See


Elcctrollic fu el injectlOn
::md muxill1um pulse Lime, 88
(fig.7-31
nnd puJse durat.ioll, 87~88.
198, 199

INDEX
AustraJiull EPI, 98
(lig.7-21)

Fuellines, 87, 95
Fueloctane
and detonalion, 178
Fuel pressure
i ncrcllSing, 92
Fuel pressurc check gUlIge, 227
plncement of, 227
(lig. 18-24)
removal afier testi ng, 230
(lig, 18-27)
Fuel pressurc regulutor, 87, 95,
104
aft.ermarket kit installaLio n,
226-27
boost-prcssllre scnsitive, l05
(fig. 8-8)
rue l nnd signn,l lines. 227
(lig. 18-23)
risingratc, 226 (fig. 18-22)
signa.ls oriboination for, LOS
(lig.8 12)
Fuel pumps, 87
and blowthrollgh carbllrction,
105

Bosch, 95 (lig. 7-15)


flow versus engine bhp, 96
(lig.7-17)
flo\\! versus ruel pressure, 95
(fig.716)
in paraUel , 96 (tig. 7-18)
requiremcnts for, 95-96

Fuels

Hangers, 135
sim ple. 136 (lig. 111l)
Head b'3skets
wilb double Oring, 160
(fig. 13-7)
improvemenl in, 158-60
strength or, 164
vnrious wire ring5 for, L59
(fig. 13-4)
with O-ring, 159 (fig. 13-6)
w ilhout O-ring, 159
(fi g. 13-5)
Heat-induced warpage, 126
and hender, 126 (fig. 1015)
Heat h'11n sfer a rea
in inLercooler, 48-49
Higher-pressure fuel system, 2 17
(lig. 18-4)
HKS piggybuck l.'OmpuLer, 90
(fig. 7-5)
Hobbs, David, 179
Holley carbw'ctors, 109
Horiba air/fuel ratio meter, 171
(fig. 14-8),207
Hol plug, 111 (fig. 9-1), 112
HOl starting, 11

fOI" afLcnnnrket turbo kits, 230


combusLioll rale of, 114
burn rate or, 114
und combustion c1mmber, 11415
..... uel system culibration, 8, 9, Ll
12

Idea! tempc l"aturc rise, 28


Id le controls, 87
ldlejets, 10] , 104

". . ullthroLLle air/fue! ratio,


171

19n.ilioll timing
snd detonation. 178

G
Gaskets
fOI" Acuru NSX. 207
in blow-through carbureLors,
108
in cxhaust manirold. 12 -9. 130
in e.xhausL sysLem, 139

Glass-pack mumers
Lypes or cores for, 137
<Hg. 11-(5)

H
HalLech,98

Ignition reLard
aft.ermurket kit insLu llation,
228
over -acLive, 178

Inertialloads, 2-3, 8,12, 13


compressivc, 2, 3
connecting-rod, 3 (fig. 1-3)
tcnsile, 2, 3
lnjector puJse duration
lengthening of, 88-89

Injectors
additional, 92 (ftg. 710)
add-on fue l supply. 93
(fig.7-12)
calculating size of, g'l
cx;LrH, 92-94
Oowtesl rig, 94 (fig. 7- L4)
for nlinesil( Nissan
manifold, 93

243

swged scconduries. 93
(fig.7-13)
standard, 80 (fig. 612)
tcst.ing or, 9495
upstream,80 (fig. 613)
I ntake manifold
carbureted manifold, 82
Chevy Super Ram, 76
(fig. 6-3)
E,'I manifold, 77 (fig. 6-5)
fu el injection manifold,
7582
layout, 98
10g-style, 76 (fig. 6-2)
measuring pressure in, 168-69,
170
Mitsubishi V6 desjgn, 83
(Iig. 6-18)
plenum, 76 (fig. 6-2)
proper,83
sourcing signal from, 147, 148
sym.metrical vs. non -symmetri
col, 77 (fig. 6-4)
lntake plenum signal source, 148
Intake runners, 77
design or, 77 (lig, 6-6)
inLersection with plcnurn, 79
(fig.6-10)
lntegral wastegates, 37, 143, 144
(fig. 12-7), 146
(fig.12-11),
146 (fig. 12-12), 153
modificaLion for increa&ed
OOost, 151 (fig. 12-18)
vadnlion 0 11, 147 (fig. 12-13)
lntcrcoole l' and intcl'cooling, 5l
(fig. 5-6). See also Ajr/oir
intercooler; Air-LQ-wa.t.el'
intercooler
afi.el'mnrket kit installaLion,
221-23
air/air, 52 (fig. 5-8), 53, 72
airflowas instaJled, 222
(fig. 18-16)
air-to-waler, 6669, 72, 73
ambient temperature mensuremen~ 168 (fig. 14-3)
in blow-through carb
syslems, UO
OOost and inc:rease in, 72
(fog. 5-39)
calculaling efficiency 01; 52
(fig. 5-9)
cnlculating vaJue or. 5051
c.hoosing Lype oC. 53
configurntions fo1', 72-73
J efi nit.ion and merits or,
71-72

244

INDE X

Intercooler and inlercooling,


cOl/l'd

des ign criterio for, 4850


design of air/nir, 5364
nnd detonation, 179
and driveability, 9
efficiency or, 209-210

Knock-sensor-cont.rolk>d ignit..ion
timing, 115

ex trudcd -tube core or, 49

Knock sensors, 113-14


failing, 178

(fig. 5-4 )

