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ENGG2012 A&B Advanced Engineering Mathematics

Solution 4

Tutor: Xixuan Wu

Email: xixuan1124 [AT] gmail.com

P1:

A

Solution:

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

 

 

1

1

 

B

 

1

1

0

2

2

5

3

AB

3

0

0

2

2

A

5

5

9

1

3 1

1

8

6

0

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1











1

1

1

0

1

1

1

2

2

5

3

4

1




0 15

0

15

6 27

T

A B

  

1 1

1 1

1

24

18

0

1

1

1

1



  

1 1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1







 

1

1

0



2

2

2

2

2

T

 

1

1

0

2

2

5

2

3

4

1

2

2

2

2

 

2

4

2

2

5

 

 

3

4

1

0

0

2

 

5

5

9

3

4

1

 

2

13

17

1

1

1

29

8

6

0

 

P2: We have two linear transformations.

from z to x.

x

 

1

x

x

2

3

2

y

1



4

2

y

1

y

1

y

y

3

3

2

y

2

5

y

2

3

y

3

1

1

1

22

20

2

1

1

1

Please find the linear transformation

y

y

y


1

2

3



3

z

1

2

z

1

z

z

3

2



z

2

3

z

3

2

Solution:

X AY ; A

x

   

1

x

2

x

3

,

Y

  2

4

y

 

1

y

y

2

3

Here,

X

,

0

3

1

Z

1

2

5

,

 

z     

1

z

z

2

3

Y

z

4

2

2

So, X AY A( BZ ) ( AB ) Z ,

So,

x

w 0

z

y

0.5

c

1

c

2

c

2

0.5

c

1

,

x

1

x

x

2

3

AB  

6

12

z

z

1

1

10

z

1

4

2

z

3

2

z

2





BZ ; B



3

2

0

 

0

3

1

z

9

3

z

16

3

z

3

1

2

5







 

3

2

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

3

0

   3  

1

 



 

6

12

10

1

4

1

   16  

3

9

P3: A, B are n*n symmetric matrices. Show: AB is symmetric matrix if and only if

AB=BA.

Solution:

1.

AB BA A

T

( AB ) B A BA AB

,

T

T

T

A B

,

T

B

2. AB is symmetric matrix, so:

AB AB B A BA .

(

)

T

T

T

P4: Gaussian Elimination and Back Substitution Method.

Solution:

1.

4

3

11

4

x x

x

1

1

x

2

2

2

3

3

x

1

3

1

x

2

2

 

8

8

2 10

0

2

x

x

3

11

2

1

3

=>

No solution.

2

10

Augmented matrix:

4

3

11

1

3

8

3

1

3

3

2

0

8

 

10

11

=>

1

0

  0

3

30 33 96  

3

8

10 11 34

=>

2

1

3

1

  0

0

1

2

 

8

2 10

0

3

0

3

8

6  

10 11 34

0

2

x

3

x

2

3

y

8

 

 

y

z

z

2

z

4





5

13

6

=>

=>

1

2

3

4

x

2

3

4

4

1

2.

Augmented matrix:

=>

1


0

0

0

2

7

14

7

4

7

7

 

3

4

x

x

y

y

1

z

9

2

3

4

4

13

5

6

1

2 4

8

2

1 9

2

y

4

x

y z 2

z



5

14

5

2

3

8

1



4

1

13

5

4

6

14 28

2

9

2 c 1

14

y c 2

z c

3

2

1

4

8

2

=>

1



9

0 1

1

2

0 0

0 0

4

5

13

6

4

1

0

0

5

2

0

0

2

4

2

1

2

1

3.  

 

2

4

2

x

y

 

z w

1

x

2

y

2

z w

x

y

z w

 

1

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

2

 

1

=>

2

0

  0

1

0

0

1

0

0

Augmented matrix:

2

4

  2

1

1

2

1

0

0  

=>

2

x

y

 

z w

w 0

2 w 0

1

2

1

1

=>

1

2

1

1

1

1

x

0.5

y c

z c

w 0

2

1

c

2

1

2

1

 

0.5

P5:

A

  

1

Solution:

0

1

 

What is

A , A ,

2

3

, A k
, A
k

?

2 0

A

1

3

A

1 0


1 0

1

1

1

0

1



















1

 

1

1

2

0

1

Now we prove:

A

k

  

1

k

0

1

0

1

 

1

2

0

1







1

0

1

When k = 1,2,3, it is right. If k=n,

When k = n+1, we can get:

A

n

1

  

1

n

n

A

1

n

0

1

  

  

0

1

1

1

3

0

1

 

 

0

1

(

n

1

1)

0

1

   .

=>

c

1

P6:

A

Solution:

B


  

0 1

0 0

0 0

0

0

A

When n = 1,

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

  

,

B

2

  

1

, whats

0

  

0

1

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

A

n

A

0

0

When n>=2,

A

n

 

0

0

1

  

0

0

1

0

?

,

0

0

0

0

 

B

k

  

0

0

0

0

1

  

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

  

0

1

0

 

I B

, when k >=3.

A n

(

n

0

0

n

0

0

I B

0

0

C

n

1

n

n

0

0

)

 

n

n

1

0

n

C I C I B

n

n

n

n

n

0

n 1

1

1

1

n

C

2

n

1

n

C

C

n

n

n

 

0

0

0

2

1

 

n

0

0

1

0

n

0

1

 

 C B C  I C  B C  B n  n
C B C  I C  B C  B
n
n
n
1
n
2
n n
n 0
n 1
n 2

2

C

n

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

n

0

0

2

 

2

 2

x

1

x

2

x

3



2

P7:

x

1

x

1

2

x

x

 2

x

x

2

x

3


2

1

1

2 x

3

x

1

2

x

x

2

What’s λ if theres solution?

2

x

2

x

3

2

x

3

2 x

3



2

Augmented matrix:

2

Solution:

 2

 2

1

  

1

 2


 

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

2

  

2

=>

1

1

 

2

2

1

1

1

1

2


2

2

=>

1

0

  0

2

3

3

1

2

1

1

3

3

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

=>

1

0

0

2

3

0

1

3

0

2

2

2

If

If 2 1 and , 2 ,

  2  

2

2 0 , no solution.

1

 

0

0

2

3

0

2 2  

2

2

1

3

0

=>

1

 

2

0000  

0

 

2

3

1

3

6

=>

2

x

   

x

1

2

x

2

x

x

3



3

 2

If

1

0

0

1 ,

2

3

0

1

3

0

2

2

2

 

  2  

=>

1

0

0

2

3

0

1

3

0

1

0

 

0

=>

x

1

2

x

 

2

x

3

x

2

x

3

0

1

2

=>

=>

x

1

2

3

x

x

x c 2

1

x

x

2

3

c 2

c

 

c

c

c

1