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Mortality rate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mortality rate
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Crude death rate)


Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or
due to a specific cause) in a population, scaled to the size of that
population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in
units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate
of 9.5 (out of 1000) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5
deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total.
It is distinct from morbidity rate, which refers to the number of
Crude death rate by country (2006).
individuals in poor health during a given time period (the prevalence
rate) or the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit
of time (incidence rate). The term "mortality" is also sometimes inappropriately used to refer to the number of
deaths among a set of diagnosed hospital cases for a disease or injury, rather than for the general population of a
country or ethnic group. This disease mortality statistic is more precisely referred to as "case fatality rate" (CFR).
One distinguishes:
1. The crude death rate, the total number of deaths per year per 1000 people. As of July 2009 the crude
death rate for the whole world is about 8.37 per 1000 per year according to the current CIA World
Factbook.[1]
2. The perinatal mortality rate, the sum of neonatal deaths and fetal deaths (stillbirths) per 1000 births.
3. The maternal mortality ratio, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in same time period.
4. The maternal mortality rate, the number of maternal deaths per 1,000 women of reproductive age in the
population (generally defined as 1544 years of age) .
5. The infant mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1000 live births.
6. The child mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 5 years old per 1000 live births.
7. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR)- This represents a proportional comparison to the numbers of
deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of a standard composition in terms of age,
gender, etc.[2]
8. The age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) - This refers to the total number of deaths per year per 1000
people of a given age (e.g. age 62 last birthday).
In regard to the success or failure of medical treatment or procedures, one would also distinguish:
1. The early mortality rate, the total number of deaths in the early stages of an ongoing treatment, or in the
period immediately following an acute treatment.
2. The late mortality rate, the total number of deaths in the late stages of an ongoing treatment, or a significant
length of time after an acute treatment.
Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole population can give a misleading
impression. The crude death rate depends on the age (and gender) specific mortality rates and the age (and gender)
distribution of the population. The number of deaths per 1000 people can be higher for developed nations than in
less-developed countries, despite life expectancy being higher in developed countries due to standards of health
being better. This happens because developed countries typically have a completely different population age
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Mortality rate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

distribution, with a much higher proportion of older people, due to both lower recent birth rates and lower mortality
rates. A more complete picture of mortality is given by a life table which shows the mortality rate separately for
each age. A life table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy.

Contents
1 Statistics
2 Use in Health Care
3 See also
4 References
5 Other Sources
6 External links

Statistics
The ten countries with the highest crude death rate, according to the
2012 CIA World Factbook estimates, are:[4]
Rank

Country

Death rate
(annual deaths/1000 persons)

World historical and predicted crude


death rates (19502050)
UN, medium variant, 2008 rev.[3]

Years

CDR

Years

CDR

South Africa

17.23

19501955 19.5 20002005 8.6

Ukraine

15.76

19551960 17.3 20052010 8.5

Lesotho

15.18

19601965 15.5 20102015 8.3

Chad

15.16

19651970 13.2 20152020 8.3

Guinea-Bissau

15.01

19701975 11.4 20202025 8.3

Central African Republic 14.71

19751980 10.7 20252030 8.5

Afghanistan

14.59

19801985 10.3 20302035 8.8

Somalia

14.55

19851990 9.7 20352040 9.2

Bulgaria

14.32

19901995 9.4 20402045 9.6

10

Swaziland

14.21

19952000 8.9 20452050

10

See list of countries by death rate for worldwide statistics.


According to the World Health Organization, the 10 leading causes of death in 2002 were:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

12.6% Ischaemic heart disease


9.7% Cerebrovascular disease
6.8% Lower respiratory infections
4.9% HIV/AIDS
4.8% Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Mortality rate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

3.2% Diarrhoeal diseases


2.7% Tuberculosis
2.2% Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers
2.2% Malaria
2.1% Road traffic accidents

Causes of death vary greatly between first and third world countries. See list of causes of death by rate for
worldwide statistics.
According to Jean Ziegler (the United Nations Special
Rapporteur on the Right to Food for 2000 to March 2008),
mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58% of the total
mortality in 2006: "In the world, approximately 62 millions
people, all causes of death combined, die each year. In
2006, more than 36 millions died of hunger or diseases due
to deficiencies in micronutrients".[5]
Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across
the globe, about two thirds100,000 per daydie of agerelated causes.[6] In industrialized nations, the proportion is
much higher, reaching 90%.[6]

Use in Health Care

Scatter plot of the natural logarithm of the crude


death rate against the natural log of per capita real
GDP. The slope of the trend line is the elasticity of
the crude death rate with respect to per capita real
income. It indicates that a 10% increase in per
capita real income is associated with a 1.5%
decrease in the crude death rate. Source: World
Development Indicators.