Ferrari Turbo GTO, 194


(fig. 17-5)

front-mounLed. 48 (fig. 5-2)


interconnecting lube installalion , 223 (fg. LS17)
one-shot, 70
ouUet conditions, 168
overview or, 4748
plate-and-she ll core or, 49
(f.g.5-4)
plate-style cores, 53
(fig.5-101
plumbing fro m, 204
(fig.17-15)
Porsche, 194 (tig. 17-4)
pos itioning in aftermarket kit.,
222 (fig. 18-151
positioning of. 193, 204
(ng. 17-141
staggered-core, 58, 65-66
tightening hose clamps, 223
(fig. 18-181
tu bes, 222-23
and t urbo chargcr
dcvelopmc nt , 188
a nd turbo pistana, 162
value or, 202
waler-based, 53 (tig. 59)
and waLer injector, 70, 73-74
waLer spray 011. 70
in XKE Jaguar, 73 (fig, 5-41)
zero-resislance,72
Intcrcooler efficiency, 52
and boost-prcssul'e variation ,
156 (fig. 13-2)
Inte rfel'cllce-sLyle
lockwasher s. 127
1ntel'healer. 65

Knock-sensor ignit.ion ret.ard, 113


act.ive knock-dctect.io n
system , -1 t4 (tig, 9-4 )

l
Lag
and driveability, 9, 10-11
and lwo turbas, 34
for varying sized turbas, 11
(fig. 1-10),23
Lnptop computcrs
for ofiermarkct EFI, 98
(fig. 7-22)

use commO/1 sense, allCI exerc;";c good j lldgement lo preven '


personal jlljUry,
Befo re using this book 01'
beginillg ally work tm your
uehicle. tltorollghly rcad lh e
Wami ng on tite copyright page,
alld olly Wamillgs rwd
Cautions listed 0/1. Ihe inside
{roll.t cover,

Mazda Miata
instaJling aflermarket turbo
system, 213-30
Performance Techniqucs design, 20 (fig. 2-6)

Leakdown test
checkoUl, 174 (fig, J 5-2)
descri.bed, 174

Metal-braid-protected Unes, 43

Lockwashel's, 127

Mikun i cnrburetol's, 109

Loctite, 108, 222

Mikuni PHH dual-throat side-

Louvel'ed-col'e
ror glass-pack mufflcrs,
137 (fig. 11 -15)
Lubrication, 39
and cokcd-up bcarings, 40
and fricti on reduction, 161
and low-mountcd turbos , 45
oil coolers, 42
oil druin system, 44
oil filters, 43
oi l flow and prcssurc, 41
oillines,43-44
oil selection, 40
oi l syste m aids, 45-46
tYPl'S of, 40
a nd water-coolcd beuring hausings, 40

dran, 109
Mileage

and Lurbocharger, 13
Mineral-bnsed oils. 42
Mis fires, 175, 178
Mitsubishi 3000 GT, 15
(tig.2-1)
Molysulfide, 112, 161
Molee oir/fuel ratio meter, 171
M,QLOrcrnn two-barrel c/U'bureLors, 109
Mounting nnnges. 150
Mumers, See cW;Q ExhausL sysLcms
Flow-maste r, 136 (tig. 11-13)
glasspack, 137 (fig,11 -15)
pnl'alle l glass-pac k, 137
(fig. 11 -14)

Mail1 jets, 101, 104


Mandrelbe nt tubes, 122, 206

Internal volume
in intercool er, 49-50

Manirold absolute pressul'e sensor,


87

1nveltedsou nd-wave silenccr, 189

Manifold vacuum/pressure
senso r, 87

MAP sensor. See Manifold {lbsolut.e pl'eSSlll'e senSOl'

sensol'slind.icalors, 114

AutomoJ.iue service, repoir,

alLd modificCllio" is serious


business, You nwsl be alert,

Lambda systcms, 20

Internu! now area


in inwrcoolel', ,~9

J & S Eledronic knock

WARNlNG -

Mari ne bilge pu mps, 68


Mass flow EFI system, 86

posilioning of, 196


styles, sizes, llnd numbcr,
136-38
Supcr-Tn\p desit'11 , 136
(fig. 11 -12)
nnd waste:,rates, 153

N
Nevcr-Seize, 112, 217. 2 l8, 221
Ni-Resis t,36

INDEX
NiSSt11l 300ZX TU I'bo, 23, 24

Petly, Richard, 115

Nonseque n Unl E PI systems, 87,


88, 89
Nozzle size (E F'J)
increasing of, 90-92

Pipethread tll..Lings, 196

o
Dctane improvers, 115
Deta lle rati ng
of fue l, 115
OEM. Sec Origi nal EquipmenL
Manu factu re r

Oil
for aftermarkcL tu r bo ki Ls, 230
cha nges, 35, 39
coolers, 42-43
flow and p resslI re requirements,41
m ineraJ-based, 42
selecting, 40
s)'l1thetic, 42

Oil d rain system, 44045


inlet and ou Llet positions,
45 (fig. 48)

Oil fced line ins tn llation, 43


(fig. 46)

Oi l l ters, 43
Oi l lines, 43
and b race al frrunc, 44
(lig. 4- 7)
Oi ] sp'ay

011 pislon boUom, 162, l6a


(fig . 13 11)

Di! sump, 44, 46 (fig, 4-10)


oil eh'ain fitting for, 45
(fig. 49)

