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Equilibrium of Calcium Hydroxide

Sean Duncan S. Reyes1, Hazel S. Ajero2, Crisselle Mariz C. Alanza2, David Janrey P. Cua2,
Charity G. Faurillo3, Francene P. Go3, Emmanuel C. Guarin2, Pamela Jane V. Lozano2, Alliah
Czarielle J. Macato2, Marinella I. Nicolas3
1Institute of Chemistry, College of Science

2Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering

3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Home Economics

University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City

ABSTRACT - The experiments objectives were to determine the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide, a
sparingly soluble salt, through the titration of various saturated Ca(OH)2 solutions, calculating the
Molar Solubility using the data gathered, and finally, using the equilibrium equation to obtain the Ksp.
Another aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of various situations, namely: the effect
of a common ion (using a CaCl2 medium), the effect of diverse ions (using a KCl medium), and the
effect of a change in polarity (using a distilled H2O + 95% EtOH medium), on the Ksp of a compound.
The media used to determine the effect of temperature was used to create plot based on the Vant
Hoff equation. The plot produced an equation of y=-934.83x-7.3217 with an
R value of 0.07258. Using the function, the Ksp at 298K was determined, which yielded a value of
2.96x10-5. Compared to the literature value of 5.5x10-6, the determined Ksp yields a percent error of
420%. The thermodynamic parameters Enthalpy (H) and Entropy (S) were determined using the
equation of the Vant Hoff plot, it yielded a H and S of -7.77kJ/mol and -60.88J/molK respectively,
which, compared to their respective literature values, give out percent errors of 53.91% and 62%. A
high percent error can be attributed to the use of 1M HCl instead of 0.1M HCl and the sensitivity of
the titration procedure.


This experiment aimed to determine the
solubility equilibrium of Calcium Hydroxide, a
sparingly soluble salt.

Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) (1)

Eq. (1) shows a saturated Ca(OH)2 solution
system, this type of system has a Ksp or
Solubility product constant that can be solved
using the equilibrium equation shown in Eq.

Ksp = [Ca2+][OH-]2 (2)

The solubility product constant, Ksp, is related
to the Molar Solubility (s) of the solid, in this
case Ca(OH)2. It is defined as the number of
moles of a solid dissolved to form a liter of

saturated solution. For the system under

[Ca2+]=s;[OH-]=2s (3)

In this experiment, four factors that affect the
Ksp of a substance: 1) Temperature, 2) The
presence of common ions, 3) The presence of
diverse ions, and 4) A change in solvent

The first factor, Temperature, can be backed
up by the Vant Hoff equation:

lnK= -


+ (4)

In which, H= enthalpy, kJ/mol, R= gas

constant, 8.314 j/molK, S= Entropy,
J/molK. T= Temperature, K


The second factor, the presence of Common

Ions, is proven by Le Chateliers principle. The
principle states that a system at equilibrium,
when subjected to change, whether in
temperature, concentration, or pressure,
responds in such way to moderate the
change. [2] Therefore, a change in the
concentration of ions present in solution
would trigger a left or reactant side shift or a
right or product side shift in the equilibrium.

The third factor, the presence of diverse ions,
is affected by the ionic strength it provides to
the system. Ionic strength, , is defined as:


where ci is the molarity of ion i, and zi, is its


The last factor, solvent polarity, follows the
general principle of like dissolves like. Polar
solvents dissolve polar solutes and non-polar
solvents dissolve non-polar solutes.


Six different media were prepared in 250-mL
beakers: 60 mL distilled H2O, Room Temp; 60
mL distilled H2O, heated; 60 mL distilled H2O,
in cold water bath; 60 mL 0.10M CaCl2, Room
Temp; 60 mL 0.50M KCl, Room Temp; 50 mL
distilled H2O + 10 mL 95% Ethanol, Room
Temp. Ca(OH)2(s) was added to the media
while being stirred until saturation. The
media were stirred for another 5 minutes
then left to stand for 10 minutes.

