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ENGG2012 A&B Advanced Engineering Mathematics

Solution 5
Tutor: Xixuan Wu
Email: xixuan1124 [AT] gmail.com
3
6
P1: determinants:
0
0
3
6
Solution:
0
0

2
8
0
0

0
0
4
2

0
0
4
2

0
0
7
5

0 3 2
0 0 4
=
7 0 0
5 0 0

0
0
4
2

P2: Crammers Rule:

2
8
0
0

0 3 2
0 0 4
=
7 0 0
5 0 0

0 0
0 0
=3*4*4*1.5=72
4 7
0 1.5

x 2 y 3z 20
7 x +3 y z 13
x 6 y 2z 0

1 2 3
Solution: A 7 3 1 ,
1 6 2

w x

20
z ; b 13
0
T

20 2 3
Here, D1 13 3 1 20*(6 6) 2*(26 0) 3*(78 0) 182 ,
0 6 2
1 20 3
D2 7 13 1 1*(26 0) 20*(14 1) 3*(0 13) 273
1 0 2
1 2 20
D3 7 3 13 1*(0 78) 2*(0 13) 20*(42 3) 728
1 6 0
1 2 3
D 7 3 1 1*(6 6) 2*(14 1) 3*(42 3) 91
1 6 2

D 728
D1 182
D
273

2, y 2
3, z 3
8
D
91
D
91
D
91

x y 2z 6
P3: Solving Linear System by Matrix inversion: 3x y z 9
x 3 y 4 z 16

1 1
A 3 1
1 3

Solution:

2
1 w
, x
4

z b, 6
T

9 1 6w A1 b
T

Method 1 for getting inverse:

A (7) 1*(12 1) 2*(9 1) 10


C11 (1)11

1 1
3 1
3 1
7 , C12 (1)1 2
13 , C13 (1)13
8
3 4
1 4
1 3

C21 (1)21

1 2
1 2
1 1
2 , C22 (1) 2 2
2 , C23 (1)23
2
3 4
1 4
1 3

C31 (1)31

1 2
1 2
1 1
3 , C32 (1)3 2
7 , C33 (1)33
2
1 1
3 1
3 1

7 2 3 0.7 0.2 0.3


1
T
A
[C jk ] 0.1 13 2 7 1.3 0.2 0.7
det( A)
8
2 2 0.8 0.2 0.2
1

0.7 0.2 0.3 6 2.4

9 1.6
So w A b 1.3 0.2 0.7


0.8 0.2 0.2 16 3.4
1

Method 2 for getting inverse: (Gauss-Jordan Elimination)

1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0
[ A | I ] 3 1 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 0 1 0
1 3 4 0 0 1 1 3 4 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 0 1

1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0
0 2 7 3 1 0 0 2 7 3 1 0 0 2 2 1 0 1
0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 5 4 1 1 0 0 5 4 1 1

0 1 0 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 0 1 1.5 0


0.5
1 1 2 1 0

0 1 1 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 1 0.5 0 0.5 0 1 1 0.5 0


0.5
0 0 5 4 1 1 0 0 5 4 1 1 0 0 1 0.8 0.2 0.2
1 0 0 0.7 0.2 0.3 1 0 0 0.7 0.2 0.3
0 1 1 0.5 0
0.5 0 1 0 1.3 0.2 0.7
0 0 1 0.8 0.2 0.2 0 0 1 0.8 0.2 0.2

0.7

0.7 0.2 0.3

1
So A1 1.3 0.2 0.7 , w A b 1.3

0.8
0.8 0.2 0.2

P4: Prove adj ( A) A

0.2 0.3 6 2.4


0.2 0.7 9 1.6
0.2 0.2 16 3.4

n 1

Solution: We know, A

1
[C jk ]T , so A A1 adj ( A)
det( A)

A A1 A adj ( A) A A I adj ( A) A A adj ( A) A A adj ( A) A


n

n 1

adj ( A)

1
4


P5: a 0 , b 2 , c is orthogonal to a, and b=a+c, whats and c?
2
3


4
1 4

2
Solution: c b a 2 0

3
2 3 2
For c is orthogonal to a,

ac 0
4
1 0 2 2 4 6 4 0
3 2
10 5 0 2

2

So 2

1

P6: determinants: Dn

x a
a x

a
a
x

a a

xa a
ax x

a
a

1
x1

1
x2

1
xn

x1n 1
x1n

x2n 1
x2n

xnn 1
xnn

, Dn

Solution1.