Oil sysLeIU aids, 45-46

DiJ Lem perature gauges, 43


One-shot int.crcoole rs, 70
ice-chest heat exchanger fol'. 71
(fig.530)
Original Equipmenl Manufa.ctUl'
el'

turbo cars, 16, 39


nnd weak lin ks, l6
Dverl'ide safet,y devices, 15253
Qxygcn se nsor, 87, 134, 171. 192

p
Peak prcssure, 4, 5
Performance
nnd cnginc pl'cpul'ltioll, l50
verif'cntion. 210

PLAN equation
flnd powe r gain, 7-8
tmd power output, 7
(fig. 17)
Plen u m,79
in blow-t h rough tu rbo applications, 109
inLersection with intake nmner, 79 (fig, 610)
with mu ltiple thrott le pistes,
76 (fig. 62)
fOl' Porscne Indy engine,
79 (fig. 6-11)
cnLcring l h rotLle boc!ies, .147
vent ports, 110 (fig. 8-15)

Q
Quality control
for aftcnnsl'ket lurbo kits. 17

R
Renl temperulul'c rise, 28

RedEne pulse duration, 89


JWformulled gasolines, LI5
llc lays,87
Remote was tef:,'1lte. 143. 144
(fig. 127). 153
Restrictors, 42, 4 2. 14142
aftermarkel kiL inst....dlation,
225
a nd oi] p ressul'e reduction, 42
(fig.44)

Porschc 9 11 T urbo, 23, 24


POl'sche TAO turbo engine. 1
(fig. J 1)

Pon sizes. 8, 9,11- 12


Power
fmd boost pressure range. 155
105S0f, 176
aud multi ple turbos, 3435
and tu d.> size, 23

245

tailpipc, 14 ] (fig, 122)


Reversion, 14 2
Ring lane! area, 162
RiJ.ing-rutc fud pressure regulotor, 91 (fig. 77, 78),
92 (I;g. 79), 207 (Hg. 17 J9),
226 (lig, 1822)
Red bolls, 163

Power loads, 3-6, 12


l:ompressive, 2, 3
and cl'ank fm gle, 5 (fig, 1-6)

Runners
fol' fuel injection manifold, 7778

Pre-ignition, 112.
See olso OeLonation

Prcssu re ranges, 105

Sa ndwich-type gaskets, 207

Prcssure I'tltio, 26, 28


vs, compl'esso r de nsily I'alo, 26
(fig. 34)
vs. comprcssor rlischarge: tempe'ature, 29 (lig. 3-6)
formula for, 165, 167
and heaL, l66

Scuvenge pump. 45

Pressuresens itive ignilion


l'ctard, 113

SK citl'buretol's. 109

Primar)' serall l.ul'binehousing,


J84
Progressive Lhj'oltle boclies,
8 1,82
linkage, 82 (flg. 6-15)
Neuspeed's lurge VW,82
(fig.616)

Spark plllgs, 111-12

Puddling, 103, 110


Pulse duraLiol1 , 86
ext ending or, 89
off-uel injector, 87-88,198,199
Pu lse signal intel'ceplors, 90

Secondru'Y sel'oH Lurbine


hOllsing, 184
Sequential EFI syslems. 87, SS. 89
Signal block, 206 Cfig. 17-18)
S ig nallines, 176
80ft spots, 135
Speed density EFI systems, 87
SplitinleL exhausL housing, 34
(Hg. 314)
Squish volu me, 157
Staggcl'ed-cOI"e int crcooler, 58, 6566

Stainless mechanicallocknuts,
127
Stl:\inless steel
bt"aid tines. 43-44
in [astcner bolts. 127

246

INDEX

SLcel wire rings


in head gaskcts, 159
Uig. 134)
Straight-lh rough glnss-pack murOers, 137
SLud fastners, 127

Sluds
compression and tensile Stress,
161 (fig. 13-9)
heads held on by, 160
(fig. 138)
and lension, 160
Surge mil, 29
Swab~s

as flexjoinls, 135 Ctig. UIO)


fo' tailpipes, 135 (fig. 11-9)
Synthetic oils, 42

T
Tuchometcr circuit, 87
Tailpipes, 131
back pl'e8sure measurement
for, 170
Bod a. 140 (fig ..11-19)
ror front-wheel-drive, 140
hangers for, 135
and joinl,'cliability
problems, 140
rcstriction distribution, 170
(f,g.I>1-7 )
reslrictor for, 141 (fig. 12-2)
slzing of, 133
swaged joint. for, 135
fig.1I-9)
tips for, 139
trauble with, 176, 178
for wastegale, 138
(fi g. U-16), 146, 147, 153
Temperature. Su also lntercooler
and intcrcooling
obsolutc,51
air pressure, altiLude and, 28
(fig.3-1I
and boost, 14 l
compressor inJet., 166-68
and detonation, 2, 179
cnd-gas,6
and eogine improvements, 190
tn exhaust gas, 198
in e."(hnust manifold, 117, 122,

meusurement. eq uipmcl1 t, 165


measu rement paints, 169
(fig. 14-4)
::Jnd mep, 25 (fig, 33)
and pist.on dumabte, 161, 162
rcal rise in , 28
LUl'bine beari ng, 6
snd t.urbo size, 25 Hig, 3-2)
warpage, 126 (tig. 10-15)
and wastegate, 149
water-Ilnd-non-wat.er cooled
bcarings. 41 (tig. 4-3)
Testing
rur filter fl ow 1055, 165-66
air/fuel raUo, 171
ambieot temperalure in ntercooler, 168
compressor nlet temperature,
166
l..'ompressor OuLlel conditions,
166-68
equipmenL 8nd LOOls for, 165
inlake manifold pressure, 168-

WARNING Aulo1l1oliue service, repair,


(Uld modifiootioll is St!.1'I01$
business. You musl be alert,
lIse commo,t sense, alld exercik
goodjudgemenllo prevelll
personal inju/'y.
Be{ore Itsiug this book 01'
begttg ony UJork on your
uehicJe, tltoroughly read tlle
Warning on tlle copyn'ght page,
and any Warn ings ond
Cau /.ions Listed on lILe inside
{rom couer.