The media were filtered afterwards to
retrieve the filtrate, from which, a 25-mL
aliquot was taken. The aliquot was then
transferred to a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask, to
which three drops of 1% Phenolphthalein
was added to it. Then it was titrated with 1M
HCl. The volume of the titrant was recorded
for two trials.


In this experiment, several media were
prepared. Named with letters A-F: 60 mL
distilled H2O, Room Temp; 60 mL distilled
H2O, heated; 60 mL distilled H2O, in cold
water bath; 60 mL 0.10M CaCl2, Room Temp;
60 mL 0.50M KCl, Room Temp; 50 mL
distilled H2O + 10 mL 95% Ethanol, Room

The first three media, A, B, and C, were used
to determine the effect of temperature on the
KSp. Medium D for the effect of a common ion,
medium E for the effect of diverse ions, and
the medium F with medium A for the effect of
a change in polarity.

To determine the effect of temperature on the
Ksp, media A, B, and C were exposed to
different temperatures ranges 303K, 323K,
and 283K, respectively.

Through the titration with 1M HCl and
calculations for the molar solubility, the
following values were obtained.

Vtit, mL
Solubility, M
A @303K
B @323K
C @283K

Table 1.1: Vtit and calculated Molar
Solubility for respective media.

The above table shows the Ca(OH)2 being
most soluble in room temperature, while
being least soluble in the cold which is
inconsistent with the references which show
a trend of solubility increasing as the
temperature decreases. Medium D is also
inconsistent as it shows a relatively high
Molar Solubility, when it should be less
soluble due to the addition of a common ion.


The results of medium E are also inconsistent

because the effect of diverse ions should
increase the solubility due to the presence of
more ions available for interaction. Finally,
medium F shows that the closer the polarity
of the solute and solvent, the higher the

The KSp values for media A-C were then
calculated, shown in the table below:

Medium [Ca2+] [OH-]
0.026 0.052 0.000070304

0.018 0.036 0.000023328

0.032 0.000016384

Table 1.2: Ksp values for media A, B, & C

The above table shows the Ksp along with the
concentrations for Ca2+ and OH-. Using the
calculated Ksp and the values for temperature,
a linear plot based on the Vant Hoff equation
was constructed. With lnKsp as the y-axis and
1/T (in K) as the x-axis.

Figure 1.1: Linear plot of lnKsp vs 1/T of
Media A, B and C with an equation of
y=-934.83x -7.3217 and an R value of
0.003 0.00310.00320.00330.00340.00350.0036

The extremely low R2 can be attributed to the
usage of 1M HCl instead of 0.1M HCl and the
inconsistencies in the literature values and
the experimental values gotten.

Using the function y=-934.83x -7.3217, the Ksp

at 298K, H, and S were calculated. They
each returned values of 2.96x10-5, 7.77kJ/mol, and -60.88J/molK respectively.
Which, when compared to their literature
values of 5.5x10-6, -16.86kJ/mol, and 160.2J/molK, give out a percent errors of
420%, 53.91%, and 62%.


Overall, the experiment failed to show the
effects of different factors on the Ksp of
Ca(OH)2. Since, almost all of the media
deviated from their accepted literature
records. A 420% error in the Ksp value at
298K is too high, the extremeness of the
percent error can be attributed to the
sensitivity of the titration procedure and the
usage of 1M HCl instead of 0.1M HCl.

Recommendations for the experiment would
be to control the addition of the salt to
saturate the solution with, since an excess of
the salt would make the filtration part harder.


[1]Petrucci, P.H., Herring, F.G., Madura, J.D.
and Bissonnette C.: General Chemistry,
Principles and Modern Application, 10th Ed.
Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2010
[3] J.R.A. Ibale ,Determination of the Solubility
Product Constant of Calcium Hydroxide
[5] Brown, T., LeMay, H.E, et al. Chemistry: The
Central Science. Pearson Education Inc.,
Glenview. 2012.
[6] Lagowski, J. J. (ed.) / Journal of Chemical
Education(March 1985)