Early recording of mortality rate in European cities proved


highly useful in controlling the plague and other major
epidemics.[7] Public health in industrialized countries was
transformed when mortality rate as a function of age, sex
and socioeconomic status emerged in the late 19th and 20th
centuries.[8][9] This track record has led to the argument that inexpensive recording of vital statistics in developing
countries may become the most effective means to improve global health.[10] Gathering official mortality statistics
can be very difficult in developing countries, where many individuals lack the ability or knowledge to report
incidences of death to National Vital Statistics Registries. This can lead to distortion in mortality statistics and a
wrongful assessment of overall health. Studies conducted in northeastern Brazil, where underreporting of infant
mortality is of huge concern, have shown that alternative methods of data collection, including the use of popular
Death Reporters (Members of the community who are active in traditional death rituals of the child and the family
grieving process), have been very successful in providing valid, qualitative mortality statistics, effectively reducing
underreporting.[11]

See also
Biodemography
Birth rate
Case fatality
Compensation law of mortality
Death
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Demography
Gompertz-Makeham law of mortality
Life expectancy
List of causes of death by rate
List of countries by death rate
Maximum life span
Micromort
Morbidity
Mortality displacement
Risk adjusted mortality rate
Vital Statistics

References
1. ^ CIA World Factbook -- Rank Order - Death rate (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/rankorder/2066rank.html) Search for "World".
2. ^ Everitt, B.S. The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics, CUP. ISBN 0-521-81099-X
3. ^ UNdata: Crude death rate (per 1,000 population) (http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=PopDiv&f=variableID%3A65)
4. ^ CIA World Factbook - Death Rate (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/rankorder/2066rank.html)
5. ^ Jean Ziegler, L'Empire de la honte, Fayard, 2007 ISBN 978-2-253-12115-2, p.130.
6. ^ a b Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). "Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations"
(http://www.sens.org/files/pdf/ENHANCE-PP.pdf) (PDF). Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1, Article 5).
doi:10.2202/1941-6008.1011 (http://dx.doi.org/10.2202%2F1941-6008.1011). Retrieved August 7, 2011.
7. ^ Greenwood M. Medical Statistics from Graunt to Farr. The Fitzpatrick Lectures for the Years 1941 to1943.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1948.
8. ^ Jha P. Avoidable mortality in India: past progress and future prospects. Natl Med J India. 2002;15 Suppl 1:32-6.
9. ^ Jha P. Reliable mortality data: a powerful tool for public health. Natl Med J India. 2001;14:129-31.
PMid:11467137
10. ^ Jha, Prabhat (2012). "Counting the dead is one of the worlds best investments to reduce premature mortality"
(http://www.hypothesisjournal.com/?p=1301). Hypothesis 10 (1). doi:10.5779/hypothesis.v10i1.254
(http://dx.doi.org/10.5779%2Fhypothesis.v10i1.254).
11. ^ http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/stable/pdfplus/648673.pdf?acceptTC=true

Other Sources
Crude death rate (per 1,000 population) (http://esa.un.org/unpp/index.asp?panel=2) based on World
Population Prospects The 2008 Revision, United Nations. Retrieved 22 June 2010
Rank Order - Death rate (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/rankorder/2066rank.html) in CIA World Factbook
Mortality (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=19649) in The Medical Dictionary,
Medterms. Retrieved 22 June 2010
"WISQARS Leading Causes of Death Reports, 1999 - 2007"
(http://webapp.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/leadcaus10.html), US Centers for Disease Control Retrieved 22 June
2010
Edmond Halley, An Estimate of the Degrees of the Mortality of Mankind (http://www.pierremarteau.com/editions/1693-mortality.html) (1693)
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External links
DeathRiskRankings: Calculates risk of dying in the next year using MicroMorts and displays risk rankings for
up to 66 causes of death (http://www.deathriskrankings.org)
Data regarding death rates by age and cause in the United States (from Data360)
(http://www.data360.org/graph_group.aspx?Graph_Group_Id=347)
Complex Emergency Database (CE-DAT): Mortality data from conflict-affected populations
(http://www.cedat.org/)
Human Mortality Database: Historic mortality data from developed nations (http://www.mortality.org/)
Google - public data (http://www.google.com/publicdata/overview?ds=j0r9lucsi4q1d_): Mortality in the
U.S.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mortality_rate&oldid=570648850"
Categories: Population Demography Epidemiology Death Actuarial science Population ecology
Medical statistics
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