'l'brottle valving, 98
Through-bolt fastener, 127
1'hrough-bolts. 207

TIP. See Turbine nlet pressure

69

'l'0Iue ne, 11 5

int.ercooler ouLlet conditions,


168
tailplpc back prcssure, 170
Lurbine nlet. pressure. 169-70

Tools and equipmenL


for turbo kit in stallation, 21415

Thermal controla
in aftcrmarket turbo ki ts,
17
'I'hermal efficiency
81ld intert:oolers, 60, 61
ThermaJ expansion
of exhaust syst.em, 134
(fig.11-7)
and join Lal. lronsmission, 135
(fig. 118)
tlnd pisLons, 162
and wastegute venL Lube, 138
lfig. ll-J7)
'fhcl'mulloads, 12, 13
Thermal managemenL, 6
ThroLlle bocUes, 80-81
on Chevy smull-block ma nifol d ,
81 (fig. 6-14)
connections lO, 196
mcasuring prcssure loss across,
169 (fig. 14-5)
ThroLtle position sensor, 87

126, 128, 129

'I' hroltle I'esponsc, LO, 155

in exhaust system, 132, 134


(fig. 11-7), 135

' rhrottles. 147

Thrott.le shofts, LOS

fo,mula for rise in, 52-53. l67

fuelleakage at, 108

hender bolts and, 126


Ifig. 10-161
ideal r ise in, 28

(fig. 8- 13)

Torque,8
and boost, 14
curves, 8 (Hg, 1-8)
und friction , 160, 161

and smarL wastegate controls,


188
Lurbo capnbility graph, 10

lfig. 1-9)
tu rbo size and low-speed, 23
'I'oyo'" G'I'p' 65 (fig. 5-301, l25
(flg. l o-14 ),
l30 (fig. 10-20)
Trnnsmission. 13

'1'6 heal-treated bypercuLectic


a lloys, 161. 162
Tube sizes
for exhaust syslCms, 132-33
'rurbine
role or, 25
selecting size for, 29-34
speed and size of, 37
Turbine inlet pre8Surc, 169-70,
209
IncaSlll'cmenL 01', l70 (fig. J4-6)
'I'urbine ouLlcL flange conncclions,
133 (fig. !l-5)
'I' urbme autlet pipe
in aftermnrkct turbo system,
218-19

INDEX
posiLioning of, 219 (fig. 189)
pl'cpal'8Lion or, 218
(fig. 18-8)
Tu rbochargcd c l1brines
facLol'y manufaC:l;ured, 16
power 'rom, 12
pricing or, 21

'l'mbocharged vehicles
aftcrmarkel kit. purchases ror,
16-18
building own !:o-ystem ror, 18
buying OEM, 16
methods for acquiring, 15
Turbochargers
aftermarkct kit instalJution,
2 19-21
inst.a1lation preparation, 219
(fig, 18-10)
lnterconnecting tube installation, 223 (fig. 18-1 7)
oil reservoir filling, 220
(fig. 18-12)
o,il reservoir sealing, 220
(lig. 18-11)
Turbocha rger systems, iv.v
and accident.s, 173 (lig. 151)
Acura NSX installation , 196210
aftermnrket kit installalion ,
213-30
fm- BMW 535i, 197
(fig_ 17-8)
big-block Chevy twin, 191
lfig_ 17-1)
and boost product.ioll, 13
Callaway twin turbo COI-vette,
18 lfig. 2-4)
Capri V6 drawthrough , 192
(fig_ 17-2)
c8l'bw'elcd, 99
Chevy Camaro, 22 (fig. 22)
c1assic, 23 (fig. 31)
compl'essor efficiency verificatiOll, 208-209
compressor size in select.i ng,
26-29
dcfming actual, 196210
delining theoretital , 191196
desirable features in, 35-36
difficulty in insl.alling, 210
driveability Ijmitations of, 812,
13
emissions tesLing, 210
e ngine impl'ovements fOl', 18990
fuel illjection rmalysis, 198200
of ruture, 188 <Ftg. 16-10)
hardware 101', t88-89