Dn

x a
a x

a
a
x

a a

( x a ) Dn 1 a (a x)

x
0

( x a ) Dn 1 (a x)

1 a
1 x

a
a
x

1 a

( x a ) Dn 1 a (a x )

( x a ) Dn 1 a (a x)( x a ) n 2 ( x a ) Dn 1 +a ( x a ) n 1
So: Dn ( x a) Dn1 +a( x a)n1

( x a)[( x a) Dn2 a( x a)n2 ]+a( x a)n1

( x a)2 Dn2 +2a( x a)n1


( x a)3 Dn3 +3a( x a)n1

( x a)n1 D1 +(n 1)a( x a)n1

( x a)n1 x+(n 1)a( x a)n1

2. Mathematical Induction
For n=2:

1
x1

1
x2 x1 ( xi x j )
x2
2i j 1

a a
a x

a
a
x

a a

1
0
1 xa

0
0
xa

xa

If it hold when calculating Dn 1 .

1
x1

1
x2

1
xn

n 1
1
n
1

n 1
2
n
2

n 1
n
n
n

Dn

1
x1

1
x2

1
xn

x1n 1
0

x2n 1
x2n x2n 1 x1

xnn 1
xnn xnn 1 x1

x
x

x
x

x
x

1
x1

1
x2

1
xn

n 1
1

n 1
2

n 1
n

1
x2

1
xn

0
0

x2n 2 ( x2 x1 )
x2n 1 ( x2 x1 )

xnn 2 ( xn x1 )
xnn 1 ( xn x1 )

x
n 1
x2 ( x2 x1 )

x
n 1
xn ( xn x1 )

1
x2 x1

1
xn x1

1
0

1
x1

x2 x1
1

n2
2
n 1
2

0 x
0 x

n2
n
n 1
n

( x2 x1 )
( x2 x1 )

x
x

( x2 x1 )( x3 x1 )

( xn x1 )

( x2 x1 )( x3 x1 )

( xn x1 )

( xn x1 )
( xn x1 )
1

x2n 2
x2n 1

x3n 2
x3n 1

xnn 2
xnn 1

( xi x j )

n i j 1

( x2 x1 )( x3 x1 )

a12
a22
an2

a1n 1

a2n 1
,

ann 1

xnn 2 ( xn x1 )
xnn 1 ( xn x1 )

( xn x1 ) Dn 1

( xi x j )

x1 a1 x2 a12 x3

2
x a2 x2 a2 x3
P7: a1,a2,,an are different from each other. Solve: 1

x a x a2 x
n 3
1 n 2

1 a1

1 a2
A

Solution:

1 an

xn x1

x2n 2 ( x2 x1 ) x3n 2 ( x3 x1 )
x2n 1 ( x2 x1 ) x3n 1 ( x3 x1 )

n i j 2

x3 x1

a1n 1 xn 1
a2n 1 xn 1
ann 1 xn 1

a1n 1
a2n 1

a12
a22

1 a1
1 a2

1
a1

1
a2

1
an

n i j 1

a1n 1 a2n 1

ann 1

an2

1 an

( xi x j ) 0

ann 1

According to Cramers rule: This has an unique solution.

D1 A D , D2

D3 D4

1 1 a12
1 1 a22

a1n 1
a2n 1

1 1 an2

ann 1

0 1 a12
0 1 a22

a1n 1
a2n 1

0 1 an2

ann 1

0,

Dn 0

So the solution is: x1

D1
D
1, x2 2 0,
D
D

, xn

Dn
0.
D

P8: A is a 3*3 matrix. A 0.5 , whats (2 A) 1 5adj ( A)


1

Solution: We know, A

1
1
[C jk ]T , ( A)1 A1
det( A)

A A1 adj ( A) adj ( A) 0.5 A1


(2 A1 ) 0.5 A1
(2 A)1 5adj ( A) 0.5 A1 5 0.5 A1 2 A1 (2)3 A1 8 2 16

1 1
2 3

(1, 2,3), (1, , ), A T , An ?

P9:

Solution: A AA

A ( T )( T )

T ( T )( T )

( T ) 3n1 T

n1

1 1/ 2 1/ 3

2 1 2 / 3
3 3/ 2 1

( T )