impl'ovemcnl.S in, t82-87


Indy CUI', v
intel'coolcl' c lliciency, 209-210
intel'cooling va lu c in , 202
layout decislon!> fo1', 202-205
layout 01' intcrcooled . 47
(fig_5-l)
long-term durability 01: 6
low boost I'esponse frolll, 177
79
lubrication oC, 3946
malfunction, 173
(fig_ 15-1), 175-77
M.itsubishi 3000G'f, 15
(fig. 2-1)
modern fuel-injected
system, v
mult.iple, 3435
performance testing, 200
performance verification, 210
positioningcomponents withill,
193-96,203
(fig. 17-12,17-13)
and power gain , 78
power output of, 16
preinstaJlation test data, 198
pricing of, 21
selection guidelines for, 24- 26
size selection, 186
smaU-block Chevy, 21
(fig_ 2-7)
split inlet l!xhaust housing, 34
(fig.3-1.4)
staged and staggered, 189
testing or, 165-71, 207-208
troublcshooting guide for, 180
trouble with, 17380
turbine section, 209
t\lrbine size in selectin g,
2934turbo select.ion , 200-202
lwin turbo big-block , iv
1' urbocharging
developments in, 181-90
ruture in, 182, 188
(fig. 16-10)
VW 0-60 time, 18J (fig, 16} )
Turbo compl'essor efficient:y, 6
'furbo connections. 35-36
Turbonetics H3 Cmpressor, 30
(fig_ 3-8)
l'urbonc l.ics 60-.1 compressor. 30
(fig. 3-7)
'rurbo l>el'formance camshafts,
163
overlap in , 164 (ng. 13t2)
Turbo pistons

247

heaL removal rrom, 162~63


materiaJs for, 161-62
mechanicaJ deS:ign or, 162
ring lands on, 162 (Hg. 1310)
Turbo section cJocking, 35
1'urbo~to-tai lpjpe joint, 132
1'urbuJators, 55
Twin scrolJ turbine housing, 184
'rwin turbas, 37
Two-Ievel boost. swiLch , 151

u
u. S, Environmentnl Protection
Agency, 196

v
VacuunVboostb~uge,

165,209

(fig.17-21),211
Vacuum check valve. 228
Vacuum leaks, 175
Valve caver breather
hose routing to, 225
restrictor inside, 225
(fig. 18-21)
Valve gear', 163
Valve trains, 164
Vane position actuator
add.ing signallines to, 219
(fig. 18-10)
Variable urca turbine nozzle, 184,
185, 189
details of, 185 (fig, 16-5)
I'cspollse time or, 185
(lig. 16-6)
SUCCC$S of, 186
turbo for, 197
Varicom VC200 accele rat.ion
puter, 200, 210

COI11 -

VATN, See Variable area turbine


nozzJe
VATN acLuatOl s gnallines
aflel'l11arket kit instailation,
225-26
VATN turbocharger, 153
Venturis, 104, 147
Volumet.ric efficiency, 13

w
WaJl thickness
in exhaust manilhlds, 122

248

IND EX
valves, 176
venting or, 145 lfig. J 2-9)
vent t ube, 138 (Iig. J 1-17)

Warrall tics
ror af'termarkeL tu r bo kit.s, 17,

21-22
Wastcgale, 142 43

Wllslegste acLuator

altering s pring in, 150

aetustor signal for, 147-48

and adapters, 143 (fig. 12-6)


adjusLahility or, 149
blero angles nto. 145
(fig. 12-10)
and boost control, 142

(fig. 12-4)
cracking pl'essure or, 149
des ign cons iderations for, 149
eJectro ni c/pneumatic conlrols
for, 152
failures in , 176

flexibl e vcnt tubes, 148


(fig. 12-14)
rooling, 150-52
heat isoJation in, 149
HKS, 143 (fig. ] 2-5)
J-lj<S Electron.ic Valve Controller, J52 (fig_ 12-20)

on Honda CRX, J39


(fig. 11 -18)
i.mportance oC, 153
i.ntegration of, 138-39, J44-47 ,
153
mounting f'lnnge in, L50
safety devices fOT, 152-53, 154
selccting, '14 3-44
separa ta tailp ipes for, 138
(fig. 1I-16)
signal original ion [DI", 108
(fig. 8-12)
signaJ source, 148
(fig. 12-15)
lrouble with , 177-78

Wast.egate integration , 12JI


1nto exhau st manifold , 125
(fig. 10- 13)
in Toyota G'l'P enbrine, 125
(fig.IO-14 )
Water-based heat. exchangcr, 48
(fig. 5-3)
Water-cooled bearing sections, 35
Watcr-(:oolingjackel.,39
Water injectors, 70, 73-74
Water j ack e t.~, 103
wiLh turbo bea ring sections, 36
(fig. 3-15)
Weber carbllrctors, 109
Weld el manifold , 122
(fig_10-9)
described, 122
as fu nctioning arto 123
(fig_l0-10)
ledUcers selection charl, ] 24
(lig. 4-2)
selection chart. 90-degree
elbews, 123 (tab. JO-l )
fOI" triple-turbo Jaguar, 123
(Hg. IO-ll )

z
Zero-resistance inlercoolers, 72

WARNlNG Aulomolive service, repalr,


and modificalion is serious
business. You nwsl be alerl.
lt$ecommOIl sell$e. and eurc;se
goodjudgellumt lo prcvent
personal i"jury.
Before using litis book or
beCill ing alty wor/t oa )'our
I.Jchicle, thorougldy read I.he
Warning on lhe (:opyright page,
and cmy Warni1lgs and
Ctutons lislcd OIL the inside
{ron' cover.

Selected Books and Repair Illformation From Bentley Publishers

Engineering

BMW

Vo lkswagen

Supcrdmrgcd! Des ign. Testi ng.. ami


Inslall atio n or SupcrcJmrgcr SyS IClllS
Curk.v Ud! ISBN Q..8376-Q I 68-1

BMW 3 Series Enlnus iast's Comp:tnion


/l!remy W,lltQII [SBN 0-8316-0220-3

Volks wagen Sport Tuning for Stre.el an d


Compelilitln Pl'r ScllfOt'd!"r
ISBN 0-8376-0161-4

Bosch Fuc l lnjcclio n and Engi!)t>


Managcm(,1l 1 Clllld i'S O. Probsl. SAE
ISBN 0-8376-0300-5

Scicnt(ic Design of Exha ust and In lake


SySlcllls Pldlli1H, SII/ il/ mld 11111 C.
M orrisoll ISBN 1)..8376-0309-9

T ite Lcad ing Edgc: Acrody nanl ic Dcsign


nI Ultra-5trcamli ncd LJl1d Vehides
lro 1immi ISBN Q-837(.-0860-Q

Driv ing
T hc Unfair Ad va ntagc Ma rk DVll ml w .'
ISBN (H076-Q073-1(hc:); 0-8376-0069-3(pb)
Going Faslc r! Masteri ng Ihe Art 01 Race
D riv iug TJI! Skip Barlll~r Rnriug $chool
ISBN 0-8376-0227-0
A Fre n.:h Kiss Wilh Death : Stc"'e
M cQ u('en and Ihe Maki ng 01 Lr MIIIIS
M idlllel Kt yser SBN 0-8376-0234-3
n lC Spccd Mercha nts: A }ou m ey llm.Hlgh
lhe World 01 M otor R"cing 1969--1972
Miclutr.! Kt'YS/!r ISBN 0-8376-0232-7
S pu rts Car and Compctition D ri vins
(Ja/l/ F'rcrl' \\"ith fore w(.rd by PI,;I HUI
ISBN 0-8376-0202-5
The Tedll1iq ue o f Molor Rao::ing
11j'r41 Trl ruffi IS6 IJ.S376-022S-Y

HMW 3 Seril.!s ([46) Service Manual:


1999-2001, 323i, 32Si, 32S"i, 328i, 33Oi, 3JOxi
Sedan, Coupe, COll vertib lf>, Sport Wagon
Iklllll'Y P,tblM/er~ ISON 0-8316-0320-X
UMW J Series (E36l Servicc Manu al:
1992- 1998, 318i/isliC, 323isJiC, 325i/ is/iC,
328i1i$liC, M3 8/!/ll/,y Pu /)l;slwrs
ISBN 0-8376-0326-9
BMW 5 Seri~ Service Manual: 1989-1995
525i, 530i, 535i, 540i, incJuding Touring
B/!JllIey PrMisll/!rs ISIlN 0-8376--03 19-6

DMW 7 Se ries Servicc Ma n ual:


1988-1,994, 735i, 735il, 740i, 740iL, 750il
B~lI t ley PI/h/:d,,:r1f ISBN 0-8376-0328-5

Chevrolet
Zora A rkus-D un tov: T he legend 8c hi nd
orvelle Jerry BurlO,. ISBN 0-$376-()858..9
Corvell c rroll1 the Insi d e: Thc SO-Year
Develo p m cn t HislOry lJl/IJI;' Md ..d lmr
ISBN 0-8376-0859-7
Corvclle by Ihe N u mbers: T he Essential
Corvettc Parts Reference 1955-1982:
Allllr CoIvill ISS 0-8376-0288-2
Olevrolcl by Ihe N u mbers 1965-t969:
Thc Esse ntia l C hev rolct prts Referente
Alm/ COI:II ISIJN 08376-09569

Hallle for Ihe Beetl"


Kurl I.rufT.igSf!1I
ISON 0-8376-001 1 5
New Beetle Se.rvice M.ilnual: 1998-2002
1.8l turbo, 1.9l TO I diesel, 2.0L g;soline
RI'n /lt>y B'Jl/blislwrs ISBN 0-8376-0316S

Ne.w Beelle 1998-2002 Offic.i;1 Factor)'


Repair Manual on CO-ROM
&/Il ley PI/Mis/11'rS IS BN 0-8376-0838-4

"iI!\s;1 5crvicc Manual: 1998-2002, 1.8L


turbo, 2.8l V6, 4.0L W8, induding
""'gon ilnd 4MOTION Be/llley PIIJJfSIrC~
ISUN 08376-0393-5
l'assaI1998-2002 OHicial Faclory Repai r
Manua l on CD-ROM
Ik"I'ey Pllblisll/!rs IS BN 0-B376-0B37-6
Jclta, Golf, GTI Servire Manual:
1999-2002 2.0L Gasoli ne, 1.9l TD I Diese l,
2.8 L VR6, 1.8l Turbo &,II/(.'II PublisJll!rs
ISBN 0-8376-0388-9
.

Ncw Bcetlc Service Man ua l: 1998-1999


2.0L Gasoline, 1.9L IDI Diesel, "!.Sl Turbo
IJ>lI tl~ Pl/blislltrS ISBN 08316..03854
Jella, Gol f, GTI, Cabrio Scrvice Ma nual:
1993-1999, inch.d ing jt!ttalll and Golfl/i
8cll /ky Publisllrrs ISBN 0-8376-0366-8

"maro Exposed: 1967- 1969, Desi~n s,


Occision s :.;nd Ihe Inside Vicw
PIIIII 2JZIIri /lr! ISBN 0-8376-0876-1

Jctta, Glf, CTI1993-1999, Cabrio


1995-2002 Offirh.1 Factory Itepair M anual
011 CO-ROM Brlllley PIIMis/,er$
ISBN 0-837&-(8)01-1

Corvell e Fuel Injeclion & Eleclronic


Eng ine Ma lmgemenl 1982- 2001:
Clr{/r/t'li O. "ml. SIIE ISUN 0-83761)8619

f.:u rovan Official Factory Re pa ir Manual:


1992- 1999 Volk$wlIgt'1I111 Al1Il'ricfl
ISBN 0-83760335-8

Mcrceclcs-Hc.nz E-Class Owncr's Biblcn r


1986-1995 lklltl}/ PI/"'i~ll'n:
ISBN 0-8..116-0230-0

Corvelle 427: l'tiIclirill Reslo ratiU\ o f a


' (17 Roads le.r Dml SJ1Cflltall
SON 0-8376-02 18- 1

EurO" .. 1l 1992- 2002 Qfficial Faclory


Repair Manual on CD+ROM
Belltley PI/blislrm ISBN 0-8376-0835-X

Civic Out y: The Ulli mate Guide lo Ihe


HondO! C ivic AlllII 1','/'11(11&'
ISBN 0-8376-0215--7

Fo rd

Thi nk To Win: The Ncw Appro"ilch to


Fast Dr iving 0011 A II'.wmclcr tlll'tll lon.'tl~,rrl
b.y Milrk Ma r lin ISBN 0-8376-0070-7

Other Enthusiast Titles

Ruad & Tr.Jck lIIus lraled Aulomolive


Dicionary /01/1/ Dillkd ISBN 083760 143-6
Harlcy-Oav idson Evolul io n V-Twin
OWller's Bible MJSf'$ t/llld
ISBN 08.116-0 146-0
Jeep OWllcr's Bib lc
ISIlN 0-8376-0 154- 1

'M M~t'S Ludd

Audi
Aud i A4 Repair Mallllal: 1996-2001, 1.HL
lurbo, 2.8l, incl ud ing AvO!nt <lnd quallro
Bflllfey f'I//)li$IU!~ ISBN 08376-037 1-4
Audi M 1996-200"1, 5 '12000-2001 OUidal
Faclory Re pOlir Manual 011 CD-ROM
&"''''.11 Pllbli~J/e~ ISBN 0..8376-08'33-3
Audi /1..6 S ...:dan I998-2002, Ava nl
1999-2002, alln)"d 1l\lUro 2001-2002, S6
Avanl 2002 O Hicjal Filclory Re pnir
M"nu al o n CD -RO M Bmlky "uNi~/m;
ISBN fI-a376.oS36-6

The QffidOlI I:ol d Muslang 5.0 Tedmical


Rl!fercncc &: Performallce I-Iandbook:
1979- 1993 Al Kir:;cll('lIllfluw
ISBN 0-8376-0210-6
Ford f-Se.ri/:'$ I'ickup O~"nl'.r'.s 8ibh~fM
I S I~N 0-8376-0 1525

Ma:;es LI/dd

I:ord Fuell"jection <lnd Eleclrollic Eng ille


COl1lrol: 1988-1993 C/IlIfI,'S Q . Prob:;/. SAE
ISBN 0-83760301 -3

Porsche
I'orsche Carrera 96<1 and 965, 1989- 1994
Tech nician's I-Jandbook: Wilhoul
CUl'.sswork TN RClltlcy PIIMisllrrs
ISBN o-83i60292-0
Po rsc.he 9'11 C.arrera Serv ice Ma nual:
1984-1989 B"llllcy I'/Ilisllt'r~
ISBN 0-8376-029 12
ro rsche 911 SC Coupe, T.lrg." alld
Cabrio lel Se rvice Mi,"uOl!: 1978-1983
8m/II"III)II'i~Ja<; [SBI'\ 0-8..171'-o-1I2W...j1

Jella, G olf, GTI Sen'ice Mallual :


1985-1992 Casolinc, Diesel, .md Turbo
Diesel, inc.luding 16V Bmlky PII"'i~lrcrs
ISBN 0-8376..(1342-0
S uper Beetle, Beetle and Kil rmann C h a
OFfidal Servicc. Manual : Typc 1,
1970-1979 Vulksn.Ylgl!// of I\muica
ISBN 0-8376..00%-0

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AUTOMOT1VE BOOKS ANO MANU}\LS

&-nlll'.y Publishers h.ti publrshL'C1 servicc


manuals a"d au lolTIobile books SIIlC\."

195U. 'kaS(' wrllc Bcnllcy Puhllshcl"1 :11


17\.1 MIs..-:'1chusells Ave., Crnbrki~o.!,
MA 02138, visil our web .st~ al
\Vww.lk nl le}'Punl;shcr~.com, or (",,11
1-&JO.'2.1--lS9~ rllr i\ rn.~ cOl'Y ("Ir ('\Ir
n.mpldl::' COI'illfl~

ART CREDITS
oC Acrody nc: F ig. 16-4. 16-6, 167, 17- 10, 17-11
oCCallaway Enginecring: 2-4. 10-2
of Co rtech : Fig. 5-9, 6-7, 7-8, 7- ll. lO-5, 10-17
of Fcl-Pro: Fig. 13-4
oC Fred Does: 1"ig. 5-30,10- 14
oC Garrell: Fig. 16-5, 168, 16-9. 1312, Troublcshoot.ing Chmt Qn p. 180
of HKS USA, Ine.: Fig. 2-3, 5-15, 75, 12- 14
oCImport Engines, N. Hollywood, CA: Fig. 72
of ITAe Aulomotivc Systems: Fig. 7-21
Arlcourtesy JefT Harlman : Fig. 5-41, lO-l O. 10-1 1, 17- 12, 17- 13, 17-14,17-15,
1716,17 17, 17 J8, 17 J9, 1720, 172 1
A.'t cou r tesy oCKorman Autowork s: Fig. 8-7, 17-8
Art. courtesy o f Mcchtech Motorsporls: '~ig. 5-3. 5-40, 8- 11, 11- 1
Arl courtesy ofMitsubishi : F'ig. 3-1
Art courtesy of Porsche: f"ig. 1-1
Art courtcsy ofTu rbo Magazine: Int.roduction phot.oslpp. v-v), Fig. 2- t , 2-2, 2-6 , 2-7.
2-S, 4-6, 5-2, 5-6, 5-21, 5-27,5-28.5-29, 5-32.5-38,5-39,6-3,6-5,6-6,6-9, 6-11, 6- 14, 616,6-17,6-18,7- 12,7-20,7-22,8-4, 9-2, 9-3,9-5, 10- 1, 10-G, 10-7, 10-8, 10- 12, 10-20,
11-2, U -G, 11 -12, 11-t 3, 11-19, 12-5, 12-20 , t 3-8, 13- 10, 14-8, 14-8, 15-3, 15-4, 16-1.1611 ,171 , 172, 173,174.176,177
AI't. Cf)u l-t.esy orTu rbo Technology: Fig_5-5
Art. court.esy Or1\lrbonctics: Fig. 3-7, 3-8, 3- 15, 7-23. 102, 10- t8, 12-6, )2- 13, J 2- 17
Arl courLCSy
Art oou rLesy
Art. courtesy
Arl <:ourlcsy
Art courtesy
Art courtesy
Arl cou rtcsy
Arl courtesy
Art courtesy

or

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


C Ol'ky Bel) was bOI"ll in Albuque.-c)ue und raised somewhcrc bet.ween llIinois, F'lordil, Louisiana, Texas, Ncw Mexil."'O, tlnd Europe, t\fter receiving a dcgree in mechanical cngineedng r.'om Texas A&M , he worked as 00 enl,tl neer at. Bell Helicoplez' rOl'
t.welve years. He opencd CUl't.ech in Dalias in 1977, ancr hilO intel'csL in LlIl'bocharging
grew r-om a hobby nlo a bu siness. He slIbsequcnLly moved Cartech lo San Antonio
anel in 1992 rormed Bell Engincedng, lo expond lhe scopc orbmiincss by providi ng e ngineering and rabricntion SCl'viCC$ rol' lighl uil'craft.
Fol' sixtcen years he cnjoycd lhe wondcl'rul oPPol'tll niLy to play ama teur nuto I'tu:er
(SeCA nnd IMSA), which len. him with IOlS or hardearned 8utomoti\'e experience,
rmmy foncl memories. and l11any good rricnds.

Mnrried for t.wenly-scven yenl's, wilh t.wo daughlel's. he lives wit.h his ramily in t.he
grt'8l Texas hill counlz'Y nort.h or San Ant.onio.

250

Maximum

---

8005t

Designing, Testing, and Installing

lurbocharg er Systems
by Corky BeU

M. 11l1Um Boo!>t is du.' delll1lcive book on cucbocharglng. This hands-on book comallls
[he most demiled informnLion availabk on Lll1dt:r~tandin g dt:sig l\ing. setr ing up , ct:sring
and mooifying your car wirh a wrbocharger sys({"m. Wirh Qver 2S year~ of ex.penence in
des igning, building . and insmlling turbo SyS H~ m s, aurhor Corky Bell covers every aspecr
o( lurbocharg ing. You \ViII Ic:arn everyrhing from du: hasic [heory lx-hind {Urbocha rgi ng
tO rhe nuts-and-bolrs o( plltcing a rurbo sysrem rogerher. Corky shows how ro select <lnd
instaJl rhe figh[ turbo, prep rhe engine, test the systems, <lnd integrare a rurbo wirh an
eleccronic fue! injection system or carhurclOf. Corky evcn provides you detailed troubleshoor ing informarion for both OEM and afrermarker turbocharger syStems.
You'll find vaJuabJe informarion on tb(: foHowing:
-Jow ro design rhe besr turbo sysl(~ m for yOllr
eng ine- incl ud ing sizing and seJect ing [he rurbo,
inccrcooling, engine preparar ion, fuel system rweaks.
and incakt: and cxhausf des.ign .
eoveraSe of America n, Asian , ancl European ('ns ines,
from rhe Buick Granel Nacio nal tO rhe H onda CRX
and rhe Po rsche Turbo.
Ev:. luaring and insta lling aftcrma rkel turbo k ifS.
Maximizing rhe performance of your Current
rurbo system.
Step-by-slCp design and instal lation of a turbo system.
Whcther you want bcncr passi ng performance, or an
aH -out horscpower assauJt , Maximum Boost wilJ
give yOll aIJ rhe knawlee!ge you need ro gu rhe rl10sr
am of yOll r engine ane! rs rurbocharger sysrtm.

Chapters
1. An Engi neering l ook at the Basics
2. Acquiring a Turbocharged Vehicle
J. Selecting the Turbocha rg er
4. Turbocharger Lubrication
s. Intercooling
6. Intake Manifold
7. Electronic fu el Injection
8. Carburetion
9. Events in the Chamber
10. Exhau5t Manifold Design

11. Exhaust Systems


12 . Boost Controls
13. Prepa ring the Engine
14 . Testing the System
1S. Trouble
16. Developments in Turbocharging
17. Bringing it AII Together
18. Installing a Turbo Kit
Suppliers
Glossary
~.

Bentley Stock No. GTUR

ISBN 0-83760160-6
$34.95

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